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Mapping of seminal plasma proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in men with normal and impaired spermatogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study analyses differential polypeptide expression of seminal plasma from fertile and infertile men by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Optimization of solubilization of seminal plasma was obtained by using (3-(3-(cholamidopropyl) dimethyl-ammonio)-1-propane sulphonate) and chaotropic agent mixture in lysis buffer before separation in immobilized pH gradient for isoelectric focusing. A two-dimensional map of seminal plasma from a fertile man allowed the

M. Starita-Geribaldi; S. Poggioli; M. Zucchini; J. Garin; D. Chevallier; P. Fenichel; G. Pointis



Seminal plasma immunoglobulins of the Indian buffalo.  


Seminal plasma immunoglobulins of normospermic fertile Indian buffalo bulls were investigated using rabbit antibuffalo immunoglobulin (polyvalent) serum, rabbit antibuffalo IgG and IgM serums, gel diffusion, and immunoelectrophoretic analysis. Immunoglobulin G was the predominant immunoglobulin in the seminal plasma of the buffalo. Strong antigenic cross reactions were observed between the seminal plasma IgG molecules of the buffalo and cattle, indicating the structural homology of seminal plasma IgG of these two species. These observations are in accordance with the close taxonomic and phylogenetic relationship between buffalo and cattle in the evolution of ruminant species. PMID:6442848

Kulkarni, B A



Molecular heterogeneity of gelatin-binding proteins from human seminal plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defining the molecular characteristics of seminal plasma proteins is essential for understanding their function in physiological and pathological conditions. Starting from the predicted importance of human seminal plasma gelatin-binding proteins, comprising fibronectin (FN) and FN-related molecules, for male fertility, this study aims at gaining insight into their immuno-glycobiochemical properties. Human seminal plasma from subjects with normal semen parameters were separated

Maja M. Kosanovi?; Miroslava M. Jankovi?



Seminal plasma induces the expression of IL-1? in normal and neoplastic cervical cells via EP2/EGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer is a chronic inflammatory disease of multifactorial etiology usually presenting in sexually active women. Exposure of neoplastic cervical epithelial cells to seminal plasma (SP) has been shown to promote the growth of cancer cells in vitro and tumors in vivo by inducing the expression of inflammatory mediators including pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-1? is a pleotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine induced in several human cancers and has been associated with virulent tumor phenotype and poorer prognosis. Here we investigated the expression of IL-1? in cervical cancer, the role of SP in the regulation of IL-1? in neoplastic cervical epithelial cells and the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation. Methods and results Real-time quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the elevated expression of IL-1? mRNA in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma tissue explants, compared with normal cervix. Using immunohistochemistry, IL-1? was localized to the neoplastically transformed squamous, columnar and glandular epithelium in all cases of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinomas explants studied. We found that SP induced the expression of IL-? in both normal and neoplastic cervical tissue explants. Employing HeLa (adenocarcinoma) cell line as a model system we identified PGE2 and EGF as possible ligands responsible for SP-mediated induction of IL-1? in these neoplastic cells. In addition, we showed that SP activates EP2/EGFR/PI3kinase-Akt signaling to induce IL-1? mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in normal cervical tissue explants the induction of IL-1? by SP is via the activation of EP2/EGFR/PI3 kinase-Akt signaling. Conclusion SP-mediated induction of IL-1? in normal and neoplastic cervical epithelial cells suggests that SP may promote cervical inflammation as well as progression of cervical cancer in sexually active women.



Soluble Fas and interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 levels in seminal plasma of infertile men.  


The seminal plasma levels of soluble Fas (sFas) and interleukins IL-6 and IL-8 were measured and their relationship with semen qualities was examined. The seminal plasma sFas level in fertile males was significantly higher than that in the infertile group. On the other hand, seminal plasma level of IL-6 was significantly lower in fertile males than in the infertile group. In the infertile group, patients with oligozoospermia had a lower seminal plasma sFas and a higher IL-6 level than those with normal sperm concentration. There was an inverse correlation between IL-6 and sperm concentration in infertile patients. Seminal plasma IL-8 was not correlated with sperm parameters. It would appear that certain kinds of cytokine in the seminal plasma might play an important role in improving semen quality. PMID:14555327

Furuya, Y; Akashi, T; Fuse, H



Zinc levels in seminal plasma are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men.  


Zinc has antioxidative properties and plays an important role in scavenging reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that in the absence of Zn, the possibility of increased oxidative damage exists that would contribute to poor sperm quality. Therefore, measurement of seminal Zn in the seminal plasma of males with a history of subfertility or idiopathic infertility is necessary and can be helpful in fertility assessment. The primary objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between Zn levels in seminal plasma with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. Semen samples were provided by fertile (smoker [n = 17], nonsmoker [n = 19]) and infertile men (smoker [n = 15], nonsmoker [n = 21]). After semen analysis, concentrations of Zn, Mg, Ca, Na, and K in the seminal plasma of all groups were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Element concentrations in seminal plasma of all groups were in the order Na > K > Ca > Zn > Mg. Fertile subjects, smoker or not, demonstrated significantly higher seminal Zn levels than any infertile group (P < .001). A trend was observed for a lower Zn levels in seminal plasma of smokers compared with nonsmokers. Seminal Zn in fertile and infertile (smokers or nonsmokers) males correlated significantly with sperm count (P < .01) and normal morphology of sperm (P < .001). There was a significantly positive correlation between seminal Zn with Ca (P < .01) and K (P < .01) levels in all specimens. In conclusion, poor Zn nutrition may be an important risk factor for low quality of sperm and idiopathic male infertility. PMID:19285597

Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad



An inverse relationship exists between seminal plasma inhibin and serum follicle-stimulating hormone in man.  


Inhibin concentrations were measured in 109 seminal plasma samples obtained from 32 normal subjects, 51 infertile patients with either azoospermia or oligospermia, and 20 patients 2-8 months post vasectomy. The infertile group included 14 azoospermic patients with raised peripheral plasma FSH levels (6.8-30.2 IU/liter) and 17 azoospermic patients in whom FSH levels were normal. Only 6 of the 20 patients with oligospermia had raised FSH levels. Seminal plasma inhibin was measured in individual samples using a quantitative in vitro rat anterior pituitary cell culture bioassay in which FSH cell anterior pituitary cell culture bioassay in which FSH cell content was measured after 72 h of incubation with the inhibin-containing material. Biopotencies were determined using combined multiple parallel line assays with reference to an inhibin standard with a potency of 1 U/mg. The concentrations of inhibin in normal seminal plasma were 31.4 +/- 3.0 U/ml, which contrasted with the low levels found in azoospermic patients with high plasma FSH levels. Of these, seven had undetectable inhibin levels (less than 2.5 U/ml) and seven had values ranging from 4.2-8.5 U/ml. These concentrations were significantly lower than those in azoospermic patients, in whom FSH was not raised (18.9 +/- 2.2 U/ml). Seminal plasma inhibin levels post vasectomy were 16.9 +/- 2.3 U/ml and were not significantly different from those measured in azoospermic-normal FSH patients. Peripheral plasma FSH levels were expressed as a function of seminal plasma inhibin concentrations (r = -0.736; P less than 0.001; excluding those patients with vasal obstruction). These findings show that inhibin-like activity in seminal plasma is reduced in infertile men with raised peripheral plasma FSH levels, and that a reciprocal inverse relationship exists between serum FSH and seminal plasma inhibin concentrations. PMID:6782118

Scott, R S; Burger, H G



Immunological studies on seminal plasma proteins of the Indian buffalo and cattle.  


Seminal plasma proteins of the Indian buffalo and cattle were immunologically investigated using rabbit antibuffalo seminal plasma serum, rabbit anticattle seminal plasma serum (unabsorbed and absorbed), gel diffusion, and immunoelectrophoretic analysis. At least 9-12 and 7-10 different proteins, respectively, were present in the seminal plasma of the buffalo and cattle. Albumin and IgG were identified in both the species. At least 4-6 seminal plasma proteins of the buffalo and cattle were antigenically similar to their blood serum proteins. Using absorbed rabbit antibuffalo seminal plasma serum and rabbit anticattle seminal plasma serum, at least 6-7 and 5-6 seminal plasma specific proteins, respectively, were observed in the buffalo and cattle seminal plasma. Antigenically these proteins were different from the blood serum proteins of these two species. The origin and biological significance of seminal plasma proteins are discussed. PMID:2415074

Kulkarni, B A



Association Between Seminal Plasma Copper and Magnesium Levels with Oxidative Stress in Iraqi Infertile Men  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the association between copper, magnesium and malondialdehyde levels in seminal plasma of oligozoospermic, azoospermic in relation to normozoospermic men. Methods The present study was conducted at the Chemistry and Biochemistry department, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad-Iraq during September 2007 to February 2008 after obtaining approval from the research and ethics committee and obtaining written consent, 78 infertile men (age range 33.01±4.20 years) were recruited at the institute of embryo research and infertility treatment, Al-Kadhimiya teaching hospital, Iraq and were categorized according to their seminal fluid parameters to oligozoospermia (n=43) and azoospermia (n=35). 41 fertile men (age range 30.29±2.30 years) were selected as controls. Seminal plasma copper and magnesium were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde was measured calorimetrically using thiobarbituric acid assay which detects thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results Seminal plasma copper level was decreased significantly (p=0.000) in the azoospermic group compared to the control group. Whereas, the level decreased non-significantly in the oligozoospermic group. Seminal plasma magnesium levels were decreased significantly (p=0.000) in all the infertility groups studied. On the other hand, malondialdehyde levels which is an end product of lipid peroxidation were significantly elevated (p=0.000) in all the infertility groups studied. Conclusion Copper and magnesium work in different ways in order to maintain normal environment for spermatozoa for normal fertilization to occur. PMID:22043332

Abdul-Rasheed, Omar F.



Detection of fractalkine in human seminal plasma and its role in infertile patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fractalkine is a relatively newly discovered CX3C chemokine, which is a chemoattractant for T cells, monocytes and natural killer cells. Several reports have demonstrated the association between chemokine levels in seminal plasma and semen quality. The fractalkine levels in ejaculates from normal donors and infertile male patients with or without asthenozoospermia, were examined and correlated with sperm motility and

Qing Zhang; Koichiro Shimoya; Yukinibu Ohta; Rika Chin; Kumiko Tenma; Shigeyuki Isaka; Hitomi Nakamura; Masayasu Koyama; Chihiro Azuma; Yuji Murat



Seasonal variations in antioxidant enzyme activity in ram seminal plasma  

E-print Network

Seasonal variations in antioxidant enzyme activity in ram seminal plasma E. Marti a , L. Mara b , J reproductive technology. A dynamic interplay between pro- and anti-antioxidant substances in the ejaculate is essential. In this study, we determined seasonal changes in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme defense

Zaragoza, Universidad de


Identification of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma.  


The FN-2 family of seminal plasma proteins represents the major protein fraction of bovine seminal plasma. These proteins also constitute the major seminal plasma proteins fraction in horse, goat and bison seminal plasma and are present in pig, rat, mouse, hamster and human seminal plasma. BSP-A1 and BSP-A2, the predominant proteins of the FN-2 family, are collectively termed as PDC-109. Fn-2 proteins play an important role in fertilization, including sperm capacitation and formation of oviductal sperm reservoirs. Significantly, BSP proteins were also shown to have negative effects in the context of sperm storage. No conclusive evidence for the presence of buffalo seminal plasma protein(s) similar to PDC-109 exists. Studies with buffalo seminal plasma indicated that isolation and identification of PDC-109-like protein(s) from buffalo seminal plasma by conventional methods might be difficult. Thus, antibodies raised against PDC-109 isolated, and purified from cattle seminal plasma, were used for investigating the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma. Buffalo seminal plasma proteins were resolved on SDS-PAGE, blotted to nitro cellulose membranes and probed for the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) using the PDC-109 antisera raised in rabbits. A distinct immunoreactive band well below the 20-kDa regions indicated the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma. PMID:19117702

Harshan, Hiron M; Sankar, Surya; Singh, L P; Singh, Manish Kumar; Sudharani, S; Ansari, M R; Singh, S K; Majumdar, A C; Joshi, P



Tyrosine as important contributor to the antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel post-addition method, based on the trapping of ABTS-radicals, is applied for studying the total antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma. A remarkable profile is observed, in which seminal plasma quenches radicals in a continuous, relatively slow fashion. Five putative antioxidants present in seminal plasma were studied using the same assay. Some of the compounds such as ascorbic acid, ?-tocopherol

Floris W. P. C. van Overveld; Guido R. M. M. Haenen; Johann Rhemrev; Jan P. W. Vermeiden; Aalt Bast



Seasonal variations in seminal plasma proteins of buffalo.  


The study was designed to evaluate the influence of season on semen characteristics and seminal plasma protein profile of buffalo bull semen. Thirty-six ejaculates were collected in three seasons (winter, summer and rainy) from six adult Bhadawari bulls, and semen characteristics were evaluated immediately after collection. The seminal plasma was harvested by centrifugation and protein profiling, and percentage protein fractions were analysed by SDS-PAGE. The significant effect of season was observed on ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, progressive motility, percentage live spermatozoa, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosomal integrity. The electrophoretogram of seminal plasma proteins revealed 20 protein bands in winter, 23 bands in rainy and 25 bands in summer seasons, illustrating the significant effect of seasons on seminal plasma proteins. Among these protein bands, 18 bands were observed common in semen samples of all three seasons while protein bands of 46, 55, 58, 144 and 160 kDa were found in rainy and summer seasons. The protein bands of 48 and 60 kDa were observed only in winter season, whereas 184 and 200 kDa were reported in summer season only. The protein fractions (protein%) of common protein bands observed in three seasons revealed a significant effect of season on protein bands of 24.5, 66, 70, 72, 84 and 86 kDa. From the study, it was pertinent that bull seminal plasma contains specific proteins in particular season, which may be associated with some of the semen characteristics, and these proteins could be used as markers of the semen quality of buffalo bulls. PMID:24597848

Sharma, L; Pandey, V; Nigam, R; Singh, P; Saxena, A; Swain, D K



Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-?, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5.  


Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (p<0.0001) was most strongly associated with seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-? (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-? and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

Hoffman, Jennifer C; Anton, Peter A; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O; Hoffman, Risa M



Advances in cooled semen technologies: seminal plasma and semen extender  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated motility and fertility of uncentrifuged and centrifuged equine semen following dilution in a skim milk-glucose extender with or without supplemental Tyrode’s medium. In addition, the effect of seminal plasma addition to each extender was evaluated. For Experiment 1, motility of 48h cooled, stored spermatozoa was evaluated following eight dilution treatments: uncentrifuged and diluted 1:4 (v\\/v) in skim

S. L Rigby; S. P Brinsko; M Cochran; T. L Blanchard; C. C Love; D. D Varner



Role of seminal plasma in heat stress infertility of broiler breeder males.  


The present research was undertaken to determine the role of seminal plasma in heat stress (HS) infertility. Males were exposed to HS at 32 C or maintained at 21 C as controls. Centrifugation and reconstitution of semen samples created four final treatments: control sperm + control plasma (CsCp), control sperm + HS plasma (CsHp), HS sperm + HS plasma (HsHp), and HS sperm + control plasma (HsCp). Semen samples with HS males' seminal plasma had lower sperm quality index values than those containing plasma from control males. Seminal plasma from HS males diminished fertility of control sperm, and control seminal plasma did not improve fertility of HS sperm. Therefore, regardless of seminal plasma source, HS sperm had a lower fertilization rate than control sperm. Also, seminal plasma from semen samples with HS sperm (HsHp and HsCp) contained lower Ca, Na+ and Cl- concentrations than seminal plasma from semen samples with control sperm (CSCp and CsHp). When HS seminal plasma was mixed with control sperm, plasma ion concentrations increased, indicating an efflux of ions from the control sperm to the HS seminal plasma. On the other hand, when control seminal plasma was mixed with HS sperm, plasma ion concentrations decreased, indicating an influx of ions from the control seminal plasma to the HS sperm. Therefore, control sperm appear to have higher intracellular ion concentrations than the sperm from HS males. In conclusion, high temperatures might decrease male fertility by decreasing seminal plasma and intracellular ion concentrations. PMID:12512585

Karaca, A G; Parker, H M; Yeatman, J B; McDaniel, C D



Molecular heterogeneity of gelatin-binding proteins from human seminal plasma.  


Defining the molecular characteristics of seminal plasma proteins is essential for understanding their function in physiological and pathological conditions. Starting from the predicted importance of human seminal plasma gelatin-binding proteins, comprising fibronectin (FN) and FN-related molecules, for male fertility, this study aims at gaining insight into their immuno-glycobiochemical properties. Human seminal plasma from subjects with normal semen parameters were separated on a gelatin-Sepharose column and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting using antibodies against distinct FN forms. Heterogeneity of the isolated molecular species was examined by protein chip arrays combined with surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, on normal, metal and hydrophobic surfaces. Carbohydrate composition was investigated using mannose-, fucose- and sialic acid-specific plant lectins and galectin-1. The results obtained indicated a pattern of isolated proteins corresponding to that of known FN fragments, as confirmed by immunoreactivity. Among them heparin-binding ability was preferentially associated with low molecular mass species. As for posttranslational modifications, phosphorylation and glycosylation of distinct fragments were revealed. Lectin binding to fragments containing the gelatin-binding domain, particularly with Ricinus communis agglutinin I, was stronger than to fragments containing the cell-binding site of FN. A low level of sialylation and distinctive concanavalin A- and Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive species were also observed. Galectin-1 did not interact with the isolated preparation. Resolving the molecular heterogeneity of normal human seminal plasma FN and gaining initial insight into possible similarities/differences with known FN molecular species may be considered a prerequisite step preceding challenging the clinical usefulness of these molecular properties. PMID:20173767

Kosanovi?, Maja M; Jankovi?, Miroslava M



Molecular heterogeneity of gelatin-binding proteins from human seminal plasma  

PubMed Central

Defining the molecular characteristics of seminal plasma proteins is essential for understanding their function in physiological and pathological conditions. Starting from the predicted importance of human seminal plasma gelatin-binding proteins, comprising fibronectin (FN) and FN-related molecules, for male fertility, this study aims at gaining insight into their immuno-glycobiochemical properties. Human seminal plasma from subjects with normal semen parameters were separated on a gelatin–Sepharose column and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting using antibodies against distinct FN forms. Heterogeneity of the isolated molecular species was examined by protein chip arrays combined with surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, on normal, metal and hydrophobic surfaces. Carbohydrate composition was investigated using mannose-, fucose- and sialic acid-specific plant lectins and galectin-1. The results obtained indicated a pattern of isolated proteins corresponding to that of known FN fragments, as confirmed by immunoreactivity. Among them heparin-binding ability was preferentially associated with low molecular mass species. As for posttranslational modifications, phosphorylation and glycosylation of distinct fragments were revealed. Lectin binding to fragments containing the gelatin-binding domain, particularly with Ricinus communis agglutinin I, was stronger than to fragments containing the cell-binding site of FN. A low level of sialylation and distinctive concanavalin A- and Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive species were also observed. Galectin-1 did not interact with the isolated preparation. Resolving the molecular heterogeneity of normal human seminal plasma FN and gaining initial insight into possible similarities/differences with known FN molecular species may be considered a prerequisite step preceding challenging the clinical usefulness of these molecular properties. PMID:20173767

Kosanovic, Maja M.; Jankovic, Miroslava M.



Gelatinases and serine proteinase inhibitors of seminal plasma and the reproductive tract of turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined proteolytic enzymes and serine proteinase inhibitors in turkey seminal plasma with relation to their distribution within the reproductive tract and to yellow semen syndrome (YSS). Proteases of blood plasma, extracts from the reproductive tract, and seminal plasma were analyzed by gelatin zymography. We found a clear regional distribution of proteolytic enzymes in the turkey reproductive tract. Each

M. Kot?owska; R. Kowalski; J. Glogowski; J. Jankowski; A. Ciereszko



Modulatory effects of bovine seminal plasma on uterine inflammatory processes.  


In this study, a simple model to simulate a uterine environment affected by subclinical endometritis was established by culturing isolated primary bovine uterine epithelial cells (pbUEC). Co-incubation of pbUEC and polymorphonuclear (PMN) granulocytes derived from peripheral bovine blood samples, was performed before testing the cell culture supernatant for production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) via ELISA. Cytokine secretion was only detectable after co-incubation of pbUEC with PMN, whereas neither pbUEC nor PMN alone generated IL-8 in relevant chemo attractive doses. Another objective was to examine the influence of bovine seminal plasma (SP) and vesicular gland fluid (VGF) on various functional parameters of PMN including cell viability, production of reactive oxygen species and chemotaxis. Analysis of these effects was conducted by flow cytometry. Viability of PMN was determined by staining the cells with propidium iodide. Seminal plasma was added to suspensions of PMN in increasing increments and resulted in a significant increase of cell membrane damaged PMN when using SP concentrations above 0.2%. The reactive oxygen species production of PMN suspensions, stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, was significantly decreased by 30% up to 90% when adding 0.06-30‰ of either SP or VGF. The PMN transmigration induced by IL-8 was diminished by 50% when 0.4‰ of either SP or VGF were added. The results of this study indicate a potential regulatory impact of SP and VGF on inflammatory processes in the bovine uterus. PMID:21535239

Aloé, S; Weber, F; Behr, B; Sauter-Louis, C; Zerbe, H



Functional proteomic analysis of seminal plasma proteins in men with various semen parameters  

PubMed Central

Background Alterations at the molecular level in spermatozoa and seminal plasma can affect male fertility. The objective of this study was to determine if analysis of differential expression of proteins in varying semen parameters can serve as potential biomarkers for male infertility. Methods The differential expression of proteins in the seminal plasma of men based on sperm count and morphology were examined utilizing proteomic tools. Subjects were categorized based on sperm concentration and morphology into 4 groups: 1) normal sperm count and normal morphology (NN); 2) normal sperm count and abnormal morphology (NA); 3) oligozoospermia and normal morphology (ON); and 4) oligozoospermia and abnormal morphology (OA). Proteomic analysis was performed by LC-MS/MS followed by functional bioinformatics analysis. Protein distribution in the NA, ON and OA groups was compared with that of the NN group. Results Twenty proteins were differentially expressed among the 4 groups. Among the unique proteins identified, 3 were downregulated in the NA group, 1 in the ON group and 1 in the OA group while 2 were upregulated in the ON and OA groups. The functional analysis 1) identified biological regulation as the major processes affected and 2) determined that most of the identified proteins were of extracellular origin. Conclusions We have identified proteins that are over-or underexpressed in the seminal plasma of men with poor sperm quality. The distinct presence of some of the proteins may serve as potential biomarkers and provide insight into the mechanistic role played by these proteins in male infertility. Further studies using Western Blot analysis are required to validate these findings. PMID:23663294



Compartmentalization and Antiviral Effect of Efavirenz Metabolites in Blood Plasma, Seminal Plasma, and Cerebrospinal Fluid  

PubMed Central

Efavirenz (EFV) is one of the most commonly prescribed antiretrovirals for use in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. EFV is extensively metabolized by cytochrome P450 to a number of oxygenated products; however, the pharmacologic activity and distribution of these metabolites in anatomic compartments have yet to be explored. The systemic distribution of EFV oxidative metabolites was examined in blood plasma, seminal plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid from subjects on an EFV-based regimen. The 8-hydroxy EFV metabolite was detected in blood plasma, seminal plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid, with median concentrations of 314.5 ng/ml, 358.5 ng/ml, and 3.37 ng/ml, respectively. In contrast, 7-hydroxy and 8,14-hydroxy EFV were only detected in blood plasma and seminal plasma with median concentrations of 8.84 ng/ml and 10.23 ng/ml, and 5.63 ng/ml and 5.43 ng/ml, respectively. Interestingly, protein-free concentrations of metabolites were only detectable in seminal plasma, where a novel dihdyroxylated metabolite of EFV was also detected. This accumulation of protein-free EFV metabolites was demonstrated to be the result of differential protein binding in seminal plasma compared with that of blood plasma. In addition, the oxidative metabolites of EFV did not present with any significant pharmacologic activity toward HIV-1 as measured using an HIV green fluorescent protein single-round infectivity assay. This study is the first to report the physiologic distribution of metabolites of an antiretroviral into biologic compartments that the virus is known to distribute and to examine their anti-HIV activity. These data suggest that the male genital tract may be a novel compartment that should be considered in the evaluation of drug metabolite exposure. PMID:23166317

Avery, Lindsay B.; VanAusdall, Jennifer L.; Hendrix, Craig W.



Isolation, characterization and cDNA sequencing of a Kazal family proteinase inhibitor from seminal plasma of turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The turkey reproductive tract and seminal plasma contain a serine proteinase inhibitor that seems to be unique for the reproductive tract. Our experimental objective was to isolate, characterize and cDNA sequence the Kazal family proteinase inhibitor from turkey seminal plasma and testis. Seminal plasma contains two forms of a Kazal family inhibitor: virgin (Ia) represented by an inhibitor of moderate

Mariola S?owi?ska; Mariusz Olczak; Mariola Wojtczak; Jan Glogowski; Jan Jankowski; Wies?aw W?torek; Ryszard Amarowicz; Andrzej Ciereszko



The quantification of lipid and protein oxidation in stallion spermatozoa and seminal plasma: seasonal distinctions and correlations with DNA strand breaks, classical seminal parameters and stallion fertility.  


The goal of this work was to correlate oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage with classic semen parameters in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of fertile and subfertile stallions. Oxidation was measured in both lipids and proteins, using the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) assay and the DNPH carbonyl groups assay, respectively. Sperm DNA damage was monitored using the TUNEL assay. These parameters were monitored in samples obtained during the breeding and the non-breeding seasons. In general, fertile stallions showed better classical semen parameters, and those parameters improved from the non-breeding to the breeding season, although an increase in sperm production was accompanied by a decrease in the semen quality from subfertile stallions in the breeding season. In terms of oxidation levels we found that there were clear differences whether lipids or proteins were considered. In the breeding season there seemed to be a tendency towards normalizing lipid oxidation in spermatozoa and seminal plasma, and protein oxidation in the seminal plasma, of both fertile and subfertile animals. Thus, differences monitored in the non-breeding season were no longer visible. Interestingly, a higher level of protein oxidation was found in the sperm of fertile animals in the breeding season. Considering that there were positive correlations between sperm protein oxidation and sperm motility and vitality, these results suggests that the oxidation of semen proteins may be important for sperm function. On the other hand, lipid oxidation in the seminal plasma seemed to be a general indicator for sperm damage. In the non-breeding season positive correlations between lipid and protein oxidation levels in both sperm and seminal plasma and several defects in sperm function were found, but only for subfertile animals, thus suggesting that lipid and protein oxidation may aid in the identification of subfertile stallions during the non-breeding season. Levels of ROS production never seemed to result in compromised sperm DNA integrity, indicating that measurements were within physiological levels and/or that there is an efficient antioxidant activity in stallion sperm cells. PMID:17451892

Morte, Maria Inês; Rodrigues, Ana Margarida; Soares, Diana; Rodrigues, Ana Sofia; Gamboa, Sandra; Ramalho-Santos, João



Seminal plasma aids the survival and cervical transit of epididymal ram spermatozoa.  


Seminal plasma purportedly plays a critical role in reproduction, but epididymal spermatozoa are capable of fertilisation following deposition in the uterus, calling into question the biological requirement of this substance. Through a combination of direct observation of spermatozoa in utero using probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy, in vivo assessment of sperm fertility and in vitro analysis of various sperm functional parameters, this study investigated the role of seminal plasma in spermatozoa transit through the cervix of the ewe. Following deposition in the cervical os, epididymal spermatozoa previously exposed to seminal plasma displayed an enhanced ability to traverse the cervix as evidenced by both significantly higher pregnancy rates and numbers of spermatozoa observed at the utero-tubal junction when compared with epididymal spermatozoa not previously exposed to seminal plasma. The beneficial effect of seminal plasma on sperm transport was clearly localised to transit through the cervix as pregnancy rates of spermatozoa deposited directly into the uterus were unaffected by exposure to seminal plasma. This phenomenon was not explained by changes to sperm motion characteristics, as seminal plasma had no effect on the motility, kinematic parameters or mitochondrial membrane potential of spermatozoa. Rather, in vitro testing revealed that seminal plasma improved the ability of epididymal spermatozoa to penetrate cervical mucus recovered from ewes in oestrus. These results demonstrate that the survival and transport of ram spermatozoa through the cervix of the ewe is not linked to their motility or velocity but rather the presence of some cervical penetration trait conferred by exposure to seminal plasma. PMID:25118301

Rickard, J P; Pini, T; Soleilhavoup, C; Cognie, J; Bathgate, R; Lynch, G W; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C; Druart, X; de Graaf, S P



Seminal plasma regulates endometrial cytokine expression, leukocyte recruitment and embryo development in the pig.  


In pigs, uterine exposure to the constituents of semen is known to increase litter size but the underlying physiological mechanisms remain undefined. Studies in rodents and humans implicate immune modulating moieties in seminal plasma as likely candidates, acting through enhancing the receptivity of the female tract. In this study, the acute and longer term effects of seminal plasma on cytokine expression and leukocyte abundance in the pig endometrium during early pregnancy have been characterised. The reproductive tracts of gonadotrophin-primed pre-pubertal gilts treated with intrauterine infusions of either pooled seminal plasma or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were retrieved at 34 h, or on day 5 and day 9 after treatment. Seminal plasma elicited an endometrial inflammatory infiltrate comprised of predominantly macrophages and major histocompatibility complex class II+-activated macrophages and dendritic cells. The abundance of these cells was greatest at the pre-ovulatory (34 h) time-point and their increase relative to PBS-treated tissues was maintained until day 9 after seminal plasma treatment. Seminal plasma induced the expression of the cytokines, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and the eicosanoid-synthesising enzyme cyclo-oxygenase-2. Expression was maximal 34 h after treatment but altered expression patterns as a consequence of seminal plasma induction persisted through early pregnancy. These changes were accompanied by altered dynamics in pre-implantation embryo development with an increase in the number of embryos and in their viability after seminal plasma treatment. Together, these findings implicate factors in seminal plasma in programming the trajectory of uterine cytokine expression and leukocyte trafficking during early pregnancy and in regulating pre-implantation embryo development in the pig. PMID:15280563

O'Leary, S; Jasper, M J; Warnes, G M; Armstrong, D T; Robertson, S A



Effect of Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang on seminal plasma cytokine levels in patients with idiopathic male infertility.  


Twenty-two idiopathic infertile patients were treated with Oriental herbal medicine, Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (Hochu-ekki-to). Seminal plasma sFas level elevated significantly after herb administration. There was an inverse correlation between seminal plasma IL-6 level and sperm concentration before treatment. After the administration of herb seminal plasma, sFas levels significantly correlated with sperm concentration. Seminal plasma IL-8 level did not change. Certain kinds of cytokine in the seminal plasma might play some role in improving semen quality with treatment. PMID:14660164

Furuya, Y; Akashi, T; Fuse, H



Local versus systemic effect of ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas  

PubMed Central

Background Camelids are induced (reflex) ovulators. We have recently documented the presence of an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas. The objective was to test the hypothesis that OIF exerts its effect via a systemic rather than a local route and that endometrial curettage will enhance the ovulatory response to intrauterine deposition of seminal plasma in alpacas. Methods Female alpacas were assigned randomly to 6 groups (n = 15 to 17 per group) in a 2 × 3 factorial design to test the effect of seminal plasma versus phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) given by intramuscular injection, by intrauterine infusion, or by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage. Specifically, alpacas in the respective groups were given 1) 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma intramuscularly, 2) 2 ml of PBS intramuscularly (negative control group), 3) 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma by intrauterine infusion, 4) 2 ml of PBS by intrauterine infusion (negative control group), 5) 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage, or 6) 2 ml of PBS by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage (negative control group). The alpacas were examined by transrectal ultrasonography to detect ovulation and measure follicular and luteal diameters. Results Intramuscular administration of seminal plasma resulted in a higher ovulation rate than intrauterine administration of seminal plasma (93% versus 41%; P < 0.01), while intrauterine seminal plasma after endometrial curettage was intermediate (67%). None of the saline-treated controls ovulated. The diameter of the CL after treatment-induced ovulation was not affected by the route of administration of seminal plasma. Conclusion We conclude that 1) OIF in seminal plasma effects ovulation via a systemic rather than a local route, 2) disruption of the endometrial mucosa by curettage facilitated the absorption of OIF and increased the ovulatory effect of seminal plasma, and 3) ovulation in alpacas is not associated with a physical stimulation of the genital tract, and 4) the alpaca represents an excellent biological model to evaluate the bioactivity of OIF. PMID:16018817

Ratto, Marcelo H; Huanca, Wilfredo; Singh, Jaswant; Adams, Gregg P



Removal of seminal plasma enhances membrane stability on fresh and cooled stallion spermatozoa.  


Fertility is reduced after semen cooling for a considerable number of stallions. The main hypotheses include alterations in plasma membrane following cooling and deleterious influence of seminal plasma. However, interindividual variability is controversial. We hypothesized that the removal of seminal plasma could enhance motility in some 'poor cooler' stallions, but could also affect, negatively or positively, membrane quality in some stallions. This study examined the effect of centrifugation, followed or not by removal of seminal plasma, on parameters indicating semen quality after 48 h at 4 °C: motility, plasma membrane integrity as evaluated by hypo-osmotic swelling test, acrosome integrity and response to a pharmacological induction of acrosome reaction using ionophore A23187. Sixty-six ejaculates from 14 stallions were used, including stallions showing high or low sperm motility after cooled storage. Centrifugation without removal of seminal plasma did not affect sperm parameters. Removal of seminal plasma did not affect motility, but significantly stabilized sperm membranes, as demonstrated by a higher response to the osmotic challenge, and a reduced reactivity of the acrosome. Moreover, for the same semen sample, the response to an induction of acrosome reaction was significantly higher when the induction was performed in the presence of seminal plasma, compared with the induction in the absence of seminal plasma. This was observed both for fresh and cooled semen. When the induction of acrosome reaction with ionophore A23187 is used to evaluate sperm quality, care must therefore be taken to standardize the proportion of seminal plasma between samples. For the 10 stallions serving at least 25 mares, the only variable significantly correlated with fertility was motility. The influence of membrane stabilization regarding fertility requires further investigations. PMID:22524671

Barrier-Battut, I; Bonnet, C; Giraudo, A; Dubois, C; Caillaud, M; Vidament, M



Effect of Seminal Plasma on Equine Sperm Quality: Preparation and Storage Techniques  

E-print Network

This study had four experimental aims. We investigated whether fresh (unfrozen) or snap-frozen homologous seminal plasma yielded similar sperm quality in cool-stored semen. We compared sperm quality following exposure to homologous versus...

Whigham, Alison R



HSP-1/2, a major protein of equine seminal plasma, exhibits chaperone-like activity.  


The major bovine seminal plasma protein, PDC-109 exhibits chaperone-like activity (CLA) against a variety of target proteins. The present studies show that the homologous protein from equine seminal plasma, HSP-1/2 also exhibits CLA and inhibits the thermal aggregation of target proteins such as lactate dehydrogenase, and DTT-induced aggregation of insulin in a concentration-dependent manner. Phosphorylcholine binding inhibited the CLA of HSP-1/2, suggesting that aggregation state of the protein is important for this activity. These results demonstrate that HSP-1/2 functions as a molecular chaperone in vitro, and suggest that it may protect other proteins of equine seminal plasma from unfolding/misfolding or aggregation. These results suggest that homologous proteins from the seminal plasma of other mammals also exhibit CLA, which will be physiologically relevant. PMID:22982540

Sankhala, Rajeshwer Singh; Kumar, C Sudheer; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Arangasamy, A; Swamy, Musti J



Development of a Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Determination of Sildenafil in Seminal Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with ultraviolet absorption detection (230 nm) was developed and validated for the determination of a phosphodiesterase V inhibitor, Sildenafil, in seminal plasma. A single step liquid–liquid extraction procedure using ethyl acetate was performed to recover sildenafil from 1.0 mL of seminal plasma combined with 200 µL of NaOH 0.1 M. A symmetry C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm I.D.

Giuseppe Carlucci; Fabrizio Ruggieri; Giancarlo Palumbo; Pietro Mazzeo



Characterization of the seminal plasma proteome in men with prostatitis by mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland which affects approximately 10% of men. Despite its frequency, diagnosing prostatitis and monitoring patient response to treatment remains frustrating. As the prostate contributes a substantial percentage of proteins to seminal plasma, we hypothesized that a protein biomarker of prostatitis might be found by comparing the seminal plasma proteome of patients with and without prostatitis. Results Using mass spectrometry, we identified 1708 proteins in the pooled seminal plasma of 5 prostatitis patients. Comparing this list to a previously published list of seminal plasma proteins in the pooled seminal plasma of 5 healthy, fertile controls yielded 1464 proteins in common, 413 found only in the control group, and 254 found only in the prostatitis group. Applying a set of criteria to this dataset, we generated a high-confidence list of 59 candidate prostatitis biomarkers, 33 of which were significantly increased in prostatitis as compared to control, and 26 of which were decreased. The candidates were analyzed using Gene Ontology and Ingenuity Pathway analysis to delineate their subcellular localizations and functions. Conclusions Thus, in this study, we identified 59 putative biomarkers in seminal plasma that need further validation for diagnosis and monitoring of prostatitis. PMID:22309592



The Major Bactericidal Activity of Human Seminal Plasma Is Zinc-Dependent and Derived from Fragmentation of the Semenogelins1  

PubMed Central

One of the major roles of seminal plasma is to provide antimicrobial protection for the spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract. We found that the bactericidal activity of seminal plasma was highest after resolution of the seminal clot and that this antibacterial activity subsequently became greatly diminished. The antibacterial activity was derived from peptides generated by fragmentation of the semenogelins while the semenogelin holoproteins displayed no antibacterial activity. After ejaculation the semenogelin-derived peptides were fragmented to smaller and smaller fragments over time and thereby lost antibacterial activity. This paralleled the loss of antibacterial activity of whole seminal plasma both in vitro and after sexual intercourse. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the semenogelin-derived peptides generated in seminal plasma was strictly zinc-dependent both at neutral and low pH. These data provide novel roles for the resolution of seminal clots and for the high zinc concentration in human seminal plasma. PMID:18714013

Edstrom, Anneli M. L.; Malm, Johan; Frohm, Birgitta; Martellini, Julie A.; Giwercman, Aleksander; Morgelin, Matthias; Cole, Alexander M.; S?rensen, Ole E.



Differential protein expression in seminal plasma from fertile and infertile males  

PubMed Central

AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze human seminal plasma proteins in association with male fertility status using the proteomic mass spectrometry technology Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (SELDI-TOF-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen analysis was performed using conventional methods. Protein profiles of the seminal plasma were obtained by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry over a strong anion exchanger, ProteinChip® Q10 array. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant differences in motility and sperm count between fertile and infertile men. In addition, we observed ten seminal proteins that are significantly up-regulated in the infertile group. In conclusion, comparison of seminal plasma proteome in fertile and infertile men provides new aspects in the physiology of male fertility and might help in identifying novel markers of male infertility.

Cadavid J, Angela P.; Alvarez, Angela; Markert, Udo R.; Maya, Walter Cardona



Ovulation-inducing factor: a protein component of llama seminal plasma  

PubMed Central

Background Previously, we documented the presence of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma of llamas and alpacas. The purpose of the study was to define the biochemical characteristics of the molecule(s) in seminal plasma responsible for inducing ovulation. Methods In Experiment 1, llama seminal plasma was centrifuged using filtration devices with nominal molecular mass cut-offs of 30, 10 and 5 kDa. Female llamas (n = 9 per group) were treated i.m. with whole seminal plasma (positive control), phosphate-buffered saline (negative control), or the fraction of seminal plasma equal or higher than 30 kDa, 10 to 30 kDa, 5 to 10 kDa, or < 5 kDa. In Experiment 2, female llamas (n = 7 per group) were given an i.m. dose of seminal plasma treated previously by: 1) enzymatic digestion with proteinase-K, 2) incubation with charcoal-dextran, 3) heating to 65°C, or 4) untreated (control). In Experiment 3, female llamas (n = 10 per group) were given an i.m. dose of pronase-treated or non-treated (control) seminal plasma. In all experiments, llamas were examined by transrectal ultrasonography to detect ovulation and CL formation. Ovulation rate was compared among groups by Fisher's exact test and follicle and CL diameters were compared among groups by analyses of variance or student's t-tests. Results In Experiment 1, all llamas in the equal or higher than 30 kDa and positive control groups ovulated (9/9 in each), but none ovulated in the other groups (P < 0.001). In Experiment 2, ovulations were detected in all llamas in each treatment group; i.e., respective treatments of seminal plasma failed to inactivate the ovulation-inducing factor. In Experiment 3, ovulations were detected in 0/10 llamas given pronase-treated seminal plasma and in 9/10 controls (P < 0.01). Conclusions We conclude that ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in llama seminal plasma is a protein molecule that is resistant to heat and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K, and has a molecular mass of approximately equal or higher than 30 kDa. PMID:20462434



Increased Levels of Interleukin6 in Seminal Plasma of Infertile Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of various cytokines, namely the tumor necrosisfactor(TNF-cr), interferon (IFN-y), and interleukins (IL-1 and lL-6), was investigated in seminal plasma of fertile, infertile, and immunoinfertile men using specific immunoradiometric assays. TNF-a and IL-i were not detected. IFN-y was detected, but the differences between the levels of fertile and infertile\\/immunoinfertile were not significant (P> 0.05). lL-6 was detected in seminal



BIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION 63, 15311537 (2000) Seminal Plasma Proteins Revert the Cold-Shock Damage on Ram Sperm Membrane1  

E-print Network

. Fractionation of ram seminal plasma pro- teins by exclusion chromatography provided three fractions able fraction, because ap- proximately 50% of cold-shocked sperm plasma membrane sur- face was restored to its of the egg [1, 2]. Seminal plasma contains a variety of biochemical com- ponents, some of which

Zaragoza, Universidad de


Isolation of a spermatozoa motility inhibiting factor from chicken seminal plasma with antibacterial property.  


A 78-kDa spermatozoa motility inhibiting factor (SMIF) was purified from chicken (Gallus domesticus) seminal plasma by anion exchange (DE-53) followed by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose. The factor is thermostable and inhibited the spermatozoa motility in a dose dependent manner. In addition, SMIF inhibited the growth of gram negative bacteria, Pasteurella multocida but not gram positive Streptococcus equi. The factor lost its spermatozoa immobilizing property after treatment with trypsin, chymotrypsin or pepsin. The inhibition of SMIF by beta-mercaptoethanol suggest the involvement of disulfide bonds in its activity. Similarly, this property was lost in presence of chicken seminal plasma or incubating SMIF with anti-SMIF antibodies. Evidence is provided for the presence of a high molecular weight protein (> 100 kDa) in chicken seminal plasma that neutralizes the motility inhibiting property of SMIF. No significant decrease in spermatozoa ATP was observed in presence of SMIF suggesting that the loss of spermatozoa motility was due to factors other than depletion in cell's energy. Using anti-SMIF antibodies, a cross-reactive protein was identified in the blood, liver and reproductive tissues of chicken and the seminal plasma of cattle and buffalo. However, the cross-reactive protein failed to inhibit chicken spermatozoa motility. The significance of SMIF in chicken seminal plasma is discussed. PMID:8541320

Mohan, J; Saini, M; Joshi, P



Biochemical isolation and purification of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in seminal plasma of llamas  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of the present study was to isolate and purify the protein fraction(s) of llama seminal plasma responsible for the ovulation-inducing effect of the ejaculate. Methods Semen collected from male llamas by artificial vagina was centrifuged and the seminal plasma was harvested and stored frozen. Seminal plasma was thawed and loaded onto a Type 1 macro-prep ceramic hydroxylapatite column and elution was carried out using a lineal gradient with 350 mM sodium phosphate. Three protein fractions were identified clearly (Fractions A, B, and C), where a prominent protein band with a mass of 14 kDa was identified in Fraction C. Fraction C was loaded into a sephacryl gel filtration column for further purification using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Isocratic elution resulted in 2 distinct protein fractions (Fractions C1 and C2). An in vivo bioassay (n = 10 to 11 llamas per group) was used to determine the ovarian effect of each fraction involving treatment with saline (negative control), whole seminal plasma (positive control), or seminal plasma Fractions A, B or C2. Ultrasonography was done to detect ovulation and CL formation, and blood samples were taken to measure plasma progesterone and LH concentrations. Results Ovulation and CL formation was detected in 0/10, 10/11, 0/10, 2/11, and 10/11 llamas treated with saline, whole seminal plasma, Fractions A, B and C2 respectively (P < 0.001). A surge in circulating concentrations of LH was detected within 2 hours only in llamas treated with either whole seminal plasma or Fraction C2. Plasma progesterone concentration and CL diameter profiles were greatest (P < 0.05) in llamas treated with Fraction C2. Conclusion Ovulation-inducing factor was isolated from llama seminal plasma as a 14 kDa protein molecule that elicits a preovulatory LH surge followed by ovulation and CL formation in llamas, suggesting an endocrine effect at the level of the hypothalamus (release of GnRH) or the pituitary (gonadotrophs). PMID:21310078



Seasonal changes in reproductive parameters and seminal plasma constituents of rams in Afyon province of Turkey.  


The objective of the present study was to describe seasonal changes in semen quality, serum testosterone and seminal plasma constituents for 9 months in 10 rams from a mature local (Daglic) and imported breed (Chios) under Afyon province conditions typical for the internal Anatolian region. Sperm motility and sperm concentration and testosterone level were higher, percentage of abnormal spermatozoa was the lowest during autumn. The biochemical analyses of ram seminal plasma indicated that the highest values of total protein, albumin (A), globulin (G), total lipid and cholesterol were recorded in autumn while A/G ratio exhibited the lowest values. Aspartate amino transferase (AST) activity and AST/ALT ratio recorded the lowest values, while moderate values were recorded for alanine amino transferase (ALT) activity in autumn. The results suggest that the rams under Afyon province conditions show seasonal changes for some reproductive parameters and seminal plasma constituents. PMID:15171601

Gundogan, M; Elitok, B



Correlation between human clusterin in seminal plasma with sperm protamine deficiency and DNA fragmentation.  


Seminal proteins can be considered as factors that control fertilization. Clusterin is one such protein that has been implicated in many activities, including apoptosis inhibition, cell cycle control, DNA repair, and sperm maturation. In this study, the relationship between human secretory clusterin (sCLU) in seminal plasma with sperm parameters, protamine deficiency, and DNA fragmentation was investigated. Semen samples were collected from 63 Iranian men, and semen analysis was performed according to World Health Organization criteria and computer aided semen analysis (CASA). The concentration of sCLU in seminal plasma was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), protamine deficiency was determined by chromomycin A3 staining (CMA3 ), and sperm DNA fragmentation was checked by sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) assay. The level of sCLU in seminal fluid of fertile patients was 48.3 ± 38.6 ng/ml and in infertile patients was 15.5 ± 9.7 ng/ml; this difference was significant (P < 0.001). sCLU correlated negatively with protamine deficiency, sperm DNA fragmentation, and abnormal morphology. In conclusion, seminal clusterin can be considered as a marker for the quick assessment of semen quality in male infertility studies. PMID:23740886

Salehi, Mohammad; Akbari, Hakimeh; Heidari, Mohammad Hassan; Molouki, Aidin; Murulitharan, Kavitha; Moeini, Hassan; Novin, Marefat Ghaffari; Aabed, Farhang; Taheri, Hossein; Fadaei, Fateme; Mohsenzadeh, Mehdi; Jafari, Mohammad; Pirouzi, Aliyar; Heidari, Reihane



Seminal plasma differentially regulates inflammatory cytokine gene expression in human cervical and vaginal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to semen elicits an inflammatory response in the female reproductive tract of rodents and other animals. The nature and regulation of any similar response in humans is poorly understood. This study investigated seminal plasma induction of inflam- matory cytokine and chemokine gene regulation in human cervical and vaginal epithelial cells in vitro. Affymetrix microarray gene profiling revealed that inflammatory

David J. Sharkey; Anne M. Macpherson; Kelton P. Tremellen; Sarah A. Robertson



HIV1 Enhancing Effect of Prostatic Acid Phosphatase Peptides Is Reduced in Human Seminal Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently reported that HIV-1 infection can be inhibited by innate antimicrobial components of human seminal plasma (SP). Conversely, naturally occurring peptidic fragments from the SP-derived prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) have been reported to form amyloid fibrils called “SEVI” and enhance HIV-1 infection in vitro. In order to understand the biological consequence of this proviral effect, we extended these studies

Julie A. Martellini; Amy L. Cole; Pavel Svoboda; Olga Stuchlik; Li-Mei Chen; Karl X. Chai; Bhushan K. Gangrade; Ole E. Sørensen; Jan Pohl; Alexander M. Cole; Teunis B. H. Geijtenbeek




EPA Science Inventory

Negative-chemical-ionization mass spectral screening of extracts of human seminal plasma has revealed a presence of a Cl7 ion cluster at a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 463 in a significant number of the samples examined (34 out of 123). Experiments with different gases used to g...


Lack of Detection of XMRV in Seminal Plasma from HIV1 Infected Men in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a recently discovered human gammaretrovirus with yet unknown prevalence and transmission route(s). Its presence in prostate stromal fibroblasts and prostatic secretions suggests that XMRV might be sexually transmitted. We chose to study a compartment closely connected to the prostate, a location where XMRV was detected in independent studies. Seminal plasma samples from

Marion Cornelissen; Fokla Zorgdrager; Petra Blom; Suzanne Jurriaans; Sjoerd Repping; Elisabeth van Leeuwen; Margreet Bakker; Ben Berkhout; Kuyl van der A. C



Reactive Oxygen Species Production by the Spermatozoa of Patients With Idiopathic Infertility: Relationship to Seminal Plasma Antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe attempted to determine reactive oxygen species production by the spermatozoa of patients with idiopathic infertility and healthy donors, and observe whether increased production was due to decreased seminal plasma reactive oxygen species scavengers.

Ilter Alkan; Ferruh Simsek; Goncagul Haklar; Ertan Kervancioglu; Hakan Ozveri; Suha Yalcin; Atif Akdas



Relationship of seminal plasma level and extender type to sperm motility and DNA integrity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between seminal plasma level (0, 10, or 20%) and extender type [Kenney type (EZ-Mixin-CST) or Kenney-modified Tyrodes-KMT] to the susceptibility of sperm DNA to denaturation and sperm motility measures were investigated in cooled (5°C) stallion sperm. Three ejaculates from each of three fertile stallions were collected in an artificial vagina and processed as follows: diluted one part uncentrifuged

C. C. Love; S. P. Brinsko; S. L. Rigby; J. A. Thompson; T. L. Blanchard; D. D. Varner



Toxic metals in seminal plasma and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes.  


We measured toxic metals in seminal plasma collected from 30 men using vitro fertilization (IVF), to evaluate associations with semen quality and IVF outcomes. A doubling in Hg-adjusted Pb concentration was associated with 47% lower total motile sperm. Positive associations were suggested for Hg with pregnancy and live birth, adjusted for Cd or Pb. A negative association was suggested for Hg-adjusted Cd with pregnancy. These data add to evidence indicating that toxic metals impact IVF. PMID:25019469

Kim, Keewan; Bloom, Michael S; Kruger, Pamela C; Parsons, Patrick J; Arnason, John G; Byun, Youjung; Goins, Stephen; Fujimoto, Victor Y



Protein profile of the seminal plasma of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).  


This study was conducted to characterize the major proteins of the peccary seminal plasma, based on the semen samples collected from nine adult and reproductively sound animals. Our approach included the use of two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by Coomassie blue staining and analysis of polypeptide maps with PDQuest Software (Bio-Rad). Proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We detected 179 protein spots per gel and 98 spots were identified by mass spectrometry, corresponding to 23 different proteins. The combined intensity of those spots accounted for 56.2±6% of the intensities of all spots and 60.9% of the intensities of spots presented in every protein map. Protein spots identified as clusterin represented 19.7±8.3% of the integrated optical densities of all spots detected in the seminal plasma maps. There was a negative association (r=-0.87; P<0.05) between the intensity of a clusterin spot and the percentage of sperm with functional membrane. Spermadhesin porcine seminal plasma protein 1 and bodhesin 2 comprised 5.4±1.9 and 8.8±3.9% of the total intensity of all spots respectively. Many proteins appeared in a polymorphic pattern, such as clusterin (27 spots), epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase (ten spots), inter-?-trypsin inhibitor (12 spots), and IgG-binding protein (ten spots), among others. In conclusion, we presently describe the major seminal plasma proteome of the peccary, which exhibits a distinct high expression of clusterin isoforms. Knowledge of wild species reproductive biology is crucial for an understanding of their survival strategies and adaptation in a changing environment. PMID:24516176

Santos, E A A; Sousa, P C; Martins, J A M; Moreira, R A; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreno, F B M B; Oliveira, M F; Moura, A A; Silva, A R



Lack of Detection of XMRV in Seminal Plasma from HIV1 Infected Men in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundXenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a recently discovered human gammaretrovirus with yet unknown prevalence and transmission route(s). Its presence in prostate stromal fibroblasts and prostatic secretions suggests that XMRV might be sexually transmitted. We chose to study a compartment closely connected to the prostate, a location where XMRV was detected in independent studies. Seminal plasma samples from HIV-1

Marion Cornelissen; Fokla Zorgdrager; Petra Blom; Suzanne Jurriaans; Sjoerd Repping; Elisabeth van Leeuwen; Margreet Bakker; Ben Berkhout; Antoinette C. van der Kuyl; Douglas F. Nixon



Soluble TRAIL is present at high concentrations in seminal plasma and promotes spermatozoa survival.  


The expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL(TNFSF10)) and of its receptors (TRAILR1, TRAILR2, TRAILR3, and TRAILR4) have been documented in testis, but the presence of soluble TRAIL in seminal fluid, as well as the potential physiopathological role of the TRAIL/TRAILR system in spermatozoa, has not been previously investigated. Male donors (n=123) among couples presenting for infertility evaluation were consecutively enrolled in this study. The presence of soluble TRAIL was analyzed in seminal samples by ELISA, while the surface expression of TRAIL receptors was investigated by flow cytometry. High levels of soluble TRAIL were detected in seminal plasma (median, 11?621?pg/ml and mean±s.d., 13?371±8367?pg/ml) and flow cytometric analysis revealed a variable expression of TRAIL receptors in the sperm cellular fraction among different subjects. In addition, the effect of physiologically relevant concentrations of recombinant TRAIL was investigated on survival and motility of spermatozoa. Of interest, the in vitro exposure of capacitated spermatozoa to recombinant TRAIL (10?ng/ml) significantly preserved their overall survival. Therefore, the present study demonstrates for the first time the presence of elevated levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine TRAIL in seminal fluids. Moreover, the demonstration that recombinant TRAIL promotes spermatozoa survival after capacitation suggests potential therapeutic implications. PMID:24825910

Zauli, Giorgio; Celeghini, Claudio; Monasta, Lorenzo; Martinelli, Monica; Luppi, Stefania; Gonelli, Arianna; Grill, Vittorio; Ricci, Giuseppe; Secchiero, Paola



Studies on the glycosidases of semen: Purification and properties of ?-D-mannopyranosidase from goat seminal plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpha D-mannosidase activity in goat semen was observed to be distributed in sperm and seminal plasma. In sperm the enzyme, present in soluble and bound forms, was located within the acrosome. The bound enzyme was associated with the denuded sperm. Seminal plasma a-mannosidase was purified 100-fold and the final preparation was shown to be homogeneous by polyacrylamide and SDS gel

Jaipal Singh; S. K. Bhatnagar; S. R. Anand



Determination of semen quality of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, by sperm motility, seminal plasma parameters, and spermatozoal metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationships between semen fertilization capacity and sperm motility, seminal plasma composition and sperm metabolism in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to find out biomarkers for semen quality. Variations in semen fertilization rate could be best described by three multiple regression models: Firstly, a model including the seminal plasma pH (x1), ?-d-glucuronidase activity (x2), total lipid levels

F Lahnsteiner; B Berger; T Weismann; R. A Patzner



Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation.  


There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in ?t value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. PMID:24834825

Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya; Challapalli, Srinivas; Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao; Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar



Isolation, characterization and cDNA sequencing of a Kazal family proteinase inhibitor from seminal plasma of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).  


The turkey reproductive tract and seminal plasma contain a serine proteinase inhibitor that seems to be unique for the reproductive tract. Our experimental objective was to isolate, characterize and cDNA sequence the Kazal family proteinase inhibitor from turkey seminal plasma and testis. Seminal plasma contains two forms of a Kazal family inhibitor: virgin (Ia) represented by an inhibitor of moderate electrophoretic migration rate (present also in the testis) and modified (Ib, a split peptide bond) represented by an inhibitor with a fast migration rate. The inhibitor from the seminal plasma was purified by affinity, ion-exchange and reverse phase chromatography. The testis inhibitor was purified by affinity and ion-exchange chromatography. N-terminal Edman sequencing of the two seminal plasma inhibitors and testis inhibitor were identical. This sequence was used to construct primers and obtain a cDNA sequence from the testis. Analysis of a cDNA sequence indicated that turkey proteinase inhibitor belongs to Kazal family inhibitors (pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitors, mammalian acrosin inhibitors) and caltrin. The turkey seminal plasma Kazal inhibitor belongs to low molecular mass inhibitors and is characterized by a high value of the equilibrium association constant for inhibitor/trypsin complexes. PMID:18430598

S?owi?ska, Mariola; Olczak, Mariusz; Wojtczak, Mariola; Glogowski, Jan; Jankowski, Jan; Watorek, Wies?aw; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Ciereszko, Andrzej



Glycomic characterization of prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase in prostate cancer and benign disease seminal plasma fluids.  


Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) are glycoproteins secreted by prostate epithelial cells, and have a long clinical history of use as serum biomarkers of prostate cancers. These two proteins are present at significantly higher concentrations in seminal plasma, making this proximal fluid of the prostate a good source for purifying enough protein for characterization of prostate disease associated changes in glycan structures. With the use of seminal fluid samples representative of normal control, benign prostatic disease and prostate cancers, PAP and PSA were enriched by thiophilic absorption chromatography. Released N-linked glycan constituents from both proteins were analyzed by a combination of normal phase HPLC and MALDI-TOF spectrometry. For PSA, 40 putative glycoforms were determined, and 21 glycoforms were determined for PAP. PAP glycans were further analyzed with a hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer to assign specific glycoform classes to each of the three N-linked sites. The glycans identified in these studies will allow for more defined targeting of prostate disease-specific changes for PAP, PSA and other secreted prostatic glycoproteins. PMID:19128049

White, Krista Y; Rodemich, Lucy; Nyalwidhe, Julius O; Comunale, Mary Ann; Clements, Mary Ann; Lance, Raymond S; Schellhammer, Paul F; Mehta, Anand S; Semmes, O John; Drake, Richard R



Glycomic Characterization of Prostate Specific Antigen and Prostatic Acid Phosphatase in Prostate Cancer and Benign Disease Seminal Plasma Fluids  

PubMed Central

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) are glycoproteins secreted by prostate epithelial cells, and have a long clinical history of use as serum biomarkers of prostate cancers. These two proteins are present at significantly higher concentrations in seminal plasma, making this proximal fluid of the prostate a good source for purifying enough protein for characterization of prostate disease associated changes in glycan structures. Using seminal fluid samples representative of normal control, benign prostatic disease and prostate cancers, PAP and PSA were enriched by thiophilic absorption chromatography. Released N-linked glycan constituents from both proteins were analyzed by a combination of normal phase HPLC and MALDI-TOF spectrometry. For PSA, 40 putative glycoforms were determined, and 21 glycoforms were determined for PAP. PAP glycans were further analyzed with a hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer to assign specific glycoform classes to each of the three N-linked sites. The glycans identified in these studies will allow for more defined targeting of prostate disease-specific changes for PAP, PSA and other secreted prostatic glycoproteins. PMID:19128049

White, Krista Y.; Rodemich, Lucy; Nyalwidhe, Julius O.; Comunale, Mary Ann; Clements, Mary Ann; Lance, Raymond S.; Schellhammer, Paul F.; Mehta, Anand; Semmes, O. John; Drake, Richard R.



Elevated levels of Dickkopf-related protein 3 in seminal plasma of prostate cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background Expression of Dkk-3, a secreted putative tumor suppressor, is altered in age-related proliferative disorders of the human prostate. We now investigated the suitability of Dkk-3 as a diagnostic biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa) in seminal plasma (SP). Methods SP samples were obtained from 81 patients prior to TRUS-guided prostate biopsies on the basis of elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA; > 4 ng/mL) levels and/or abnormal digital rectal examination. A sensitive indirect immunoenzymometric assay for Dkk-3 was developed and characterized in detail. SP Dkk-3 and PSA levels were determined and normalized to total SP protein. The diagnostic accuracies of single markers including serum PSA and multivariate models to discriminate patients with positive (N = 40) and negative (N = 41) biopsy findings were investigated. Results Biopsy-confirmed PCa showed significantly higher SP Dkk-3 levels (100.9 ± 12.3 vs. 69.2 ± 9.4 fmol/mg; p = 0.026). Diagnostic accuracy (AUC) of SP Dkk-3 levels (0.633) was enhanced in multivariate models by including serum PSA (model A; AUC 0.658) or both, serum and SP PSA levels (model B; AUC 0.710). In a subpopulation with clinical follow-up > 3 years post-biopsy to ensure veracity of negative biopsy status (positive biopsy N = 21; negative biopsy N = 25) AUCs for SP Dkk-3, model A and B increased to 0.667, 0.724 and 0.777, respectively. Conclusions In multivariate models to detect PCa, inclusion of SP Dkk-3 levels, which were significantly elevated in biopsy-confirmed PCa patients, improved the diagnostic performance compared with serum PSA only. PMID:22071168



Effects of seminal plasma and the presence of a conceptus on regulation of lymphocyte-cytokine network in porcine endometrium.  


Infusion of seminal plasma in the uterus is known to elicit an instant inflammatory response in the porcine uterus, but whether or not it prepares a uterine immunological response to the presence of conceptuses is not well understood. Seminal plasma induced long-term modulatory effects and conceptus-induced immune changes in leukocyte populations were measured by flow cytometry and mRNAs for various cytokines by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR in porcine endometrium collected on Days 6 and 13 from cycling and pregnant animals or from animals given seminal plasma infusions. Seminal plasma infusion induced long-term modulatory effects, resulting in significantly more endometrial FoxP3-positive T-regulatory and T-helper cells 6 days after infusion as compared to cycling and pregnant animals. The number of T-cytotoxic and T-null cells did not change between the studied groups. The early molecular effects of seminal plasma were not observed at 13-days post-infusion, although animals on Day 13 of pregnancy did show significantly more T-cells (of any type investigated). Seminal plasma also showed a delayed effect on cytokine expression, specifically exhibiting a significant increase in interleukin 10 (IL10) and a decrease in granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) gene expression on Day 13 as compared to Day 6 of cycling or pregnant gilts. The results indicate a delayed regulatory effect of seminal plasma on immune responses in the porcine uterus, which are similar to immune changes generated by implanting conceptuses. PMID:24382630

Jalali, Beenu Moza; Kitewska, Anna; Wasielak, Marta; Bodek, Gabriel; Bogacki, Marek



Motility of spermatozoa of Alburnus alburnus (Cyprinidae) and its relationship to seminal plasma composition and sperm metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of seminal plasma and metabolism of sperm of the cyprinid fishAlburnus alburnus were investigated. Statistically significant correlations were found between motility parameters and seminal fluid osmolality, pH, Na+, K+ and protein levels (negative correlations: % immotile spermatozoa-Na+, K+; positive correlations: % motile spermatozoa-osmolality, pH, Na+, K+, protein; % linear motile spermatozoa-pH protein; swimming velocity of spermatozoa-pH, Na+, protein).

F. Lahnsteiner; B. Berger; T. Weismann; R. A. Patzner



Isolation and characterization of heparin- and phosphorylcholine-binding proteins of boar and stallion seminal plasma. Primary structure of porcine pB1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the bovine, seminal plasma heparin-binding proteins bind to sperm lipids containing the phosphorylcholine group and mediate the capacitating effects of heparin-like glycosaminoglycans during sperm residence in the female genital tract. We report the characterization of heparin- and phosphorylcholine-binding proteins of stallion and boar seminal plasma. Horse seminal plasma proteins HSP-1 and HSP-2, and boar protein pB1, belong to the

Juan J Calvete; Manfred Raida; Marc Gentzel; Claus Urbanke; Libia Sanz; Edda Töpfer-Petersen



Relationship of seminal plasma interleukin (IL) -8 and IL-6 with semen quality.  


The concentration of interleukin (IL) -8 and IL-6 was determined in seminal plasma (SP) samples from 137 randomly chosen subfertile males to evaluate the relationship with other potential parameters of subclinical infection/inflammation such as seminal leukocytes, and with semen quality in a prospective study. All patients were asymptomatic for genital tract infection. A comprehensive semen evaluation included sperm analysis, sperm migration testing, antisperm antibody screening, immunocytochemical round cell differentiation to determine seminal leukocytes counts and the leukocyte ratio, complement fraction C(3) (C(3c)) determination, and semen cultures, in aliquots of the same ejaculates. The SP concentration of IL-8 was inversely related to semen quality, e.g. to the total number of motile spermatozoa or to the outcome of the sperm migration test (motile sperm harvested after a swim-up procedure). IL-8 concentrations were significantly correlated with leukocyte counts per ml (P < 0.0001) and per ejaculate (P < 0.0001), and with the leukocyte ratio (P < 0.001). All leukocytospermic samples had high IL-8 concentrations (< or =2 ng/ml). The SP concentration of IL-6 was much lower, but was significantly correlated with IL-8 (P < 0.0001). Both IL-8 and IL-6 were significantly related with the C(3c). No association of interleukin concentrations with the bacterial colonization of semen samples was found. The results indicate a marked relationship of some pro-inflammatory cytokines with semen quality. The significant association with seminal leukocytes and other potential inflammation markers suggests that IL-8 might be used as sensitive marker for silent male genital tract infection. PMID:11228223

Eggert-Kruse, W; Boit, R; Rohr, G; Aufenanger, J; Hund, M; Strowitzki, T



Seminal Plasma Enhances Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cell Proliferation and Tumour Growth In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in women in sub-Saharan Africa. Extensive evidence has shown that cervical cancer and its precursor lesions are caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Although the vast majority of HPV infections are naturally resolved, failure to eradicate infected cells has been shown to promote viral persistence and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, following neoplastic transformation, exposure of cervical epithelial cells to inflammatory mediators either directly or via the systemic circulation may enhance progression of the disease. It is well recognised that seminal plasma contains an abundance of inflammatory mediators, which are identified as regulators of tumour growth. Here we investigated the role of seminal plasma in regulating neoplastic cervical epithelial cell growth and tumorigenesis. Using HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cells, we found that seminal plasma (SP) induced the expression of the inflammatory enzymes, prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PTGS1 and PTGS2), cytokines interleukin (IL) -6, and -11 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A(VEGF-A). To investigate the role of SP on tumour cell growth in vivo, we xenografted HeLa cells subcutaneously into the dorsal flank of nude mice. Intra-peritoneal administration of SP rapidly and significantly enhanced the tumour growth rate and size of HeLa cell xenografts in nude mice. As observed in vitro, we found that SP induced expression of inflammatory PTGS enzymes, cytokines and VEGF-A in vivo. Furthermore we found that SP enhances blood vessel size in HeLa cell xenografts. Finally we show that SP-induced cytokine production, VEGF-A expression and cell proliferation are mediated via the induction of the inflammatory PTGS pathway. PMID:22442729

Sutherland, Jason R.; Sales, Kurt J.; Jabbour, Henry N.; Katz, Arieh A.



Maldi-tof fingerprinting of seminal plasma lipids in the study of human male infertility.  


This study proposed lipid fingerprinting of human seminal plasma by mass spectrometry as an analytical method to differentiate biological conditions. For this purpose, we chose infertile men as a model to study specific conditions, namely: high and low seminal plasma lipid peroxidation levels (sub-study 1.1), high and low sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation (sub-study 1.2), and intervention status: before and after subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy (study 2). Study 1 included 133 patients, of which 113 were utilized for sub-study 1.1 and 89 for sub-study 1.2. Study 2 included 17 adult men submitted to subinguinal varicocelectomy, before and 90 days after varicocelectomy. Lipids were extracted from seminal plasma and submitted to Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry in the positive ionization mode. Spectra were processed using Waters(®) MassLynx, and MetaboAnalyst online software was used for statistical analyses. For sub-studies 1.1 and 1.2, and study 2, univariate analysis revealed 8, 87 and 34 significant ions, respectively. Multivariate analysis was performed through PCA and PLS-DA. PCA generated 56, 32 and 34 components respectively for each study and these were submitted to logistic regression. A ROC curve was plotted and the area under the curve was equal to 97.4, 92.5 and 96.5%. PLS-DA generated a list of 19, 24 and 23 VIP ions for sub-studies 1.1 and 1.2, and study 2, respectively. Therefore, this study established the lipid profile and comparison of patterns altered in response to specific biological conditions. PMID:24934590

Camargo, Mariana; Intasqui, Paula; de Lima, Camila Bruna; Montani, Daniela Antunes; Nichi, Marcílio; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Lo Turco, Edson Guimarães; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta



Effect of donkey seminal plasma on sperm movement and sperm-polymorphonuclear neutrophils attachment in vitro.  


To evaluate the effect of seminal plasma in endometrial inflammation in donkeys, samples from fresh pure, fresh diluted and frozen-thawed semen of three different jackasses were co-incubated in water bath at 37°C with uterine Jennie's secretions collected 6h after artificial insemination with frozen-thawed donkey semen. Individual sperm movement parameters using the computerised sperm analysis system (CASA) and sperm-polymorphonuclear neutrophils (sperm-PMN) attachment observed in Diff-Quick stained smears were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4h of co-incubation. Controls consisted of incubating diluted or frozen-thawed sperm in the absence of uterine secretions. For data analyses, a repeated measures ANOVA was performed with incubation time as intra-subject factor and with treatment and donkey as inter-subject factor, followed by a post-hoc Bonferroni's test. Greater values (P<0.05) of sperm-PMN percentages and a loss of progressive motility were observed in frozen-thawed semen compared with pure and diluted fresh semen samples throughout the incubation time. In addition, the presence of seminal plasma in fresh and diluted semen samples reduced the inflammatory response of polymorphonuclear neutrophils produced after insemination by suppressing the sperm-PMN attachment in vitro. Motility sperm parameters analysed by CASA were also less affected than those in frozen-thawed semen samples. In conclusion, seminal plasma in jennies appears to have a modulation on the endometrial response after artificial insemination with frozen-thawed donkey semen. As a result, spermatozoa with the greater motility characteristics are selected. PMID:23891218

Miró, Jordi; Vilés, Karina; García, Wilber; Jordana, Jordi; Yeste, Marc



Biochemical and mass spectrometric characterization of soluble ecto-5'-nucleotidase from bull seminal plasma.  


Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (ecto-5'-NT) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane-bound protein that is ubiquitous in mammalian tissues. It is a target for a number of therapeutic drugs since increased levels of the enzyme correlate with various disease states. In this investigation, we describe the properties of a soluble ecto-5'-NT derived from bull seminal plasma. The protein was highly heterogeneous as demonstrated by chromatofocusing and two-dimensional PAGE. Sequencing analyses revealed a truncated polypeptide lacking the glycosylphospatidylinositol attachment site, suggesting that it is produced post-translationally by cleavage at Gln(547) and/or Phe(548). Heterogeneity was largely due to differential glycosylation, especially in the oligosaccharides linked to Asn(403). Significant differences in substrate specificity were observed between isoforms and, on the basis of molecular-modelling studies, were interpreted in terms of variable glycosylation causing steric hindrance of the substrate-binding site. Thus the soluble forms of ecto-5'-NT found in bull seminal plasma are unique both biochemically and structurally, and have a putative role in signalling interactions with spermatozoa following ejaculation and capacitation in the female reproductive tract. PMID:12608891

Fini, Carlo; Talamo, Fabio; Cherri, Silvia; Coli, Marcello; Floridi, Ardesio; Ferrara, Lino; Scaloni, Andrea



Seminal plasma concentrations of Anti-Müllerian hormone and inhibin B predict motile sperm recovery from cryopreserved semen in asthenozoospermic men: a prospective cohort study.  


The rate of motile sperm recovery after cryopreservation is very variable and difficult to predict. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin B are produced by Sertoli cells and released into the seminal plasma, where they could be functional markers of spermatogenesis and sperm resistance to thermal stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether seminal plasma levels of AMH and inhibin B predict sperm recovery after cryopreservation. The study included 153 men enrolled prospectively during a semen analysis. The cohort was stratified by the fresh semen characteristics into: normal (n = 52), high sperm count (n = 55), asthenozoospermia (n = 23), and oligozoospermia (n = 23). The main outcome measure was motile sperm recovery rate, defined as post-thaw total motile sperm count × 100/pre-freezing total motile sperm count. In men with asthenozoospermia there was a significant correlation between motile sperm recovery rate and the pre-freezing concentrations of AMH (r = 0.522, p < 0.05) and inhibin B (0.471, p < 0.05). In this group, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of AMH and inhibin B for prediction of ?50% motile sperm recovery after cryopreservation were, respectively, 0.808 and 0.638. AMH was particularly useful, with sensitivity of 0.85, specificity of 0.80, positive predictive value of 0.84 and negative predictive value of 0.80. The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of inhibin B for the same outcome were, respectively, 0.62, 0.60, 0.67, and 0.55. The median motile sperm recovery rate was 83% when seminal plasma AMH concentration was ?0.84 ng/mL, vs. 27% when AMH concentration was <0.84 ng/mL (p < 0.05). In other patient groups, there was no correlation between the two hormone levels in seminal plasma and the motile sperm recovery rate. In conclusion, seminal plasma AMH and inhibin B concentrations correlate with and can be used to predict motile sperm recovery after semen cryopreservation in asthenozoospermic men. PMID:25269872

Nery, S F; Vieira, M A F; Dela Cruz, C; Lobach, V N M; Del Puerto, H L; Torres, P B; Rocha, A L L; Reis, A B; Reis, F M



Seminal plasma biochemistry and spermatozoa characteristics of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) of wild and cultivated origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objectives were to compare spermatozoa activity, morphology, and seminal plasma (SP) biochemistry between wild and cultivated Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Swimming velocities of wild cod spermatozoa were significantly faster than those of cultivated males. Wild males had a significantly larger spermatozoa head area, perimeter, and length, while cultivated males had more circular heads. Total monounsaturated fatty acids and the

Ian Anthony Ernest Butts; Edward Alexander Trippel; Andrzej Ciereszko; Carles Soler; Mariola S?owi?ska; Sayyed Mohammad Hadi Alavi; Matthew Kenneth Litvak; Igor Babiak



Human seminal plasma displays significant phospholipid transfer activity due to the presence of active phospholipid transfer protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid composition of germ cell membranes is considerably modified during spermatogenesis, sperm maturation and capacitation. Some of these modifications are caused by exchanges between soluble lipid donors or acceptors and cell membranes. The aim of this study was to assess whether significant lipid transfers between lipoprotein structures are detectable in human seminal plasma. Phospholipid and cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer

D. Masson; V. Drouineaud; P. Moiroux; T. Gautier; G. Dautin; M. Schneider; J. Fruchart-najib; M. Jauhiainen; C. Ehnholm; P. Sagot; P. Gambert; C. Jimenez; L. Lagrost



Myometrial activity around estrus in sows: spontaneous activity and effects of estrogens, cloprostenol, seminal plasma and clenbuterol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, nonsurgical, open-end catheter technique was used to study spontaneous uterine activity around estrus in sows, and the effects of estrogens, seminal plasma, cloprostenol, and clenbuterol on uterine activity. In the first experiment, uterine activity was studied in 14 multiparous, cyclic sows, during one or more estrous cycles, from day ?4 to day 4 of the cycle (day 0:

P. Langendijk; E. G. Bouwman; N. M. Soede; M. A. M. Taverne; B. Kemp



Timing of Intermittent Seminal HIV-1 RNA Shedding in Patients with Undetectable Plasma Viral Load under Combination Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

It was demonstrated that combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the HIV-1 viral load (VL) in the blood and the seminal compartment. Some studies have reported that the seminal HIV-1 VL is undetectable in individuals with an undetectable blood plasma viral load (bpVL) under cART. However, some recent studies have demonstrated that seminal HIV-1 RNA may still be detected, and potentially infectious, even in the case of an undetectable bpVL. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the detection rate of a seminal VL and whether shedding could be intermittent over a very short time. From January 2006 to December 2011, 88 HIV-1 infected men, enrolled in an Assisted Reproduction program, provided 306 semen samples, corresponding to 177 frozen sperm samples (two samples delivered at a one-hour interval (n?=?129) or one sample (n?=?48)). All enrolled men were under cART, with an undetectable bpVL for more than 6 months. HIV-1 RNA was quantified in seminal plasma using a Roche COBAS Ampliprep COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test. Seminal HIV-1 RNA was detected in 23 samples (7.5%) from 17 patients (19.3%). This detection rate was stable over years. With regards to the freezing of two samples delivered at a one-hour interval, the proportion of discordance between the first and second samples was 9.3% (12/129). Our results confirm the intermittent shedding of HIV-1 in semen. While this finding has been shown by studies examining longer time intervals, to our knowledge, this has never been demonstrated over such a short time interval. PMID:24594873

Ferraretto, Xavier; Estellat, Candice; Damond, Florence; Longuet, Pascale; Epelboin, Sylvie; Demailly, Pauline; Yazbeck, Chadi; Llabador, Marie-Astrid; Pasquet, Blandine; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Matheron, Sophie; Patrat, Catherine



Seminal Plasma and Semen Amyloids Enhance Cytomegalovirus Infection in Cell Culture  

PubMed Central

Among the modes of transmission available to the cytomegalovirus (CMV) is sexual transmission, primarily via semen. Both male-to-female (M-F) and male-to-male (M-M) sexual transmission significantly contribute toward the spread of CMV infections in the global population. Semen plays an important role in carrying the viral particle that invades the vaginal or rectal mucosa, thereby initiating viral replication. Both semen and seminal plasma (SP) can enhance HIV-1 infection in cell culture, and two amyloid fibrils, semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI) and amyloids derived from the semenogelins (SEM amyloids), have been identified as seminal factors sufficient to enhance HIV-1 infection (J. Munch et al., Cell 131:1059–1071, 2007; N. R. Roan et al., Cell Host Microbe 10:541–550, 2011; F. Arnold et al., J. Virol. 86:1244–1249, 2012). Whether SP, SEVI, or SEM amyloids can enhance other viral infections has not been extensively examined. In this study, we found that SP, SEVI, and SEM amyloids strongly enhance both human CMV (HCMV) and murine CMV infection in cell culture. SEVI and SEM amyloids increased infection rates by >10-fold, as determined by both flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Viral replication was increased by 50- to 100-fold. Moreover, viral growth curve assays showed that SP, SEVI, and SEM amyloids sped up the kinetics of CMV replication such that the virus reached its replicative peak more quickly. Finally, we discovered that SEM amyloids and SEVI counteracted the effect of anti-gH in protecting against CMV infection. Collectively, the data suggest that semen enhances CMV infection through interactions between semen amyloid fibrils and viral particles, and these interactions may prevent HCMV from being neutralized by anti-gH antibody. PMID:24027327

Roan, Nadia R.; Yamamura, Yasuhiro



Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of equine seminal plasma proteins and their relation with semen freezability.  


The objective was to evaluate protein profiles of equine seminal plasma using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and to determine whether any of these proteins were related to semen freezability. Seminal plasma was collected from 10 stallions, of high and low semen freezability, housed at the State Stud of Lower Saxony, and routinely used in AI programs. Twenty-five protein spots were identified from the two-dimensional gel (12%), seven of which were present in all samples (all proteins were identified by MALDI-MS). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has been used to generate ion images of samples in one or more mass-to-charge (m/z) values, providing the capability of mapping specific molecules to two-dimensional coordinates of the original sample. Of the 25 proteins identified, two spots had greater relative content (P < 0.05) in seminal plasma samples collected from stallions with high semen freezability: spot 5 (80-85 kDa, isoelectric point [pI] 7.54), identified as CRISP-3; and spot 45 (18.2 kDa, pI 5.0-5.2), identified as HSP-2. Conversely, protein content was greater (P < 0.05) in seminal plasma samples from stallions with low semen freezability: spot 7 (75.4 kDa, pI 6.9-7.4), identified as lactoferrin; spot 15 (26.7 kDa, pI 5.51), identified as kallikrein; spot 25 (25 kDa, pI 7.54), identified as CRISP-3; and spot 35 (13.9 kDa, pI 3.8-4.2), identified as HSP-1. In conclusion, there were differences in the seminal plasma protein profile from stallions with high and low semen freezability. Furthermore, CRISP-3 and HSP-2 were potential seminal plasma markers of high semen freezability. PMID:21601917

Jobim, M I M; Trein, C; Zirkler, H; Gregory, R M; Sieme, H; Mattos, R C



CCR5 expression is elevated in cervical cancer cells and is up-regulated by seminal plasma.  


The interplay between inflammation, cervical cancer and HIV acquisition in women is poorly understood. We have previously shown that seminal plasma (SP) can promote cervical tumour cell growth in vitro and in vivo via the activation of potent inflammatory pathways. In this study, we investigated whether SP could regulate expression of chemokine receptors with known roles in HIV infection, in the cervix and in cervical cancer. The expression of CD4 and CCR5 was investigated by RT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry. CD4 and CCR5 expression was elevated in cervical cancer tissue compared with normal cervix. Ex vivo studies conducted on cervical tissues and HeLa cells showed that SP significantly increases the expression of CD4 and CCR5 transcripts. Furthermore, it was found that SP also up-regulates CCR5 protein in HeLa cells. The regulation of CCR5 expression was investigated following treatment of HeLa cells with SP in the presence/absence of chemical inhibitors of intracellular signalling, EP2 and EP4 antagonists, prostaglandin (PG) E2 and a cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 doxycycline-inducible expression system. These experiments demonstrated that the regulation of CCR5 expression by SP occurs via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-COX-1-PGE2 pathway. This study provides a link between activation of inflammatory pathways and regulation of HIV receptor expression in cervical cancer cells. PMID:25103627

Sales, Kurt J; Adefuye, Anthonio; Nicholson, Lauren; Katz, Arieh A



Relevance of seminal plasma nitric oxide levels and the efficacy of SSRI treatment on lifelong premature ejaculation.  


The aim of this study was to determine the relevance of seminal plasma nitric oxide (NO) levels and the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment on premature ejaculation. A total of 16 men (aged 32.18 ± 3.32) with lifelong premature ejaculation [intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) <1 min] and 11 healthy men (control group) were included in this study. The healthy men formed Group 1, and the patients were randomly categorised into two groups. Group 2 patients received 20 mg day(-1) of paroxetine, and Group 3 patients received 50 mg day(-1) of sertraline for 4 weeks. Baseline and post-treatment findings were compared among the three groups. Mean baseline seminal NO levels in men with premature ejaculation were significantly higher than in the healthy control group (32.24 ± 5.61 ?m l(-1) versus 19.71 ± 3.50 ?m l(-1) , respectively) (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the sertraline and paroxetine groups in terms of IIEF scores, IELT scores and NO levels. At the end of the first month, the mean IELT scores of the paroxetine and sertraline groups showed a significant improvement compared with the baseline values (P < 0.001). After treatment with paroxetine and sertraline, NO levels dec-reased from baseline. Our study indicates that premature ejaculation is significantly related with a higher level of seminal NO. Baseline seminal plasma NO values obtained in patients with premature ejaculation were significantly higher than in the healthy control group. After treatment with SSRIs, decreased seminal NO may retard ejaculation. Further studies are needed to confirm this suggestion and the role of NO in the pathophysiology and treatment of premature ejaculation. PMID:24354496

Kirecci, S L; Simsek, A; Yuksel, A; Gurdal, H; Gurbuz, Z G; Usanmaz, S



Seminal plasma of brown trout, Salmo trutta fario (L.) contains a factor able to retain iron at acid pH, typical feature of lactoferrin.  


Blood and seminal plasma of brown trout Salmo trutta fario were analyzed for their iron binding potential adopting two different methods. Seminal plasma showed an iron binding capacity that was retained even if samples were exposed at acid pH, similarly to mammalian lactoferrin that binds ferric iron also at acid pH. This suggests that the iron binding capacity is determined by a factor having a lactoferrin-like activity. Moreover, trout seminal plasma proteins were also analyzed in their pattern by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel elecrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and electroblotted onto nitrocellulose membrane. When seminal plasma was subjected to immunoblotting using goat anti-bovine lactoferrin antibodies as a probe, only a single band having an apparent molecular weight of around 80 kDa was specifically detected, showing that this protein has homology with bovine lactoferrin. PMID:20170734

Cecchini, Stefano; Caputo, Anna R



The primary structure of BSP30K, a major lipid-, gelatin-, and heparin-binding glycoprotein of bovine seminal plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BSP-30K is a major acidic glycoprotein of bovine seminal plasma. It displays heparin-, gelatin-, and phospholipid-binding activities. BSP-30K binds to spermatozoa upon ejaculation and is thought to play a role in sperm capacitation. We have determined its amino acid sequence, disulfide bonds, and O-glycosylation sites. BSP-30K consists of 158 amino acids arranged in a mosaic structure. BSP-30K has a unique

Juan J. Calvete; Karlheinz Mann; Libia Sanz; Manfred Raida; Edda Töpfer-Petersen



Tumor biomarker glycoproteins in the seminal plasma of healthy human males are endogenous ligands for DC-SIGN.  


DC-SIGN is an immune C-type lectin that is expressed on both immature and mature dendritic cells associated with peripheral and lymphoid tissues in humans. It is a pattern recognition receptor that binds to several pathogens including HIV-1, Ebola virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Candida albicans, Helicobacter pylori, and Schistosoma mansoni. Evidence is now mounting that DC-SIGN also recognizes endogenous glycoproteins, and that such interactions play a major role in maintaining immune homeostasis in humans and mice. Autoantigens (neoantigens) are produced for the first time in the human testes and other organs of the male urogenital tract under androgenic stimulus during puberty. Such antigens trigger autoimmune orchitis if the immune response is not tightly regulated within this system. Endogenous ligands for DC-SIGN could play a role in modulating such responses. Human seminal plasma glycoproteins express a high level of terminal Lewis(x) and Lewis(y) carbohydrate antigens. These epitopes react specifically with the lectin domains of DC-SIGN. However, because the expression of these sequences is necessary but not sufficient for interaction with DC-SIGN, this study was undertaken to determine if any seminal plasma glycoproteins are also endogenous ligands for DC-SIGN. Glycoproteins bearing terminal Lewis(x) and Lewis(y) sequences were initially isolated by lectin affinity chromatography. Protein sequencing established that three tumor biomarker glycoproteins (clusterin, galectin-3 binding glycoprotein, prostatic acid phosphatase) and protein C inhibitor were purified by using this affinity method. The binding of DC-SIGN to these seminal plasma glycoproteins was demonstrated in both Western blot and immunoprecipitation studies. These findings have confirmed that human seminal plasma contains endogenous glycoprotein ligands for DC-SIGN that could play a role in maintaining immune homeostasis both in the male urogenital tract and the vagina after coitus. PMID:21986992

Clark, Gary F; Grassi, Paola; Pang, Poh-Choo; Panico, Maria; Lafrenz, David; Drobnis, Erma Z; Baldwin, Michael R; Morris, Howard R; Haslam, Stuart M; Schedin-Weiss, Sophia; Sun, Wei; Dell, Anne



Cloning and seasonal secretion of the pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 present in goat seminal plasma.  


The storage of frozen semen for artificial insemination is usually performed in the presence of egg yolk or skimmed milk as protective agents. In goats, the use of skimmed milk extenders requires, however, that most of the seminal plasma is removed before dilution of spermatozoa because it is deleterious for their survival. It has been previously demonstrated that a lipase (BUSgp60) secreted by the accessory bulbourethral gland was responsible for the cellular death of goat spermatozoa, through the lipolysis of residual milk lipids and the release of toxic free fatty acids. This lipase was purified from the whole seminal plasma of goat and was found to display both lipase and phospholipase A activities, this latter activity representing the main phospholipase activity detected in goat seminal plasma. Based on its N-terminal amino acid sequence, identical to that of BUSgP60 purified from bulbourethral gland secretion, and the design of degenerated oligonucleotides, the lipase was cloned from total mRNA isolated from bulbourethral gland. DNA sequencing confirmed it was the goat pancreatic-lipase-related protein 2 (GoPLRP2). The physiological role of GoPLRP2 is still unknown but this enzyme might be associated with the reproductive activity of goats. A significant increase in lipase secretion was observed every year in August and the level of lipase activity in the semen remained high till December, i.e., during the breeding season. A parallel increase in the plasmatic levels of testosterone suggested that GoPLRP2 expression might be regulated by sexual hormones. The lipase activity level measured in goat seminal plasma, which could reach 1000 U/ml during the breeding season, was one of the highest lipase activity measured in natural sources, including gastric and pancreatic juices. PMID:15629686

Sias, Barbara; Ferrato, Francine; Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa; Forgerit, Yvonick; Guillouet, Philippe; Leboeuf, Bernard; Carrière, Frédéric



Protection of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) spermatozoa motility under oxidative stress by antioxidants and seminal plasma.  


The protective influence of seminal plasma and the antioxidants catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GTH) on quality parameters, oxidative stress indices, and antioxidant activity was studied in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) spermatozoa exposed to the xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO) system. Fish spermatozoa were incubated for 5 and 20 min at 4 °C with X-XO concentrations of 1 mM X-0.1 U/mL, 0.6 mM X-0.05 U/mL, 0.3 mM X-0.025 U/mL, and 0.1 mM X-0.0125 U/mL. A dose-dependent reduction in spermatozoa motility and velocity was observed at concentrations of 0.1 mM X-0.0125 U/mL to 1 mM X-0.1 U/mL XO. Increase in spermatozoa motility parameters was recorded following treatment with antioxidants and seminal plasma. The level of the oxidative stress indices lipid peroxidation (LPO) and carbonyl derivatives of proteins (CP) was significantly reduced after addition of CAT, SOD, or GTH along with seminal plasma. Significant differences in SOD, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity were seen in spermatozoa incubated with, compared to that without, seminal plasma at all studied X-XO concentrations. The data demonstrated that CAT, SOD, or GTH in combination with SP can reduce reactive oxygen species stress in fish spermatozoa and improve spermatozoa quality. PMID:25079247

Shaliutina-Kolešová, A; Gazo, I; Cosson, J; Linhart, O



Seminal plasma induces mRNA expression of IL-1beta, IL-6 and LIF in endometrial epithelial cells in vitro.  


The influence of seminal plasma on the mRNA expression of cytokines in human endometrial epithelial and stromal cells and the cytokine production of spermatozoa were investigated in vitro. Seminal plasma and spermatozoa were collected from healthy volunteers and were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for cytokines. Epithelial and stromal cells from fertile women were cultured on matrigel or polystyrol and incubated with pooled seminal plasma or with transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), interleukin 8 (IL-8) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which were found to be significantly concentrated in seminal plasma. Endometrial cytokine expression was analysed by RNase protection assay and supported by RT-PCR. Supernatants of highly purified spermatozoa did not contain detectable levels of IL-1beta, IL-6 and VEGF. Screening of seminal plasma revealed concentrations >10-fold above the serum level for TGF-beta1, IL-8 and VEGF. Incubation of epithelial cells with 0.1, 1 and 10% seminal plasma resulted in concentration-dependant stimulation of IL-1beta, IL-6 and LIF mRNA expression. Maximum stimulation was found in epithelial cells from tissue samples taken in the mid secretory phase. Epithelial mRNA expression of IL-1beta, IL-6 and LIF increased by stimulation with TGF-beta1 and IL-8, but not with VEGF. In conclusion, seminal plasma stimulates expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in endometrial epithelial cells in vitro. This effect might at least in part be exerted by TGF-beta1 and IL-8, abundantly present in seminal plasma. The in-vivo physiological relevance of these in-vitro studies remains to be determined. PMID:14614040

Gutsche, S; von Wolff, M; Strowitzki, T; Thaler, C J



The lipopolysaccharide co-receptor CD14 is present and functional in seminal plasma and expressed on spermatozoa  

PubMed Central

CD14 is a 54 000-molecular weight (MW) glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoprotein, expressed on myeloid cells, which functions as a member of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor complex. Soluble forms of CD14 have been reported in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, amniotic fluid and breast milk. In plasma and breast milk, soluble CD14 has been implicated as a regulator of T- and B-cell activation and function. Expression of CD14 in the male reproductive system has not previously been investigated. We here show that soluble CD14 is present in seminal plasma at levels comparable to those in serum. Spermatozoa expressed CD14 on their membranes, as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Post-vasectomy, the levels of seminal plasma CD14 (spCD14) were much reduced, implying an origin distal to the point of transection of the vas deferens. Ultracentrifugation analyses demonstrated that spCD14 was not associated with lipid complexes, indicating that it lacks the glycolipid anchor. Purified spCD14 mediated activation by LPS of CD14-negative cells. These findings suggest that CD14 may play a hitherto unexplored role in immune defence and cell activation in the male reproductive tract. PMID:11722646

Harris, Claire L; Vigar, Miriam A; Rey Nores, Julia E; Horejsi, Vaclav; Labeta, Mario O; Morgan, B Paul



Isolation and characterization of heparin and gelatin binding buffalo seminal plasma proteins and their effect on cauda epididymal spermatozoa.  


Seventy semen ejaculates were obtained from 14 Murrah buffalo bulls and were subjected to plasma separation immediately after collection by centrifugation at 2000 rpm for 20 min and stored in liquid nitrogen until analysis. In the seminal plasma the total protein concentration were estimated and the heparin and gelatin binding (HB and GB) proteins were isolated using heparin and gelatin affinity column chromatography. The molecular weight of individual isolated HB and GB protein was determined by SDS-PAGE analysis. Buffalo bull spermatozoa was collected from cauda epididymis under aseptic conditions and was used for the in vitro fertility tests (i.e. bovine cervical mucus penetration test (BCMPT) and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST)). The heparin and gelatin binding buffalo seminal plasma proteins were used in six concentrations i.e. 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 microg/ml to test their effect on in vitro fertility assessment of cauda epididymal spermatozoa. The overall mean values of total protein, HB and GB proteins were recorded as 29+/-2.7, 2.61 and 0.2mg/ml, respectively. Eighteen total protein bands were observed in the range of 12-127 kDa. Eight major HB proteins were isolated in the range of 13-71 kDa. Seven major GB proteins were isolated in the range of 13-61 kDa in the buffalo seminal plasma. The mean penetration distance (mm) travelled by the buffalo cauda spermatozoa was maximum in HB proteins (26.9+/-0.6) followed by GB proteins (25.4+/-0.6) and control (21.2+/-1.4). The difference in BCMPT values between protein treated and control group was significant (P<0.05). Almost similar trend in the effect of protein on values of HOST percentage in both HB and GB proteins treated semen samples were recorded (66.4+/-0.65 and 66.1+/-0.6, respectively). The difference in HOST values between proteins treated and control group (50.4+/-2.0) was significant (P<0.05). The present results indicate that among the isolated proteins, 4 proteins were commonly seen in both the heparin and gelatin-sepharose affinity column chromatography, and the addition of buffalo seminal plasma proteins improved the in vitro sperm functions (40 microg/ml gave best results) of buffalo cauda spermatozoa. PMID:16260100

Arangasamy, A; Singh, L P; Ahmed, N; Ansari, M R; Ram, G C



Seasonal variations in seminal plasma and sperm characteristics of wild-caught and cultivated Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.  


The objective was to investigate changes, throughout the spawning season, in body size attributes and quantitative semen characteristics of wild-caught and cultivated Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. Sperm velocity increased significantly throughout the spawning season of cod from both origins. Curvilinear velocity (VCL; 30 sec post-activation) increased from 78.9+/-6.5 to 128.2+/-6.5 microm/sec (mean+/-SEM) between the beginning and end of the spawning season, respectively, for wild-caught cod, whereas for cultivated fish, it increased from 26.6+/-2.4 to 48.9+/-3.1 microm/sec between January and March. Spermatocrit did not undergo a significant seasonal change in wild-caught cod but did thicken for cultivated cod (24.6+/-4.2% in January to 40.5+/-4.4% in April; P<0.01). Sperm head area, perimeter, length, and width declined significantly at the end of the spawning season of cod from both origins (all P values<0.01). Seminal plasma osmolality and Na(+) ion concentration followed a dome-shaped function through the spawning season for both wild-caught and cultivated cod (P<0.05). For cultivated cod, seminal plasma pH was significantly lower at the start of the spawning season (P<0.001), whereas Ca(2+) increased then decreased (P<0.05). Body size attributes, spermatocrit, and seminal plasma constituents had significant relationships with sperm activity variables. These relationships varied as a function of time post-activation, month, and fish origin. Our findings may be used to (i) assess spermiation stage without killing males; (ii) optimize semen collection for hatchery production; (iii) characterize the potential impact of farming on sperm quality; and (iv) improve success of sperm cryopreservation and short-term storage. PMID:20047755

Butts, I A E; Litvak, M K; Trippel, E A



Lysozyme activities and immunoglobulin concentrations in seminal plasma and spermatozoa of different teleost species and indications on its significance for sperm function.  


The occurrence of lysozyme and immunoglobulin (Ig) in semen of different teleost species (brown trout-Salmo trutta, perch-Perca fluviatilis, burbot-Lota lota) was studied. In all investigated species lysozyme activities (1.13-1.45 U ml(-1)) and Ig concentrations (T-Ig: 1.11-1.61 microg ml(-1), IgG [measured only in brown trout]: 1.49 microg ml(-1)) were detected in seminal plasma. Ig was also found in spermatozoa (T-Ig: 0.234-0.357 microg/g protein, IgG: 0.198 microg ml(-1)) while spermatozoal lysozyme activities were low and fluctuating (0.093-0.164 U/g protein). In Salmo trutta lysozyme activities and immunoglobulin levels were compared between semen samples with high and low sperm motility as motility is an indicator for sperm fertility. Lysozyme activities were higher in seminal plasma of samples with high motility than in those with low motility while seminal plasma and spermatozoal immunoglobulin concentrations (T-Ig, IgG) were increased in samples with low motility in comparison to samples with high motility. Seminal plasma and spermatozoal IgG concentrations and seminal plasma lysozyme activities showed significant correlations with the sperm motility rate and swimming velocity. Moreover, lysozyme improved the viability of spermatozoa in in vitro experiments. Possible physiological meanings of these results are discussed. PMID:20416943

Lahnsteiner, F; Radner, M



Isothermal Titration Calorimetric Studies on the Interaction of the Major Bovine Seminal Plasma Protein, PDC-109 with Phospholipid Membranes  

PubMed Central

The interaction of the major bovine seminal plasma protein, PDC-109 with lipid membranes was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Binding of the protein to model membranes made up of diacyl phospholipids was found to be endothermic, with positive values of binding enthalpy and entropy, and could be analyzed in terms of a single type of binding sites on the protein. Enthalpies and entropies for binding to diacylphosphatidylcholine membranes increased with increase in temperature, although a clear-cut linear dependence was not observed. The entropically driven binding process indicates that hydrophobic interactions play a major role in the overall binding process. Binding of PDC-109 with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine membranes containing 25 mol% cholesterol showed an initial increase in the association constant as well as enthalpy and entropy of binding with increase in temperature, whereas the values decreased with further increase in temperature. The affinity of PDC-109 for phosphatidylcholine increased at higher pH, which is physiologically relevant in view of the basic nature of the seminal plasma. Binding of PDC-109 to Lyso-PC could be best analysed in terms of two types of binding interactions, a high affinity interaction with Lyso-PC micelles and a low-affinity interaction with the monomeric lipid. Enthalpy-entropy compensation was observed for the interaction of PDC-109 with phospholipid membranes, suggesting that water structure plays an important role in the binding process. PMID:22022488

Anbazhagan, V.; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Swamy, Musti J.



Cadmium Concentrations in Blood and Seminal Plasma: Correlations with Sperm Number and Motility in Three Male Populations (Infertility Patients, Artificial Insemination Donors, and Unselected Volunteers)  

PubMed Central

To investigate a possible common environmental exposure that may partially explain the observed decrease in human semen quality, we correlated seminal plasma and blood cadmium levels with sperm concentration and sperm motility. We studied three separate human populations: group 1, infertility patients (Long Island, NY, USA); group 2, artificial insemination donors (AID) (Rochester, NY, USA); and group 3, general population volunteers (Rochester, NY, USA). Information about confounding factors was collected by questionnaire. Seminal plasma cadmium did not correlate with blood cadmium (Spearman correlation, n = 91, r = ?0.092, P = 0.386, NS). Both blood and seminal plasma cadmium were significantly higher among infertility patients than the other subjects studied (for example, median seminal plasma cadmium was 0.282 ?g/L in infertility patients versus 0.091 ?g/L in AID and 0.092 ?g/L in general population volunteers; Kruskal–Wallis test, P < 0.001). The percentage of motile sperm and sperm concentration correlated inversely with seminal plasma cadmium among the infertility patients (r = ?0.201, P < 0.036 and r = ?0.189, P < 0.05, respectively), but not in the other two groups. Age (among infertility patients) was the only positive confounder correlating with seminal plasma cadmium. To validate our human findings in an animal model, we chronically exposed adolescent male Wistar rats to low-moderate cadmium in drinking water. Though otherwise healthy, the rats exhibited decreases in epididymal sperm count and sperm motility associated with cadmium dose and time of exposure. Our human and rat study results are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental cadmium exposures may contribute significantly to reduced human male sperm concentration and sperm motility. PMID:19593409

Benoff, Susan; Hauser, Russ; Marmar, Joel L; Hurley, Ian R; Napolitano, Barbara; Centola, Grace M



Effect of Post-Thaw Addition of Seminal Plasma on Motility, Viability and Chromatin Integrity of Cryopreserved Donkey Jack (Equus asinus) Spermatozoa.  


Pregnancy rates in donkeys after artificial insemination with cryopreserved semen are still low, compared to the horse species. Addition of autologous seminal plasma to frozen-thawed semen appeared to improve pregnancy rates. The aims of this study were to evaluate (1) sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity after thawing (T0) and after one and 2 h (T1 and T2) of post-thaw incubation in either 0% (SP0) or 70% (SP70) autologous seminal plasma and (2) sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and DNA quality (%COMP-?t) after thawing (T0) and after 2 and 4 h (T2 and T4) of post-thaw incubation in either 0% (SP0), 5% (SP5) or 20% (SP20) homologous seminal plasma. In experiment 1, seminal plasma decreased total and progressive sperm motility and plasma membrane intact spermatozoa immediately after dilution and at all following time points (p < 0.05). In experiment 2, total and progressive motility did not differ between treatments immediately after dilution and between SP0 and SP5 at T2, while they were lower in both SP5 and SP20 than in SP0 at T4. Plasma membrane intact sperm cells did not differ between SP0 and SP5 and were lower in SP20 at all time points. DNA quality was not affected by treatment immediately after dilution and was significantly worse for SP20 after 4 h of incubation (p < 0.05). The post-thaw addition of seminal plasma at the tested concentrations did not improve donkey frozen semen characteristics in vitro over time. PMID:25256158

Sabatini, C; Mari, G; Mislei, B; Love, Cc; Panzani, D; Camillo, F; Rota, A



Short-term effect of dietary selenium-enriched yeast on semen parameters, antioxidant status and Se concentration in goat seminal plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of dietary selenium (Se)-enriched yeast on semen parameters in goat during the breeding season. Also, the antioxidant status and Se content in seminal plasma was investigated. A total of 72 adult Taihang black goats of proven fertility were randomly assigned to four treatment groups. They were fed the basal

Lei Shi; Chunxiang Zhang; Wenbin Yue; Liguang Shi; Xiaomin Zhu; Fulin Lei



Relationship between seminal plasma zinc concentration and spermatozoa-zona pellucida binding and the ZP-induced acrosome reaction in subfertile men  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between seminal zinc concentration and spermatozoa–zona pellucida (ZP) binding and the ZP-induced acrosome reaction (ZPIAR) in subfertile men. Semen analyses and seminal zinc concentration assessments were carried out according to the World Health Organization manual for 458 subfertile men. A spermatozoa–ZP interaction test was carried out by incubating 2 × 106 motile spermatozoa with a group of four unfertilized oocytes obtained from a clinical in vitro fertilization programme. After 2 h of incubation, the number of spermatozoa bound per ZP and the ZPIAR of ZP-bound spermatozoa were examined. The effect of adding 0.5 mmol L?1 zinc to the media on the ZPIAR of spermatozoa from normozoospermic men was also tested in vitro. Seminal zinc concentration positively correlated with sperm count and duration of abstinence, but negatively correlated with semen volume. On analysis of data from all participants, both spermatozoa–ZP binding and the ZPIAR were significantly correlated with sperm motility and normal morphology, but not with seminal zinc concentration. However, in men with normozoospermic semen, the seminal zinc concentration was significantly higher in men with defective ZPIAR (< 16%) than in those with normal ZPIAR (? 16%) (P < 0.01). The addition of 0.5 mmol L?1 zinc to the culture media had no effect on spermatozoa–ZP binding, but significantly reduced the ZPIAR in vitro (P < 0.001). In conclusion, seminal zinc concentration is correlated with sperm count and the duration of abstinence in subfertile men. In men with normozoospermic semen, high seminal zinc concentration may have an adverse effect on the ZPIAR. PMID:19434054

Liu, De-Yi; Sie, Boon-Shih; Liu, Ming-Li; Agresta, Franca; Baker, HW Gordon



Expression, purification and structural analysis of recombinant rBdh-2His?, a spermadhesin from buck (Capra hircus) seminal plasma.  


