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Antimicrobial activity of bovine seminal plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine seminal plasma (BSP) had marked antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several mycoplasma species were also sensitive to bpvine genital secretions. The activity spectrum differs significantly from that of other antimicrobial factors found in normal tissues such as egg white lysozyme, polylysine, salmine sulphate, spermidine phosphate, and human seminal plasma. Inhibitory activity of BSP

L. M. Schollum; B. D. W. Jarvis; D. F. Bacon



Acid-activated insulin-like growth factor binding protein protease activity of cathepsin D in normal and malignant prostatic epithelial cells and seminal plasma.  


In this study, we demonstrate insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) acid proteolysis in conditioned media (CM) from normal and malignant primary cultures of prostatic epithelial cells, prostatic cell lines, and in seminal plasma. We further demonstrate the absence of such activity in CM from prostatic stromal cells. Radio-labeled IGFBPs (1-6) were incubated with various acidified CM and seminal plasma. None of these media showed IGFBP proteolytic activity at neutral pH, but all CM from prostatic epithelial cells (PC-E) demonstrated strong IGFBP proteolysis at acidic pH. No acid-activated proteolysis was observed in the CM from stromal cell cultures. In order to ascertain the role of cathepsin D, anti-cathepsin antibodies were used to immunodeplete the media of the selected enzymes prior to incubation with IGFBPs. Depletion of cathepsin D greatly reduced the proteolytic activity of the PC-E CM. Additionally, purified cathepsin D yielded a digestion pattern identical to that produced by prostatic cell CM and seminal plasma, following acidic incubation with IGFBP-3. Remarkably, the proteolytic pattern generated by seminal plasma, when incubated with IGFBP-3 at neutral pH, corresponded to that produced by prostate-specific antigen (PSA), demonstrating the interpolation of both neutral and acid proteases from prostate cells into seminal plasma. In conclusion, prostatic epithelial cells secrete acid-specific IGFBP protease(s) related to cathepsin D. Although no significant statistical difference was observed in the degree of acid-specific proteolysis in the media from normal versus malignant primary epithelial cell cultures, physiological characteristics of the malignant state might facilitate increased cathepsin D activity. We suspect this proteolysis may play a role in prostatic cell proliferation and invasive tumor growth. PMID:9130467

Nunn, S E; Peehl, D M; Cohen, P



Seminal plasma immunoglobulins of the Indian buffalo.  


Seminal plasma immunoglobulins of normospermic fertile Indian buffalo bulls were investigated using rabbit antibuffalo immunoglobulin (polyvalent) serum, rabbit antibuffalo IgG and IgM serums, gel diffusion, and immunoelectrophoretic analysis. Immunoglobulin G was the predominant immunoglobulin in the seminal plasma of the buffalo. Strong antigenic cross reactions were observed between the seminal plasma IgG molecules of the buffalo and cattle, indicating the structural homology of seminal plasma IgG of these two species. These observations are in accordance with the close taxonomic and phylogenetic relationship between buffalo and cattle in the evolution of ruminant species. PMID:6442848

Kulkarni, B A



Analysis and differentiation of seminal plasma via polarized SERS spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Polarized surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy was applied for obtaining biochemical information about the seminal plasma. The effect of different laser polarizations (nonpolarized, linear-polarized, right-handed circularly polarized, and left-handed circularly polarized) on seminal plasma SERS spectroscopy was explored for the first time. The diagnostic performance in differentiating abnormal seminal plasma (n = 37) from normal seminal plasma (n = 24) was evaluated. A combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was employed to develop diagnostic algorithms. Classification results of different laser polarizations demonstrated different diagnostic sensitivities and specificities, among which, left-handed circularly polarized laser excitation showed the best diagnostic result (95.8% sensitivity and 64.9% specificity). Our exploratory study demonstrated that SERS spectroscopy with left-handed circularly polarized laser excitation has the potential for becoming a new diagnostic method in semen-quality assessment.

Chen, Xiwen; Huang, Zufang; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Jinhua; Wang, Lan; Lu, Peng; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong



Selenium, copper and zinc in seminal plasma of men with varicocele, relationship with seminal parameters.  


Varicocele has been associated with decrease in seminal parameters. Selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) are trace elements essential for normal spermatogenesis of mammals and play a critical role as antioxidant defense system enzymes. Se, Cu, and Zn are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. However, there is little information about Se, Cu, and Zn concentrations in semen in patients with varicocele and its association with seminal parameters. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of Se, Cu, and Zn in semen of patients with varicocele and the relationship with seminal parameters. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence was used for the fist time in the seminal fluid analysis. The concentration of selenium in men with varicocele was smaller than the normozoospermic group, while no differences were observed for both concentrations of zinc and copper. A significant positive correlation between zinc and selenium concentration was observed. Selenium in seminal plasma correlates with a good spermatozoa concentrations, motility, and morphology. Additionally, a significant positive correlation was observed between zinc levels and sperm count. In conclusion, a decrease in selenium concentration was associated with detriment of seminal parameters. A study should be conducted to evaluate the benefits of both zinc and selenium supplementation to improve seminal parameters in patients with varicocele. PMID:21240565

Camejo, María Isabel; Abdala, Lyzeth; Vivas-Acevedo, Giovanny; Lozano-Hernández, Ricardo; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Greaves, Eduardo D



Seminal plasma proteome of electroejaculated Bos indicus bulls.  


The present study describes the seminal plasma proteome of Bos indicus bulls. Fifty-six, 24-month old Australian Brahman sires were evaluated and subjected to electroejaculation. Seminal plasma proteins were separated by 2-D SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. The percentage of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm of the bulls were 70.4±2.3 and 64±3.2%, respectively. A total of 108 spots were identified in the 2-D maps, corresponding to 46 proteins. Binder of sperm proteins accounted for 55.8% of all spots detected in the maps and spermadhesins comprised the second most abundant constituents. Other proteins of the Bos indicus seminal plasma include clusterin, albumin, transferrin, metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, osteopontin, epididymal secretory protein E1, apolipoprotein A-1, heat shock 70kDa protein, glutathione peroxidase 3, cathelicidins, alpha-enolase, tripeptidyl-peptidase 1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, plasma serine protease inhibitor, beta 2-microglobulin, proteasome subunit beta type-4, actin, cathepsins, nucleobinding-1, protein S100-A9, hemoglobin subunit alpha, cadherin-1, angiogenin-1, fibrinogen alpha and beta chain, ephirin-A1, protein DJ-1, serpin A3-7, alpha-2-macroglobulin, annexin A1, complement factor B, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, seminal ribonuclease, ribonuclease-4, prostaglandin-H2 d-isomerase, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. In conclusion, this work uniquely portrays the Bos indicus seminal fluid proteome, based on samples from a large set of animals representing the Brahman cattle of the tropical Northern Australia. Based on putative biochemical attributes, seminal proteins act during sperm maturation, protection, capacitation and fertilization. PMID:24889044

Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Corbet, N J; Corbet, D H; Burns, B M; Boe-Hansen, G B; McGowan, M R



Influence of seminal plasma on the fecundity of chicken spermatozoa.  


This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of seminal plasma on the fecundity of chicken sperm. Sperm diluted with either incubated seminal plasma (5 or 37 degrees C for 24 h) or seminal plasma from incubated whole semen (5 or 37 degrees C for 24 h) had lower fertility levels and motility scores than sperm diluted in either fresh seminal plasma or a synthetic diluent. The number of sperm with damaged membranes increased with seminal plasma derived from 37 degrees C incubation. The depressive effect of incubated seminal plasma on semen fertility was eliminated by microfiltering .(0.22 mum) the seminal plasma either before or after incubation. Filtration of seminal plasma was only effective in eliminating the depressive effect on sperm motility when filtering was done after incubation. Filtration of seminal plasma reduced the percentage of damaged sperm in all treatments. It can be concluded that there are factors in seminal plasma that are deleterious to the fecundity of chicken spermatozoa and they may be derived from degenerating sperm and/or various fluids, cells and debris collected with the semen during manual semen collection. PMID:16726513

Sexton, T J



Identification of fatty acids in canine seminal plasma.  


Seminal plasma contains various biochemical components associated with sperm function. However, there is limited information regarding the fatty acid composition of seminal plasma and their effect on sperm. The aim of this study was to identify the fatty acid content in canine seminal plasma using gas chromatography. Twelve ejaculates were studied, the seminal plasma was obtained by centrifugation and then the lipids were extracted, methylated and analysed by chromatography. The total lipids in the seminal plasma were 2.5 ± 0.3%, corresponding to 85% saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 15% unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). The greatest proportions of SFA were palmitic acid (30.4%), stearic acid (23.4%) and myristic acid (5.3%) and of UFA oleic acid (9.0%). Therefore, the protocols and techniques used enabled the identification of 18 different fatty acids in canine seminal plasma, which constitutes a good method to evaluate and quantify the fatty acid profile in this species. PMID:23398451

Díaz, R; Inostroza, K; Risopatrón, J; Sanchez, R; Sepúlveda, N



Proteomic identification of rainbow trout seminal plasma proteins.  


In the study, the combination of protein fractionation by 1DE and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS was used to characterize the rainbow trout seminal plasma proteome. Our results led to the creation of a catalogue of rainbow trout seminal plasma proteins (152 proteins) and significantly contributed to the current knowledge regarding the protein composition of fish seminal plasma. The major proteins of rainbow trout seminal plasma, such as transferrin, apolipoproteins, complement C3, serum albumin, and hemopexin-, alpha-1-antiproteinase-, and precerebellin-like protein, were recognized as acute-phase proteins (proteins that plasma concentration changes in response to inflammation). This study provides the basis for further functional studies of fish seminal plasma proteins, as well as for the identification of novel biomarkers for sperm quality. The MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000306 ( PMID:24174285

Nynca, Joanna; Arnold, Georg J; Fröhlich, Thomas; Otte, Kathrin; Flenkenthaler, Florian; Ciereszko, Andrzej



Seminal plasma albumin: origin and relation to the male reproductive parameters.  


We wanted to investigate the origin of seminal plasma albumin and its relation to the male reproductive parameters. Semen samples from 916 men, under infertility assessment, were analysed according to guidelines of the World Health Organization. Seminal plasma constituents, i.e. albumin, markers of the epididymal (neutral alpha-glucosidase, NAG), prostatic (prostate-specific antigen, PSA, and zinc) and seminal vesicle function (fructose), as well as levels of reproductive hormones in plasma were measured. The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) was applied on 267 of the 916 samples. A negative correlation was seen for seminal albumin and plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (r=-0.1, P=0.02) and a positive correlation for seminal albumin and serum inhibin B (r=0.2, P=0.004). Albumin exhibited positive correlations with the epididymal marker, NAG (r=0.5, P<0.001) and with the prostatic markers, PSA and zinc (r=0.1, P=0.001; r=0.2, P<0.001 respectively) as well as with age (r=0.2, P<0.001). A negative significant association was seen for seminal albumin and semen volume (beta=-0.60; 95% CI -0.80 to -0.30). The opposite trend was found regarding sperm concentration (beta=0.34; 95% CI 0.30-0.40), total sperm count (beta=0.30; 95% CI 0.20-0.40), and percentage morphologically normal spermatozoa (beta=0.70; 95% CI 0.10-1.0). No association was found between albumin and sperm motility, SCSA parameters, or fructose, the marker of seminal vesicles. Our results suggest testicular, epididymal and prostatic origin of seminal plasma albumin, in addition to the contribution from blood. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between seminal plasma albumin and sperm morphology. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of seminal albumin in sperm morphology. PMID:17430425

Elzanaty, S; Erenpreiss, J; Becker, C



Immunological studies on seminal plasma proteins of the Indian buffalo and cattle.  


Seminal plasma proteins of the Indian buffalo and cattle were immunologically investigated using rabbit antibuffalo seminal plasma serum, rabbit anticattle seminal plasma serum (unabsorbed and absorbed), gel diffusion, and immunoelectrophoretic analysis. At least 9-12 and 7-10 different proteins, respectively, were present in the seminal plasma of the buffalo and cattle. Albumin and IgG were identified in both the species. At least 4-6 seminal plasma proteins of the buffalo and cattle were antigenically similar to their blood serum proteins. Using absorbed rabbit antibuffalo seminal plasma serum and rabbit anticattle seminal plasma serum, at least 6-7 and 5-6 seminal plasma specific proteins, respectively, were observed in the buffalo and cattle seminal plasma. Antigenically these proteins were different from the blood serum proteins of these two species. The origin and biological significance of seminal plasma proteins are discussed. PMID:2415074

Kulkarni, B A



Oral zinc supplementation restore high molecular weight seminal zinc binding protein to normal value in Iraqi infertile men  

PubMed Central

Background Zinc in human seminal plasma is divided into three types of ligands which are high (HMW), intermediate (IMW), and low molecular weight ligands (LMW). The present study was aimed to study the effect of Zn supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen along with Zinc Binding Protein levels in the seminal plasma in asthenozoospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 37 fertile and 37 asthenozoospermic infertile men with matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate, every participant took two capsules per day for three months (each one 220mg). Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. For determination of the amount of zinc binding proteins, the gel filtration of seminal plasma on Sephadex G-75 was performed. All the fractions were investigated for protein and for zinc concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Evaluation of chromatograms was made directly from the zinc concentration in each fraction. Results A significant high molecular weight zinc binding ligands percentage (HMW-Zn %) was observed in seminal plasma of fertile males compared with subfertile males. However, seminal low molecular weight ligands (LMW-Zn) have opposite behavior. The mean value of semen volume, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc sulfate supplementation. Conclusions Zinc supplementation restores HMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to normal value. Zinc supplementation elevates LMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to more than normal value. Trial registration identifier NCT01612403



Seminal plasma components in camelids and comparisons with other species.  


Camelid semen is characterized by a highly viscous, low-volume ejaculate with a low concentration of spermatozoa that exhibit low progressive motility. The viscous seminal plasma is currently the major impediment to the development of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in camelids. To advance ARTs such as sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination in camelids, it is necessary to identify the cause of the viscosity and gain an understanding of the role of seminal plasma components on sperm function and fertility. Numerous compounds and proteins have been identified as mediators of sperm function and predictors of fertility in other livestock species, and understanding the importance of specific proteins has progressed the success of ARTs in these species. Current knowledge on the components of camelid seminal plasma is outlined, together with the implications of these components for the development of ARTs in camelids. The cause of semen viscosity, as well as proteins that are present in camelid seminal plasma, is described for the first time. Seminal plasma components are compared with those of other species to hypothesize their role in sperm function and fertility. PMID:22827394

Kershaw-Young, C M; Maxwell, W M C



Lactotransferrin in Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Seminal Plasma Correlates with Semen Quality  

PubMed Central

Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have highly variable ejaculate quality within individuals, greatly reducing the efficacy of artificial insemination and making it difficult to devise a sperm cryopreservation protocol for this endangered species. Because seminal plasma influences sperm function and physiology, including sperm motility, the objectives of this study were to characterize the chemistry and protein profiles of Asian elephant seminal plasma and to determine the relationships between seminal plasma components and semen quality. Ejaculates exhibiting good sperm motility (?65%) expressed higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology (80.3±13.0 vs. 44.9±30.8%) and positive Spermac staining (51.9±14.5 vs. 7.5±14.4%), in addition to higher total volume (135.1±89.6 vs. 88.8±73.1 ml) and lower sperm concentration (473.0±511.2 vs. 1313.8±764.7×106 cells ml?1) compared to ejaculates exhibiting poor sperm motility (?10%; P<0.05). Comparison of seminal plasma from ejaculates with good versus poor sperm motility revealed significant differences in concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and glucose. These observations suggest seminal plasma influences semen quality in elephants. One- and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis revealed largely similar compositional profiles of seminal plasma proteins between good and poor motility ejaculates. However, a protein of ?80 kDa was abundant in 85% of ejaculates with good motility, and was absent in 90% of poor motility ejaculates (P<0.05). We used mass spectrometry to identify this protein as lactotransferrin, and immunoblot analysis to confirm this identification. Together, these findings lay a functional foundation for understanding the contributions of seminal plasma in the regulation of Asian elephant sperm motility, and for improving semen collection and storage in this endangered species.

Kiso, Wendy K.; Selvaraj, Vimal; Nagashima, Jennifer; Asano, Atsushi; Brown, Janine L.; Schmitt, Dennis L.; Leszyk, John; Travis, Alexander J.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.



Association Between Seminal Plasma Copper and Magnesium Levels with Oxidative Stress in Iraqi Infertile Men  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the association between copper, magnesium and malondialdehyde levels in seminal plasma of oligozoospermic, azoospermic in relation to normozoospermic men. Methods The present study was conducted at the Chemistry and Biochemistry department, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad-Iraq during September 2007 to February 2008 after obtaining approval from the research and ethics committee and obtaining written consent, 78 infertile men (age range 33.01±4.20 years) were recruited at the institute of embryo research and infertility treatment, Al-Kadhimiya teaching hospital, Iraq and were categorized according to their seminal fluid parameters to oligozoospermia (n=43) and azoospermia (n=35). 41 fertile men (age range 30.29±2.30 years) were selected as controls. Seminal plasma copper and magnesium were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde was measured calorimetrically using thiobarbituric acid assay which detects thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results Seminal plasma copper level was decreased significantly (p=0.000) in the azoospermic group compared to the control group. Whereas, the level decreased non-significantly in the oligozoospermic group. Seminal plasma magnesium levels were decreased significantly (p=0.000) in all the infertility groups studied. On the other hand, malondialdehyde levels which is an end product of lipid peroxidation were significantly elevated (p=0.000) in all the infertility groups studied. Conclusion Copper and magnesium work in different ways in order to maintain normal environment for spermatozoa for normal fertilization to occur.

Abdul-Rasheed, Omar F.



Selenium, Copper and Zinc in Seminal Plasma of Men with Varicocele, Relationship with Seminal Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varicocele has been associated with decrease in seminal parameters. Selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) are trace elements\\u000a essential for normal spermatogenesis of mammals and play a critical role as antioxidant defense system enzymes. Se, Cu, and\\u000a Zn are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. However, there is little information about Se, Cu, and\\u000a Zn concentrations

María Isabel Camejo; Lyzeth Abdala; Giovanny Vivas-Acevedo; Ricardo Lozano-Hernández; Miriam Angeli-Greaves; Eduardo D. Greaves


Clinical Significance and Expression of PAF and TNF-alpha in Seminal Plasma of Leukocytospermic Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective. Discuss the changes and roles of PAF in the reproductive tract infection by observing the expression of platelet activating factor (PAF) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) in seminal plasma of patients with leukocytospermia. Methods. The seminal plasma was obtained from 22 cases of leukocytospermia and 15 cases of normal males; the peroxidase dyeing method was adopted for seminal plasma white blood count; the ELISA was adopted to test PAF and TNF-? concentration in seminal plasma. Result. PAF concentration (2.14 ± 0.43?ng/mL) of leukocytospermia group was significantly lower than the normal group (6.21 ± 1.38?ng/mL, P < 0.01) while TNF-? (5.51 ± 1.46?ng/mL) was significantly higher than that of normal group (3.48 ± 1.08?ng/mL). There was negative correlation between PAF and TNF-? , (r = ?0.68, P < 0.01); the same situation existed in PAF and WBC (r = ?0.62, P < 0.01); but TNF-? was positively correlated to WBC (r = 0.77, P < 0.01). Conclusion. (1) Low expression of PAF and high expression of TNF-? in leukocytospermia affect the sperm motility, which is one of the reasons that leads to infertility. (2) Lower expression of PAF has its particularity during the reproductive tract infection.

Liu, Chaodong; Liu, Hongjian; Wang, Xianzhong; Xinbo, Sun



Tyrosine as important contributor to the antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel post-addition method, based on the trapping of ABTS-radicals, is applied for studying the total antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma. A remarkable profile is observed, in which seminal plasma quenches radicals in a continuous, relatively slow fashion. Five putative antioxidants present in seminal plasma were studied using the same assay. Some of the compounds such as ascorbic acid, ?-tocopherol

Floris W. P. C. van Overveld; Guido R. M. M. Haenen; Johann Rhemrev; Jan P. W. Vermeiden; Aalt Bast



Identification of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma.  


The FN-2 family of seminal plasma proteins represents the major protein fraction of bovine seminal plasma. These proteins also constitute the major seminal plasma proteins fraction in horse, goat and bison seminal plasma and are present in pig, rat, mouse, hamster and human seminal plasma. BSP-A1 and BSP-A2, the predominant proteins of the FN-2 family, are collectively termed as PDC-109. Fn-2 proteins play an important role in fertilization, including sperm capacitation and formation of oviductal sperm reservoirs. Significantly, BSP proteins were also shown to have negative effects in the context of sperm storage. No conclusive evidence for the presence of buffalo seminal plasma protein(s) similar to PDC-109 exists. Studies with buffalo seminal plasma indicated that isolation and identification of PDC-109-like protein(s) from buffalo seminal plasma by conventional methods might be difficult. Thus, antibodies raised against PDC-109 isolated, and purified from cattle seminal plasma, were used for investigating the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma. Buffalo seminal plasma proteins were resolved on SDS-PAGE, blotted to nitro cellulose membranes and probed for the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) using the PDC-109 antisera raised in rabbits. A distinct immunoreactive band well below the 20-kDa regions indicated the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma. PMID:19117702

Harshan, Hiron M; Sankar, Surya; Singh, L P; Singh, Manish Kumar; Sudharani, S; Ansari, M R; Singh, S K; Majumdar, A C; Joshi, P



Seasonal variations in seminal plasma proteins of buffalo.  


The study was designed to evaluate the influence of season on semen characteristics and seminal plasma protein profile of buffalo bull semen. Thirty-six ejaculates were collected in three seasons (winter, summer and rainy) from six adult Bhadawari bulls, and semen characteristics were evaluated immediately after collection. The seminal plasma was harvested by centrifugation and protein profiling, and percentage protein fractions were analysed by SDS-PAGE. The significant effect of season was observed on ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, progressive motility, percentage live spermatozoa, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosomal integrity. The electrophoretogram of seminal plasma proteins revealed 20 protein bands in winter, 23 bands in rainy and 25 bands in summer seasons, illustrating the significant effect of seasons on seminal plasma proteins. Among these protein bands, 18 bands were observed common in semen samples of all three seasons while protein bands of 46, 55, 58, 144 and 160 kDa were found in rainy and summer seasons. The protein bands of 48 and 60 kDa were observed only in winter season, whereas 184 and 200 kDa were reported in summer season only. The protein fractions (protein%) of common protein bands observed in three seasons revealed a significant effect of season on protein bands of 24.5, 66, 70, 72, 84 and 86 kDa. From the study, it was pertinent that bull seminal plasma contains specific proteins in particular season, which may be associated with some of the semen characteristics, and these proteins could be used as markers of the semen quality of buffalo bulls. PMID:24597848

Sharma, L; Pandey, V; Nigam, R; Singh, P; Saxena, A; Swain, D K



Seminal plasma addition attenuates the dilution effect in bovine sperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilution of semen to low cell numbers\\/dose can result in a bull-dependent reduction in the post-thaw viability of cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa. It is possible that essential seminal plasma components are lacking at the greater dilution rates, thereby contributing to the deleterious effects of semen dilution. Ejaculates of 6 Holstein bulls were diluted to 120 × 106 sperm\\/mL in an egg

D. L. Garner; C. A. Thomas; C. G. Gravance; C. E. Marshall; J. M. DeJarnette; C. H. Allen



Molecular heterogeneity of gelatin-binding proteins from human seminal plasma  

PubMed Central

Defining the molecular characteristics of seminal plasma proteins is essential for understanding their function in physiological and pathological conditions. Starting from the predicted importance of human seminal plasma gelatin-binding proteins, comprising fibronectin (FN) and FN-related molecules, for male fertility, this study aims at gaining insight into their immuno-glycobiochemical properties. Human seminal plasma from subjects with normal semen parameters were separated on a gelatin–Sepharose column and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting using antibodies against distinct FN forms. Heterogeneity of the isolated molecular species was examined by protein chip arrays combined with surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, on normal, metal and hydrophobic surfaces. Carbohydrate composition was investigated using mannose-, fucose- and sialic acid-specific plant lectins and galectin-1. The results obtained indicated a pattern of isolated proteins corresponding to that of known FN fragments, as confirmed by immunoreactivity. Among them heparin-binding ability was preferentially associated with low molecular mass species. As for posttranslational modifications, phosphorylation and glycosylation of distinct fragments were revealed. Lectin binding to fragments containing the gelatin-binding domain, particularly with Ricinus communis agglutinin I, was stronger than to fragments containing the cell-binding site of FN. A low level of sialylation and distinctive concanavalin A- and Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive species were also observed. Galectin-1 did not interact with the isolated preparation. Resolving the molecular heterogeneity of normal human seminal plasma FN and gaining initial insight into possible similarities/differences with known FN molecular species may be considered a prerequisite step preceding challenging the clinical usefulness of these molecular properties.

Kosanovic, Maja M.; Jankovic, Miroslava M.



ESR study of 5'-nucleotidase from bull seminal plasma.  


5'-Nucleotidase of bull seminal plasma has been spin labeled with the sulfhydryl reagent 3-maleimidoproxyl. ESR analysis reveals the presence of two classes of labeled sites. The first is characterized by a long spin label rotational correlation time, from which a protein diameter of about 70 A can be estimated, under the assumption of a spherical shape. The second class is characterized by a shorter correlation time of the covalently bound spin labels and binding of the substrate sodium thymidine 5'-monophosphate to 5'-nucleotidase results in a reduction of their mobility. Low-temperature ESR analysis shows that no paramagnetic ion is bound to the native protein. PMID:2839245

Fini, C; Floridi, A; Cannistraro, S



Seminal plasma inhibits lymphocyte response to T-dependent and -independent antigens in vitro.  

PubMed Central

The effect of seminal plasma, epididymal spermatozoa, or whole semen on antibody producing cells was examined in vitro after (i) direct culture with spleen or B cells, and (ii) cocultivation of B cells with T cells previously incubated with seminal plasma. Seminal plasma, and not epididymal spermatozoa, have an inhibitory effect on the direct hemolytic plague forming cell response. This was mediated by a direct inhibitory effect on the B cell and not through the generation of suppressor T cells as demonstrated by responses to T-independent and -dependent antigens. Thus, the mode of suppressive action of seminal plasma in vitro is probably different from that previously reported in vivo.

Thomas, I K; Erickson, K L



Evidence for the conservation of biological activity of ovulation-inducing factor in seminal plasma.  


An ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma of llamas and alpacas (induced ovulators) and cattle (spontaneous ovulators) suggests that OIF is a conserved constituent of seminal plasma among mammals. In this study, three experiments were designed to determine the biological effects of OIF in different species. In experiment 1, superstimulated prepubertal female CD-1 mice (n=36 per group) were given a single 0.1?ml i.p. dose of 1) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), 2) 5??g gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH), 3) 5?IU hCG, or 4) llama seminal plasma. The proportion of mice that ovulated was similar among groups treated with GNRH, hCG, or seminal plasma, and all were higher than the saline-treated group (P<0.001). In experiment 2, female llamas (n=8 or 9 per group) were intramuscularly treated with 1) 2?ml PBS, 2) 1?ml diluted llama seminal plasma, 3) 3?ml equine seminal plasma, or 4) 3?ml porcine seminal plasma. Experiment 3 was the same as experiment 2 except that the dose of equine and porcine seminal plasma was increased to 8 and 10?ml respectively. All llamas that were treated with llama seminal plasma ovulated and none that were treated with saline ovulated (P<0.0001). The proportion of llamas that ovulated in response to equine and porcine seminal plasma was intermediate. We conclude that the mechanism for the biological response to OIF is present in prepubertal CD-1 mice and that OIF is present in equine and porcine seminal plasma. PMID:21652637

Bogle, O A; Ratto, M H; Adams, G P



Localization and characterization of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in boar accessory sex glands, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa and activity of GPx in boar semen.  


Boar ejaculate owes its characteristic large volume mainly to accessory sex gland (ASG) secretions. These are main contributors to the protective functions of seminal plasma, especially against oxidative damage. Numerous antioxidants have been detected in ASG secretions, and, respectively, in seminal plasma. However, as regards one key antioxidant protector -- the Se-dependent enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) -- there is no agreement yet among researchers as to its presence in boar seminal plasma. Nevertheless, the beneficial effect of dietary Se supplementation on male fertility has been widely recognized. The aim of the present study was to investigate the localization and characterization of GPx in boar ASGs, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa, as well as to evaluate GPx activity in boar semen. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated GPx presence in the epithelial cells, vacuole membranes, and vascular endothelium of boar seminal vesicle, prostate and bulbourethral glands. Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of a monomer form of GPx with MW 20 kDa in lysates from seminal vesicle, prostate, bulbourethral glands, and spermatozoa, but not in seminal plasma. Surprisingly, peroxidase activity detected in seminal plasma from normal ejaculates was nearly three times as high as in spermatozoa. Our findings confirmed the presence of immunoreactive GPx in the boar reproductive tract, while further investigation is still warranted to uncover the exact protein forms involved and their function. PMID:17964641

Jelezarsky, L; Vaisberg, Ch; Chaushev, T; Sapundjiev, E




Microsoft Academic Search

& The effect on sperm motility of sperm-sperm and sperm-seminal plasma interactions was stud- ied among homologous and heterologous sperm. There were no significant interactions between sperm in vitro, but it was found that seminal plasmas of different donors have different effects on sperm motility, and different sperm react differently to the same seminal plasma. Sperm showed higher motility in

K. Jaffe; M. I. Camejo; T. E. Carrillo; M. Weffer; M. G. Muñoz



Partial purification of relaxin from human seminal plasma.  


Human seminal plasma contains approximately 50 ng/ml of relaxin (specific activity = 1.3 ng/mg protein). During preliminary purification, semen plasma was delipidated, rehydrated, and loaded onto small octadecyl silica columns that were eluted with a TEAF/acetonitrile gradient system. Results were monitored by radioimmunoassay. The resultant partially purified human relaxin demonstrated biologic activity in the rat uterine segment bioassay. Nine liters of semen plasma was delipidated, rehydrated in TEAF, and subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography by a step gradient followed by a linear gradient. The active eluate was further purified by ion exchange chromatography. Pooled recovery fractions provided a total of 45.8 micrograms of relaxin. An aliquot flash evaporated and desalted by gel filtration chromatography provided 1.85 micrograms of relaxin in 25.2 mg protein, specific activity 73.4. This material is being used as immunogen in the production of antihuman relaxin antibodies by monoclonal technique. Our procedure represents the first and only successful partial purification of human relaxin to yield sufficient quantity and purity for antibody production. PMID:3963064

Weiss, G; Goldsmith, L T; Schoenfeld, C; D'Eletto, R



The quantification of lipid and protein oxidation in stallion spermatozoa and seminal plasma: seasonal distinctions and correlations with DNA strand breaks, classical seminal parameters and stallion fertility.  


The goal of this work was to correlate oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage with classic semen parameters in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of fertile and subfertile stallions. Oxidation was measured in both lipids and proteins, using the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) assay and the DNPH carbonyl groups assay, respectively. Sperm DNA damage was monitored using the TUNEL assay. These parameters were monitored in samples obtained during the breeding and the non-breeding seasons. In general, fertile stallions showed better classical semen parameters, and those parameters improved from the non-breeding to the breeding season, although an increase in sperm production was accompanied by a decrease in the semen quality from subfertile stallions in the breeding season. In terms of oxidation levels we found that there were clear differences whether lipids or proteins were considered. In the breeding season there seemed to be a tendency towards normalizing lipid oxidation in spermatozoa and seminal plasma, and protein oxidation in the seminal plasma, of both fertile and subfertile animals. Thus, differences monitored in the non-breeding season were no longer visible. Interestingly, a higher level of protein oxidation was found in the sperm of fertile animals in the breeding season. Considering that there were positive correlations between sperm protein oxidation and sperm motility and vitality, these results suggests that the oxidation of semen proteins may be important for sperm function. On the other hand, lipid oxidation in the seminal plasma seemed to be a general indicator for sperm damage. In the non-breeding season positive correlations between lipid and protein oxidation levels in both sperm and seminal plasma and several defects in sperm function were found, but only for subfertile animals, thus suggesting that lipid and protein oxidation may aid in the identification of subfertile stallions during the non-breeding season. Levels of ROS production never seemed to result in compromised sperm DNA integrity, indicating that measurements were within physiological levels and/or that there is an efficient antioxidant activity in stallion sperm cells. PMID:17451892

Morte, Maria Inês; Rodrigues, Ana Margarida; Soares, Diana; Rodrigues, Ana Sofia; Gamboa, Sandra; Ramalho-Santos, João



Association between the presence of protein bands in ram seminal plasma and sperm tolerance to freezing.  


This study evaluated associations between the presence of protein bands in ram seminal plasma and the quality of sperm frozen with distinct extenders. Ejaculates were frozen in a Tris-egg yolk based extender, including either 5% glycerol or 100mM trehalose. Seminal plasma samples were submitted to unidimensional electrophoresis. Pre-freezing and post-thawing sperm quality was similar between extenders (P>0.05). A total of 26 bands were identified in ram seminal plasma. Pre-freezing sperm motility was increased when the 15, 19 and 80kDa bands were present in seminal plasma (P<0.05). The presence of an 11kDa band in seminal plasma was associated with reduced pre-freezing membrane integrity (P<0.05). After thawing, both sperm motility and membrane integrity were reduced when a 24kDa band was present in seminal plasma (P<0.05). Post-thawing acrosome integrity was greater in the presence of a 31kDa band in seminal plasma (P<0.05). Regardless of the cryoprotectant included in the freezing extender, these six bands may be potential markers for ram sperm tolerance to freezing. PMID:24725536

Goularte, K L; Gastal, G D A; Schiavon, R S; Gonçalves, A O; Schneider, J R; Corcini, C D; Lucia, T



Seminal plasma as a diagnostic fluid for male reproductive system disorders.  


Molecular biomarkers hold promise to advance the noninvasive diagnosis of male reproductive system disorders and facilitate the identification and management of these conditions through screening, early diagnosis and more accurate prognosis. Seminal plasma has great potential as a proximal fluid for protein biomarker discovery and as a clinical sample for noninvasive diagnostics. The seminal plasma proteome contains thousands of proteins and includes a large number of tissue-specific proteins that might accurately indicate a pathological process in the tissue of origin. Potential protein biomarkers for male reproductive system disorders are more abundant in seminal plasma than in blood serum or urine, and, therefore, are more easily identified and quantified in semen by mass spectrometry and other techniques. These methods have enabled elaboration of the composition of the seminal plasma proteome and the tissue specificity of seminal plasma proteins. Strategies have been developed to discover protein biomarkers in seminal plasma through integrated 'omics' approaches. Biomarkers of male infertility and prostate cancer are now emerging, and it is evident that seminal plasma has the potential to complement other diagnostic tools available in urology clinics. PMID:24709963

Drabovich, Andrei P; Saraon, Punit; Jarvi, Keith; Diamandis, Eleftherios P



Characterization of sperm surface and seminal plasma glycoproteins of the chimpanzee.  


Washed ejaculated chimpanzee spermatozoa and a 100 000 g supernatant of seminal plasma were subjected to radiolabelling by sequential treatment with galactose oxidase and sodium boro[3H]hydride or with sodium metaperiodate and NaB3H4. Sperm surface glycoproteins and seminal plasma glycoproteins radiolabelled by these procedures were compared by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Spermatozoa labelled by galactose oxidase treatment showed a single labelled macromolecular component of 37 000 whereas spermatozoa labelled by sodium metaperiodate-NaB3H4 treatment showed incorporation into macromolecular components of 37 000 and 25 000 mol. wt. Seminal plasma radiolabelled by galactose oxidase-NaB3H4 treatment contained labelled components of 47 000, 37 000, 19 000 and 12 000 mol. wt, whereas seminal plasma radiolabelled with sodium metaperiodate-NaB3H4 contained macromolecular components of 47 000, 37 000, and 19 000 mol. wt. PMID:7230123

Olson, G E; Gould, K G



HSP-1/2, a major protein of equine seminal plasma, exhibits chaperone-like activity.  


The major bovine seminal plasma protein, PDC-109 exhibits chaperone-like activity (CLA) against a variety of target proteins. The present studies show that the homologous protein from equine seminal plasma, HSP-1/2 also exhibits CLA and inhibits the thermal aggregation of target proteins such as lactate dehydrogenase, and DTT-induced aggregation of insulin in a concentration-dependent manner. Phosphorylcholine binding inhibited the CLA of HSP-1/2, suggesting that aggregation state of the protein is important for this activity. These results demonstrate that HSP-1/2 functions as a molecular chaperone in vitro, and suggest that it may protect other proteins of equine seminal plasma from unfolding/misfolding or aggregation. These results suggest that homologous proteins from the seminal plasma of other mammals also exhibit CLA, which will be physiologically relevant. PMID:22982540

Sankhala, Rajeshwer Singh; Kumar, C Sudheer; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Arangasamy, A; Swamy, Musti J



Addition of seminal plasma to post-thawing equine semen: what is the effect on sperm cell viability?  


Effect of seminal plasma addition after thawing on viability or cryocapacitation is not definitively established. This experiment was performed to verify the effect of adding seminal plasma, autologous or homologous (from an animal with good semen freezability). Five ejaculates from each of four stallions with proven fertility were collected and cryopreserved. The semen was subsequently thawed and divided into the following three treatment groups: no seminal plasma addition after semen thawing (NOSP); the addition of homologous seminal plasma after semen thawing (HSP) and the addition of autologous seminal plasma after semen thawing (ASP). The addition of 20% of seminal plasma led to an increase in the cell population that simultaneously show plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity (p < 0.05). The addition of seminal plasma did not alter the total motility, the amount of cells with mitochondrial membrane potential or the sperm velocities (average path velocity, straight-line velocity and curvilinear velocity). However, the beat/cross-frequency, straightness and linearity were reduced in ASP and HSP groups (p < 0.05). Unexpectedly, the addition of homologous seminal plasma reduced the proportion of cells with progressive motility (p < 0.05) and the addition of autologous seminal plasma reduced the amplitude of the lateral head displacement (p < 0.05). Based on the increase in the cell populations that had the plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity simultaneously identified in this study, we proposed that the addition of seminal plasma (autologous or homologous) into post-thawed semen before insemination could increase semen fertility. PMID:21121969

de Andrade, A F C; Zaffalon, F G; Celeghini, E C C; Nascimento, J; Tarragó, O F B; Martins, S M M K; Alonso, M A; Arruda, R P



Characterization of the seminal plasma proteome in men with prostatitis by mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland which affects approximately 10% of men. Despite its frequency, diagnosing prostatitis and monitoring patient response to treatment remains frustrating. As the prostate contributes a substantial percentage of proteins to seminal plasma, we hypothesized that a protein biomarker of prostatitis might be found by comparing the seminal plasma proteome of patients with and without prostatitis. Results Using mass spectrometry, we identified 1708 proteins in the pooled seminal plasma of 5 prostatitis patients. Comparing this list to a previously published list of seminal plasma proteins in the pooled seminal plasma of 5 healthy, fertile controls yielded 1464 proteins in common, 413 found only in the control group, and 254 found only in the prostatitis group. Applying a set of criteria to this dataset, we generated a high-confidence list of 59 candidate prostatitis biomarkers, 33 of which were significantly increased in prostatitis as compared to control, and 26 of which were decreased. The candidates were analyzed using Gene Ontology and Ingenuity Pathway analysis to delineate their subcellular localizations and functions. Conclusions Thus, in this study, we identified 59 putative biomarkers in seminal plasma that need further validation for diagnosis and monitoring of prostatitis.



Electroejaculation increases low molecular weight proteins in seminal plasma modifying sperm quality in Corriedale rams.  


This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of seminal collection method (artificial vagina or electroejaculation) on the protein composition of seminal plasma and sperm quality parameters in Corriedale rams. To address this question, we assessed the effect of seminal collection method on motility, plasma membrane integrity and functionality, mitochondrial functionality and the decondensation state of nuclear chromatin in sperm cells. Volume, pH, osmolarity, protein concentration, total protein content and protein profile using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and 2-D polyacrylamide electrophoresis of seminal plasma collected with artificial vagina and electroejaculation were also analysed. The main findings from this study were that ejaculates obtained with electroejaculation had (i) a higher number of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane and functional mitochondria and (ii) a higher proportion of seminal plasma, total protein content and relative abundance of low molecular weight proteins than ejaculates obtained with artificial vagina. Five of these proteins were identified by mass spectrometry: binder of sperm 5 precursor; RSVP14; RSVP22; epididymal secretory protein E1 and clusterin. One protein spot with molecular weight of approximately 31 kDa and isoelectric point of 4.8 was only found in the seminal plasma from electroejaculation. PMID:24494601

Ledesma, A; Manes, J; Cesari, A; Alberio, R; Hozbor, F



Quantification of the Nonenzymatic Fast and Slow TRAP in a Postaddition Assay in Human Seminal Plasma and the Antioxidant Contributions of Various Seminal Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) measurements of human seminal plasma (N 25) were performed by using a post-addition assay based on trapping 2,2 Azino-bis(3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals. This method enables the antioxidant capacity of human seminal plasma and its constituents to be quantified. The standard procedure consisted of determination of the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) after incubating the



Seminal plasma homocysteine, folate and cobalamin in men with obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze homocysteine, folate and cobalamin in men with normozoospermia, obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia. Methods Analysis of plasma and seminal plasma homocysteine, folate and cobalamin in 72 azoospermic and 62 normozoospermic men. Evaluation of the azoospermic patient included testicular biopsy, endocrine, urological and ultrasound examination. Results Homocysteine (1.2 ?mol/l) and cobalamin (322.05 pmol/l) concentrations (median values) in seminal plasma were significantly lower (p?seminal plasma homocysteine in azoospermic men. Conclusion Lower concentrations of homocysteine and cobalamin (but not folate) were found in azoospermic seminal plasma than normozoospermic. Folate and cobalamin were higher in seminal plasma from obstructive azoospermia than in non-obstructive azoospermia patients.

Kralikova, Michaela; Melounova, Jitka; Ventruba, Pavel; Zakova, Jana; Beharka, Rastislav; Husicka, Richard; Pohanka, Michal; Huser, Martin



Paramount levels of ergothioneine transporter SLC22A4 mRNA in boar seminal vesicles and cross-species analysis of ergothioneine and glutathione in seminal plasma.  


Ergothioneine (ET) is a unique natural antioxidant which mammalia acquire exclusively from their food. Recently, we have discovered an ET transporter (ETT; gene symbol SLC22A4). The existence of a specific transporter suggests a beneficial role for ET; however, the precise physiological purpose of ET is still unclear. A conspicuous site of high extracellular ET accumulation is boar seminal plasma. Here, we have investigated whether ETT is responsible for specific accumulation of ET in the boar reproductive tract. The putative ETT from pig (ETTp) was cloned and validated by functional expression in 293 cells. The highest levels of ETTp mRNA were detected by real-time RT-PCR in seminal vesicles, eye, and kidney; much less was present in bulbourethral gland, testis, and prostate. By contrast, there was virtually no ETT mRNA in rat seminal vesicles. ET content in boar reproductive tissues, determined by LC-MS/MS, closely matched the ETT expression profile. Thus, strong and specific expression of ETTp in boar seminal vesicles explains high accumulation of ET in this gland and hence also in seminal plasma. Previous reports suggest that the glutathione (GSH) content of seminal plasma correlates directly with ET content; however, a comprehensive analysis across several species is not available. We have measured ET and GSH in seminal plasma from human, boar, bull, stallion, and rabbit by LC-MS/MS. GSH levels in seminal plasma do not correlate with ET levels. This suggests that the function of ET, at least in this extracellular context, does not depend on redox cycling with GSH. PMID:22100842

Nikodemus, D; Lazic, D; Bach, M; Bauer, T; Pfeiffer, C; Wiltzer, L; Lain, E; Schömig, E; Gründemann, D



?-Microseminoprotein Endows Post Coital Seminal Plasma with Potent Candidacidal Activity by a Calcium- and pH-Dependent Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The innate immune factors controlling Candida albicans are mostly unknown. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is common in women and affects approximately 70–75% of all women at least once. Despite the propensity of Candida to colonize the vagina, transmission of Candida albicans following sexual intercourse is very rare. This prompted us to investigate whether the post coital vaginal milieu contained factors active against C. albicans. By CFU assays, we found prominent candidacidal activity of post coital seminal plasma at both neutral and the acid vaginal pH. In contrast, normal seminal plasma did not display candidacidal activity prior to acidification. By antifungal gel overlay assay, one clearing zone corresponding to a protein band was found in both post coital and normal seminal plasma, which was subsequently identified as ?-microseminoprotein. At neutral pH, the fungicidal activity of ?-microseminoprotein and seminal plasma was inhibited by calcium. By NMR spectroscopy, amino acid residue E71 was shown to be critical for the calcium coordination. The acidic vaginal milieu unleashed the fungicidal activity by decreasing the inhibitory effect of calcium. The candidacidal activity of ?-microseminoprotein was mapped to a fragment of the C-terminal domain with no structural similarity to other known proteins. A homologous fragment from porcine ?-microseminoprotein demonstrated calcium-dependent fungicidal activity in a CFU assay, suggesting this may be a common feature for members of the ?-microseminoprotein family. By electron microscopy, ?-microseminoprotein was found to cause lysis of Candida. Liposome experiments demonstrated that ?-microseminoprotein was active towards ergosterol-containing liposomes that mimic fungal membranes, offering an explanation for the selectivity against fungi. These data identify ?-microseminoprotein as an important innate immune factor active against C. albicans and may help explain the low sexual transmission rate of Candida.

Edstrom Hagerwall, Anneli M. L.; Rydengard, Victoria; Fernlund, Per; Morgelin, Matthias; Baumgarten, Maria; Cole, Alexander M.; Malmsten, Martin; Kragelund, Birthe B.; S?rensen, Ole E.



Isolation of a spermatozoa motility inhibiting factor from chicken seminal plasma with antibacterial property.  


A 78-kDa spermatozoa motility inhibiting factor (SMIF) was purified from chicken (Gallus domesticus) seminal plasma by anion exchange (DE-53) followed by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose. The factor is thermostable and inhibited the spermatozoa motility in a dose dependent manner. In addition, SMIF inhibited the growth of gram negative bacteria, Pasteurella multocida but not gram positive Streptococcus equi. The factor lost its spermatozoa immobilizing property after treatment with trypsin, chymotrypsin or pepsin. The inhibition of SMIF by beta-mercaptoethanol suggest the involvement of disulfide bonds in its activity. Similarly, this property was lost in presence of chicken seminal plasma or incubating SMIF with anti-SMIF antibodies. Evidence is provided for the presence of a high molecular weight protein (> 100 kDa) in chicken seminal plasma that neutralizes the motility inhibiting property of SMIF. No significant decrease in spermatozoa ATP was observed in presence of SMIF suggesting that the loss of spermatozoa motility was due to factors other than depletion in cell's energy. Using anti-SMIF antibodies, a cross-reactive protein was identified in the blood, liver and reproductive tissues of chicken and the seminal plasma of cattle and buffalo. However, the cross-reactive protein failed to inhibit chicken spermatozoa motility. The significance of SMIF in chicken seminal plasma is discussed. PMID:8541320

Mohan, J; Saini, M; Joshi, P



Fatty acids and fatty aldehydes of buffalo seminal plasma and sperm lipid.  


Analysis of the fatty acids of total and neutral lipids, glycolipids, phospholipids and gangliosides of buffalo spermatozoa and seminal plasma showed that there were high levels of polyunsaturated acids. Neutral lipids were the richest in polyunsaturated acids (55% in spermatozoa and 61% in seminal plasma). The major saturated acid of all the principal classes was stearic acid and the major unsaturated acid was docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3) except in the neutral lipids in which it was arachidonic acid (20:4omega6). The major aldehyde was palmitaldehyde (16:0) in buffalo sperm lipids and docosanal (22:0) in seminal plasma. More than 50% of the total aldehydes was contributed by aldehydes with a chain length greater than 18 carbon atoms. PMID:957325

Jain, Y C; Anand, S R



Determination of some enzymes and macro- and microelements in stallion seminal plasma and their correlations to semen quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seminal plasma is very important for sperm metabolism as well as sperm function and survival and transport in the female genital tract. Analysis of enzyme activities and concentrations of elements can estimate integrity and function of sperm cell membranes. In man much data are available about biochemical analyses of seminal plasma. However, not many studies have been conducted in horses

Sandra Pesch; Martin Bergmann; Hartwig Bostedt



Correlation between human clusterin in seminal plasma with sperm protamine deficiency and DNA fragmentation.  


Seminal proteins can be considered as factors that control fertilization. Clusterin is one such protein that has been implicated in many activities, including apoptosis inhibition, cell cycle control, DNA repair, and sperm maturation. In this study, the relationship between human secretory clusterin (sCLU) in seminal plasma with sperm parameters, protamine deficiency, and DNA fragmentation was investigated. Semen samples were collected from 63 Iranian men, and semen analysis was performed according to World Health Organization criteria and computer aided semen analysis (CASA). The concentration of sCLU in seminal plasma was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), protamine deficiency was determined by chromomycin A3 staining (CMA3 ), and sperm DNA fragmentation was checked by sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) assay. The level of sCLU in seminal fluid of fertile patients was 48.3 ± 38.6 ng/ml and in infertile patients was 15.5 ± 9.7 ng/ml; this difference was significant (P < 0.001). sCLU correlated negatively with protamine deficiency, sperm DNA fragmentation, and abnormal morphology. In conclusion, seminal clusterin can be considered as a marker for the quick assessment of semen quality in male infertility studies. PMID:23740886

Salehi, Mohammad; Akbari, Hakimeh; Heidari, Mohammad Hassan; Molouki, Aidin; Murulitharan, Kavitha; Moeini, Hassan; Novin, Marefat Ghaffari; Aabed, Farhang; Taheri, Hossein; Fadaei, Fateme; Mohsenzadeh, Mehdi; Jafari, Mohammad; Pirouzi, Aliyar; Heidari, Reihane



Relationships between seminal plasma arginase activity and spermatological parameters in rams.  


This study was conducted to evaluate the correlation between seminal plasma arginase activity and spermatological parameters in rams. In this study, five fertility-proven Awassi rams were used as material. Six ejaculates were collected from each ram by an artificial vagina. Spermatological parameters (semen volume, mass activity, sperm motility and concentration and abnormal sperm rate) were immediately determined in each ejaculate. For enzyme assay, the semen samples were centrifuged and stored at -20 °C for the analysis of arginase activity. The average seminal plasma arginase activity was 0.61 ± 0.20 U (mg protein)(-1) . There was a positive correlation between arginase activity and semen volume (r = 0.412, P < 0.05), semen mass activity (r = 0.610, P < 0.01), sperm motility (r = 0.447, P < 0.05) and sperm concentration (r = 0.808, P < 0.01). However, there was a negative correlation between arginase activity and abnormal sperm rate (r = -0.424, P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study clearly suggests that there is a significant correlation between seminal plasma arginase activity and spermatological parameters. In light of these results, seminal plasma arginase activity may be a biochemical criterion for determining sperm quality besides classical semen analysis parameters in rams. PMID:21848887

Gür, S; Kandemir, F M




EPA Science Inventory

Negative-chemical-ionization mass spectral screening of extracts of human seminal plasma has revealed a presence of a Cl7 ion cluster at a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 463 in a significant number of the samples examined (34 out of 123). Experiments with different gases used to g...


Endogenous prostaglandin F2? concentrations in bovine whole semen, seminal plasma, and extended semen.  


A series of experiments were conducted to quantify PGF2? in bovine semen, seminal plasma, and extended semen, and to determine if PGF2? was synthesized or released during extension of bovine semen. Concentrations of PGF2? were measured in paired samples of whole and extended semen from beef and dairy bulls. Concentrations of PGF2? did not differ between beef and dairy (mean±SEM, 273.8±42.8 vs. 210.3±18.5 pg/mL, respectively; P=0.12), but tended (P=0.08) to be greater for whole compared with extended semen (255.5±29.8 vs. 194.5±17.0 pg/mL). Whole semen was extended at eight dilution rates (regardless of initial sperm concentration), using a diluent consisting of two fractions. Samples collected after each dilution step resulted in four subsamples. Concentrations of PGF2? in subsamples decreased (P<0.001) at higher dilution rates and later steps of extension. Subsequently, whole semen and seminal plasma were extended at three dilution rates. Initial PGF2? concentration was greater (P<0.001) for whole semen compared with seminal plasma. During extension, PGF2? synthesis or release resulted in less disparity, but the amount synthesized or released was greater (P=0.03) for semen compared with seminal plasma. We concluded that synthesis or release of PGF2? during extension resulted in concentrations similar to whole semen. PMID:22538011

Jaeger, J R; DelCurto, T



Seminal plasma proteins as potential markers of relative fertility in boars.  


This study investigated whether specific proteins from distinct seminal plasma fractions of boars could be related to in vivo fertility. Nine boars with acceptable sperm motility and morphology for use in artificial insemination demonstrated major differences in total number born and pregnancy rate when low sperm doses (1.5 billion sperm) were used to breed a minimum of 50 gilts per boar. The 2 lowest-fertility and 2 highest-fertility boars were chosen for evaluation of specific seminal plasma proteins. On 4 occasions, semen was collected and separated into 3 fractions based on sperm concentration (Sperm-Peak, Sperm-Rich, and Sperm-Free), and the fractions were analyzed for total protein concentration and abundance of major seminal plasma glycoprotein (PSP-I), AWN-1, and osteopontin protein using Western blotting techniques. The concentrations of these seminal plasma proteins were lower in the Sperm-Peak fractions compared with the Sperm-Free fractions (P < .05). Seminal plasma from the pooled Sperm-Rich fraction used for artificial insemination was also subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to investigate novel protein markers related to in vivo fertility. Total piglets born (r = -0.76, P = .01) and sperm motility at day 7 (r = -0.74, P = .037) were again negatively correlated with a 22-kDa protein identified by mass spectrometry as PSP-I. However, fertility index and farrowing rate tended to be positively correlated (P < .10) with a 25-kDa protein, identified as glutathione peroxidase (GPX5), an antioxidant enzyme that may protect sperm membranes from oxidative damage. These candidate proteins merit further investigation as markers of fertility in boars. PMID:19713565

Novak, Susan; Ruiz-Sánchez, Ana; Dixon, Walter T; Foxcroft, George R; Dyck, Michael K



Structure of the vaginal plugs generated by normal rats and by rats with partially removed seminal vesicles.  


Normal male rats generate vaginal plugs that appear to be firmly apposed to the vagino-cervical junction and permit a large number of spermatozoa to reach the uterus. A few spermatozoa form entangled masses inside these plugs, as revealed by light microscopy. Males in which the seminal vesicles have been partially removed produce plugs that are smaller and softer than those generated by normal males, and the plugs display a cup-like structure at the proximal end. The cup-like structure is completely filled with spermatozoa that exhibit a characteristic arrangement in relation to the plug material. In this situation, the number of spermatozoa that reach the uterus is very much reduced. Experiments were also carried out to explore the restoration of sperm transport by addition of a vaginal plug. Such experiments involved successive matings of individual females with a seminal vesicle-deprived male and with a vasectomized male (which generated the plug) and also the intravaginal injection of seminal vesicle secretions after mating with a seminal vesicle-deprived male. In none of the experimental situations was transport of spermatozoa to the uterus restored, and the plug consisted of a large quantity of trapped spermatozoa inside a mass of coagulated proteins. The results suggest that the structure of the plug depends on the amount of seminal vesicle secretion present in the ejaculate and that the vaginal plug must be formed immediately after deposition of the sperm if spermatozoa are to reach the uterus. PMID:8459231

Carballada, R; Esponda, P



Soluble TRAIL is present at high concentrations in seminal plasma and promotes spermatozoa survival.  


The expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL(TNFSF10)) and of its receptors (TRAILR1, TRAILR2, TRAILR3, and TRAILR4) have been documented in testis, but the presence of soluble TRAIL in seminal fluid, as well as the potential physiopathological role of the TRAIL/TRAILR system in spermatozoa, has not been previously investigated. Male donors (n=123) among couples presenting for infertility evaluation were consecutively enrolled in this study. The presence of soluble TRAIL was analyzed in seminal samples by ELISA, while the surface expression of TRAIL receptors was investigated by flow cytometry. High levels of soluble TRAIL were detected in seminal plasma (median, 11?621?pg/ml and mean±s.d., 13?371±8367?pg/ml) and flow cytometric analysis revealed a variable expression of TRAIL receptors in the sperm cellular fraction among different subjects. In addition, the effect of physiologically relevant concentrations of recombinant TRAIL was investigated on survival and motility of spermatozoa. Of interest, the in vitro exposure of capacitated spermatozoa to recombinant TRAIL (10?ng/ml) significantly preserved their overall survival. Therefore, the present study demonstrates for the first time the presence of elevated levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine TRAIL in seminal fluids. Moreover, the demonstration that recombinant TRAIL promotes spermatozoa survival after capacitation suggests potential therapeutic implications. PMID:24825910

Zauli, Giorgio; Celeghini, Claudio; Monasta, Lorenzo; Martinelli, Monica; Luppi, Stefania; Gonelli, Arianna; Grill, Vittorio; Ricci, Giuseppe; Secchiero, Paola



Protein profile of the seminal plasma of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).  


This study was conducted to characterize the major proteins of the peccary seminal plasma, based on the semen samples collected from nine adult and reproductively sound animals. Our approach included the use of two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by Coomassie blue staining and analysis of polypeptide maps with PDQuest Software (Bio-Rad). Proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We detected 179 protein spots per gel and 98 spots were identified by mass spectrometry, corresponding to 23 different proteins. The combined intensity of those spots accounted for 56.2±6% of the intensities of all spots and 60.9% of the intensities of spots presented in every protein map. Protein spots identified as clusterin represented 19.7±8.3% of the integrated optical densities of all spots detected in the seminal plasma maps. There was a negative association (r=-0.87; P<0.05) between the intensity of a clusterin spot and the percentage of sperm with functional membrane. Spermadhesin porcine seminal plasma protein 1 and bodhesin 2 comprised 5.4±1.9 and 8.8±3.9% of the total intensity of all spots respectively. Many proteins appeared in a polymorphic pattern, such as clusterin (27 spots), epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase (ten spots), inter-?-trypsin inhibitor (12 spots), and IgG-binding protein (ten spots), among others. In conclusion, we presently describe the major seminal plasma proteome of the peccary, which exhibits a distinct high expression of clusterin isoforms. Knowledge of wild species reproductive biology is crucial for an understanding of their survival strategies and adaptation in a changing environment. PMID:24516176

Santos, E A A; Sousa, P C; Martins, J A M; Moreira, R A; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreno, F B M B; Oliveira, M F; Moura, A A; Silva, A R



[Interaction of disperse silica with the surface of bovine reproductive cell and seminal plasma].  