Spermadhesins, a family of secretory proteins from the male genital tract of ungulate species, belong to the group of animal lectins. Spermadhesins have a prominent role in different aspects of fertilisation, such as spermatozoid capacitation, acrosomal stabilisation, sperm-oviduct interaction and during sperm-oocyte fusion. Proteins (spermadhesins) in buck seminal plasma were described. In the present study, bodhesin Bdh-2 cDNA present in buck seminal plasma was subcloned with the expression plasmid pTrcHis TOPO used to transform Escherichia coli Top10 One shot cells. The recombinant clones were selected by growth in 50 µg mL?¹ ampicillin-containing LB broth and polymerase chain reaction amplification. Recombinant rBdh-2His? synthesis was monitored by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and followed by immunoblotting using monoclonal anti-His antibody. Production of rBdh-2 using low temperatures was not satisfactory. Greater production of rBdh-2 occurred with 1.5mM isopropyl ?d-thiogalactoside after 2h of induction. The method used to purify rBdh-2 was affinity chromatography on a His-Trap column following ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-Sephacel column. The secondary structure of the rBdh-2His? was evaluated by spectral profile circular dichroism (CD). The prevalence of secondary structures like ?-sheets, with fewer unfolded structures and ?-helices, was confirmed. The structure of rBdh-2His? remained stable up to 35°C. However, significant structural changes were observed at temperatures higher than 40 °C related to a distortion of the CD spectrum. PMID:22541546

Nascimento, Antônia Sâmia F; Cajazeiras, João B; Nascimento, Kyria S; Nogueira, Sara Monalisa S; Sousa, Bruno L; Teixeira, Edson H; Melo, Luciana M; da Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape S; Silva, André Luiz C; Cavada, Benildo S



Exposure to the seminal plasma of different portions of the boar ejaculate modulates the survival of spermatozoa cryopreserved in MiniFlatPacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spermatozoa present in the first collectable 10mL of the sperm-rich fraction (SRF) of the boar ejaculate (portion 1, P1) have higher documented viability during and after cryopreservation than spermatozoa in the rest of the ejaculate (portion 2, P2), probably in relation to different features of the surrounding seminal plasma (SP). In the present study, we investigated whether the SP from

F. Saravia; M. Wallgren; A. Johannisson; J. J. Calvete; L. Sanz; F. J. Peña; J. Roca; H. Rodríguez-Martínez



Sodium bicarbonate in seminal plasma stimulates the motility of mammalian spermatozoa through direct activation of adenylate cyclase.  


Recently, a low molecular weight factor, which specifically stimulates sperm adenylate cyclase, was found in porcine seminal plasma (Okamura, N., and Sugita, Y. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 13056-13062). The purified factor was analyzed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, infrared spectroscopy, and elementary analysis and identified as sodium bicarbonate. The effects of sodium bicarbonate both on adenylate cyclase activity in porcine spermatozoa and on sperm motility have been studied. Sperm adenylate cyclase was found to be specifically activated by bicarbonate over the physiological concentration range. In contrast, the adenylate cyclase activity in other tissues was not affected. The same concentration range of bicarbonate which resulted in activation of adenylate cyclase also stimulated sperm motility. The motility and enzyme activity of spermatozoa in all species so far tested (human, bovine, rat, mouse, and dog) were found to be similarly sensitive to bicarbonate concentration. These results show that the bicarbonate-sensitive adenylate cyclase system regulates sperm motility and suggest that this system is common to all mammals. PMID:2991260

Okamura, N; Tajima, Y; Soejima, A; Masuda, H; Sugita, Y



Characterisation of the conformational and quaternary structure-dependent heparin-binding region of bovine seminal plasma protein PDC-109.  


PDC-109, the major heparin-binding protein of bull seminal plasma, binds to sperm choline lipids at ejaculation and modulates capacitation mediated by heparin. Affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose showed that polydisperse, but not monomeric, PDC-109 displayed heparin-binding capability. We sought to characterise the surface topology of the quaternary structure-dependent heparin-binding region of PDC-109 by comparing the arginine- and lysine-selective chemical modification patterns of the free and the heparin-bound protein. A combination of reversed-phase peptide mapping of endoproteinase Lys-C-digested PDC-109 derivatives and mass spectrometry was employed to identify modified and heparin-protected residues. PDC-109 contains two tandemly arranged fibronectin type II domains (a, Cys24-Cys61; b, Cys69-Cys109). The results show that six basic residues (Lys34, Arg57, Lys59, Arg64, Lys68, and Arg104) were shielded from reaction with acetic anhydride and 1,2-cyclohexanedione in heparin-bound PDC-109 oligomers. In the 1H-NMR solution structures of single fibronectin type II domains, residues topologically equivalent to PDC-109 Arg57 (Arg104) and Lys59 lay around beta-strand D on the same face of the domain. In full-length PDC-109, Arg64 and Lys68 are both located in the intervening polypeptide between domains a and b. Our data suggest possible quaternary structure arrangements of PDC-109 molecules to form a heparin-binding oligomer. PMID:10050771

Calvete, J J; Campanero-Rhodes, M A; Raida, M; Sanz, L



Cock seminal plasma acid phosphatase: active site directed inactivation, crystallization and in vitro denaturation-renaturation studies.  


1. Seminal plasma acid phosphatase from the mini Rock cocks was purified on a Sepharose 6B column and was not homogeneous on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate. Its stability in time was also determined. 2. In the same time, the enzyme was crystallized in both ethanol and ammonium sulfate and this is also an evidence that this acid phosphatase was obtained in an advanced grade of purification but is present in a complex with some quantities of other proteins. 3. It was inactivated by iodoacetate to a degree consistent with the modification of an active site residue. DTNB and thiosulfate also inhibited this enzyme. 4. The enzyme was sensitive to 6 M guanidinum hydrochloride which in the presence and absence of 0.25 M mercaptoethanol produces a deep loss of activity. After dialysis the activity was increased during the first 10 days up to 66.2% of the initial one. 5. In the presence of molar concentration of mercaptoethanol, the enzyme activity is deeply decreased, but it is partially restored after 120 hr when 1 microM CuCl2 is added. PMID:8013734

Dumitru, I F; Dinischiotu, A



Assay of total glutathione and glutathione disulphide in seminal plasma of male partners of couples presenting for a fertility evaluation.  


A method is described here for the determination of total glutathione (TGSH) and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) in the seminal plasma of the male partners of couples requesting a fertility evaluation. A suitable sample preparation procedure prior to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis is discussed. After adequate sample preparation, the samples were derivatised with ortho-phthaldialdehyde to form a stable, highly fluorescent tricyclic derivative. Reversed-phase column chromatography was used for the separation, and the effluent was monitored with a fluorescence detector at an excitation wavelength of 350 nm and an emission wavelength of 420 nm. The analytical performance of this method was satisfactory. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%. The recoveries were as follows: 94.1% (CV 2.3%) for TGSH and 93.2% (CV 4.0%) for GSSG. No significant differences were found in either TGSH or GSSG concentration between the smokers and nonsmokers (2.07 ± 1.28 ?m versus 1.56 ± 1.20 ?m, P = 0.431 and 95 ± 56 nm versus 112 ± 138 nm, P = 0.825). PMID:24124871

Kan?ár, R; Hájková, N



Boar sperm cryosurvival is better after exposure to seminal plasma from selected fractions than to those from entire ejaculate.  


Boar bulk ejaculates are now being collected instead of usual sperm-rich fractions (SRF) for artificial insemination purpose. The present study evaluated the influence of holding boar sperm samples before freezing surrounded in their own seminal plasma (SP), from either fractions/portions or the entire ejaculate, on post-thawing sperm quality and functionality. Ejaculates collected as bulk (BE) or as separate (first 10mL of SRF [P1] and rest of SRF [P2]) from 10 boars were held 24h at 15-17°C and then frozen. Some bulk ejaculate samples were frozen immediately after collections as Control. In addition, epididymal sperm samples from the same 10 boars were collected post-mortem and extended in SP from P1 (EP1), P2 (EP2) and post SRF (EP3), and also held 24h before freezing for a better understanding of the influence of SP on boar sperm cryopreservation. The sperm quality (motility, evaluated by CASA, and viability, evaluated by flow cytometry) and functionality (flow cytometry assessment of plasma membrane fluidity, mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species [ROS] in viable sperm) were evaluated at 30, 150 and 300min post-thaw. Post-thawing sperm quality and functionality of P1 and P2 were similar but higher (p<0.01) than BE samples. Control samples showed higher (p<0.01) post-thaw sperm quality and functionality than BE samples. Post-thawing sperm quality and functionality of EP1 and EP2 were similar but higher (p<0.05) than EP3. These results showed that boar sperm from BE are more cryosensitive than those from the SRF, particularly when held 24h before freezing, which would be attributable to the cryonegative effects exerted by the SP from post SRF. PMID:25037026

Alkmin, Diego V; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Barranco, Isabel; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi



The effects of honey supplementation on seminal plasma cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidants during 8 weeks of intensive cycling training.  


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of natural honey supplementation on seminal plasma cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidants during 8 weeks of intensive cycling training in male road cyclists. Thirty-nine healthy nonprofessional male road cyclists aged 18-28 years participated in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to exercise + supplement (E + S, n = 20) and exercise (E, n = 19) groups. All subjects participated in 8 weeks of intensive cycling training. Ninety minutes before each training session, subjects in the E + S group supplemented with 70 g of honey, whereas subjects in the E group received 70 g of an artificial sweetener. All subjects had an initial semen sampling at baseline (T(1)). The next 6 semen collections were collected immediately (T(2)) and 12 (T(3)) and 24 hours (T(4)) after the last training session in week 4, as well as immediately (T(5)) and 12 (T(6)) and 24 hours (T(7)) after the last training session in week 8, respectively. In the E group, 8 weeks of intensive cycling training significantly increased seminal interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (P < .008) and significantly decreased the levels of seminal superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (P < .008). Significantly less elevation in seminal IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, ROS, and MDA levels (P < .008) and significant increases in seminal SOD, catalase, and TAC concentrations were observed after the honey supplementation in the E + S group (P < .008). It may be possible that honey supplementation following long-term intensive cycling training would be effective in attenuating the probable aggravating effects of intensive cycling training on spermatogenesis and fertility capacity in road cyclists. PMID:21636735

Tartibian, Bakhtyar; Maleki, Behzad Hajizadeh



The percentage of spermatozoa lost during the centrifugation of brown bear (Ursus arctos) ejaculates is associated with some spermatozoa quality and seminal plasma characteristics.  


Cryopreservation of brown bear (Ursus arctos) semen requires centrifugation to increase concentration and/or remove urine contamination. However, a percentage of the spermatozoa are lost in the process. This percentage varies considerably between males and ejaculates, and we have studied the effect of sperm quality and seminal plasma characteristics on the spermatozoa recovery rate after centrifugation. One hundred and thirty one sperm samples obtained from fifteen brown bear males by electroejaculation under general anaesthesia were used. The ejaculates were centrifuged 600 × g for 6 min. Motility was assessed by CASA, and acrosomal status (PNA-FITC) and viability (SYBR-14/propidium iodide) were determined by flow cytometry. Seminal plasma characteristics (albumin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, cholesterol, creatine, glucose, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), lactate, lipase, magnesium, phosphate and total protein) were determined by a biochemical and gas analysis. Total motility (r = 0.26; P=0.005) and cell viability (r = 0.20; P = 0.033) were positively correlated with the percentage of recovered spermatozoa. Sperm recovery was correlated with the concentration of several components of seminal plasma: negatively with glucose concentration (r = -0.47; P = 0.005) and positively with the enzymes GOT (r = 0.36; P = 0.040) and lactate dehydrogenase (r = 0.36; P = 0.041). After sorting the data into classes according to sperm recovery (Low: 0-39, Medium: 40-69, High: 70-100), we observed that the samples with a lower recovery rate derived from ejaculates with lower values for TM, VAP and viability (P<0.05). Multiple regression analysis rendered two models to define the post-centrifugation spermatozoa recovery which included total motility and damaged acrosome or glucose, GOT and lactate dehydrogenase. We discuss these relationships and their implications in the electroejaculation procedure and the handling of the sample during centrifugation. PMID:23084761

Alvarez, M; Nicolas, M; Borragán, S; Lopez-Urueña, E; Anel-López, L; Martinez-Pastor, F; Tamayo-Canul, J; Anel, L; de Paz, P



Influence of seminal plasma, spermatozoa and semen extender on cytokine expression in the porcine endometrium after insemination.  


The effects of semen components or extender alone on the expression of selected cytokines [interleukine (IL)-1?, IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1] on the porcine endometrium were studied, as well as the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs). In experiment (Exp) I, groups of gilts were sampled at 5-6h after insemination with fresh semen in extender (Beltsville thawing solution, BTS), spermatozoa in extender (Spz), seminal plasma (SP), or only BTS (control). In Exp II, gilts were sampled 35-40h after insemination with Spz, SP, BTS or only catheter inserted (as control). Immunohistochemical (IHC) labelling of IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-?1 was evident, especially in surface and glandular epithelia of the porcine endometrium. There were no consistent differences in IHC-labelling of the cytokines in relation to different treatments. However, the scores for IL-6 and IL-10 in surface epithelium and sub-epithelial connective tissue compartments were higher at 35-40h than shortly (5-6h) after treatment. Cytoplasmic labelling in the sub-epithelial connective tissue was observed in scattered individual cells but not in PMNs. Shortly (5-6h) after insemination, there were no differences between animals inseminated with BTS (control) and the semen components for any of the cytokine mRNAs. Later however, at 35-40h, lower endometrial expression of TGF-?1 mRNA was observed in the Spz and BTS groups compared with the control (catheter only). The same pattern was found for IL-10 (NS). The mRNA expression of IL-6 in the BTS inseminated group was higher compared to the control group. Insemination with SP resulted in significantly lower PMN cell infiltration in the sub-epithelial connective tissue compared with Spz or BTS groups shortly (5-6h) after insemination. Later (35-40h), a significant difference was found between SP (lower) and the control group (only catheter). To conclude, our results show that insemination and/or inseminated components modulated cytokine expression in the gilt endometrium. The semen extender BTS stimulated immune reactivity, as shown by down-regulation of the suppressive cytokine TGF-?1. Insemination with solely SP clearly decreased PMN cell infiltration of the gilt endometrium. However, no clear relation between the cytokines studied and PMN cell presence was found. PMID:21196090

Jiwakanon, J; Persson, E; Berg, M; Dalin, A-M



Maternal tract factors contribute to paternal seminal fluid impact on metabolic phenotype in offspring  

PubMed Central

Paternal characteristics and exposures influence physiology and disease risks in progeny, but the mechanisms are mostly unknown. Seminal fluid, which affects female reproductive tract gene expression as well as sperm survival and integrity, provides one potential pathway. We evaluated in mice the consequences for offspring of ablating the plasma fraction of seminal fluid by surgical excision of the seminal vesicle gland. Conception was substantially impaired and, when pregnancy did occur, placental hypertrophy was evident in late gestation. After birth, the growth trajectory and metabolic parameters of progeny were altered, most profoundly in males, which exhibited obesity, distorted metabolic hormones, reduced glucose tolerance, and hypertension. Altered offspring phenotype was partly attributable to sperm damage and partly to an effect of seminal fluid deficiency on the female tract, because increased adiposity was also evident in adult male progeny when normal two-cell embryos were transferred to females mated with seminal vesicle-excised males. Moreover, embryos developed in female tracts not exposed to seminal plasma were abnormal from the early cleavage stages, but culture in vitro partly alleviated this. Absence of seminal plasma was accompanied by down-regulation of the embryotrophic factors Lif, Csf2, Il6, and Egf and up-regulation of the apoptosis-inducing factor Trail in the oviduct. These findings show that paternal seminal fluid composition affects the growth and health of male offspring, and reveal that its impact on the periconception environment involves not only sperm protection but also indirect effects on preimplantation embryos via oviduct expression of embryotrophic cytokines. PMID:24469827

Bromfield, John J.; Schjenken, John E.; Chin, Peck Y.; Care, Alison S.; Jasper, Melinda J.; Robertson, Sarah A.



Method of modeling protein structure by the two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy data; application to the proteinase inhibitor BUSI IIA from bull seminal plasma.  


A new approach is suggested to model the spatial structure of protein molecules in solution based on combined use of the methods of theoretical conformational analysis and NMR spectroscopy data. At the first stage, special means are used to convert d connectivity information into the most probable values of dihedral angles. This allows search for possible spatial structures in the limited regions of the conformational space at further stages using the methods of the theoretical conformational analysis. The suggested approach was verified in reconstructing the spatial backbone structure of the fragment 17-57 of the proteinase inhibitor BUSI IIA from the bull seminal plasma. The structural model parameters are compared with the corresponding characteristics obtained from the X-ray analysis data for the homologic proteinase inhibitor from the Japanese quail ovomucoid. The suggested approach is shown to correctly reproduce both the general molecule topology and the conformations of individual amino acid residues. PMID:3271489

Sherman, S A; Andrianov, A M; Akhrem, A A



Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on semen profile and enzymatic anti-oxidant capacity of seminal plasma in infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratospermia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study.  


Effective medical treatments of infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratospermia (OAT) have yet to be determined. This study considered two major aims: (i) to measure the changes in semen parameters, omega-3 fatty acids (FA) compositions and anti-oxidant activity; (ii) to determine if the administration of omega-3 FA affect semen quality in infertile men with OAT. Two hundred thirty-eight infertile men with idiopathic OAT were randomised to eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), 1.84 g per day (EPAX 5500TG; Lysaker, Norway), or placebo for 32 weeks. The semen parameters were assessed according to WHO criteria, and the EPA and DHA concentrations were determined in red blood cells (RBCs), seminal plasma and sperm cells at baseline and 32-week treatment period. Of randomised subjects, 211 (88.7%) completed the full 32-week randomisation period. The anti-oxidant status of seminal plasma was also evaluated by measuring the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase-like activity. In the total group of participants, all EPA and DHA levels in RBC, and seminal plasma, were statistically significantly correlated with those in spermatozoa (both P = 0.001). A significant improvement of sperm cell total count (from 38.7 ± 8.7 ' 10? to 61.7 ± 11.2 ' 10?, P = 0.001) and sperm cell concentration (from 15.6 ± 4.1 ' 10? per ml to 28.7 ± 4.4 ' 10? per ml, P = 0.001) was observed in the omega-3 group. A significant positive correlation was found between the EPA and DHA in seminal plasma and the semen parameters. Seminal plasma EPA and DHA concentrations were positively correlated with seminal plasma SOD-like and catalase-like activity (both P = 0.001). In seminal plasma, both SOD-like and catalase-like activity were positively correlated with sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. Oligoasthenoteratospermic men with low levels of EPA and DHA may benefit from omega-3 FA supplementation. Further studies are warranted to shed more light on this important issue. PMID:21219381

Safarinejad, M R



LASER PLASMA: Interaction of laser plasmas upon optical breakdown in the normal atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma front propagation regimes and the spectral characteristics of plasma emission upon laser breakdown in the normal atmosphere are experimentally investigated. The molecular emission of atmospheric gases is recorded at the initial instants of the development of the laser plasma. The behaviour of the intensities of continuous and line emission spectra is investigated upon interaction of counterpropagating plasma fronts;

O. A. Bukin; Aleksei A. Il'in; Yurii N. Kulchin; I. G. Nagornyi; A. N. Pavlov; A. V. Bulanov



Survival and Proliferation Factors of Normal and Malignant Plasma Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first identification of interleukin (IL)-6 as a myeloma cell growth factor by Dr. Kawano’s and Dr. Klein’s groups\\u000a 14 years ago, numerous studies have emphasized its major roles in the emergence of malignant plasma cells in vivo and in the\\u000a generation of normal plasma cells. Four transcription factors control B-cell differentiation into plasma cells. The B-cell\\u000a transcription factor

Bernard Klein; Karin Tarte; Michel Jourdan; Karene Mathouk; Jerome Moreaux; Eric Jourdan; Eric Legouffe; John De Vos; Jean François Rossic



Genomic structure and tissue-specific expression of human and mouse genes encoding homologues of the major bovine seminal plasma proteins.  


Sperm capacitation is a maturation event that takes place in the female reproductive tract and is essential for fertilization. A family of phospholipid-binding proteins present in bovine seminal plasma (BSP proteins) binds the sperm membrane at ejaculation and promotes bovine sperm capacitation. Homologues of these proteins have also been isolated from boar, ram, goat, bison and stallion seminal fluid, suggesting that BSP proteins and their homologues are conserved among mammals. However, there have been no reports on BSP-homologous proteins in mice and humans to date. A search of the mouse and human genomes, using the nucleic acid sequences of BSP proteins, revealed the presence of three BSP-like sequences in the mouse genome, named mouse BSP Homologue 1 (mBSPH1), mBSPH2 and mBSPH3, and one sequence in the human genome (hBSPH1). Mouse epididymal expressed sequence tags corresponding to partial sequences of mBSPH1 and mBSPH2 were identified. The entire complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences of mBSPH1 and mBSPH2 from mouse epididymis and hBSPH1 from human epididymis were obtained by 5'-/3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and encode predicted proteins containing two tandemly repeated fibronectin type II domains, which is the signature of the BSP family of proteins. Using RT-PCR, it was revealed that mBSPH1, mBSPH2 and hBSPH1 mRNA are expressed only in the epididymis. Expression of mBSPH3 was not detected in any tissue and probably represents a pseudogene. This work shows, for the first time, that BSP homologues are expressed in mouse and human and may be involved in sperm capacitation in these species. PMID:17085770

Lefebvre, J; Fan, J; Chevalier, S; Sullivan, R; Carmona, E; Manjunath, P



ASK1 promotes apoptosis of normal and malignant plasma cells.  


Although the overproduction of immunoglobulins by short-lived plasma cells accompanying an immune response links with their apoptosis, how long-lived plasma cells adapt to ensure their longevity in this context is obscure. Here, we show that apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) contributes to apoptosis of plasma cells because ASK1 activity was induced during differentiation of short-lived plasma cells, and, when produced by ASK1-deficient mice, these cells survived better than those of control mice. Moreover, antigen-specific long-lived plasma cells generated by immunization accumulated in ASK1-deficient mice, suggesting ASK1 also plays a negative role in survival of long-lived plasma cells. In malignant plasma cells, ASK1 transcription was directly suppressed by B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1). The expression of ASK1 and Blimp-1 showed an inverse correlation between normal human mature B cells and bone marrow plasma cells from patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Suppression of ASK1 is crucial for cell survival because its enforced expression in MM cells caused apoptosis in vitro and lowered MM load in a xenograft animal model; furthermore, alteration of ASK1 activity affected MM cell survival. Our findings indicate a novel mechanism underlying the regulation of survival in normal and malignant plasma cells by ASK1. PMID:22723553

Lin, Fan-Ru; Huang, Shang-Yi; Hung, Kuo-Hsuan; Su, Shin-Tang; Chung, Cheng-Han; Matsuzawa, Atsushi; Hsiao, Michael; Ichijo, Hidenori; Lin, Kuo-I




E-print Network

individual motility, membrane integrity and resistance to a hypoosmotic swelling test (HOS). Semen samples. The second, third and fourth fractions were pooled and showed low plasma contamination (2% NAG and 5% citrate

Zaragoza, Universidad de


Electromagnetic fluctuations and normal modes of a drifting relativistic plasma  

SciTech Connect

We present an exact calculation of the power spectrum of the electromagnetic fluctuations in a relativistic equilibrium plasma described by Maxwell-Jüttner distribution functions. We consider the cases of wave vectors parallel or normal to the plasma mean velocity. The relative contributions of the subluminal and supraluminal fluctuations are evaluated. Analytical expressions of the spatial fluctuation spectra are derived in each case. These theoretical results are compared to particle-in-cell simulations, showing a good reproduction of the subluminal fluctuation spectra.

Ruyer, C.; Gremillet, L.; Bénisti, D. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)] [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Bonnaud, G. [CEA, Saclay, INSTN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [CEA, Saclay, INSTN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)



A low-molecular-weight fraction of human seminal plasma activates adenylyl cyclase and induces caspase 3-independent apoptosis in prostatic epithelial cells by decreasing mitochondrial potential and Bcl2\\/Bax ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of elderly men are affected by benign and malign diseases of the prostate that are governed by endocrine factors and local stromal\\/epi- thelial and luminal\\/epithelial interactions. Prostate ep- ithelial cells secrete numerous factors into the seminal plasma (SMP) that are thought to be responsible for nutrition, accurate pH, and ionic environment of sperm. Our hypothesis assumes that prostatic




The 2.4 Å resolution crystal structure of boar seminal plasma PSP-I\\/PSP-II: a zona pellucida-binding glycoprotein heterodimer of the spermadhesin family built by a CUB domain architecture 1 1 Edited by R. Huber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystal structure of porcine seminal plasma spermadhesin PSP-I\\/PSP-II heterodimer has been determined in two crystal forms by multiple isomorphous replacement in an hexagonal crystal (space group P 6122) and molecular replacement in a trigonal crystal of space group P 3221. The crystal structure has been refined at 2.4 Å resolution to an R-factor of 20.0% (Rfree=25.9%) for 14,809 independent

Paloma F. Varela; Antonio Romero; Libia Sanz; Maria J. Romão; Edda Töpfer-Petersen; Juan J. Calvete



Complete amino acid sequence of BSP-A3 from bovine seminal plasma. Homology to PDC-109 and to the collagen-binding domain of fibronectin.  

PubMed Central

Bovine seminal plasma was shown to contain three similar proteins, called BSP-A1, BSP-A2 and BSP-A3. Both BSP-A1 and BSP-A2 were shown to be molecular variants of a recently characterized peptide called PDC-109. They seem to differ only in their degree of glycosylation and otherwise seem to possess an identical amino acid composition. The work in the present paper deals with the complete characterization of the third member of this series, namely BSP-A3. The complete amino acid sequence revealed that it is composed of 115 amino acids and predicts a Mr of 13,403. An analysis of the primary structure of BSP-A3 revealed a high degree of internal homology, with two homologous domains composed of 39 (residues 28-66) and 43 (residues 73-115) amino acids. An exhaustive computer-bank search for the similarity of this sequence to any known protein, or segment thereof, revealed two significant homologies. The first is between PDC-109 and BSP-A3, which is so high that we can confidently predict that both proteins evolved from a single ancestral gene. The collagen-binding domain of bovine fibronectin (type II sequence) was also found to be highly homologous to both BSP-A3 and PDC-109. PMID:3606570

Seidah, N G; Manjunath, P; Rochemont, J; Sairam, M R; Chretien, M



Seminal plasma and prostaglandin E2 up-regulate fibroblast growth factor 2 expression in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells via E-series prostanoid-2 receptor-mediated transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to modulate angiogenesis and tumour progression via the E-series prostanoid-2 (EP2) receptor. Endometrial adenocarcinomas may be exposed to endogenous PGE2 and exog- enous PGE2, present at high concentration in seminal plasma. METHODS: This study investigated fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) mRNA expression and cell signalling in response to seminal plasma or PGE2, using

S. Battersby; K. J. Sales; A. R. Williams; R. A. Anderson; S. Gardner; H. N. Jabbour



Seminal androgens, oestradiol and progesterone in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men with varicocele.  


This study aimed to assess seminal androgens, oestradiol, progesterone levels in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men with varicocele (Vx). In all, 154 men with matched age and body mass index were investigated that were divided into healthy fertile controls (n = 35), OAT men with Vx (n = 55), OAT men without Vx (n = 64). They were subjected to assessment of semen parameters, seminal levels of testosterone (T), androstenedione (A), 5?-androstane-3 ?,17 ?-diol (3 ?-diol), oestradiol (E2 ), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and progesterone (P). Seminal levels of T and A were significantly decreased where seminal levels of 3 ?-diol, E2 , 17-OHP, P were significantly higher in OAT men with/without Vx compared with fertile controls. Sperm count, sperm motility and sperm normal forms percentage demonstrated significant positive correlation with seminal T and A and significant negative correlation with seminal 3 ?-diol, E2 , P. It is concluded that in fertile men, seminal T and A are significantly increased and seminal 3 ?-diol, E2 , 17-OHP, P are significantly decreased compared with infertile OAT men with/without Vx. Association of Vx demonstrated a nonsignificant influence on these hormonal levels in OAT cases. Sperm count, sperm motility and sperm normal forms demonstrated significant positive correlation with seminal T, A and significant negative correlation with seminal 3 ?-diol, E2 , P. PMID:23944757

Zalata, A; El-Mogy, M; Abdel-Khabir, A; El-Bayoumy, Y; El-Baz, M; Mostafa, T



Determination of lopinavir and ritonavir in blood plasma, seminal plasma, saliva and plasma ultra-filtrate by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry detection.  


A method based on liquid-liquid extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) in human blood, semen and saliva samples. The acquisition was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, monitoring the transitions: m/z 629 > 447.1 for LPV, 721.18 > 268.02 for RTV and m/z 747.22 > 322.03 for the internal standard (IS). The limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL for both analytes in all matrices. The method was linear in the studied range (1-2000 ng/mL for LPV and 1-200 ng/mL for RTV), with r2 > 0.99 for each drug, and the run time was 4.5 min. The intra-assay precisions (%) were in the ranges of 0.1-14.2 (LPV) and 0.4-12.7 (RTV), the inter-assay precisions were in the ranges of 2.8-15.3 (LPV) and 1.1-12.8 (RTV) and the intra-and inter-assay recoveries were >85% for both drugs. The extraction efficiencies were 73.5-118.4% for LPV and 74.4-126.2% for RTV. The analytical method was applied to measure LPV and RTV concentrations in blood plasma (total and unbound fraction), saliva and semen of six HIV+ individuals under stable treatment with Kaletra soft gel capsules. The results were consistent with previously published data. PMID:18257112

Estrela, Rita C E; Ribeiro, Fabio S; Seixas, Brayan V; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme



Cetrorelix suppresses the preovulatory LH surge and ovulation induced by ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) present in llama seminal plasma  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the study was to determine if the effect of llama OIF on LH secretion is mediated by stimulation of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. Methods Using a 2-by-2 factorial design to examine the effects of OIF vs GnRH with or without a GnRH antagonist, llamas with a growing ovarian follicle greater than or equal to 8 mm were assigned randomly to four groups (n = 7 per group) and a) pre-treated with 1.5 mg of GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix acetate) followed by 1 mg of purified llama OIF, b) pre-treated with 1.5 mg of cetrorelix followed by 50 micrograms of GnRH, c) pre-treated with a placebo (2 ml of saline) followed by 1 mg of purified llama OIF or d) pre-treated with a placebo (2 ml of saline) followed by 50 micrograms of GnRH. Pre-treatment with cetrorelix or saline was given as a single slow intravenous dose 2 hours before intramuscular administration of either GnRH or OIF. Blood samples for LH measurement were taken every 15 minutes from 1.5 hours before to 8 hours after treatment. The ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to detect ovulation and CL formation. Blood samples for progesterone measurement were taken every-other-day from Day 0 (day of treatment) to Day 16. Results Ovulation rate was not different (P = 0.89) between placebo+GnRH (86%) and placebo+OIF groups (100%); however, no ovulations were detected in llamas pre-treated with cetrorelix. Plasma LH concentrations surged (P < 0.01) after treatment in both placebo+OIF and placebo+GnRH groups, but not in the cetrorelix groups. Maximum plasma LH concentrations and CL diameter profiles did not differ between the placebo-treated groups, but plasma progesterone concentrations were higher (P < 0.05), on days 6, 8 and 12 after treatment, in the OIF- vs GnRH-treated group. Conclusion Cetrorelix (GnRH antagonist) inhibited the preovulatory LH surge induced by OIF in llamas suggesting that LH secretion is modulated by a direct or indirect effect of OIF on GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus. PMID:21624125



Effects of water immersion on plasma catecholamines in normal humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in order to determine whether water immersion to the neck (NI) alters plasma catecholamines in normal humans. Eight normal subjects were studied during a seated control study (C) and during 4 hr of NI, and the levels of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) as determined by radioenzymatic assay were measured hourly. Results show that despite the induction of a marked natriuresis and diuresis indicating significant central hypervolemia, NI failed to alter plasma NE or E levels compared with those of either C or the corresponding prestudy 1.5 hr. In addition, the diuresis and natriuresis was found to vary independently of NE. These results indicate that the response of the sympathetic nervous system to acute volume alteration may differ from the reported response to chronic volume expansion.

Epstein, M.; Johnson, G.; Denunzio, A. G.



Relationship of semen hyperviscosity with IL-6, TNF-?, IL-10 and ROS production in seminal plasma of infertile patients with prostatitis and prostato-vesiculitis.  


Changes in levels of oxidative damage products in semen and their relationship to seminal fluid viscosity (SFV) have recently received increasing research interest. We analysed whether SFV was associated with ROS generation, levels of cytokines TNF-alpha (TNF-?), IL-6 and IL-10 and seminal leucocyte concentration, and whether ROS production was related to the extent of infections/inflammations at one (prostatitis) or two (prostato-vesiculitis) male accessory glands. We studied 169 infertile patients, with chronic bacterial prostatitis (PR, n = 74) and/or bilateral prostato-vesiculitis (PV, n = 95), as diagnosed by the ultrasound (US) criteria. Healthy fertile men (n = 42) served as controls. In the PV patient group, SFV, semen characteristics and ROS production had median values that were significantly higher than those found in PR patients and controls, although other sperm variables had values significantly lower than those found in PR patients or controls. In PV infertile patients, ROS generation and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels were higher than those found in PR infertile patients and controls, although seminal IL-10 levels in PV and PR patients were lower than those found in the controls. In PR patients, the levels of SFV were positively related to TNF-? (r = 0.67; P < 0.01), fMLP-stimulated ROS production in the 45% Percoll fraction (r = 0.687, P < 0.01) and the 90% Percoll fraction in basal condition (r = 0.695, P < 0.01), and after fMLP-stimulation (r = 0.688, P < 0.01). Thus, our data indicated that seminal hyperviscosity is associated with increased oxidative stress in infertile men and increased pro-inflammatory interleukins in patients with male accessory gland infection, more when the infection was extended to the seminal vesicles. PMID:24329571

Castiglione, R; Salemi, M; Vicari, L O; Vicari, E



Proopiolipomelanocortin peptides in normal pituitary, pituitary tumor, and plasma of normal and Cushing's horses.  


Using RIAs for six regions within proopiolipomelanocortin (proOLMC), gel filtration, and electrophoresis, we studied pituitary peptides in a normal horse and one with Cushing's disease caused by a pars intermedia adenoma. Almost all immunoreactive (IR) ACTH (78%) was 4,500 mol wt (4.5K) ACTH in normal pars distalis, but it was almost 100% corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP) in normal pars intermedia. alpha MSH and beta MSH were found mainly in pars intermedia: equal concentrations of the beta MSH precursors, beta-lipotropin (beta LPH) and gamma LPH, were found in pars distalis. Most IR-beta-endorphin (IR-beta END) was found as beta END in pars intermedia, but roughly equal concentrations of beta END and its precursor, beta LPH, were found in pars distalis. A 33K molecule containing IR-ACTH, IR-gamma 3MSH, and IR-beta END, presumed to be proOLMC, and a variety of 15-27K presumed biosynthetic intermediates were found in both normal pars distalis and pars intermedia. The pars intermedia adenoma causing Cushing's syndrome contained high IR-peptide concentrations. Several differences in precursors were noted, including the presence of three larger presumed precursors (38.5K, 47K, and 63K) that had both ACTH and beta END immunoreactivities and both deletions and additions of 15-27K intermediates. The Cushing's horse's plasma peptides reflected tumor concentrations; 4.5K ACTH was modestly elevated, but the concentrations of CLIP, alpha MSH, beta MSH, gamma LPH, and beta END were dramatically increased. About 20% of plasma IR-ACTH and 5% of IR-beta MSH and IR-beta END were found as high molecular weight forms. Normal processing of horse proOLMC appears to be similar to that in other species, but may be altered in pars intermedia tumors of horses with Cushing's disease, the plasma of which contains disproportionately increased concentrations of pars intermedia proOLMC peptides. PMID:6276164

Wilson, M G; Nicholson, W E; Holscher, M A; Sherrell, B J; Mount, C D; Orth, D N



Perioperative haemostatic management of haemophilic mice using normal mouse plasma.  


Intense haemostatic interventions are required to avoid bleeding complications when surgical procedures are performed on haemophilia patients. The objective of this study was to establish an appropriate protocol for perioperative haemostatic management of haemophilic mice. We assessed the prophylactic haemostatic effects of normal mouse plasma (NMP) on haemophilia B (HB) mice for both a skin flap procedure and a laparotomy. When 500 ?L of NMP was administered to the mice, plasma factor IX (FIX:C) levels peaked at 15.1% immediately after intravenous (IV) administration, at 6.1% 2 h after intraperitoneal (IP) administration and at 2.7% 6 h after subcutaneous administration. Administering 500 ?L of NMP via IP or IV 30 min in advance enabled the skin flap procedure to be performed safely without any complications. After the laparotomy procedure, several mice in the IP administration group exhibited lethal bleeding, but all mice survived in the IV administration group. Anti-mouse FIX inhibitors did not develop, even after repetitive administrations of NMP. However, human FIX concentrates, especially plasma-derived concentrates, elicited the anti-human FIX inhibitors. The results show that administering 500 ?L of NMP via IV or IP 30 min in advance enables surgical procedures to be safely performed on HB mice, and that IV administration is more desirable than IP if the procedure requires opening of the abdominal wall. PMID:23855819

Tatsumi, K; Ohashi, K; Kanegae, K; Shim, I K; Okano, T



Role of high molecular weight seminal vesicle proteins in eliciting the uterine inflammatory response to semen in mice.  


Mating evokes a characteristic pattern of molecular and cellular events in the rodent reproductive tract, including an infiltration of the endometrial stroma and uterine lumen with activated macrophages and granulocytes, which closely resembles a classic inflammatory response. Previous studies in mice indicate that these cellular changes are associated with, and are largely a consequence of, an upregulated synthesis and release of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from the uterine epithelium in response to seminal fluid. The aim of this study was to investigate further the origin and nature of the factors present in seminal fluid that trigger the GM-CSF response. It was found that the characteristic increase in uterine expression of mRNA encoding GM-CSF and release of GM-CSF bioactivity from uterine epithelial cells into the luminal cavity seen after mating with intact or vasectomized males was no longer evident in matings with male mice from whom the seminal vesicles had been surgically removed. The extent of inflammatory leucocyte infiltration into the endometrium was also reduced; the most notable effect was a complete absence of the exocytosis of neutrophils into the luminal cavity normally seen after matings with intact or vasectomized males. Bioassay of the GM-CSF output of oestrous endometrial cells after culture with crude or Sephacryl S-400 chromatographed fractions of seminal vesicle fluid showed that the GM-CSF stimulating activity was predominantly associated with protein moieties in seminal vesicle fluid of approximately 650,000 M(r) and 100,000-400,000 M(r). These data confirm the presence in seminal vesicle fluid of specific factors that initiate an inflammatory response in the uterus after mating through upregulating GM-CSF synthesis in the uterine epithelium. The significance of the cytokine release and cellular changes induced by seminal plasma for implantation of the conceptus and pregnancy outcome remain to be determined. PMID:8882294

Robertson, S A; Mau, V J; Tremellen, K P; Seamark, R F



Cryogenic changes in seminal protein of cattle and buffalo.  


The effect of subzero temperatures on the electrophoretic pattern of seminal plasma protein of cattle and buffalo was studied. The profiles of the seminal proteins of these two closely related species differed considerably. Cattle had 11 proteins in the anodic system (pH 8.6) and none in the cathodic system (pH 4.3), while buffalo have 19 in the anodic system (pH 8.6) and 2 proteins in the cathodic system (pH 4.3). Freezing of semen at -5 degrees C for 24 h caused aggregation of seminal proteins in both species. A higher aggregation and loss of proteins were observed when freezing was done in liquid nitrogen at -196 degrees C. The effect was more pronounced in buffalo than in cattle. Loss of more seminal plasma proteins due to cryoinjury in buffalo semen may account for its poorer freezability than that of cattle semen. PMID:16726543

Muer, S K; Roy, S B; Mohan, G; Dhoble, R L



Semenogelin I: a coagulum forming, multifunctional seminal vesicle protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Human seminal plasma spontaneously coagulates after ejaculation. The major component of this coagulum is semenogelin I, a\\u000a 52-kDa protein expressed exclusively in the seminal vesicles. Recently, a sperm motility inhibitor has been found to be identical\\u000a to semenogelin I, suggesting that it may also be a physiological sperm motility inhibitor. The protein is rapidly cleaved\\u000a after ejaculation by the

M. Robert; C. Gagnon



Proteomic analysis of seminal fluid from men exhibiting oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

Background Seminal plasma serves as a natural reservoir of antioxidants. It helps to remove excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and consequently, reduce oxidative stress. Proteomic profiling of seminal plasma proteins is important to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress and sperm dysfunction in infertile men. Methods This prospective study consisted of 52 subjects: 32 infertile men and 20 healthy donors. Once semen and oxidative stress parameters were assessed (ROS, antioxidant concentration and DNA damage), the subjects were categorized into ROS positive (ROS+) or ROS negative (ROS-). Seminal plasma from each group was pooled and subjected to proteomics analysis. In-solution digestion and protein identification with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), followed by bioinformatics analyses was used to identify and characterize potential biomarker proteins. Results A total of 14 proteins were identified in this analysis with 7 of these common and unique proteins were identified in both the ROS+ and ROS- groups through MASCOT and SEQUEST analyses, respectively. Prolactin-induced protein was found to be more abundantly present in men with increased levels of ROS. Gene ontology annotations showed extracellular distribution of proteins with a major role in antioxidative activity and regulatory processes. Conclusions We have identified proteins that help protect against oxidative stress and are uniquely present in the seminal plasma of the ROS- men. Men exhibiting high levels of ROS in their seminal ejaculate are likely to exhibit proteins that are either downregulated or oxidatively modified, and these could potentially contribute to male infertility. PMID:24004880




Microsoft Academic Search

Blood samples taken from five great horned ow!s (Bubo virginianus), eight red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicencis), four marsh hawks (Circus cyaneus), two prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), five golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and five white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) that had been fasted for 24 h were used to determine plasma bevels of glucose by the glucose oxidase method. The mean plasma




E-print Network

transcription factor blimp-1 and plasma cell differentiation. Bcl-6 expression is triggered by CD40 and IL-4 stimulation an upregulation of blimp-1, mainly through STAT3 activation. Blimp-1 will further downregulate bcl expression is shut down by pax-5. These plasma cell transcription factors blimp-1 and XBP-1 are upregulated

Boyer, Edmond


Normalization of Serum Rapid Plasma Reagin Titer Predicts Normalization of Cerebrospinal Fluid and Clinical Abnormalities after Treatment of Neurosyphilis  

PubMed Central

Background Success of neurosyphilis treatment is defined by normalization of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and clinical abnormalities. The goal of this study was to determine whether normalization of serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer could accurately predict treatment success. Methods One hundred ten patients who were enrolled in a longitudinal study of CSF abnormalities in syphilis had asymptomatic syphilitic meningitis, symptomatic syphilitic meningitis, or syphilitic eye disease and were treated for neurosyphilis. At 4, 7, and 13 months after treatment, serum RPR titer and CSF and clinical abnormalities were analyzed for normalization. Odds ratios for normalization of each CSF and clinical abnormality when serum RPR titer had normalized and the positive predictive value of normalization of serum RPR titer for normalization of CSF and clinical abnormalities were determined. Results Serum RPR titer had normalized in 63 patients (57%) by 4 months after treatment, in 94 (85%) by 7 months, and in 97 (88%) by 13 months. Except for CSF protein concentration, normalization of serum RPR titer predicted normalization of other CSF and clinical abnormalities in >80% of patients at 4 months, >85% at 7 months, and >90% at 13 months. The odds of normalization of CSF and clinical abnormalities were 28–57-fold higher when serum RPR titer had normalized, compared with when it had not. Normalization of serum RPR titer was consistently less accurate in predicting treatment success in human immunodeficiency virus–infected patients who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy, compared with those who were receiving such therapy. Conclusions In most instances, normalization of serum RPR titer correctly predicts success of treatment of neurosyphilis, and follow-up lumbar puncture can be avoided. PMID:18715154

Marra, Christina M.; Maxwell, Clare L.; Tantalo, Lauren C.; Sahi, Sharon K.; Lukehart, Sheila A.



Syngeneic islet transplantation into seminal vesicles of diabetic rats.  


Pancreatic islet transplantation has been proposed as an attractive option for the treatment of type I diabetes. Transplantation into different sites has been investigated, among them those that are immuno-logically privileged (e.g., thymus, uterus, brain, anterior eye chamber, and testicle). Because of their characteristics, seminal vesicles could be considered as immunologically privileged organs, but there is no worldwide experience that can confirm it. The purpose of the present study is to assess the viability and functionality of islet transplantation into seminal vesicles of diabetic rats. One hundred ninety inbred adult male syngeneic Lewis rats were used as donors (n = 72), receptors (n = 36), and controls(n = 11). Diabetes was chemically induced through a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Groups of 1200 purified islets were introduced in the right seminal vesicle of diabetic rats. Diabetic control rats were sham transplanted. Body weight and glycemia were monitored every 2 d. Of transplanted rats, 16.7% achieved a good function due to islet engraftment, while 30.6% achieved a partially good response, and 52.7% were considered as nonresponding. This is the first report about islet transplantation into seminal vesicles of diabetic animals. Our results indicate that islet transplantation into rat seminal vesicles is technically possible, and that islets can function normally after engraftment into the wall of the seminal vesicle. PMID:15804947

Luna, A; Julián, J F; Alba, A; Garcia-Cuyás, F; Broggi, M A; Ciancio, G; Pujol-Borrell, R; Fernández-Llamazares, J; Vives-Pi, M



Normal fasting plasma glucose levels in some birds of prey.  


Blood samples taken from five great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), eight red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), four marsh hawks (Circus cyaneus), two prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), five golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and five white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) that had been fasted for 24 h were used to determine plasma levels of glucose by the glucose oxidase method. The mean plasma glucose levels were: great horned owls 374.6 mg/100 ml, red-tailed hawks 346.5 mg/00 ml, marsh hawks 369.3 mg/100 ml, prairie falcons 414.5 mg/100 ml, golden eagles 368.4 mg/100 ml, and white Leghorn chickens 218.2 mg/100 ml. The plasma glucose levels obtained for the raptorial birds in this study were considerably higher than those found for the chickens. These values are discussed in relation to the carnivorous food habits of raptors. PMID:739587

O'Donnell, J A; Garbett, R; Morzenti, A



Fractionation and characterization of normal rabbit plasma proteins  

PubMed Central

1. An adaptation of the low-temperature low-salt ethanol procedure for the fractionation of rabbit plasma proteins into six fractions is described. 2. The composition of the fractions and the distribution of haptoglobins, caeruloplasmin and transferrin were determined. The protein and protein-bound carbohydrate distribution in the fractions is similar to that of human plasma proteins separated by a similar procedure. 3. The purification of albumin, ?1-acid glycoprotein, transferrin and ?-globulin was carried out. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5. PMID:14342221

Binette, J. P.; MacNair, Margaret B.; Calkins, E.



Comparison of Methods for Assessing Viability of Equine Spermatozoa and Effects of Seminal Plasma on Viability and Motion Characteristics of Equine Spermatozoa  

E-print Network

Assessment of sperm viability is an important component for evaluating stallion sperm quality. The flow cytometer is considered the standard in the assessment of sperm plasma membrane integrity (viability); however, this instrument is costly...

Foster, Mary L.



Estrogen in Plasma of Parturient Paretic and Normal Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endocrine factors associated with parturient paresis have not been defined totally. Estrogens stimulate uptake of calcium by bone. Since secretion of estrogen increases dramatically as parturi- tion approaches, estrogen may be in- volved in homeostatic mechanisms regula- ting calcium metabolism. Plasma was collected for 30 days (-30) prepartum to 5 days (+5) postpartum from six Holstein and nine Jersey

R. G. Sasser; D. E. Falk; R. H. Ross



Model for ultraintense laser-plasma interaction at normal incidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical study of the relativistic interaction of a linearly polarized laser field of ? frequency with highly overdense plasma is presented. In agreement with one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, the model self-consistently explains the transition between the sheath inverse bremsstrahlung absorption regime and the J?×B? heating (responsible for the 2? electron bunches), as well as the high harmonic radiations and the mean electron energy.

Sanz, J.; Debayle, A.; Mima, K.



Model for ultraintense laser-plasma interaction at normal incidence.  


An analytical study of the relativistic interaction of a linearly polarized laser field of ? frequency with highly overdense plasma is presented. In agreement with one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, the model self-consistently explains the transition between the sheath inverse bremsstrahlung absorption regime and the J×B heating (responsible for the 2? electron bunches), as well as the high harmonic radiations and the mean electron energy. PMID:22680590

Sanz, J; Debayle, A; Mima, K



Effect of different seasons on concentration of plasma luteinizing hormone and seminal quality vis-à-vis freezability of buffalo bulls ( Bubalus bubalis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal variations in semen quality, freezability and plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were studied between summer and spring. Semen volume, density and initial sperm motility did not differ significantly between different seasons. Plasma LH decreased between summer and spring but the differences were, however, not significant. Pre-freezing motility did not differ significantly but post-freezing motility varied significantly ( P<0.01) between seasons. Post-freezing motility was lowest during summer and highest during winter. It can be concluded that summer spermatozoa may be fragile and cannot withstand freezing stress. To increase reproductive efficiency in buffalo during summer, semen should be frozen during winter and spring and used during hot weather conditions. Seasonal variations in plasma LH levels were insignificant.

Bahga, C. S.; Khokar, B. S.



Stimulation and suppression of aldosterone in plasma of normal man and in primary aldosteronism  

PubMed Central

The effect of stimulating and suppressive influences on plasma aldosterone in normal man and in patients with primary aldosteronism were studied using a sensitive double-isotope derivative assay for aldosterone. In normal sitting subjects, values were 9.2±0.9 (SE) m?g/100 ml and in subjects supine for 1 hr plasma aldosterone was 5.2±0.4 (SE) m?g/100 ml. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 0.5 U/hr, produced a rise of 46.8±22 (SE) m?g which was similar to the 1-hr effect of an infusion of a synthetic ACTH (?1-24, Cortrosyn). Angiotensin II in pressor amounts also increased plasma aldosterone 21.5±2.9 (SE) without change in plasma cortisol, whereas a subpressor dose ([unk]) had minimal effect. Fludrocortisone, 1.2 mg/day for 3 days, suppressed plasma aldosterone levels to 1.8±0.7 (SE) m?g/100 ml in five normal sitting subjects (P < 0.01); however, dexamethasone, 2 mg/day for 1-2 days, did not lower aldosterone concentration in plasma. In six patients with primary aldosteronism, plasma aldosterone on a normal sodium diet was 39.1±4.4 (SE) which differed significantly from normal sitting or supine subjects (P < 0.001). In contrast to the normal subjects, neither a pressor infusion of angiotensin II for 1 hr, nor fludrocortisone, 1.2 mg/day for 3 days, impressively altered plasma aldosterone levels. This approach appears to be useful for the study of the acute physiology and control mechanisms of aldosterone production in normal and hypertensive man. PMID:4307457

Horton, R.



Plasma androstenedione and oestrone levels in normal and osteoporotic postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma androstenedione and oestrone concentrations were measured in 72 postmenopasual women. The women included some who had undergone oophorectomy, some with osteoporosis, and normal controls; they were matched for years since menopause. Both hormone concentrations were significantly reduced in the women with osteoporosis. The women who had undergone oophorectomy had hormone concentrations intermediate between the normal and osteoporotic values. Oestrogen

D H Marshall; R G Crilly; B E Nordin



TGF-? mediates proinflammatory seminal fluid signaling in human cervical epithelial cells.  


The cervix is central to the female genital tract immune response to pathogens and foreign male Ags introduced at coitus. Seminal fluid profoundly influences cervical immune function, inducing proinflammatory cytokine synthesis and leukocyte recruitment. In this study, human Ect1 cervical epithelial cells and primary cervical cells were used to investigate agents in human seminal plasma that induce a proinflammatory response. TGF-?1, TGF-?2, and TGF-?3 are abundant in seminal plasma, and Affymetrix microarray revealed that TGF-?3 elicits changes in Ect1 cell expression of several proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes, replicating principal aspects of the Ect1 response to seminal plasma. The differentially expressed genes included several induced in the physiological response of the cervix to seminal fluid in vivo. Notably, all three TGF-? isoforms showed comparable ability to induce Ect1 cell expression of mRNA and protein for GM-CSF and IL-6, and TGF-? induced a similar IL-6 and GM-CSF response in primary cervical epithelial cells. TGF-? neutralizing Abs, receptor antagonists, and signaling inhibitors ablated seminal plasma induction of GM-CSF and IL-6, but did not alter IL-8, CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL20 (MIP-3?), or IL-1? production. Several other cytokines present in seminal plasma did not elicit Ect1 cell responses. These data identify all three TGF-? isoforms as key agents in seminal plasma that signal induction of proinflammatory cytokine synthesis in cervical cells. Our findings suggest that TGF-? in the male partner's seminal fluid may influence cervical immune function after coitus in women, and potentially be a determinant of fertility, as well as defense from infection. PMID:22706080

Sharkey, David J; Macpherson, Anne M; Tremellen, Kelton P; Mottershead, David G; Gilchrist, Robert B; Robertson, Sarah A



Proteins of human semen. I. Two-dimensional mapping of human seminal fluid  

SciTech Connect

The proteins in human seminal plasma were mapped by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (ISO-DALT and BASO-DALT systems). When analyzed under dissociating conditions, samples from normal fertile males revealed a pattern of over 200 proteins, ranging in mass from 10,000 to 100,000 daltons. Comparison of the mapped proteins from these males and those who had undergone vasectomy allowed us to identify one series of glycoproteins as missing from the semen from vasectomized individuals. Glycoproteins isolated by affinity chromatography with use of concanavalin A were also mapped. Some of the protein spots were identified either by coelectrophoresis with purified proteins or by the electrophoretic transfer of proteins to nitrocellulose sheets and subsequent detection by immunological procedures. The proteins identified include a number of serum proteins as well as prostatic acid phosphatase and creatine kinase. Proteolytic events shown to occur during the liquefaction of semen that occurs early after collection indicate the importance of carefully controlled collection and preparation methods for clinical evaluation of seminal plasma. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibit this proteolysis.