The nature of contact interactions of highly disperse silica with the surface of bovine reproductive cells and seminal plasma is investigated. Surface proteins and glycoproteids, containing N-acetylneuraminic acid as a terminal residue, are shown to participate in this process. It is found that the efficiency of contact interaction falls with an increase in the concentration of the disperse silica from 0.1% to 1%. PMID:2849828

Galagan, N P; Isarov, A V; Bogomaz, V I; Chu?ko, A A



Effect of environmental tobacco smoke on intracellular free calcium of boar sperm incubated in seminal plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extractable-respirable particulate of environmental tobacco smoke (ERP-ETS) was collected and tested for its effect on the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, in boar sperm incubated in seminal plasma in vitro. The intracellular free Ca2+ level is reportedly closely related to in sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction, which must take place to confer upon sperm the full fertilizing potential. In

Renqing Zhou; Yingqiao Zhou; Shenben Li; Alfred Haug



Lipid and Dry Weight of Bovine Seminal Plasma and Spermatozoa from First and Second Ejaculates1  

Microsoft Academic Search

ean values for various measurements on 26 ejaculates of bull semen were as follows : seminal plasma dry weight (DW) 96 mg per ml; lipid 1.21% (dry weight basis), 1.16 mg per ml: spermatozoa DW 24.3 rag per ml, )9.3 t~g per 106 ; lipid 15.1%, 362 mg per ml and 2.87 ~g' per 10 ~. Values for whole semen

B. W. Pickett; R. J. Komarek



Toxic metals in seminal plasma and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes.  


We measured toxic metals in seminal plasma collected from 30 men using vitro fertilization (IVF), to evaluate associations with semen quality and IVF outcomes. A doubling in Hg-adjusted Pb concentration was associated with 47% lower total motile sperm. Positive associations were suggested for Hg with pregnancy and live birth, adjusted for Cd or Pb. A negative association was suggested for Hg-adjusted Cd with pregnancy. These data add to evidence indicating that toxic metals impact IVF. PMID:25019469

Kim, Keewan; Bloom, Michael S; Kruger, Pamela C; Parsons, Patrick J; Arnason, John G; Byun, Youjung; Goins, Stephen; Fujimoto, Victor Y



Reactive Oxygen Species Production by the Spermatozoa of Patients With Idiopathic Infertility: Relationship to Seminal Plasma Antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe attempted to determine reactive oxygen species production by the spermatozoa of patients with idiopathic infertility and healthy donors, and observe whether increased production was due to decreased seminal plasma reactive oxygen species scavengers.

Ilter Alkan; Ferruh Simsek; Goncagul Haklar; Ertan Kervancioglu; Hakan Ozveri; Suha Yalcin; Atif Akdas



Quantitative analysis of anandamide and related acylethanolamides in human seminal plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endocannabinoids anandamide, palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide have been detected in human seminal plasma and are bioactive lipids implicated in regulation of sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction. Several methods exist for endocannabinoid quantification but none have been validated for measurement in human seminal plasma. We describe sensitive, robust, reproducible solid phase and isotope-dilution UHPLC-ESI-MS\\/MS methods for the extraction and quantification

Akwasi A. Amoako; Timothy H. Marczylo; Patricia M. W. Lam; Jonathon M. Willets; Amanda Derry; Janine Elson; Justin C. Konje



Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation.  


There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in ?t value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. PMID:24834825

Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya; Challapalli, Srinivas; Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao; Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar



The effect of glycosaminoglycan enzymes and proteases on the viscosity of alpaca seminal plasma and sperm function.  


In order to advance the development of cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies in camelids it is necessary to eliminate the viscous component of the seminal plasma without impairing sperm function. It has been postulated that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or proteoglycans are responsible for this viscosity. This study investigated the effect of the GAG enzymes hyaluronidase, chondroitinase ABC and keratanase and the proteases papain and proteinase K on seminal plasma viscosity and sperm function in order to aid identification of the cause of seminal plasma viscosity and propose methods for the reduction of viscosity. Sperm motility, DNA integrity, acrosome integrity and viability were assessed during 2h incubation. All enzymes reduced seminal plasma viscosity compared to control (P<0.001) although papain was most effective, completely eliminating viscosity within 30 min of treatment. Sperm motility and DNA integrity was not affected by enzyme treatment. The proportion of viable, acrosome intact sperm was reduced in all enzyme treated samples except those treated with papain (P<0.001). These findings suggest that proteins, not GAGs are the main cause of alpaca seminal plasma viscosity. Papain treatment of alpaca semen may be a suitable technique for reduction of seminal plasma viscosity prior to sperm cryopreservation. PMID:23537479

Kershaw-Young, C M; Stuart, C; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C



Effects of copper and superoxide dismutase content of seminal plasma on buffalo semen characteristics.  


To investigate the effects of copper and superoxide dismutase (SOD) content of seminal plasma on buffalo semen characteristics, 54 semen samples collected from buffalo bulls by a bovine artificial vagina were used. Semen characteristics (motility, viability, morphology, concentration and volume) were recorded. Seminal plasma was harvested by centrifugation and kept frozen until analysis. Seminal plasma copper content was determined by atomic absorption procedure and SOD was measured by using a kit. The mean total copper value of seminal plasma was recorded as 2.51 +/- 0.04 mg kg(-1) (Mean +/- SEM) and the mean total SOD values was 39.02 +/- 0.81 IU mL(-1). To reduce the range of variability, the data were categorized according to their motility records in 3 groups of Excellent (Ex, >90% motile, n = 33), Good (Go, 80-89% motile, n = 15) and Moderate (Mo, < 79% motile, n = 6). The mean motility, viability, copper and SOD values in Ex group was recorded as 92.24 +/- 0.51%, 94.00 +/- 0.48%, 2.56 +/- 0.04 mg kg(-1) and 39.52 +/- 0.57 IU mL(-1), respectively. These values were 81.66 +/- 0.62%, 85.26 +/- 0.95%, 2.38 +/- 0.11 mg kg(-1) and 36.48 +/- 1.51 IU mL(-1) in Go group and 71.66 +/- 1.05%, 77.00 +/- 2.94%, 2.55 +/- 0.10 mg kg(-1) and 50.66 +/- 2.51 in Mo group, respectively. The mean copper value in Ex group was highly (r = 0.600) correlated with SOD and correlated with sperm motility (r = 0.372) and viability (r = 0.363), while, in Go group it was highly correlated (r = 0.945) with SOD and sperm viability (r = 0.652) and in Mo group it was correlated (r = 0.874) with semen volume only. The mean SOD values in Ex group was highly correlated with sperm motility (r = 0.492) and viability (r = 0.490) and mean copper values, in Go group, it was highly correlated whit sperm viability (r = 0.659) and mean copper values and in Mo group it had no significant correlations with semen parameters. These results suggest that copper and SOD content of the buffalo seminal plasma have an influence on the sperm motility and viability which are the most important factors in semen fertility. PMID:18983043

Eghbali, M; Alavi-Shoushtari, S M; Rezaii, S Asri



Cholesterol-to-phospholipid ratio in whole sperm and seminal plasma from fertile stallions and stallions with unexplained subfertility.  


Semen samples were collected from six fertile stallions and seven stallions with unexplained infertility. Percentages of motile sperm (77.5 +/- 11.3 versus 67.5 +/- 12.2, P = 0.2), and progressively motile sperm (70.8 +/- 13.6 versus 60.7 +/- 14.0, P = 0.2) were similar between fertile and subfertile stallions, respectively. Morphologic characteristics in ejaculates of control and affected stallions (% normal: 60.2 +/- 18.2 versus 52.9 +/- 11.3, P = 0.4; % abnormal heads 7.3 +/- 4.8 versus 12.1 +/- 5.0, P = 0.11; and % abnormal acrosomes 1.6 +/- 2.1 versus 3.0 +/- 3.4, P = 0.4) did not differ. After incubation with the calcium ionophore A23187, acrosome reaction rate of sperm from fertile stallions was 96 +/- 2.8% whereas only 2.9 +/- 2.5% of sperm from stallions with unexplained subfertility had acrosome reacted (P < 0.001). Molar amounts of cholesterol and phospholipid in whole sperm and seminal plasma did not differ (P > 0.1) between fertile and subfertile stallions. However, the molar ratio of cholesterol-to-phospholipid was 2.5 times greater in the seminal plasma (P = 0.09) and 1.9 times greater (P = 0.009) in whole sperm of subfertile stallions compared to fertile stallions. PMID:16713689

Brinsko, S P; Love, C C; Bauer, J E; Macpherson, M L; Varner, D D



Semen-coagulating protein, SVS2, in mouse seminal plasma controls sperm fertility.  


Mammalian seminal plasma is known to contain a decapacitation factor(s) that prevents capacitation and thus, the fertility of sperm. This phenomenon has been observed in experiments conducted in vitro that assessed the inhibition of epididymal sperm fertility by seminal plasma or by the purified decapacitation factor. However, the phenomenon of decapacitation has not yet been characterized in vivo. In the present study, we demonstrate that seminal vesicle protein secretion 2 (SVS2), which is a 40-kDa basic protein and a major component of the copulatory plug, enters the uterus and interacts with ejaculated sperm heads after copulation. The SVS2-binding region of sperm changed from the postacrosomal region to the equatorial segment, while the sperm migrated through the uterus and finally disappeared in the oviduct. Furthermore, SVS2 reduced the fertility of epididymal sperm. The sperm treated with SVS2 decreased the percentage of fertilized oocytes from 60% to 10%. The capacitation state was assessed by protein tyrosine phosphorylation and the comprehensiveness of the acrosome reaction. SVS2 functioned to maintain sperm in the uncapacitated state and to reverse capacitated sperm to the uncapacitated state. We found that the fertility of ejaculated sperm is associated with SVS2 distribution in the female reproductive tract. These results indicate that SVS2 functions as a decapacitation factor for mouse sperm. PMID:17123940

Kawano, Natsuko; Yoshida, Manabu



Glycomic Characterization of Prostate Specific Antigen and Prostatic Acid Phosphatase in Prostate Cancer and Benign Disease Seminal Plasma Fluids  

PubMed Central

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) are glycoproteins secreted by prostate epithelial cells, and have a long clinical history of use as serum biomarkers of prostate cancers. These two proteins are present at significantly higher concentrations in seminal plasma, making this proximal fluid of the prostate a good source for purifying enough protein for characterization of prostate disease associated changes in glycan structures. Using seminal fluid samples representative of normal control, benign prostatic disease and prostate cancers, PAP and PSA were enriched by thiophilic absorption chromatography. Released N-linked glycan constituents from both proteins were analyzed by a combination of normal phase HPLC and MALDI-TOF spectrometry. For PSA, 40 putative glycoforms were determined, and 21 glycoforms were determined for PAP. PAP glycans were further analyzed with a hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer to assign specific glycoform classes to each of the three N-linked sites. The glycans identified in these studies will allow for more defined targeting of prostate disease-specific changes for PAP, PSA and other secreted prostatic glycoproteins.

White, Krista Y.; Rodemich, Lucy; Nyalwidhe, Julius O.; Comunale, Mary Ann; Clements, Mary Ann; Lance, Raymond S.; Schellhammer, Paul F.; Mehta, Anand; Semmes, O. John; Drake, Richard R.



Seminal Plasma pH, Inorganic Phosphate, Total and Ionized Calcium Concentrations In The Assessment of Human Spermatozoa Function  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Fertilization in humans is dependent on viability of the male spermatozoa among other factors and there have been conflicting reports on the role of pH, calcium and phosphate concentrations in sperm function. This study therefore aimed to investigate seminal plasma pH, inorganic phosphate, total and ionized calcium concentrations relative to spermatozoa function. Material and Methods: Seminal plasma concentrations of pH, total calcium, ionized calcium (Ca++); inorganic phosphate, motility and spermatozoa count were determined in 80 males by standard methods. Results: Forty-nine of the subjects had normal spermatozoa motility (> 60%) and 31 had hypomotility (< 60%). The hypomotility group exhibited lower calcium ion (Ca2+) concentrations; 0.19+0.01mmol/L compared with normal motility group; 0.24+0.01mmol/L (p<0.001) the latter also had significantly higher inorganic phosphate; 7.83+1.27 while the former had 5.64+1.62mmol/L (p= 0.004). The mean spermatozoa counts for hypomotility and normal motility group were 42.0 ± 13 x 106 , 72.35 + 20 x 106 respectively (p< 0.001). No significant differences were observed in pH, volume of ejaculate and total calcium concentration between the hypomotility and normal motility groups The mean concentrations of pH were 7.51 ± 0.02 and 7.54 ± 0.03 respectively (p= 0.21) and total calcium; 3.10 ± 0.12 and 3.36 ± 0.14mmol/L respectively (p= 0.16 ). There was a significant difference in percentage of abnormal forms in both groups with hypomotile group having 36% compared to mormal motility group with 5% (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Correlations were observed between seminal concentrations of calcium ions, inorganic phosphate, spermatozoa count and motility but not with total calcium concentrations and pH and therefore should be considered in understanding male infertility and preparation of media for sperm preservation for in vitro fertilization.

Banjoko, S. Olatunbosun; Adeseolu, Fasiu O.



Isolation and characterization of heparin- and phosphorylcholine-binding proteins of boar and stallion seminal plasma. Primary structure of porcine pB1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the bovine, seminal plasma heparin-binding proteins bind to sperm lipids containing the phosphorylcholine group and mediate the capacitating effects of heparin-like glycosaminoglycans during sperm residence in the female genital tract. We report the characterization of heparin- and phosphorylcholine-binding proteins of stallion and boar seminal plasma. Horse seminal plasma proteins HSP-1 and HSP-2, and boar protein pB1, belong to the

Juan J Calvete; Manfred Raida; Marc Gentzel; Claus Urbanke; Libia Sanz; Edda Töpfer-Petersen



Seminal Plasma Enhances Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cell Proliferation and Tumour Growth In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in women in sub-Saharan Africa. Extensive evidence has shown that cervical cancer and its precursor lesions are caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Although the vast majority of HPV infections are naturally resolved, failure to eradicate infected cells has been shown to promote viral persistence and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, following neoplastic transformation, exposure of cervical epithelial cells to inflammatory mediators either directly or via the systemic circulation may enhance progression of the disease. It is well recognised that seminal plasma contains an abundance of inflammatory mediators, which are identified as regulators of tumour growth. Here we investigated the role of seminal plasma in regulating neoplastic cervical epithelial cell growth and tumorigenesis. Using HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cells, we found that seminal plasma (SP) induced the expression of the inflammatory enzymes, prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PTGS1 and PTGS2), cytokines interleukin (IL) -6, and -11 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A(VEGF-A). To investigate the role of SP on tumour cell growth in vivo, we xenografted HeLa cells subcutaneously into the dorsal flank of nude mice. Intra-peritoneal administration of SP rapidly and significantly enhanced the tumour growth rate and size of HeLa cell xenografts in nude mice. As observed in vitro, we found that SP induced expression of inflammatory PTGS enzymes, cytokines and VEGF-A in vivo. Furthermore we found that SP enhances blood vessel size in HeLa cell xenografts. Finally we show that SP-induced cytokine production, VEGF-A expression and cell proliferation are mediated via the induction of the inflammatory PTGS pathway.

Sutherland, Jason R.; Sales, Kurt J.; Jabbour, Henry N.; Katz, Arieh A.



Effects of vasectomy on seminal plasma alkaline phosphatase in male alpacas (Vicugña pacos).  


Azoospermia is a common finding in male alpacas which present for infertility. The challenge is to differentiate azoospermia of testicular origin from non-testicular origin. In several species, alkaline phosphatase (AP) concentrations in seminal plasma have been used as a diagnostic marker of contributions of the testis and epididymis to the ejaculate. The purpose of this study was to determine whether AP assay could differentiate testicular from non-testicular azoospermia in male alpacas. An experimental model of bilateral outflow obstruction (pre-scrotal vasectomy) was used in 22 male alpacas, aged 2-9 years. No reproductive history was available. Animals were submitted for electroejaculation (EE) under general anaesthesia and vasectomy performed. Five weeks later, animals were submitted for EE. Vasectomy was not successful in one animal, which was removed from analysis. AP levels were compared in seminal plasma in the pre- and post-vasectomy samples. The mean ± SEM concentration of AP in pre-vasectomy seminal plasma was 504.29 ± 166.45 U/l (range 10-2910); the post-vasectomy levels were 252.48 ± 81.77 U/l (range 0-1640; p = 0.06). In 71.4% of animals, AP levels decreased, varying from 18% to 100% reduction. Results of this study suggest that AP is not produced exclusively by the testis and epididymis in alpacas and that AP assay is not a valid diagnostic test for determination of origin of azoospermia; the gold standard for diagnosis of origin of azoospermia remains testicular biopsy. PMID:23790090

Pearson, L K; Campbell, A J; Sandoval, S; Tibary, A



Subsequent effect of subacute T-2 toxicosis on spermatozoa, seminal plasma and testosterone production in rabbits.  


Pannon White (n=12) male rabbits (weight: 4050 to 4500 g, age: 9 months) received 2 ml of a suspension containing purified T-2 toxin by gavage for 3 days. The daily toxin intake was 4 mg/animal (0.78 to 0.99 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Control animals (n=12) received toxin-free suspension for 3 days. Since a feed-refusal effect was observed on the second day after T-2 administration, a group of bucks (n=10) were kept as controls (no toxin treatment) but on a restricted feeding schedule, that is, the same amount of feed was provided to them as was consumed by the exposed animals. On day 51 of the experiment (i.e. 48 days after the 3-day toxin treatment), semen was collected, and pH, concentration, motility and morphology of the spermatozoa, as well as concentration of citric acid, zinc and fructose in the seminal plasma, were measured. After gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue treatment, the testosterone level was examined. One day of T-2 toxin treatment dramatically decreased voluntary feed intake (by 27% compared to control, P<0.05) and remained lower (P<0.05) during the first 2 weeks after the withdrawal of the toxin. BW of the contaminated rabbits decreased by 88% on days 17 and 29 compared to controls (P<0.05). No effect of toxin treatment was detected on pH and quantity of the semen or concentration of spermatozoa. The ratio of spermatozoa showing progressive forward motility decreased from 65% to 53% in the semen samples of toxin-treated animals compared to controls (P>0.05). The ratio of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology increased (P<0.05) in the ejaculates collected from the toxin-treated animals. T-2 toxin applied in high doses decreased the concentration of citric acid in seminal plasma (P<0.05). No effect of T-2 toxin on the concentrations of the other seminal plasma parameters (fructose and zinc) was observed. T-2 toxin decreased the basic testosterone level by 45% compared to control (P<0.01) and resulted in lower (P<0.05) GnRH-induced testosterone concentration. Feed restriction, that is, less nutrient intake, resulted in more morphologically abnormal spermatozoa in the semen, but it did not cause significant loss in BW, motility of the spermatozoa, composition of the seminal plasma or testosterone concentration--its effect needs further examination. PMID:22440347

Kovács, M; Tornyos, G; Matics, Zs; Kametler, L; Rajli, V; Bodnár, Zs; Kulcsár, M; Huszenicza, Gy; Keresztes, Zs; Cseh, S



Blood serum and seminal plasma selenium, total antioxidant capacity and coenzyme q10 levels in relation to semen parameters in men with idiopathic infertility.  


In this case-control study, we aimed to evaluate the serum and seminal plasma levels of Selenium (Se), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ-10) and determine their relationship with sperm concentration, motility, and morphology in men with idiopathic infertility. A total of 59 subjects were enrolled in the study. Forty four patients were diagnosed with idiopathic male infertility and had abnormal sperm parameters, and 15 subjects had normal sperm parameters with proven fertility. Serum Se, semen Se, and semen TAC levels were significantly different in the fertile and infertile groups (p?seminal plasma CoQ-10 levels did not differ between fertile and infertile groups. When the levels of the measured parameters were compared in serum and seminal plasma, serum levels of Se were found to be correlated positively with the semen levels in all subjects included into the study (N?=?59) (r?=?0.46, p?seminal plasma levels of TAC correlated positively with all these sperm parameters. On the other hand, seminal plasma levels of CoQ-10 correlated only with sperm morphology but not with concentration or motility. No relationship was observed between serum levels of TAC or serum levels of CoQ-10 and sperm parameters. In conclusion, serum and seminal plasma Se deficiency may be a prominent determinant of abnormal sperm parameters and idiopathic male infertility. Measurement of serum Se levels may help determine nutritional status and antioxidant capacity in infertile patients, which may help distinguish those patients who will benefit from supplementation therapy. PMID:24752972

Eroglu, Mustafa; Sahin, Sadik; Durukan, Birol; Ozakpinar, Ozlem Bingol; Erdinc, Nese; Turkgeldi, Lale; Sofuoglu, Kenan; Karateke, Ates



Prostate Secretory Protein of 94 Amino Acids (PSP94) Binds to Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP) in Human Seminal Plasma  

PubMed Central

Prostate Secretory Protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94) is one of the major proteins present in the human seminal plasma. Though several functions have been predicted for this protein, its exact role either in sperm function or in prostate pathophysiology has not been clearly defined. Attempts to understand the mechanism of action of PSP94 has led to the search for its probable binding partners. This has resulted in the identification of PSP94 binding proteins in plasma and seminal plasma from human. During the chromatographic separation step of proteins from human seminal plasma by reversed phase HPLC, we had observed that in addition to the main fraction of PSP94, other fractions containing higher molecular weight proteins also showed the presence of detectable amounts of PSP94. This prompted us to hypothesize that PSP94 could be present in the seminal plasma complexed with other protein/s of higher molecular weight. One such fraction containing a major protein of ?47 kDa, on characterization by mass spectrometric analysis, was identified to be Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP). The ability of PAP present in this fraction to bind to PSP94 was demonstrated by affinity chromatography. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the presence of PSP94-PAP complex both in the fraction studied and in the fresh seminal plasma. In silico molecular modeling of the PSP94-PAP complex suggests that ?-strands 1 and 6 of PSP94 appear to interact with domain 2 of PAP, while ?-strands 7 and 10 with domain 1 of PAP. This is the first report which suggests that PSP94 can bind to PAP and the PAP-bound PSP94 is present in human seminal plasma.

Anklesaria, Jenifer H.; Jagtap, Dhanashree D.; Pathak, Bhakti R.; Kadam, Kaushiki M.; Joseph, Shaini; Mahale, Smita D.



Determination of retinol and ?-tocopherol in human seminal plasma using an HPLC with UV detection.  


Oxidative stress has been proposed as one of the potential causes for infertility in men. Retinol and ?-tocopherol have an important role in the spermatozoa defences against oxidative stress. A method is described here for the simultaneous determination of retinol and ?-tocopherol in human seminal plasma with a suitable sample preparation procedure to prevent retinol and ?-tocopherol degradation. After adequate sample preparation, the samples were determined by reversed-phase column chromatography with UV detection. The analytical performance of this method was satisfactory. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%. The recoveries were as follows: 90.7% (CV 8.1%) for retinol and 98.2% (CV 4.8%) for ?-tocopherol. No significant differences in both retinol and ?-tocopherol concentration between the smokers and nonsmokers (15 ± 7 nm and 1.86 ± 0.29 ?m versus 15 ± 6 nm and 1.93 ± 0.45 ?m) were found. A selective high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of retinol and ?-tocopherol in human seminal plasma was developed. PMID:23611772

Kan?ár, R; Drábková, P; Myslíková, K; Hampl, R



Purification of human seminal plasma no. 7 antigen by immunoaffinity chromatography on bound monoclonal antibody.  

PubMed Central

Human seminal plasma (HSP) No. 7 antigen was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography on bound 1C4 monoclonal antibody (Moab) (Shigeta et al., 1980b). The pooled HSP protein was applied to a CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B column of bound 1C4 Moab gamma globulin and the antibody bound fraction (fr) eluted was further purified by rechromatography in the same way. The purified antigen in the antibody bound fr obtained by rechromatography gave a single band on SDS-PAGE in a position corresponding to a molecular weight of 15,000 daltons. This preparation was 196.2 times more effective than the original HSP protein in neutralizing the sperm immobilizing activity of 1C4 Moab. The purified HSP No. 7 antigen contained iron, but was different from lactoferrin and transferrin. It did not show any enzymatic activities, such as those of acid phosphatase, LDH or trypsin inhibitor, and shared antigenicity with human milk protein. It was present in seminal plasma as a molecule with a higher molecular weight but seemed to be cleaved to a monomer of 15,000 daltons during purification procedures. This antigen is present on spermatozoa as sperm-coating antigen and the corresponding antibody can immobilize spermatozoa with complement. Images Fig. 3

Isojima, S; Koyama, K; Fujiwara, N



Effect of Coenzyme Q10 supplementation on antioxidant enzymes activity and oxidative stress of seminal plasma: a double-blind randomised clinical trial.  


Low seminal plasma concentrations of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) have been correlated with impaired sperm parameters, but the exact mechanism remains of dominating interest. This randomised, placebo-controlled study examined the effect of CoQ10 on catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and F2 -isoprostanes in seminal plasma in infertile men and their relation with CoQ10 concentration. Sixty infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) were randomised to receive 200 mg d(-1) of CoQ10 or placebo for 3 months. 47 persons of them completed the study. Semen analysis, anthropometric measurements, diet and physical activity assessment were performed for subjects before and after treatment. Independent and paired t-test, chi-square test and ancova were compared outcomes of supplementation between two groups. CoQ10 levels increased from 44.74 ± 36.47 to 68.17 ± 42.41 ng ml(-1) following supplementation in CoQ10 (P < 0.001). CoQ10 group had higher catalase and SOD activity than the placebo group. There was a significant positive correlation between CoQ10 concentration and normal sperm morphology (P = 0.037), catalase (P = 0.041) and SOD (P < 0.001). Significant difference was shown between the mean of changes in seminal plasma 8-isoprostane in two groups (P = 0.003) after supplementation. Three-month supplementation with CoQ10 in OAT infertile men can attenuate oxidative stress in seminal plasma and improve semen parameters and antioxidant enzymes activity. PMID:23289958

Nadjarzadeh, A; Shidfar, F; Amirjannati, N; Vafa, M R; Motevalian, S A; Gohari, M R; Nazeri Kakhki, S A; Akhondi, M M; Sadeghi, M R



Influence of ejaculation frequency on sperm characteristics, ionic composition and enzymatic activity of seminal plasma in rams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of frequency of ejaculation on the ionic composition and enzymatic activity of the seminal plasma and the spermatozoa parameters was evaluated. Semen was collected from 8 rams for a period of 12 days in four successive phases with a gradually increasing semen collection intensity. Each phase continued for 3 days and rams were ejaculated 1, 3, 6 and 8

A. Kaya; M. Aksoy; T. Tekeli



Boar seminal plasma exosomes: effect on sperm function and protein identification by sequencing.  


Mammalian seminal plasma contains membranous vesicles (exosomes), with a high content of cholesterol and sphingomyelin and a complex protein composition. Their physiological role is uncertain because sperm stabilization and activation effects have been reported. To analyze a putative modulatory role for semen exosomes on sperm activity in the boar, the effects of these vesicles on several sperm functional parameters were examined. Additionally, boar exosome proteins were sequenced and their incorporation into sperm was explored. Boar sperm were incubated under conditions that induce capacitation, manifested as increased tyrosine phosphorylation, cholesterol loss and greater fluidity in apical membranes, and the ability to undergo the lysophosphatidylcholine-induced acrosome reaction. After establishing this cluster of capacitation-dependent functional parameters, the effect produced by exosomes when present during or after sperm capacitation was analyzed. Exosomes inhibited the capacitation-dependent cholesterol efflux and fluidity increase in apical membranes, and the disappearance of a 14-kD phosphorylated polypeptide. In contrast, the acrosome reaction (spontaneous and lysophosphatidylcholine-induced) was not affected, and sperm binding to the oocyte zona pellucida was reduced only when vesicles were present during gamete coincubation. Liposomes with a lipid composition similar to that present in exosomes mimicked these effects, except the one on zona pellucida binding. Interaction between exosomes and sperm was confirmed by transfer of aminopeptidase activity. In addition, the major exosome protein, identified as actin, appeared to associate with sperm after coincubation. Exosome composition had a predominance for structural proteins (actin, plastin, ezrin, and condensin), enzymes, and several porcine seminal plasma-specific polypeptides (e.g., spermadhesins). Transfer of proteins from exosome to sperm and their ability to block cholesterol efflux supports a direct interaction between these vesicles and sperm, whereas inhibition of some capacitation-dependent features suggests a stabilizing function for exosomes in boar semen. PMID:23489476

Piehl, Lidia L; Fischman, M Laura; Hellman, Ulf; Cisale, Humberto; Miranda, Patricia V



Timing of intermittent seminal HIV-1 RNA shedding in patients with undetectable plasma viral load under combination antiretroviral therapy.  