Edwards, J.J.; Tollaksen, S.L.; Anderson, N.G.



Seminal vesicle schwannoma presenting with left hydroureteronephrosis  

PubMed Central

We report a very rare case of seminal vesicle schwannoma in a 50-year-old male, with left hydroureteronephrosis. Only five cases of seminal vesicle schwannomas have been reported in medical literature until date. PMID:25371618

Arun, Gopalakrishnan; Chakraborti, Shrijeet; Rai, Santosh; Prabhu, Gurupur Guni Laxman



Plasma vitronectin polymorphism in normal subjects and patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation.  


Vitronectin, also known as serum-spreading factor or S-protein, mediates cell adhesion and inhibits formation of the membrane-lytic complex of complement and the rapid inactivation of thrombin by antithrombin III in the presence of heparin. Vitronectin is normally present in plasma at a concentration of approximately 300 micrograms/mL. The investigators quantified plasma vitronectin with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and visualized reduced and nonreduced vitronectin by immunoblotting after separation of plasma or serum by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The concentration of plasma vitronectin was markedly reduced in some patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation, especially in those with liver failure; it was near normal in patients with metastatic cancer and acute leukemia. Patients with vitronectin levels less than 40% normal invariably had low fibrinogen and antithrombin III and a prolonged prothrombin time. In both normal and patient plasmas there was heterogeneity in the ratio of the 75,000- and 65,000-mol wt polypeptides of reduced vitronectin: 18% had mostly the 75,000-mol wt polypeptide, 59% had roughly equal amounts of the two polypeptides, and 22% had mostly the 65,000-mol wt polypeptide. This polymorphism is inherited and appears to be due to two alleles that are present with approximately equal frequency. The blotting patterns of vitronectin in reduced and nonreduced plasmas were largely unaltered in plasma of patients with defibrination syndrome, fibrinolysis, liver failure, sepsis, metastatic cancer, and acute leukemia. There was no evidence of fragmentation of vitronectin or formation of the disulfide-bonded complex of vitronectin and thrombin-antithrombin III that is found when blood is clotted. Thus these results corroborate in vitro observations that the liver is the major source of plasma vitronectin, suggest that vitronectin may become depleted during disseminated intravascular coagulation, and define a genetic polymorphism of vitronectin. PMID:2455567

Conlan, M G; Tomasini, B R; Schultz, R L; Mosher, D F



31P NMR and AFM studies on the destabilization of cell and model membranes by the major bovine seminal plasma protein, PDC-109.  


The effect of PDC-109 binding to dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) and supported membranes was investigated by (31)P NMR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Additionally, the effect of cholesterol on the binding of PDC-109 to phosphatidylcholine (PC) membranes was studied. Binding of PDC-109 to MLVs of DMPC and DPPG induced the formation of an isotropic signal in their (31)P NMR spectra, which increased with increasing protein/lipid ratio and temperature, consistent with protein-induced disruption of the MLVs and the formation of small unilamellar vesicles or micelles but not inverse hexagonal or cubic phases. Incorporation of cholesterol in the DMPC MLVs afforded a partial stabilization of the lamellar structure, consistent with previous reports of membrane stabilization by cholesterol. AFM results are consistent with the above findings and show that addition of PDC-109 leads to a complete breakdown of PC membranes. The fraction of isotropic signal in (31)P NMR spectra of DPPG in the presence of PDC-109 was less than that of DMPC under similar conditions, suggesting a significantly higher affinity of the protein for PC. Confocal microscopic studies showed that addition of PDC-109 to human erythrocytes results in a disruption of the plasma membrane and release of hemoglobin into the solution, which was dependent on the protein concentration and incubation time. PMID:21117173

Damai, Rajani S; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S; Anbazhagan, Veerappan; Swamy, Musti J



Proteolysis of Complement Factors iC3b and C5 by the Serine Protease Prostate-Specific Antigen in Prostatic Fluid and Seminal Plasma  

PubMed Central

Prostate-specific Ag (PSA) is a serine protease that is expressed exclusively by normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells. The continued high-level expression of PSA by the majority of men with both high- and low-grade prostate cancer throughout the course of disease progression, even in the androgen-ablated state, suggests that PSA has a role in the pathogenesis of disease. Current experimental and clinical evidence suggests that chronic inflammation, regardless of the cause, may predispose men to prostate cancer. The responsibility of the immune system in immune surveillance and eventually tumor progression is well appreciated but not completely understood. In this study, we used a mass spectrometry–based evaluation of prostatic fluid obtained from diseased prostates after removal by radical prostatectomy to identify potential immunoregulatory proteins. This analysis revealed the presence of Igs and the complement system proteins C3, factor B, and clusterin. Verification of these findings by Western blot confirmed the high-level expression of C3 in the prostatic fluid and the presence of a previously uncharacterized C-terminal C3 cleavage product. Biochemical analysis of this C3 cleavage fragment revealed a putative PSA cleavage site after tyrosine-1348. Purified PSA was able to cleave iC3b and the related complement protein C5. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized function of PSA as an immunoregulatory protease that could help to create an environment hospitable to malignancy through proteolysis of the complement system. PMID:23401592

Manning, Michael L.; Williams, Simon A.; Jelinek, Christine A.; Kostova, Maya B.; Denmeade, Samuel R.



Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) in different reproductive states.  


Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of castrated tree sparrows from each of three reproductive states was evaluated by measuring the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of replacement or plasma testosterone. Birds were exposed to exogenous testosterone for 38 days. Replacement doses less than 0.17 mumol or plasma concentrations less than about 0.7 nmol/l did not induce seminal-sac growth in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days, in photosensitive castrated birds transferred from short to long days, or in photorefractory castrated birds retained on long days. Higher replacement doses or plasma concentrations, however, stimulated log dose-dependent growth of the seminal sacs in castrated birds from all three reproductive states. The change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of the dose of replacement testosterone was less (P = 0.0495) in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days than in photosensitive castrated birds transferred to long days. A more critical test of sensitivity (i.e. the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of mean plasma testosterone concentration) indicated, however, that sensitivity of the seminal sacs to testosterone is independent of reproductive state. That result, when considered in the context of the plasma testosterone profile of intact males during a simulated reproductive cycle, argues that the seminal sacs of sexually quiescent (photosensitive or photorefractory) tree sparrows are small not because of their insensitivity to androgens, but because of a deficiency of circulating androgens. PMID:3701240

Wilson, F E



Concentration of circulating plasma endothelin in patients with angina and normal coronary angiograms.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--Some patients with angina pectoris and normal coronary arteriograms have reduced coronary flow reserve and abnormal endothelium dependent vasodilator responses. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, is an important modulator of microvascular function and may also have algogenic properties. METHOD--Plasma ET-1 was measured in peripheral venous blood in 40 patients (30 women) (mean (SD) age 56 (8) years) with angina and normal coronary arteriograms and 21 normal controls (17 women) (mean (SD) age 53 (7) years). Patients with systemic hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, or coronary spasm were excluded. Plasma ET-1 was measured using radioimmunoassay. RESULTS--Thirty five patients had > or = 1 mm ST segment depression during exercise. Left bundle branch block was present in four patients at rest and in one during exercise. Mean (SD) (range) concentration of ET-1 (pg/ml) was higher in patients than in controls (3.84 (1.25) (1.97-7.42) v 2.88 (0.71) (1.57-4.48) P < 0.0001). In patients with "high" (> control mean (one SD)) ET-1 concentrations (n = 23), the time to onset of chest pain during exercise was significantly shorter (6.21 (3.9) v 9.03 (3.9) min; p = 0.01) than in patients with "low" ET-1 concentrations. Of the five patients with left bundle branch block, four had plasma ET-1 concentration > 4.0 pg/ml. CONCLUSION--Plasma endothelin is raised in patients with angina and normal coronary arteriograms and is consistent with the demonstration of endothelial dysfunction in such patients. The association between "high" plasma ET-1 and an earlier onset of chest pain during exercise suggests that endothelin may also have a role in the genesis of chest pain in patients with normal coronary arteries. PMID:8541166

Kaski, J. C.; Elliott, P. M.; Salomone, O.; Dickinson, K.; Gordon, D.; Hann, C.; Holt, D. W.



Keyhole and weld shapes for plasma arc welding under normal and zero gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A first order study of the interfacial (keyhole) shape between a penetrating argon plasma arc jet and a stationary liquid metal weld pool is presented. The interface is determined using the Young-Laplace equation by assuming that the plasma jet behaves as a one-dimensional ideal gas flow and by neglecting flow within the weld pool. The solution for the keyhole shape allows an approximate determination of the liquid-solid metal phase boundary location based on the assumption that the liquid melt is a stagnant thermal boundary layer. Parametric studies examine the effect of plasma mass flow rate, initial plasma enthalpy, liquid metal surface tension, and jet shear on weldment shape under both normal and zero gravity. Among the more important findings of this study is that keyhole and weld geometries are minimally affected by gravity, suggesting that data gathered under gravity can be used in planning in-space welding.

Keanini, R. G.; Rubinsky, B.



Basic plasma physics, plasma theory and modeling (BP): Normal mode analysis of pair plasma with drifting species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pair-ion plasmas consisting of C60+ and C60- ions have been generated in laboratory using fullerene as an ion source1,2. In addition, electron-positron plasmas are believed to be abundant in many astrophysical environments from pulsars to quasars3,4. In laboratory also, electron-positron pair plasma has been generated with the help of ultraintense lasers5 and by trapping of positron in a magnetic mirror

Krishan Pal Singh; A. K. Singh; Ravish Sharma; Khushvant Singh; Vinod Kumar



Effect of correlations on the thermal equilibrium and normal modes of a non-neutral plasma Daniel H. E. Dubin  

E-print Network

Effect of correlations on the thermal equilibrium and normal modes of a non-neutral plasma Daniel H forces neglected in the fluid theory. A viscoelastic model of the plasma incorporating these effects s : 52.25.Wz, 32.80.Pj, 52.35.Fp, 62.20.Dc I. INTRODUCTION Non-neutral plasmas, which are composed only

California at San Diego, University of


[Localized amyloidosis of the seminal vesicles].  


Amyloidosis of the seminal vesicles is a common finding in autopsies, with increased incidence in older population. It is usually asymptomatic. We report a case of symptomatic localized amyloidosis of the seminal vesicles, with hemospermia and suprapubic pain. Diagnosis was achieved through ultrasound-guided transrectal biopsy. Systemic amyloidosis must be ruled out through proper evaluation. Seminal vesicle enlargement secondary to amyloid deposit may be misdiagnosed as carcinomatous invasion. PMID:14735867

Herranz Fernández, L M; Arellano Gañán, R; Nam Cha, Syonghyun; Jiménez Gálvez, M; Pereira Sanz, I



Plasma cortisol levels in normal volunteers receiving either betamethasone valerate or desoximetasone by topical application.  


Desoximetasone (Topisolon; Hoechst), a new topical steroid, and betamethasone 17-valerate were compared with respect to their effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function as evidenced by plasma cortisol concentrations. Three grams of each test preparation were applied daily for 21 days to intact skin of the ventral aspects of alternate forearms of 15 normal volunteers. Five received betamethasone 17-valerate 0.1%, 5 desoximetasone 0.05%, and 5 desoximetasone 0.25%. Plasma cortisol levels were determined before and after the initial applications on days 1, 3, 10, 17, 22, 24 and 28. These values were compared with the mean control values by analysis of covariance. There was no significant difference in plasma cortisol levels. The value of performing similar studies on larger skin areas and with larger doses is discussed. PMID:362568

Bromley, P A; Müller, F O; Malan, J; Torres, J; Vanderbeke, O



Selenoprotein P in seminal fluid is a novel biomarker of sperm quality.  


Hepatically-derived selenoprotein P (SePP) transports selenium (Se) via blood to other tissues including the testes. Male Sepp-knockout mice are infertile. SePP-mediated Se transport to Sertoli cells is needed for supporting biosynthesis of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4) in spermatozoa. GPX4 becomes a structural component of sperm midpiece during sperm maturation, and its expression correlates to semen quality. We tested whether SePP is also present in seminal plasma, potentially correlating to fertility parameters. Semen quality was assessed by sperm density, morphology and motility. SePP was measured by an immunoluminometric assay, and trace elements were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. SePP levels were considerably lower in seminal plasma as compared to serum (0.4±0.1 mg/l vs. 3.5±1.0 mg/l); Se concentrations showed a similar but less pronounced difference (48.9±20.7 ?g/l vs. 106.7±17.3 ?g/l). Se and Zn correlated positively in seminal fluid but not in serum. Seminal plasma SePP concentrations were independent of serum SePP concentrations, but correlated positively to sperm density and fraction of vital sperm. SePP concentrations in seminal plasma of vasectomized men were similar to controls indicating that accessory sex glands are a testes-independent source of SePP. This notion was corroborated by histochemical analyses localizing SePP in epithelial cells of seminal vesicles. We conclude that SePP is not only involved in Se transport to testes supporting GPX4 biosynthesis but it also becomes secreted into seminal plasma, likely important to protect sperm during storage, genital tract passage and final journey. PMID:24361887

Michaelis, Marten; Gralla, Oliver; Behrends, Thomas; Scharpf, Marcus; Endermann, Tobias; Rijntjes, Eddy; Pietschmann, Nicole; Hollenbach, Birgit; Schomburg, Lutz




PubMed Central

The electrophoretic patterns of a series of normal and pathological human sera and plasmas have been obtained using the schlieren scanning method. From these patterns the mobilities and concentrations of the electrophoretically distinct protein components have been computed. The mobilities fall into five well defined groups corresponding to albumin, ?, ?, and ? globulins, and fibrinogen. The concentrations of the different components in pathological sera have been compared with those in normal sera, and the following tentative generalizations may be made. The albumin/globulin ratios for pathological sera have been consistently lower than those for normal sera. The values of the ? globulin/albumin ratio for the sera of the febrile patients studied were high, the average value being over twice the normal value. The ? globulin/albumin ratios for aplastic anemia and rheumatic fever sera were also above normal. Certain pathological conditions, notably nephrosis, were accompanied by large increases in a ? globulin. There is evidence that, in part at least, this consists of a labile lipo-protein. PMID:19870918

Longsworth, Lewis G.; Shedlovsky, Theodore; MacInnes, Duncan A.



Effects of chronic bromocriptine-induced hypoprolactinemia on plasma testosterone responses to human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation in normal men.  


To study the role played by normal levels of plasma prolactin (PRL) in the secretion of testosterone (T) in the testes, we induced hypoprolactinemia with a daily dose of 5 mg bromocriptine administered orally in five normal men 20 to 35 years of age for 8 weeks. The basal PRL, T, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and maximum responses of plasma T to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation were measured every 2 weeks. Basal levels of plasma T were reduced in the 1st 2-week-long period of hypoprolactinemia. In the 4-week-long period of hypoprolactinemia, the maximal response of plasma T to hCG stimulation was significantly reduced. The findings suggest that normal levels of plasma PRL may play an important role in the secretion of T in the human testes in vivo. PMID:1899397

Oseko, F; Nakano, A; Morikawa, K; Endo, J; Taniguchi, A; Usui, T



Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Proteins Involved in the Tumorigenic Process of Seminal Vesicle Carcinoma in Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

We studied the seminal vesicle secretion (SVS) of transgenic mice by using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with LTQ-FT ICR MS analysis to explore protein expression profiles. Using unique peptide numbers as a cut-off criterion, 79 proteins were identified with high confidence in the SVS proteome. Label-free quantitative analysis was performed by using the IDEAL_Q software program. Furthermore, western blot assays were performed to validate the expression of seminal vesicle proteins. Sulfhydryl oxidase 1, glia-derived nexin, SVS1, SVS3, and SVS6 showed overexpression in SVS during cancer development. With high sequence similarity to human semenogelin, SVS2 is the most abundance protein in SVS and is dramatically decreased during the tumorigenic process. Our results indicate that these protein candidates could serve as potential targets for monitoring seminal vesicle carcinoma. Moreover, this information can provide clues for investigating seminal vesicle secretion-containing seminal plasma for related human diseases. PMID:22084680

Chang, Wei-Chao; Chou, Chuan-Kai; Tsou, Chih-Chiang; Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Chen, Chein-Hung; Zhuo, Yu-Xing; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Chen, Chung-Hsuan



A new principle to normalize plasma concentrations allowing single-sample clearance determinations in both children and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sufficiently accurate quantification of renal function requiring only one plasma sample without an additional gamma-camera study has, until now, only been possible in adults. A new principle will be presented here allowing the universal application of known algorithms, regardless of the clearance substance used, by normalizing the plasma concentrations with respect to the individual body dimensions of the patients

Bernd Bubeck; Rolf Piepenburg; Ulrich Grethe; Burghard Ehrig; Klaus Hahn



Plasma androsterone\\/epiandrosterone sulfates as markers of 5?-reductase activity: Effect of finasteride in normal men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma androsterone\\/epiandrosterone sulfates, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, androstenedione, and cortisol were measured in three normal adult men before and following finasteride administration (5 mg\\/day). Plasma androsterone\\/epiandrosterone sulfates and dihydrotestosterone declined in parallel to 50% of basal levels with little change in either dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, cortisol, or androstenedione. The results suggest that the direct measurement of plasma androsterone\\/epiandrosterone sulfates by enzyme-linked

John G. Lewis; Peter M. George; Peter A. Elder



Correlation of Serum Lipid P rofile with Histological and Seminal Parameters of Testis in The Goat  

PubMed Central

Background: The lipid composition of a mammal’s spermatozoa and seminal plasma vary in both structure and function. Evidence exists to suggest that dietary supplementation with the appropriate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) affects spermatogenesis, semen quality and sperm motility. Therefore, this study has been conducted to evaluate the correlations between serum lipid profile and histological, anatomical and seminal parameters of testes in clinically healthy goats. Materials and Methods: In this analytic, cross-sectional study, we chose a total of ten mature Iranian male goats that comprised a homogenous group through simple random sampling. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein; the sera were separated and subsequently used for measurement of serum lipids, lipoproteins and testosterone levels. In addition, we collected semen from the animals and evaluated the seminal characteristics. We also performed histological and anatomical assessments of the testes. Results: The findings demonstrated that serum levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) had a significant positive correlation with interstitial testicular tissue area (r=0.73; p<0.001), seminiferous tubule area (r=0.61; p<0.01), the number of Leydig cells (r=0.53; p<0.05), the diameter of the Leydig cell nuclei (r=0.54; p<0.05), scrotal circumference (r=0.83; p<0.001), testis weight (r=0.72; p<0.001), the number of live, normal sperm (r=0.94 ; p<0.001) and serum testosterone levels (r=0.88; p<0.001). Significant but negative correlations were found between serum triglyceride concentration and seminiferous tubule area (r=-0.53; p<0.05), the diameter of the Leydig cell nuclei (r=-0.55; p<0.05), testis weight (r =-0.64; p<0.01), total sperm number (r=-0.82; p<0.001), number of live, normal sperm (r=-0.55; p<0.05) and serum testosterone levels (r=-0.79; p<0.001). In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) concentration and the percent of live sperm (r=-0.67; p<0.01), and serum testosterone levels (r=-0.65; p<0.01). Conclusion: The present results indicated that among serum lipids only the levels of HDL-c positively correlated with testicular parameters. High serum triglyceride levels exerted direct adverse effects at the testicular level, which was mainly observed in the seminiferous tubules (STs), characterization of Leydig cells and semen quality. PMID:24520474



Ontogenetic changes in seminal fluid gene expression and the protein composition of cricket seminal fluid.  


The ejaculates of most internally fertilizing species consists of both sperm and seminal fluid proteins. Seminal fluid proteins have been studied largely in relation to their post-mating effects on female reproductive physiology, and predominantly in genomically well-characterized species. Seminal fluids can also play important roles in sperm maturation and performance. In the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus the viability of ejaculated sperm increases as males age, as does their competitive fertilization success. Here, using quantitative proteomics and quantitative real-time PCR, we document ontogenetic changes in seminal fluid protein abundance and in seminal fluid gene expression. We identified at least nine proteins that changed in abundance in the seminal fluid of crickets as they aged. Gene expression was quantified for five seminal fluid protein genes, and in four of these gene expression changed as males aged. These ontogenetic changes were associated with a general increase in the size of the male accessory glands. Several of the seminal fluid proteins that we have identified are novel, and some have BLAST matches to proteins implicated in sperm function. Our data suggest that age related changes in competitive fertilization success may be dependent on seminal fluid chemistry. PMID:24617989

Simmons, Leigh W; Beveridge, Maxine; Li, Lei; Li, Lie; Tan, Yew-Foon; Millar, A Harvey



Effects of positive acceleration /+Gz/ on renal function and plasma renin in normal man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of positive radial centrifugation (+Gz) on plasma resin activity (PRA) and renal function were assessed in 15 normal male subjects under carefully controlled conditions of Na, K, and water intake. Twenty minutes of +2.0 Gz resulted in significant decreases in the mean rate of sodium excretion and creatine clearance and in a doubling of PRA in seven sodium-depleted subjects (10 meq Na intake). In eight sodium-replete subjects (200 mq Na intake), 30 min of +2.0 Gz was also associated with a decrease in the mean rate of sodium excretion. As a consequence of a concurrent decrease in creatine clearance, the fractional excretion of sodium during centrifugation did not differ from control, suggesting that the changes in Na excretion were mediated primarily by renal hemodynamic factors, although enhanced renal tubular sodium reabsorption may also have played a role.

Epstein, M.; Shubrooks, S. J., Jr.; Fishman, L. M.; Duncan, D. C.



Linear Technique to Understand Non-Normal Turbulence Applied to a Magnetized Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nonlinear dynamical systems with highly nonorthogonal linear eigenvectors, linear nonmodal analysis is more useful than normal mode analysis in predicting turbulent properties. However, the nontrivial time evolution of nonmodal structures makes quantitative understanding and prediction difficult. We present a technique to overcome this difficulty by modeling the effect that the advective nonlinearities have on spatial turbulent structures. The nonlinearities are taken as a periodic randomizing force with time scale consistent with critical balance arguments. We apply this technique to a model of drift wave turbulence in the Large Plasma Device [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991), 10.1063/1.1142175], where nonmodal effects dominate the turbulence. We compare the resulting growth rate spectra to the spectra obtained from a nonlinear simulation, showing good qualitative agreement, especially in comparison to the eigenmode growth rate spectra.

Friedman, B.; Carter, T. A.



Linear technique to understand non-normal turbulence applied to a magnetized plasma.  


In nonlinear dynamical systems with highly nonorthogonal linear eigenvectors, linear nonmodal analysis is more useful than normal mode analysis in predicting turbulent properties. However, the nontrivial time evolution of nonmodal structures makes quantitative understanding and prediction difficult. We present a technique to overcome this difficulty by modeling the effect that the advective nonlinearities have on spatial turbulent structures. The nonlinearities are taken as a periodic randomizing force with time scale consistent with critical balance arguments. We apply this technique to a model of drift wave turbulence in the Large Plasma Device [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)], where nonmodal effects dominate the turbulence. We compare the resulting growth rate spectra to the spectra obtained from a nonlinear simulation, showing good qualitative agreement, especially in comparison to the eigenmode growth rate spectra. PMID:25062197

Friedman, B; Carter, T A



Sperm motility inversely correlates with seminal leptin levels in idiopathic asthenozoospermia  

PubMed Central

Background: Asthenozoospermia is one kind cause of male infertility. Nevertheless, no specific etiology can be identified by routine tests in some cases. Recently, it has been shown that leptin plays a critical role in male fertility. However, the link between leptin and sperm motility is yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to explore association between seminal and serum leptin levels and sperm motility in idiopathic asthenozoospermia. Methods: Our study included 79 asthenozoospermic men and 77 normozoospermic men. Semen was assessed by volume, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. Serum gonadotropic and sex hormones were determined by a chemiluminescent assay. The leptin levels in serum and seminal plasma were detected with ELISA. Results: The mean seminal leptin level in asthenozoospermic group was significantly higher than that in control group, but there was no significant difference in the serum leptin levels between these two groups. The serum leptin had no significant correlation with sperm motility. The seminal leptin had significantly negative correlation with sperm progressive motility and serum total testosterone. Conclusions: The findings indicate a pathophysiological relevance of seminal leptin in sperm motility.

Guo, Jianhua; Zhao, Yang; Huang, Weiying; Hu, Wei; Gu, Jianjun; Chen, Chuhong; Zhou, Juan; Peng, Yubing; Gong, Min; Wang, Zhong



Levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in seminal fluid of men attending an andrological clinic.  


The presence of interleukins (IL) and other cytokines in seminal plasma was demonstrated in the literature. In particular, the levels of IL-6 were found to be related to male accessory gland inflammation. The close correlation to leucocyte count indicates a production of interleukins from the leucocytes and by the prostate gland. No relation of IL-6 levels to spermatogenic activity was quoted in the literature. We measured IL-6 and IL-8 in 454 men and compared the values with seminal parameters. The mean values of IL-6 30.7 +/- 101.2 pg ml-1 and IL-8 2023 +/- 1721 pg ml-1. The correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation of IL-6 and/or IL-8 to age, total fructose, immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration and leucocyte count. The significant correlation of IL-6 and fructose levels indicates that also the seminal vesicles take part in the production of seminal IL-6. No correlation of the two interleukins measured to sperm parameters occurred. The calculation of a single harmonic trend revealed a significant trend over the year of the levels of IL-6 with a maximum in December and a peak-to-trough variation of 33% of the mean. It may be the consequence of a higher frequency of seminal tract inflammations in autumn and winter. PMID:12653788

Friebe, K; Bohring, C; Skrzypek, J; Krause, W



High Levels of Cadmium and Lead in Seminal Fluid and Blood of Smoking Men are Associated with High Oxidative Stress and Damage in Infertile Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and reducte glutathione (GSH) in seminal plasma and spermatozoa from 95 subjects including 50 infertile\\u000a patients to evaluate the association between oxidative stress and damage and the components of the anti-oxidant defenses in\\u000a seminal plasma and spermatozoa of infertile subjects and concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb)

Ali Riza Kiziler; Birsen Aydemir; Ilhan Onaran; Bulent Alici; Hamdi Ozkara; Tevfik Gulyasar; Mehmet Can Akyolcu



Quantification of trace elements in normal human brain by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.  


Eight normal human brain autopsy samples were analyzed for Na, K, P, Ca, Mg, Si, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Al, Cd, Pb and As in 12 regions of brain (frontal cerebrum, temporal cerebrum, parietal cerebrum, somatosensory cortex, occipital cerebrum, cerebellum, mid-brain, pons, hypothalamus, thalamus, hippocampus and medulla oblongata) using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICPAES). The distribution of these 15 elements varied significantly from region to region of the brain. Potassium was most abundant in nearly all regions of the brain, followed by sodium and phosphorus (mg/g). The concentration of Al was found to be comparatively high and varied in different areas of the brain (58-196 microg/g). Moderate levels of Pb, Cd and As were observed in different regions. Ratios of Al to Fe were found to be high in temporal cerebrum (8.07) and hippocampus (9.05) and these two regions are significantly involved in Alzheimer's disease. The concentration of Na in mole percentage showed an inverse correlation with that of K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cr. Direct correlation was observed in the concentration of all analyzed elements, which indicated for the first time the direct dependency of concentration of trace elements in one brain region to other regions. The mole ratios between different elements in different brain regions and total amounts of the elements in an average weight of 1.4 kg human brain were also computed. The present study provides new and in-depth data which may be used as base line data for normal human brains. PMID:9077512

Rajan, M T; Jagannatha Rao, K S; Mamatha, B M; Rao, R V; Shanmugavelu, P; Menon, R B; Pavithran, M V



Normalization schemes for ultrafast x-ray diffraction using a table-top laser-driven plasma source  

SciTech Connect

We present an experimental setup of a laser-driven x-ray plasma source for femtosecond x-ray diffraction. Different normalization schemes accounting for x-ray source intensity fluctuations are discussed in detail. We apply these schemes to measure the temporal evolution of Bragg peak intensities of perovskite superlattices after ultrafast laser excitation.

Schick, D.; Bojahr, A.; Herzog, M. [Institut fuer Physik and Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Korff Schmising, C. von [Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Shayduk, R.; Leitenberger, W.; Gaal, P.; Bargheer, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)



Effect of Dietary Aspartame on Plasma Concentrations of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine in Normal and Homozygous Phenylketonuric Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six normal subjects each ingested a single 12 - oz can of a diet cola (Diet Coke) providing 184 mg aspartame (APM), of which 104 mg is phenylalanine (Phe), and, on another occasion, a single 12 - oz can of regular cola (Coke Classic). Neither cola significantly affected plasma concentrations of Phe or tyrosine over the three-hour postingestion study period.

Stephanie A. Mackey; Cheston M. Berlin



Intercorrelations among plasma high density lipoprotein, obesity and triglycerides in a normal population  

SciTech Connect

The interrelationships among fatness measures, plasma triglycerides and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were examined in 131 normal adult subjects: 38 men aged 27 to 46, 50 men aged 47 to 66, 29 women aged 27 to 46 and 24 women aged 47 to 66. None of the women were taking estrogens or oral contraceptive medication. The HDL concentration was subdivided into HDL/sub 2b/, HDL/sub 2a/ and HDL by a computerized fitting of the total schileren pattern to reference schlieren patterns. Anthropometric measures employed included skinfolds at 3 sites, 2 weight/height indices and 2 girth measurements. A high correlation was found among the various fatness measures. These measures were negatively correlated with total HDL, reflecting the negative correlation between fatness measures and HDL/sub 2/ (as the sum of HDL/sub 2a/ and /sub 2b/). Fatness measures showed no relationship to HDL/sub 3/. There was also an inverse correlation between triglyceride concentration and HDL/sub 2/. No particular fatness measure was better than any other for demonstrating the inverse correlation with HDL but multiple correlations using all of the measures of obesity improved the correlations. Partial correlations controlling for fatness did not reduce any of the significnt correlations between triglycerides and HDL/sub 2/ to insignificance. The weak correlation between fatness and triglycerides was reduced to insigifnicance when controlled for HDL/sub 2/.

Albrink, M.J. (West Virgina Unov., Morgantown); Krauss, R.M.; Lindgren, F.T.; von der Groeben, J.; Pan, S.; Wood, P.D.



Increased plasma von Willebrand factor antigen levels but normal von Willebrand factor cleaving protease (ADAMTS13) activity in preeclampsia.  


The activity of ADAMTS13, the von Willebrand factor (VWF) cleaving protease is low in several conditions, including HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome. As HELLP syndrome develops in most cases on the basis of preeclampsia, our aim was to determine whether plasma ADAMTS13 activity is decreased in preeclampsia. Sixty-seven preeclamptic patients, 70 healthy pregnant women and 59 healthy non-pregnant women were involved in this case-control study. Plasma ADAMTS13 activity was determined with the FRETS-VWF73 assay, while VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) levels with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The multimeric pattern of VWF was analyzed by SDS-agarose gel electrophoresis. There was no significant difference in plasma ADAMTS13 activity between the preeclamptic and the healthy pregnant and non-pregnant groups (median [25-75 percentile]: 98.8 [76.5-112.8] %, 96.3 [85.6-116.2] % and 91.6 [78.5-104.4] %, respectively; p > 0.05). However, plasma VWF:Ag levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic patients than in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women (187.1 [145.6-243.1] % versus 129.3 [105.1-182.8] % and 70.0 [60.2-87.3] %, respectively; p < 0.001). The multimeric pattern of VWF was normal in each group. Primiparas had lower plasma ADAMTS13 activity than multi-paras (92.6 [75.8-110.6] % versus 104.2 [92.1-120.8] %; p = 0.011). No other relationship was found between clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters and plasma ADAMTS13 activity in either study group. In conclusion, plasma ADAMTS13 activity is normal in preeclampsia despite the increased VWF:Ag levels. However, further studies are needed to determine whether a decrease in plasma ADAMTS13 activity could predispose preeclamptic patients to develop HELLP syndrome. PMID:19190814

Molvarec, Attila; Rigó, János; Bõze, Tamás; Derzsy, Zoltán; Cervenak, László; Makó, Veronika; Gombos, Tímea; Udvardy, Miklós László; Hársfalvi, Jolán; Prohászka, Zoltán



PTK6/BRK is expressed in the normal mammary gland and activated at the plasma membrane in breast tumors  

PubMed Central

Protein Tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6/BRK) is overexpressed in the majority of human breast tumors and breast tumor cell lines. It is also expressed in normal epithelial linings of the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and prostate. To date, expression of PTK6 has not been extensively examined in the normal human mammary gland. We detected PTK6 mRNA and protein expression in the immortalized normal MCF-10A human mammary gland epithelial cell line, and examined PTK6 expression and activation in a normal human breast tissue microarray, as well as in human breast tumors. Phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 342 in the PTK6 activation loop corresponds with its activation. Similar to findings in the prostate, we detect nuclear and cytoplasmic PTK6 in normal mammary gland epithelial cells, but no phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 342. However, in human breast tumors, striking PTK6 expression and phosphorylation of tyrosine 342 is observed at the plasma membrane. PTK6 is expressed in the normal human mammary gland, but does not appear to be active and may have kinase-independent functions that are distinct from its cancer promoting activities at the membrane. Understanding consequences of PTK6 activation at the plasma membrane may have implications for developing novel targeted therapies against this kinase. PMID:25153721

Peng, Maoyu; Emmadi, Rajyasree; Wang, Zebin; Wiley, Elizabeth L.; Gann, Peter H.; Khan, Seema A.; Banerji, Nilanjana; McDonald, William; Asztalos, Szilard; Pham, Thao N.D.; Tonetti, Debra A.; Tyner, Angela L.



Proliferative activity of benign human prostate, prostatic adenocarcinoma and seminal vesicle evaluated by thymidine labeling  

SciTech Connect

The thymidine labeling index (TLI) was measured in vitro in the epithelium and stroma of benign prostate glands and seminal vesicles and in the epithelium of prostatic adenocarcinomas. The mean epithelial TLI of normal peripheral (posterior) prostatic zone was 0.12 per cent, and that of the normal central (deep) zone was 0.11 per cent. Mean normal stromal TLI's were 0.08 per cent and 0.06 per cent, respectively. The mean TLI of epithelium in nodular hyperplasia was 0.31 per cent, which differs significantly from normal epithelium, and the mean stromal TLI was also increased. The mean TLI of prostatic adenocarcinomas was 0.90 per cent (range 0.14 to 3.90 per cent) which was significantly higher than for either normal epithelium or epithelium of nodular hyperplasia. Trends of increasing TLI with increasing histologic grades and increasing nuclear size and numbers of nucleoli were not significant. The data support participation of both epithelial and stromal proliferation in nodular hyperplasia, and indicate a low basal proliferative rate in normal prostatic glands. The low TLI's of prostatic adenocarcinomas relative to other malignancies are consistent with their frequently slowly progressive course. The very low proliferative rate of seminal vesicular epithelium may account for the rarity of seminal vesicular carcinomas.

Meyer, J.S.; Sufrin, G.; Martin, S.A.



Proliferative activity of benign human prostate, prostatic adenocarcinoma and seminal vesicle evaluated by thymidine labeling  

SciTech Connect

The thymidine labeling index (TLI) was measured in vitro in the epithelium and stroma of benign prostate glands and seminal vesicles and in the epithelium of prostatic adenocarcinomas. The mean epithelial TLI of normal peripheral (posterior) prostatic zone was 0.12 percent, and that of the normal central (deep) zone was 0.11 percent. Mean normal stromal TLI's were 0.08 percent and 0.06 percent, respectively. The mean TLI of epithelium in nodular hyperplasia was 0.31 percent, which differs significantly from normal epithelium (p less than 0.05), and the mean stromal TLI was also increased (0.16 percent, p less than 0.1). The mean TLI of prostatic adenocarcinomas was 0.90 percent (range 0.14 to 3.90 percent) which was significantly higher than for either normal epithelium (p less than 0.001) or epithelium of nodular hyperplasia (p less than 0.05). Trends of increasing TLI with increasing histologic grades and increasing nuclear size and numbers of nucleoli were not significant. The data support participation of both epithelial and stromal proliferation in nodular hyperplasia, and indicate a low basal proliferative rate in normal prostatic glands. The low TLI's of prostatic adenocarcinomas relative to other malignancies are consistent with their frequently slowly progressive course. The very low proliferative rate of seminal vesicular epithelium (mean TLI 0.02 percent) may account for the rarity of seminal vesicular carcinomas.

Meyer, J.S.; Sufrin, G.; Martin, S.A.



Coefficient of Friction Measured from Nano- to Macro-Normal Loads on Plasma Sprayed Nanostructured Cermet Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alumina dispersed FeCuAl-based nanostructured cermet coatings were deposited from nanostructured powders by atmospheric plasma spraying on low carbon steel substrates. Nanostructuring was retained in the deposited coatings which exhibit up to four distinctive phases as revealed by electron microscopy. In this study, the friction behavior of the distinctive phases at nano-normal load scale was investigated alongside their contribution to the overall friction behavior at macro-normal load scale. Friction behavior at nano-normal load scale was investigated by lateral force microscopy, whereas conventional tribometers were used for investigations at micro and macro-normal loads. It appeared that, the friction measured at nano-normal loads on individual phases is dictated by both composition and hardness of the corresponding phases, and thus influences the overall friction behavior of the coatings at macro-normal loads. Moreover, the coefficient of friction at macro-normal loads differs from the one at nano-normal loads, and deviates from Amonton's friction law.

Basak, A. K.; Celis, J.-P.; Vardavoulias, M.; Matteazzi, P.



Isolation and characterization of gelatin-binding bison seminal vesicle secretory proteins.  


Bovine seminal plasma (BSP) contains a family of major proteins designated BSP-A1/A2, BSP-A3, and BSP-30kDa (collectively called BSP proteins) that bind to sperm at ejaculation and potentiate sperm capacitation. Homologous proteins have been identified in stallion, boar, goat, and ram seminal plasma. We report here the isolation and characterization of homologous proteins from bison seminal vesicle secretions. Seminal vesicle secretory proteins were precipitated by adding cold ethanol and recovered by centrifugation. The precipitates were resuspended in ammonium bicarbonate, dialyzed, and lyophilized. Lyophilized proteins were dissolved in 0.05 M phosphate buffer (PB) and loaded onto a gelatin-agarose column. The unadsorbed proteins and adsorbed proteins were eluted with PB and 5 M urea in PB, respectively. The gelatin-adsorbed fraction was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and revealed the presence of four major proteins designated BiSV-16kDa, BiSV-17kDa, BiSV-18kDa, and BiSV-28kDa (BiSV: bison seminal vesicle proteins). Heparin-Sepharose chromatography allowed the separation of BiSV-16kDa, which did not bind heparin from other BiSV proteins, which bound heparin. Immunoblotting revealed that BiSV-16kDa cross-reacted with BSP-A3 antibodies, BiSV-17kDa and BiSV-18kDa cross-reacted with BSP-A1/-A2 antibodies, and BiSV-28kDa cross-reacted with BSP-30kDa antibodies. Radioimmunoassays indicated that approximately 25% of bison seminal vesicle total proteins are related to BSP proteins. The amino-terminal sequencing indicated that BiSV proteins share almost 100% sequence identity with BSP proteins. In addition, BiSV proteins bind to low-density lipoproteins isolated from hen's egg yolk. These results confirm that BSP protein homologs are present in mammalian seminal plasma and they may share the same biological role. PMID:14585808

Boisvert, Mélanie; Bergeron, Annick; Lazure, Claude; Manjunath, Puttaswamy



Influence of the normalized ion flux on the constitution of alumina films deposited by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Alumina thin films were deposited onto tempered hot working steel substrates from an AlCl{sub 3}-O{sub 2}-Ar-H{sub 2} gas mixture by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The normalized ion flux was varied during deposition through changes in precursor content while keeping the cathode voltage and the total pressure constant. As the precursor content in the total gas mixture was increased from 0.8% to 5.8%, the deposition rate increased 12-fold, while the normalized ion flux decreased by approximately 90%. The constitution, morphology, impurity incorporation, and the elastic properties of the alumina thin films were found to depend on the normalized ion flux. These changes in structure, composition, and properties induced by normalized ion flux may be understood by considering mechanisms related to surface and bulk diffusion.

Kurapov, Denis; Reiss, Jennifer; Trinh, David H.; Hultman, Lars; Schneider, Jochen M. [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Thin Films Physics Division, Linkoeping University, S-58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)



Bovine seminal PDC-109 protein: An overview of biochemical and functional properties.  


Although long-term storage of bovine semen is desirable for wider use, successful cryopreservation depends on several factors, including various proteins present in seminal plasma. One such group of proteins, viz. bovine seminal plasma (BSP) proteins represents the major protein fraction in bovine seminal plasma. They constitute three major heparin-binding (HB-) acidic proteins secreted by seminal vesicles, viz. BSP-A1/-A2 (PDC-109), BSP-A3 and BSP-30-kDa. By purification studies it was deduced that PDC-109 is a polypeptide of 109 amino acids and contains two tandem repeating fibronectin type-II (Fn-II) domains, preceded by a 23 residue N-terminal domain. Though BSP-A1 and BSP-A2 are biochemically similar they differ only in glycosylation and their mixture is called PDC-109 or gonadostatins. PDC-109 exists as a polydisperse, multimeric self-associated molecule and possesses multifunctional properties, viz. binding to the surface of plasma membrane of spermatozoa causing conformational change in the sperm surface proteins and enhances motility. Besides binding, PDC-109 protein provokes cholesterol efflux from sperm membrane and promotes sperm reservoir by interacting with oviductal membrane. Interaction of sperm with PDC-109 protein induces sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction. However, prolonged exposure of spermatozoa with free floating PDC-109 protein as during processing for preservation, increases cholesterol efflux from spermatozoa. The efflux of sperm membrane cholesterol and disturbance in cholesterol:phospholipids ratio causes destabilization of plasma membrane thereby inducing cryoinjury to the sperm. In this review, the biochemical, functional properties of PDC-109 protein and its role during semen cryopreservation is summarized. PMID:23489472

Srivastava, N; Jerome, A; Srivastava, S K; Ghosh, S K; Kumar, Amit



Tactic-specific differences in seminal fluid influence sperm performance  

PubMed Central

Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that of rivals. As a consequence males may be expected to allocate their investment in both sperm and seminal fluid in relation to the potential level of competition. Grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) is an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics, where sperm competition risk varies according to the tactic adopted. Here, we experimentally manipulated grass goby ejaculates by separately combining sperm and seminal fluid from territorial and sneaker males. While sperm of sneaker and territorial males did not differ in their performance when they interacted with their own seminal fluid only, sperm of sneakers increased their velocity and fertilization rate in the presence of territorial males' seminal fluid. By contrast, sneaker males' seminal fluid had a detrimental effect on the performance of territorial males' sperm. Sperm velocity was unaffected by the seminal fluid of males employing the same tactic, suggesting that seminal fluid's effect on rival-tactic sperm is not based on a self/non-self recognition mechanism. Our findings show that cross interactions of sperm and seminal fluid may influence the fertilization success of competing ejaculates with males investing in both sperm and seminal fluid in response to sperm competition risk. PMID:23363633

Locatello, Lisa; Poli, Federica; Rasotto, Maria B.



Tactic-specific differences in seminal fluid influence sperm performance.  


Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that of rivals. As a consequence males may be expected to allocate their investment in both sperm and seminal fluid in relation to the potential level of competition. Grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) is an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics, where sperm competition risk varies according to the tactic adopted. Here, we experimentally manipulated grass goby ejaculates by separately combining sperm and seminal fluid from territorial and sneaker males. While sperm of sneaker and territorial males did not differ in their performance when they interacted with their own seminal fluid only, sperm of sneakers increased their velocity and fertilization rate in the presence of territorial males' seminal fluid. By contrast, sneaker males' seminal fluid had a detrimental effect on the performance of territorial males' sperm. Sperm velocity was unaffected by the seminal fluid of males employing the same tactic, suggesting that seminal fluid's effect on rival-tactic sperm is not based on a self/non-self recognition mechanism. Our findings show that cross interactions of sperm and seminal fluid may influence the fertilization success of competing ejaculates with males investing in both sperm and seminal fluid in response to sperm competition risk. PMID:23363633

Locatello, Lisa; Poli, Federica; Rasotto, Maria B



Wave Normal Calculations of Chorus at Saturn Using the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science Five-Channel Waveform Receiver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cassini spacecraft has completed the first year of its four-year prime mission to study the Saturnian system. The Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) Five-Channel Waveform Receiver (WFR) provides simultaneous waveforms from up to five separate sensors in passbands of either 1 Hz to 26 Hz, or 3 Hz to 2.5 kHz. The wave normal and Poynting vector

G. B. Hospodarsky; T. F. Averkamp; W. S. Kurth; D. A. Gurnett; M. K. Dougherty



Cyclicity in the Interrelationships Between Plasma Insulin and Glucose During Starvation in Normal Young Men.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plasma specimens were secured from 11 healthy young men at 7 to 8 A.M. and 3 to 4 P.M. during 3 to 4 days of total starvation and analyzed for immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and glucose. Diurnal patterns for plasma glucose could not be demonstrated. However...

N. Freinkel, M. Mager, L. Vinnick



Transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of persistent or recurrent hemospermia: a single-institution experience  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis and treatment of hemospermia presents significant difficulty, especially if it persists or recurs. In this retrospective study, we assessed whether transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy is feasible and effective in the diagnosis and treatment of hemospermia. To address this complex condition, we report our experience in a population of patients treated with transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy. From February 2006 to July 2008, 72 hemospermic patients underwent transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy examination and treatment at our urology center. Transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy was performed by a 7-F or 8-F rigid ureteroscope. The endoscopic procedure was conducted through the normal anatomic route of the seminal tracts. In this series, the mean follow-up period was 21.7 months. Definite diagnosis was made for 93.1% patients, and 94.4% patients were cured or showed a decrease in their symptoms. Postoperative complications were not observed in the study. Our study proves that transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy is effective in the diagnosis and treatment of hemospermia with minimal complication. PMID:19701221

Liu, Zhi-Yong; Sun, Ying-Hao; Xu, Chuan-Liang; Hou, Jian-Guo; Gao, Xu; Lu, Xin; Ye, Hua-Mao; Wang, Lin-Hui; Gao, Xiao-Feng



Relationship of increased plasma atrial natriuretic factor and renal sodium handling during immersion-induced central hypervolemia in normal humans.  

PubMed Central

Although maneuvers augmenting atrial volume and/or stretch also augment plasma levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), the role of ANF in modulating renal sodium and water handling has not been defined. Water immersion to the neck (NI) was employed to assess the ANF response to acute volume expansion in 13 seated sodium-replete normal subjects. ANF increased promptly and markedly from 7.8 +/- 1.8 to 19.4 +/- 3.8 fmol/ml, then declined to 6.3 +/- 1.4 fmol/ml after 60 min recovery. Concomitantly, NI increased urine flow rate (V) (2.0 +/- 0.6 to 7.0 +/- 0.9 ml/min; P less than 0.001) and sodium excretion (UNaV) (92 +/- 12 to 191 +/- 15 mu eq/min; P less than 0.001), and decreased PRA (-66 +/- 3%) and plasma aldosterone (-57 +/- 6%). Increases of plasma ANF ranged from less than 20% to over 12-fold. Similarly, the natriuretic response to NI varied markedly from none to 500%. There was a strong correlation between peak ANF and peak UNaV (r = 0.67; P less than 0.025), but none between peak V and peak plasma ANF (r = -0.10; P greater than 0.5). These findings suggest that an increase in plasma ANF contributes to the natriuretic response to NI, implying a physiological role for ANF in modulating volume homeostasis in humans. PMID:2950133

Epstein, M; Loutzenhiser, R; Friedland, E; Aceto, R M; Camargo, M J; Atlas, S A



Molecular Microheterogeneity of Prostate Specific Antigen in Seminal Fluid by Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Objectives Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used and clinically valuable marker for prostate disease. In order to enable the development of new PSA assays and progress the understanding of the biology of PSA we have analyzed PSA in seminal plasma. Design and Methods PSA in seminal plasma from men attending a fertility clinic and healthy controls was analyzed using SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and mass spectrometry. Results Using mass spectrometry, different forms of PSA could be identified in 1–9 bands seen on SDS-PAGE analysis of the respective sample. However, a majority of these molecular forms of PSA were not observed on Western blots. Enzymatic activity of PSA isoforms was demonstrated by sequencing data in zymogram gels. Multivariate analysis of clinical data revealed well-separated patient groups. Conclusions We demonstrated that PSA in seminal plasma occurs in several isoforms, yet not all were detectable using an antibody based clinical routine method. The heterogeneity of PSA expression might be of clinical significance, by an improved patient phenotyping. PMID:22209970

Vegvari, Akos; Rezeli, Melinda; Sihlbom, Carina; Hakkinen, Jari; Carlsohn, Elisabet; Malm, Johan; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas; Marko-Varga, Gyorgy



Radioimmunological Determination of Oestetrol in Plasma in Normal and Pathological Pregnancies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The radioimmunological method presented for the determination of oestetrol is suitable for measuring the concentration of this hormone in the plasma. Measuring range, accuracy and precision are comparable to those of other methods. This method will be as ...

M. Roelleke



An Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) For Detection of Seminal Fluid Using a Monoclonal Antibody to Prostatic Acid Phosphatase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microtitre plate format enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), employing commercially available PASE\\/4LJ mouse monoclonal hybridoma antibody is described. The technique is a solid phase indirect ELISA for prostatic acid phosphatase, applicable to specific detection of semen. Maximal detectability was found to be one hundred thousand fold dilution of pooled seminal plasma. No cross reactivities with human vaginal fluid, blood,

Stewart M. Allen



Proteolysis of protein C in pooled normal plasma and purified protein C by activated protein C (APC).  


Protein C is a vitamin-K dependent zymogen of the anti-coagulant serine protease activated protein C (APC). In this paper, we report four lines of evidence that APC can activate protein C in pooled normal plasma, and purified protein C. First, the addition of APC to protein C-deficient plasma supplemented with protein C produces a prolongation of the clotting time of plasma that is proportional to the amount of protein C. This behavior was observed with APC from the Chromogenix APC resistance kit (Dia Pharm, Franklin, OH, USA) and from APC derived from the thrombin activation of human protein C (Enzyme Research Laboratories, South Bend, IN, USA). Secondly, using immunoblotting after gel electrophoresis, the disappearance of epitopes for monoclonal antibodies that recognize protein C but not APC indicates a time course for the activation by APC of protein C in pooled normal plasma and protein C purified from plasma. Thirdly, the same time course for the disappearance of protein C specific epitope can be followed using ELISA. Finally, protein C can be activated by APC as indicated by the increase in APC specific synthetic substrate Tryp-Arg-Arg-p nitroaniline hydrolysis. Kinetic data indicate a value of 4.7+/-0.4 mM(-1) s(-1) for the activation of protein C by APC under physiological conditions and in the presence of calcium. These observations document that APC must function not only in the inactivation of activated factors V and VIII, but also in the activation of protein C. This additional action of APC may be important to consider more broadly because of APC in the treatment of sepsis. PMID:11897150

Hassouna, Houria; Quinn, Christopher



Numerical analysis of the effects of normalized plasma pressure on RMP ELM suppression in DIII-D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of normalized plasma pressure as characterized by normalized pressure parameter (?N) on the suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs) using resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is studied in low-collisionality (?* <= 0.2) H-mode plasmas with low-triangularity (lang?rang = 0.25) and ITER similar shapes (lang?rang = 0.51). Experimental results have suggested that ELM suppression by RMPs requires a minimum threshold in plasma pressure as characterized by ?N. The variations in the vacuum field topology with ?N due to safety factor profile and island overlap changes caused by variation of the Shafranov shift and pedestal bootstrap current are examined numerically with the field line integration code TRIP3D. The results show very small differences in the vacuum field structure in terms of the Chirikov (magnetic island overlap) parameter, Poincaré sections and field line loss fractions. These differences do not appear to explain the observed threshold in ?N for ELM suppression. Linear peeling-ballooning stability analysis with the ELITE code suggests that the ELMs which persist during the RMPs when ?N is below the observed threshold are not type I ELMs, because the pedestal conditions are deep within the stable regime for peeling-ballooning modes. These ELMs have similarities to type III ELMs or low density ELMs.

Orlov, D. M.; Moyer, R. A.; Evans, T. E.; Mordijck, S.; Osborne, T. H.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Snyder, P. B.; Unterberg, E. A.



Effect of dietary aspartame on plasma concentrations of phenylalanine and tyrosine in normal and homozygous phenylketonuric patients.  