It was demonstrated that combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the HIV-1 viral load (VL) in the blood and the seminal compartment. Some studies have reported that the seminal HIV-1 VL is undetectable in individuals with an undetectable blood plasma viral load (bpVL) under cART. However, some recent studies have demonstrated that seminal HIV-1 RNA may still be detected, and potentially infectious, even in the case of an undetectable bpVL. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the detection rate of a seminal VL and whether shedding could be intermittent over a very short time. From January 2006 to December 2011, 88 HIV-1 infected men, enrolled in an Assisted Reproduction program, provided 306 semen samples, corresponding to 177 frozen sperm samples (two samples delivered at a one-hour interval (n?=?129) or one sample (n?=?48)). All enrolled men were under cART, with an undetectable bpVL for more than 6 months. HIV-1 RNA was quantified in seminal plasma using a Roche COBAS Ampliprep COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test. Seminal HIV-1 RNA was detected in 23 samples (7.5%) from 17 patients (19.3%). This detection rate was stable over years. With regards to the freezing of two samples delivered at a one-hour interval, the proportion of discordance between the first and second samples was 9.3% (12/129). Our results confirm the intermittent shedding of HIV-1 in semen. While this finding has been shown by studies examining longer time intervals, to our knowledge, this has never been demonstrated over such a short time interval. PMID:24594873

Ferraretto, Xavier; Estellat, Candice; Damond, Florence; Longuet, Pascale; Epelboin, Sylvie; Demailly, Pauline; Yazbeck, Chadi; Llabador, Marie-Astrid; Pasquet, Blandine; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Matheron, Sophie; Patrat, Catherine



Seminal Plasma and Semen Amyloids Enhance Cytomegalovirus Infection in Cell Culture  

PubMed Central

Among the modes of transmission available to the cytomegalovirus (CMV) is sexual transmission, primarily via semen. Both male-to-female (M-F) and male-to-male (M-M) sexual transmission significantly contribute toward the spread of CMV infections in the global population. Semen plays an important role in carrying the viral particle that invades the vaginal or rectal mucosa, thereby initiating viral replication. Both semen and seminal plasma (SP) can enhance HIV-1 infection in cell culture, and two amyloid fibrils, semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI) and amyloids derived from the semenogelins (SEM amyloids), have been identified as seminal factors sufficient to enhance HIV-1 infection (J. Munch et al., Cell 131:1059–1071, 2007; N. R. Roan et al., Cell Host Microbe 10:541–550, 2011; F. Arnold et al., J. Virol. 86:1244–1249, 2012). Whether SP, SEVI, or SEM amyloids can enhance other viral infections has not been extensively examined. In this study, we found that SP, SEVI, and SEM amyloids strongly enhance both human CMV (HCMV) and murine CMV infection in cell culture. SEVI and SEM amyloids increased infection rates by >10-fold, as determined by both flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Viral replication was increased by 50- to 100-fold. Moreover, viral growth curve assays showed that SP, SEVI, and SEM amyloids sped up the kinetics of CMV replication such that the virus reached its replicative peak more quickly. Finally, we discovered that SEM amyloids and SEVI counteracted the effect of anti-gH in protecting against CMV infection. Collectively, the data suggest that semen enhances CMV infection through interactions between semen amyloid fibrils and viral particles, and these interactions may prevent HCMV from being neutralized by anti-gH antibody.

Roan, Nadia R.; Yamamura, Yasuhiro



Seminal Plasma as a Source of Prostate Cancer Peptide Biomarker Candidates for Detection of Indolent and Advanced Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Extensive prostate specific antigen screening for prostate cancer generates a high number of unnecessary biopsies and over-treatment due to insufficient differentiation between indolent and aggressive tumours. We hypothesized that seminal plasma is a robust source of novel prostate cancer (PCa) biomarkers with the potential to improve primary diagnosis of and to distinguish advanced from indolent disease. Methodology/Principal Findings In an open-label case/control study 125 patients (70 PCa, 21 benign prostate hyperplasia, 25 chronic prostatitis, 9 healthy controls) were enrolled in 3 centres. Biomarker panels a) for PCa diagnosis (comparison of PCa patients versus benign controls) and b) for advanced disease (comparison of patients with post surgery Gleason score <7 versus Gleason score >7) were sought. Independent cohorts were used for proteomic biomarker discovery and testing the performance of the identified biomarker profiles. Seminal plasma was profiled using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry. Pre-analytical stability and analytical precision of the proteome analysis were determined. Support vector machine learning was used for classification. Stepwise application of two biomarker signatures with 21 and 5 biomarkers provided 83% sensitivity and 67% specificity for PCa detection in a test set of samples. A panel of 11 biomarkers for advanced disease discriminated between patients with Gleason score 7 and organ-confined (Seminal profiles showed excellent pre-analytical stability. Eight biomarkers were identified as fragments of N-acetyllactosaminide beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, prostatic acid phosphatase, stabilin-2, GTPase IMAP family member 6, semenogelin-1 and -2. Restricted sample size was the major limitation of the study. Conclusions/Significance Seminal plasma represents a robust source of potential peptide makers for primary PCa diagnosis. Our findings warrant further prospective validation to confirm the diagnostic potential of identified seminal biomarker candidates.

von Wilcke, Philine; Bauer, Hartwig W.; Leung, Hing; Siwy, Justyna; Ulrici, Wolfram; Paasch, Uwe; Horn, Lars-Christian; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe



Tumor Biomarker Glycoproteins in the Seminal Plasma of Healthy Human Males Are Endogenous Ligands for DC-SIGN*  

PubMed Central

DC-SIGN is an immune C-type lectin that is expressed on both immature and mature dendritic cells associated with peripheral and lymphoid tissues in humans. It is a pattern recognition receptor that binds to several pathogens including HIV-1, Ebola virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Candida albicans, Helicobacter pylori, and Schistosoma mansoni. Evidence is now mounting that DC-SIGN also recognizes endogenous glycoproteins, and that such interactions play a major role in maintaining immune homeostasis in humans and mice. Autoantigens (neoantigens) are produced for the first time in the human testes and other organs of the male urogenital tract under androgenic stimulus during puberty. Such antigens trigger autoimmune orchitis if the immune response is not tightly regulated within this system. Endogenous ligands for DC-SIGN could play a role in modulating such responses. Human seminal plasma glycoproteins express a high level of terminal Lewisx and Lewisy carbohydrate antigens. These epitopes react specifically with the lectin domains of DC-SIGN. However, because the expression of these sequences is necessary but not sufficient for interaction with DC-SIGN, this study was undertaken to determine if any seminal plasma glycoproteins are also endogenous ligands for DC-SIGN. Glycoproteins bearing terminal Lewisx and Lewisy sequences were initially isolated by lectin affinity chromatography. Protein sequencing established that three tumor biomarker glycoproteins (clusterin, galectin-3 binding glycoprotein, prostatic acid phosphatase) and protein C inhibitor were purified by using this affinity method. The binding of DC-SIGN to these seminal plasma glycoproteins was demonstrated in both Western blot and immunoprecipitation studies. These findings have confirmed that human seminal plasma contains endogenous glycoprotein ligands for DC-SIGN that could play a role in maintaining immune homeostasis both in the male urogenital tract and the vagina after coitus.

Clark, Gary F.; Grassi, Paola; Pang, Poh-Choo; Panico, Maria; Lafrenz, David; Drobnis, Erma Z.; Baldwin, Michael R.; Morris, Howard R.; Haslam, Stuart M.; Schedin-Weiss, Sophia; Sun, Wei; Dell, Anne



Levels of Environmental Contaminants in Human Follicular Fluid, Serum, and Seminal Plasma of Couples Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental chemicals are thought to adversely affect human reproductive function, however there are no studies that have\\u000a explored the association between failed fertilization and exposure of both partners to environmental contaminants. Therefore,\\u000a we collected blood and follicular fluid from the female partner and seminal plasma from the male partner of 21 couples attending\\u000a an in vitro fertilization (IVF) program, in

E. V. Younglai; W. G. Foster; E. G. Hughes; K. Trim; J. F. Jarrell



SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of buffalo bulls seminal plasma proteins and their relation with semen freezability.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate the protein profiles of seminal plasma in buffalo bulls and to examine their correlation with semen characteristics. Semen of 10 buffalo bulls were collected by a bovine artificial vagina. Semen characteristics (motility, morphology, viability and concentration) were recorded. A part of the semen sample (1 ml) was diluted by tris-egg yolk-glycerol extender, packed in French straws and was frozen in liquid nitrogen. The straws were later thawed and semen characteristics were compared with those of the fresh semen. Seminal plasma was harvested by centrifugation; treated with cold ethanol and then, underwent SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Twenty five protein bands were identified on the gel, of which those of <35.5 kDa were prominent (72% of the bands). Of these protein fractions, 24.5 kDa was significantly correlated with sperm progressive motility in fresh and viability in frozen-thawed semen while 45 kDa bands were correlated with abnormal morphology in frozen-thawed semen; 55 kDa protein fractions were correlated with sperm viability of fresh semen. Progressive motility, viability and abnormal sperm morphology of frozen-thawed semen were highly correlated with these parameters in the fresh semen. In conclusion, seminal plasma protein fractions in buffalo bulls are similar to those reported in other animal species and have some correlations with semen characteristics before and after freezing. PMID:17433580

Asadpour, R; Alavi-Shoushtari, S M; Rezaii, S Asri; Ansari, M H Kh



Parameters of the reproductive tract, spermatogenesis, daily sperm production and major seminal plasma proteins of tropically adapted morada nova rams.  


This study describes the reproductive parameters of Morada Nova rams, a breed of hair sheep from Brazil and with unique adaption to tropical environments. At 42 weeks of age, 15 rams were subjected to semen collection and, 1 week later, animals were slaughtered for collection of testes, epididymis and accessory sex glands. We conducted 2-D electrophoresis of seminal plasma proteins and major spots of stained gels were identified by LC-MS/MS. Total RNA was isolated from testis, epididymis and vesicular glands and subjected to qPCR. At slaughter, scrotal circumference and testicular weight were 27.5 ± 0.5 cm and 109.5 ± 6.0 g, respectively. Seminiferous tubule (ST) diameter was 188.3 ± 4.0 ?m and each testis contained 1.9 ± 0.1 Sertoli cells (×10(9) ). Each Sertoli cell supported 0.1 ± 0.01 A spermatogonia, 3.0 ± 0.2 pachytene spermatocytes and 7.7 ± 0.5 round spermatids/tubule cross section. Daily sperm production reached 5.6 × 10(6)  cells/g of testis parenchyma. Testis size appeared as indicative of ST diameter and associated with epididymal measurements, as well as with the population of round spermatids and Sertoli cells/testis. Rams with heavier testes had greater daily sperm production and more Sertoli cells/testis. We detected 90.9 ± 9.6 spots per 2-D gel of seminal plasma. Major seminal proteins were identified as ram seminal vesicle proteins at 14 and 22 kDa, representing 16.2% and 12.8% of the total intensity of valid spots in the gels, respectively. Expression of both genes was greater in the vesicular glands as compared to testis and epididymis. Pixel intensity for those proteins in the 2-D gels was significantly correlated with seminal vesicle weight. This is the first description of the basic reproductive aspects of Morada Nova rams, including protein profiles of their seminal plasma. These findings will allow a better understanding of their reproductive physiology. PMID:24716618

Sousa, Fml; Lobo, Ch; Menezes, Esb; Rego, Jpa; Oliveira, Rv; Lima-Souza, Ac; Fioramonte, M; Gozzo, Fc; Pompeu, Rcff; Cândido, Mjd; Oliveira, Jt; Moura, Aa



Seminal plasma induces angiogenic chemokine expression in cervical cancer cells and regulates vascular function.  


Cervical cancer is one of the leading gynecological malignancies in women. We have recently shown that seminal plasma (SP) can regulate the inflammatory cyclooxygenase-prostaglandin pathway and enhance the growth of cervical epithelial tumours in vivo by promoting cellular proliferation and alteration of vascular function. This study investigated the molecular mechanism whereby SP regulates vascular function using an in vitro model system of HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that SP rapidly enhanced the expression of the angiogenic chemokines, interleukin (IL)-8 and growth regulated oncogene alpha (GRO) in HeLa cells in a time-dependent manner. We investigated the molecular mechanism of SP-mediated regulation of IL-8 and GRO using a panel of chemical inhibitors of cell signalling. We found that treatment of HeLa cells with SP elevated expression of IL-8 and GRO by transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and induction of cyclooxygenase enzymes and nuclear factor kappa B. We investigated the impact of IL-8 and GRO, released from HeLa cells after treatment with SP, on vascular function using a co-culture model system of conditioned medium (CM) from HeLa cells, treated with or without SP, and HUVECs. We found that CM from HeLa cells induced the arrangement of endothelial cells into a network of tube-like structures via the CXCR2 receptor on HUVECs. Taken together our data outline a molecular mechanism whereby SP can alter vascular function in cervical cancers via the pro-angiogenic chemokines, IL-8 and GRO. PMID:22732298

Sales, Kurt J; Sutherland, Jason R; Jabbour, Henry N; Katz, Arieh A



Effect of heterologous and homologous seminal plasma on stallion sperm quality.  


Removing most of the seminal plasma (SP) from stallion semen has been shown to improve survival during cooled storage, yet adding small quantities of SP may improve pregnancy rates or cryosurvival. Furthermore, there is considerable controversy about whether the stallion's own SP or heterologous SP produces the best effect, possibly because of the variation between stallions in SP proteins or because some homologous SP remained in the sperm preparation. The SP is removed completely from stallion spermatozoa prepared by colloid centrifugation. Thus, the aim of the present study was (1) to investigate the effect of adding back SP to colloid centrifuged spermatozoa to determine its effect on spermatozoa; and (2) to investigate whether the stallion's own SP had a greater or lesser effect than heterologous SP. Conventional semen doses were sent from a stud overnight to the laboratory using standard transport conditions. Once at the laboratory, the semen samples were used for single layer centrifugation with Androcoll-E, and the resulting sperm preparations were treated with heterologous SP. Adding SP had a small but significant effect on sperm motility but no effect on the proportion of spermatozoa that had acrosome reacted. There were significant increases in hydrogen peroxide production and chromatin damage (P < 0.001). When homologous and heterologous SP were compared, considerable variation was observed between stallions, so that it was not possible to predict whether homologous or heterologous SP, or no SP, will produce the best motility for spermatozoa from any given stallion. Therefore, it is necessary to test different combinations of spermatozoa and SP to find the optimal effect on motility. The SP from most stallions increased reactive oxygen species and chromatin damage. In conclusion, the interaction between SP and spermatozoa depends on the origin of both SP and spermatozoa. If it is desirable to add SP to stallion sperm samples, it should be done directly before insemination rather than before storage, because of increased hydrogen peroxide production and sperm chromatin damage. PMID:24768057

Morrell, J M; Georgakas, A; Lundeheim, N; Nash, D; Davies Morel, M C G; Johannisson, A



Quick recovery and characterization of cell-free DNA in seminal plasma of normozoospermia and azoospermia: implications for non-invasive genetic utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We established a quick and reliable method for recovering cell-free seminal DNA (cfsDNA), by using the binding-washing-elution procedure on the DNA purification column. Low variations (below 15%) among the triplicate values of cfsDNA quantity verified the reproducibility of our cfsDNA recovery method. Similar cfsDNA yield and size distribution between seminal plasma acquired by filtration and centrifugation confirmed the presence of

Hong-Gang Li; Shi-Yun Huang; Hui Zhou; Ai-Hua Liao; Cheng-Liang Xiong



Ultrasonographic and clinical correlates of seminal plasma interleukin-8 levels in patients attending an andrology clinic for infertility.  


This study was aimed at evaluating the association between seminal plasma interleukin-8 (sIL-8) and colour-Doppler ultrasound (CDU) characteristics of the male genital tract in a series of patients fulfilling the criteria of male accessory gland infections (MAGI). Of 250 subjects seeking medical care for couple infertility, 79 (mean age: 36.4 ± 7.5 years) met the criteria of MAGI and scored higher than the rest of the sample on the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index score. All patients underwent simultaneous hormone evaluation and seminal analysis (including sIL-8), along with scrotal and transrectal CDU before and after ejaculation. After adjusting for age, sIL-8 in patients with MAGI was significantly related to several abnormal semen and CDU parameters. In particular, leucocytospermia was closely associated with sIL-8. Ejaculate volume, unlike other semen or hormonal parameters, was negatively associated with sIL-8. When scrotal CDU was performed, sIL-8 was positively related to CDU inhomogeneous, hypo-echoic, hyper-echoic epididymis and to epididymal calcifications. In addition, a positive correlation among sIL-8, hyperaemic epididymis and an increased size of epididymal tail was found. When transrectal CDU was performed, an association among sIL-8 and hyper-echoic seminal vesicles, dilated ejaculatory ducts and duct calcifications was also observed. Finally, sIL-8 was positively related to prostate CDU abnormalities such as calcifications, inhomogeneous/hypo-echoic texture, hyperaemia and high arterial blood flow. No association was found with testis parameters. In conclusion, sIL-8 levels in patients with MAGI are associated with several parameters and CDU abnormalities of epididymis, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts and prostate, but not of the testis. Furthermore, sIL-8 positively correlates with CDU signs of ejaculatory duct inflammatory subobstruction. PMID:20969602

Lotti, F; Corona, G; Mancini, M; Filimberti, E; Degli Innocenti, S; Colpi, G M; Baldi, E; Noci, I; Forti, G; Adorini, L; Maggi, M



Isolation and characterization of heparin and gelatin binding buffalo seminal plasma proteins and their effect on cauda epididymal spermatozoa.  


Seventy semen ejaculates were obtained from 14 Murrah buffalo bulls and were subjected to plasma separation immediately after collection by centrifugation at 2000 rpm for 20 min and stored in liquid nitrogen until analysis. In the seminal plasma the total protein concentration were estimated and the heparin and gelatin binding (HB and GB) proteins were isolated using heparin and gelatin affinity column chromatography. The molecular weight of individual isolated HB and GB protein was determined by SDS-PAGE analysis. Buffalo bull spermatozoa was collected from cauda epididymis under aseptic conditions and was used for the in vitro fertility tests (i.e. bovine cervical mucus penetration test (BCMPT) and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST)). The heparin and gelatin binding buffalo seminal plasma proteins were used in six concentrations i.e. 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 microg/ml to test their effect on in vitro fertility assessment of cauda epididymal spermatozoa. The overall mean values of total protein, HB and GB proteins were recorded as 29+/-2.7, 2.61 and 0.2mg/ml, respectively. Eighteen total protein bands were observed in the range of 12-127 kDa. Eight major HB proteins were isolated in the range of 13-71 kDa. Seven major GB proteins were isolated in the range of 13-61 kDa in the buffalo seminal plasma. The mean penetration distance (mm) travelled by the buffalo cauda spermatozoa was maximum in HB proteins (26.9+/-0.6) followed by GB proteins (25.4+/-0.6) and control (21.2+/-1.4). The difference in BCMPT values between protein treated and control group was significant (P<0.05). Almost similar trend in the effect of protein on values of HOST percentage in both HB and GB proteins treated semen samples were recorded (66.4+/-0.65 and 66.1+/-0.6, respectively). The difference in HOST values between proteins treated and control group (50.4+/-2.0) was significant (P<0.05). The present results indicate that among the isolated proteins, 4 proteins were commonly seen in both the heparin and gelatin-sepharose affinity column chromatography, and the addition of buffalo seminal plasma proteins improved the in vitro sperm functions (40 microg/ml gave best results) of buffalo cauda spermatozoa. PMID:16260100

Arangasamy, A; Singh, L P; Ahmed, N; Ansari, M R; Ram, G C



The determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid in human seminal plasma using an HPLC with UV detection.  


Oxidative stress has been proposed as one of the potential causes for infertility in men. Ascorbic acid and uric acid play important role in protection of spermatozoa against free radicals. A method for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid in human seminal plasma using HPLC with UV detection and investigation their clinical significance as antioxidants protecting male germ cells against oxidative damage are described. Semen samples were obtained from consecutive male partners of couples presenting for a fertility evaluation. After liquefaction, the samples were centrifuged and the supernatants were diluted with dithiothreitol solution and after a filtration injected onto an analytical column. For the separation, a reverse-phase column MAG 1, 250 mm × 4.6 mm, Labiospher PSI 100 C18, 5 ?m, was used. The mixture of ethanol and 25 mmol/L sodium dihydrogenphosphate (2.5:97.5, v/v), pH 4.70 was used as a mobile phase. Analytical performance of this method is satisfactory for both ascorbic acid and uric acid: the intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%. Quantitative recoveries from spiked seminal plasma were between 92.1 and 102.1%. We have found no significant differences in both ascorbic acid and uric acid concentration between the smokers and non-smokers (351.0 ± 237.9 ?mol/L and 323.7 ± 99.5 ?mol/L vs. 444.8 ± 245.5 ?mol/L and 316.6 ± 108.9 ?mol/L, p>0.05). This assay is a simple and reproducible HPLC method for the simultaneous measurement of ascorbic acid and uric acid in human seminal plasma. PMID:21871848

Kan?ár, Roman; Drábková, Petra; Hampl, Radek



Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes  

PubMed Central

Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with higher levels in the breeding season. The yearly pattern of GRD and catalase was close to that of melatonin, and GRD showed a significant seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with a higher activity during the breeding season. Linear regression analysis between the studied hormones and antioxidant enzymes showed a significant correlation between melatonin and testosterone, GRD, SOD and catalase. Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system.



Effects of the seminal plasma zinc content and catalase activity on the semen quality of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls.  


In order to determine zinc and catalase content of seminal plasma in the buffalo and to study their associations with the semen characteristics, 54 semen samples were collected from 10 buffalo bulls; semen volume and sperm concentration, gross and progressive motility and viability were evaluated, seminal plasma was then harvested by centrifugation and its zinc content was estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and its catalase activity determined by using a commercial kit. The zinc content of the seminal plasma (Mean +/- SEM) was recorded as 154.40 +/- 1.74 mg L(-1), while, the mean catalase value was 32.00 +/- 0.42 U mL(-1). The mean zinc values was highly correlated with sperm progressive motility and viability and with catalase values (p = 0.000 for all) and also was associated with gross motility (p = 0.020) and negatively with abnormal morphology (p = 0.049). The catalase values were highly associated with sperm progressive motility, viability and zinc content (p = 0.000 for all) and was associated with sperm gross motility (p = 0.024). For further clarification of these correlations, the samples were categorized in three groups of excellent (Ex, >90% motile, n = 33), good (Go, 80-89% motile, n = 15) and moderate (Mo, <79% motile, n = 6) according to their percentage of sperm motility. The mean progressive motility in Ex group was 92.54 +/- 0.51%, in Go group was 81.66 +/- 0.62% and in Mo group was 71.66 +/- 1.05%. The mean zinc and catalase values were recorded as 161.07 +/- 1.63 mg L(-1) and 33.41 +/- 0.34 U mL(-1) in Ex, 146.70 +/- 1.91 mg L(-1) and 31.01 +/- 0.67 in Go and 136.42 +/- 4.97 mg L(-1) and 26.51 +/- 0.87 U mL(-1) in Mo groups. The mean zinc value in Ex group was highly associated with sperm motility, viability and catalase values, in Go group was associated with catalase values and highly associated with sperm abnormal morphology and in Mo group it was highly associations with catalase values only. The mean catalase value in Ex group, was highly associated with sperm motility and viability, in Go group was associated with zinc content and in Mo groups was highly associated with the zinc content. These results show that seminal plasma zinc and catalase content are correlated with semen characteristics and synergistically act to preserve motility and viability of the spermatozoa after ejaculation. PMID:19579933

Alavi-Shoushtari, S M; Rezai, S Asri; Ansari, M H Kh; Khaki, A



Study of the effects of oral zinc supplementation on peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity in seminal plasma of Iraqi asthenospermic patients  

PubMed Central

Background Low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) are necessary for the biology and physiology of spermatozoa, but high levels of NO are toxic and have negative effects on sperm functions. Although several studies have considered the relationship between infertility and semen NO concentrations, no study on the effects of asthenospermia treatments such as oral zinc supplementation on concentrations of NO, which are important in fertility, has been reported. Studies have shown that oral zinc supplementation develops sperm count, motility and the physical characteristics of sperm in animals and in some groups of infertile men. The present study was conducted to study the effect of zinc supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen, along with enzymes of the NO pathway in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 60 fertile and 60 asthenozoospermic infertile men of matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate; each participant took two capsules (220 mg per capsule) per day for 3 months. Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction of the seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. The stable metabolites of NO (nitrite) in seminal plasma were measured by nitrophenol assay. Arginase activity and NO synthase activity were measured spectrophotometrically. Results Peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity, NO synthase activity and various sperm parameters were compared among fertile controls and infertile patients (before and after treatment with zinc sulfate). Peroxynitrite levels and NO synthase activity were significantly higher in the infertile patients compared to the fertile group. Conversely, arginase activity was significantly higher in the fertile group than the infertile patients. Peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity of the infertile patient were restored to normal values after treatment with zinc sulfate. Volume of semen, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc supplementation. Conclusions Treatment of asthenospermic patients with zinc supplementation leads to restored peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity to normal values and gives a statistically significant improvement of semen parameters compared with controls. Trial registration identifier: NCT01684059



Cryopreservation increases coating of bull sperm by seminal plasma binder of sperm proteins BSP1, BSP3, and BSP5.  


Artificial insemination with frozen semen allows affordable, worldwide dissemination of gametes with superior genetics. Nevertheless, sperm are damaged by the cryopreservation process. Elucidating the molecular effects of cryopreservation on sperm could suggest methods for improving fertility of frozen/thawed semen. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of cryopreservation on the coating of sperm by binder of sperm (BSP) proteins in seminal plasma. BSP proteins are secreted by the seminal vesicles and coat the surface of sperm by partially intercalating into the outer leaflet of the sperm plasma membrane. The BSP proteins are known to play roles in the formation of the oviductal sperm storage reservoir and in sperm capacitation. We investigated the effects of cryopreservation on the sperm BSP protein coat using Bovipure to separate live sperm from extended semen and then assaying the amounts of BSP proteins on sperm using quantitative western blotting with custom-made antibodies against unique sequences of each BSP protein. Greater amounts of all three BSP proteins (BSP1, BSP3, and BSP5) were detected on frozen/thawed sperm than on fresh sperm. Furthermore, the reduction of BSP3 from 15 to 13?kDa in mass, which occurs during incubation of sperm under mild capacitating conditions, was enhanced by cryopreservation. We concluded that freezing alters the BSP protein coating on sperm, which could account in part for reduced fertility of cryopreserved semen samples. PMID:23740081

Ardon, Florencia; Suarez, Susan S



Cadmium Concentrations in Blood and Seminal Plasma: Correlations with Sperm Number and Motility in Three Male Populations (Infertility Patients, Artificial Insemination Donors, and Unselected Volunteers)  

PubMed Central

To investigate a possible common environmental exposure that may partially explain the observed decrease in human semen quality, we correlated seminal plasma and blood cadmium levels with sperm concentration and sperm motility. We studied three separate human populations: group 1, infertility patients (Long Island, NY, USA); group 2, artificial insemination donors (AID) (Rochester, NY, USA); and group 3, general population volunteers (Rochester, NY, USA). Information about confounding factors was collected by questionnaire. Seminal plasma cadmium did not correlate with blood cadmium (Spearman correlation, n = 91, r = ?0.092, P = 0.386, NS). Both blood and seminal plasma cadmium were significantly higher among infertility patients than the other subjects studied (for example, median seminal plasma cadmium was 0.282 ?g/L in infertility patients versus 0.091 ?g/L in AID and 0.092 ?g/L in general population volunteers; Kruskal–Wallis test, P < 0.001). The percentage of motile sperm and sperm concentration correlated inversely with seminal plasma cadmium among the infertility patients (r = ?0.201, P < 0.036 and r = ?0.189, P < 0.05, respectively), but not in the other two groups. Age (among infertility patients) was the only positive confounder correlating with seminal plasma cadmium. To validate our human findings in an animal model, we chronically exposed adolescent male Wistar rats to low-moderate cadmium in drinking water. Though otherwise healthy, the rats exhibited decreases in epididymal sperm count and sperm motility associated with cadmium dose and time of exposure. Our human and rat study results are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental cadmium exposures may contribute significantly to reduced human male sperm concentration and sperm motility.

Benoff, Susan; Hauser, Russ; Marmar, Joel L; Hurley, Ian R; Napolitano, Barbara; Centola, Grace M



A Five-Year Followup of Human Seminal Plasma Allergy in an 18-Year-Old Woman  

PubMed Central

Case reports of women with the rare condition of human seminal plasma allergy have indicated that the condition may be associated with life-threatening anaphylactic reactions in relation to coitus. Few observations, if any, of long-term outcome of the condition are available. The aim of this paper was to present a case diagnosed in an 18-year-old girl who presented with generalized urticaria, nasal congestion and secretion, conjunctivitis, and periorbital and labial oedema 6–8 hours after coitus. During five years of followup the condition improved clinically significantly. Due to intimacy concerns and the low prevalence of the condition robust long term data on the natural course of the condition are difficult to obtain. The present case suggests that in some patients the condition may improve over time.

Wolthers, Ole D.



Detection of 90K/MAC-2BP in the seminal plasma of infertile males with accessory gland infection and the autoimmune pathogenetic hypothesis.  


The purpose of the study was to evaluate 90K/MAC-2BP, a glycoprotein member of the Scavenger Receptor Cystein Rich superfamily, in the seminal plasma of infertile male patients with male accessory gland infection in order to investigate a putative autoimmune pathogenesis. 90K seminal concentration and sperm parameters were evaluated in 50 patients with male accessory gland infection at baseline and after cycles of treatment with Levofluoxacin 500 mg daily for 15 days plus serratiopeptidase 10 mg daily for 30 days. Treatment was continued for up to 6 cycles in cases of persistant bacteriospermia and/or clinical and ejaculatory signs of the disease. Patients with persistant male accessory gland infection after 6 cycles were defined as nonresponders. The same parameters were evaluated at baseline and after a 2-month period in 30 healthy controls. Patients with male accessory gland infection showed impaired sperm parameters and had lower seminal 90K concentration compared to controls. After treatment, seminal 90K level significantly increased in patients compared to controls. Twenty-two patients responded to treatment (44%), while 28 were nonresponders (56%). No difference in pretreatment and posttreatment sperm parameters and seminal 90K was observed between the 2 subgroups. Thirteen patients (26%) had identifiable bacteriospermia: significantly less pretreatment seminal 90K was observed compared to patients without bacteriospermia. Seminal 90K is decreased in patients with male accessory gland infection, and may be restored by a treatment with quinolones. However, the clinical utility of a 90K assay in these patients remains uncertain, as its level is not predictive of response to treatment. PMID:16837737

Caroppo, Ettore; Niederberger, Craig; Iacovazzi, Palma A; Correale, Mario; D'Amato, Giuseppe



[Effect of the nature of the surface of disperse silica on its interaction with the reproductive cells and seminal plasma of cattle].  


The interaction of various disperse silica of I, II, III kind possessing various structure of surface groups (-OH; -O-CH2-CH2-O-CH2-CH2OH; -O-CH2-CH2-NH2 respectively) was investigated with some above membrane matrix polymers of bovine reproductive cells and seminal plasma (namely the surface proteins and carbohydrate polymers containing the N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (NANA) as terminal residue). Protein binding was preferentially observed for silica surface modified by aminoethoxy--and ethylene glycol groups and depended on concentration of silica in the mixture. It was found that biopolymers containing carbohydrate groups had larger affinity to I than to II or III. The binding value of I-III was 12-16% with respect to plasma proteins. Silicas I and II with -OH-groups on the surface absorb 17-21% N-ANA-containing polymers of bovine seminal plasma. PMID:1332236

Galagan, N P; Bogomaz, V I; Isarov, A V; Chu?ko, A A



Aminopeptidase activity in seminal plasma and effect of dilution rate on rabbit reproductive performance after insemination with an extender supplemented with buserelin acetate.  


Ovulation induction in artificially inseminated rabbits by adding GnRH synthetic analogues in the seminal doses is a welfare-orientated method to induce ovulation in rabbits and could have some advantages in field practice. This study was conducted to determine the effect of male genotype on the aminopeptidase activity in rabbit seminal plasma and the effects of dilution rate of semen on availability and reproductive performance when buserelin acetate is added to the seminal dose. To study the aminopeptidase activity, 12 mature bucks belonging to a paternal line and 12 from a maternal line were used. The bucks from the paternal line were used to study the effect of dilution rate on the availability of buserelin acetate after 2 hours of dilution and on the reproductive performance of the doses after artificial insemination of 389 commercial crossbreed does. Aminopeptidase activity in seminal plasma is dependent on the male genotype. The paternal line resulted 27% more aminopeptidase activity than the maternal line (P < 0.05). On the other hand, semen diluted 1:20 exhibited a marked increase in the availability of buserelin acetate and the fertility in this group was significantly higher than females from dilution rate 1:5 group, which showed similar results to that of the negative control group (does inseminated with semen diluted 1:20 in non-GnRH-supplemented extender). We conclude that the bioavailability of buserelin acetate when added to the seminal dose appears to be determined by the activity of the existing aminopeptidases and is consequently affected by the dilution rate used to prepare the artificial insemination doses. PMID:24629591

Viudes-de-Castro, M P; Mocé, E; Lavara, R; Marco-Jiménez, F; Vicente, J S



Ram seminal plasma improves pregnancy rates in ewes cervically inseminated with ram semen stored at 5 °C for 24 hours.  


In this study, we compared pregnancy rates obtained using ram semen stored at 5 °C for 24 h, with ram or bull seminal plasma (SP) added to TRIS-egg yolk extender. During the breeding period, 670 adult Corriedale ewes were cervically inseminated with semen (2 × 10(8) sperm in a volume of 0.2 mL) from eight adult Corriedale rams. Ejaculates, obtained using an artificial vagina, were split into three aliquots and diluted with the following: TRIS-egg yolk based extender (T), T + 30% ram SP (R), or T + 30% bull SP (B). Samples were refrigerated and stored at 5 °C for 24 h until used for AI. Pregnancy was assessed by ultrasonography 35 to 40 d after AI. Pregnancy rate was not affected by ram (P = 0.77) or breeding period (P = 0.43), and there were no interactions between extender and ram (P = 0.94), or extender and breeding period (P = 0.24). However, there was an effect of extender (P = 0.0009) on pregnancy rates; ram SP, but not bull SP, increased pregnancy rates compared with extender without SP (49.7, 38.1, and 31.1%, for R, B, and T respectively). In conclusion, ram SP added to TRIS-egg yolk extender had a beneficial effect on the pregnancy rate of ram sperm stored at 5 °C for 24 h and used for cervical insemination of ewes. PMID:21958634

López-Pérez, A; Pérez-Clariget, R



[Sorption immobilization of glycerol on disperse silica and its interaction with the surface of bovine reproductive cells, seminal plasma and sperm].  


The binding of hydroxylated disperse silica (I) surface and surface, modified by glycerol (II), with components of above-membrane matrix of bovine reproductive cell and seminal plasma was investigated. It was found that structure of inorganic support defined the character of binding SiO2 with proteins and glycoproteins, including those with hexose and N-acetylneuraminic acid as terminal residue. Value of binding depends on concentration of disperse silica contacting with biomaterial. PMID:1333107

Galagan, N P; Sinel'nik, A P; Bogomaz, V I; Chu?ko, A A



Seminal plasma peptides may determine maternal immune response that alters success or failure of pregnancy in the abortion-prone CBAxDBA/2 model.  


Spontaneous abortion (resorption) in the DBA/2-mated CBA/J mouse involves a deficiency in Treg cell activity against paternal antigens at the time of mating. Preimmunization of female CBA/J by BALB/c splenocytes, but not DBA/2 splenocytes, protects against subsequent abortions after a CBAxDBA/2 mating. Previous immunogenetic studies with BALB/cxDBA/2 recombinants have indicated that H-2(d)-restricted presentation of a single minor non-H-2(d) peptide might be responsible for protection, while the product of a second independent allele might promote abortions. Using brefeldin-treated BALB/c and DBA/2 splenocytes, we found that incubation in BALB/c seminal plasma rendered DBA/2 splenocytes protective and DBA/2 seminal plasma eliminated protection. The active protective moiety was <10 kD consistent with a peptide. DBA/2 seminal plasma contained a <10-kD peptide that boosted the abortion rate. Maternal H-2(k) CBA/J splenocytes were unable to present the protective activity. Amicon fractionation also unmasked a <10-kD activity in DBA/2 seminal plasma that could boost abortion rates when presented by BALB/c splenocytes. SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry proteomic analysis of <10-kD filtrates reproducibly detected 1416, 1468, 1774 D peptides in BALB/c that were reduced or absent in DBA/2, and the presence of 2662, 4559 and 5320 D molecules in DBA/2, the latter two definitely not present in BALB/c. Direct antigen presentation of paternal H-2(d)-restricted paternal peptides (600-1800 D) may prevent the rejection of the CBAxDBA/2 embryos, and larger sized peptides may bind to immunizing splenocytes and augment abortion mechanisms. PMID:23701834

Clark, David A; Rahmati, Mona; Gohner, Claudia; Bensussan, Armand; Markert, Udo R; Chaouat, Gerard



The effects of honey supplementation on seminal plasma cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidants during 8 weeks of intensive cycling training.  


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of natural honey supplementation on seminal plasma cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidants during 8 weeks of intensive cycling training in male road cyclists. Thirty-nine healthy nonprofessional male road cyclists aged 18-28 years participated in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to exercise + supplement (E + S, n = 20) and exercise (E, n = 19) groups. All subjects participated in 8 weeks of intensive cycling training. Ninety minutes before each training session, subjects in the E + S group supplemented with 70 g of honey, whereas subjects in the E group received 70 g of an artificial sweetener. All subjects had an initial semen sampling at baseline (T(1)). The next 6 semen collections were collected immediately (T(2)) and 12 (T(3)) and 24 hours (T(4)) after the last training session in week 4, as well as immediately (T(5)) and 12 (T(6)) and 24 hours (T(7)) after the last training session in week 8, respectively. In the E group, 8 weeks of intensive cycling training significantly increased seminal interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (P < .008) and significantly decreased the levels of seminal superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (P < .008). Significantly less elevation in seminal IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, ROS, and MDA levels (P < .008) and significant increases in seminal SOD, catalase, and TAC concentrations were observed after the honey supplementation in the E + S group (P < .008). It may be possible that honey supplementation following long-term intensive cycling training would be effective in attenuating the probable aggravating effects of intensive cycling training on spermatogenesis and fertility capacity in road cyclists. PMID:21636735

Tartibian, Bakhtyar; Maleki, Behzad Hajizadeh



Effect of vitamins, probiotics and protein level on semen traits and seminal plasma biochemical parameters of post-moult male broiler breeders.  


1. A study was designed to investigate the comparative effect of supplementary vitamin E, vitamin C, probiotics and dietary crude protein concentration on semen traits and seminal plasma biochemical parameters in male broiler breeders after Zn-induced moulting. 2. A total of 180 male broiler breeders were induced to moult at 65 weeks of age by mixing ZnO in diet at the rate 3000?mg/kg of feed. After moulting, the males were divided into six groups that were given feed supplemented with: vitamin C (500?IU/kg), vitamin E (100?IU/kg), protein (140?g CP/kg), probiotics (50?mg/kg) and the combination of these components, while one group was kept as a control. Semen samples were collected weekly and semen volume, spermatozoa concentration, motility and dead spermatozoa percentage were determined. Seminal plasma was separated to determine the concentration of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), homocysteine, paraoxonase (PON1), arylesterase, ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. 3. Semen volume was significantly higher in the vitamin E and C groups compared to the control. Spermatozoa motility was higher in the vitamin E group and dead spermatozoa percentage was significantly lower in the vitamin C group compared with the control group. 4. Seminal plasma TAC was higher in the vitamin E group, homocysteine was lower in the vitamin C and E groups. PON1 was higher in the combination group. Arylesterase increased significantly in the vitamin C and combination groups over time. Seminal plasma AST was significantly lower in the vitamin C and E supplemented groups whereas ALT decreased significantly only in the vitamin E group compared with the control. Higher concentrations of ceruloplasmin were observed in the combination group compared with the other treatments. 5. It was concluded that additional vitamin E and C or their combination was the most potent nutrient treatment for improving the semen traits and seminal plasma biochemical characteristics in male broiler breeders after Zn-induced moulting. PMID:23444861

Khan, R U; Rahman, Z U; Javed, I; Muhammad, F



Normal modes of a resistive nonuniform plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The propagation and dissipation properties of magnetohydrodynamic waves in a nonuniform, highlyconducting plasma, is investigated with a normal mode approach. The interaction between the perturbation and the non-uniform supporting medium is analyzed as the main mechanism able to produce the small scale spatial structure necessary to dissipate efficiently the wave energy. Two fundamental classes of modes are found, characterized by their resistive or ideal asymptotic behavior; the damping rates are shown to be orders of magnitude larger than those obtained when the plasma is perfectly homogeneous, and an application to the problem of solar coronal heating is discussed.

Chiuderi, C.; Califano, F.



Seminal plasma did not influence the presence of transforming growth factor-?1, interleukine-10 and interleukin-6 in porcine follicles shortly after insemination  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of seminal plasma on the presence of the cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-6 in ovarian follicles and follicular fluid were studied shortly after insemination in gilts. Ovaries from gilts were sampled 5–6 h after insemination with either seminal plasma (SP), fresh semen in extender (Beltsville thawing solution, BTS), spermatozoa in extender (Spz), or only BTS (control). Results Immunohistochemical (IHC) labeling of TGF-?1, IL-10 and IL-6 was evident in the ovarian oocytes and granulosa cells independent of stage of follicular development (antral follicles). Theca interna cells were labeled to a high degree in mature follicles. No consistent differences between treatment groups could be observed for any of the cytokines. In follicular fluid, high concentrations of TGF-?1 were found while the levels of IL-10 and IL-6 were low. There were no differences between treatment groups. Conclusions Our results show a presence of the cytokines TGF-?1, IL-6 and IL-10 in oocytes, granulosa and theca cells, as well as in the fluid of mature follicles suggesting a role of these cytokines in intra-ovarian cell communication. However, treatment (SP, fresh semen in BTS, spermatozoa in BTS or BTS) did not influence the IHC-labeling pattern or the levels of these cytokines in follicular fluid shortly after insemination.



Effect of glycerolization procedure and removal of seminal plasma on post-thaw survival and got-release from Boer goat spermatozoa.  


Forty ejaculates (20 for each of 2 experiments) were collected from 4 Boer goat bucks at weekly intervals to study the effect of glycerolization procedure and removal of seminal plasma on progressive motility, percent live spermatozoa and release of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) before and after the freezing of semen. Stepwise glycerolization at 37 degrees C gave higher progressive motility and percentage of live spermatozoa both before freezing and after thawing than one-step glycerolization at 37 degrees C or stepwise extension with glycerol being added after cooling to 5 degrees C. The GOT-release was reduced before freezing and after thawing of semen with stepwise glycerolization (P<0.05). Progressive motility and the percentage of live spermatozoa were higher (P<0.05) after the freezing of whole semen than in washed spermatozoa. The concentration of GOT in the extra-cellular fluid was lower in washed spermatozoa prior to freezing (P<0,05); but after thawing, the washed spermatozoa released more GOT than spermatozoa in whole semen. Removal of seminal plasma prior to freezing spermatozoa in an extender containing egg yolk had an unfavorable effect on their post-thaw motility and integrity. PMID:16727561

Tuli, R K; Holtz, W



Maternal tract factors contribute to paternal seminal fluid impact on metabolic phenotype in offspring.  


Paternal characteristics and exposures influence physiology and disease risks in progeny, but the mechanisms are mostly unknown. Seminal fluid, which affects female reproductive tract gene expression as well as sperm survival and integrity, provides one potential pathway. We evaluated in mice the consequences for offspring of ablating the plasma fraction of seminal fluid by surgical excision of the seminal vesicle gland. Conception was substantially impaired and, when pregnancy did occur, placental hypertrophy was evident in late gestation. After birth, the growth trajectory and metabolic parameters of progeny were altered, most profoundly in males, which exhibited obesity, distorted metabolic hormones, reduced glucose tolerance, and hypertension. Altered offspring phenotype was partly attributable to sperm damage and partly to an effect of seminal fluid deficiency on the female tract, because increased adiposity was also evident in adult male progeny when normal two-cell embryos were transferred to females mated with seminal vesicle-excised males. Moreover, embryos developed in female tracts not exposed to seminal plasma were abnormal from the early cleavage stages, but culture in vitro partly alleviated this. Absence of seminal plasma was accompanied by down-regulation of the embryotrophic factors Lif, Csf2, Il6, and Egf and up-regulation of the apoptosis-inducing factor Trail in the oviduct. These findings show that paternal seminal fluid composition affects the growth and health of male offspring, and reveal that its impact on the periconception environment involves not only sperm protection but also indirect effects on preimplantation embryos via oviduct expression of embryotrophic cytokines. PMID:24469827

Bromfield, John J; Schjenken, John E; Chin, Peck Y; Care, Alison S; Jasper, Melinda J; Robertson, Sarah A



Effect of seminal oxidative stress on fertility after vasectomy reversal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate seminal oxidative stress in men after vasectomy reversal and to determine whether seminal oxidative stress could predict fertility after vasectomy reversal.Design: Measurement of seminal reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in normal donors, men who were fertile after vasectomy reversal, and men who were infertile after vasectomy reversal.Setting: A male infertility clinic of a

Peter N Kolettis; Rakesh K Sharma; Fabio F Pasqualotto; David Nelson; Anthony J Thomas Jr; Ashok Agarwal




PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Pregnancy is associated with major changes in calcium metabolism because the neonatal skeleton contains approximately 30 grams of calcium, which are largely deposited in the third trimester. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) acts as a decoy receptor for the “Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-? B Ligand” (RANKL), which is an essential factor for bone remodeling. This study was conducted to determine whether there were changes in maternal plasma OPG concentration during normal pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN A cross-sectional study was performed in 433 patients of reproductive age (40 non-pregnant and 393 pregnant). Pregnant patients were classified into 4 groups according to gestational age: group 1: 11–14 weeks (n=100); group 2: 15–18 weeks (n=99); group 3: 27–30 weeks (n=100); and group 4: 37–42 weeks (n=94). Plasma OPG concentrations were measured using a sensitive and specific immunoassay. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. RESULTS OPG was detected in the plasma of all women tested. The median OPG concentration was significantly higher in term patients than in those in early pregnancy [median: 6.63 pmol/L (range: 1.57–25.57) vs. median: 3.98 pmol/L (range: 0.41–13.71), p<0.001)]. There was no significant difference in plasma OPG concentrations between non-pregnant women and those in groups 1 or 2 [non-pregnant women median: 3.86 pmol/L (range: 1.64–15.29) vs. group 1 median: 3.98 pmol/L (range: 0.41–13.71) vs. group 2 median: 3.87 pmol/L (range: 1.14–69.83), p=0.75]. CONCLUSION The median maternal plasma OPG concentration is higher in the third trimester than in the first trimester of pregnancy. OPG may be involved in the regulation of bone turnover during pregnancy.




Seasonal changes in semen characteristics, composition of seminal plasma and frequency of acrosome reaction induced by calcium and calcium ionophore A23187 in Large White boars.  


This study attempted to explain the mechanisms regulating boar fertility by examining seasonal changes in semen characteristics, the composition of seminal plasma and responsiveness of sperm acrosomes to Ca(2+) and the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 (Ca(2+)/A23187). Sperm-rich and sperm-poor fractions were separately collected from 3 mature fertile Large White boars once a month over a one-year period. During the period of study, ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded for within the stall in which the boars were kept and the semen characteristics, composition of the seminal plasma of sperm-rich fractions, and occurrence of the acrosome reaction in response to Ca(2+) (3 mM)/A23187 (0.3 microM) were examined. The highest mean maximum and minimum ambient temperatures were recorded in August-September, whereas the lowest mean maximum and minimum ambient temperatures were recorded in December and January, respectively. There was a moderate peak in relative humidity from July to October. The lowest percentages of motile spermatozoa and of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes and highest percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology and strongest agglutination were seen in August-September. The total protein and albumin concentrations were lowest in August-September. Testosterone levels increased gradually as day length decreased after the summer solstice (June) and peaked in October-November. The percentage of acrosome reactions in response to Ca(2+)/A23187 was highest with the quickest response in August-September, as shown by the shortest time required for 50% of relative acrosome reactions. The farrowing rates were lowest in these same 2 months. These results suggest that seasonal infertility in Large White boars may be due, at least in part, to a combination of low motility, abnormal morphology including acrosomal abnormality, and early occurrence of the acrosome reaction in response to stimulus, possibly resulting from a decrease in acrosomal stabilizing proteins in the seminal plasma during summer. These changes may be modulated by heat/humidity stress and/or photoperiod-regulated testosterone. PMID:17519520

Murase, Tetsuma; Imaeda, Noriaki; Yamada, Hiroto; Miyazawa, Kiyoshi



Quick recovery and characterization of cell-free DNA in seminal plasma of normozoospermia and azoospermia: implications for non-invasive genetic utilities  

PubMed Central

We established a quick and reliable method for recovering cell-free seminal DNA (cfsDNA), by using the binding-washing-elution procedure on the DNA purification column. Low variations (below 15%) among the triplicate values of cfsDNA quantity verified the reproducibility of our cfsDNA recovery method. Similar cfsDNA yield and size distribution between seminal plasma acquired by filtration and centrifugation confirmed the presence of cfsDNA. To investigate the general characterization of cfsDNA, the quantitation and size distribution of cfsDNA from normozoospermic and azoospermic semen were analyzed by real-time PCR and electrophoresis, respectively. CfsDNA concentration in semen with normozoospermia (n = 11) was 1.34 ± 0.65 ?g mL?1, whereas a higher cfsDNA concentration was observed in azoospermia (2.56 ± 1.43 ?g mL?1, n = 9). The continuous distribution of DNA fragments ranging from ?1 kb to 15 kb and a spectrum of multiples of 180-bp fragments were observed in each normozoospermic and azoospermic sample. Distinct characteristic DNA ladder fragmentations in some azoospermic samples implicated that cfsDNA originate partly from apoptotic cells. CfsDNAs of 36 selected azoospermic patients with known information of Y chromosome microdeletion were subjected to the same microdeletion analysis by multiplex PCR and PCR amplification of sY114 (1 450 bp). All multiplex PCR reactions with cfsDNA amplified successfully and provided the same result as leukocyte DNA. PCR amplification of sY114 gave a 1 450-bp amplicon as expected. Our data suggested the potential use of cfsDNA in search of biomarker or diagnostic procedures.

Li, Hong-Gang; Huang, Shi-Yun; Zhou, Hui; Liao, Ai-Hua; Xiong, Cheng-Liang



Seminal plasma induces prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS) 2 expression in immortalized human vaginal cells: involvement of semen prostaglandin E2 in PTGS2 upregulation.  


Inflammation of the cervicovaginal mucosa is considered a risk factor for HIV infection in heterosexual transmission. In this context, seminal plasma (SP) may play an important role that is not limited to being the main carrier for the virions. It is known that SP induces an inflammatory reaction in the cervix called postcoital leukocytic reaction, which has been associated with promotion of fertility. The mechanisms by which SP triggers this reaction, however, have not been clearly established. Previously we reported the expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), also known as cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), in human vaginal cells in response to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and other proinflammatory stimuli. In this study, we demonstrate that SP induces transcriptional and translational increase of COX-2 expression in human vaginal cells and cervicovaginal tissue explants. Furthermore, SP potentiates vaginal PTGS2 expression induced by other proinflammatory stimulants, such as TLR ligands and a vaginal mucosal irritant (nonoxynol-9) in a synergistic manner. SP-induced PTGS2 expression is mediated by intracellular signaling pathways involving MAPKs and NF-?B. Using fractionation and functional analysis, seminal prostaglandin (PG)-E(2) was identified as a one of the major factors in PTGS2 induction. Given the critical role of this PG-producing enzyme in mucosal inflammatory processes, the finding that SP induces and potentiates the expression of PTGS2 in cervicovaginal cells and tissues has mechanistic implications for the role of SP in fertility-associated mucosal leukocytic reaction and its potential HIV infection-enhancing effect. PMID:23153564

Joseph, Theresa; Zalenskaya, Irina A; Sawyer, Lyn C; Chandra, Neelima; Doncel, Gustavo F



Plasma Fibrinogen Levels in Normal and Sick Cows  

PubMed Central

Mean plasma fibrinogen levels were determined in 133 normal calves, bulls, non-pregnant and pregnant cows. These were 508, 505, 660, and 581 mg per 100 ml of plasma respectively. The levels in 233 sick cows were often greatly increased. This appeared to be related to inflammation and tissue destruction. Lower than normal levels were sometimes seen in liver disease and terminal states.

McSherry, B. J.; Horney, F. D.; deGroot, J. J.



Characterization of the proteinase inhibitor IIA from bull seminal plasma by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. Stability, amide proton exchange and mobility of aromatic residues.  


The isoinhibitor IIA from bull seminal plasma was investigated in aqueous solution by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (n.m.r.). The analysis of the 1H n.m.r. data was based on individual resonance assignments, which are described in the following paper. Large conformation-dependent chemical shifts for aliphatic amino acid side-chains, numerous slowly exchanging amide protons and unusual pH titrations of two aromatic residues show that this protein forms a compact, globular conformation. This form of the protein is stable between pH 4 and 12 at 25 degrees C, and between 5 and 50 degrees C at pH 4.9. At temperatures above 50 degrees C there is evidence for an equilibrium between several different conformations, with the rate of exchange between the different species being in the intermediate range on the n.m.r. time-scale. Preliminary data are presented for the individual exchange rates of 18 backbone amide protons. Among the four aromatic rings, Phe10, Phe38 and Tyr16 undergo rapid 180 flips over the entire temperature range, whereas for Tyr32 a temperature-dependent transition from low-frequency to high-frequency flipping motions was observed. PMID:6306249

Strop, P; Wüthrich, K



Penetration of ofloxacin into prostatic fluid, ejaculate and seminal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The penetration of ofloxacin into prostatic fluid, ejaculate and seminal fluid was measured by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method after intravenous infusion (60 min) of 400 mg in six healthy male volunteers. The median concentration of ofloxacin in prostatic fluid was about one-third and that in ejaculate and seminal fluid about twice that in corresponding plasma. The results

K. G. Naber; D. Weigel; M. Kinzig; F. Sörgel



The "normal" factor VIII concentration in plasma  

PubMed Central

Introduction The quantitation of factor (F)VIII by activity-based assays is influenced by the method, procedure, the quality and properties of reagents used and concentrations of other plasma proteins, including von Willebrand factor (VWF). Objective To compare FVIII concentrations measured by activity-based assays with those obtained by an immunoassay and to establish the influence of plasma dilution on the FVIII clotting activity (FVIIIc). Methods The APTT, a chromogenic assay (Coatest) and two in-house immunoassays were used. Albumin-free recombinant FVIII was used as the calibrator in all assays. Results For a group of 44 healthy individuals (HI), the mean value observed for FVIII antigen (FVIIIag; 1.22±0.56 nM; S.D.) is substantially higher than that for FVIIIc (0.65±0.29 nM) and the chromogenic assay (FVIIIch; 0.50±0.23 nM). A positive correlation between FVIIIag and VWFag with R2=0.20 was observed. Since plasma VWF has an inhibitory effect on FVIIIc, we evaluated the influence of plasma dilutions on FVIIIc in HI (n=105). At a 4-fold dilution, estimates of FVIIIc by clotting assay were much lower than FVIIIag (0.77±0.31 vs. 1.14±0.48 nM). At 10- and 25-fold dilutions, the estimated FVIIIc increased to 0.87±0.36 and 0.94±0.44 nM, respectively. Conclusions 1) In plasma, FVIIIag is higher than FVIIIc and FVIIIch; and 2) Real FVIII concentrations in plasma can be estimated by measuring FVIIIag.

Butenas, Saulius; Parhami-Seren, Behnaz; Undas, Anetta; Fass, David N.; Mann, Kenneth G.



Relationship between semen quality and seminal plasma components: alpha-glucosidase, fructose and citrate in infertile men compared with a normospermic population of Tunisian men.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the secretory function of the male accessory glands and sperm parameters in normospermic controls and infertile patients. One hundred and fifty-nine men were investigated: they were composed of two groups: normospermic (n = 37) and infertile (n = 122) men with altered sperm characteristics. These infertile men were divided into the following groups: asthenozoospermia (n = 38), teratozoospermia (n = 40) and asthenoteratozoospermia (n = 44). The patients underwent semen analysis and measurements of fructose, neutral alpha-glucosidase and citric acid. The level of fructose was significantly decreased in asthenozoospermic and increased in asthenoteratozoospermic men. It was significantly correlated with semen volume, sperm count, motility and morphology. The seminal alpha-glucosidase levels were significantly correlated with semen volume and pH and citric acid was significantly correlated with pH. Thus, alpha-glucosidase and citric acid levels were associated with semen pH. The significant correlation between semen parameters, accessory glands and epididymal functions highlights the relationship between semen and normal genital tract function. PMID:19400848

Said, L; Galeraud-Denis, I; Carreau, S; Saâd, A



LASER PLASMA: Interaction of laser plasmas upon optical breakdown in the normal atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma front propagation regimes and the spectral characteristics of plasma emission upon laser breakdown in the normal atmosphere are experimentally investigated. The molecular emission of atmospheric gases is recorded at the initial instants of the development of the laser plasma. The behaviour of the intensities of continuous and line emission spectra is investigated upon interaction of counterpropagating plasma fronts;

O. A. Bukin; Aleksei A. Il'in; Yurii N. Kulchin; I. G. Nagornyi; A. N. Pavlov; A. V. Bulanov



Cholesterol-to-phospholipid ratio in whole sperm and seminal plasma from fertile stallions and stallions with unexplained subfertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semen samples were collected from six fertile stallions and seven stallions with unexplained infertility. Percentages of motile sperm (77.5±11.3 versus 67.5±12.2, P=0.2), and progressively motile sperm (70.8±13.6 versus 60.7±14.0, P=0.2) were similar between fertile and subfertile stallions, respectively. Morphologic characteristics in ejaculates of control and affected stallions (% normal: 60.2±18.2 versus 52.9±11.3, P=0.4; % abnormal heads 7.3±4.8 versus 12.1±5.0, P=0.11;

S. P. Brinsko; C. C. Love; J. E. Bauer; M. L. Macpherson; D. D. Varner



Seminal nanotechnology literature: a review.  