Six normal subjects each ingested a single 12-oz can of a diet cola (Diet Coke) providing 184 mg aspartame (APM), of which 104 mg is phenylalanine (Phe), and, on another occasion, a single 12-oz can of regular cola (Coke Classic). Neither cola significantly affected plasma concentrations of Phe or tyrosine over the three-hour postingestion study period. Each of five homozygous phenylketonuric (PKU) subjects (ages 11, 16, 17, 21, and 23 years) ingested a single 12-oz can of the same diet cola. In these five subjects (three with classic PKU and two with hyperphenylalinemia), the increase in plasma Phe concentrations varied from 0.26 mg/dL to 1.77 mg/dL two or three hours after ingestion (baseline levels, 5.04 to 17.2 mg/dL). Tyrosine concentrations did not differ significantly from baseline levels. The data indicate that ingestion of dietary Phe, as supplied in a single can of diet cola, is readily handled in both normal and PKU subjects. The small increases in plasma Phe concentrations in the homozygous PKU patients are not considered clinically significant. PMID:1617863

Mackey, S A; Berlin, C M



Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Normalized Plasma Pressure on RMP ELM Suppression in DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

The effect of normalized plasma pressure as characterized by normalized pressure parameter (beta(N)) on the suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs) using resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is studied in low-collisionality (nu* <= 0.2) H-mode plasmas with low-triangularity ( = 0.25) and ITER similar shapes ( = 0.51). Experimental results have suggested that ELM suppression by RMPs requires a minimum threshold in plasma pressure as characterized by beta(N). The variations in the vacuum field topology with beta(N) due to safety factor profile and island overlap changes caused by variation of the Shafranov shift and pedestal bootstrap current are examined numerically with the field line integration code TRIP3D. The results show very small differences in the vacuum field structure in terms of the Chirikov (magnetic island overlap) parameter, Poincare sections and field line loss fractions. These differences do not appear to explain the observed threshold in beta(N) for ELM suppression. Linear peeling-ballooning stability analysis with the ELITE code suggests that the ELMs which persist during the RMPs when beta(N) is below the observed threshold are not type I ELMs, because the pedestal conditions are deep within the stable regime for peeling-ballooning modes. These ELMs have similarities to type III ELMs or low density ELMs.

Orlov, D. M. [University of California, San Diego & La Jolla; Moyer, R.A. [University of California, San Diego; Evans, T. E. [General Atomics, San Diego; Mordijck, S. [University of California, San Diego; Osborne, T. H. [General Atomics; Fenstermacher, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Snyder, P. B. [General Atomics; Unterberg, Ezekial A [ORNL



Effect of lithium on plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon in normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats: role of glucagon in the hyperglycaemic response.  

PubMed Central

1. Lithium salts, used in the treatment of affective disorders, may have adverse effects on glucose tolerance in man, and suppress glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in rats. 2. To study the interaction of these effects with pre-existing diabetes mellitus, plasma glucose and insulin responses to lithium chloride were measured in male Wistar rats made diabetic with intraperitoneal streptozotocin, and in normal controls. 3. In both normal and diabetic anaesthetized rats, intravenous lithium (4 mEq kg-1) caused a rise in plasma glucose. In absolute terms, the rise was greater in diabetic (5.2 mmol l-1) than in normal rats (2.3 mmol l-1). 4. Plasma insulin concentrations were reduced by lithium in normal rats, but the low insulin concentrations measured in the diabetic rats were not significantly changed. 5. After intravenous glucose (0.5 g kg-1), lithium-treated diabetic rats showed a second rise in plasma glucose at 60-90 min without any insulin response, while normal rats showed typically reduced insulin responses and initial glucose disappearance rates. 6. Intravenous glucose reduced plasma glucagon concentrations to a greater extent in normal than in diabetic rats, but lithium induced an equal rise in plasma glucagon in both groups, with a time-course similar to that of the hyperglycaemic effect. 7. The hyperglycaemic action of lithium is greater in the hypoinsulinaemic diabetic rats and appears to involve a stimulation of glucagon secretion in both normal and diabetic animals. PMID:8019763

Hermida, O. G.; Fontela, T.; Ghiglione, M.; Uttenthal, L. O.



Sustained Post-Mating Response in Drosophila melanogaster Requires Multiple Seminal Fluid Proteins  

PubMed Central

Successful reproduction is critical to pass genes to the next generation. Seminal proteins contribute to important reproductive processes that lead to fertilization in species ranging from insects to mammals. In Drosophila, the male's accessory gland is a source of seminal fluid proteins that affect the reproductive output of males and females by altering female post-mating behavior and physiology. Protein classes found in the seminal fluid of Drosophila are similar to those of other organisms, including mammals. By using RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down levels of individual accessory gland proteins (Acps), we investigated the role of 25 Acps in mediating three post-mating female responses: egg production, receptivity to remating and storage of sperm. We detected roles for five Acps in these post-mating responses. CG33943 is required for full stimulation of egg production on the first day after mating. Four other Acps (CG1652, CG1656, CG17575, and CG9997) appear to modulate the long-term response, which is the maintenance of post-mating behavior and physiological changes. The long-term post-mating response requires presence of sperm in storage and, until now, had been known to require only a single Acp. Here, we discovered several novel Acps together are required which together are required for sustained egg production, reduction in receptivity to remating of the mated female and for promotion of stored sperm release from the seminal receptacle. Our results also show that members of conserved protein classes found in seminal plasma from insects to mammals are essential for important reproductive processes. PMID:18085830

Ram, K. Ravi; Wolfner, Mariana F



The Effect of Chronic Sodium Loading and Sodium Restriction on Plasma Prostaglandin A, E and F Concentrations in Normal Humans  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that prostaglandins may be involved in the control of sodium homeostasis. Prostaglandin A and prostaglandin E have been shown to increase renal blood flow and urinary sodium excretion and prostaglandin A has been shown to stimulate aldosterone release. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of chronic sodium loading and sodium restriction on plasma prostaglandin A, E, and F concentrations. Seven normal human volunteers were placed on three sodium intake diets: (a) ad lib. sodium intake, (b) high sodium intake, and (c) low sodium intake. Plasma prostaglandin A, E, and F concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Mean prostaglandin A levels on the ad lib. diet were 1.60 ng/ml. Prostaglandin A levels decreased 49% to 0.82 ng/ml on the high sodium intake and increased 34% to 2.14 ng/ml on the low sodium intake. Prostaglandin A levels increased 161% on the low sodium diet in comparison with levels on the high sodium diet. Plasma prostaglandin E and F concentrations did not change significantly during variation in sodium intake. These results show that dietary sodium content markedly effects plasma prostaglandin A levels and that prostaglandins may play a role in the physiologic mechanism of sodium homeostasis. PMID:4700484

Zusman, Randall M.; Spector, David; Caldwell, Burton V.; Speroff, Leon; Schneider, George; Mulrow, Patrick J.



A novel extreme ultraviolet four channels normal incidence imaging system for plasma diagnostics of Z-pinch facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel EUV four channels normal incidence imaging system for plasma diagnostics of Z-pinch facility was presented in this paper, which consists of four concave mirrors and one convex mirror used for focusing an object onto four different positions with about 30 ?m resolution on the same image plane. In addition, this imaging system can work at the energies of 50 eV, 95 eV, 150 eV, and broadband of 50-100 eV by using different multilayer films deposited on the concave and convex mirrors. This instrument, combined with framing camera, can achieve the power of two-dimensional spatial and temporal resolution, as well as the ability to imaging the plasma at the specific temperature. In the paper, the four channels microscope centering at multi-energies was developed.

Wang, Xin; Mu, Baozhong; Zhu, Jingtao; Wang, Ling; Yi, Shengzhen; Li, Wenbin; Wang, Zhanshan; Qin, Yi; Xu, Zeping; Xu, Rongkun; Li, Zhenghong



Plasma Sphingolipids as Potential Indicators of Hepatic Necroinflammation in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase Level  

PubMed Central

Accurate estimation of hepatic necroinflammation caused by chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is crucial for prediction of prognosis and design of therapeutic strategy, which is particularly true for CHC patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Recent studies have shown that sphingolipids have a close relationship with hepatitis C virus infection. The present study aimed to identify plasma sphingolipids related to hepatic necroinflammation. We included 120 treatment-naïve CHC patients and 64/120 had normal ALT levels (<40 U/L). CHC patients who underwent liver biopsies were subjected to Scheuer scoring analysis for scope of hepatic inflammation. Plasma sphingolipids were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Our results showed 44 plasma sphingolipids were detected altogether. Of all detected sphingolipids, hexosylceramide (HexCer) (d18?1/22?0) and HexCer (d18?1/24?0) showed a significant difference among G0/G1, G2, and G3/G4 (P<0.05). For identifying hepatic necroinflammation (G?2), after adjusting other factors, the odds ratio (OR) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) reached 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00–1.02). Furthermore, the area under the curve (AUC) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was 0.7 (P?=?0.01) and approached that of ALT (AUC?=?0.78). However, in CHC patients with normal ALT, HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was an independent factor (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01–1.03) to identify the hepatic necroinflammation (G?2). HexCer (d18?1/22?0) not only showed the largest AUC (0.78, P?=?0.001), but also exhibited the highest specificity of all indicators. These results indicate that plasma HexCer (d18?1/22?0) is a potential indicator to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation in CHC patients. For CHC with normal ALT, the ability of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation might be superior to conventional serum indicators. PMID:24736528

Ren, Jin-Yu; Wu, Hui-Li; Liu, Mei; Liu, Hui; Ren, Feng; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Duan, Zhong-Ping



Effect of an Abuse Dose of Aspartame upon Plasma and Erythrocyte Levels of Amino Acids in Phenylketonuric Heterozygous and Normal Adults1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma and erythrocyte levels of free amino acids were measured in five female subjects known to be heterozygous for phenylketonuria and six subjects assumed to be normal (three male, three female) who were ad ministered an abuse dose of aspartame (100 mg\\/kg) in orange juice. Small increases in plasma aspartate levels were noted 30 minutes after aspartame load ing in



Electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometric analysis of intact bikunin glycosaminoglycan from normal human plasma  

PubMed Central

A mixture of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains from a plasma proteoglycan bikunin was fractionated using native, continuous-elution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the resulting fractions were analyzed by electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ESI FTMS). Molecular mass analysis of the intact GAG afforded information about the length and composition of GAG chains in the mixture. Ambiguity in the interpretation of the intact GAG mass spectra was eliminated by conducting an additional experiment in which the GAG chains of known molecular mass were treated with a GAG-degrading enzyme, chondroitinase ABC, and the digestion products were analyzed by ESI FTMS. The plasma bikunin GAG chains consisted predominantly of odd number of saccharides, although few chains consisting of even number of saccharides were also detected. Majority of the analyzed chains were tetrasulfated or pentasulfated and comprised by 29 to 41 monosaccharides. PMID:21860600

Laremore, Tatiana N.; Leach, Franklin E.; Amster, I. Jonathan; Linhardt, Robert J.



Identification of multiple subclasses of plasma low density lipoproteins in normal humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density gradient ultracentrifugation of low density lipoproteins (LDL) from 12 normal subjects showed multiple, distinct isopycnic bands. Each band could be assigend to one of four density intervals and the boundaries of these intervals were consistent among all the subjects. Analytic ultracentrifuge flotation (S\\/sub f\\/°) rates were assigned to the four density intervals, and there was a strong correlation between

Ronald M. Krauss; David J. Burke



Schwannoma, a rare tumor of the seminal vesicle  

PubMed Central

We present a rare case of a schwannoma of the seminal vesicle that occurred in a 43-year-old male with symptoms of the lower urinary tract. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging documented a solid mass in the patient's left seminal vesicle. A transvesical approach with a transtrigonal midline incision was successfully performed. The microscopic aspect was compatible with schwannoma. PMID:24578861

Carrasquinho, Eduardo; Ferreira, Marco; Afonso, Ana; Ferrito, Fernando



Seminal vesicle cyst and ipsilateral renal agenesis: laparoscopic approach.  


Seminal vesicle cysts with ipsilateral renal agenesis is rare. When the patient is symptomatic, surgical treatment may be necessary. However, the seminal vesicle is difficult to access surgically, and current transurethral or open surgical approaches have inherent shortcomings. The laparoscopic techniques developed in the last decade may overcome the difficulties in the surgical treatment of seminal vesicle pathology. In this study we report a patient diagnosed with left seminal vesicle cyst and ipsilateral renal agenesis who was managed successfully through the laparoscopic approach. The patient was a 41-year-old who suffered from perineal pain and intermittent hemospermia for 20 years. Ultrasonography and computerized tomography, CT, indicated a cyst of the left seminal vesicle and an absent left kidney. The total laparoscopic operation time was 90 minutes and the estimated blood loss was 80 ml. With a follow-up of 13 months, the patient had total relief of his preoperative symptoms without complication. PMID:18309901

Han, Ping; Dong, Qiang; Shi, Ming; Yang, Yu-Ru; Wei, Qiang



Management of Zinner's Syndrome Associated with Contralateral Seminal Vesicle Hypoplasia: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

A 27-year-old man presented with chronic hematospermia, painful ejaculation, and primary infertility. Physical examination, transrectal ultrasonography, and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated left seminal vesicle cyst, left renal agenesia, and contralateral seminal vesicle hypoplasia. Hormone workup (LH, FSH, prolactin, and testosterone) was normal. Sperm analysis showed oligoasthenozoospermia and low ejaculate volume. We performed transurethral resection of the ejaculatory duct (TUR-ED) using methylene blue vasography guidance without surgical-related complications. Hematospermia and painful ejaculation completely improved at 2-month followup, and the patient's wife experienced a missed abortion thereafter. This patient was considered as a rare variant of Zinner's syndrome and was managed effectively with a less invasive treatment modality (TUR-ED). PMID:23401842

Kardoust Parizi, Mehdi; Shakhssalim, Nasser



Management of Zinner's Syndrome Associated with Contralateral Seminal Vesicle Hypoplasia: A Case Report.  


A 27-year-old man presented with chronic hematospermia, painful ejaculation, and primary infertility. Physical examination, transrectal ultrasonography, and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated left seminal vesicle cyst, left renal agenesia, and contralateral seminal vesicle hypoplasia. Hormone workup (LH, FSH, prolactin, and testosterone) was normal. Sperm analysis showed oligoasthenozoospermia and low ejaculate volume. We performed transurethral resection of the ejaculatory duct (TUR-ED) using methylene blue vasography guidance without surgical-related complications. Hematospermia and painful ejaculation completely improved at 2-month followup, and the patient's wife experienced a missed abortion thereafter. This patient was considered as a rare variant of Zinner's syndrome and was managed effectively with a less invasive treatment modality (TUR-ED). PMID:23401842

Kardoust Parizi, Mehdi; Shakhssalim, Nasser



Identification and Function of Proteolysis Regulators in Seminal Fluid  

PubMed Central

Proteins in the seminal fluid of animals with internal fertilization effect numerous responses in mated females that impact both male and female fertility. Among these proteins is the highly represented class of proteolysis regulators (proteases and their inhibitors). Though proteolysis regulators have now been identified in the seminal fluid of all animals in which proteomic studies of the seminal fluid have been conducted (as well as several other species in which they have not), a unified understanding of the importance of proteolysis to male fertilization success and other reproductive processes has not yet been achieved. In this review, we provide an overview of the identification of proteolysis regulators in the seminal fluid of humans and Drosophila melanogaster, the two species with the most comprehensively known seminal fluid proteomes. We also highlight reports demonstrating the functional significance of specific proteolysis regulators in reproductive and post-mating processes. Finally, we make broad suggestions for the direction of future research into the roles of both active seminal fluid proteolysis regulators and their inactive homologs, another significant class of seminal fluid proteins. We hope that this review aids researchers in pursuing a coordinated study of the functional significance of proteolysis regulators in semen. PMID:23109270

LaFlamme, Brooke A.; Wolfner, Mariana F.



A short study of the seminal colliculus in some mammals.  


The seminal colliculus is completely absent in the donkey. It is fibroglandular in the males of camel, ox, buffalo and pig. Prostatic acini are richly found in its depth. They are lined by cubical or low columnar epithelium, are separated from each other by trabeculae of connective tissue and smooth muscle, and separated from the deeper prostrate gland by the striated muscle of the urethra. A rare type of seminal colliculus was once encountered in the ox. This type is muscular with autonomic ganglia and complete absence of glandular acini. It seems that the seminal colliculus shares the prostate in its glandular functions and prevents oozing of semen from the seminal ducts. PMID:7386162

Shehata, R



Congenital Seminal Vesicle Cyst Associated with Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis  

PubMed Central

Purpose A seminal vesicle cyst in combination with ipsilateral renal agenesis is rarely encountered. We present cases of this disease entity with symptoms, which were treated with a laparoscopic approach as a minimally invasive surgical treatment. Materials and Methods We experienced 4 patients with seminal vesicle cysts and ipsilateral renal agenesis. The mean age was 45.8 years. Chief complaints were perineal pain and hematospermia. Seminal vesicle cysts and remnant ureters were excised by laparoscopic surgery with transperitoneal approaches. Results The mean operative time was 133.8 minutes. The mean hospital stay was 6.8 days. There were no operative complications or transfusions. Conclusion In our report, patients of congenital seminal vesicle cyst associated with renal agenesis are presented. Laparoscopy is considered a minimal invasive management of these combined anomalies, providing a good image and an easy approach. PMID:19718406

Kim, Hun Soo; Rim, Joung Sik



Proteomics Reveals Novel Drosophila Seminal Fluid Proteins Transferred at Mating  

E-print Network

with several classes of molecules, including other Sfps (which may originate from seminal fluid of the same, crickets, honeybees, rodents, and primates [6­10]. Although Sfps are being studied in many species

Nachman, Michael


Seminal PDC-109 protein vis-à-vis cholesterol content and freezability of buffalo spermatozoa.  


Advancements in reproductive technologies have shown seminal plasma (SP) as a nutritive-protective medium for spermatozoa metabolism, function and transport. At the same time quality variables and thus freezability of spermatozoa are influenced by SP proteins originating from male reproductive tract. One such protein, viz. PDC-109 is reported to influence freezability of spermatozoa in cattle. Thus the present investigation was designed to evaluate effect of seminal PDC-109 protein concentration on post-thaw cholesterol content and semen quality variables (SQP) as an indicator of membrane integrity and freezability, respectively of buffalo spermatozoa. Ejaculates (n=42) selected on the basis of mass activity and individual motility were divided into three parts, first part for SP proteins isolation, second for cholesterol estimation and third part was cryo-preserved to evaluate freezability based on post-thaw SQP, viz. individual progressive motility, viability and acrosome integrity of spermatozoa. A total of 28 (66.7%) and 14 (33.3%) ejaculates from four bulls were found as freezable or non-freezable, respectively. Though total seminal plasma protein (TSPP) concentration was found similar in freezable and non-freezable ejaculates, the heparin binding proteins (HBP) content in non-freezable semen was greater (P<0.01) than freezable ejaculates. There was a similar trend for the PDC-109 protein content in respective ejaculates. Cholesterol content of spermatozoa and SQP were greater (P<0.05 and 0.01, respectively) in freezable as compared to non-freezable ejaculates of each bull at post-thaw stage. This study showed that concentrations of HBP and PDC-109 in non-freezable semen might be responsible for greater cryo-damage reflecting in poor freezability of buffalo spermatozoa. PMID:24289867

Singh, Mahak; Ghosh, S K; Prasad, J K; Kumar, Anuj; Tripathi, R P; Bhure, S K; Srivastava, N



Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects  

SciTech Connect

SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values.

Itoh, S.; Tanaka, K.; Kumagae, M.; Takeda, F.; Morio, K.; Kogure, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Watabe, T.; Miyabe, S.



Comparative N-Glycoproteomic and Phosphoproteomic Profiling of Human Placental Plasma Membrane between Normal and Preeclampsia Pregnancies with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy, which affects 2–8% of all pregnancies and is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in pathological development of placenta in preeclampsia, we used high-resolution LC-MS/MS technologies to construct a comparative N-glycoproteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling of human placental plasma membrane in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. A total of 1027 N-glyco- and 2094 phospho- sites were detected in human placental plasma membrane, and 5 N-glyco- and 38 phospho- proteins, respectively, with differentially expression were definitively identified between control and preeclamptic placental plasma membrane. Further bioinformatics analysis indicated that these differentially expressed proteins correlate with several specific cellular processes occurring during pathological changes of preeclamptic placental plasma membrane. PMID:24260401

Wang, Fuqiang; Wang, Ling; Shi, Zhonghua; Liang, Gaolin



Fibrinolysis during normal human pregnancy: complex inter-relationships between plasma levels of tissue plasminogen activator and inhibitors and the euglobulin clot lysis time.  


Although it has been previously considered that blood fibrinolytic capacity is reduced during pregnancy, this has been disputed. Also the mechanisms underlying any change in fibrinolysis in pregnancy require clarification. We have therefore measured the plasma activity of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and inhibitors (t-PAi) and the concentration of the pregnancy specific inhibitor (PA12) antigen, as well as the euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT) during normal pregnancy. Plasma concentrations of fibrinogen, plasminogen, fibrin(ogen) degradation products (FDP) and cross-linked products (D-dimer) were also monitored. We confirm a marked reduction of the fibrinolytic activity of the plasma euglobulin fraction from the second trimester, and a parallel reduction in t-PA and increase in t-PAi activities, with rapid return to non-pregnant levels post-partum. In contrast, PAI2, whilst undetectable in non-pregnant control plasma, was already measurable in the first trimester, increased through pregnancy, and remained at a high concentration up to at least 48 h post-partum. Fibrinogen and plasminogen concentrations rose progressively through pregnancy and FDP and D-dimer were frequently detectable in late pregnancy plasma. Changes in the ECLT and plasma t-PA and t-PAi activities in pregnancy cannot therefore be directly related to the concentration of PAI2 antigen. Also, despite the apparent marked reduction in fibrinolytic capacity fibrin(ogen) breakdown products are frequently present in increased plasma concentrations in late pregnancy. PMID:3134043

Wright, J G; Cooper, P; Astedt, B; Lecander, I; Wilde, J T; Preston, F E; Greaves, M



[Seminal cytokines: is quantification useful in urogenital disorders?].  


Cytokines are cellular messengers which play a key role in many biological conditions such as immune defence and reproduction. During recent years analysis of seminal cytokines has become of increasing interest in various pathologies. To evaluate the current role of seminal cytokines we performed a systematic literature search within the framework of our focus group "Male Infertility during Infection and Inflammation - MIBIE". Out of 581 manuscripts we identified 124 original articles which investigated a total of 31 different cytokines. These studies can be categorized according to the following three topics: infertility, infections and chronic prostatitis. The current analysis demonstrates that seminal cytokine profiles are not associated with either semen quality or fertility; however, cytokines might be beneficial for diagnosis and monitoring therapy in patients with urogenital infections/inflammation. Further studies are needed to clarify if a single cytokine or a combination of different cytokines is necessary to evaluate different pathologies. PMID:23429883

Pilatz, A; Hudemann, C; Wagenlehner, F; Schuppe, H-C; Diemer, T; Weidner, W; Renz, H; Bschleipfer, T



Seminal vesicle metastasis after partial hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Metastasis to the seminal vesicle is extremely rare for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To our knowledge, it has been not reported in literature. The purpose of the present paper was to report a case of metastasis to the seminal vesicle after HCC resection, along with its histological features and immunohistochemical characteristics. Case Presentation A 46-year-old Chinese man was admitted to our hospital due to abdominal distension. He had a history of HCC related to hepatitis B virus infection. Moreover, left partial hepatectomy was performed in another hospital 28 months ago, and right partial hepatectomy for HCC recurrence in our hospital 4 months ago. After resection, radiofrequency ablation therapy had been performed. About 27 months after the initial operation, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the pelvic cavity revealed a mass with homogeneous enhancement in the seminal vesicle. Transrectal needle biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Therefore, seminal vesiculectomy was resected. The histological diagnosis of the removed tumor was compatible with the original HCC. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated that the tumor cells were positive for glypican-3 (GPC3), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), hepatocyte paraffin-1 (Hep Par 1), cytokeratin 18 (CK 18), and hepatocyte antigen, which confirmed that the seminal vesicle tumor was a metastatic tumor of HCC. However, CT subsequently revealed multiple metastatic foci in the abdominal and pelvic cavities in May 2009 and August 2009, respectively. Conclusion The seminal vesicle is an extremely rare metastatic site for HCC, and the prognosis is very poor. A combination of clinical and pathological features is necessary for a correct diagnosis, and primary tumor should be excluded before diagnosing metastatic foci. PMID:21443783



Toward a self-consistent model of the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse with an overdense plasma  

SciTech Connect

Following a recent work by Sanz et al. [Phys. Rev. E 85, 046411 (2012)], we elaborate upon a one-dimensional model describing the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse and an overdense plasma. The analytical solutions of the reflected laser field, the electrostatic field, and the plasma surface oscillation are obtained within the cold-fluid approximation. The high-order harmonic spectrum is calculated from the exact solution of the plasma surface oscillations. In agreement with particle-in-cell simulations, two regimes of harmonic generation are predicted: for moderately relativistic laser intensities, or high plasma densities, the harmonic spectrum is determined by the discontinuity in the derivative of the reflected field when the electron plasma boundary oscillates across the fixed ion boundary. For higher intensities, the electron plasma boundary is confined inside the ion region and oscillates at relativistic velocities, giving rise to a train of reflected attosecond pulses. In both cases, the harmonic spectrum obeys an asymptotic ?{sup ?4} scaling. The acceleration of electrons and the related laser absorption efficiency are computed by a test particle method. The model self-consistently reproduces the transition between the “anomalous skin effect” and the “J × B” heating predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. Analytical estimates of the different scalings are presented.

Debayle, A. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France) [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); ETSI Aeronáuticos. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Sanz, J. [ETSI Aeronáuticos. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)] [ETSI Aeronáuticos. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Gremillet, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)] [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Mima, K. [School for the Creation of Photonic Industries, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan)] [School for the Creation of Photonic Industries, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan)



Expression of genes encoding for proteins involved in heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate chain synthesis and modification in normal and malignant plasma cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Syndecan-1 is a proteoglycan concentrating heparin-binding factors on the surface of multiple myeloma cells, playing likely a major role in multiple myeloma biology. As heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate are the bioactive components of syndecan-1, we analyzed the signature of genes encoding 100 proteins involved in synthesis of these chains, i.e. from precursor uptake to post-translational modifications, using Affymetrix microarrays. Throughout the differentiation of memory B cells into plasmablasts and normal bone marrow plasma cells, we show that expression of enzymes required for heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate biosynthesis is increasing, in parallel with syndecan-1 expression. Sixteen genes were significantly different between normal and malignant plasma cells, nine of these genes -EXT2, CHSY3, CSGALNACT1, HS3ST2, HS2ST1, CHST11, CSGALNACT2, HPSE, SULF2- encoding for proteins involved in glycosaminoglycan chain synthesis or modifications. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed in two independent series of patients: B4GALT7, CSGALNACT1, HS2ST1 were associated with a good prognosis whereas EXT1 was linked to a bad prognosis. This study provides an overall picture of the major genes encoding for proteins involved in heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate synthesis and modifications that can be implicated in normal and malignant plasma cells. PMID:19298595

Bret, Caroline; Hose, Dirk; Reme, Thierry; Sprynski, Anne-Catherine; Mahtouk, Karène; Schved, Jean-François; Quittet, Philippe; Rossi, Jean-François; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Klein, Bernard



Primary malignancy of seminal vesicle: A rare entity  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of seminal vesicle malignancy (primitive neuro ectodermal tumor) in a 40-year-old male patient. He was treated with enbloc resection of the tumor and ureteric reimplantation. In view of the rarity of this entity, management of these tumors should be individualized. PMID:21716878

Ramamurthy, Rajaraman; Periasamy, Saravanan; Mettupalayam, Viswanathan



An unusual cause of hematospermia: Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle  

PubMed Central

Adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles is one of the rare causes of hematospermia. Primary seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose due to frequent invasion of adenocarcinomas of the surrounding organs, especially the prostate. In the present study, a case of a primary seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma will be discussed in the light of the current literature. PMID:23283099

Eken, Alper; Izol, Volkan; Aridogan, I. Atilla; Erdogan, Seyda; Ac?kal?n, Arbil; Tansug, Zuhtu



Proteinuria and plasma total homocysteine levels in chronic renal disease patients with a normal range serum creatinine: critical impact of true glomerular filtration rate.  


Conflicting data have been reported concerning the independent association between proteinuria and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, particularly among chronic renal disease (CRD) patients with a normal range serum creatinine. Studies of this potential relationship have been limited by failure to assess true GFR, failure to assess proteinuria in a quantitative manner, or arbitrary restriction of the range of proteinuria examined. We examined the potential independent relationship between plasma tHcy levels and a wide range of quantitatively determined proteinuria (i.e., 0.000-8.340 g/day), among 109 CRD patients with a normal range serum creatinine (range; 0.8-1.5 mg/dl; median=1.2 mg/dl). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was directly assessed by iohexol clearance, and plasma status of folate, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and B12, along with serum albumin, were also determined. Linear modeling with ANCOVA revealed that proteinuria was not independently associated with tHcy levels (partial R=0.127; P=0.201), after adjustment for potential confounding by GFR (partial R=0.408; P<0.001), age, sex, plasma B-vitamin status, and serum albumin. Moreover, descending across quartiles (Q) [from Q4 to Q1] of GFR, ANCOVA-adjusted (i.e., for age, sex, and folate status) geometric mean tHcy levels (micromol/l) were significantly increased: tHcy Q4 GFR=9.6; tHcy Q3 GFR=10.5; tHcy Q2 GFR=11.9; tHcy Q4 GFR=14.5; P<0.001 for overall Q difference. We conclude that across a broad spectrum of quantitatively determined proteinuria, after adjustment for true GFR, in particular, there is no independent relationship between proteinuria and tHcy levels among CRD patients with a normal range serum creatinine. PMID:11689224

Bostom, A G; Kronenberg, F; Jacques, P F; Kuen, E; Ritz, E; König, P; Kraatz, G; Lhotta, K; Mann, J F; Müller, G A; Neyer, U; Riegel, W; Schwenger, V; Riegler, P; Selhub, J



The Bcl-2 family member Bfl-1/A1 is strongly repressed in normal and malignant human plasma  

E-print Network

, we found a similar down- regulation of Bfl-1/A1 in both normal immature plasmablasts and mature PC marrow and intestinal lamina propria (Medina, et al 2002, Medina, et al 2003). PC precursors are short). The late stages of normal B-cell differentiation are tightly regulated by the coordinate expression

Boyer, Edmond


Ultra intense laser/plasma interaction at normal incidence: Relativistic mirrors effects, high harmonics generation and absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical study of the relativistic interaction of a linearly-polarized laser-field of ? frequency with highly overdense plasma is presented. Very intense high harmonics are generated produced by relativistic mirrors effects due to the relativistic electron plasma oscillation. Also, in agreement with 1D Particle-In-Cell Simulations (PICS), the model self-consistently explains the transition between the sheath inverse bremsstrahlung (SIB) absorption regime and the J×B heating (responsible for the 2? electron bunches), as well as the mean electron energy.

Sanz, Javier; Debayle, Arnaud; Mima, K.



Sodium concentration in urine greater than in the plasma: possible biomarker of normal renal function and better outcome in critically ill patients.  


Correct interpretation of the urinary sodium concentration (NaU) and its relation to renal function in critically ill patients is lacking. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between simultaneous NaU value and serum creatinine (sCr). The hypothesis is that a NaU value greater than 140 mmol/l (normal equivalent value in plasma) is only found in patients with normal sCr. We made a retrospective analysis of 1153 simultaneous samples of NaU and sCr, divided according to diuretic use in the previous 24 hours and grouped in five distinct NaU ranges (< 20, 20 to 39, 40 to 139, 140 to 169, ? 170 mmol/l). NaU values below 140 mmol/l were found simultaneously with both normal and increased sCr. NaU values above 140 mmol/l were almost always found in patients with normal sCr, even if diuretics were used. Median sCr values in the NaU ranges above 140 mmol/l were significantly lower than in the other NaU ranges. Estimated glomerular filtration rates were lower and intensive care unit and hospital mortalities were higher in patients with NaU values lower than 140 mmol/l compared to patients with a NaU higher than 140 mmol/l. We concluded that a high natriuretic capacity reflects significant residual renal function in the critically ill. NaU greater than normal plasma sodium is a possible biomarker of normal/improving renal function and also of better outcome. Sole NaU values below 140 mmol/l are difficult to interpret but it is possible that very low NaU values may signify some threat to normal kidney function and worse prognosis even in the presence of normal sCr. Our way to interpret NaU values in critically ill patients needs further careful evaluation. PMID:25233171

Maciel, A T; Vitorio, D; Salles, L D; Park, M



Hypoprolactinemia as related to seminal quality and serum testosterone.  


Semen quality and serum testosterone were studied in six men with hypoprolactinemia (less than or equal to 6 ng/ml) and in normoprolactinemic controls. The incidence of hypoprolactinemia in 92 men attending an infertility clinic was 7.5%. Males with hypoprolactinemia showed in high percentage of disorders (oligozoospermia, 50%; asthenospermia, 75%; hypofunction of seminal vesicles, 67%; and hypoandrogenism, 67%). Hypoprolactinemia is a clinical disorder associated mainly with poor sperm motility. PMID:2619414

Gonzales, G F; Velasquez, G; Garcia-Hjarles, M



Leiomyoma of the Seminal Vesicle: A Rare Case  

PubMed Central

Leiomyomas though common benign tumors of smooth muscle cells are extremely rare in the male genitourinary tract. We present a case of an elderly male who presented with complaints suggestive of urinary bladder outlet obstruction since 1 year. His evaluation showed it due to a tumour arising from the left seminal vesicle. Excision of the tumor was done which was diagnosed on histopathology as leiomyoma. A brief case report and review of literature is being presented. PMID:24765520

Shaikh, Aftab S.; Bakhshi, Girish D.; Khan, Arshad S.; Jamadar, Nilofar M.; Nirmala, Aravind Kotresh; Raza, Arif Ahmed



The effect of indomethacin on the circulatory and plasma noradrenaline responses to cold pressor testing in normal subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostaglandins may alter neuronal noradrenaline release or vascular responsiveness to sympathoexcitation. The purpose of this study was to determine if indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, influences the sympathetic and circulatory adjustments to a commonly utilized laboratory stressor in the clinical assessment of autonomic function, the cold pressor test. Venous plasma noradrenaline levels (n = 8), mean arterial pressure and heart

Kevin P. Davy; Jay H. Williams; William G. Herbert



Essential stations in the intracellular pathway of cytotoxic bovine seminal ribonuclease.  

PubMed Central

Bovine seminal RNase (BS-RNase) is a dimeric RNase selectively cytotoxic for malignant cells. No information is available on its pathway from the extracellular matrix through the cytosol, where it degrades rRNA. An investigation of this pathway is reported here, carried out by immunofluorescence studies, by assessing the effects on BS-RNase cytotoxicity of drugs that affect specific intracellular compartments and by assaying the behaviour of a protein variant, BS-RNase-KDEL (BS-RNase in which a Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu peptide segment is inserted at the C-terminal ends of the subunit chains), endowed with a consensus sequence that directs proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum. BS-RNase was found to bind both normal and malignant cells and to be internalized by both cell types in endosome vesicles. Non-cytotoxic RNases, such as RNase A and a monomeric derivative of BS-RNase, did not bind to the cell surface and were not internalized. However, an engineered, dimeric and cytotoxic variant of RNase A bound effectively and permeated cells. The results of immunofluorescence studies, the effects of nigericin, monensin and brefeldin A on the cytotoxic action of seminal RNase, and the behaviour of the BS-RNase-KDEL variant, led to the conclusion that the pathway of BS-RNase in malignant cells from the extracellular matrix to the cytosol has two essential intracellular stations: endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. In normal cells, however, the protein does not progress from the endosomal compartment to the Golgi complex. PMID:11879181

Bracale, Aurora; Spalletti-Cernia, Daniela; Mastronicola, Mariarosaria; Castaldi, Francesco; Mannucci, Roberta; Nitsch, Lucio; D'Alessio, Giuseppe



Assessment of fetal exposure risk following seminal excretion of a therapeutic IgG4 (T-IgG4) monoclonal antibody using a rabbit model.  


Studies were conducted in New Zealand White rabbits to assess the seminal transfer, vaginal absorption, and placental transfer of a therapeutic monoclonal antibody (T-IgG4). T-IgG4 was administered by intravenous injection (IV) in males and by IV and intravaginal routes in females. Low levels of T-IgG4 were excreted into seminal plasma (100- to 370-fold lower than serum concentrations) and absorbed following vaginal dosing (three orders of magnitude lower than IV administration). On gestation day 29 (GD29), fetal serum T-IgG4 levels were 1.5-fold greater than maternal levels following IV dosing. The fetal T-IgG4 exposure ratio for seminal transfer vs. direct maternal IV dosing was estimated to be 1.3×10(-8). Applying human serum T-IgG4 exposure data to the model, the estimated human T-IgG4 serum concentration from seminal transfer was 3.07×10(-7)?g/mL, an exposure level at least 1000-fold lower than the T-IgG4-ligand dissociation constant (Kd) and at least seven orders of magnitude lower than the in vivo concentration producing 20% inhibition of the target (EC20). These data indicate that excretion of a T-IgG4 into semen would not result in a biologically meaningful exposure risk to the conceptus of an untreated partner. PMID:24863471

Breslin, William J; Hilbish, Kim G; Page, Todd J; Coutant, David E



Reduced plasma levels of asymmetric di-methylarginine (ADMA) in patients with alcohol dependence normalize during withdrawal.  


Asymmetric di-methylarginine, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, is increasingly recognized as vascular risk factor. Elevated ADMA levels have been described not only in 'typical' vascular diseases like congestive heart failure, artherosclerosis and diabetes but also for major depression and Alzheimer's disease. As homocysteine increases ADMA levels and elevated homocysteine serum levels are present in patients with alcohol dependence, the aim of the present study was to examine plasma ADMA levels in patients with alcohol dependence during withdrawal. ADMA and homocysteine levels were measured in the plasma from 42 patients drawn at baseline, on day 1, day 3 and day 7-10 of inpatient detoxification treatment. Measurements were compared against 32 healthy controls. We found significantly lower levels of ADMA in patients at baseline and on day 1 and 3, while no differences were present at the end of treatment. Plasma ADMA levels significantly increased during withdrawal. We found no association between homocysteine and ADMA levels. Our finding of reduced ADMA levels in actively drinking alcohol dependent patients is in apparent contrast to other findings regarding cardiovascular risk factors in alcoholism. However an influence of alcohol on arginine metabolism may help explain the so called 'French paradox'. PMID:22507687

Frieling, Helge; Leitmeier, Viktoria; Haschemi-Nassab, Mani; Kornhuber, Johannes; Rhein, Mathias; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas



Spectroscopic studies and rotational and vibrational temperature measurements of atmospheric pressure normal glow plasma discharges in air  

Microsoft Academic Search

DC normal glow (NG) discharges were created in atmospheric pressure air for a pin to plate type geometry. The rotational and vibrational temperatures of the discharge were measured by comparing modelled optical emission spectra with spectroscopic measurements from the discharge. The temperatures were measured as a function of discharge current, ranging from 50 µA to 30 mA, and discharge length,

David Staack; Bakhtier Farouk; Alexander F. Gutsol; Alexander A. Fridman



Rotational and vibrational temperature measurements of atmospheric pressure normal glow plasma discharges in air, nitrogen, argon, and helium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Atmospheric pressure DC normal glow discharges were created in air and other gases. The rotational and vibrational temperature of the discharge was measured by comparing optical emission spectra modeled using SPECAIR to spectroscopic measurements from the discharge using the 2nd positive system of N2. In air the temperatures were measured as a function of discharge current,

D. Staack; B. Farouk; A. Gutsol; A. Fridman



Effect of egg cholesterol and dietary fats on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and apoproteins of normal women consuming natural diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine normal women, 22 to 37 years old, consumed controlled quantities of natural foods to test their responses to dietary cholesterol and saturated fat. All diets contained, as per- centage of calories, 14% protein, 31% fat, and 55% carbo- hydrate. The main sources of polyunsaturated and saturated fats were corn oil and lard, respectively, and egg yolk was used for

Eleni E. Zanni; Vassilis I. Zannis; Conrad B. Blum; Peter N. Herbert; Jan L. Breslow


Cognitive function, plasma MnSOD activity, and MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism in patients with schizophrenia and normal controls.  


Excessive reactive oxygen species are thought to produce oxidative damage that underlies neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment in several disorders including schizophrenia. The functional Ala-9Val polymorphism of the mitochondrial enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), which detoxifies superoxide radicals to hydrogen peroxide, has been associated with schizophrenia. However, no study has reported its role in cognitive deficits of schizophrenia as mediated through MnSOD activity. We recruited 923 schizophrenic inpatients and 566 healthy controls and compared them on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), plasma MnSOD activity, and the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism. We assessed patient psychopathology using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. We showed that the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism may not contribute directly to the susceptibility to schizophrenia. The Ala variant was associated with worse attention performance among chronic schizophrenic patients but not among normal controls. Plasma MnSOD activity was significantly decreased in patients compared with that in normal controls. Moreover, MnSOD activity among the schizophrenic Ala allele carriers was correlated with the degree of cognitive impairments, especially attention and RBANS total score. We demonstrated an association between the MnSOD Ala-9Val variant and poor attention in schizophrenia. The association between higher MnSOD activity and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is dependent on the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism. PMID:23588476

Zhang, Xiang Y; Chen, Da C; Xiu, Mei H; Yang, Fu D; Tan, Yunlong; Luo, Xingguang; Zuo, Lingjun; Kosten, Therese A; Kosten, Thomas R



[Adverse reactions and changes in norepinephrine and epinephrine in the plasma after intravenous thyroliberin in persons with normal and abnormal thyroid function].  


14 normal volunteers, 23 patients with euthyroid goiter, 9 patients with hypothyroidism and 17 patients with hyperthyroidism were injected with 400 micrograms thyroliberin (thyrotropin releasing hormone, TRH). The documented side effects were the same in all the 4 groups studied. Subjective symptoms such as flushing, nausea, urinary urgency, dizziness and headache in decreasing sequence were mentioned by 86% of subjects. Shortly after thyroliberin injection, a mean increase of 26 +/- 13 mm Hg for systolic and 14 +/- 6 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure as well as an increased heart rate by 7.2 +/- 6.6 min-1 was demonstrated. Plasma catecholamines were lowered in patients with euthyroid goiter and hyperthyroidism and raised in patients with hypothyroidism, compared with the controls. Thyroliberin administration was associated with an activation of the sympathoadrenal system. The increments in plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were proportional to initial values, but were insufficient to affect blood pressure. The mean increase of 28% for plasma epinephrine and 21% for norepinephrine were maximal in the second to the forth minute, where subjective symptoms, blood pressure and heart rate were already decreasing. In view of the rapid onset of the subjective symptoms as well as the chronotropic and the pressor response, thyroliberin may partly exert these effects centrally or directly on the vascular system, independently of catecholamines. Since individual systolic blood pressure increased by as much as 64 mm Hg, caution is advised in selecting patients with risk factors for testing. PMID:3116148

Ratge, D; Barthels, U; Wisser, H; Bode, J C



Purification and characterization of androgen receptor from steer seminal vesicle.  


The androgen receptor has been purified from steer seminal vesicle cytosol by a combination of differential DNA-Sepharose 4B chromatography and testosterone 17 beta-hemisuccinyl-3,3'-diaminodipropylamine-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography. The procedure produced about 3 micrograms of receptor protein from 35 g of steer seminal vesicle, with a yield of 48%. The receptor protein, as a complex with unlabeled testosterone, was purified approximately 540000-fold. A single band, migrating at 60000 daltons, was observed following electrophoresis on a polyacrylamide gel containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (NaDoDSO4). This was confirmed by affinity labeling of the partially purified receptor with both 17-hydroxy-17 alpha-[3H]methyl-4,9,11-estratrien-3-one and 17 beta-hydroxy-[1,2,4,5,6,7,16,17-3H8)-5 alpha-androstan-3-one 17-(2-bromoacetate), which showed a peak of radioactivity migrating at 60000 daltons by NaDoDSO4 gel electrophoresis. The receptor had an estimated Stokes radius of 35 A and a sedimentation coefficient of 3.8 S in the presence of 0.3 M NaCl. The calculated molecular weight and frictional ratio for the androgen binding activity were 57000 and 1.42, respectively. Chromatofocusing of the purified receptor protein revealed an isoelectric point of 6.6. [3H]Methyltrienolone, bound to the purified receptor, was displaced with methyl-trienolone greater than testosterone greater than 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone much greater than 3 beta-hydroxy-delta 5-androsten-17-one much greater than 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol. The physicochemical properties of the purified receptor were similar to those of the receptor in crude cytosol. These results demonstrate that the androgen receptor from steer seminal vesicle was substantially purified without significant modification of its physicochemical or steroid binding properties. PMID:6982067

Chang, C H; Rowley, D R; Lobl, T J; Tindall, D J



Lesions of the Seminal Vesicles and their MRI Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Over the past few decades, MRI of the prostate has made great strides in improving cancer detection and is being embraced by more clinicians each day. This article aims to review the imaging characteristics of common and uncommon, but consequential lesions involving the seminal vesicles (SV), as seen predominantly on MRI. Many of these findings are seen incidentally during imaging of the prostate. Anatomy and embryology of the SV will be described which will help illustrate the associations of abnormalities seen. Congenital, infectious, neoplastic, and tumor mimics will be explored in detail, with discussion on clinical presentation and treatment strategies.

Reddy, Mahati N; Verma, Sadhna



Radiology-pathology conference: malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the seminal vesicle.  


Mesenchymal neoplasms are rarely encountered in the seminal vesicle. Only four cases of the seminal vesicle solitary fibrous tumor have been reported in English literature, all of which were benign in nature. We are describing the clinicoradiological and pathological features of a locally aggressive malignant solitary fibrous tumor arising from the seminal vesicle, which posed the therapeutic challenge for the surgical management in a 52-year-old male patient. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of the malignant solitary fibrous tumor arising from the seminal vesicle. PMID:23466005

Khandelwal, Ashish; Virmani, Vivek; Amin, Md Shahrier; George, Uttam; Khandelwal, Kanika; Gorsi, Ujjwal



[The role of seminal vesicles in male reproduction and sexual function].  


The present review is intended to give an outlook on the relationship between male reproduction and seminal vesicles, which are an important subsidiary gonad of males and play a key role in male fertility process. Seminal vesicle secretion is important for semen coagulation and may promote sperm motility, increase stability of sperm chromatin, and suppress the immune activity in the female reproductive tract. Furthermore, the sexual function of males is closely related to the swelling degree of seminal vesicles. The abnormal function of seminal vesicles may give rise to sexual dysfunction and infertility of males. PMID:18284063

Zhang, Xin-Dong; Jin, Bao-Fang



Bacterial Communities in Semen from Men of Infertile Couples: Metagenomic Sequencing Reveals Relationships of Seminal Microbiota to Semen Quality  

PubMed Central

Some previous studies have identified bacteria in semen as being a potential factor in male infertility. However, only few types of bacteria were taken into consideration while using PCR-based or culturing methods. Here we present an analysis approach using next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics analysis to investigate the associations between bacterial communities and semen quality. Ninety-six semen samples collected were examined for bacterial communities, measuring seven clinical criteria for semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, Kruger's strict morphology, antisperm antibody (IgA), Atypical, and leukocytes). Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) was also performed. Results showed that the most abundant genera among all samples were Lactobacillus (19.9%), Pseudomonas (9.85%), Prevotella (8.51%) and Gardnerella (4.21%). The proportion of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella was significantly higher in the normal samples, while that of Prevotella was significantly higher in the low quality samples. Unsupervised clustering analysis demonstrated that the seminal bacterial communities were clustered into three main groups: Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, and Prevotella predominant group. Remarkably, most normal samples (80.6%) were clustered in Lactobacillus predominant group. The analysis results showed seminal bacteria community types were highly associated with semen health. Lactobacillus might not only be a potential probiotic for semen quality maintenance, but also might be helpful in countering the negative influence of Prevotella and Pseudomonas. In this study, we investigated whole seminal bacterial communities and provided the most comprehensive analysis of the association between bacterial community and semen quality. The study significantly contributes to the current understanding of the etiology of male fertility. PMID:25340531

Weng, Shun-Long; Chiu, Chih-Min; Lin, Feng-Mao; Huang, Wei-Chih; Liang, Chao; Yang, Ting; Yang, Tzu-Ling; Liu, Chia-Yu; Wu, Wei-Yun; Chang, Yi-An; Chang, Tzu-Hao; Huang, Hsien-Da



Sperm competition and the evolution of seminal fluid composition.  


Male ejaculates include large amounts of seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) that influence male sperm competitive success. In spite of their diverse proximate functions, Sfps involved in sperm competition increase male fitness in one of three ways: (1) "avoidance" proteins help males avoid sperm competition, (2) "defense" proteins help males defend their sperm from displacement by the female's subsequent mate, and (3) "offense" proteins aid males in displacing sperm of preceding males. Here, we present a population genetic model of the evolution of allocation of finite resources by males to the three kinds of Sfps. We analyze the influence of relative efficiencies of different Sfps, of plasticity in resource allocation, and of differences in viability costs of Sfps. We find that in absence of plasticity or different viability costs, equal investment in defense and offense Sfps evolves, irrespective of their relative efficiency. In all cases, males evolve to invest more in avoidance when avoidance proteins are increasingly efficient, and when offense is more efficient than defense. Differences in viability costs result in lower investment in costly proteins, whereas plasticity has complex effects, influencing both the optimal seminal fluid composition and maintenance of variation in investment in these proteins across populations. PMID:24975874

Dhole, Sumit; Servedio, Maria R



Microbiota of the seminal fluid from healthy and infertile men  

PubMed Central

Objective: To explore potential causes of male infertility by determining the composition and structure of commensal bacterial communities in seminal fluids. Design: Microscopy of gram stained semen samples and classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences to determine the species composition of semen bacterial communities. Setting(s): Clinical andrology laboratory and academic research laboratories. Patient(s): 19 sperm donors and 58 infertility patients. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences, clustering of seminal microbial communities, and multiple statistical tests. Result(s): High numbers of diverse kinds of bacteria were present in most samples of both sperm donors and infertility patients. The bacterial communities varied widely between subjects, but they could be clustered into six groups based on similarities in composition and the rank abundances of taxa. Overall there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients. However, multiple statistical tests showed a significant negative association between sperm quality and the presence of Anaerococcus. The results also indicated that many of the bacterial taxa identified in semen also occur in the vaginal communities of some women, especially those with bacterial vaginosis, which suggests heterosexual sex partners may share bacteria. Conclusion(s): Diverse kinds of bacteria were present in the human semen, there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients, The presence of Anaerococcus might be a biomarker for low sperm quality. PMID:23993888

Hou, Dongsheng; Zhou, Xia; Zhong, Xue; Settles, Matt; Herring, Jessica; Wang, Li; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J.; Xu, Chen



Nutritional support by intraperitoneal dialysis in the rat: maintenance of body weight with normal liver and plasma chemistries.  


A rat model was developed to study intraperitoneal (ip) dialysis as a means of total nutritional support. Rats (200 g) were implanted ip with a catheter device and connected to a rodent infusion assembly. An automated system exchanged 10-ml volumes of a 37 degrees C solution containing 10% dextrose, 2% amino acid solution plus micronutrients. Rats were adapted over 3 days to a schedule of 16 1-hr cycles/day, and continued on this regimen for another 4 days. Rats subjected to this program maintained similar body weight, nitrogen balance, plasma chemistries, and liver tests in comparison to control animals fed per os in isocaloric and isonitrogenous amounts. Efficiency of peritoneal absorption for both glucose and amino acid was 95%. Histological examination of intraabdominal organs revealed only mild inflammation. This model is applicable to studies involving nutritional support via the peritoneal cavity, a technique which may be of value in patients with sensitive fluid balances (cardiac, renal, or pulmonary failure). PMID:3125358

Pessa, M E; Sitren, H S; Copeland, E M; Talbert, J L; Schmidt, G; Baumgartner, T G



Relationship among plasma adipokines, insulin and androgens level as well as biochemical glycemic and lipidemic markers with incidence of PCOS in women with normal BMI.  


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder in women. Omentin-1 and vaspin are secretary adipokines that are produced by the visceral adipose tissue. These levels change in obese women with PCOS. The aim of this study is to investigate whether omentin and vaspin levels change in nonobese PCOS subjects. This study is a cross-sectional case control study in which 39 women with PCOS were picked out for this study. The inclusion criteria were based on the Rotterdam 2003 diagnostic criteria. The control group consisted of 39 women with normal pelvic sonographic reports having regular menstruation and showing no signs of infertility. The fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglyceride (TG), Chol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), insulin, testosterone, omentin and vaspin were measured by the enzymatic methods. The differences within these groups were calculated by the un-paired t-test and the Mann-Whitney test. The results from this study show a significant increase in the amount of insulin, testosterone, homeostasis model assessments for insulin resistance, TG and lower HDL in the patient group. No significant differences were seen in omentin, vaspin, FPG, Cho, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, Cr and homeostasis model assessments for B cell function levels between groups. Results show that PCOS is not a determinant of decreased omentin and vaspin plasma levels and those high androgen level and insulin resistances are warning signs of PCOS. PMID:22309615

Akbarzadeh, Samad; Ghasemi, Soghra; Kalantarhormozi, Mohamadreza; Nabipour, Iraj; Abbasi, Fateme; Aminfar, Alnaz; Jaffari, Seyed Mojtaba; Motamed, Niloofar; Movahed, Ali; Mirzaei, Mostafa; Rahbar, Ali Reza



Role of the apolipoprotein A-IV polymorphism at codon 347 in affecting normal plasma lipid and apolipoprotein variation  

SciTech Connect

Apolipoprotein A-IV (APOA-IV) is a major component of several lipoprotein particles, and is therefore expected to play an important role in lipid metabolism. Sequence analysis of the APOA-IV coding region has revealed a common nucleotide substitution at codon 347 which converts the commonly present threonine residue (allele A) into serine (allele T). In this investigation, we determined the APOA-IV polymorphism at codon 347 by polymerase chain reaction-based assay in 537 normolipidemic non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), and 377 normolipidemic Hispanics from the San Luis Valley, Colorado, and examined its effect on quantitative lipid and apolipoprotein traits. The frequency of the less common allele (APOA-IV*T) was significantly lower in Hispanics than in NHWs (0.13 vs. 0.20; P<0.01), most probably due to substantial Amerindian admixture. After adjusting for concomitant variables including age, cigarette smoking, body mass index and premenopausal or postmenopausal status in women, we found significant ethnic and gender-specific effects of the APOA-IV polymorphism on plasma levels of APOA-I (P=0.01) and LP(a) (P=0.03) in NHW women only. There was a clear gene dosage effect on the two quantitative traits: APOA-I levels were lowest in the TT genotype, intermediate in the AT genotype, and highest in the AA genotype; the trend was reversed for LP(a) levels among the three genotypes. The average effect of the APOA-IV*T allele was to lower APOA-I levels by 7.8 mg/dl and to raise LP(a) levels by 2.6 mg/dl. These data suggest that the APO-IV*T allele may be associated with atherogenic apolipoprotein profile in NHW women as lower levels of APOA-I and higher levels of LP(a) are considered to be major risk factors for coronary heart disease.