This paper uses complementary text mining techniques to identify and retrieve the high impact (seminal) nanotechnology literature over a span of time. Following a brief scientometric analysis of the seminal articles retrieved, these seminal articles are then used as a basis for a comprehensive literature survey of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The paper ends with a global analysis of the relation of seminal nanotechnology document production to total nanotechnology document production. PMID:19908521

Kostoff, Ronald N; Koytcheff, Raymond G; Lau, Clifford G Y



Endoscopic seminal vesicle stone removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seminal vesicle stones are extremely rare, and few cases have been reported. Treatment requires removal of the stone, generally through an open vesiculectomy. A 31-year-old man presented with perineal pain, painful ejaculation, and infertility of several years’ duration. Multiple stones in the seminal vesicle duct system were diagnosed by radiologic examination. We treated the patient by seminal vesicle endoscopic stone

Ya?ar Özgök; Mete Kilciler; Emin Aydur; Mutlu Saglam; Hasan Cem Irk?lata; Dogan Erduran



Electromagnetic fluctuations and normal modes of a drifting relativistic plasma  

SciTech Connect

We present an exact calculation of the power spectrum of the electromagnetic fluctuations in a relativistic equilibrium plasma described by Maxwell-Jüttner distribution functions. We consider the cases of wave vectors parallel or normal to the plasma mean velocity. The relative contributions of the subluminal and supraluminal fluctuations are evaluated. Analytical expressions of the spatial fluctuation spectra are derived in each case. These theoretical results are compared to particle-in-cell simulations, showing a good reproduction of the subluminal fluctuation spectra.

Ruyer, C.; Gremillet, L.; Bénisti, D. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)] [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Bonnaud, G. [CEA, Saclay, INSTN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [CEA, Saclay, INSTN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)



Electromagnetic fluctuations and normal modes of a drifting relativistic plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an exact calculation of the power spectrum of the electromagnetic fluctuations in a relativistic equilibrium plasma described by Maxwell-Jüttner distribution functions. We consider the cases of wave vectors parallel or normal to the plasma mean velocity. The relative contributions of the subluminal and supraluminal fluctuations are evaluated. Analytical expressions of the spatial fluctuation spectra are derived in each case. These theoretical results are compared to particle-in-cell simulations, showing a good reproduction of the subluminal fluctuation spectra.

Ruyer, C.; Gremillet, L.; Bénisti, D.; Bonnaud, G.



Plasma progestagen concentrations in the normal and dysmature newborn foal.  


Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to determine plasma progestagen concentrations in the normal and premature foal. Radioimmunoassay provides a profile of plasma progestagens with respect to time but, due to the non-specific nature of the technique and without prior chromatographic purification, quantitative data based on RIA analysis must be interpreted with caution. In contrast, the greater specificity of GC-MS allows identification of specific plasma progestagens and measuring of multiple analytes in a single analysis. Both techniques demonstrated a marked difference in plasma progestagen concentrations between the normal and abnormal foal. GC-MS studies demonstrated that the plasma steroid profile was dominated by pregnenolone and 5-pregnene-3 beta, 20 beta-diol. Measuring the amounts of these 2 steroids in a single analysis demonstrated persistent high concentrations in premature foals, whereas concentrations decreased rapidly in the first few hours following birth in the normal foal. Preliminary analyses of urinary concentrations in the 2 steroids demonstrated again differences between normal and abnormal foals. PMID:1795303

Houghton, E; Holtan, D; Grainger, L; Voller, B E; Rossdale, P D; Ousey, J C



Elevated plasma level of lipotropin revealing an occult carcinoid tumor with normal plasma adrenocorticotropin.  


The increases in the level of plasma lipotropin (LPH) and in the LPH/ACTH ratio are considered diagnostic tools in ectopic ACTH syndrome. However, plasma ACTH is also elevated in this syndrome. We report a case of a small carcinoid tumor with an increase in both ACTH and LPH in plasma before surgery. Eight months after the tumoral resection, plasma LPH alone was increased again, whereas plasma ACTH and plasma and urinary cortisol remained normal in this apparently cured patient. This repeated abnormality was the only available feature that allowed successful removal of the occult tumoral residue. PMID:11443158

Coffin, C; Lireux, B; Le Rochais, J P; Raux-Demay, M C; Girard, F; Galateau, F; Reznik, Y; Mahoudeau, J



Inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation by normal plasma  

PubMed Central

Normal plasma has been found to inhibit the platelet aggregation-inducing effect of collagen in a time consuming reaction independent of temperature. Collagen treated with serum and washed has reduced reactivity which can be restored to normal by treatment with 1.5 M sodium chloride. On the basis of this result, it is suggested that inhibition results from adsorption to collagen of a plasma component. The inhibitory plasma component is destroyed at 56°C, is unstable below pH 7, and migrates with the alpha globulins on starch block electrophoresis at pH 8.6. On the basis of ultrafiltration and sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation studies, a molecular weight in the range of 330,000 is suggested and there may be an additional component of considerably greater size. Partial purification can be achieved by ion exchange chromatography. The purified fraction was completely inactivated by incubation with trypsin. Partially purified fractions inhibit cationic platelet aggregators such as collagen, polylysine, and hexadimethrine but do not affect anionic aggregators such as succinylated collagen and sodium stearate. Normal plasma and serum inhibit succinylated collagen and stearate. Stearate is inhibited by crystalline albumin and Cohn fraction IV-4. It is suggested that plasma proteins may regulate platelet adhesion to collagen and other vessel wall materials. Images

Nossel, H. L.; Wilner, G. D.; Drillings, M.



Cryogenic changes in seminal protein of cattle and buffalo.  


The effect of subzero temperatures on the electrophoretic pattern of seminal plasma protein of cattle and buffalo was studied. The profiles of the seminal proteins of these two closely related species differed considerably. Cattle had 11 proteins in the anodic system (pH 8.6) and none in the cathodic system (pH 4.3), while buffalo have 19 in the anodic system (pH 8.6) and 2 proteins in the cathodic system (pH 4.3). Freezing of semen at -5 degrees C for 24 h caused aggregation of seminal proteins in both species. A higher aggregation and loss of proteins were observed when freezing was done in liquid nitrogen at -196 degrees C. The effect was more pronounced in buffalo than in cattle. Loss of more seminal plasma proteins due to cryoinjury in buffalo semen may account for its poorer freezability than that of cattle semen. PMID:16726543

Muer, S K; Roy, S B; Mohan, G; Dhoble, R L



Recombinant human LCAT normalizes plasma lipoprotein profile in LCAT deficiency.  


Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is the enzyme responsible for cholesterol esterification in plasma. Mutations in the LCAT gene leads to two rare disorders, familial LCAT deficiency and fish-eye disease, both characterized by severe hypoalphalipoproteinemia associated with several lipoprotein abnormalities. No specific treatment is presently available for genetic LCAT deficiency. In the present study, recombinant human LCAT was expressed and tested for its ability to correct the lipoprotein profile in LCAT deficient plasma. The results show that rhLCAT efficiently reduces the amount of unesterified cholesterol (-30%) and promotes the production of plasma cholesteryl esters (+210%) in LCAT deficient plasma. rhLCAT induces a marked increase in HDL-C levels (+89%) and induces the maturation of small pre?-HDL into alpha-migrating particles. Moreover, the abnormal phospholipid-rich particles migrating in the LDL region were converted in normally sized LDL. PMID:24140107

Simonelli, Sara; Tinti, Cristina; Salvini, Laura; Tinti, Laura; Ossoli, Alice; Vitali, Cecilia; Sousa, Vitor; Orsini, Gaetano; Nolli, Maria Luisa; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura



Semenogelin I: a coagulum forming, multifunctional seminal vesicle protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Human seminal plasma spontaneously coagulates after ejaculation. The major component of this coagulum is semenogelin I, a\\u000a 52-kDa protein expressed exclusively in the seminal vesicles. Recently, a sperm motility inhibitor has been found to be identical\\u000a to semenogelin I, suggesting that it may also be a physiological sperm motility inhibitor. The protein is rapidly cleaved\\u000a after ejaculation by the

M. Robert; C. Gagnon



The Presence of Normal Modes Above a Capacitive Plasma Applicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Normal modes of standing waves in the plasma potential have been observed over the entire surface of a dual-frequency capacitive applicator immersed in an inductively-generated rf glow discharge. An emissive probe used to measure the plasma potential is located 0.95 cm above the applicator and moved by a two-dimensional drive system. The heater current to the probe is switched off during the 100 ?s measurement to eliminate uncertainties due to the heater voltage. Vp is mapped at 208 spatial locations and digitized at 1 GHz. An electrically floating probe is located 1.84 cm above the center of applicator to afford a means to generate correlation functions for the detection of waves in the low temperature plasma. The observed normal modes in potential can be expressed as summations of Bessel functions much as the vibrational modes in circular membranes and plates. The modes are most likely excited by the oscillations of the plasma-sheath interface including harmonic oscillations arising from the nonlinear mechanisms governing the sheath dynamics. As the frequency is increased, the order of the normal modes is postulated to increase as these modes are likely determined by the impedance terminating conditions on the chamber surfaces.

Gekelman, Walter; Barnes, Michael; Vincena, Steven; Pribyl, Patrick



Free DNA in serum and plasma from normal adults.  

PubMed Central

Circulating DNA has been associated with several human disorders, including the nephritis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), in which it is thought to play an etiological role. However, it remains unclear whether its appearance in the circulation is truly pathological. Several reports, each generally based on a single assay method, have disagreed as to whether DNA may circulate in normals. Some, but not all, of this disagreement may be explained by the recently described appearance of DNA in serum, but not plasma, apparently as the result of release from leukocytes in vitro. In the present report an attempt is made to clarify this problem. Normal plasma and serum samples were examined by four assays for DNA that were newly modified to enhance their specificity and/or sensitivity. Plasma DNA was undetectable by all four methods, the most sensitive of which could detect 0.05 mug/ml of native DNA (nDNA) or 0.1 mug/ml of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Serum DNA was present in 14 of 16 samples tested in variable concentrations with an estimated mean of 1.9 mug/ml. It is concluded that the appearance of DNA in adult human plasma is a pathological event. Presumably, previous reports describing detection of DNA in normal plasma were based on the measurement of non-DNAase-sensitive interfering substance. Furthermore, it is emphasized that the use of serum in studies dependent on sensitive assays for DNA (or anti-DNA antibody) introduces an ambiguity that may be avoided by substitution of carefully collected plasma for serum.

Steinman, C R



Endoscopic seminal vesicle stone removal.  


Seminal vesicle stones are extremely rare, and few cases have been reported. Treatment requires removal of the stone, generally through an open vesiculectomy. A 31-year-old man presented with perineal pain, painful ejaculation, and infertility of several years' duration. Multiple stones in the seminal vesicle duct system were diagnosed by radiologic examination. We treated the patient by seminal vesicle endoscopic stone removal, thereby obviating organ loss. The composition of the stones was whewellite. To our knowledge, this approach has not been previously reported, and our result may be encouraging for treatment of such pathologic conditions of the seminal vesicles. PMID:15780386

Ozgök, Ya?ar; Kilciler, Mete; Aydur, Emin; Saglam, Mutlu; Irkilata, Hasan Cem; Erduran, Dogan



Effects of water immersion on plasma catecholamines in normal humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in order to determine whether water immersion to the neck (NI) alters plasma catecholamines in normal humans. Eight normal subjects were studied during a seated control study (C) and during 4 hr of NI, and the levels of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) as determined by radioenzymatic assay were measured hourly. Results show that despite the induction of a marked natriuresis and diuresis indicating significant central hypervolemia, NI failed to alter plasma NE or E levels compared with those of either C or the corresponding prestudy 1.5 hr. In addition, the diuresis and natriuresis was found to vary independently of NE. These results indicate that the response of the sympathetic nervous system to acute volume alteration may differ from the reported response to chronic volume expansion.

Epstein, M.; Johnson, G.; Denunzio, A. G.



The Glycome of Normal and Malignant Plasma Cells  

PubMed Central

The glycome, i.e. the cellular repertoire of glycan structures, contributes to important functions such as adhesion and intercellular communication. Enzymes regulating cellular glycosylation processes are related to the pathogenesis of cancer including multiple myeloma. Here we analyze the transcriptional differences in the glycome of normal (n?=?10) and two cohorts of 332 and 345 malignant plasma-cell samples, association with known multiple myeloma subentities as defined by presence of chromosomal aberrations, potential therapeutic targets, and its prognostic impact. We found i) malignant vs. normal plasma cells to show a characteristic glycome-signature. They can ii) be delineated by a lasso-based predictor from normal plasma cells based on this signature. iii) Cytogenetic aberrations lead to distinct glycan-gene expression patterns for t(11;14), t(4;14), hyperdiploidy, 1q21-gain and deletion of 13q14. iv) A 38-gene glycome-signature significantly delineates patients with adverse survival in two independent cohorts of 545 patients treated with high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation. v) As single gene, expression of the phosphatidyl-inositol-glycan protein M as part of the targetable glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchor-biosynthesis pathway is associated with adverse survival. The prognostically relevant glycome deviation in malignant cells invites novel strategies of therapy for multiple myeloma.

Hose, Dirk; Andrulis, Mindaugas; Moreaux, Jerome; Hielscher, Thomas; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Merling, Anette; Bertsch, Uta; Jauch, Anna; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Klein, Bernard; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard



Proteomic analysis of seminal fluid from men exhibiting oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

Background Seminal plasma serves as a natural reservoir of antioxidants. It helps to remove excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and consequently, reduce oxidative stress. Proteomic profiling of seminal plasma proteins is important to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress and sperm dysfunction in infertile men. Methods This prospective study consisted of 52 subjects: 32 infertile men and 20 healthy donors. Once semen and oxidative stress parameters were assessed (ROS, antioxidant concentration and DNA damage), the subjects were categorized into ROS positive (ROS+) or ROS negative (ROS-). Seminal plasma from each group was pooled and subjected to proteomics analysis. In-solution digestion and protein identification with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), followed by bioinformatics analyses was used to identify and characterize potential biomarker proteins. Results A total of 14 proteins were identified in this analysis with 7 of these common and unique proteins were identified in both the ROS+ and ROS- groups through MASCOT and SEQUEST analyses, respectively. Prolactin-induced protein was found to be more abundantly present in men with increased levels of ROS. Gene ontology annotations showed extracellular distribution of proteins with a major role in antioxidative activity and regulatory processes. Conclusions We have identified proteins that help protect against oxidative stress and are uniquely present in the seminal plasma of the ROS- men. Men exhibiting high levels of ROS in their seminal ejaculate are likely to exhibit proteins that are either downregulated or oxidatively modified, and these could potentially contribute to male infertility.



Seminal collection, seminal characteristics and pattern of ejaculation in llamas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semen was collected from 1010 llamas during 2630 (87%) collection attempts using an artificial vagina mounted inside a surrogate female. For the 26 semen collections, the duration of copulation (mount to dismount) with the artificial vagina was 31.7 ± 12.0 min (mean ± SD). Seminal pH was 8.1 ± 1.1, and seminal volume per collection was 3.0 ± 1.9 ml.

A. B. Lichtenwalner; G. L. Woods; J. A. Weber



On Constructing Seminal Paper Genealogy.  


Let us consider that someone is starting a research on a topic that is unfamiliar to them. Which seminal papers have influenced the topic the most? What is the genealogy of the seminal papers in this topic? These are the questions that they can raise, which we try to answer in this paper. First, we propose an algorithm that finds a set of seminal papers on a given topic. We also address the performance and scalability issues of this sophisticated algorithm. Next, we discuss the measures to decide how much a paper is influenced by another paper. Then, we propose an algorithm that constructs a genealogy of the seminal papers by using the influence measure and citation information. Finally, through extensive experiments with a large volume of a real-world academic literature data, we show the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach. PMID:23757533

Bae, Duck-Ho; Hwang, Se-Mi; Kim, Sang-Wook; Faloutsos, Christos



Absorption of plasma proteins from peritoneal cavity of normal rats  

SciTech Connect

The present study was undertaken to examine whether the uptake of plasma proteins from the peritoneal cavity is quantitative so that tracers could be introduced that way for measuring their turnover. To this end, the metabolic behavior of seven homologous plasma proteins, labeled with 125I, was compared in rats after intravenous or intraperitoneal administration. The animals were maintained under physiological conditions. Total body radiation measurements showed that the degradation rates of albumin, immunoglobulins A and G, alpha 1-macroglobulin, and transferrin were the same regardless of the route of injection. This implies that these proteins are quantitatively absorbed from the peritoneum without undergoing modifications. The half-life of intraperitoneally injected alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was consistently shorter by an average 9%, thus suggesting that this protein becomes slightly altered if introduced that way. Only one-half of intraperitoneally injected fibrinogen survived normally, whereas the other underwent rapid degradation. The surviving molecules had the same half-life as fibrinogen injected intravenously. The fraction of surviving fibrinogen could be augmented by mixing the dose with serum. Within a wide range of concentrations and quantities injected, the degradation rate of transferrin remained the same. Analysis by deconvolution of the plasma curves of albumin and alpha 1-macroglobulin absorbed from the peritoneum showed that the transport process was independent of protein size and, at least up to 35 mg, of the amount injected. According to the same technique, intraperitoneally administered diferric transferrin retained its iron during passage into the circulation.

Regoeczi, E.; Zaimi, O.; Chindemi, P.A.; Charlwood, P.A.



Perioperative haemostatic management of haemophilic mice using normal mouse plasma.  


Intense haemostatic interventions are required to avoid bleeding complications when surgical procedures are performed on haemophilia patients. The objective of this study was to establish an appropriate protocol for perioperative haemostatic management of haemophilic mice. We assessed the prophylactic haemostatic effects of normal mouse plasma (NMP) on haemophilia B (HB) mice for both a skin flap procedure and a laparotomy. When 500 ?L of NMP was administered to the mice, plasma factor IX (FIX:C) levels peaked at 15.1% immediately after intravenous (IV) administration, at 6.1% 2 h after intraperitoneal (IP) administration and at 2.7% 6 h after subcutaneous administration. Administering 500 ?L of NMP via IP or IV 30 min in advance enabled the skin flap procedure to be performed safely without any complications. After the laparotomy procedure, several mice in the IP administration group exhibited lethal bleeding, but all mice survived in the IV administration group. Anti-mouse FIX inhibitors did not develop, even after repetitive administrations of NMP. However, human FIX concentrates, especially plasma-derived concentrates, elicited the anti-human FIX inhibitors. The results show that administering 500 ?L of NMP via IV or IP 30 min in advance enables surgical procedures to be safely performed on HB mice, and that IV administration is more desirable than IP if the procedure requires opening of the abdominal wall. PMID:23855819

Tatsumi, K; Ohashi, K; Kanegae, K; Shim, I K; Okano, T



Immunophenotype of Normal and Myelomatous Plasma-Cell Subsets  

PubMed Central

Plasma cells (PCs) are essentially characterized by the co-expression of CD138 and CD38, which allows their identification in flow cytometry in bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood, or cell suspensions from tissues. These terminally differentiated B-cells may lose the expression of surface CD19 and that of CD20 while retaining CD27. When malignant, they can gain a number of other markers such as CD28, CD33, CD56, or CD117 and lose CD27. Moreover, since each PC is only able to produce a single type of immunoglobulins (Igs), they display isotypic restriction and clonal malignant PCs can be further characterized by their homogeneous expression of either kappa or lambda light chains. In multiple myeloma (MM), such PC clones produce the Ig identified in plasma as an abnormal peak. In the BM where they essentially accumulate, these PCs may however display various immunophenotypes. The latter were explored in a two-way approach. Firstly, the various subsets delineated by the selective or common expression of CD19 together with combined CD56/CD28 were explored in normal and MM BM. Then, other aberrant markers’ expression was investigated, i.e., CD20, CD27, CD33, CD56, CD117. These data were compared to literature information. They underline the vast heterogeneity of MM PCs possibly accounting for the various answers to therapy of MM patients.

Robillard, Nelly; Wuilleme, Soraya; Moreau, Philippe; Bene, Marie C.



Basic plasma physics, plasma theory and modeling (BP): Normal mode analysis of pair plasma with drifting species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pair-ion plasmas consisting of C60+ and C60- ions have been generated in laboratory using fullerene as an ion source1,2. In addition, electron-positron plasmas are believed to be abundant in many astrophysical environments from pulsars to quasars3,4. In laboratory also, electron-positron pair plasma has been generated with the help of ultraintense lasers5 and by trapping of positron in a magnetic mirror configuration by electron cyclotron resonance heating6. Since plasmas are nonlinear and dispersive media, it would be very much interesting to examine whether such pair-plasmas support the excitation of solitary waves and solitons. This has motivated us to do analytical calculations for studying the modes of solitary wave propagation. One-dimensional two-fluid plasma having streaming positrons and electrons is studied through normal mode analysis. We analyze how many types of modes propagate in these plasmas and also compare our results with previously explored models by other researchers. We obtained the dispersion relation and solved for the phase velocity of the acoustic modes. Although the dispersion relation predicts four types of the modes, only two types of the modes (namely fast and slow mode) are possible in the present plasma model. We find all the roots to be real. Therefore, it may be inferred that the instability may be possible in the present plasma model.

Pal Singh, Krishan; Singh, A. K.; Sharma, Ravish; Singh, Khushvant; Kumar, Vinod



Seminal fluid and reproduction: much more than previously thought.  


The influence of seminal plasma on the cytokine and immune uterine environment is well characterised in mice and humans, while the effects of disruption to uterine seminal plasma exposure on pregnancy and offspring health is becoming more clearly understood. The cellular and molecular environment of the uterus during the pre- and peri-implantation period of early pregnancy is critical for implantation success and optimal foetal and placental development. Perturbations to this environment not only have consequences for the success of pregnancy and neonatal health and viability, but can also drive adverse health outcomes in the offspring after birth, particularly the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity, hypertension and insulin resistance. It is now reported that an absence of seminal plasma at conception in mice promotes increased fat accumulation, altered metabolism and hypertension in offspring. The evidence reviewed here demonstrates that seminal plasma is not simply a transport medium for sperm, but acts also as a key regulator of the female tract environment providing optimal support for the developing embryo and benefiting future health of offspring. PMID:24830788

Bromfield, John J



Plasma On the Rocks: DC Atmospheric-Pressure Normal Glow Plasma Enhanced by Natural Basalt Microdischarges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DC normal glow discharges at atmospheric pressure in air and other gases are of interest in plasma processing, since they eliminate the need for low-pressure technology and vacuum-compatible materials. We have found that a DC normal glow discharge in air is stabilized and enlarged by passing it through a thickness of low-porosity rock such as basalt or granite. We observe a stable positive column in air up to 15 mm long with stable striations that depend on current. The airborne portion of the discharge shows characteristics of a normal glow discharge, including relatively constant voltage as current varies. A 13-kV, 5 mA discharge between a tungsten electrode 30 mm away from the surface of a basalt sample enlarges to over 15 mm diameter at the surface. We will present still and motion photography, spectra, and I-V measurements of this phenomenon, along with a simplified theory.

Stephan, Karl; Ghimire, Sagar



Proteins of human semen. I. Two-dimensional mapping of human seminal fluid  

SciTech Connect

The proteins in human seminal plasma were mapped by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (ISO-DALT and BASO-DALT systems). When analyzed under dissociating conditions, samples from normal fertile males revealed a pattern of over 200 proteins, ranging in mass from 10,000 to 100,000 daltons. Comparison of the mapped proteins from these males and those who had undergone vasectomy allowed us to identify one series of glycoproteins as missing from the semen from vasectomized individuals. Glycoproteins isolated by affinity chromatography with use of concanavalin A were also mapped. Some of the protein spots were identified either by coelectrophoresis with purified proteins or by the electrophoretic transfer of proteins to nitrocellulose sheets and subsequent detection by immunological procedures. The proteins identified include a number of serum proteins as well as prostatic acid phosphatase and creatine kinase. Proteolytic events shown to occur during the liquefaction of semen that occurs early after collection indicate the importance of carefully controlled collection and preparation methods for clinical evaluation of seminal plasma. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibit this proteolysis.

Edwards, J.J.; Tollaksen, S.L.; Anderson, N.G.



Terazosin-induced alterations in catalase expression and lipid peroxidation in the rat seminal vesicles.  


Previous studies have shown that alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonists may alter seminal vesicle contractility and impair fertility in male rats. This study was designed to investigate the effects of terazosin on the catalase expression in the seminal vesicles and the lipid peroxidation of the seminal fluid in normal adult rats. Wistar rats were treated with terazosin (1.2 mg kg(-1) body weight, given orally every second day) for 120 days. Catalase expression was assessed immunohistochemically in tissue sections of the seminal vesicles, and lipid peroxidation was estimated by measuring the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the seminal vesicles' fluid. The seminal vesicles in terazosin-treated rats were particularly distended in comparison with those of controls, and their secreting epithelium was suppressed. Cytoplasmic catalase expression in the secreting epithelial cells (% of cells) was increased in terazosin-treated specimens in comparison with controls (76.1 ± 17.1 versus 51.3 ± 25.1, P = 0.005). MDA levels (?m) were also higher in samples from treated subjects in comparison with controls (2.67 ± 1.19 versus 1.39 ± 0.19, P = 0.01). Although the direct effect of terazosin treatment on the seminal vesicles is that of impaired contractility, an indirect effect is that on fertility by increasing lipid peroxidation in the seminal fluid and/or through degrading of hydrogen peroxide that is essential for sperm capacitation. PMID:22731390

Mitropoulos, D; Patris, E; Deliconstantinos, G; Kyroudi-Voulgari, A; Anastasiou, I; Perea, D



Characterization of a new bioactive protein from bovine seminal fluid.  


A new acidic seminal fluid protein (aSFP) was purified from bovine seminal fluid, using anion exchange chromatography and FPLC on MonoQ. The purified aSFP displays a pI of 4.8 and an apparent molecular weight of 14 kDa. Homogeneity of aSFP was demonstrated by FPLC and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Monospecific anti-aSFP IgGs were employed to characterize aSFP in bovine seminal plasma and seminal vesicle secretion by immuno blot analysis. Proteinchemical characterization of aSFP included amino acid analysis as well as determination of 23 amino acid residues of the N-terminal sequence of aSFP. According to this sequence, aSFP appears to represent a hitherto unknown protein. aSFP stimulated cell division and progesterone secretion of bovine granulosa cells in vitro in a potent and dose dependent manner. aSFP appears to be a potent growth factor with effects on ovarian granulosa cells. PMID:1898381

Einspanier, R; Einspanier, A; Wempe, F; Scheit, K H



Proteolysis of Complement Factors iC3b and C5 by the Serine Protease Prostate-Specific Antigen in Prostatic Fluid and Seminal Plasma  

PubMed Central

Prostate-specific Ag (PSA) is a serine protease that is expressed exclusively by normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells. The continued high-level expression of PSA by the majority of men with both high- and low-grade prostate cancer throughout the course of disease progression, even in the androgen-ablated state, suggests that PSA has a role in the pathogenesis of disease. Current experimental and clinical evidence suggests that chronic inflammation, regardless of the cause, may predispose men to prostate cancer. The responsibility of the immune system in immune surveillance and eventually tumor progression is well appreciated but not completely understood. In this study, we used a mass spectrometry–based evaluation of prostatic fluid obtained from diseased prostates after removal by radical prostatectomy to identify potential immunoregulatory proteins. This analysis revealed the presence of Igs and the complement system proteins C3, factor B, and clusterin. Verification of these findings by Western blot confirmed the high-level expression of C3 in the prostatic fluid and the presence of a previously uncharacterized C-terminal C3 cleavage product. Biochemical analysis of this C3 cleavage fragment revealed a putative PSA cleavage site after tyrosine-1348. Purified PSA was able to cleave iC3b and the related complement protein C5. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized function of PSA as an immunoregulatory protease that could help to create an environment hospitable to malignancy through proteolysis of the complement system.

Manning, Michael L.; Williams, Simon A.; Jelinek, Christine A.; Kostova, Maya B.; Denmeade, Samuel R.



Microarray-based understanding of normal and malignant plasma cells  

PubMed Central

Plasma cells develop from B-lymphocytes following stimulation by antigen and express a genetic program aimed at the synthesis of immunoglobulins. This program includes the induction of genes coding for transcription factors such as PRDM1 and XBP1, cell-surface molecules such as CD138/syndecan-1 and for the unfolded protein response (UPR). We review how the microarray technology has recently contributed to the understanding of the biology of this rare but essential cell population and its transformation into pre-malignant and malignant plasma cells.

De Vos, John; Hose, Dirk; Reme, Thierry; Tarte, Karin; Moreaux, Jerome; Mahtouk, Karene; Jourdan, Michel; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Rossi, Jean-Francois; Cremer, Friedrich W.; Klein, Bernard



Orgasmic frequency and plasma testosterone levels in normal human males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty males participated in a 2-month study examining the relationship between 8 a.m. plasma testosterone levels and orgasmic frequency. Within subjects, higher levels of testosterone are associated with periods of sexual activity. Over subjects, however, the direction of the relationship is reversed. Mean testoster-one levels were higher for sexually less active individuals.

Helena C. Kraemer; Heather B. Becker; H. Keith H. Brodie; Charles H. Doering; Rudolf H. Moos; David A. Hamburg



The seminal literature of anthrax research.  


A chronically weak area in research papers, reports, and reviews is the complete identification of seminal background documents that formed the building blocks for these papers. A method for systematically determining these seminal references is presented. Citation-Assisted Background (CAB) is based on the assumption that seminal documents tend to be highly cited. Application of CAB to the field of Anthrax research is presented. While CAB is a highly systematic approach for identifying seminal references, it is not a substitute for the judgment of the researchers, and serves as a supplement. PMID:17653986

Kostoff, Ronald N; Morse, Stephen A; Oncu, Serkan



Failure of ellagic acid to affect platelet aggregation in normal and in factor XII deficient plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ellagic acid solutions, regardless of the concentration, failed to alter platelet aggregation induced by ADP, Adrenalin, Collagen, Thrombofax and Ristocetin in normal and in factor XII deficient plasma.

Antonio Girolami; Luigi Virgolini; Renata Peruffo; Luigino de Marco



Whole blood and plasma viscosity values in normal and ascitic broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Whole blood and plasma viscosity values in normal and ascitic broiler chickens were measured.2. The mean blood viscosity value in ascitic broilers was greater than that of the controls. There was a small but significant difference in the opposite direction between plasma viscosity values of the respective groups of birds.3. Although the haematocrit and arterial pressure index values in

M. H. Maxwell; G. W. Robertson; C. C. McCorquodale




PubMed Central

Aims Adiponectin is an adipokine that has anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic properties. This hormone has been implicated in both the physiological adaptation to normal pregnancy and obstetrical complications. The aims of this study were to determine normal maternal plasma concentrations of adiponectin throughout gestation and to explore the relationships between plasma adiponectin concentration, pregnancy, and maternal overweight. Study design A cross-sectional study was designed to include normal pregnant women (normal weight and overweight; 11–42 weeks of gestation), and non-pregnant women. Plasma adiponectin concentration was determined by immunoassay. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results (1) Adiponectin was detectable in the plasma of all patients; (2) there was no significant difference in the median adiponectin concentrations between pregnant and non-pregnant women; (3) plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age only among normal weight pregnant women; and (4) overweight patients had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than normal weight women. Conclusion Consistent with the increased insulin resistance and weight gain that occur in pregnancy, adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age. The results of this study and the nomogram herein presented can serve as the basis to explore the relationship between adiponectin and pregnancy complications and facilitate the clinical use of this important adipokine. Condensation Plasma adiponectin concentrations decrease with advancing gestational age only in nonobese women.

Nien, Jyh Kae; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gotsch, Francesca; Pineles, Beth L.; Gomez, Ricardo; Edwin, Samuel; Mazor, Moshe; Espinoza, Jimmy; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.



Investigation of Seminal Plasma Hypersensitivity Reactions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since returning from the Persian Gulf War (PGW) veterans and/or their wives have reported burning after contact with their semen. This has been called Burning Semen Syndrome (BSS). These reactions bear striking resemblance to reactions experienced by wome...

J. A. Bernstein



The effect of chronic kisspeptin administration on seminal fructose levels in male mice.  


The discovery that kisspeptin was critical for normal fertility in all mammalian species including humans, ushered in a new chapter in our understanding of the control of GnRH secretion. Kisspeptin, the product of the KISS1 gene, plays an essential role in the regulation of spermatogenesis acting primarily at the hypothalamic level of the gonadotropic axis. Among the many identified substances in human semen, fructose is becoming increasingly significant. Fructose is synthesized and secreted by the seminal vesicles. Its synthesis is regulated by androgens and it is correlated directly with the levels of testosterone. Dose dependent degeneration of seminal vesicle has been described following intraperitoneal kisspeptin treatment; however, effects of kisspeptin administration on the levels of seminal fructose remain elusive till date. The present study, therefore, addresses the effects of 12-day administration of kisspeptin on seminal fructose levels in male mice. Kisspeptin-10 was administered intraperitoneally at different dosage concentrations (1 ?g, 1 ng, and 10 ?g) to adult male mice, twice daily for 12 days. Seminal fructose levels were studied photometrically after 12 days of treatment. At the end of the treatment, seminal fructose levels decreased significantly after all tested doses. Chronic intermittent kisspeptin-10 administration negatively regulates seminal fructose levels in adult male mice. PMID:23864558

Ramzan, Faiqah; Khan, Muhammad Ayaz; Ramzan, Muhammad Haris



Magnetic field dependence of the normal mode spectrum of a planar complex plasma cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic field dependence of the normal mode spectra of two-dimensional finite clusters of complex plasmas which are confined by an external harmonic potential is presented. The dependence of the normal mode spectrum as a function of a perpendicular magnetic field is discussed. The nature of the eigenmodes is investigated and the corresponding divergence and rotor were calculated which describe

Minghui Kong; Wandemberg Paiva Ferreira; Bart Partoens; François M. Peeters



Effect of semen sampling frequency on seminal antiretroviral drug concentration.  


Study of male genital tract (MGT) pharmacology is relevant to the treatment of prostatitis, prostate cancer, infertility, and seminal human immunodeficiency virus transmission. However, the time course of drug concentrations in the MGT is largely unknown. To determine the feasibility of frequent semen sampling in assessing the pharmacokinetics of the MGT, we administered efavirenz, indinavir, and zidovudine to subjects to achieve steady-state levels and then collected semen samples at sequentially decreasing ejaculation intervals. The volume of seminal plasma decreased from 4.0 (1.2-5.1) ml (median with range) at 48 h after the baseline ejaculation to 0.72 (0.45-1.6) ml 1 h after a previous ejaculation, which was still adequate for drug concentration assessment. The seminal fructose concentration also decreased. However, the concentration of prostate-specific antigen and all three drugs did not decrease, even if the ejaculation intervals decreased to 1 h. Thus, semi-intensive semen sampling can be used to assess MGT pharmacokinetics. PMID:17914441

Cao, Y J; Ndovi, T T; Parsons, T L; Guidos, A M; Caffo, B; Hendrix, C W



Effect of aging on plasma renin and aldosterone in normal man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of aging on plasma renin and aldosterone in normal man. The influence of aging on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was evaluated by comparing young (20 to 30 yr) with elderly (62 to 70 yr) healthy subjects. Despite comparable body sodium-fluid balance in the two age groups, serum renin concentration, plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentrations were lower in the elderly.

Peter Weidmann; Sylvianne De Myttenaere-Bursztein; Morton H Maxwell; José de Lima



Normalization of plasma insulin profiles with intraperitoneal insulin infusion in diabetic man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study examined the feasibility of normalizing the plasma insulin profile in five insulin deficient diabetic males. Acute meal-related increases in plasma free insulin concentration were achieved by administering short-acting insulin intraperitoneally with a pre-programmed portable rotary splenoid driven pump. This insulin response was compared to that achieved when short-acting insulin was injected subcutaneously 15 minutes prior to each meal.

D. S. Schade; R. P. Eaton; N. M. Friedman; W. J. Spencer



Identification of candidate prostate cancer genes through comparative expression-profiling of seminal vesicle  

PubMed Central

Background Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men in the United States. In contrast, cancer of the seminal vesicle is exceedingly rare, despite that the prostate and seminal vesicle share similar histology, secretory function, androgen dependency, blood supply, and (in part) embryonic origin. We hypothesized that gene-expression differences between prostate and seminal vesicle might inform mechanisms underlying the higher incidence of prostate cancer. Methods Whole-genome DNA microarrays were used to profile gene expression of 11 normal prostate and 7 seminal vesicle specimens (including 6 matched pairs) obtained from radical prostatectomy. Supervised analysis was used to identify genes differentially expressed between normal prostate and seminal vesicle, and this list was then cross-referenced to genes differentially expressed between normal and cancerous prostate. Expression patterns of selected genes were confirmed by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray. Results We identified 32 genes that displayed a highly statistically-significant expression pattern with highest levels in seminal vesicle, lower levels in normal prostate, and lowest levels in prostate cancer. Among these genes was the known candidate prostate tumor suppressor GSTP1 (involved in xenobiotic detoxification). The expression pattern of GSTP1 and four other genes, ABCG2 (xenobiotic transport), CRABP2 (retinoic acid signaling), GATA3 (lineage-specific transcription) and SLPI (immune response), was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Conclusions Our findings identify candidate prostate cancer genes whose reduced expression in prostate (compared to seminal vesicle) may be permissive to prostate cancer initiation. Such genes and their pathways may inform mechanisms of prostate carcinogenesis, and suggest new opportunities for prostate cancer prevention.

Thompson, Maxwell; Lapointe, Jacques; Choi, Yoon-La; Ong, David E.; Higgins, John P.; Brooks, James D.; Pollack, Jonathan R.



Failure of ellagic acid to affect platelet aggregation in normal and in factor XII deficient plasma.  


Ellagic acid solutions, regardless of the concentration, failed to alter platelet aggregation induced by ADP, Adrenalin, Collagen, Thrombofax and Ristocetin in normal and in factor XII deficient plasma. A moderate inhibition was noted after addition of ADP both in normal and in factor XII deficient plasma but this was present also in the control systems and was therefore due to the buffer-dextrose solution and not to ellagic acid. These data indicate that Hageman factor plays on role in platelet aggregation. PMID:1164564

Girolami, A; Virgolini, L; Peruffo, R; de Marco, L




NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint lecture, by Jason Park of San Jose State University Department of Computer Science, offers students a quick introduction to database normalization, the "process of removing redundant data from your tables in to improve storage efficiency, data integrity, and scalability." Here, visitors will find information about database normalization history and applications. With information on the normal forms, field pioneer Edgar F. Codd, and problematic tables, this presentation will be helpful in any database programming and design classroom.

Park, Jason



Lipolysis, fatness, gender and plasma leptin concentrations in healthy, normal-weight subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background: Relationship between plasma leptin and adioposity and gender has been reported in adults. Effect of age on plasma leptin\\u000a is unclear and regulation of leptin production by white adipose tissue is still poorly understood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives: To study if age and parameters of lipolysis are related to plasma leptin concentrations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Seventy-seven healthy, normal-weight subjects (age range 19–82 y.)

B. Morio; A. M. Gachon; Y. Boirie; P. Rousset; P. Gachon; B. Beaufrère; P. Ritz



Pervasive adaptive evolution in primate seminal proteins.  


Seminal fluid proteins show striking effects on reproduction, involving manipulation of female behavior and physiology, mechanisms of sperm competition, and pathogen defense. Strong adaptive pressures are expected for such manifestations of sexual selection and host defense, but the extent of positive selection in seminal fluid proteins from divergent taxa is unknown. We identified adaptive evolution in primate seminal proteins using genomic resources in a tissue-specific study. We found extensive signatures of positive selection when comparing 161 human seminal fluid proteins and 2,858 prostate-expressed genes to those in chimpanzee. Seven of eight outstanding genes yielded statistically significant evidence of positive selection when analyzed in divergent primates. Functional clues were gained through divergent analysis, including several cases of species-specific loss of function in copulatory plug genes, and statistically significant spatial clustering of positively selected sites near the active site of kallikrein 2. This study reveals previously unidentified positive selection in seven primate seminal proteins, and when considered with findings in Drosophila, indicates that extensive positive selection is found in seminal fluid across divergent taxonomic groups. PMID:16170411

Clark, Nathaniel L; Swanson, Willie J



Seminal reservoirs during an HIV type 1 eradication trial.  


Despite dramatic reduction of the levels of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) virions in blood and seminal plasma of infected patients, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) does not eradicate HIV-1. Three patients, with less than 50 copies/ml of plasma viral RNA, were enrolled in this eradication protocol. Didanosine (DDI) and hydroxyurea (HU) were added to their baseline HAART and after a month of therapy, low dose OKT3, followed by a 2-week course of interleukin 2 (IL-2), was administrated. All antiretroviral therapy was then interrupted and the three patients developed viral rebound in the peripheral blood. The V3 loop region of the HIV-1 gp120 from cell-free viral RNA and proviral DNA in blood and seminal compartments was sequenced in one patient. The two major viral isolates in semen cells were macrophage- tropic (R5) and dual-tropic (R5X4), and these isolates were also present in the PBMCs. Six months after the viral rebound, we demonstrated a shift toward dual tropism in semen cell-associated HIV-1 proviral DNA, with the first appearance of a T-lymphotropic (X4) provirus solely in this compartment. The virus responsible for the blood plasma viral rebound was never found in the semen microenvironment. This study suggests viral compartmentalization of the semen microenvironment after an intensification and stimulatory HIV-1 eradication protocol, with evidence of viral evolution. PMID:16218800

Nunnari, Giuseppe; Leto, Daniela; Sullivan, Julie; Xu, Yan; Mehlman, Ketti E; Kulkosky, Joseph; Pomerantz, Roger J



The fluidity of normal and virus-transformed cell plasma membrane.  

PubMed Central

1. The phospholipid composition and cholesterol/phospholipid ratio of plasma membrane is the same in normal as in transformed BHK (baby-hamster kidney) cells; no significant difference in length or degree of unsaturation of the contributing acyl chains is apparent. 2. The turnover of acetate-labelled phosphatidylcholine species in the plasma membrane of normal and transformed BHK cells is the same. 3. Intramembranous particles of normal and transformed 3T3-cell plasma membrane are randomly distributed, whether at 4degreesC or at 37degreesC, in sparse or in dense cultures. There is no correlation between distribution of particles and the movement of concanavalin A receptor sites. 4. It is concluded that transformation of fibroblastic cells by oncogenic viruses does not lead to major changes in the lipid fluidity of the plasma membrane. 5. Details of the phospholipid composition of nuclei, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in normal and transformed BHK cells have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50061 (5 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston, Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained on the terms given in Biochem. J. (1976) 153, 5. Images PLATE 2 PLATE 1

Micklem, K J; Abra, R M; Knutton, S; Graham, J M; Pasternak, C A



Quantification of trace elements in normal human brain by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight normal human brain autopsy samples were analyzed for Na, K, P, Ca, Mg, Si, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Al, Cd, Pb and As in 12 regions of brain (frontal cerebrum, temporal cerebrum, parietal cerebrum, somatosensory cortex, occipital cerebrum, cerebellum, mid-brain, pons, hypothalamus, thalamus, hippocampus and medulla oblongata) using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICPAES). The distribution of

M. T. Rajan; K. S. Jagannatha Rao; B. M. Mamatha; R. V. Rao; P. Shanmugavelu; Rani. B. Menon; M. V. Pavithran



Comparative proteomics evaluation of plasma exosome isolation techniques and assessment of the stability of exosomes in normal human blood plasma.  


Exosomes are nanovesicles released by a variety of cells and are detected in body fluids including blood. Recent studies have highlighted the critical application of exosomes as personalized targeted drug delivery vehicles and as reservoirs of disease biomarkers. While these research applications have created significant interest and can be translated into practice, the stability of exosomes needs to be assessed and exosome isolation protocols from blood plasma need to be optimized. To optimize methods to isolate exosomes from blood plasma, we performed a comparative evaluation of three exosome isolation techniques (differential centrifugation coupled with ultracentrifugation, epithelial cell adhesion molecule immunoaffinity pull-down, and OptiPrep(TM) density gradient separation) using normal human plasma. Based on MS, Western blotting and microscopy results, we found that the OptiPrep(TM) density gradient method was superior in isolating pure exosomal populations, devoid of highly abundant plasma proteins. In addition, we assessed the stability of exosomes in plasma over 90 days under various storage conditions. Western blotting analysis using the exosomal marker, TSG101, revealed that exosomes are stable for 90 days. Interestingly, in the context of cellular uptake, the isolated exosomes were able to fuse with target cells revealing that they were indeed biologically active. PMID:24115447

Kalra, Hina; Adda, Christopher G; Liem, Michael; Ang, Ching-Seng; Mechler, Adam; Simpson, Richard J; Hulett, Mark D; Mathivanan, Suresh



JET intrinsic rotation studies in plasmas with a high normalized beta and varying toroidal field ripple  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the origin of rotation in ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heated plasmas is important for predictions for burning plasmas sustained by alpha particles, being characterized by a large population of fast ions and no external momentum input. The angular velocity of the plasma column has been measured in JET H-mode plasmas with pure ICRF heating both for the standard low toroidal magnetic ripple configuration, of about ˜0.08% and, for increased ripple values up to 1.5% (Nave et al 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 105005). These new JET rotation data were compared with the multi-machine scaling of Rice et al (2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 1618) for the Alfvén-Mach number and with the scaling for the velocity change from L-mode into H-mode. The JET data do not fit well any of these scalings that were derived for plasmas that are co-rotating with respect to the plasma current. With the standard low ripple configuration, JET plasmas with large ICRF heating power and normalized beta, ?N ? 1.3, have a very small co-current rotation, with Alfvén-Mach numbers significantly below those given by the rotation scaling of Rice et al (2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 1618). In some cases the plasmas are actually counter-rotating. No significant difference between the H-mode and L-mode rotation is observed. Typically the H-mode velocities near the edge are lower than those in L-modes. With ripple values larger than the standard JET value, between 1% and 1.5%, H-mode plasmas were obtained where both the edge and the core counter-rotated.

Nave, M. F. F.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Giroud, C.; Johnson, T. J.; Kirov, K.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Ongena, J.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Rimini, F.; Tala, T.; de Vries, P.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Contributors, JET-EFDA



Epicardial adipose tissue thickness and plasma homocysteine in patients with metabolic syndrome and normal coronary arteries  

PubMed Central

Background Increased epicardial adipose tissue thickness and plasma homocysteine levels are associated with Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and coronary artery disease. The majority of patients with MS have subclinical or manifest coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between MS and plasma homocysteine levels and epicardial adipose tissue thickness in subjects without epicardial coronary artery disease. Methods Patients who underwent coronary angiography due to angina or equivocal symptoms and/or abnormal stress test results and were found to have normal coronary arteries were evaluated for the presence of MS. The study group comprised 75 patients with normal coronary arteries and MS, and the control group included 75 age-gender matched subjects without coronary artery disease or MS. Results Epicardial adipose tissue thickness (5.8?±?1.9 mm vs. 4.3?±?1.6 mm, p <0.001) and plasma homocysteine levels (21.6?±?6.1 ?mol/L vs. 15.1?±?5.8 ?mol/L, p <0.001) were significantly higher in the MS group. Body mass index, triglyceride level, weight, age and waist circumference were positively and HDL cholesterol level were negatively correlated with both epicardial adipose tissue thickness and plasma homocysteine level. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness had the strongest correlation with plasma homocysteine level (r?=?0.584, p?plasma homocysteine level was expected. Conclusions We observed a close relationship between MS and epicardial adipose tissue thickness and plasma homocysteine levels, even in the absence of overt coronary artery disease.



Kaliuresis in normal subjects following oral potassium citrate intake without increased plasma potassium concentration.  


Ingestion of potassium salts typically induces both a kaliuresis and an increase in the systemic plasma potassium concentration. In this study normal healthy adults undergoing water diuresis ingested potassium citrate or sodium citrate (0.5 mmol/kg body weight) or continued without ion ingestion (a time control group). Urine was collected over 20-min intervals and venous blood sampled at midinterval. Intake of potassium citrate led to a significant increase in potassium excretion that began during the first postingestion collection and peaked 60-80 min after intake with a maximal increase in potassium excretion above baseline of 1.60 mumol/ The kaliuresis occurred without changes in plasma potassium concentration, excretion of creatinine or calcium, or urine hypo-osmolality and was associated with a briefer, smaller, and less regular increase in sodium excretion and a pronounced but irregular increase in chloride excretion. Plasma aldosterone was insignificantly elevated above baseline, and the initial increase did not occur until 40-60 min after potassium intake. Intake of sodium citrate did not produce a kaliuresis. The cause of the kaliuresis does not appear to be an increased systemic plasma potassium concentration, an increased plasma level of aldosterone, intake of citrate, or an elevated excretion of sodium. The mechanism inducing the kaliuresis following oral potassium intake in the absence of changes in systemic plasma potassium may involve a reflex initiated at potassium sensors in gut, portal vein, or liver. PMID:7753258

Calò, L; Borsatti, A; Favaro, S; Rabinowitz, L



Inverse relationship between plasma adiponectin and leptin concentrations in normal-weight and obese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Adiponectin, a novel adipocyte-derived collagen-like protein, is the gene product of the adipose most-abundant gene transcript 1 (apM1), which has been considered to have anti-inflamma- tory and anti-atherogenic effects. Objective: To characterize the relationship between adiponectin and leptin, the ob gene product, in normal-weight and obese women. Design and methods: In this cross-sectional study, we measured fasting plasma adiponectin

Miyao Matsubara; Shoji Maruoka; Shinji Katayose



Intercorrelations among plasma high density lipoprotein, obesity and triglycerides in a normal population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interrelationships among fatness measures, plasma triglycerides and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were examined in 131\\u000a normal adult subjects: 38 men aged 27–46, 40 men aged 47–66, 29 women aged 27–46 and 24 women aged 47–66. None of the women\\u000a were taking estrogens or oral contraceptive medication. The HDL concentration was subdivided into HDL2b, HDL2a and HDL3 by a computerized

M. J. Albrink; R. M. Krauss; F. T. Lindgren; J. Von Der Groeben; S. Pan; P. D. Wood



Increased plasma triglycerides, cholesterol and apolipoprotein E during prolonged fasting in normal subjects.  

PubMed Central

Plasma lipid and high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were studied in 20 normal, healthy, non-obese males while fasting (150 kcal/d with free intake of water) for 6 d in a hunger strike. Plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels were increased by 18% after 6 d of fasting. HDL-cholesterol concentration was not significantly changed for 4 d, but decreased by 22% after 6 d. Platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or collagen after 6 d of fasting was in the normal range. In 3 subjects fasted for 9 d, a complete plasma lipoprotein analysis was done. Very low and low density lipoprotein (VLDL and LDL) levels were elevated, whereas HDL was reduced after 9 d of fasting. On isoelectric focusing analysis, a marked reduction in apolipoprotein (apo) E concentration in both VLDL and HDL was noted. Liver function tests showed a reduction in hepatic enzyme activity; and since apo E is of hepatic origin also, we suggest that long fasting inhibits liver function in normal subjects. Images Figure 2

Markel, A.; Brook, J. G.; Aviram, M.



Normal modes of a quasi-one-dimensional multichain complex plasma  

SciTech Connect

We studied equally charged particles, suspended in a complex plasma, which move in a plane and interact with a screened Coulomb potential (Yukawa type) and with an additional external confining parabolic potential in one direction, which makes the system quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D). The normal modes of the system are studied in the presence of dissipation. We also investigated how a perpendicular magnetic field couples the phonon modes with each other. Two different ways of exciting the normal modes are discussed: (1) a uniform excitation of the Q1D lattice, and (2) a local forced excitation of the system in which one particle is driven by, e.g., a laser. Our results are in very good agreement with recent experimental findings on a finite single chain system [Liu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 255003 (2003)]. Predictions are made for the normal modes of multichain structures in the presence of damping.

Piacente, G.; Peeters, F.M. [Department of Physics, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), B-2610 Antwerpen (Belgium); Betouras, J.J. [Department of Physics, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), B-2610 Antwerpen (Belgium); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, Dresden 01187 (Germany)



Anal tenesmus caused by seminal vesicle cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital cysts of the seminal vesicles with ipsilateral renal aplasia or dysplasia are rare but have been well described in the literature. We report the first case where anal tenesmus was the only presenting symptom. Another unique feature was the combination of this anomaly with a duplication of the inferior vena cava. Copyright 1997 by Elsevier Science Inc. UROLOGY 49:

P. Callewaert; M. De Coster; P. Vuylsteke; R. De Man; S. Brijs; L. Baert



Drosophila seminal protein ovulin mediates ovulation through female octopamine neuronal signaling  

PubMed Central

Across animal taxa, seminal proteins are important regulators of female reproductive physiology and behavior. However, little is understood about the physiological or molecular mechanisms by which seminal proteins effect these changes. To investigate this topic, we studied the increase in Drosophila melanogaster ovulation behavior induced by mating. Ovulation requires octopamine (OA) signaling from the central nervous system to coordinate an egg’s release from the ovary and its passage into the oviduct. The seminal protein ovulin increases ovulation rates after mating. We tested whether ovulin acts through OA to increase ovulation behavior. Increasing OA neuronal excitability compensated for a lack of ovulin received during mating. Moreover, we identified a mating-dependent relaxation of oviduct musculature, for which ovulin is a necessary and sufficient male contribution. We report further that oviduct muscle relaxation can be induced by activating OA neurons, requires normal metabolic production of OA, and reflects ovulin’s increasing of OA neuronal signaling. Finally, we showed that as a result of ovulin exposure, there is subsequent growth of OA synaptic sites at the oviduct, demonstrating that seminal proteins can contribute to synaptic plasticity. Together, these results demonstrate that ovulin increases ovulation through OA neuronal signaling and, by extension, that seminal proteins can alter reproductive physiology by modulating known female pathways regulating reproduction.

Rubinstein, C. Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F.



Drosophila seminal protein ovulin mediates ovulation through female octopamine neuronal signaling.  


Across animal taxa, seminal proteins are important regulators of female reproductive physiology and behavior. However, little is understood about the physiological or molecular mechanisms by which seminal proteins effect these changes. To investigate this topic, we studied the increase in Drosophila melanogaster ovulation behavior induced by mating. Ovulation requires octopamine (OA) signaling from the central nervous system to coordinate an egg's release from the ovary and its passage into the oviduct. The seminal protein ovulin increases ovulation rates after mating. We tested whether ovulin acts through OA to increase ovulation behavior. Increasing OA neuronal excitability compensated for a lack of ovulin received during mating. Moreover, we identified a mating-dependent relaxation of oviduct musculature, for which ovulin is a necessary and sufficient male contribution. We report further that oviduct muscle relaxation can be induced by activating OA neurons, requires normal metabolic production of OA, and reflects ovulin's increasing of OA neuronal signaling. Finally, we showed that as a result of ovulin exposure, there is subsequent growth of OA synaptic sites at the oviduct, demonstrating that seminal proteins can contribute to synaptic plasticity. Together, these results demonstrate that ovulin increases ovulation through OA neuronal signaling and, by extension, that seminal proteins can alter reproductive physiology by modulating known female pathways regulating reproduction. PMID:24101486

Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F




PubMed Central

The electrophoretic patterns of a series of normal and pathological human sera and plasmas have been obtained using the schlieren scanning method. From these patterns the mobilities and concentrations of the electrophoretically distinct protein components have been computed. The mobilities fall into five well defined groups corresponding to albumin, ?, ?, and ? globulins, and fibrinogen. The concentrations of the different components in pathological sera have been compared with those in normal sera, and the following tentative generalizations may be made. The albumin/globulin ratios for pathological sera have been consistently lower than those for normal sera. The values of the ? globulin/albumin ratio for the sera of the febrile patients studied were high, the average value being over twice the normal value. The ? globulin/albumin ratios for aplastic anemia and rheumatic fever sera were also above normal. Certain pathological conditions, notably nephrosis, were accompanied by large increases in a ? globulin. There is evidence that, in part at least, this consists of a labile lipo-protein.

Longsworth, Lewis G.; Shedlovsky, Theodore; MacInnes, Duncan A.



Wave propagation in pulsar magnetospheres - Dispersion relations and normal modes of plasmas in superstrong magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the dispersion relations and polarization characteristics of the normal modes of radiation in superstrong magnetic fields, with particular attention to those attributes of importance to the transfer of radiation in the relativistic electron-positron plasmas expected to occur in the magnetospheres of radio pulsars. We restrict ourselves to the regions where the proper frequency of cyclotron resonance greatly exceeds the proper frequencies of the radiative normal modes. The normal modes are derived when the plasma has no momentum dispersion across the magnetic field but has arbitrary momentum dispersion along the field. The contribution of displacement current to the propagation of these "hydromagnetic" waves is consistently included. The distinction between superluminous and subluminous modes is made in the superstrong regime, where drift motions across the field are negligible, and useful formulae for the Landau damping of the subluminous branch of ordinary mode (the Alfven wave) are derived. These are used to set observational constraints on the geometry of the emission zone in radio pulsars, if the emission mechanism generates radiation in the form of subluminous waves. A brief discussion is given of the relevance of nonvacuum propagation to Razin suppression of bunched coherent curvature emission.

Arons, J.; Barnard, J. J.



Normal modes of a quasi-one-dimensional multichain complex plasma.  


We studied equally charged particles, suspended in a complex plasma, which move in a plane and interact with a screened Coulomb potential (Yukawa type) and with an additional external confining parabolic potential in one direction, which makes the system quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D). The normal modes of the system are studied in the presence of dissipation. We also investigated how a perpendicular magnetic field couples the phonon modes with each other. Two different ways of exciting the normal modes are discussed: (1) a uniform excitation of the Q1D lattice, and (2) a local forced excitation of the system in which one particle is driven by, e.g., a laser. Our results are in very good agreement with recent experimental findings on a finite single chain system [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 255003 (2003)

Piacente, G; Peeters, F M; Betouras, J J



Determination of glycated plasma proteins in normal and diabetic subjects utilizing aminophenylboronic acid columns.  