Wang, G.O.; Kamboh, M.I.; Aston, C.E. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others



Measurement of canine gastric vascular permeability to plasma proteins in the normal and protein-losing states  

SciTech Connect

An isolated segment of the greater curvature of a dog's stomach was perfused at constant flow through a single cannulated artery with donor blood containing 131I-albumin, 125I-fibrinogen, and papaverine. Perfusion pressure was 30-50 mmHg, and venous pressure was set at 15 mmHg. Venous blood was collected in 1-min samples for 60 min. Filtration of fluid and loss of labeled proteins were calculated as the difference between measured arterial inflow and venous outflow. Permeability-surface area products (PS) were calculated for the proteins, and reflection coefficients (sigma) were calculated from solute flux and filtration. Intraarterial infusion of histamine (1.6-1.9 microgram . ml-1) increased filtration and PS and decreased sigma for albumin but not fibrinogen. When protein-losing was established by topical irrigation with 10 mM dithiothreitol in neutral solution, filtration and PS increased, and sigma for albumin but not fibrinogen decreased. Irrigation of the mucosa with 10 mM salicylic acid in 100 mN HCl caused bleeding that was quantitated by addition of 51Cr-erythrocytes to perfusing blood. Filtration and PS increased, and sigma for albumin but not fibrinogen decreased. Hematocrit of blood lost remained low during extensive mucosal damage. Effects of histamine infusion were attenuated or abolished by cimetidine (4 mg . kg-1 loading, 1.4 mg . kg-1 . h-1 continuous infusion) or by pyrilamine maleate (5 mg . kg-1 bolus injection at beginning of irrigation, repeated at 40-50 min). Pyrilamine attenuated or abolished effects of topical dithiothreitol or salicylic acid. We conclude that during protein loss caused by dithiothreitol or salicylic acid, histamine released within the mucosa causes increased vascular permeability for plasma proteins.

Wood, J.G.; Davenport, H.W.



Searching for candidate speciation genes using a proteomic approach: seminal proteins in field crickets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many animals, male seminal proteins influence gamete interactions and fertilization ability and are probably involvedin barriers togene flowbetween diverging lineages. Here weuse a proteomic approach to identify seminal proteins that are transferred to females during copulation and that may be involved in fertilization barriers between two hybridizing field crickets (Gryllus firmus and Gryllus pennsylvanicus). Analyses of patterns of divergence

Jose A. Andrés; Luana S. Maroja; Richard G. Harrison



Chemical composition of seminal and ovarian fluids of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and their effects on sperm motility traits  

E-print Network

Chemical composition of seminal and ovarian fluids of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha- ), osmolality, and pH of ovarian and seminal fluid of sexually mature chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

Montgomerie, Bob


Laparoscopic Removal of a Congenital Seminal Vesicle Cyst in Zinner's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Seminal vesicle cysts are rarely diagnosed, but symptomatic congenital seminal vesicle cysts are reported in the literature describing Zinner syndrome. Case Description: We present the case of a 26-year-old patient admitted to the urology department because of abdominal pain. A left seminal vesicle cyst and left kidney agenesis were found on examination, and the patient qualified for laparoscopic removal of the left seminal vesicle cyst. The procedure was performed with transperitoneal access using 5 trocars. The peritoneum was incised between the bladder and the rectum to reveal the left seminal vesicle, which was resected from the surrounding tissue. A TachoSil (Takeda Pharmaceuticals, Zurich, Switzerland) hemostatic sponge was placed in the ledge after cutting the base of the seminal vesicle. Discussion: The aim of this study was to evaluate usefulness of the laparoscopic technique to remove a cystic seminal vesicle. The procedure lasted 180 minutes, and the estimated blood loss was 50 mL. We did not record any intra- or postoperative complications. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the third postoperative day and remains symptom-free after 12 months. Histopathologic examination confirmed the presence of a seminal vesicle cyst, and renal agenesis and stenosis of the vas deferens suggests Zinner syndrome. Symptomatic seminal vesicle cysts are a good indication for the application of a laparoscopic technique and, in our opinion, this is better than the open technique because of the view into the surgical area. Therefore, it should be used as the method of choice in treating seminal vesicle defects. PMID:24960509

Listopadzki, S?awomir; Kowalski, Marek



Male Mating Rate Is Constrained by Seminal Fluid Availability in Bedbugs, Cimex lectularius  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection, differences in reproductive success between individuals, continues beyond acquiring a mating partner and affects ejaculate size and composition (sperm competition). Sperm and seminal fluid have very different roles in sperm competition but both components encompass production costs for the male. Theoretical models predict that males should spend ejaculate components prudently and differently for sperm and seminal fluid but empirical evidence for independent variation of sperm number and seminal fluid volume is scarce. It is also largely unknown how sperm and seminal fluid variation affect future mating rate. In bedbugs we developed a protocol to examine the role of seminal fluids in ejaculate allocation and its effect on future male mating rate. Using age-related changes in sperm and seminal fluid volume we estimated the lowest capacity at which mating activity started. We then showed that sexually active males allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid volume per mating and predicted that males would be depleted of seminal fluid but not of sperm. We tested (and confirmed) this prediction empirically. Finally, the slightly faster replenishment of seminal fluid compared to sperm did not outweigh the faster decrease during mating. Our results suggest that male mating rate can be constrained by the availability of seminal fluids. Our protocol might be applicable to a range of other organisms. We discuss the idea that economic considerations in sexual conflict research might benefit from distinguishing between costs and benefits that are ejaculate dose-dependent and those that are frequency-dependent on the mating rate per se. PMID:21779378

Reinhardt, Klaus; Naylor, Richard; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.



Adaptive Evolution in Rodent Seminal Vesicle Secretion Proteins  

PubMed Central

Proteins involved in reproductive fitness have evolved unusually rapidly across diverse groups of organisms. These reproductive proteins show unusually high rates of amino acid substitutions, suggesting that the proteins have been subject to positive selection. We sought to identify seminal fluid proteins experiencing adaptive evolution because such proteins are often involved in sperm competition, host immunity to pathogens, and manipulation of female reproductive physiology and behavior. We performed an evolutionary screen of the mouse prostate transcriptome for genes with elevated evolutionary rates between mouse and rat. We observed that secreted rodent prostate proteins evolve approximately twice as fast as nonsecreted proteins, remarkably similar to findings in the primate prostate and in the Drosophila male accessory gland. Our screen led us to identify and characterize a group of seminal vesicle secretion (Svs) proteins and to show that the gene Svs7 is evolving very rapidly, with many amino acid sites under positive selection. Another gene in this group, Svs5, showed evidence of branch-specific selection in the rat. We also found that Svs7 is under selection in primates and, by using three-dimensional models, demonstrated that the same regions have been under selection in both groups. Svs7 has been identified as mouse caltrin, a protein involved in sperm capacitation, the process responsible for the timing of changes in sperm activity and behavior, following ejaculation. We propose that the most likely explanation of the adaptive evolution of Svs7 that we have observed in rodents and primates stems from an important function in sperm competition. PMID:18718917

Clark, Nathaniel L.; Nguyen, Eric D.; Swanson, Willie J.



Elevated 1?h postload plasma glucose levels identify adults with normal glucose tolerance but increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the ability of the proposed diagnostic value of a 1-h OGTT glucose ?155mg/dL to identify individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) diagnosed by ultrasonography in a cohort of adult white individuals. Design The study group comprised 710 white individuals participating to the CATAnzaro MEtabolic RIsk factors (CATAMERI) Study, a cross-sectional study assessing cardio-metabolic risk factors in individuals carrying at least one risk factor including dysglycemia, overweight/obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia. a 75 g oral Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) was performed with 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min sampling for plasma glucose and insulin measurements. Cardio-metabolic risk factors including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were assessed in the whole cohort. Results Of the 710 participants examined, 295 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with 1-hour post-load plasma glucose <155 mg/dL (NGT 1h-low), 109 individuals had NGT 1h-high, 104 had isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and 202 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). As compared with NGT 1h-low, NGT 1h-high and IGT subjects exhibited significantly higher body mass index (BMI), triglycerides, high sensitivity C reactive protein, ALT, GGT, and hepatic insulin resistance (IR), assessed by the liver IR index, as well as lower high density lipoprotein, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels. In a logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and BMI, NGT 1h-high participants had a 1.5-fold increased risk of having NAFLD and an even increased risk was observed in subjects with IGT (1.8-fold), but not in the isolated IFG group (1.01-fold). Conclusions These data suggest that the value of a 1-hour OGTT glucose ?155 mg/dL may be helpful to identify a subset of NGT individuals at risk for NAFLD.

Sesti, Giorgio; Hribal, Marta Letizia; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco



Conservative Management of a Congenital Seminal Vesicle Cyst Associated with Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis Revealed by Cystitis: One Case Report  

PubMed Central

Seminal vesicle cyst is an extremely rare disease. Its association with ipsilateral renal agenesis is even more exceptional. We present herein one case of a 16-year-old male who presented with a four-month history of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) and micturition pain. The digital rectal examination revealed a small mass arising from the prostate. The urine culture showed that E. coli is sensitive to all antibiotics tested. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) revealed a cystic mass in the outer prostate. Seminal vesicle cyst and left renal agenesis were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Maximum flow (Qmax) at uroflow was greater than 15?mL/sec. We therefore decided to manage this disease conservatively with alpha blockers and antibiotics. After 6-month' followup the patient did not report any complain and the uroflow test was similar to a normal urination. From one case report and literature review, the authors suggest a diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for the management of this rare condition. PMID:22606606

Ahallal, Youness; Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Khallouk, Abdelhak; Elammari, Jalaleddine; Elfassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan



The effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the rat seminal vesicle: A possible pathophysiological basis for disorders of ejaculation.  


In the streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rat major increases in noradrenaline concentration and content of the seminal vesicles were evident as early as 7 weeks following induction of hyperglycemia and returned toward normal after 34 weeks of hyperglycemia. There were significant reductions in the concentration and content of dopamine at 19-42 weeks of diabetes, and small occasionally significant reductions in the content of serotonin and adrenaline, particularly around 19-26 weeks after STZ treatment. The uptake of tritiated noradrenaline in the diabetics was increased at 12 weeks compared to the controls, and decreased to control levels with increasing age. Release of tritiated noradrenline was increased in response to electrical field stimulation and high potassium solutions, and raising calcium concentration caused increased release at rest and during electrical stimulation. Immunohistochemical demonstration of tyrosine hydroxylase was increased during the period when the noradrenaline concentration and content were elevated. It is concluded that there are significant changes in the sympathetic innervation of the seminal vesicle during the course of STZ diabetes, and that alterations in the reuptake, release, and synthesis of the neurotransmitter noradrenaline may contribute to changes in the concentration of the amine in the tissue. It is possible that the changes observed are related to the remodeling and regrowth of sympathetic nerve endings damaged in the early stages of hyperglycemia. These changes may also contribute to disorders of ejaculation in diabetes. PMID:17151307

Morrison, J F B; Dhanasekaran, S; Sheen, Rajan; Frampton, C M; Mensah-Brown, Eric



A Drosophila seminal fluid protein, Acp26Aa, stimulates egg laying in females for 1 day after mating.  

PubMed Central

Mating triggers behavioral and physiological changes in the Drosophila melanogaster female, including an elevation of egg laying. Seminal fluid molecules from the male accessory gland are responsible for initial behavioral changes, but persistence of these changes requires stored sperm. Using genetic analysis, we have identified a seminal fluid protein that is responsible for an initial elevation of egg laying. This molecule, Acp26Aa, has structural features of a prohormone and contains a region with amino acid similarity to the egg-laying hormone of Aplysia. Acp26Aa is transferred to the female during mating, where it undergoes processing. Here we report the generation and analysis of mutants, including a null, in Acp26Aa. Females mated to male flies that lack Acp26Aa lay fewer eggs than do mates of normal males. This effect is apparent only on the first day after mating. The null mutation has no other detectable physiological or behavioral effects on the male or the mated female. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7479736

Herndon, L A; Wolfner, M F



Transgelin: an androgen-dependent protein identified in the seminal vesicles of three Saharan rodents.  


During the breeding season, a major androgen-dependent protein with an apparent molecular weight of 21 kDa was isolated and purified from the seminal vesicles of three Saharan rodents (MLVSP21 from Meriones libycus, MSVSP21 from Meriones shawi, and MCVSP21 from Meriones crassus). The 21-kDa protein was isolated and purified from soluble seminal vesicle proteins of homogenate by one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Using polyclonal antibodies directed against POSVP21 (Psammomys obesus seminal vesicles protein of 21 kDa), a major androgen-dependent secretory protein from sand rat seminal vesicles, identified previously as transgelin, we showed an immunological homology with POSVP21 by immunoblotting. These three major androgen-dependent proteins with a same apparent molecular weight of 21 kDa designated as MLVSP21 (Meriones libycus seminal vesicles protein of 21 kDa), MSVSP21 (Meriones shawi seminal vesicles protein of 21 kDa), and MCVSP21 (Meriones crassus seminal vesicles protein of 21 kDa) were localized by immunohistochemistry and identified by applying a proteomic approach. Our results indicated that the isolated proteins MLSVP21, MSSVP21, and MCSVP21 seem to correspond to the same protein: the transgelin. So that transgelin can be used as a specific marker of these rodent physiological reproduction mechanisms. PMID:23906482

Kaci-Ouchfoun, Naïma; Izemrane, Djamila; Boudrissa, Abdelkrim; Gernigon, Thérèse; Khammar, Farida; Exbrayat, Jean Marie



Fertility preservation in cases of laparoscopic treatment of seminal vesicle cysts  

PubMed Central

Seminal vesicle cysts can cause sub- or infertility. Minimally invasive techniques have the advantage of preserving the vas deferens by the treatment of symptomatic cases. After reviewing the published articles, only a few of them presented data on fertility before and after surgery. The authors now report the successful treatment of two patients with seminal vesicle cysts, in which laparoscopic cyst removal resolved the symptoms, preserving fertility and erectile function. Due to the rarity of seminal vesicle cysts, preoperative examinations and treatment modalities should focus not only on the relief of symptoms but also on the preservation of fertility and erectile function. PMID:24578951

Berczi, Csaba; Jozsa, Tamas; Csanadi, Gabor; Varga, Attila; Flasko, Tibor



Growth hormone (GH) therapy markedly increases the motility of spermatozoa and the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I in seminal vesicle fluid in the male GH-deficient dwarf rat.  


There is increasing evidence for an important role of the somatotropic axis in male reproductive function. We investigated the effect of recombinant bovine GH (rbGH) treatment for 21 days on semen characteristics in post-pubertal GH-deficient dwarf (dw/dw) rats. Male dw/dw rats at an age of 75-80 days were divided into two groups (n = 10 per group) and injected twice per day with either rbGH (2 micrograms/g/day) or saline. While the concentration (96.4 +/- 51.3 x 10(6) per ml) and morphology of spermatozoa (spermatozoa with normal morphology 73.5 +/- 6.3%) in the dw/dw rat were within the normal range, the motility of spermatozoa was very low (27.5 +/- 11.7%), establishing a state of sub-fertility. The rbGH treatment markedly increased (p < 0.01) motility of spermatozoa (44.5 +/- 10.7%) but did not change the concentration (144 +/- 80.3 x 10(6) per ml) and morphology (spermatozoa with normal morphology 79.5 +/- 6.0%). The rbGH treatment also significantly increased the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in blood plasma (control 389.1 +/- 65 ng/ml, rbGH 813.9 ng/ml, p < 0.001) and in seminal vesicle fluid (control 11.3 +/- 3.0 ng/ml, rbGH 16.1 +/- 5.4 ng/ml, p < 0.05). We conclude that rbGH therapy markedly increases motility of spermatozoa in sub-fertile male GH-deficient dw/dw rats. Thus, GH therapy may offer considerable potential for the treatment of impaired male reproductive performance. PMID:8756586

Breier, B H; Vickers, M H; Gravance, C G; Casey, P J



Multiple advanced surgical techniques to treat acquired seminal duct obstruction  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of multiple advanced surgical treatments (i.e. microsurgery, laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic surgery) for acquired obstructive azoospermia. We analyzed the surgical outcomes of 51 patients with suspected acquired obstructive azoospermia consecutively who enrolled at our center between January 2009 and May 2013. Modified vasoepididymostomy, laparoscopically assisted vasovasostomy and transurethral incision of the ejaculatory duct with holmium laser were chosen and performed based on the different obstruction sites. The mean postoperative follow-up time was 22 months (range: 9 months to 52 months). Semen analyses were initiated at four postoperative weeks, followed by trimonthly (months 3, 6, 9 and 12) semen analyses, until no sperm was found at 12 months or until pregnancy was achieved. Patency was defined as >10,000 sperm ml?1 of semen. The obstruction sites, postoperative patency and natural pregnancy rate were recorded. Of 51 patients, 47 underwent bilateral or unilateral surgical reconstruction; the other four patients were unable to be treated with surgical reconstruction because of pelvic vas or intratesticular tubules obstruction. The reconstruction rate was 92.2% (47/51), and the patency rate and natural pregnancy rate were 89.4% (42/47) and 38.1% (16/42), respectively. No severe complications were observed. Using multiple advanced surgical techniques, more extensive range of seminal duct obstruction was accessible and correctable; thus, a favorable patency and pregnancy rate can be achieved. PMID:25337841

Jiang, Hong-Tao; Yuan, Qian; Liu, Yu; Liu, Zeng-Qin; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Xiao, Ke-Feng; Yang, Jiang-Gen



Primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle: Case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle is exceedingly rare. Case Presentation We report a case of a 59-year-old man with tumour detected by rectal symptoms and ultrasonography. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging suggested an origin in the right seminal vesicle. Transperineal biopsy of the tumour revealed leiomyosarcoma. A radical vesiculo-prostactectomy with bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed a grade 2 leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy. He developed distant metastases 29 months after diagnosis, and received chemotherapy. Metastatic disease was controlled by second-line gemcitabine-docetaxel combination. Fifty-one months after diagnosis of the primary tumour, and 22 months after the first metastases, the patient is alive with excellent performance status, and multiple asymptomatic stable lung and liver lesions. Conclusions We report the eighth case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle and the first one with a so long follow-up. PMID:21801386



Semin Immunopathol . Author manuscript Obstructive sleep apnea, immuno-inflammation, and atherosclerosis  

E-print Network

by recurrent pharyngeal collapses occurring during sleep 1 . The upper airway[ ] closure could be completeSemin Immunopathol . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Obstructive sleep apnea, immuno Arnaud Abstract Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent

Boyer, Edmond


Peptides in seminal fluid and their role in infertility: a potential role for opiorphin inhibition of neutral endopeptidase activity as a clinically relevant modulator of sperm motility: a review.  


Infertility is a devastating medical condition that adversely affects emotional health and well-being of couples who desire pregnancy and parenthood. The overall demographic data suggest that the indication for more than one-third of assisted reproductive technology cycles performed in the United States includes male factor infertility. There is increasing recognition of the role that peptides present in seminal plasma have in determining sperm motility. Several recent studies suggest that peptidases, such as neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and aminopeptidase N (APN), impose significant adverse effects on sperm motility. Interestingly, several recent studies demonstrate that there is an endogenous NEP/APN inhibitor peptide called opiorphin in human seminal plasma. Our pilot studies suggest opiorphin promotes sperm motility and may positively influence sperm motility parameters in some cases of males infertility characterized by asthenozoospermia. PMID:24855109

Bosler, Jayme S; Davies, Kelvin P; Neal-Perry, Genevieve S



A comparison of CKD-EPI estimated glomerular filtration rate and measured creatinine clearance in recently admitted critically ill patients with normal plasma creatinine concentrations  

PubMed Central

Background The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) has been widely integrated into clinical practice. Although useful in screening for CKD, its’ application in critically ill patients with normal plasma creatinine concentrations remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of CKD-EPI eGFR in comparison to creatinine clearance (CLCR) in this setting. Methods This prospective observational study was performed in a tertiary level, university affiliated intensive care unit (ICU). Study participants had to have an expected ICU length of stay?>?24 hours, a plasma creatinine concentration?



[Haemospermia due to seminal vesicle amyloidosis. Treatment by laparoscopic vesiculectomy. A case report].  


Amyloidosis of the seminal vesicles is a rare cause of haemospermia. The authors report the case of a 42-year-old patient with recurrent haemospermia over a period of 2 years and abnormalities of one seminal vesicle on ultrasonography and MRI, justifying laparoscopic resection. Histological examination demonstrated localized amyloidosis, secondary to inflammation. No recurrence was observed with a follow-up of one. PMID:18271428

Vandwalle, Jérôme; Dugardin, Fabrice; Petit, Thomas; Surga, Nicolas; Paul, Alexandre; Petit, Jacques



Approximating Multivariate Normal Orthant Probabilities. ONR Technical Report. [Biometric Lab Report No. 90-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The probability integral of the multivariate normal distribution (ND) has received considerable attention since W. F. Sheppard's (1900) and K. Pearson's (1901) seminal work on the bivariate ND. This paper evaluates the formula that represents the "n x n" correlation matrix of the "chi(sub i)" and the standardized multivariate normal density…

Gibbons, Robert D.; And Others


Phytochrome-mediated growth inhibition of seminal roots in rice seedlings.  


In rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings, continuous white-light irradiation inhibited the growth of seminal roots but promoted the growth of crown roots. In this study, we examined the mechanisms of photoinhibition of seminal root growth. Photoinhibition occurred in the absence of nitrogen but increased with increasing nitrogen concentrations. In the presence of nitrogen, photoinhibition was correlated with coiling of the root tips. The seminal roots were most photosensitive 48-72 h after germination during the 7-day period after germination. White-light irradiation for at least 6 h was required for photoinhibition, and the Bunsen-Roscoe law of reciprocity was not observed. Experiments with phytochrome mutants showed that far-red light was perceived exclusively by phyA, red light was perceived by both phyA and phyB, and phyC had little or no role in growth inhibition or coiling of the seminal roots. These results also suggest that other blue-light photoreceptors are involved in growth inhibition of the seminal roots. Fluence-response curve analyses showed that phyA and phyB control very low-fluence response and low-fluence response, respectively, in the seminal roots. This was essentially the same as the growth inhibition previously observed at the late stage of coleoptile development (80 h after germination). The photoperceptive site for the root growth inhibition appeared to be the roots themselves. All three phytochrome species of rice were detected immunochemically in roots. PMID:19744160

Shimizu, Hisayo; Tanabata, Takanari; Xie, Xianzhi; Inagaki, Noritoshi; Takano, Makoto; Shinomura, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Kotaro T



Plasma visfatin levels and mRNA expression of visfatin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages from normal weight females with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrinology disease, however, an explicit etiology is not known. Insulin resistance (IR) appears to be central to the pathogenesis of PCOS and inflammation may be significant in the pathogenesis of IR in PCOS. The aims of the present study were to investigate the plasma visfatin level and the gene expression of visfatin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages (PBMMs) from PCOS patients, in addition to investigating the association between PCOS and IR. A total of 21 PCOS patients and 21 control subjects were enrolled in the study; the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was considered to be a stratified method for establishing the subgroups. Fasting blood samples were collected and the levels of sex hormones, insulin, glucose, blood lipids and visfatin were measured. In addition, visfatin gene expression levels in PBMCs and PBMMs were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The plasma visfatin and gene expression levels of visfatin in PBMCs and PBMMs were not observed to increase in the normal weight PCOS and normal weight IR patients. Furthermore, plasma visfatin levels did not correlate with the normal weight PCOS patients or the normal weight IR patients per se. Further investigation into the role of visfatin in the pathogenesis of PCOS or IR should examine macrophages in the tissues, rather than macrophages in the peripheral blood. PMID:24940414




Inhibition of intestinal bile acid transporter Slc10a2 improves triglyceride metabolism and normalizes elevated plasma glucose levels in mice.  


Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2) and ob/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma TG levels were reduced in Slc10a2-deficient mice, and when challenged with a sucrose-rich diet, they displayed a reduced response in hepatic TG production as observed from the mRNA levels of several key enzymes in fatty acid synthesis. This effect was paralleled by a diminished induction of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c). Unexpectedly, the SR-diet induced intestinal fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 mRNA and normalized bile acid synthesis in Slc10a2-/- mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of Slc10a2 in diabetic ob/ob mice reduced serum glucose, insulin and TGs, as well as hepatic mRNA levels of Srebp1c and its target genes. These responses are contrary to those reported following treatment of mice with a bile acid binding resin. Moreover, when key metabolic signal transduction pathways in the liver were investigated, those of Mek1/2-Erk1/2 and Akt were blunted after treatment of ob/ob mice with the Slc10a2 inhibitor. It is concluded that abrogation of Slc10a2 reduces hepatic Srebp1c activity and serum TGs, and in the diabetic ob/ob model it also reduces glucose and insulin levels. Hence, targeting of Slc10a2 may be a promising strategy to treat hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes. PMID:22662222

Lundåsen, Thomas; Andersson, Eva-Marie; Snaith, Michael; Lindmark, Helena; Lundberg, Johanna; Östlund-Lindqvist, Ann-Margret; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats



Enantioselective determination of cetirizine in human plasma by normal-phase liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.  


A highly sensitive and enantioselective method has been developed and validated for the determination of levocetirizine [(R)-cetirizine] in human plasma by normal-phase liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface in the positive ion mode. Enantioselective separation was achieved on a CHIRALPAK AD-H column using an isocratic mobile phase consisting of a mixture of n-hexane, ethyl alcohol, diethylamine, and acetic acid (60:40:0.1:0.1, v/v/v/v). Levocetirizine-D(8) was used as an internal standard (IS). Levocetirizine and the IS were detected by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM). Mass transitions of analyte and IS were m/z 389.2?201.1 and 397.2?201.1, respectively. Under optimized analytical conditions, a baseline separation of two enantiomers and IS was obtained in less than 11 min. Samples were prepared by a simple two-step extraction by protein precipitation using acetonitrile followed by liquid-liquid extraction with a n-hexane-dichloromethane mixture (50:50, v/v). The standard curve for levocetirizine was linear (r(2)>0.995) in the concentration range 0.5-300 ng/mL. Recovery was between 97.0 and 102.2% at low, medium, and high concentration. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 ng/mL. Other method validation parameters, such as precision, accuracy, and stability, were very satisfactory. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the study of enantioselective oral pharmacokinetics of levocetirizine in healthy Korean volunteers. PMID:21081290

Kang, Seung Woo; Jang, Hae Jong; Moore, Victor S; Park, Ji-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Ah; Youm, Jeong-Rok; Han, Sang Beom



Quantification of Prostate and Seminal Vesicle Interfraction Variation During IMRT  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To quantify the interfraction variability in prostate and seminal vesicle (SV) positions during a course of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using an integrated computed tomography (CT)-linear accelerator system and to assess the impact of rectal and bladder volume changes. Methods and Materials: We studied 15 patients who had undergone IMRT for prostate carcinoma. Patients had one pretreatment planning CT scan followed by three in-room CT scans per week using a CT-on-rails system. The prostate, bladder, rectum, and pelvic bony anatomy were contoured in 369 CT scans. Using the planning CT scan as a reference, the volumetric and positional changes were analyzed in the subsequent CT scans. Results: For all 15 patients, the mean systematic internal prostate and SV variation was 0.1 {+-} 4.1 mm and 1.2 {+-} 7.3 mm in the anteroposterior axis, -0.5 {+-} 2.9 mm and -0.7 {+-} 4.5 mm in the superoinferior axis, and 0.2 {+-} 0.9 mm and -0.9 {+-} 1.9 mm in the lateral axis, respectively. The mean magnitude of the three-dimensional displacement vector was 4.6 {+-} 3.5 mm for the prostate and 7.6 {+-} 4.7 mm for the SVs. The rectal and bladder volume changes during treatment correlated with the anterior and superior displacement of the prostate and SVs. Conclusion: The dominant prostate and SV variations occurred in the anteroposterior and superoinferior directions. The systematic prostate and SV variation between the treatment planning CT and daily therapy as a result of the rectal and bladder volume changes emphasizes the need for daily directed target localization and/or immobilization techniques.

Frank, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail:; Dong Lei; Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); De Crevoisier, Renaud; Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, Rex; Choi, Seungtaek [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); O'Daniel, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Biostatistics and Applied Mathematics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Wang He [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kuban, Deborah A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)



Development of determination of four analytes of Zhi-Shao-San decoction using LC-MS/MS and its application to comparative pharmacokinetics in normal and irritable bowel syndrome rat plasma.  


Zhi-Shao-San (ZSS), a traditional Chinese medicinal prescription, has been clinically used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) for centuries. A comparative study was designed and conducted to compare the pharmacokinetic differences between paeoniflorin naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin after oral administration of ZSS decoction to normal rats and IBS rats induced by acetic acid and restraint stress. Further, an efficient, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of four analytes of ZSS decoction in rat plasma was developed and validated. The validated method was successfully applied to comparison of pharmacokinetic profiles of analytes in rat plasma. The results showed that the absorptions of naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin in IBS group were all significantly higher than those in normal group and no obvious difference was seen for paeoniflorin between the two groups, which is helpful for improving clinical therapeutic efficacy and further pharmacological studies of ZSS. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24687219

Chen, Jiayi; Chen, Zhi; Ma, Li; Liang, Qiaowen; Jia, Wei; Pan, Zhenzhen; Zeng, Yuaner; Jiang, Bin



Association of Coronary Atherosclerosis with Hyper Apo Betalipoproteinemia [Increased Protein but Normal Cholesterol Levels in Human Plasma Low Density (beta) Lipoproteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most patients with coronary artery disease do not have elevated plasma or low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. To test whether the protein moiety of LDL, LDL B, might be a parameter to identify ischemic heart disease, the plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and LDL B were measured in 100 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. On the basis of coronary angiography,

Allan Sniderman; Stanley Shapiro; Derek Marpole; Bernard Skinner; Babie Teng; Peter O. Kwiterovich



Robotic-assisted laparoscopic vesiculectomy for lower urinary tract obstruction by a large seminal vesicle cyst  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Seminal vesicle (SV) cysts are rare, benign lesions. Most of them are congenital in origin and are usually diagnosed incidentally due to extensive imaging. When symptomatic, surgical excision is recommended. PRESENTATION OF CASE We describe the case of a 17.2 cm seminal vesicle cyst removed using a transperitoneal, robotic-assisted laparoscopic approach in a 45-year old male with lower urinary tract symptoms and no other genitourinary abnormality. DISCUSSION Laparoscopic excision of seminal vesicle cysts is a minimal invasive alternative to the open technique with single-center studies reporting high success rates. With the advent of the robotic platform, urologists have shifted to this approach especially for confined anatomical spaces such as the pelvis. To our knowledge this is the largest seminal vesicle cyst described in the literature that has been managed by minimally invasive surgery. CONCLUSION With the advantage of combined 3D vision and wristed instrumentation, excision of large seminal vesicle cysts by robotic assisted laparoscopic approach is feasible, safe and regarded as a natural continuity of conventional laparoscopy. Previous experience in Robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) especially in the posterior dissection technique is recommended. PMID:22613183

Ploumidis, Achilles; Sooriakumaran, Prasanna; Philippou, Prodromos; Wiklund, N. Peter



[A primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles. Case report of a rare malignancy].  


Primary malignancies of the seminal vesicles are extremely rare. They must be strictly differentiated from surrounding malignancies that may infiltrate the seminal vesicles from outside (e.g. prostate, rectum, and bladder carcinoma). MEDLINE and CANCERLIT review showed about 50 documented cases of primary seminal vesicle carcinoma so far worldwide in men between 19 and 90 years of age. Early diagnosis may be difficult due to lack of specific symptoms. Especially with a history of voiding dysfunction, haemospermia and/or haematuria, investigators should consider it. Primary diagnostic steps include digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and transrectal biopsy of the tumour. Additionally, CT and MRT scans show tumour masses corresponding to the seminal vesicles. Adenocarcinoma of seminal vesicles shows no expression of prostate-specific antigen or prostate-specific acid phosphatase, but there may be expression of carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen 125. Radical surgery including radical prostatectomy and/or cystoprostatectomy including pelvic lymph node dissection offers a curative treatment pathway. Adjuvant or inductive medical treatment is of unproven worth, but a combination of hormonal deprivation and radiotherapy seems to be more effective than any chemotherapy. PMID:18231770

Möhring, C; Bach, P; Kosciesza, S; Goepel, M



Primary yolk sac tumor of seminal vesicle: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor) is a rare malignant germ cell tumor arising in the testis or ovary. Extragonadal yolk sac tumor is even rarer and has only been described in case reports. Due to the rarity of the tumors, the appropriately optimal treatment remains unclear. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the seminal vesicle. Case A 38-year-old Asian male presented with gross hematuria and hemospermia. Transrectal ultrasound scan showed a solid mass in the left seminal vesicle and the scrotal sonography showed no abnormalities. Bilateral seminal vesicles were resected, and histopathological examination showed a typical pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST). The patient responded poorly to comprehensive treatment of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgeries, developed systemic multiple metastases, and died of cachexia one and half years after diagnosis. PMID:22978485



Development of a UFLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of six lignans of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. in rat plasma and its application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and insomnic rats.  


Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for treating insomnia for centuries. This paper was designed to study on the plasma pharmacokinetic for its absorption process, and to compare the pharmacokinetics of its active ingredients in normal and insomnic rats orally administrated with the prescription. Therefore, an efficient, sensitive and selective ultra fast liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of six sedative and hypnotic lignans (schisandrin, schisandrol B, schisantherin A, deoxyshisandrin, ?-schisandrin and gomisin N) of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. in rat plasma has been developed and validated. The analysis was performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODS column (75mm×3.0mm, 2.2?m) using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid waterat a flow rate of 0.4ml/min. The detection of the analytes was performed on 4000Q UFLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in the positive ion and multiple reaction-monitoring mode. The method was validated in plasma samples, which showed good linearity over a wide concentration range (r(2)>0.99), and obtained lower limits of quantification were 10, 1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.0 and 1.2ngmL(-1) for the analytes. The intra- and inter-day assay variability was less than 15% for all analytes. The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rats plasma were all more than 85.0%. The validated method has been successfully applied to comparing pharmacokinetic profiles of analytes in rat plasma. The results indicated that significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters of the analytes was observed between two groups, while absorptions of these analytes in insomnic group were all significantly higher than those in normal group. PMID:23416367

Wei, Binbin; Li, Qing; Su, Dan; Fan, Ronghua; Zhao, Longshan; Geng, Lulu; He, Bosai; Chen, Xiaohui; Jia, Ying; Bi, Kaishun



Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the seminal vesicle: a case report and literature review.  


Cystosarcoma of the seminal vesicle is a very rare malignant tumor; in the literature only four cases are reported. We present a case of cystosarcoma phyllodes arising in the right seminal vesicle of a 49-year-old man without any urinary symptom but with persistent constipation. Ultrasound examination showed a mass at the right superior base of the prostate subsequently studied with CT and MRI. The patient underwent vesiculectomy; his postoperative course was uneventful. The patient is still well, without evidence of recurrent disease. PMID:24639910

Olivetti, Lucio; Laffranchi, Francesco; De Luca, Vincenzo



Cystosarcoma Phyllodes of the Seminal Vesicle: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Cystosarcoma of the seminal vesicle is a very rare malignant tumor; in the literature only four cases are reported. We present a case of cystosarcoma phyllodes arising in the right seminal vesicle of a 49-year-old man without any urinary symptom but with persistent constipation. Ultrasound examination showed a mass at the right superior base of the prostate subsequently studied with CT and MRI. The patient underwent vesiculectomy; his postoperative course was uneventful. The patient is still well, without evidence of recurrent disease. PMID:24639910

Olivetti, Lucio; Laffranchi, Francesco; De Luca, Vincenzo



Clinical and immunological study of an exceptional case of reaginic type sensitization to human seminal fluid  

PubMed Central

An exceptionally rare case of spontaneous allergic sensitization to a glycoprotein rich in sialic acid and present in human seminal fluid is described in a woman. An anaphylactic reaction, consisting of giant urticaria, oedema, asthma, uterine pain and cardiovascular collapse followed within minutes of coitus. A high degree of atopic hypersensitivity was shown by skin reactions to human seminal fluid, but not to that of animal origin. Passive transfer of the hypersensitivity to man and monkey was successful and the responsible antibody was shown to be reagin-like and associated with the group of ?A-globulins. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 4 PMID:4960148

Halpern, B. N.; Ky, T.; Robert, B.



Angiosarcoma of the seminal vesicle: a case report of long-term survival following multimodality therapy.  


Angiosarcoma of the seminal vesicle is an extremely rare malignancy, with few published case reports in the literature. We present a case of primary angiosarcoma of the seminal vesicle in a 45-year-old male who was treated with multimodality therapy, consisting of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiation followed by surgical resection and intraoperative radiation therapy. He has been free of cancer recurrence for more than six years after completion of therapy. To our knowledge, this represents the longest reported survival of a patient with this rare tumor, and one of the few cases reported using a multimodality therapy approach. PMID:24711908

Chang, Kenneth; Sio, Terence T; Chandan, Vishal S; Iott, Matthew J; Hallemeier, Christopher L



The gifts that keep on giving: physiological functions and evolutionary dynamics of male seminal proteins in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

During mating, males transfer seminal proteins and peptides, along with sperm, to their mates. In Drosophila melanogaster, seminal proteins made in the male's accessory gland stimulate females’ egg production and ovulation, reduce their receptivity to mating, mediate sperm storage, cause part of the survival cost of mating to females, and may protect reproductive tracts or gametes from microbial attack. The

M F Wolfner



Drosophila seminal fluid proteins enter the circulatory system of the mated female fly by crossing the posterior vaginal wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seminal fluid proteins from males of many insect species affect the behavior and physiology of their mates. In some cases, these effects result from entry of the proteins into the female's circulatory system. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, some seminal fluid proteins enter the female's circulatory system after transfer from the male while others remain confined within the reproductive

Oliver Lung; Mariana F. Wolfner



Effect of systemic inflammation on level of ferritin seminal in chronic renal male patient undergoing hemodialysis  

PubMed Central

Background Most hemodialysis patients present with chronic systemic inflammation characterized by the elevation of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and/or the production of proinflammatory interleukins by the immune system in response to the hemodialysis process. Plasma ferritin(PF) is one of the parameters used to correct anemia. An PF level of >500 ng/mL is not recommended for correction of anemia because of the uncertainty of whether these levels are elevated because of anemia or a mere reaction to inflammation. we aimed to study the effects of inflammation on seminal ferritin (SF) levels and hypothesized that SF is not affected because of the testicular immune privilege. Methods A prospective prevalence study was conducted at the Department of Hemodialysis of the University Hospital of Brasília (HuB) between June 2010 and July 2011. The sample included 60 chronic renal patients undergoing hemodialysis and 20 control subjects from the health promotion general outpatient clinic. All participants were males aged 18–60 years. Inflammation was assessed through serum CRP levels, and the testicular condition was determined by measuring sex hormone levels. In the patient group, inflammation was considered to be present when CRP was >5 mg/L (n?=?27) and absent when CRP was ?5 mg/L (n?=?33). Control group (n?=?20) CRP was ?1 mg/L. Blood and semen were collected via arm venoclysis and after voluntary masturbation, respectively. CRP was measured by turbidimetry; PF, SF, and sex hormone levels by immunochemoluminescence. Statistical significance was set at p?



Origin of the catalytic activity of bovine seminal ribonuclease against double-stranded RNA.  


Bovine seminal ribonuclease (RNase) binds, melts, and (in the case of RNA) catalyzes the hydrolysis of double-stranded nucleic acid 30-fold better under physiological conditions than its pancreatic homologue, the well-known RNase A. Reported here are site-directed mutagenesis experiments that identify the sequence determinants of this enhanced catalytic activity. These experiments have been guided in part by experimental reconstructions of ancestral RNases from extinct organisms that were intermediates in the evolution of the RNase superfamily. It is shown that the enhanced interactions between bovine seminal RNase and double-stranded nucleic acid do not arise from the increased number of basic residues carried by the seminal enzyme. Rather, a combination of a dimeric structure and the introduction of two glycine residues at positions 38 and 111 on the periphery of the active site confers the full catalytic activity of bovine seminal RNase against duplex RNA. A structural model is presented to explain these data, the use of evolutionary reconstructions to guide protein engineering experiments is discussed, and a new variant of RNase A, A(Q28L K31C S32C D38G E111G), which contains all of the elements identified in these experiments as being important for duplex activity, is prepared. This is the most powerful catalyst within this subfamily yet observed, some 46-fold more active against duplex RNA than RNase A. PMID:9521723

Opitz, J G; Ciglic, M I; Haugg, M; Trautwein-Fritz, K; Raillard, S A; Jermann, T M; Benner, S A



Prediction of Capsular Perforation and Seminal Vesicle Invasion in Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeCapsular perforation and seminal vesicle invasion are unfavorable, prognostic factors in prostate cancer. Accurate preoperative prediction of these factors would be clinically useful for planning treatment, especially in patients being considered for radiation therapy, nerve sparing radical prostatectomy and watchful waiting. However, current methods are imprecise at predicting the presence and extent of these factors. We determined which combination of

David G. Bostwick; Junqi Qian; Erik Bergstralh; Paul Dundore; Dugan James; Robert P. Myers; Joseph E. Oesterling



Prostaglandin H synthase dependent metabolism of diethylstilbestrol by ram seminal vesicle cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) peroxidase dependent metabolic activation has been suggested to play a role in mediating adverse effects of various carcinogens. Recently, we derived a cell line from ram seminal vesicles (SEMV cells) to conduct studies on the PHS-mediated metabolism of estrogens and xenobiotics in intact cells with the goal of relating this to an endpoint for genotoxicity inducible

J. Foth; G. H. Degen



Ultrastructural organization of the seminal vesicles of Baculum thaii (Phasmida, Phasmatidae) during sexual maturity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A morphological and ultrastructural study was carried out on the seminal vesicles of Baculum thaii removed from individuals killed at 4, 10 and 20 days from the imaginai moult, with the intention of showing any modifications that these structures undergo during sexual maturity. From the comparative examination, clear evidence was found of epithelial transformations of these organs during sexual maturity:

Renata Viscuso; Maria Violetta Brundo; Lorenzo Sottile



Antibody-based diagnosis of small ruminant lentivirus infection in seminal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibody-based diagnosis of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) has been efficiently achieved using serum and milk, but not semen, for which polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been proposed as a confirmatory technique. This work, involving 296 ovine (Ovis aries) and caprine (Capra hircus) semen donors, investigates whether seminal fluid (SF) can be reliably used in antibody-based SRLV diagnosis. First, a gold

H. Ramírez; B. San Román; I. Glaria; R. Reina; M. M. Hernández; X. de Andrés; H. Crespo; B. Hichou; S. Cianca; C. Goñi; A. Grandas; L. García-Pastor; L. E. Vijil; F. Quintín; M. J. Grilló; D. de Andrés; B. Amorena



Origin of the catalytic activity of bovine seminal ribonuclease against double-stranded RNA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bovine seminal ribonuclease (RNase) binds, melts, and (in the case of RNA) catalyzes the hydrolysis of double-stranded nucleic acid 30-fold better under physiological conditions than its pancreatic homologue, the well-known RNase A. Reported here are site-directed mutagenesis experiments that identify the sequence determinants of this enhanced catalytic activity. These experiments have been guided in part by experimental reconstructions of ancestral RNases from extinct organisms that were intermediates in the evolution of the RNase superfamily. It is shown that the enhanced interactions between bovine seminal RNase and double-stranded nucleic acid do not arise from the increased number of basic residues carried by the seminal enzyme. Rather, a combination of a dimeric structure and the introduction of two glycine residues at positions 38 and 111 on the periphery of the active site confers the full catalytic activity of bovine seminal RNase against duplex RNA. A structural model is presented to explain these data, the use of evolutionary reconstructions to guide protein engineering experiments is discussed, and a new variant of RNase A, A(Q28L K31C S32C D38G E111G), which contains all of the elements identified in these experiments as being important for duplex activity, is prepared. This is the most powerful catalyst within this subfamily yet observed, some 46-fold more active against duplex RNA than RNase A.

Opitz, J. G.; Ciglic, M. I.; Haugg, M.; Trautwein-Fritz, K.; Raillard, S. A.; Jermann, T. M.; Benner, S. A.



The Drosophila melanogaster Seminal Fluid Protease "Seminase" Regulates Proteolytic and Post-Mating Reproductive Processes  

PubMed Central

Proteases and protease inhibitors have been identified in the ejaculates of animal taxa ranging from invertebrates to mammals and form a major protein class among Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid proteins (SFPs). Other than a single protease cascade in mammals that regulates seminal clot liquefaction, no proteolytic cascades (i.e. pathways with at least two proteases acting in sequence) have been identified in seminal fluids. In Drosophila, SFPs are transferred to females during mating and, together with sperm, are necessary for the many post-mating responses elicited in females. Though several SFPs are proteolytically cleaved either during or after mating, virtually nothing is known about the proteases involved in these cleavage events or the physiological consequences of proteolytic activity in the seminal fluid on the female. Here, we present evidence that a protease cascade acts in the seminal fluid of Drosophila during and after mating. Using RNAi to knock down expression of the SFP CG10586, a predicted serine protease, we show that it acts upstream of the SFP CG11864, a predicted astacin protease, to process SFPs involved in ovulation and sperm entry into storage. We also show that knockdown of CG10586 leads to lower levels of egg laying, higher rates of sexual receptivity to subsequent males, and abnormal sperm usage patterns, processes that are independent of CG11864. The long-term phenotypes of females mated to CG10586 knockdown males are similar to those of females that fail to store sex peptide, an important elicitor of long-term post-mating responses, and indicate a role for CG10586 in regulating sex peptide. These results point to an important role for proteolysis among insect SFPs and suggest that protease cascades may be a mechanism for precise temporal regulation of multiple post-mating responses in females. PMID:22253601

LaFlamme, Brooke A.; Ravi Ram, K.; Wolfner, Mariana F.



Copulation without seminal expulsion: the consequence of sexual satiation and the Coolidge effect.  


The studies of sexual satiety in male rats under the Coolidge effect indicate that males reassume copulation until ejaculation. Recently, it was demonstrated that sexually satiated males preserve the motor patterns of intromission and ejaculation, also penile erection, but not seminal expulsion. The first aim was to investigate if penile erections displayed by sexually satiated males dislodge the seminal plugs from the vagina and its effect on sperm transcervical transport. The second aim was to determine the recovery time of seminal expulsion after sexual satiety and its optimal ability to induce pregnancy. Results show that during the Coolidge effect males were able to dislodge the seminal plugs deposited by others (experiment 1A) disturbing the sperm transport (experiment 1B) then interfering with pregnancy (experiment 1C). After satiation, the ejaculate parameters recover slowly: it starts after 10 days with the seminal plug formation, and continues with an increase in sperm count in the uterus 15 days post-satiety (experiment 2). Sexually satiated males impregnated only 28% of the females during 15 days of cohabitation, whereas, satiated males that rested for 15 days impregnated 89% of the females (experiment 3). We concluded that males with successive ejaculations remain potential rivals, because they may disrupt the sperm transport of other males. The ejaculate features recovery after sexual satiety is gradual, begins with the secretions of the sex accessory glands and is followed by the sperm count. Full fertility recovery is reached after 15 days of sexual abstinence when males are able to impregnate most females. PMID:24677685

Lucio, R A; Rodríguez-Piedracruz, V; Tlachi-López, J L; García-Lorenzana, M; Fernández-Guasti, A



Normal Distribution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Generate a graphic and numerical display of the properties of the Normal Distribution. For a unit normal distribution, with M=0 and SD=ÃÂñ1, enter 0 and 1 at the prompt. For a distribution with M=100 and SD=ÃÂñ15, enter 100 and 15. And so forth

Lowry, Richard, 1940-



Normalized Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discussions of diagnostic tools that gauge students' conceptual understanding permeate the literature. Many instructors report their class' normalized gain to characterize the change in scores from pre-test to post-test. We describe a new procedure for characterizing these changes. This procedure, which we call the normalized change, c, involves the ratio of the gain to the maximum possible gain or the loss to the maximum possible loss. We also advocate reporting the average of a class' normalized changes and utilizing a particular statistical and graphical approach for comparing average c values.

Marx, Jeffrey; Cummings, Karen



Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery (LESS) for Excision of a Seminal Vesicle Cyst Associated with Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis  

PubMed Central

We report a case of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) for a symptomatic left seminal vesicular cyst and ipsilateral renal agenesis. A 49-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of severe irritation upon voiding and intractable, recurrent hematospermia. A computed tomography scan showed a 68×41×38 mm sized left seminal vesicular cyst with ipsilateral renal agenesis. LESS was performed successfully to treat the seminal vesicle cyst. The total operative time was 125 minutes, and blood loss was minimal. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the second postoperative day. PMID:21755023

Jang, Ki Don; Choi, Kyung Hwa; Yang, Seung Choul; Jang, Won Sik; Jang, Ji Young



Time series prediction of plasma hormone concentration. Evidence for differences in predictability of parathyroid hormone secretion between osteoporotic patients and normal controls.  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence links osteoporosis, a disease of bone remodeling, to changes in the dynamics of parathyroid hormone secretion. We use nonlinear and linear time series prediction to characterize the secretory dynamics of parathyroid hormone in both healthy human subjects and patients with osteoporosis. Osteoporotic patients appear to lack the periods of high predictability found in normal humans. Our results may provide an explanation for why an intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone is effective in restoring bone mass in osteoporotic patients. Images PMID:7769133

Prank, K; Nowlan, S J; Harms, H M; Kloppstech, M; Brabant, G; Hesch, R D; Sejnowski, T J



[Giant cyst of the seminal vesicle associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis].  


Cyst of the seminal vesicles represent a rare but illustrative type of embryologic malformation whose etiology is associated with an abnormal development of the mesonephric or Wolffian duct. Frequently these malformations are associated with an abnormal development of the ipsilateral upper urinary tract. The initial evaluation of the majority of cases is performed with abdominal or transrectal ultrasound. Considering the possible need of other diagnostic procedures to confirm the diagnosis, ultrasonography is safe in the majority of cases. The treatment of these urologic malformations should be restricted to symptomatic cases and usually consists of vesiculectomy, with of without, removal of the displastic or histoplastic kidney. We present a case of a right mesonephric duct malformation with a giant seminal vesicle associated with ipsilateral kidney agenesis and severe oligozoospermia, that presented with sporadic episodes of hemospermia and urinary complaints. PMID:12053524

Calahorra Fernández, F J; García Cardoso, J V; Montero Rubio, R; Cancho Gil, M J; Crespí Martínez, F; Vela Navarrete, R



Receipt of seminal fluid proteins causes reduction of male investment in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.  


Mating partners often have conflicting interests when copulating. One of the major agents affecting female mating partners is seminal fluid, transferred along with sperm. The role of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) in reproductive success is well studied in separate-sexed animals but is much less so in simultaneous hermaphrodites. The latter potentially have a unique target to exploit for the sperm donor's own benefit: the male function of their mating partners. Here we show that, in the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, receipt of specific SFPs reduces both sperm transfer and paternity success in a subsequent insemination event. Lowering investment in the mating partner's male function constitutes a novel role for SFPs. This demonstrates for the first time that hermaphrodites alter their mates' male as well as female reproductive output. Although it remains to be tested whether this represents mate manipulation or an adaptive response of recipients, our findings identify male investment as a new target for postcopulatory sexual selection. PMID:24684934

Nakadera, Yumi; Swart, Elferra M; Hoffer, Jeroen N A; den Boon, Onno; Ellers, Jacintha; Koene, Joris M



Persistent painless hemospermia due to metastatic melanoma of the right seminal vesicle  

PubMed Central

Background Metastatic melanoma of the seminal vesicles is a very rare clinical entity and has been reported only once until today in a patient suffering from concomitant HIV infection 12 years ago. Case presentation We report a case of persistent, painless hemospermia in a young Caucasian caused by metastatic malignant melanoma of the right seminal vesicle. The diagnosis was established by magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. In the subsequent diagnostic workup the primary location of the tumor remained unknown but concomitant pulmonary, hepatic and supraclavicular lymph node metastases have been detected. Despite immediate chemotherapy initiation the patient finally succumbed to his progressive disease six months later. Conclusions Malignant melanoma should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis of hemospermia after common causes have been ruled out. PMID:24006885



Primary isolated echinococcal cyst of the seminal vesicle: A rare case  

PubMed Central

Hydatid disease of the organs other than liver and lung is extremely rare. Although hydatid disease is endemic in India, we report a rare case of hydatid cyst in a young male primarily involving the seminal vesicle and aim to highlight the management of such cases. A 23 year old male farmer diagnosed with primary isolated echinococcal cyst of the seminal vesicle has been presented. Thorough investigations with radiological methods such as ultrasonography (abdominal and trans-rectal), and magnetic resonance imaging were carried out to aid in the diagnosis. Surgical excision of the lesion was carried out with careful removal of the cyst to prevent any bursting and spillage, leaving the seminal vesicle preserved. The cystic lesion was subjected to histopathological examination. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid disease. Postoperative period was uncomplicated and patient was discharged on seventh postoperative day. Patient was put on albendazole (10 mg/kg/day) for three cycles of 21 days each with a gap of one week between each cycle. There was no evidence of recurrence or development of cysts elsewhere in the body during the 2 year follow-up. Hydatid cyst of seminal vesicle is rare and should be kept in differential diagnosis of a cystic lesion in pelvis especially in regions where hydatid disease is endemic. Proper surgical and medical management to avoid any recurrences, and a regular follow-up, are of utmost importance to detect any late complications such as local recurrence of the disease and development of hydatidosis at the primary sites. PMID:22629014

Mushtaque, Majid; Mir, Mohammad Farooq; Nazir, Parvez; Khan, Parwez Sajad



HPLC method development for determination of doxycycline in human seminal fluid.  


The present paper reports the development and validation of an analytical method for doxycycline quantification in human seminal fluid by HPLC with UV detection. The separation of doxycycline was achieved at 40°C on a reversed-phase C18 column using isocratic elution. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile (A) and water buffered at pH 2.5 with a concentrated orthophosphoric acid (B) in the volume ratio of 20:80 (v/v), respectively. The detection was performed at 350nm. As an internal standard (IS), tetracycline was used. The proposed method involves the extraction of doxycycline from seminal fluid based on acidic precipitation of the proteins using perchloric acid. The method showed good intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD<7.0%), good accuracy (recovery for doxycycline>80%), and high correlation coefficient (r=0.998) for standards subjected to the entire procedure. The detection and quantification limits were 0.087?g/ml and 0.264?g/ml. The developed method was used to analyze doxycycline in the seminal fluids obtained from male subjects who were treated with doxycycline-hyclate. The mean doxycycline concentrations of 0.89±0.07?g/ml and 0.45±0.26?g/ml were detected in seminal fluid after 6h and 12h, respectively. This is the first study reporting extraction and HPLC determination of doxycycline in this complex sample and can be very useful in support of clinical and pharmacokinetic studies on this antibiotic. PMID:24095871

Sunari?, Slavica M; Deni?, Marko S; Bojani?, Zoran Ž; Bojani?, Vladmila V



PhD position in Evolutionary Genomics /Behavioural Ecology Evolution and functionality of antimicrobial defences in passerine seminal fluid  

E-print Network

for the evolution of antibacterial substances in seminal fluid that minimise bacterial-induced sperm defects fluid and test the functionality of antimicrobial substances, and 2) quantify the impact of positive

Uppsala Universitet


Correlation of chlorinated pesticides concentration in semen with seminal vesicle and prostatic markers.  


Semen samples of fertile and infertile men were analysed by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) for the presence of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene) (pp'-DDE); (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl ethane) (pp'-DDT); (1,1-dichloro-2,2 bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane) (pp'-DDD); (1,1,1-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl) ethane) (op'-DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and its isomers alpha (alpha), beta (beta), gamma (gamma), delta (delta) and aldrin. The biochemical analysis of seminal vesicle and prostatic marker was done by spectrophotometer. The concentrations of alpha-, beta-, gamma-HCH, pp'-DDE and pp'-DDD were higher in the semen of infertile than in that of fertile men. An elevation in the fructose level along with decrease in the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and acid phosphatase activity was noticed in infertile men as compared to fertile subjects. The data showed correlation between alpha-, beta-, gamma-HCH, pp'-DDE, pp'-DDD and seminal vesicle marker fructose and prostatic marker gamma-gluatamyl transpeptidase and acid phosphatase in infertile men. The study suggests that the chlorinated pesticides may influence the semen quality by affecting the seminal and prostatic functions in infertile men. PMID:15501386

Pant, Niraj; Mathur, N; Banerjee, A K; Srivastava, S P; Saxena, D K



Multi-scale feature learning on pixels and super-pixels for seminal vesicles MRI segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a learning-based approach to segment the seminal vesicles (SV) via random forest classifiers. The proposed discriminative approach relies on the decision forest using high-dimensional multi-scale context-aware spatial, textual and descriptor-based features at both pixel and super-pixel level. After affine transformation to a template space, the relevant high-dimensional multi-scale features are extracted and random forest classifiers are learned based on the masked region of the seminal vesicles from the most similar atlases. Using these classifiers, an intermediate probabilistic segmentation is obtained for the test images. Then, a graph-cut based refinement is applied to this intermediate probabilistic representation of each voxel to get the final segmentation. We apply this approach to segment the seminal vesicles from 30 MRI T2 training images of the prostate, which presents a particularly challenging segmentation task. The results show that the multi-scale approach and the augmentation of the pixel based features with the super-pixel based features enhances the discriminative power of the learnt classifier which leads to a better quality segmentation in some very difficult cases. The results are compared to the radiologist labeled ground truth using leave-one-out cross-validation. Overall, the Dice metric of 0:7249 and Hausdorff surface distance of 7:0803 mm are achieved for this difficult task.

Gao, Qinquan; Asthana, Akshay; Tong, Tong; Rueckert, Daniel; Edwards, Philip "Eddie"



Female Drosophila melanogaster suffer reduced defense against infection due to seminal fluid components  

PubMed Central

Reduced defense against infection is commonly observed as a consequence of reproductive activity, but little is known about how post-mating immunosuppression occurs. In this work, we use Drosophila melanogaster as a model to test the role of seminal fluid components and egg production in suppressing post-mating immune defense. We also evaluate whether systemic immune system activity is altered during infection in mated females. We find that post-mating reduction in female defense depends critically on male transfer of sperm and seminal fluid proteins, including the accessory gland protein known as “sex peptide.” However, the effect of these male factors is dependent on the presence of the female germline. We find that mated females have lower antimicrobial peptide gene expression than virgin females in response to systemic infection, and that this lower expression correlates with higher systemic bacterial loads. We conclude that, upon receipt of sperm and seminal fluid proteins, females experience a germline-dependent physiological shift that directly or indirectly reduces their overall ability to defend against infection, at least in part through alteration of humoral immune system activity. PMID:22698822

Short, Sarah M.; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Lazzaro, Brian P.



Immunolocalisation of ghrelin and obestatin in human testis, seminal vesicles, prostate and spermatozoa.  


The role of ghrelin and obestatin in male reproduction has not completely been clarified. We explored ghrelin and obestatin localisation in the male reproductive system. Polyclonal antibodies anti-ghrelin and anti-obestatin were used to detect the expression of these hormones in human testis, prostate and seminal vesicles by immunocytochemistry, while in ejaculated and swim up selected spermatozoa by immunofluorescence. Sertoli cells were positive for both peptides and Leydig cells for ghrelin; germ cells were negative for both hormones. Mild signals for ghrelin and obestatin were observed in rete testis; efferent ductules were the most immune reactive region for both peptides. Epididymis was moderately positive for ghrelin; vas deferens and seminal vesicles showed intense obestatin and moderate ghrelin labelling; prostate tissue expressed obestatin alone. Ejaculated and selected spermatozoa were positive for both peptides in different head and tail regions. This study confirms ghrelin localisation in Leydig and Sertoli cells; the finding that ghrelin is expressed in rete testis, epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicles is novel, as well as the localisation of obestatin in almost all tracts of the male reproductive system. This research could offer insights for stimulating other studies, particularly on the role of obestatin in sperm physiology, which is still obscure. PMID:24147986

Moretti, E; Vindigni, C; Tripodi, S A; Mazzi, L; Nuti, R; Figura, N; Collodel, G



Elevated 1-h post-load plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance are associated with unfavorable inflammatory profile.  


Glucose tolerant subjects with 1-h post-load glucose ?155 mg/dl (NGT-1 h-high) are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Prospective studies showed that chronic subclinical inflammation is a predictor of T2DM. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the inflammatory profile in NGT-1 h-high subjects as compared with individuals with 1-h post-load glucose <155 mg/dl (NGT-1 h-low). To this end, an oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed in 1,099 nondiabetic whites. Cardio-metabolic risk factors including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, and complement C3 (C3) were determined. Of the 1,099 subjects examined, 497 had NGT-1 h-low, 154 had NGT-1 h-high, 158 had isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and 290 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). As compared with NGT-1 h-low, NGT-1 h-high and IGT subjects exhibited significantly higher hsCRP, ESR, fibrinogen, and C3 levels. Notably, hsCRP, ESR, and C3 were also significantly higher as compared with IFG individuals. In a logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and gender, NGT-1 h-high and IGT subjects had a 1.8-fold increased risk of having the highest value of the Inflammatory Score. These data suggest that a value of a 1-h OGTT glucose ?155 mg/dl may be helpful to identify a subset of normal glucose tolerance individuals at risk for chronic subclinical inflammation, a predictor of T2DM, and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24619654

Sesti, Giorgio; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Succurro, Elena; Perticone, Maria; Arturi, Franco; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco



Radiotherapy Treatment Plans With RapidArc for Prostate Cancer Involving Seminal Vesicles and Lymph Nodes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Dosimetric results and treatment delivery efficiency of RapidArc plans to those of conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were compared using the Eclipse treatment planning system for high-risk prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: This study included 10 patients. The primary planning target volume (PTV{sub P}) contained prostate, seminal vesicles, and pelvic lymph nodes with a margin. The boost PTV (PTV{sub B}) contained prostate and seminal vesicles with a margin. The total prescription dose was 75.6 Gy (46.8 Gy to PTV{sub P} and an additional 28.8 Gy to PTV{sub B}; 1.8 Gy/fraction). Three plans were generated for each PTV: Multiple-field IMRT, one-arc RapidArc (1ARC), and two-arc RapidArc (2ARC). Results: In the primary IMRT with PTV{sub P}, average mean doses to bladder, rectum and small bowel were lower by 5.9%, 7.7% and 4.3%, respectively, than in the primary 1ARC and by 3.6%, 4.8% and 3.1%, respectively, than in the primary 2ARC. In the boost IMRT with PTV{sub B}, average mean doses to bladder and rectum were lower by 2.6% and 4.8% than with the boost 1ARC and were higher by 0.6% and 0.2% than with the boost 2ARC. Integral doses were 7% to 9% higher with RapidArc than with IMRT for both primary and boost plans. Treatment delivery time was reduced by 2-7 minutes using RapidArc. Conclusion: For PTVs including prostate, seminal vesicles, and lymph nodes, IMRT performed better in dose sparing for bladder, rectum, and small bowel than did RapidArc. For PTVs including prostate and seminal vesicles, RapidArc with two arcs provided plans comparable to those for IMRT. The treatment delivery is more efficient with RapidArc.

Yoo, Sua, E-mail: sua.yoo@duke.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Wu, Q. Jackie; Lee, W. Robert; Yin Fangfang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)



An Odorant-Binding Protein Is Abundantly Expressed in the Nose and in the Seminal Fluid of the Rabbit  

PubMed Central

We have purified an abundant lipocalin from the seminal fluid of the rabbit, which shows significant similarity with the sub-class of pheromone carriers “urinary” and “salivary” and presents an N-terminal sequence identical with that of an odorant-binding protein (rabOBP3) expressed in the nasal tissue of the same species. This protein is synthesised in the prostate and found in the seminal fluid, but not in sperm cells. The same protein is also expressed in the nasal epithelium of both sexes, but is completely absent in female reproductive organs. It presents four cysteines, among which two are arranged to form a disulphide bridge, and is glycosylated. This is the first report of an OBP identified at the protein level in the seminal fluid of a vertebrate species. The protein purified from seminal fluid is bound to some organic chemicals whose structure is currently under investigation. We reasonably speculate that, like urinary and salivary proteins reported in other species of mammals, this lipocalin performs a dual role, as carrier of semiochemicals in the seminal fluid and as detector of chemical signals in the nose. PMID:25391153

Niccolini, Alberto; Serra, Andrea; Gazzano, Angelo; Scaloni, Andrea; Pelosi, Paolo



Control of impurities in toroidal plasma devices  


A method and apparatus for plasma impurity control in closed flux plasma systems such as Tokamak reactors is disclosed. Local axisymmetrical injection of hydrogen gas is employed to reverse the normally inward flow of impurities into the plasma.

Ohkawa, Tihiro (La Jolla, CA)



Supersonic induction plasma jet modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulations have been applied to study the argon plasma flow downstream of the induction plasma torch. It is shown that by means of the convergent–divergent nozzle adjustment and chamber pressure reduction, a supersonic plasma jet can be obtained. We investigate the supersonic and a more traditional subsonic plasma jets impinging onto a normal substrate. Comparing to the subsonic jet,

S. E. Selezneva; M. I. Boulos



Control of bilateral seminal emissions from ejaculatory ducts by a lumbar splanchnic nerve.  


To investigate the route of efferent signals for seminal emissions from ejaculatory ducts (SEEDs), canine lumbar splanchnic nerves (LSNs) were electrically stimulated. SEED was confirmed by visual verification of seminal flow into the exposed posterior urethra. In intact dogs, electrical stimulation of an LSN caused bilateral SEEDs in 13 of 16 dogs examined, with a greater volume at the stimulated side. After transection of a unilateral hypogastric nerve, bilateral SEEDs occurred by electrical stimulation of the contralateral LSN in 11 of 14 dogs with a greater volume at the stimulated side and by the stimulation of the ipsilateral LSN in 13 of 15 dogs with a greater volume at the contralateral side. Contraction pressure of the epididymal tail under the same conditions harmonized with the above results. We conclude that each LSN generates bilateral SEEDs by sending signals to bilateral epididymal tails and that some of the signals through each LSN cross to the other side at the caudal mesenteric plexus and/or the prostatic plexus. PMID:8238441

Kihara, K; Sato, K; Ando, M; Morita, T; Oshima, H



Fine structure of the male reproductive ducts, vagina and seminal receptacle of Cyathocephalus truncatus (Cestoda: Spathebothriidea).  


Fine structure of the vas efferens, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct with accessory glands and vagina with seminal receptacle is described in the spathebothriidean tapeworm, Cyathocephalus truncatus (Pallas, 1781) Kessler, 1868. The numerous well-developed prostate glands are characterised by having secretory granules with an electron-dense core surrounded by a matrix of lower electron density. Coalescence of the outer part of the granules with each other takes place in the terminal end of the secretory ducts. The position of prostate glands around the proximal part of the cirrus pouch and terminating in the ejaculatory duct is a characteristic feature of the Spathebothriidea. Up to 20 closely arranged muscle layers make up the muscular cirrus pouch wall with 4 well-developed muscular layers in the ejaculatory duct and cirrus. Both the cirrus and the vagina are covered with the same uniform cone-shaped microtriches. The vagina has an extensive seminal receptacle. All of these structures are well-adapted to insure successful sperm transfer involving ejaculation and storage, probably for both self- and cross-insemination. Cyathocephalus truncatus has a cirrus similar to that of the monozoic, progenetic caryophyllidean, Archigetes sieboldi and well-developed prostate glands like those of the polyzoic pseudophyllidean, Diphyllobothrium latum. The ultrastructural aspects of the male and female reproductive system of C. truncatus are compared with those of other tapeworms. PMID:16270805

Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Mackiewicz, John S; Brunanská, Magdaléna; Dezfuli, Bahram S



Morphological changes in the seminal receptacle during ovarian development in the speckled swimming crab Arenaeus cribrarius.  


To understand sperm plug dissolution and spermatophore dehiscence in Portunidae, histological and ultrastructural changes in the seminal receptacle (SR) of Arenaeus cribrarius were investigated during ovarian development. In juvenile females the SR was filled with acid polysaccharides and the dorsal epithelium was stratified. Mated females with rudimentary ovaries showed a large SR filled by a glycoprotein sperm plug. This plug was present until the developing-ovary stage, when spermatophore dehiscence and intense holocrine secretions in the dorsal dense layer occurred. The plug was absent after the intermediate stage, and the SR became flaccid. The secretion produced moved the spermatophores into the ventral region. The modified dorsal epithelium in the transition between the dorsal and ventral regions released acid polysaccharides, which were found among the sperm, by exocytosis. The morphological changes of the SR in A. cribrarius, including the presence of the sperm plug, followed the macroscopic pattern observed in other members of Portunidae, such as blue crabs. However, in this species dissolution of the sperm plug was synchronized with ovarian development and occurred simultaneously with spermatophore dehiscence, showing the evolutionary relationship of the seminal receptacle and the female reproductive system to the storage of spermatophores and spermatozoa. PMID:25216499

Zara, Fernando Jose; Raggi Pereira, Gerson Rodrigues; Sant'anna, Bruno Sampaio



Seasonal effects on seminal and endocrine traits in the captive snow leopard (Panthera uncia).  


The annual reproductive cycle of the male snow leopard (Panthera uncia) was characterized by evaluating seminal and endocrine traits monthly. Testicular volume was greatest (P < 0.05) during the winter months when the quality of ejaculate was optimal. Ejaculate volume, total sperm concentration ml-1, motile sperm concentration per ejaculate, sperm morphology and sperm motility index were lowest during the summer and autumn months compared with the winter and spring. Peripheral LH, FSH and testosterone concentrations were also lowest during the summer months, increasing during the autumn just before the increase in semen quality, and were maximal during the winter months. There was a direct relationship (P < 0.01) between: (1) testosterone and testicular volume, total sperm concentration ml-1, motile sperm concentration per ejaculate and ejaculate volume, and (2) LH and testicular volume and motile sperm concentration per ejaculate. In summary, although spermatozoa were recovered throughout the year, optimal gamete quality was observed during the winter and spring. Although previous studies in felids have demonstrated seasonal effects on either seminal or endocrine traits, this is the first study to demonstrate a distinct effect of season on both pituitary and testicular function. PMID:7799318

Johnston, L A; Armstrong, D L; Brown, J L



Intraluminal occlusion of the seminal duct by laser and Histoacryl: Two non-invasive alternatives for vasectomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction and objective: Vasectomy is a well-established method in family control. Even though it is a safe and low risk operation, this surgery is invasive and difficult to reverse. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate new non-invasive methods for occlusion of the seminal duct. Material and Methods: Seminal duct tissue was obtained from patients (n=30) suffering from prostate cancer and therefore undergoing prostatectomy. In a first set of experiments, the seminal duct was occluded by intraluminal application of Histoacryl® (Braun Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany). In a 2nd set of experiments, endoluminal laser induced occlusion was performed. Four different laser wavelengths (1940nm, 1470nm, 1064nm, 940nm) and different sets of laser parameters (e.g. power, exposure duration, fibre diameter, energy applied) were compared. Effectiveness of occlusion of the seminal duct was proven by post-treatment irrigation flow measurement, as well as by morphological analyses. To evaluate a potential damage of the surrounding tissue, external temperature was measured using a thermometer during laser application. Results: Intraluminal application of Histoacryl® induced an immediate and complete occlusion of the seminal duct. The underlying connective tissue maintained its functional integrity after this treatment. By laser light application to a Histoacryl® block, a hole could be created into the block thus indicating the possibility of recanalization. Treatment with laser energy resulted in shrinkage of the ductal lumen. The laser application generally caused necrosis in the epithelium and induced formation of vacuoles in the underlying connective tissue. As described for endoluminal varicose treatment, this distinct local reaction might result in an intense inflammation leading to a functional occlusion of the vas deferens. Conclusions: Both laser-induced occlusion and application of Histoacryl® are fast and simple techniques which may be able to achieve a functional occlusion of the seminal duct. The application of Histoacryl® additionally may be easily reversible by laser treatment.

Freitag, B.; Sroka, R.; Koelle, S.; Becker, A. J.; Khoder, W.; Pongratz, T.; Stief, C. G.; Trottmann, M.



Biological functions of mouse seminal vesicle fluid. II. Role of water-soluble fraction of seminal vesicle fluid as a nonspecific immunomodulator.  


The suppressive mechanisms of T cells induced by water-soluble fraction of mouse seminal vesicle fluid (WSF-SVF) were investigated to clarify its immunological roles in the reproductive immunity. WSF-SVF inhibited the blastogenic responses to concanavalin A (Con A) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) of T cells. Pretreatment of splenocytes with WSF-SVF did not suppress the blastogenesis of splenocytes to Con A when treated cells were washed before cultures. WSF-SVF did not inhibit the proliferation of Con A-activated splenocytes, that of listeria-immune splenocytes to listeral antigen and growth of tumor cells (Yac 1 cells, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells, EL 4 cells). Listerial antigen-specific immune response was not observed when mice were immunized with both listerial antigen and WSF-SVF, whereas it was observed when mice were immunized with only listerial antigen. WSF-SVF also significantly inhibited allogenic MLR. WSF-SVF did not adsorb Con A, and its suppressive activity was rather enhanced by heating at 56 degrees C for 30 min. These results suggest that WSF-SVF inhibits the stage of sensitization of T cells with antigen or stimulant, such as mitogen nonspecifically, without adsorption to antigen or mitogen, and its substance is stable. PMID:2117909

Emoto, M; Kita, E; Nishikawa, F; Katsui, N; Hamuro, A; Oku, D; Kashiba, S



Performance Enhancement of Normally-Off Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3/GaN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor with Postdeposition Annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A normally-off GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) was fabricated using the Al0.3Ga0.7N/GaN heterostructure with a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density of ˜1×1014 cm-2 grown on a silicon substrate. The AlGaN layer in the gate region was fully recessed and the whole surface of the device was covered with a high-quality plasma-assisted atomic-layer-deposited (PAALD) Al2O3 layer, which plays the role of not only a gate insulator in the recessed gate region, but also a surface passivation layer in the ungated region between the source and the drain. The fabricated Al2O3/GaN MOSFET exhibited excellent device properties, such as a threshold voltage of 1.1 V extrapolated in the linear region at a drain voltage of 0.1 V, maximum drain current of 353 mA/mm, field-effect mobility of 225 cm2·V-1·s-1, and on-resistance of 9.7 ?·mm, which are among the best values ever reported for GaN MOSFETs fabricated on silicon substrates.

Ha, Jong-Bong; Kim, Dong-Seok; Im, Ki-Sik; Kim, Ki-Won; Kang, Hee-Sung; Park, Ki-Yeol; Lee, Jung-Hee



Data Normalization for Diabetes II Metabonomics Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable normalization alters the structure of data, thus affecting the outcome of multivariant analysis and calibration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two normalization methods, 1-norm and 2-norm, on the outcome of classification of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabonomic profiling, and to identify the characteristic metabolites that are responsible for the discrimination of plasma

Jinbo Wen; Xian Xiao; Jiyang Dong; Zhong Chen; Xiaoxia Dai



[Demonstration of a 100-110 kd immunosuppressive fraction in the seminal fluid of swine].  


The boar seminal fluid was fractionated in order to purify semen immunosuppressive factors. This species was chosen for its extremely abundant semen which allows large scale purifications and analyses. The fractions were tested on Balb/c mice spleen cells stimulated with LPS or PHA. The most active fraction was found in the 100-110 kd molecular weight range. The immunosuppressive activity occurred on both B and T cells, but was higher on the former. The active molecule is likely to be a protein. Another fraction of greater than 500 kd MW was also immunosuppressive but its activity disappeared by concentration. It possibly contained aggregates of the 100 kd molecules. The biological role of these immunosuppressive agents could be to protect sperm against female local immune reactions. Similar molecules in human semen might exist and favor the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in male homosexuals. PMID:3084044

Bouvet, J P; Couderc, J; Parlebas, J; Pirès, R; Duclos, H; Pillot, J



Seminal vesicle protein SVS2 is required for sperm survival in the uterus.  


In mammals, sperm migrate through the female reproductive tract to reach the egg; however, our understanding of this journey is highly limited. To shed light on this process, we focused on defining the functions of seminal vesicle secretion 2 (SVS2). SVS2(-/-) male mice produced sperm but were severely subfertile, and formation of a copulatory plug to cover the female genital opening did not occur. Surprisingly, even when artificial insemination was performed with silicon as a substitute for the plug, sperm fertility in the absence of SVS2 remained severely reduced because the sperm were already dead in the uterus. Thus, our results provide evidence that the uterus induces sperm cell death and that SVS2 protects sperm from uterine attack. PMID:24591616

Kawano, Natsuko; Araki, Naoya; Yoshida, Kaoru; Hibino, Taku; Ohnami, Naoko; Makino, Maako; Kanai, Seiya; Hasuwa, Hidetoshi; Yoshida, Manabu; Miyado, Kenji; Umezawa, Akihiro



Physical Warmth and Perceptual Focus: A Replication of IJzerman and Semin (2009)  

PubMed Central

With the changing of modal research practices in psychology, the grounded cognition perspective (sometimes categorized under the more popular term of “social priming”) has become heavily criticized. Specifically, LeBel and Campbell (2013) reported a failed replication of a study involving what some would call “social priming.” We sought to replicate a study from our own lab (IJzerman & Semin, 2009), to investigate the reproducibility of the reported effect that physical warmth leads to a greater focus on perceptual relations. We also improved our methods to reduce potential experimenter's bias (cf. Doyen, Klein, Pichon, & Cleeremans, 2012). We successfully replicated the finding that a simple cue of physical warmth makes people more likely to adopt a relational focus. PMID:25402343

Schilder, Janneke D.; IJzerman, Hans; Denissen, Jaap J. A.



A new Stygarctus (Arthrotardigrada: Stygarctidae) from Japan, with entangled seminal receptacle ducts.  


Stygarctus ayatori sp. nov. (Arthrotardigrada: Stygarctidae), is described from a sandy beach located at Okinoshima, Tateyama Bay, Boso Peninsula, Honshu, Japan. The most prominent characters were observed in the female genital structure, with the seminal receptacle ducts forming a three-dimensional entanglement near the exterior opening, and internal thickening situated peripheral to the gonopore and between the gonopore and anus. The new species is distinguished from the congeners by these characters; excluding S. abornatus McKirdy et al., 1976 for which there is no information on the genital structure. However, S. ayatori sp. nov. and S. abornatus can be differentiated by the presence of dorsal spines on the former species, which are absent from the latter. PMID:24872047

Fujimoto, Shinta



In the 1950s, seminal electron microscopy studies led to the canonical view of mitochondria as bean-shaped  

E-print Network

In the 1950s, seminal electron microscopy studies led to the canonical view of mitochondria as bean-shaped organelles. These studies revealed the ultrastructural hallmarks of mitochondria, which include double lipid for the fact that the mitochondrial structure is highly dynamic1,2 . Mitochondria have drastically different

Chan, David


Premature Ejaculation – Dose and Duration Dependent Effect of Fluoxetine: A Histological Study on Seminal Vesicle of Albino Rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Fluoxetine is a prototype drug of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Its active demethylated metabolite has a half life of 7-10 d. Fluoxetine is used to treat depression and is also prescribed in premature ejaculation. Aim: In the present study dose and duration dependent effects of Fluoxetine on histology of seminal vesicle of the albino rats were observed. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 36 adult male albino rats. Fluoxetine was administered intraperitoneally for 2 wk, 4 wk and 12 wk with mild (10mg/kg/day), moderate (20mg/kg/day) and severe doses (40mg/kg/day). Histological slides of Seminal vesicle were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Results: On examination through the light microscope, the proliferation of primary, secondary and tertiary villi, increased crypt/alveoli, increased thickness of lamina propria, decreased epithelial cell height, metaplasia, changes in the amount of luminal eosinophilic secretory material in the form of scanty secretion in lumen of seminal vesicle. Conclusion: Low doses for long duration and high doses for short duration of Fluoxetine produce histological changes in seminal vesicle of albino rats. PMID:25386416

Jethani, SL; Rohatagi, RK; Kalra, Juhi



Seminational Surveillance of Fungemia in Denmark: Notably High Rates of Fungemia and Numbers of Isolates with Reduced Azole Susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to present the first set of comprehensive data on fungemia in Denmark including the distribution of species and range of susceptibility to major antifungal compounds based on a seminational surveillance study initiated in 2003. The catchment area of the participating hospitals had a population of 2.8 million, or 53% of the Danish population. A

Maiken Cavling Arendrup; Kurt Fuursted; Bente Gahrn-Hansen; Irene Møller Jensen; Jenny Dahl Knudsen; Bettina Lundgren; H. C. Schonheyder; Michael Tvede



Adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles complicated by antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles is a very rare malignancy, with less than 100 cases reported worldwide. It is documented to have a poor prognosis, with the majority of patients developing metastatic disease, most commonly in the prostate, bladder and rectum. Currently there is no standard treatment for metastatic disease and the limited reports of treatment with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal (anti-androgenic) therapy show that they are generally of modest benefit. The association between malignancy and an increased risk of autoimmune vasculitis has been demonstrated in a number of malignancies, but to date there have been no documented cases of adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis. Case presentation In this report we describe the case of a 55-year-old Caucasian man with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles. He previously had received chemotherapy treatment for advanced testicular cancer and later presented with hemospermia. He subsequently developed c-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis requiring intensive immunosuppression and renal dialysis. Conclusion Adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles is a rare diagnosis and our case is more unusual in that our patient previously had chemotherapy treatment for advanced testicular cancer and went on to develop severe antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis when diagnosed with metastatic seminal vesicle cancer. This case illustrates that autoimmune vasculitis can occur in any patient with malignancy and an early referral to the renal team combined with renal biopsy can assist in the earlier diagnosis and more successful management of these rare events. This case should be of interest to oncologists, renal physicians, urologists and general physicians who encounter patients presenting with hemospermia or vasculitis. PMID:23452402



Radical-induced lipoprotein and plasma lipid oxidation in normal and apolipoprotein E gene knockout (apoE-/-) mice: apoE-/- mouse as a model for testing the role of tocopherol-mediated peroxidation in atherogenesis.  


Exposure of plasma from apolipoprotein E gene knockout (apoE-/-) and control (CBA or C57BL/6J) mice plasma to a constant rate of aqueous peroxyl radicals (ROO.) resulted in the depletion of ascorbate, urate and alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TOH), with substantial and little lipid peroxidation, respectively. Alpha-TOH levels were 3-times higher in plasma from apoE-/- than control mice and its addition enhanced the oxidizability of control mouse plasma. In apoE-/- mouse plasma, alpha-TOH was associated primarily with very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), whereas in plasma from control mice, the vitamin was located largely in high density lipoproteins. Oxidation of isolated lipoproteins by ROO. resulted in the accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides to an extent that reflected the plasma concentration and alpha-TOH content of the different lipoprotein fractions. Oxidation of 'plasma' reconstituted from components of apoE-/- mice and/or human plasma showed that human and apoE-/- mouse lipoproteins peroxidized with similar kinetics, although the initiation of lipid peroxidation was greater in the presence of mouse than human lipoprotein-deficient plasma. Also, the chain length of lipid peroxidation in apoE-/- mouse plasma after ascorbate depletion appeared to be independent of the rate of ROO. generation. Together, these results show that the ROO. induced peroxidation of plasma lipoproteins in atherogenesis-susceptible apoE-/- mice exhibits some, though not all, features of tocopherol-mediated peroxidation (TMP). Therefore, apoE-/- mice may represent a suitable animal model to test a role for TMP in atherogenesis and the prevention of this disease by anti-TMP agents. PMID:9507996

Neuzil, J; Christison, J K; Iheanacho, E; Fragonas, J C; Zammit, V; Hunt, N H; Stocker, R



Mobile plasma activation of polymers using the plasma gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface activation of hydrophobic polymers is important prior to effective painting and glueing. The purpose of the plasma gun is the activation of polymers under normal pressure using a plasma excitation. Its function principle is based on a gas jet pump. Under low pressure a plasma is burning induced by an electrical discharge. The activation process takes place under ambient

Roland Gesche; Reinhold Kovacs; Joachim Scherer



Plasma levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I and -II from 2 to 6 weeks of age in meat-type chickens selected for 6-week body weight or for feed conversion and reared under high or normal environmental temperature conditions.  


The aim of this study was to compare the effect of high (33 degrees C) and normal (33-20 degrees C) rearing temperature on growth and plasma levels of the somatotrophic hormones of 2 genetic lines of broiler chickens selected for 6-wk body weight (GL-line) or for feed conversion between 3 and 6 wk of age (FC-line) or for feed conversion between 3 and 6 wk of age (FC-line). Blood samples were collected weekly and analysed for growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-I and -II levels by RIA. The growth-depressing effect of the HT-treatment was more pronounced in the heavier GL-line and in males. A similar age-related pattern for all hormones studied was observed with the highest levels between 2 and 4 wk of age. FC-line chickens and males had consistently higher plasma GH levels than GL-line chickens and females respectively. No consistent effect of rearing temperature on plasma GH levels were observed. At 2 wk of age, HT-treatment resulted in higher plasma IGF-I levels while this was reversed from 3 wk of age onwards. GL-line chickens had significantly higher plasma IGF-I levels at 2, 3 and 4 wk of age. No consistent effect of sex on plasma IGF-I levels could be observed. For the whole period studied, GL-line chickens had significantly higher plasma IGF-II levels than FC-line chickens. No consistent effect of sex or temperature treatment on plasma IGF-II levels was observed. PMID:8240680

Decuypere, E; Leenstra, F R; Buyse, J; Huybrechts, L M; Buonomo, F C; Berghman, L R



Lipid and phospholipid fatty acid composition of plasma, red blood cells, and platelets and how they are affected by dietary lipids: a study of normal subjects from Italy, Finland, and the USA1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot study was conducted of males 40-45 years old from rural areas of three countries to study the long-term efects of dietary fats on the lipids of plasma, red blood cells (RBCs), and platelets. Differences were observed in cholesterol and phospholipid levels of plasma. Total phospholipids of RBCs and platelets were similar in all three countries. The pattern of

Rita M Dougherty; Anna Ferro-Luzzi; James M Jacono


Seasonal variations in seminal plasma and sperm characteristics of wild-caught and cultivated Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to investigate changes, throughout the spawning season, in body size attributes and quantitative semen characteristics of wild-caught and cultivated Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. Sperm velocity increased significantly throughout the spawning season of cod from both origins. Curvilinear velocity (VCL; 30sec post-activation) increased from 78.9±6.5 to 128.2±6.5?m\\/sec (mean±SEM) between the beginning and end of the spawning season,

I. A. E. Butts; M. K. Litvak; E. A. Trippel



Intratesticular Doppler flow, seminal plasma nitrites\\/nitrates, and nonobstructive sperm extraction from patients with obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To prospectively evaluate the role of intratesticular vascular flow in modulating sperm function in men with obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia. The correlation of testicular Doppler values with nitric oxide and testicular sperm extraction was further evaluated.Design: Prospective study.Setting: Assisted reproduction unit at a university center.Patient(s): Twenty-eight men with azoospermia undergoing sperm extraction for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.Intervention(s): Ultrasound and color

Cesare Battaglia; Simone Giulini; Giorgia Regnani; Igael Madgar; Fabio Facchinetti; Annibale Volpe



Identification and Characterization of Seminal Fluid Proteins in the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus  

PubMed Central

The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is an important vector for pathogens that affect human health, including the viruses that cause dengue and Chikungunya fevers. It is also one of the world's fastest-spreading invasive species. For these reasons, it is crucial to identify strategies for controlling the reproduction and spread of this mosquito. During mating, seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) are transferred from male mosquitoes to females, and these Sfps modulate female behavior and physiology in ways that influence reproduction. Despite the importance of Sfps on female reproductive behavior in mosquitoes and other insects, the identity of Sfps in Ae. albopictus has not previously been reported. We used transcriptomics and proteomics to identify 198 Sfps in Ae. albopictus. We discuss possible functions of these Sfps in relation to Ae. albopictus reproduction-related biology. We additionally compare the sequences of these Sfps with proteins (including reported Sfps) in several other species, including Ae. aegypti. While only 72 (36.4%) of Ae. albopictus Sfps have putative orthologs in Ae. aegypti, suggesting low conservation of the complement of Sfps in these species, we find no evidence for an elevated rate of evolution or positive selection in the Sfps that are shared between the two Aedes species, suggesting high sequence conservation of those shared Sfps. Our results provide a foundation for future studies to investigate the roles of individual Sfps on feeding and reproduction in this mosquito. Functional analysis of these Sfps could inform strategies for managing the rate of pathogen transmission by Ae. albopictus. PMID:24945155

Boes, Kathryn E.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Wong, Alex; Harrington, Laura C.; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Sirot, Laura K.



Effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha on libido, seminal quantity and quality of buffalo bulls.  


Four mature Murrah buffalo bulls on a regular semen collection schedule of twice a day, two days per week, were injected with 30 mg prostaglandin F2 alpha THAM salt(PGF) intramuscularly 30 minutes prior to each alternate first ejaculation for six weeks. Effects of PGF on time to initial false mount on the decoy, time to ejaculation after two false mounts (reaction time), seminal volume, sperm concentration, total sperm output, motility of fresh and thawed semen and the semen doses obtained per collection were evaluated. Treatment caused significant (P < 0.01) reduction in the time to first false mount and the reaction time for the first ejaculations but had no effect (P > 0.05) on these for the second ejaculations. Values for other quantitative and qualitative parameters did not differ (P > 0.05) due to PGF treatment. It is concluded that PGF at the dosage and frequency of administration used may be of some value in improving libido in low-libido bulls but does not alter the reproductive capacity of buffalo bulls. PMID:16726160

Narasimha Rao, A V; Haranath, G B; Visweswara Rao, C; Ramamohana Rao, J



'Semen Contains Vitality and Heredity, Not Germs': Seminal Discourse in the AIDS Era  

PubMed Central

Perspectives of public health generally ignore culture-bound sexual health concerns, such as semen loss, and primarily attempt to eradicate sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Like in many other countries, sexual health concerns of men in Bangladesh have also received less attention compared to STIs in the era of AIDS. This paper describes the meanings of non-STI sexual health concerns, particularly semen loss, in the masculinity framework. In a qualitative study on male sexuality, 50 men, aged 18–55 years, from diverse sociodemographic backgrounds and 10 healthcare practitioners were interviewed. Men considered semen the most powerful and vital body fluid representing their sexual performance and reproductive ability. Rather than recognizing the vulnerability to transmission of STIs, concerns about semen were grounded in the desire of men to preserve and nourish seminal vitality. Traditional practitioners supported semen loss as a major sexual health concern where male heritage configures male sexuality in a patriarchal society. Currently, operating HIV interventions in the framework of disease and death may not ensure participation of men in reproductive and sexual health programmes and is, therefore, less likely to improve the quality of sexual life of men and women. PMID:17591339

Hudson-Rodd, Nancy; Saggers, Sherry; Bhuiyan, Mahbubul Islam; Bhuiya, Abbas; Karim, Syed Afzalul; Rauyajin, Oratai



QTLs and epistasis for seminal root length under a different water supply in rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the genetic background of seminal root length under different water-supply conditions, a recombinant inbred (RI)\\u000a population consisting of 150 lines, derived from a cross between an indica lowland rice, IR1552, and a tropical japonica upland rice, Azucena, was used in both solution culture (lowland condition) and paper culture (upland condition). Quantitative\\u000a trait loci (QTLs) and epistatic loci for

W. P. Zhang; X. Y. Shen; P. Wu; B. Hu; C. Y. Liao



Male and Female Cooperate in the Prohormone-like Processing of a Drosophila melanogaster Seminal Fluid Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acp26Aa is a Drosophila seminal fluid protein that plays a role in the elevation of egg-laying by the mated female and has structural features of a prohormone. The protein, which has a region of sequence similarity to the egg-laying hormone of Aplysia, is transferred to the Drosophila female during mating. Acp26Aa is processed in the mated female's genital tract. We

Morgan Park; Mariana F. Wolfner



Seminal events that marked its reemergence were the publication of Hinton and Anderson (1981), the Cognitive Science Society meetings in 1984, and the publication of the PDP volumes  

E-print Network

1 Seminal events that marked its reemergence were the publication of Hinton and Anderson (1981 Bechtel and Abrahamsen, 1991, Clark, 1989, 1993, and papers in Horgan and Tienson, 1991, and Ramsey, Stich

Bechtel, William


The seminal vesicle in eight and 16 week streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: adrenergic, cholinergic and peptidergic innervation.  


The autonomic innervation of the seminal vesicle from 8 and 16 week streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and age-matched controls was studied by pharmacological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Contractions in response to electrical field stimulation, which were abolished using prazosin (2 microM) or tetrodotoxin (one to 1.6 microM), and to noradrenaline were significantly increased in both eight and 16 week diabetic animals. The contractile response to acetylcholine was significantly increased in the 16 week diabetic rats only, when compared with controls. Although these responses were significantly increased, no difference was found in ED50 and EF50 values between control and diabetic rats. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (0.3 microM) had no effect on resting tension or nerve-mediated responses. In seminal vesicles from control animals, both vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive and acetylcholinesterase-containing nerves were localised around the folds of the columnar epithelium of secretory cells, in contrast to neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive and catecholamine-containing nerves which were found in the smooth muscle layers. In seminal vesicles from both eight and 16 week diabetic animals no difference was seen in distribution or density of acetylcholinesterase-containing nerves; there was an increase in density and fluorescence intensity of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide- and neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive nerves and a decrease in catecholamine-containing nerves compared with controls. The results are discussed in relation to autonomic neuropathy in diabetes. PMID:3669188

Moss, H E; Crowe, R; Burnstock, G



Detection of seminal fluid proteins in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The global increase of the human parasite, the common bed bug Cimex lectularius, calls for specific pest control target sites. The bed bug is also a model species for sexual conflict theory which suggests seminal fluids may be highly diverse. The species has a highly unusual sperm biology and seminal proteins may have unique functions. 1-D PAGE gels showed 40 to 50% band sharing between C. lectularius and another cimicid species, Afrocimex constrictus. However, adult, sexually rested C. lectularius males were found to store 5 to 7?g of seminal protein and with only 60?g of protein we obtained informative 2-D PAGE gels. These showed 79% shared protein spots between two laboratory populations, and more than half of the shared protein spots were detected in the mated female. Further analysis using liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry revealed that 26.5% of the proteins had matches among arthropods in data bases and 14.5% matched Drosophila proteins. These included ubiquitous proteins but also those more closely associated with reproduction such as moj 29, ubiquitin, the stress-related elongation factor EF-1alpha, a protein disulfide isomerase and an antioxidant, Peroxiredoxin 6. PMID:19091156




Durable diagnosis of seminal vesicle and sexual gland diseases using the nano optical sensor thin film Sm-doxycycline complex.  


A new method in which a nano optical sensor for diagnosis of different diseases of seminal vesicle and sexual gland was prepared. The working principle of the method depends on the determination of the fructose concentration in semen of different patients by using nano optical sensor thin film Sm-doxycycline doped in sol-gel matrix. The assay is based on the quenching of the characteristic emission bands of Sm(3+) present in silica doped Sm-doxycycline nanooptode thin film by different fructose concentrations in acetonitrile at ?ex = 400 nm. This method was optimized for parameters, such as, solvent effect, operational stability, shelf life and interference parameters. Good and reproducible linearity (1 × 10(-9) - 5.0 × 10(-5) mol L(-1)) with a detection limit of 9.0 × 10(-10) mol L(-1) and quantification limit of detection (LOQ) 2.7 × 10(-9) mol L(-1) were obtained. Seminal fructose determination in different patient samples after appropriate dilutions confirmed the reliability of this technique. The method was successfully applied for routine fructose monitoring in human semen samples of different cases such as; obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia, inflammation of male accessory glands, atrophy of seminal vesicle, congenital vas deferens and retrograde ejaculation. PMID:24952629

Attia, M S; Youssef, A O; El-Sherif, R H



Detection of seminal fluid proteins in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.  


The global increase of the human parasite, the common bed bug Cimex lectularius, calls for specific pest control target sites. The bed bug is also a model species for sexual conflict theory which suggests that seminal fluids may be highly diverse. The species has a highly unusual sperm biology and seminal proteins may have unique functions. One-dimensional PAGE gels showed 40-50% band sharing between C. lectularius and another cimicid species, Afrocimex constrictus. However, adult, sexually rested C. lectularius males were found to store 5-7 microg of seminal protein and with only 60 microg of protein we obtained informative 2-D PAGE gels. These showed 79% shared protein spots between 2 laboratory populations, and more than half of the shared protein spots were detected in the mated female. Further analysis using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry revealed that 26.5% of the proteins had matches among arthropods in databases and 14.5% matched Drosophila proteins. These included ubiquitous proteins but also those more closely associated with reproduction such as moj 29, ubiquitin, the stress-related elongation factor EF-1 alpha, a protein disulfide isomerase and an antioxidant, Peroxiredoxin 6. PMID:19091156

Reinhardt, K; Wong, C H; Georgiou, A S



High HPV Infection Prevalence in Men from Infertile Couples and Lack of Relationship between Seminal HPV Infection and Sperm Quality  

PubMed Central

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the most frequently sexually transmitted viruses and etiological agents of several human cancers. Controversial results of the role of HPV in infertile population on sperm parameters have been published. The aim of this study was to estimate the type-specific prevalence of HPV DNA infection of the external genitalia and semen in 340 Slovenian men from infertile couples and to establish the relationship between seminal HPV DNA infection and abnormal sperm parameters. Self-taken swabs of the entire penile surface and semen samples were collected, and HPV detection and genotyping were performed. HPV DNA was detected in 37.12% of external genitalia and in 13.61% of semen samples with high HPV type concordance of both sampling sites. The most prevalent HPV types in the male external genitalia were HPV-CP6108 and HPV-84. The most prevalent HPV types in semen were HPV-53 and HPV-CP6108. The prevalence of HPV infection between normozoospermic men and men with abnormal sperm parameters did not differ significantly. Sperm quality did not differ significantly between men with seminal HPV infection and uninfected men. In conclusion, the men from infertile couples are equally susceptible to HPV infection regardless of their fertile potential; seminal HPV infection does not impair sperm quality. PMID:24809062

Golob, Barbara; Verdenik, Ivan; Kolbezen Simoniti, Mojca; Vrtacnik Bokal, Eda; Zorn, Branko



Ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles in infertile patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  


Male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) may experience infertility because the disease affects negatively many aspects of reproduction, including seminal vesicle (SV) function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound characteristics of the SVs of infertile patients with DM because no such data are available in these patients. To accomplish this, 25 infertile patients with type 2 DM and no other known causes of sperm parameter abnormalities were selected. Two different control groups were also enrolled: healthy men with idiopathic infertility (n=25) and infertile patients with male accessory gland infections (MAGI) (n=25), a well-studied clinical model of SV inflammation. Patients and controls underwent prostate-vesicular transrectal ultrasonography after 1 day of sexual abstinence before and 1h after ejaculation. The following SV ultrasound parameters were recorded: (1) body antero-posterior diameter (ADP); (2) fundus APD; (3) parietal thickness of the right and left SVs; (4) number of polycyclic areas within both SVs; (5) fundus/body ratio; (6) difference of the parietal thickness between the right and the left SV; and (7) pre- and post-ejaculatory APD difference. Patients with DM had a significantly (p<0.05) higher F/B ratio compared to controls and patients with MAGI. Only patients with MAGI had a significantly (p<0.05) higher number of polycyclic areas. Controls and MAGI patients have a similar pre- and post-ejaculatory difference of the body SV APD, whereas this difference was significantly (p<0.05) lower in patients with DM. In conclusion, this study showed that infertile patients with DM have peculiar SV ultrasound features suggestive of functional atony. PMID:20800402

La Vignera, Sandro; Vicari, Enzo; Condorelli, Rosita; D'Agata, Rosario; Calogero, Aldo E



Antibody-based diagnosis of small ruminant lentivirus infection in seminal fluid.  


Antibody-based diagnosis of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) has been efficiently achieved using serum and milk, but not semen, for which polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been proposed as a confirmatory technique. This work, involving 296 ovine (Ovis aries) and caprine (Capra hircus) semen donors, investigates whether seminal fluid (SF) can be reliably used in antibody-based SRLV diagnosis. First, a gold standard was established to assess the infection status and determine the sensitivity and specificity of three commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in serum testing using Western blot and PCR as confirmatory tests. For SF testing, both gold standard and serum testing results were used as reference. The performance of SF testing was affected not only by the ELISA assay sensitivity (related to antigen spectrum) compared with that of the gold standard (as it occurred in serum testing) but also by SF sample quality and SF working dilution. Nonturbid SF samples, commonly collected in artificial insemination centers (AICs), were required. Compared with serum, SF testing had a decreased sensitivity in two of the ELISA assays (with original serum working dilutions

Ramírez, H; Román, B San; Glaria, I; Reina, R; Hernández, M M; de Andrés, X; Crespo, H; Hichou, B; Cianca, S; Goñi, C; Grandas, A; García-Pastor, L; Vijil, L E; Quintín, F; Grilló, M J; de Andrés, D; Amorena, B



Hybrid Registration of Prostate and Seminal Vesicles for Image Guided Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Fiducial markers are a good surrogate for the prostate but provide little information on the position and orientation of the seminal vesicles (SVs). Therefore, a more advanced localization method is warranted if the SVs are part of the target volume. The purpose of this study was to develop a hybrid registration technique for the localization of the prostate and SVs. Methods and Materials: Twenty prostate patients implanted with 2 or 3 elongated fiducial markers had cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans acquired at every fraction. The first step of the hybrid registration was to localize the prostate by CBCT-to-planning-CT alignment of the fiducial markers, allowing both translations and rotations. Using this marker registration as a starting point, the SVs were registered based on gray values, allowing only rotations around the lateral axis. We analyzed the differential rotation between the prostate and SVs and compared the required SV margins for 3 correction strategies. Results: The SV registration had a precision of 2.7° (1 standard deviation) and was successful for 96% of the scans. Mean (M), systematic (?), and random (?) differences between the orientation of the prostate and SV were M = ?0.4°, ? = 7.2°, and ? = 6.4°. Daily marker-based corrections required an SV margin of 11.4 mm (translations only) and 11.6 mm (translations + rotations). Rotation corrections of the SVs reduced the required margin to 8.2 mm. Conclusions: We found substantial differences between the orientation of the prostate and SVs. The hybrid registration technique can accurately detect these rotations during treatment. Rotation correction of the SVs allows for margin reduction for the SVs.

Boer, Johan de; Herk, Marcel van; Pos, Floris J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sonke, Jan-Jakob, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)



The antioxidant system of sterlet seminal fluid in testes and Wolffian ducts.  


Oxidative stress is a possible source of spermatozoa function deterioration. Seminal fluid (SF) protects spermatozoa against reactive oxygen species (ROS) attack during development in testes and transit through the reproductive tract. Spermatozoa curvilinear velocity and percent of motile cells as well as changes in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) content, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity, and uric acid concentration in SF were evaluated in sterlet sperm collected from testes 24 h after hormone induction of spermiation and from Wolffian ducts at 12, 24, 36, and 60 h after hormone injection (HI). While testicular spermatozoa motility was not initiated in activating medium, Wolffian duct sperm showed low motility at 12 h, significant increase at 24 and 36 h, and decrease at 60 h. Testicular SF was characterized by the highest level of TBARS and activity of studied enzymes compared with SF from Wolffian duct sperm at 24 h post-HI. In fluid from Wolffian duct sperm, a significant increase in TBARS content was shown at 36-60 h post-HI. In contrast to testicular SF, in SF from Wolffian duct sperm, this increase was not counterbalanced by changes in the studied variables of antioxidant system. This may be the source of the observed decrease in spermatozoa motility parameters 60 h post-HI. The results may confirm a dual role of ROS in fish sperm physiology. The data with respect to decrease in sturgeon spermatozoa motility parameters at 60 h post-HI should be taken into account in artificial sturgeon propagation. PMID:25055725

Dzyuba, Viktoriya; Dzyuba, Borys; Cosson, Jacky; Boryshpolets, Sergii; Yamaner, Gunes; Kholodniy, Vitaliy; Rodina, Marek



Fasting plasma levels of nesfatin-1 in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and the nutrient-related fluctuation of nesfatin-1 level in normal humans.  


The novel satiety factor nesfatin-1 has been shown to decrease food intake and body weight in rodents after i.c.v. injection. However, no further developments regarding the true patho-physiological relevance of nesfatin-1 in obesity and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1 DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM) have been reported. A recent study by Stengel et al. demonstrated that a down-regulation of NUCB2 mRNA in gastric endocrine cells was observed after 24-h fasting. They raised the possibility that nesfatin/NUCB2 gene expression may be regulated by nutritional status, suggesting that nesfatin-1 in the stomach might play a role in satiety. In the present study, fasting levels in plasma nesfatin-1, insulin and glucose were measured and analyzed in healthy subjects and in patients with T1 DM and T2 DM. Plasma nesfatin-1 levels were measured 6 times before and after oral glucose ingestion in healthy subjects. No sex differences in plasma nesfatin-1 were found. The mean fasting plasma nesfatin-1 levels were slightly but not significantly higher in T1 DM patients compared to healthy subjects. However, fasting plasma nesfatin-1 levels were significantly lower in T2 DM patients compared to healthy subjects and T1 DM patients. Plasma nesfatin-1 did not change acutely, although a small rise in circulating nesfatin-1 occurred within 30 min after the beginning of an oral glucose ingestion (from a mean basal value of 0.99+/-0.23 ng/ml to a maximum of 1.08+/-0.24 ng/ml). No significant difference in plasma nesfatin-1 before and after an oral glucose was observed. In conclusion, we showed that fasting nesfatin-1 was significantly lower in T2 DM patients compared to healthy subjects and T1 DM patients. The significance of this result is unclear but the reduction in fasting nesfatin-1 may be one of the appetite-related hormones involved in diabetic hyperphagia. In addition, neither glucose nor saline ingestions affected plasma nesfatin-1, suggesting that gastric chemosensation is not sufficient for the nesfatin-1 response under the present conditions. PMID:19896982

Li, Qing-Chun; Wang, Hai-Yan; Chen, Xi; Guan, Hong-Zai; Jiang, Zheng-Yao



Incidental seminal vesicle amyloidosis observed in diagnostic prostate biopsies--are routine investigations for systemic amyloidosis warranted?  

PubMed Central

Seminal vesicle (SV) amyloidosis is a well-documented histological entity, but it is observed infrequently. Its incidence is on the rise, which is probably related to the increasing use of prostate biopsies to investigate patients with elevated serum prostate-specific antigen levels. Here, we report seven cases of incidental SV amyloidosis over a 3-year period and consider their relationship to the previously suggested aetiological factors. Based on our series, we conclude that incidental localized SV amyloidosis observed in diagnostic prostate biopsies does not warrant formal investigations for systemic amyloidosis. PMID:23223033

Yang, Zichu; Laird, Alexander; Monaghan, Ashley; Seywright, Morag; Ahmad, Imran; Leung, Hing Y



SV-IV Peptide1-16 reduces coagulant power in normal Factor V and Factor V Leiden  

PubMed Central

Native Factor V is an anticoagulant, but when activated by thrombin, Factor X or platelet proteases, it becomes a procoagulant. Due to these double properties, Factor V plays a crucial role in the regulation of coagulation/anticoagulation balance. Factor V Leiden (FVL) disorder may lead to thrombophilia. Whether a reduction in the activation of Factor V or Factor V Leiden may correct the disposition to thrombophilia is unknown. Therefore we tested SV-IV Peptide 1–16 (i.e. a peptide derived by seminal protein vescicle number IV, SV-IV) to assess its capacity to inhibit the procoagulant activity of normal clotting factor V or Factor V Leiden (FVL). We found that SV-IV protein has potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties and also exerts procoagulant activity. In the present work we show that the SV-IV Peptide 1–16, incubated with plasma containing normal Factor V or FVL plasma for 5 minutes reduces the procoagulant capacity of both substances. This is an anticoagulant effect whereas SV-IV protein is a procoagulant. This activity is effective both in terms of the coagulation tests, where coagulation times are increased, and in terms of biochemical tests conducted with purified molecules, where Factor X activation is reduced. Peptide 1–16 was, in the pure molecule system, first incubated for 5 minutes with purified Factor V then it was added to the mix of phosphatidylserine, Ca2+, Factor X and its chromogenic molecule Chromozym X. We observed a more than 50% reduction in lysis of chromogenic molecule Chromozym X by Factor Xa, compared to the sample without Peptide 1–16. Such reduction in Chromozym X lysis, is explained with the reduced activation of Factor X by partial inactivation of Factor V by Peptide 1–16. Thus our study demonstrates that Peptide 1–16 reduces the coagulation capacity of Factor V and Factor V Leiden in vitro, and, in turn, causes factor X reduced activation. PMID:18154667

Di Micco, Biagio; Lepretti, Marilena; Rota, Lidia; Quaglia, Ilaria; Ferrazzi, Paola; Di Micco, Gianluca; Di Micco, Pierpaolo



Seminal transforming growth factor beta1 stimulates granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor production and inflammatory cell recruitment in the murine uterus.  


Mating in rodents evokes an inflammatory-like reaction within the uterine endometrium, characterized by extensive infiltration and activation of macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes. This response is initiated when seminal vesicle gland-derived factors in the ejaculate stimulate uterine epithelial cells to release proinflammatory cytokines including granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Experiments in which seminal vesicle secretions were fractionated by Sephacryl S-400 chromatography and assayed in vitro for GM-CSF-stimulating activity revealed that the seminal moiety coeluted with transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) in the 150-440-kDa range and was neutralized by anti-TGFbeta1 antibodies. Comparable amounts of recombinant TGFbeta1 stimulated GM-CSF release in cultures of uterine epithelial cells from estrous mice and, when instilled into the uterine lumen, caused an increase in GM-CSF content and an infiltration of leukocytes into the endometrium similar to the postmating response. These results show that seminal vesicular fluid contains TGFbeta1 at levels sufficient to be the primary causative agent in the postmating inflammatory cascade through induction of GM-CSF synthesis by uterine epithelial cells. Seminal TGFbeta1 is thus implicated as a key factor in initiation of the remodeling events and immunological changes that occur in the uterus during the preimplantation period of pregnancy. PMID:9603256

Tremellen, K P; Seamark, R F; Robertson, S A



Improvement of penile erection, sperm count and seminal fructose levels in vivo and nitric oxide release in vitro by ayurvedic herbs.  


In the present study, the effect of four Vajikaran Rasayana herbs on penile erection, sperm count, seminal fructose content in vivo and nitric oxide (NO) release in vitro was assessed. Lyophilised aqueous extracts of Asparagus racemosus Willd. (AR), Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. F. (CB), Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. (CO), and Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo (DH) were orally administered at 100 mg/kg body weight to Wistar strain male albino rats. Penile erection index and sperm count were determined by visual observation; the seminal fructose concentration was measured spectrophotometrically using resorcinol reagent; and NO release was assessed in a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW264) spectrophotometrically using a commercial Griess reagent kit. Penile erection index, sperm count, seminal fructose concentration and in vitro NO release were the parameters measured. A significant effect on the sperm count, seminal fructose content and penile erection index was observed upon treatment with the extracts. The effect of extracts on inducible NO release in vitro directly correlated with the enhanced erectile function in vivo. The aphrodisiac claims attributed to the four Vajikaran Rasayana herbs were tested and a distinctive effect of all extracts tested was observed, with C. borivilianum showing a highly significant response for all parameters measured in vivo and in vitro. The present study also provides a good correlation between the in vivo improvement of penile erection and in vitro NO releasing activity of the extracts. Increase in seminal fructose levels and sperm count further validates the role of these herbs in improving reproductive function. PMID:21486409

Thakur, M; Thompson, D; Connellan, P; Deseo, M A; Morris, C; Dixit, V K



Normal Pancreas Anatomy  


... Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Normal Pancreas Anatomy View/Download: Small: 761x736 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Normal Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows ...


Normal Chest CT  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Set of normal chest CT images with various important anatomic structures outlined, for cine viewing to gain a 3D view of the structure and its relationship to adjacent organs.Annotated: trueDisease diagnosis: Normal

Shaffer, Kitt



Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus  


... involves surgical placement of a shunt in the brain to drain excess CSF into the abdomen where it can be absorbed as part of the normal circulatory process. This allows the brain ventricles to return to their normal size. Regular ...


On Normal Stratified Pseudomanifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stratified pseudomanifold is normal if its links are connected. A normalization of a stratified pseudomanifold $X$ is a normal stratified pseudomanifold $Y$ together with a finite-to-one projection $n:Y\\\\to X$ satisfying a local condition related to the fibers. The map n preserves the intersection homology. Following Borel any pl-stratified pseudomanifod has a normalization in the above sense. In this parper:

G. Padilla; Facultad De Ciencias



On URL Normalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since syntactically different URLs could represent the same resource in WWW, there are on-going efforts to define the URL\\u000a normalization in the standard communities. This paper considers the three additional URL normalization steps beyond ones specified\\u000a in the standard URL normalization. The idea behind our work is that in the URL normalization we want to minimize false negatives\\u000a further while

Sang Ho Lee; Sung Jin Kim; Seok-hoo Hong



Plasma jets and plasma bullets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma plumes, or plasma jets, belong to a large family of gas discharges whereby the discharge plasma is extended beyond the plasma generation region into the surrounding ambience, either by a field (e.g. electromagnetic, convective gas flow, or shock wave) or a gradient of a directionless physical quantity (e.g. particle density, pressure, or temperature). This physical extension of a plasma

M G Kong; B N Ganguly; R F Hicks



Normal Scalar Curvature Inequalities Normal Scalar Curvature  

E-print Network

Introduction In 2005, B¨ottcher and Wenzel proposed the following inequality. Conjecture Let A1, A2 be n � n The Normal Scalar Curvature Conjecture was proved by Lu [5,6] and Ge-Tang [4] independently. 2 The B¨ottcher-Wenzel Inequalities References [1] A. B¨ottcher and D. Wenzel, How big can the commutator of two matrices be and how

Lu, Zhiqin


Characterisation of element profile changes induced by long-term dietary supplementation of zinc in the brain and cerebellum of 3xTg-AD mice by alternated cool and normal plasma ICP-MS.  


Metal dyshomeostasis plays a crucial role in promoting several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), a condition that has been linked to deregulation of brain levels of Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Thus, quantitative multi-element profiling of brain tissues from AD models can be of great value in assessing the pathogenic role of metals as well as the value of therapeutic interventions aimed at restoring metal homeostasis in the brain. In this study, we employed low resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to evaluate levels of ultra-trace, trace, and major elements in brains and cerebella of 3xTg-AD mice, a well characterized transgenic (Tg) AD model. This method is based on alternated cool and hot plasma ICP-MS. The essay fulfilled analytical requirements for the quantification of 14 elements in the Central Nervous System (CNS) of our Tg model. Quantification of Li, Al, Cr, and Co, a procedure that requires a pre-concentration step, was validated by high resolution ICP-MS. Changes in element profiles occurring in 3xTg-AD mice were compared to the ones observed in wild type (WT) mice. We also investigated variations in element profiles in 3xTg-AD mice receiving a long-term (17 months) dietary supplementation of Zn. Our data indicate that, compared to WT animals, 3xTg-AD mice displayed signs of altered brain metal homeostasis. We also found that long-term Zn administration promoted decreased brain levels of some metals (K, Ca, and Fe) and restored levels of Al, Cr, and Co to values found in WT mice. PMID:23151739

Ciavardelli, Domenico; Consalvo, Ada; Caldaralo, Valentina; Di Vacri, Maria Laura; Nisi, Stefano; Corona, Carlo; Frazzini, Valerio; Sacchetta, Paolo; Urbani, Andrea; Di Ilio, Carmine; Sensi, Stefano L



The Normalized Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes characteristics of the normalized child, the ultimate goal of Montessori education. First outlines children's basic needs, then describes traits of the normalized child, including love of order, work, silence and working alone; mutual aid and cooperation; profound spontaneous concentration; obedience; independence and initiative;…

Futrell, Kathleen H.



Pivoted document length normalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic information retrieval systems have to deal with documents of varying lengths in a text collection. Document length normalization is used to fairly retrieve documents of all lengths. In this study, we ohserve that a normalization scheme that retrieves documents of all lengths with similar chances as their likelihood of relevance will outperform another scheme which retrieves documents with chances

Amit Singhal; Chris Buckley; Manclar Mitra



The effects of breed and season on seminal quality of young Angus and Brahman bulls  

E-print Network

, 1980 15 16 Criteria for morphology evaluation of bovine spermatozoa Scrotal circumference variation with time in young Angus and Brahman bulls in Texas, from April 4, 1979 to February 27, 1980 57 17 Percentages of normal spermatozoa... with the other routine semen evaluation procedures, is a valuable tool in assessing semen quality. The first account of a specific bovine acrosomal abnormality was given in 1946, when acrosomal defects were reported in 82-96Po' of the spermatozoa of a...

Romo, Salvador



Plasma Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword R. Satava and R. J. Barker; Part I. Introduction to Non-equilibrium Plasma, Cell Biology, and Contamination: 1. Introduction M. Laroussi; 2. Fundamentals of non-equilibrium plasmas M. Kushner and M. Kong; 3. Non-equilibrium plasma sources M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 4. Basic cell biology L. Greene and G. Shama; 5. Contamination G. Shama and B. Ahlfeld; Part II. Plasma Biology and Plasma Medicine: 6. Common healthcare challenges G. Isbary and W. Stolz; 7. Plasma decontamination of surfaces M. Kong and M. Laroussi; 8. Plasma decontamination of gases and liquids A. Fridman; 9. Plasma-cell interaction: prokaryotes M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 10. Plasma-cell interaction: eukaryotes G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 11. Plasma based wound healing G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 12. Plasma ablation, surgery, and dental applications K. Stalder, J. Woloszko, S. Kalghatgi, G. McCombs, M. Darby and M. Laroussi; Index.

Laroussi, M.; Kong, M. G.; Morfill, G.; Stolz, W.



Phosphocreatine, an Intracellular High-Energy Compound, is Found in the Extracellular Fluid of the Seminal Vesicles in Mice and Rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High levels of phosphocreatine, a compound known to serve as an intracellular energy reserve, were found in the fluid contained in seminal vesicle glands. The concentrations of phosphocreatine in the extracellular fluid in the mouse and rat were found to be 5.6 ± 1.6 and 2.2 ± 0.8 ? mol/g, respectively, which are higher than the intracellular levels reported for smooth muscles. The creatine concentrations in the seminal vesicular fluid from these two species were 22.8 ± 3.1 and 13.0 ± 5.3 ? mol/g, respectively. These creatine levels are approximately 100 and 65 times higher than the creatine levels in mammalian blood. Smaller amounts of ATP (phosphocreatine/ATP ratio of 20-40) and traces of ADP were also found. Comparison of the pattern of distribution of macromolecules (proteins and DNA) with the distribution of phosphocreatine between the cells and the fluid of the seminal vesicle indicates that cell lysis did not account for the phosphocreatine in the seminal vesicle fluid. Rather, the available evidence strongly suggests that this high-energy compound is actively secreted. We found that in the testes, the sperm are exposed to the highest known creatine concentration in any mammalian tissue studied. Based on these results and other recent reports, we propose that the extracellular phosphocreatine, ATP, and creatine are involved in sperm metabolism.

Lee, H. J.; Fillers, W. S.; Iyengar, M. R.



Comparative study on the 3H-thymidine index of dorsal epidermis, buccal mucosa, and seminal vesicles in senile male rats.  


To supplement previous investigations on endogenous fluctuations of DNA synthesis in male rat dorsal epidermis, buccal mucosa and seminal vesicle epithelium from birth to sexual maturity, the labelling indices (L.I.) of these tissues in senile male rats from the same breed, studied under analogous experimental conditions, were evaluated as well as compared to the data obtained from rats in puberal and early mature age. In the dorsal epidermis and buccal mucosa of the old animals the medium L.I. were found to be at about the same level as those measured after puberty. In the aged seminal vesicle epithelium the medium L.I. was found to be decreased. The maintenance of epidermal and buccal DNA synthesis in senile rats as well as the results of previous studies with male rats subjected to castration or long-term administration of cyproteron acetate furnish evidence that a deficiency of testosteron does not diminish the rate of DNA synthesis in epidermis and buccal mucosa. However, from the decreased L.I. in seminal vesicle epithelium a reduced blood level or stimulating capacity, respectively, of testosteron in senile rats can be concluded. Furthermore, withdrawal of testosteron by orchidectomy or administration of cyproteron acetate is appropriate to suppress significantly the proliferative activity of seminal vesicles epithelium. PMID:1200711

Hornstein, O P; Schell, H



Biochem. J. (1995) 308, 547-550 (Printed in Great Britain) Catalytic activity of bovine seminal ribonuclease is essential for its  

E-print Network

Transfusion, 128 20 Prague 2, Czech Republic, and tInstitute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, 277 21 Libechov, Czech Republic Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) is a homologue of RNase A with special is a potent anti-tumour agent in phase II human clinical trials in the U.S.A. [11,12]. S-RNases from plants

Raines, Ronald T.


Forty Years of "Pastoral Care": An Appraisal of Michael Marland's Seminal Book and Its Significance for Pastoral Care in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Michael Marland's seminal book: "Pastoral Care" was published 40 years ago this year. The thesis of the book--that pastoral care is the central task of the school, and must be planned and institutionalized through pastoral roles and structures--is explored against the background of the social, cultural and educational developments…

Best, Ron



Characterization of basal seminal traits and reproductive endocrine profiles in North American river otters and Asian small-clawed otters.  


In this study, fecal samples were collected from 24 North American river (NARO) and 17 Asian small-clawed otters (ASCO) for 6-36 months and semen collected seasonally from NARO males (n=4/season) via electroejaculation. Our main objectives were to: (1) characterize endocrine parameters by longitudinal monitoring of fecal hormone metabolites and (2) investigate semen collection and basal seminal traits in NARO. NARO demonstrated a distinct seasonality in the spring, with females having a monoestrual estrogen elevation lasting 15.33+/-1.98 (mean+/-SEM) days and males peaking in testosterone production for 25.50+/-7.51 days. Pregnancy was characterized by 7-9 months of basal fecal progesterone, presumably corresponding to embryonic diapause, followed by a rapid increase over the final 68-73 days to term. Pseudopregnancy exhibited a similar late winter progesterone peak of 68-72 days, which could not be differentiated from pregnancy. Geographic latitude possibly influenced the timing of increased testosterone in males and increased progesterone in pregnant/pseudopregnant females. In ASCO, monitoring of fecal estrogens did not allow consistent detection of peak values associated with behavioral estrus. Both pregnancy and pseudopregnancy were characterized by a moderate rise in fecal progesterone for 14-16 days postovulation followed by a marked increase. Total gestation length was 67-77 days compared with 62-84 days for pseudopregnancy. In NARO, optimal sperm recovery and quality occurred only in the spring, corresponding with seasonal increases in testicular volume and fecal testosterone. These findings represent the first comprehensive information on normative endocrine and seminal traits in freshwater otter species. PMID:19367624

Bateman, Helen L; Bond, Jennifer B; Campbell, Mark; Barrie, Michael; Riggs, Gary; Snyder, Barb; Swanson, William F



The hypoglycaemic and antihyperglycaemic effect of Citrullus colocynthis fruit aqueous extract in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of the aqueous, glycosidic, alkaloidal and saponin extracts of the rind of Citrullus colocynthis on the plasma glucose levels were investigated in normal rabbits, while the effects of saponin extract on the fasting plasma glucose levels were studied in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. In normal rabbits, oral administration of aqueous extract (300 mg\\/kg) produced significant reduction in plasma glucose

Issa Abed Abdel-Hassan; Jamal Ahmed Abdel-Barry; Sarah Tariq Mohammeda



Analysis of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors and the G protein regulation of adenylyl cyclase in seminal vesicle membranes from streptozotocin-diabetic rats.  


The present report describes the status of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor/effector system of signal transduction in seminal vesicle from streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats. STZ-treatment modified the binding parameters of the high-affinity sites for VIP in seminal vesicle: 0.78 +/- 0.10 and 2.54 +/- 0.30 nM for the dissociation constant (Kd) in control and diabetic rats, respectively; 0.07 +/- 0.01 and 0.15 +/- 0.03 pmol VIP/mg protein for the maximum binding capacity (Bmax) in control and diabetic rats, respectively. It was associated with a reduced potency of VIP on the stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity in the diabetic state (ED50 = 64.0 +/- 20.0 nM) as compared to control (ED50 = 9.5 +/- 4.3 nM). In contrast, the stimulatory effects of GTP, Gpp[NH]p and forskolin on the enzyme activity were not modified in diabetic rats. The levels of G-protein subunits in rat seminal vesicle were studied by immunoblot of alpha s and alpha i subunits: whereas alpha i-subunit levels did not vary, those corresponding to alpha s subunit decreased after STZ treatment. In diabetic rats, low concentrations of Gpp[NH]p failed to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity, suggesting the absence of functional Gi in this condition. In conclusion, present results show a decrease in the sensitivity of the VIP receptor/effector system in seminal vesicle membranes from STZ-treated rats suggesting a physiopathological role for VIP in the seminal neuropathy observed in diabetes. PMID:8086277

Rodriguez-Pena, M S; Guijarro, L G; Juarranz, M G; Rodriguez-Henche, N; Bajo, A M; Aguado, F; Prieto, J C



Plasma universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This single-page reading underlines how abundant plasmas are in the universe. The reading, which is the final page in a tutorial about the plasma phase of matter, points out that understanding plasma is central to understanding what happens in the universe. Through space technologies, researchers have been able to study plasmas in areas like those shown in the images that illustrate this reading. One of the images shows plasma loops on the Sun. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Institute, Space S.



Normalization: A New Look  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With regard to normalization philosophy, the rights of mentally retarded individuals must be put in the context of reality constraints which include the resources of family, local community, and larger society. (JYC)

Beckman-Brindley, S.; Tavormina, J. B.



Glossary of normal faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased interest in normal faults and extended terranes has led to the development of an increasingly complex terminology. The most important terms are defined in this paper, with original references being given wherever possible, along with examples of current usage.

D. C. P. Peacock; R. J. Knipe; D. J. Sanderson



Normality in Analytical Psychology  

PubMed Central

Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

Myers, Steve



Plasma vortices in the ionosphere and atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vortices observed in ionized clouds of thunderstorm fronts have the nature of plasma vortices. In this work, the need to account for the electrostatic instability of plasma in the origination, intensification, and decay of plasma vortices in the atmosphere is shown. Moisture condensation results in mass-energy transfer under the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of aerosols. If a phase volume of natural oscillations is transformed in the frequency-wave vector space in inhomogeneous plasma, the damping of plasma oscillations promotes an increase in the pressure gradients normal to the geomagnetic field. Excitation of the gradient instabilities is probable in atmospheric plasma formations.

Izhovkina, N. I.



Thyroid hormones and antibody response to sheep erythrocytes of dwarf and normal chickens  

E-print Network

Thyroid hormones and antibody response to sheep erythrocytes of dwarf and normal chickens selected, and plasma thyroid hormone concentrations on antibody titers to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The greatest for the booster challenge as well. Separation of lines and dwarf-normal genotypes for plasma thyroid hormone

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Cosmic plasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is given to experimental and theoretical approaches to plasma physics, plasma phenomena in laboratory and space, field and particle aspects of plasmas, the present state of the classical theory, boundary conditions and circuit dependence, and cosmology. Electric currents in space plasmas are considered, taking into account dualism in physics, particle-related phenomena in plasma physics, magnetic field lines, filaments, local plasma properties and the circuit, electric double layers, field-aligned currents as 'cables', an expanding circuit, different types of plasma regions, the cellular structure of space, and the fine structure of active plasma regions. Other topics discussed are related to circuits, the theory of cosmic plasmas, the origin of the solar system, the coexistence of matter and antimatter, annihilation as a source of energy, the Hubble expansion in a Euclidean space, and a model for the evolution of the Metagalaxy.

Alfven, H.



Semen characteristics and plasma levels of testosterone after bilateral vasectomy in bucks.  


The effects of bilateral vasectomy on the seminal characteristics were assessed in six bucks of the Canarian breed. In addition, we tried to establish the effects of vasectomy on the plasmatic concentrations of testosterone and the libido of the bucks. Semen samples were collected once a week from 8 weeks before to 16 weeks after vasectomy; blood samples were collected prior to vasectomy, and then at once and 1 week after vasectomy and every 2 weeks from the week 4 to the end of the experiment. One week after the vasectomy, ejaculated spermatozoa were non-motile and the percentage of live spermatozoa was below 5% in all vasectomized males; in addition, the total number of cells/ejaculate was 3100 x 106 and 30 x 106 spermatozoa in the control and vasectomized males, respectively. Our results suggest that the vasectomized males may be used as oestrus detectors, without risks of accidental fecundating, only 1 week after vasectomy. Before vasectomy, no significant differences were observed in plasma levels of testosterone between the vasectomized and control males (5.4 +/- 1.2 and 3.9 +/- 1.4 ng/ml, respectively); from 4 to 12 weeks after vasectomy, a marked decrease in the testosterone concentration in all males (vasectomized and control bucks) was observed. From 12 weeks after vasectomy until the end of the experiment, four of the vasectomized males and the control males recovered their normal libido. The results suggest that vasectomy did not exert a remarkable effect on the steroidogenic functionality of the testicle. PMID:12464078

Batista, M; Prats, N; Calero, P; González, F; Cabrera, F; Medrano, A; Gracia, A



Normal Birth: Two Stories  

PubMed Central

The author shares two stories: one of a normal birth that took place in a hospital with a nurse-midwife in attendance and another of a home birth unexpectedly shared by many colleagues. Both are told with the goal to inform, inspire, and educate. PMID:17273292

Scaer, Roberta M.



Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)  


... other brain disorders. Learn more: Key Types of Dementia Symptoms The following symptoms are considered hallmarks of normal ... date on the latest advances in Alzheimer's and dementia treatments, care and research. Subscribe now Diagnosis There is no single test to determine if ...


Plasma Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning at an introductory level, this text presents a thorough treatment of plasma physics, including an extensive discussion of its applications in thermonuclear fusion research. A novel feature of this book is its comprehensive description of the various concepts and formulas widely used in fusion theory based on the fundamental equations of the plasma fluid. The physics of fusion plasmas

Kyoji Nishikawa; Masashiro Wakatani



[Fertilizing capacity of the ejaculate of nutria (Myocastor coypus) after the removal of the seminal vesicles as evaluated by the penetration test and natural mating].  


The fertility of male coypu sperm following seminal vesicle extirpation was investigated using the penetration test into the egg of Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Ejaculates were obtained from five males by means of electro-ejaculation under halothane narcosis. The results of the zona-free hamster eggs (ZFHE) penetration test showed that the ejaculates of all the surgically treated coypu males were fertile and that ZFHE value fluctuated from 54 to 76.6%. The results obtained in experiments with natural mating revealed that the extirpation of male coypu seminal vesicles did not affect their fertility. In total 47 foetuses were found post mortem in ten coypu females covered by surgically treated males, which on average represented 4.7 foetuses per female. PMID:2678717

Jakubicka, I; Barta, M; Babusík, P



11, 15, 19-trihydroxy-9-ketoprost-13-enoic acid and 11, 15, 19-trihydroxy-9-ketoprosta-5, 13-dienoic acid in human seminal fluid.  


Two novel prostaglandins (PG) have been found in human seminal fluid which had been frozen immediately after collection. They were characterized by combined gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of various derivatives as 19-hydroxy prostaglandin E1 (11, 15, 19-trihydroxy-9-ketoprost-13-enoic acid) and 19-hydroxy prostaglandin E2 (11, 15, 19-trihydroxy-9-ketoprosta-5, 13-dienoic acid). They were present in three to five times the quantity of prostaglandins E1 and E2. Incubation of seminal fluid for 3 hr at 25 degrees C reduced levels of 190H-PGEs2.5-fold and PGE22-fold, while increasing levels of PGAs and PGBs 2-fold. No 190H PGA or 190H PGB was detected in extracts of unincubated fluid. The PGAs, PGBs and their 19-hydroxy analogs are probably artifacts arising metabolically or as a result of classical isolation techniques. PMID:1255016

Jonsson, H T; Middleditch, B S; Schexnayder, M A; Desiderio, D M



Mechanism of acute depletion of plasma fibronectin following thermal injury in rats. Appearance of a gelatinlike ligand in plasma.  

PubMed Central

Plasma fibronectin was depleted within 15 min following sublethal burn, followed by partial recovery at 8 h and complete restoration by 24 h in anesthetized rats. Radiolabeled 75Se-plasma fibronectin, injected intravenously before burn, was rapidly sequestered in burn skin as well as the liver. Fibronectin levels at 2 h postburn as detected by immunoassay vs. 75Se-plasma fibronectin indicated that more fibronectin was in the plasma than detected by electroimmunoassay. Crossed immunoelectrophoretic analysis of fibronectin in early postburn plasma demonstrated a reduced electrophoretic mobility of the fibronectin antigen. Addition of heparin or fibrin, both of which have affinity for fibronectin, to normal plasma was unable to reproduce this altered fibronectin electrophoretic pattern. In contrast, addition of gelatin or native collagen to normal plasma reproduced the abnormal electrophoretic pattern of fibronectin seen in burn plasma. Extracts of burned skin, but not extracts of normal skin, when added to normal plasma, elicited a similar altered electrophoretic pattern for fibronectin. By gel filtration, fibronectin in burn plasma had an apparent molecular weight approximately 40% greater than that observed in normal plasma. These data suggest the release into the blood of a gelatinlike ligand from burned skin, which complexes with plasma fibronectin. Thus, fibronectin deficiency acutely postburn appears mediated by (a) its accumulation at the site of burn injury; (b) its removal from the circulation by the liver; and (c) its presence in the plasma in a form that is less detectable by immunoassay. Images PMID:6690478

Deno, D C; McCafferty, M H; Saba, T M; Blumenstock, F A



The performance of transrectal ultrasound in the diagnosis of seminal vesicle defects: a comparison with magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Obstructive azoospermia (OA) is one of the most common causes of male infertility. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) has been used to diagnose OA for many years. From 2009 to 2013, we evaluated a prospective cohort of 1249 patients with suspected OA using TRUS. It was found that dilation of the ejaculatory duct (ED) (29.9%, 374/1249) was the most common cause of OA, followed by seminal vesicle (SV) abnormalities (28.5%, 356/1249). A total of 237 patients were diagnosed with congenital defects (agenesis and/or hypoplasia) of the SV, constituting more than half of the cases of SV disease in OA (19.0%, 237/1249). In contrast to ED, congenital defects of the SV could not be corrected with surgical treatment. Therefore, it is meaningful to compare TRUS and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for accurate diagnosis of SV defects. Among our patients, 30 with agenesis or/and hypoplasia of the SV on TRUS were further evaluated using pelvic MRI within 2 years, with the objective of verifying the TRUS results. The concordance rate for diagnosing congenital defects of the SV was 73.3% (22/30). We concluded that TRUS is a reliable and convenient method for diagnosing agenesis or hypoplasia of the SV in OA patients with a high concordance with MRI while MRI is useful in patients with inconclusive TRUS findings. PMID:25337847

Chen, Xu; Wang, Hua; Wu, Rong-Pei; Liang, Hui; Mao, Xiao-Peng; Mao, Cheng-Qiang; Zhu, Hong-Zhang; Qiu, Shao-Peng; Wang, Dao-Hu



Sequence-specific 1H NMR assignments and structural characterization of bovine seminal fluid protein PDC-109 domain b.  


Sequence-specific resonance assignments for the isolated second or b domain of the bovine seminal fluid protein PDC-109 have been obtained from analysis of two-dimensional 1H NMR experiments recorded at 500 MHz. These assignments include the identification of all aromatic and most aliphatic amino acid resonances. Stereospecific assignment of resonances stemming from the Val2 CH3 gamma,gamma' groups and from seven CH beta,beta' geminal pairs has been accomplished by analysis of 3J alpha beta coupling constants in conjunction with patterns of cross-peak intensities observed in two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect (NOESY) spectra. Analysis of NOESY and 3J alpha NH data reveals a small antiparallel beta-sheet involving stretches containing residues 25-28 and 39-42, a cis-proline residue (Pro4), antiparallel strands consisting of residues 1-3, 5-7, and 10-13, and an aromatic cluster composed of Tyr7, Trp26, and Tyr33. The results of distance geometry and restrained molecular dynamics calculations indicate that the global fold of the PDC-109 b domain, a type II module related to those found in fibronectin, is somewhat different from that predicted by modeling the structure on the basis of homology between type II and kringle units. A shallow depression in the molecular surface which presents a solvent-exposed hydrophobic area--a potential ligand-binding site-is identified in the NMR-based models. PMID:1993183

Constantine, K L; Ramesh, V; Bányai, L; Trexler, M; Patthy, L; Llinás, M



Genome-wide promoter methylation profile of human testis and epididymis: identified from cell-free seminal DNA  

PubMed Central

Background DNA methylation analysis is useful for investigation of male fertility in mammals, whereas the reliance on tissues limits the research on human. We have previously found the presence of high concentration of cell-free seminal DNA (cfsDNA) in human semen. We proposed that some testis and epididymis-specific methylated promoters could be detected in human cfsDNA, and thus hold promise as noninvasive epigenetic biomarkers for male infertility, of which most cases are caused by defects in testicular sperm production or epididymal sperm maturation. Results The ejaculate of successfully vasectomized men does not contain any secretion from testis and epididymis. Here we compared genome-wide promoter methylation profiles in cfsDNA between health donors and post-vasectomy men. Promoters of 367 testis and epididymis-specific hypomethylated genes and 134 hypermethylated genes were identified. Subsequent validation by Methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation and MethyLight analysis confirmed the result of promoter microarray. Gene Ontology analysis revealed many genes involved in male reproduction. Conclusion We detected the testis and epididymis-specific methylated promoters in human cfsDNA, which may be used for noninvasive epigenetic biomarkers for the study and diagnosis of male infertility. PMID:23622456



Maintenance of genomic integrity after DNA double strand breaks in the human prostate and seminal vesicle epithelium: the best and the worst  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is one of the most frequent cancer types in men, and its incidence is steadily increasing. On the other hand, primary seminal vesicle carcinomas are extremely rare with less than 60 cases reported worldwide. Therefore the difference in cancer incidence has been estimated to be more than a 100,000-fold. This is astonishing, as both tissues share similar epithelial structure and hormonal cues. Clearly, the two epithelia differ substantially in the maintenance of genomic integrity, possibly due to inherent differences in their DNA damage burden and DNA damage signaling. The DNA damage response evoked by DNA double strand breaks may be relevant, as their faulty repair has been implicated in the formation of common genomic rearrangements such as TMPRSS2-ERG fusions during prostate carcinogenesis. Here, we review DNA damaging processes of both tissues with an emphasis on inflammation and androgen signaling. We discuss how benign prostate and seminal vesicle epithelia respond to acute DNA damage, focusing on the canonical DNA double strand break-induced ATM-pathway, p53 and DNA damage induced checkpoints. We propose that the prostate might be more prone to the accumulation of genetic aberrations during epithelial regeneration than seminal vesicles due to a weaker ability to enforce DNA damage checkpoints. PMID:22762987

Jaamaa, Sari; Laiho, Marikki



Amazing plasmas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A space weather site offers this tutorial about the state of matter called plasma. Animations, two games, and numerous enlargeable graphics are included in the tutorial. It presents information about what plasma is and where it is naturally found. The tutorial explains that understanding plasma and how it interacts with electric and magnetic fields is central to understanding much about our universe. In addition, one section of the tutorial discusses experimental fusion reactors in which man-made plasmas are used on earth. Plasma is the main type of matter in the universe, but it rarely occurs naturally on Earth because of the world's relatively cool temperatures. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Institute, Space S.



Dusty plasmas  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities.

Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.



Normal-reflection image  

SciTech Connect

Common-angle wave-equation migration using the double-square-root is generally less accurate than the common-shot migration because the wavefield continuation equation for thc former involves additional approximations compared to that for the latter. We present a common-angle wave-equation migration that has the same accuracy as common-shot wave-equation migration. An image obtained from common-angle migration is a four- to five-dimensional output volume for 3D cases. We propose a normal-reflection imaging condition for common-angle migration to produce a 3D output volume for 3D migration. The image is closely related to the normal-reflection coefficients at interfaces. This imaging condition will allow amplitude-preserving migration to generate an image with clear physical meaning.

Huang, L. (Lian-Jie); Fehler, Michael C.



The normal geomagnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on the normal geomagnetic field (NGF) and its gradients on the earth's surface and at different heights are examined. Methods for plotting the NMG for the USSR and other countries are developed, and mathematical approximations of the geomagnetic field are presented. The nature of the NGF is analyzed on the basis of geophysical, geological, and geochemical data, as well as data on the internal structure of the earth.

Pochtarev, V. I.


Normal Fault Visualization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module demonstrates the motion on an active normal fault. Faulting offsets three horizontal strata. At the end of the faulting event, surface topography has been generated. The upper rock layer is eroded by clicking on the 'begin erosion' button. The operator can manipulate the faulting motion, stopping and reversing motion on the fault at any point along the transit of faulting. The action of erosion is also interactive. One possible activity is an investigation of the control of different faulting styles on regional landscape form. This visual lends itself to an investigation of fault motion, and a comparison of types of faults. The interactive normal faulting visual could be compared to other interactive visuals depicting thrust faults, reverse faults, and strike slip faults (interactive animations of these fault types can be found by clicking on 'Media Types' at top red bar, then 'Animations', then 'Faults'). By comparing the interactive images of different types of faulting with maps of terrains dominated by different faulting styles, students are aided in conceptualizing how certain faulting styles produce distinctive landforms on the earth's surface (e.g., ridge and valley topography [thrust faulting dominant] versus basin-and-range topography [normal faulting dominant]). Jimm Myers, geology professor at the University of Wyoming, originated the concept of The Magma Foundry, a website dedicated to improving Earth science education across the grade levels. The Magma Foundry designs and creates modular, stand-alone media components that can be utilized in a variety of pedagogical functions in courses and labs.

Myers, Jimm


Normalization of chest radiographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clinical use of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems is increasing. A possible limitation of CAD systems is that they are typically trained on data from a small number of sources and as a result, they may not perform optimally on data from different sources. In particular for chest radiographs, it is known that acquisition settings, detector technology, proprietary post-processing and, in the case of analog images, digitization, can all influence the appearance and statistical properties of the image. In this work we investigate if a simple energy normalization procedure is sufficient to increase the robustness of CAD in chest radiography. We evaluate the performance of a supervised lung segmentation algorithm, trained with data from one type of machine, on twenty images each from five different sources. The results, expressed in terms of Jaccard index, increase from 0.530 +/- 0.290 to 0.914 +/- 0.041 when energy normalization is omitted or applied, respectively. We conclude that energy normalization is an effective way to make the performance of lung segmentation satisfactory on data from different sources.

Philipsen, R. H. H. M.; Maduskar, P.; Hogeweg, L.; van Ginneken, B.



The coronary angiogram and its seminal contributions to cardiovascular medicine over five decades.  

PubMed Central

The selective hand injection of contrast media into the right coronary artery of a middle-aged male by Doctor F. Mason Sones on October 30, 1958 introduced a new era in Cardiovascular Medicine. It is the purpose of this presentation to portray the pivotal role the coronary angiogram has played in creating some of the epochal events and discoveries that have characterized the march of progress in the field of cardiology over the past five decades. As the first reliable in vivo marker for the presence of obstructing coronary lesions, the coronary angiogram importantly led to our first studies of the natural history of patients with CAD. The motion studies afforded by cineangiography also permitted dynamic visualization of the contracting ventricle which led to the concept of regional wall motion abnormalities being characteristic of CAD and provided some of our earliest understanding of left ventricular dysfunction. The coronary angiogram also provided the stimulus for the development of aorto-coronary bypass surgery that was introduced by Dr. Rene Favaloro in May 1967. Subsequently, Dr. Andreas Gruntzig astounded the cardiology world by reporting his new percutaneous method of achieving revascularization (PTCA). The coronary angiogram provided the road map necessary for the successful deployment and application of this balloon technology that was soon to rival CABG surgery. The thrombolytic era was heralded in July 1979 when Dr. Peter Rentrop documented the successful reperfusion of a coronary artery in a 57-year old man by first recanalizing the occluding thrombus with a guidewire and then infusing the proteolytic enzyme, streptokinase directly into the artery. Within a year, DeWood made the angiographic observation that spontaneous regression of the totally occluding thrombus occurred among patients undergoing coronary arteriography within the first 24 hours of the onset of symptoms of an acute myocardial infarction. This led to the earliest studies on clot lysis by fibrinolytic agents and also paved the way for the balloon catheter to be used as a mechanical means of achieving coronary reperfusion in the acute setting. In the 1980s it was realized that vigorous lipid lowering with statin drugs did little to effect regression of the established atherosclerotic lesion but it did result in a dramatic decrease in subsequent clinical cardiovascular events. Similar observations were made by Little and others that acute coronary occlusion resulted more often from young, non-obstructing atheromatous lesions than it did from high grade obstructive lesions. This incriminated rupture of the soft, lipid rich atheromatous plaque as the most common mechanism leading to acute MI. In the closing decade of the past century, estimates of coronary blood flow using TIMI flow grades and TIMI frame rates led to the central unifying concept that the early restoration of normal flow (TIMI grade 3) was linearly related to survival after reperfusion therapy whether it be achieved pharmacologically or mechanically. The coronary angiogram was also integral in establishing antiplatelet therapy as the preferred pharmacotherapeutic agents to be used in association with stent deployment compared to coumarin drugs in preventing stent thrombosis. Although the coronary catheter is now used to deliver newer intracoronary devices such as intravascular ultrasound, velocity probes, gene probes and eluting catheters, it has served as the one indispensable form of coronary imaging for five successive decades. As such it has provided far more than is implied by the term "lumenology" and can rightly be called the lumen de lumine, the light of lights, for cardiovascular medicine. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:12053714

Ryan, Thomas J.



Radiation injury of the normal and neoplastic prostate  

SciTech Connect

Tissue samples from 40 patients with prostatic adenocarcinoma treated by radiation therapy were evaluated simultaneously by three observers to establish criteria for distinguishing residual tumor from radiation-induced atypia. Sections from 10 patients irradiated for nonprostatic pelvic neoplasms served as controls in addition to pretreatment biopsies from the determinate group. Patients had been treated by external x-irradiation, the majority receiving 6200-7400 rad to the prostate and pelvis over 7 to 8 weeks. Positive (tumor) biopsy incidence in the determinate group was 80% at 18 months, 40% at 36 months, and 43% in later samples. The following features were characteristic of radiation injury in the prostate: decreased ratio of the number of tumor glands to stroma, atrophy and squamous-like metaplasia of non-neoplastic glands with or without atypia, stromal fibrosis, arterial lumenal narrowing due to myointimal proliferation, foam cells within vessel walls, and fibrosis and atrophy of seminal vesicles. Criteria not useful for diagnosing radiation injury included architectural pattern or differentiation of tumor, cytologic features of tumor cells, inflammatory infiltrate, and ratio of normal glands to stroma. Ionizing radiation produced characteristic lesions in neoplastic and non-neoplastic prostatic glands, stroma, and blood vessels, and the sum of these changes was a reliable indicator of prior radiotherapy. An understanding of the morphologic effects of radiation injury of the prostate allowed distinction between residual prostatic adenocarcinoma and radiation-induced atypia of non-neoplastic glands.

Bostwick, D.G.; Egbert, B.M.; Fajardo, L.F.



Earth plasmas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fusion is the focus of this section of a tutorial about plasma, one of the four states of matter. This section deals with plasmas on Earth. There is little naturally-occurring plasma here because of the Earth's relatively cool (by universe standards) temperature, but human-made plasma is produced for industry and research purposes. The section explores the use of plasmas in experimental fusion reactors, pointing out three categories of significant unresolved issues that stand in the way of fusion becoming a viable energy source. The use of electromagnets to confine plasmas is discussed. Enlargeable images of fusion reactors are provided, and an explanation of the difference between fission and fusion is supplemented by animations of the two reaction types. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Institute, Space S.



Dosimetric implications of residual seminal vesicle motion in fiducial-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer  

SciTech Connect

To determine whether residual interfraction seminal vesicle (SV) displacement necessitates specific planning target volume (PTV) margins during fiducial-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate. A planning computed tomography (CT) scan and 2 subsequent CT scans were prospectively obtained for 20 prostate cancer patients with intraprostatic fiducial markers. After CT registration, SV displacement relative to the prostate was quantified as a function of margin size for both the proximal (1 cm) SV (PSV) and the full SV (FSV). Two IMRT plans were simulated for each patient (prostate + PSV and prostate + FSV) both with a uniform 5-mm PTV margin. Minimum clinical target volume (CTV) dose (D{sub min}) and the volume of SV receiving 95% of the prescription dose (V{sub 95%}) were assessed during treatment and compared with the initial plan. In all cases, SV displacement with respect to the prostate was greater for the FSV compared with the PSV. To ensure at least 95% geometrical coverage of the CTV for 90% of patients, margins of 5 and 8 mm were required for the PSV and FSV, respectively. Dosimetrically, residual SV displacement had minimal impact on PSV coverage compared with FSV coverage. For the PSV D{sub min} was {>=}95% of the prescribed dose in 90% of patients with an overall mean V{sub 95%} of 99.6 {+-} 0.8%; for the FSV D{sub min} was {>=}95% of the prescribed dose in only 45% of patients with a mean V{sub 95%} of 97.9 {+-} 2.4%. The SVs move differentially from the prostate and exhibit greater variation with increasing distance from the prostate. For plans targeting just the prostate and PSVs, 5-mm PTV expansions are adequate. However, despite daily localization of the prostate, larger PTV margins are required for cases where the intent is to completely cover the FSV.

Stenmark, Matthew H.; Vineberg, Karen; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Feng, Mary, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)



Dosimetric implications of residual seminal vesicle motion in fiducial-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer.  


To determine whether residual interfraction seminal vesicle (SV) displacement necessitates specific planning target volume (PTV) margins during fiducial-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate. A planning computed tomography (CT) scan and 2 subsequent CT scans were prospectively obtained for 20 prostate cancer patients with intraprostatic fiducial markers. After CT registration, SV displacement relative to the prostate was quantified as a function of margin size for both the proximal (1 cm) SV (PSV) and the full SV (FSV). Two IMRT plans were simulated for each patient (prostate + PSV and prostate + FSV) both with a uniform 5-mm PTV margin. Minimum clinical target volume (CTV) dose (D(min)) and the volume of SV receiving 95% of the prescription dose (V(95%)) were assessed during treatment and compared with the initial plan. In all cases, SV displacement with respect to the prostate was greater for the FSV compared with the PSV. To ensure at least 95% geometrical coverage of the CTV for 90% of patients, margins of 5 and 8 mm were required for the PSV and FSV, respectively. Dosimetrically, residual SV displacement had minimal impact on PSV coverage compared with FSV coverage. For the PSV D(min) was ?95% of the prescribed dose in 90% of patients with an overall mean V(95%) of 99.6 ± 0.8%; for the FSV D(min) was ?95% of the prescribed dose in only 45% of patients with a mean V(95%) of 97.9 ± 2.4%. The SVs move differentially from the prostate and exhibit greater variation with increasing distance from the prostate. For plans targeting just the prostate and PSVs, 5-mm PTV expansions are adequate. However, despite daily localization of the prostate, larger PTV margins are required for cases where the intent is to completely cover the FSV. PMID:22189029

Stenmark, Matthew H; Vineberg, Karen; Ten Haken, Randall K; Hamstra, Daniel A; Feng, Mary



Plasma Cell Disorders  


... Blood Disorders > Plasma Cell Disorders 4 Overview of Plasma Cell Disorders (Dysproteinemias; Monoclonal Gammopathies; Paraproteinemias; Plasma Cell Dyscrasias) Plasma cell disorders are uncommon. They ...


Normal black kidney.  


A black kidney has 3 major differential diagnoses: hemosiderosis, lipofuscin pigment and melanotic renal cell carcinoma. Excluding lipofuscin, the other 2 are accompanied by an abnormal renal function. We report on a 25-year-old man who intended to donate a kidney to his cousin. On the operating room table when we incised the left flank region and exposed the kidney, we found a firm and black kidney so the operation was cancelled due to potential vascular injuries. Days after the incomplete procedure, we reviewed the donor's biochemistry and imaging to reassess his renal function, but the results showed quite normal renal function again. The result of Ham test was also negative. Two weeks later, we began the operation, removed the same left kidney and found that it was in the same conditions as it was before. We took the opportunity to send needle biopsies of the kidney for histopathologic analysis. The analysis showed a melanotic kidney without pathological changes in glomeruli and interstitium and vessels. A black kidney may result in hemosiderin, lipofuscin or melanin deposits in the kidney, which can confirm the diagnosis; however, special tests for underlying disease and renal function should be considered. Some causes of black kidney lead to abnormal function, but our patients's kidney returned to normal. PMID:24839502

Yarmohamadi, Aliasghar; Rezayat, Ali Reza Akhavan; Memar, Bahram; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Cand, PhD



Magnetohydrodynamic normal mode analysis of plasma with equilibrium pressure anisotropy  

E-print Network

In this work, we generalise linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability theory to include equilibrium pressure anisotropy in the fluid part of the analysis. A novel 'single-adiabatic' (SA) fluid closure is presented which is complementary to the usual 'double-adiabatic' (CGL) model and has the advantage of naturally reproducing exactly the MHD spectrum in the isotropic limit. As with MHD and CGL, the SA model neglects the anisotropic perturbed pressure and thus loses non-local fast-particle stabilisation present in the kinetic approach. Another interesting aspect of this new approach is that the stabilising terms appear naturally as separate viscous corrections leaving the isotropic SA closure unchanged. After verifying the self-consistency of the SA model, we re-derive the projected linear MHD set of equations required for stability analysis of tokamaks in the MISHKA code. The cylindrical wave equation is derived analytically as done previously in the spectral theory of MHD and clear predictions are made for ...

Fitzgerald, M; Qu, Z S



Supersonic induction plasma jet modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations have been applied to study the argon plasma flow downstream of the induction plasma torch. It is shown that by means of the convergent-divergent nozzle adjustment and chamber pressure reduction, a supersonic plasma jet can be obtained. We investigate the supersonic and a more traditional subsonic plasma jets impinging onto a normal substrate. Comparing to the subsonic jet, the supersonic one is narrower and much faster. Near-substrate velocity and temperature boundary layers are thinner, so the heat flux near the stagnation point is higher in the supersonic jet. The supersonic plasma jet is characterized by the electron overpopulation and the domination of the recombination over the dissociation, resulting into the heating of the electron gas. Because of these processes, the supersonic induction plasma permits to separate spatially different functions (dissociation and ionization, transport and deposition) and to optimize each of them. The considered configuration can be advantageous in some industrial applications, such as plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition of diamond and polymer-like films and in plasma spraying of nanoscaled powders.

Selezneva, S. E.; Boulos, M. I.



Normal Untreated Jurkat Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. The objective of the research was to define a way to differentiate between effects due to microgravity and those due to possible stress from non-optimal spaceflight conditions. These Jurkat cells, a human acute T-cell leukemia was obtained to evaluate three types of potential experimental stressors: a) Temperature elevation; b) Serum starvation; and c) Centrifugal force. The data from previous spaceflight experiments showed that actin filaments and cell shape are significantly different for the control. These normal cells serve as the baseline for future spaceflight experiments.



New Forms of Convection in Galaxy Cluster Plasmas  

E-print Network

New Forms of Convection in Galaxy Cluster Plasmas (i.e., how do galaxy clusters boil?) Eliot · Hot Plasma in Clusters of Galaxies · Hydrodynamic Convection (`normal' convection; e.g., the sun of Galaxies · largest gravitationally bound objects: · ~ 84% dark matter; ~ 14 % plasma; ~ 2% stars

Wurtele, Jonathan


Thermal plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many thermal plasma processes have been developed for industrial applications, the wide acceptance as a manufacturing technology is prevented due to economical and competitive reasons, and\\/or reproducibility and reliability aspects. This paper is devoted to an assessment of the present knowledge in the following topics: (1) plasma torch and performance of blown arc (dc or ac), transferred arc and

P. Fauchais; A. Vardelle



Plasma valve  


A plasma valve includes a confinement channel and primary anode and cathode disposed therein. An ignition cathode is disposed adjacent the primary cathode. Power supplies are joined to the cathodes and anode for rapidly igniting and maintaining a plasma in the channel for preventing leakage of atmospheric pressure through the channel.

Hershcovitch, Ady (Mount Sinai, NY); Sharma, Sushil (Hinsdale, IL); Noonan, John (Naperville, IL); Rotela, Elbio (Clarendon Hills, IL); Khounsary, Ali (Hinsdale, IL)



Plasma accelerator  


There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

Wang, Zhehui (Los Alamos, NM); Barnes, Cris W. (Santa Fe, NM)



Institutionalizing Normal: Rethinking Composition's Precedence in Normal Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Composition historians have recently worked to recover histories of composition in normal schools. This essay argues, however, that historians have inadvertently misconstrued the role of normal schools in American education by inaccurately comparing rhetorical education in normal schools to rhetorical education in colleges and universities.…

Skinnell, Ryan



Plasma 17OH-progesterone concentrations in newborn infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma concentrations of 17OH-progesterone were determined in 60 normal newborn infants aged between 3 and 36 hours. Mean levels decreased rapidly during this time after removal of the placental contribution of this steroid. A further 70 normal infants, studied between ages 2 and 7 days, showed a mean plasma 17OH-progesterone concentration of 3.5 nmol\\/1 (1.2 ng\\/ml). By comparison, plasma concentrations

I A Hughes; D Riad-Fahmy; K Griffiths



Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of boar seminal plasma spermadhesin PSP-I\\/PSP-II, a heterodimer of two CUB domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boar spermadhesin PSP-I\\/PSP-II (Mr 29 000–30 000), a non-covalent heterodimer of two CUB domains, was crystallized in two crystal forms. Complete diffraction data sets for hexagonal (space group P61,522) and trigonal (space group P31,221) crystals have been collected up to 2.9 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. Cell constants of the hexagonal and trigonal crystal forms are a=b=87.2 A?, c=152.4 A?,

Antonio Romero; Paloma F Varela; Libia Sanz; Edda Töpfer-Petersen; Juan J Calvete



A correlation study between steroid hormone levels and anti-sperm antibodies in serum and seminal plasma of men with or without reduced sperm motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Male infertility is a multi-factorial disorder. The functional ability of spermatozoa is primarily determined by their motility. Many factors are responsible for reduction in sperm motility but immunological and \\/ or hormonal factors are vital. At present, the impact of immunological factor along with hormonal imbalance in reducing sperm motility is not known. In the present study, steroid hormones

Kiran Rangari; Shrivastav TG