The characteristics and clinical utility of a commercially prepared method for measuring glycated plasma proteins (glyc PP) by aminophenylboronic acid affinity chromatography is described. The measured glyc PPs after loading columns with 0.05 ml (5.9%) or 0.025 ml (6.1%) plasma were greater than the glyc PP values when using 0.20 ml (4.5%) or 0.10 ml (5.0%). The glyc PPs in otherwise identical plasma containing 0, 1 gm/l, 2 gm/l and 4 gm/l glucose were not significantly different. Elimination of the aldimine component by dialyzing plasma against saline did not alter the amount of glyc PP. In vitro glycosylation of plasma proteins was dependent on glucose concentration and length of incubation. Maximum in vitro glycosylation (19.5%) occurred at 14 days of incubation with 5.7 gm/l glucose. The mean glyc PP (8.2%) of 24 diabetic subjects was greater than the mean glyc PP (2.7%) of 15 normal controls. Glyc PP and HbA1 values positively correlated (n = 39 r = 0.89 p less than 0.01). After 2 weeks of improved glycemic control, the glyc PPs from 5 patients diminished from 6.8% to 3.3% (p less than 0.01). In conclusion, we characterize an aminophenylboronic acid affinity chromatographic method of assaying glyc PP which is simple, reproducible, requires a maximal protein load of 0.05 mg, is uneffected by ambient glucose, and measures the ketoamine composent of glyc PP. This is an ideal method to evaluate 2 week alterations of glycemic control of diabetic patients. PMID:3329119

Sobel, D O; Shakir, K M



A new principle to normalize plasma concentrations allowing single-sample clearance determinations in both children and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sufficiently accurate quantification of renal function requiring only one plasma sample without an additional gamma-camera study has, until now, only been possible in adults. A new principle will be presented here allowing the universal application of known algorithms, regardless of the clearance substance used, by normalizing the plasma concentrations with respect to the individual body dimensions of the patients

Bernd Bubeck; Rolf Piepenburg; Ulrich Grethe; Burghard Ehrig; Klaus Hahn



Glycemic variability in normal glucose regulation subjects with elevated 1-h postload plasma glucose levels.  


Subjects with normal glucose regulation (NGR), whose 1-h postload plasma glucose is ?8.6 mmol/L (155 mg/dL, NGR 1 h ? 8.6) during 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and subclinical organ damage. And, the deficiency in islet ? cell function is responsible for glycemic disorders. The purpose of this study is to investigate glycemic variability in NGR subjects with elevated 1-h postload plasma glucose levels and its association with islet ? cell function. The 29 NGR subjects with 1-h postload plasma glucose ?8.6 mmol/L (NGR 1 h ? 8.6) and 29 age- and sex-matched NGR subjects with 1-h postload plasma glucose <8.6 mmol/L (NGR 1 h < 8.6) were recruited in the study. Insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index, ISI), insulin secretion (insulinogenic index ?I30/?G30), and integrated ? cell function measured by the oral disposition index (?I30/?G30 multiplied by the ISI) were derived from OGTT. All subjects were monitored using the continuous glucose monitoring system for consecutive 72 h. The multiple parameters of glycemic variability included the standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG), mean blood glucose (MBG), mean of daily differences (MODD), and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE). MAGE is considered as a gold standard of glycemic variability. Glycemic variability parameters SDBG, MBG, MODD, and MAGE in NGR 1 h ? 8.6 group were higher than those in NGR 1 h < 8.6 group (p < 0.05), and oral disposition index in NGR 1 h ? 8.6 group was lower than that in NGR 1 h < 8.6 group (p < 0.05). SDBG, MBG, MODD, MAGE, and 1-h postload plasma glucose all negatively associated with oral disposition index in the separate group (p < 0.05) and in the whole subjects (p < 0.05). After multivariate regression analysis, oral disposition index was the strongest independent contributor to MAGE and 1-h postload plasma glucose in the separate group (p < 0.05) and in the whole subjects (p < 0.05). It is concluded that NGR 1 h ? 8.6 group had higher glycemic variability and lower oral disposition index, compared with NGR 1 h < 8.6 group. Increased glycemic variability parameters and elevated 1-h postload plasma glucose consistently associated with declined oral disposition index in subjects from NGR 1 h < 8.6 to NGR 1 h ? 8.6 group. PMID:24030695

Su, Jian-Bin; Chen, Tong; Xu, Feng; Wang, Xue-Qin; Chen, Jin-Feng; Wu, Gang; Jin, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Hua



Bovine seminal PDC-109 protein: An overview of biochemical and functional properties.  


Although long-term storage of bovine semen is desirable for wider use, successful cryopreservation depends on several factors, including various proteins present in seminal plasma. One such group of proteins, viz. bovine seminal plasma (BSP) proteins represents the major protein fraction in bovine seminal plasma. They constitute three major heparin-binding (HB-) acidic proteins secreted by seminal vesicles, viz. BSP-A1/-A2 (PDC-109), BSP-A3 and BSP-30-kDa. By purification studies it was deduced that PDC-109 is a polypeptide of 109 amino acids and contains two tandem repeating fibronectin type-II (Fn-II) domains, preceded by a 23 residue N-terminal domain. Though BSP-A1 and BSP-A2 are biochemically similar they differ only in glycosylation and their mixture is called PDC-109 or gonadostatins. PDC-109 exists as a polydisperse, multimeric self-associated molecule and possesses multifunctional properties, viz. binding to the surface of plasma membrane of spermatozoa causing conformational change in the sperm surface proteins and enhances motility. Besides binding, PDC-109 protein provokes cholesterol efflux from sperm membrane and promotes sperm reservoir by interacting with oviductal membrane. Interaction of sperm with PDC-109 protein induces sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction. However, prolonged exposure of spermatozoa with free floating PDC-109 protein as during processing for preservation, increases cholesterol efflux from spermatozoa. The efflux of sperm membrane cholesterol and disturbance in cholesterol:phospholipids ratio causes destabilization of plasma membrane thereby inducing cryoinjury to the sperm. In this review, the biochemical, functional properties of PDC-109 protein and its role during semen cryopreservation is summarized. PMID:23489472

Srivastava, N; Jerome, A; Srivastava, S K; Ghosh, S K; Kumar, Amit



Honey increased saliva, plasma, and urine content of total nitrite concentrations in normal individuals.  


This study investigated effects of oral honey solution on total nitrite, a stable nitric oxide metabolite, in saliva, plasma, and urine samples collected from normal subjects. Fourteen adult healthy volunteers, 25-50 years old, nine males and three females, were enrolled in the study. Total nitrite was estimated in saliva, plasma, and urine after 14 hours of food fasting. Each subject was then asked to drink honey solution (80 g of raw honey dissolved in 250 mL of water). Saliva and blood samples were collected at 1, 2, and 3 hours after ingestion of honey solution for total nitrite assay, while urine samples were collected after 3 hours for total nitrite assay. The mean total fasting nitrite in saliva was 108 +/- 61.3 micromol/L, which was increased to 130 +/- 62.9, 131.2 +/- 59, and 135.1 +/- 64.3 micromol/L at 1, 2, and 3 hours, respectively. Plasma total nitrite was 22.41 +/- 16.22 micromol/L before drinking honey, which was increased to 34.71 +/- 18.13, 29.38 +/- 14.29, and 33 +/- 13.09 micromol/L at 1, 2, and 3 hours, respectively, after drinking honey. Urine total nitrite before drinking honey was 75.8 +/- 54.79 micromol/L, which was increased to 107.8 +/- 70.83 micromol/L 3 hours after ingestion of honey solution. Although not statistically significant, honey solution showed a tendency to increase total nitrite concentration in different biological fluids from humans, including saliva, plasma, and urine. PMID:15383235

Al-Waili, Noori S; Boni, Nadir S



Obesity is associated with increased seminal insulin and leptin alongside reduced fertility parameters in a controlled male cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity appears to be associated with male reproductive dysfunction and infertility, although this has been inconsistent and inconclusive. Insulin and leptin are known mediators and modulators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testes axis, contributing to the regulation of male reproductive potential and overall wellbeing. These hormones are also present in semen influencing sperm functions. Although abdominal obesity is closely associated with insulin resistance (hyperinsulinaemia), hyperleptinaemia and glucose dysfunction, changes in seminal plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin and glucose in obese males has not previously been investigated. Methods This small case controlled study assessed serum and seminal concentrations of insulin, leptin and glucose in obese (BMI?>?=30; n?=?23) and non-obese (BMI?seminal insulin and leptin, with no significant difference in seminal glucose. Serum and seminal concentrations of insulin and leptin were positively correlated. Furthermore, obesity was associated with decreased sperm concentration, sperm vitality and increased MMP and DF, with a non-significant impact on motility and morphology. Conclusions Hyperinsulinaemia and hyperleptinaemia are associated with increased seminal insulin and leptin concentrations, which may negatively impact male reproductive function in obesity. Insulin was also found to be highly concentrated in the seminal plasma of both groups. This data will contribute to the contradictive information available in the literature on the impact of obesity and male reproduction.



Seminal quality and neutral alpha-glucosidase activity after sequential electroejaculation of chinchilla (Ch. lanigera).  


The objectives of this study of seminal quality of chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) males were to evaluate (1) the use of neutral alpha-glucosidase (NAG) as a functional epididymal marker in this species, and (2) the effects of repetitive electroejaculation on sperm function and seminal NAG concentration. Semen was obtained by electroejaculation from sexually mature domestic Ch. lanigera males (n=6) once a week for six consecutive weeks, and evaluated to assess seminal volume and NAG activity, and sperm concentration and functional activity (motility, viability, membrane and acrosome integrity). Body weight was determined in all animals before each electroejaculation procedure. NAG activity was detected in all semen samples obtained, reaching a concentration of 55.4±6.8?U/mL. No significant variations were observed throughout the experimental period in any of the semen quality parameters evaluated. A reduction (P=0.001) in body weight was detected from the third week of experimentation and by the end of the experiments the animals lost a 7.2±0.9% of body weight. Overall, results in the present study confirm that NAG activity is detectable in chinchilla seminal plasma and that repetitive electroejaculation is not deleterious, on a short-term basis, to the semen characteristics. PMID:21782362

Ponzio, M F; Roussy-Otero, G N; Ruiz, R D; Fiol de Cuneo, M



Seminal fluid-mediated fitness traits in Drosophila.  


The seminal fluid of male Drosophila contains a cocktail of proteins that have striking effects on male and female fitness. In D. melanogaster, seminal fluid proteins affect female receptivity, ovulation, oogenesis, sperm storage, sperm competition and mating plug formation. In addition, the seminal fluid contains antibacterial peptides and protease inhibitors. Some seminal fluid-encoding genes also show high rates of evolutionary change, exhibiting both significant between-species divergence and within-species polymorphism. Seminal fluid protein genes are expressed only in males, begging the question of how and why the reproductive processes of females are influenced by males. In this review I address these issues by bringing together evidence for the function, evolution, diversification, and maintenance of variation in, seminal fluid-mediated traits. PMID:11869341

Chapman, T



Linear technique to understand non-normal turbulence applied to a magnetized plasma.  


In nonlinear dynamical systems with highly nonorthogonal linear eigenvectors, linear nonmodal analysis is more useful than normal mode analysis in predicting turbulent properties. However, the nontrivial time evolution of nonmodal structures makes quantitative understanding and prediction difficult. We present a technique to overcome this difficulty by modeling the effect that the advective nonlinearities have on spatial turbulent structures. The nonlinearities are taken as a periodic randomizing force with time scale consistent with critical balance arguments. We apply this technique to a model of drift wave turbulence in the Large Plasma Device [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)], where nonmodal effects dominate the turbulence. We compare the resulting growth rate spectra to the spectra obtained from a nonlinear simulation, showing good qualitative agreement, especially in comparison to the eigenmode growth rate spectra. PMID:25062197

Friedman, B; Carter, T A



Molecular Microheterogeneity of Prostate Specific Antigen in Seminal Fluid by Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Objectives Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used and clinically valuable marker for prostate disease. In order to enable the development of new PSA assays and progress the understanding of the biology of PSA we have analyzed PSA in seminal plasma. Design and Methods PSA in seminal plasma from men attending a fertility clinic and healthy controls was analyzed using SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and mass spectrometry. Results Using mass spectrometry, different forms of PSA could be identified in 1–9 bands seen on SDS-PAGE analysis of the respective sample. However, a majority of these molecular forms of PSA were not observed on Western blots. Enzymatic activity of PSA isoforms was demonstrated by sequencing data in zymogram gels. Multivariate analysis of clinical data revealed well-separated patient groups. Conclusions We demonstrated that PSA in seminal plasma occurs in several isoforms, yet not all were detectable using an antibody based clinical routine method. The heterogeneity of PSA expression might be of clinical significance, by an improved patient phenotyping.

Vegvari, Akos; Rezeli, Melinda; Sihlbom, Carina; Hakkinen, Jari; Carlsohn, Elisabet; Malm, Johan; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas; Marko-Varga, Gyorgy



Rice develop wavy seminal roots in response to light stimulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) seminal roots are the primary roots to emerge from germinated seeds. Here, we demonstrate that the photomorphology of\\u000a the seminal roots was diverse among rice varieties, and the light-induced wavy roots were found mostly in indica-type rice\\u000a varieties. The light-induced wavy morphology in rice seminal roots has been different with curling or coiling roots in some

Shu-Jen Wang; Chia-Hsun Ho; Hsiang-Wen Chen


[A case of primary seminal vesicle cancer detected by FDG-PET/CT].  


We reported a case of primary seminal vesicle cancer, detected by FDG-PET/CT. A 65-year-old man with constipation and appetite loss was admitted to our hospital. An ultrasound examination revealed evidence of bilateral hydronephrosis. He was diagnosed as acute post renal failure, and nephrostomy was done. CT and MRI showed a solid mass in the area of seminal vesicle. He underwent transrectal core biopsy, which histologically showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry showed the tumor to be CA125 positive, CEA positive and CK7 positive but PSA negative. FDG-PET/CT revealed an increased uptake of FDG only in the area of seminal vesicle. Serum CA125 was elevated and PSA stayed within normal limit. Primaly rectal carcinoma was ruled out by colonoscopy. The result of transperineal prostate biopsy was negative. We diagnosed him as suffering from primary seminal vesicle carcinoma. Anti-androgen blockade and radiotherapy to whole pelvis were performed, and serum CA125 level was improved. But, 6 months later serum CA125 re-elevated and 19 months later multiple liver metastases were noted. The patient received two cycles of docetaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy, however he developed pulmonaly embolism and rectal bleeding by tumor invasion and he died of his disease 22 months after the diagnosis. PMID:24261194

Mizuno, Nobuhiko; Fujikawa, Naoya; Hayashi, Narihiko; Murakami, Takayuki; Suzuki, Kotaro; Ikeda, Ichiro



Anti-amyloidogenic Activity of IgGs Contained in Normal Plasma  

PubMed Central

Introduction We have previously shown that a subpopulation of naturally occurring human IgGs has therapeutic potential for the amyloid-associated disorders. These molecules cross-react with conformational epitopes on amyloidogenic assemblies, including amyloid beta (A?) protein fibrils that are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Materials and Methods Using our europium-linked immunosorbant assay, we established that ?95% of 260 screened donor plasma samples had amyloid fibril-reactive IgGs and A? conformer-reactive IgGs with minimal binding to A? monomers. Anti-amyloidogenic reactivity was diverse and attributed to A? targeting multiple fibril-related binding sites and/or variations in multidentate binding. Results and Discussion There was no correlation between anti-fibril and anti-oligomer reactivity and donor age (19 to 60 years old) or gender. These findings demonstrate the inherent but diverse anti-amyloidogenic activity of natural IgGs contained in normal plasma. Conclusion Our studies provide support for investigating the clinical significance and physiological function of this novel class of antibodies.

Williams, Angela D.; McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Acero, Luis; Weber, Alfred; Ehrlich, Hartmut; Schwarz, Hans P.; Solomon, Alan



Evidence of vasopressinergic-noradrenergic mechanisms in depression with above-normal plasma vasopressin concentration with and without psychotic features.  


Previous studies in the field of melancholic or endogenous depression have resulted in support for a subcategory of depression with above-normal plasma vasopressin (AVP) concentration (ANA). Since an analogous animal model with increased release of above-normal plasma vasopressin exhibits reduced Sympathetic-Nervous-System activity, the present study investigated the plasma norepinephrine concentration and the correlation between plasma norepinephrine and AVP in this ANA depression. As psychotic-melancholic patients may have increased plasma norepinephrine concentration, and noradrenergic activation may stimulate AVP release, potentially confounding effects of psychotic features were also investigated. The data set of the same depressed patient sample that was used before, but limited to those with complete hormonal data (n = 75), was re-analysed. ANA depression (n = 14) had negatively correlating AVP and norepinephrine concentrations. A very small subcategory of ANA depression with psychotic features (n = 3) had high plasma norepinephrine concentration, suggesting that this could be an independent subcategory. This was supported by the combination of relatively low above-normal plasma AVP concentrations with the highest severity scores for depression in this subcategory, which does not correspond with the positive correlation between AVP concentration and severity in non-psychotic ANA depression. The results further support the validity of ANA depression and the analogy with the High Anxiety Behaviour animal model of depression. Further investigations are needed to replicate these findings and to search for genetic and traumatic factors involved. PMID:19942636

Goekoop, Jaap G; de Winter, Remco F P; Wolterbeek, Ron; van Kempen, Godfried M J; Wiegant, Victor M



Response of Plasma Histaminase Activity to Small Doses of Heparin in Normal Subjects and Patients with Hyperlipoproteinemia  

PubMed Central

The release of histaminase activity in plasma after small intravenous of heparin was studied in 85 normal subjects and patients. In normal subjects, plasma histaminase activity (basal level, 1.7±0.1 U/ml, mean ±SEM) increased 1.6±0.2 U/ml after 10 U of heparin/kg, 8.5±2.4 U/ml after 20 U/kg, and 33±4.9 U/ml after 75 U/kg. The extent of the increase varied widely among individuals but in a particular individual the response was constant and dose-dependent. Histaminase activity rose to peak levels within 7-15 min and then declined exponentially with a half-life of 40-120 min. This pattern of response was also observed in two patients with the histaminase-producing tumor, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. A significantly reduced response was observed, however, in 14 patients with type I hyperlipoproteinemia, a disorder in which high plasma triglyceride levels are associated with low postheparin plasma lipolytic activity. After 10 U heparin/kg, plasma histamine activity increased 0.5±0.2 U/ml, and after 75 U heparin/kg, 10.9±5.6 U/ml. In contrast, in 27 patients with other types of hyperlipoproteinemia in whom postheparin lipolytic activity was normal, the increase (2.4±0.6 U/ml) in plasma histaminase activity after 10 U heparin/kg was not significantly different from that of normal subjects. The reduced response of the plasma histaminase activity to heparin in patients with type I hyperlipoproteinemia did not appear to be due to the presence of lipemia or to an inhibitor of the enzyme in plasma. These findings suggest that many patients with type I hyperlipoproteinemia may have deficient release of both lipolytic and histaminase activities into plasma after heparin administration.

Baylin, Stephen B.; Beaven, Michael A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Keiser, Harry R.



Insect Seminal Fluid Proteins: Identification and Function  

PubMed Central

Seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) produced in reproductive tract tissues of male insects and transferred to females during mating induce numerous physiological and behavioral post-mating changes in females. These changes include decreasing receptivity to re-mating, affecting sperm storage parameters, increasing egg production, modulating sperm competition, feeding behaviors, and mating plug formation. In addition, SFPs also have anti-microbial functions and induce expression of anti-microbial peptides in at least some insects. Here, we review recent identification of insect SFPs and discuss the multiple roles these proteins play in the post-mating processes of female insects.

Avila, Frank W.; Sirot, Laura K.; LaFlamme, Brooke A.; Rubinstein, C. Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F.



Insect seminal fluid proteins: identification and function.  


Seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) produced in reproductive tract tissues of male insects and transferred to females during mating induce numerous physiological and behavioral postmating changes in females. These changes include decreasing receptivity to remating; affecting sperm storage parameters; increasing egg production; and modulating sperm competition, feeding behaviors, and mating plug formation. In addition, SFPs also have antimicrobial functions and induce expression of antimicrobial peptides in at least some insects. Here, we review recent identification of insect SFPs and discuss the multiple roles these proteins play in the postmating processes of female insects. PMID:20868282

Avila, Frank W; Sirot, Laura K; LaFlamme, Brooke A; Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F



Sustained Post-Mating Response in Drosophila melanogaster Requires Multiple Seminal Fluid Proteins  

PubMed Central

Successful reproduction is critical to pass genes to the next generation. Seminal proteins contribute to important reproductive processes that lead to fertilization in species ranging from insects to mammals. In Drosophila, the male's accessory gland is a source of seminal fluid proteins that affect the reproductive output of males and females by altering female post-mating behavior and physiology. Protein classes found in the seminal fluid of Drosophila are similar to those of other organisms, including mammals. By using RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down levels of individual accessory gland proteins (Acps), we investigated the role of 25 Acps in mediating three post-mating female responses: egg production, receptivity to remating and storage of sperm. We detected roles for five Acps in these post-mating responses. CG33943 is required for full stimulation of egg production on the first day after mating. Four other Acps (CG1652, CG1656, CG17575, and CG9997) appear to modulate the long-term response, which is the maintenance of post-mating behavior and physiological changes. The long-term post-mating response requires presence of sperm in storage and, until now, had been known to require only a single Acp. Here, we discovered several novel Acps together are required which together are required for sustained egg production, reduction in receptivity to remating of the mated female and for promotion of stored sperm release from the seminal receptacle. Our results also show that members of conserved protein classes found in seminal plasma from insects to mammals are essential for important reproductive processes.

Ram, K. Ravi; Wolfner, Mariana F



Effect of folic acid and zinc sulphate on endocrine parameters and seminal antioxidant level after varicocelectomy.  


Varicocele is among the most common problems which may lead to male infertility. Spermatogenesis is impaired as a consequence of this vascular defect, through mechanisms that are not well described. This study aimed to evaluate serum hormonal level (inhibin B, FSH and testosterone) and seminal plasma antioxidant defence levels after folic acid and zinc sulphate administration in varicocelectomised patients. Participants were randomly allocated to four experimental groups. Our randomisation schedule was as follows: zinc sulphate/folic acid, folic acid, zinc sulphate and placebo. The patients underwent varicocelectomy, before which a blood and semen sample were obtained and also three and six months after varicocelectomy for evaluation of blood hormonal level (FSH, testosterone, inhibin B) and seminal oxidative stress status (nitric oxide, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity). Patients in different groups took orally one capsule per day after dinner following varicocelectomy for 6 months. A significant rise in peripheral blood inhibin B and seminal plasma activity was detected in the zinc sulphate/folic acid group after 6 months. The present clinical trial indicates a change in the hormonal status of varicocelectomised patients following long-term administration of zinc sulphate and folic acid. PMID:23356505

Nematollahi-Mahani, S N; Azizollahi, G H; Baneshi, M R; Safari, Z; Azizollahi, S



21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. 866...Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...



21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. 866...Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...



Role of fluid from seminal vesicles and coagulating glands in sperm transport into the uterus and fertility in rats.  


The relationship between the quantity of seminal vesicle secretion in the ejaculate, the percentage of spermatozoa reaching the uterus and fertility was studied in rats. Different portions of seminal vesicles were removed from male rats; 15 min after coitus (day 0), the numbers of spermatozoa in the uterus and vagina were counted and the vaginal plug characteristics were noted. Fertility was evaluated by the number of fetuses on day 14. A gradual decrease in the percentage of spermatozoa in the uterus was positively related to the reduction in seminal vesicle secretion, estimated by plug weight. This decline was not caused by a delay in sperm transport to the uterine lumen and the results suggested that the spermatozoa that fail to enter the uterus in the first minutes after coitus never enter. The vaginal plug weight, which is related to the seminal vesicle weight, and the position of the plug, which must be firmly lodged into the cervical opening, seem to be the most important conditions for promoting the rapid passage of spermatozoa into the uterus. When the seminal vesicles were partially removed, the plug was not tightly lodged and formed a 'cup' filled with spermatozoa. The number of fetuses did not show a close correlation with the quantity of seminal vesicle secretion. Studies of males in which the seminal vesicles had been removed indicated that a normal number of fetuses can be obtained despite low numbers of spermatozoa reaching the uterus. Ablation of the coagulating glands showed that, when there is no vaginal plug, no spermatozoa reach the uterus and fertility is suppressed. Nevertheless, the complete removal of coagulating glands is difficult; when small portions of these glands remain, the vaginal plug is formed and then fertility is achieved. PMID:1404080

Carballada, R; Esponda, P



Ejaculatory Duct Obstruction: TRUS-Guided Opacification of Seminal Tracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the usefulness of TRUS-guided aspiration and opacification of seminal tracts in the evaluation and management of patients with ejaculatory duct obstruction (EDO). Methods: In 21 men who had dilated seminal vesicles and\\/or midline cysts on TRUS, a mixture of contrast media and indigocarmine was injected and then pelvic radiographs were taken. Results: The diagnoses based on the

Seung Hyup Kim; Jae Seung Paick; In Hee Lee; Seon Kyu Lee; Kyung Mo Yeon



Intercorrelations among plasma high density lipoprotein, obesity and triglycerides in a normal population  

SciTech Connect

The interrelationships among fatness measures, plasma triglycerides and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were examined in 131 normal adult subjects: 38 men aged 27 to 46, 50 men aged 47 to 66, 29 women aged 27 to 46 and 24 women aged 47 to 66. None of the women were taking estrogens or oral contraceptive medication. The HDL concentration was subdivided into HDL/sub 2b/, HDL/sub 2a/ and HDL by a computerized fitting of the total schileren pattern to reference schlieren patterns. Anthropometric measures employed included skinfolds at 3 sites, 2 weight/height indices and 2 girth measurements. A high correlation was found among the various fatness measures. These measures were negatively correlated with total HDL, reflecting the negative correlation between fatness measures and HDL/sub 2/ (as the sum of HDL/sub 2a/ and /sub 2b/). Fatness measures showed no relationship to HDL/sub 3/. There was also an inverse correlation between triglyceride concentration and HDL/sub 2/. No particular fatness measure was better than any other for demonstrating the inverse correlation with HDL but multiple correlations using all of the measures of obesity improved the correlations. Partial correlations controlling for fatness did not reduce any of the significnt correlations between triglycerides and HDL/sub 2/ to insignificance. The weak correlation between fatness and triglycerides was reduced to insigifnicance when controlled for HDL/sub 2/.

Albrink, M.J. (West Virgina Unov., Morgantown); Krauss, R.M.; Lindgren, F.T.; von der Groeben, J.; Pan, S.; Wood, P.D.



Plasma choline in normal newborns, infants, toddlers, and in very-low–birth-weight neonates requiring total parenteral nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choline deficiency is associated with hepatic abnormalities in adult volunteers and patients administered total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Preliminary investigation has suggested that plasma-free choline concentration (PFCh) is greater in neonatal animals, including humans, than in adults. The aims of this study were to determine the normal PFCh and phospholipid-bound choline concentration (PPLBCh) for newborns, infants, and toddlers and to determine

Alan L Buchman; Mir Sohel; Adib Moukarzel; Deborah Bryant; Richard Schanler; Mohammed Awal; Pam Burns; Karen Dorman; Michael Belfort; Donald J Jenden; Donna Killip; Margareth Roch



Fatty Acids in Habitual Diet, Plasma Phospholipids, and Tumour and Normal Colonic Biopsies in Young Colorectal Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Fatty acid metabolism is altered in colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to investigate incorporation of dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into plasma phospholipids (PLs), tumour tissue, and normal mucosa in young CRC patients. We also aimed to study differences in PUFA composition between tumour and normal mucosa, and PUFA status associated with cancer stage. Sixty-five CRC patients younger than 55 years were included in a multicenter study. We assessed dietary fatty acid composition by food-frequency questionnaire. Fatty acid composition in plasma PL (n = 65) and tumour and normal colonic biopsies (n = 32) were analysed by gas chromatography. We observed a significant correlation for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) between dietary intake and concentration in plasma PL (weight%) (r = 0.42; P = 0.001), but not for any n-6 PUFA. Tissue concentrations of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and DHA (weight%) were 1.7–2.5 times higher in tumour than normal mucosa (P ? 0.001). Concentrations of n-3 and n-6 PUFA in plasma PL and tissues were not related to Duke's stage, although patients with more severe cancer stage reported higher intake of n-3 PUFA. In conclusion, we found accumulation of the long-chained n-3 and n-6 PUFA in tumour tissue in young CRC patients.

Berstad, Paula; Thiis-Evensen, Espen; Vatn, Morten H.; Almendingen, Kari



Seminal vesicle production and secretion of growth hormone into seminal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of foreign proteins in the tissues of transgenic animals represents an efficient and economical method of producing therapeutic and pharmaceutical proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that the mouse P12 gene promoter specific to the male accessory sex gland can be used to generate transgenic mice that express human growth hormone (hGH) in their seminal vesicle epithelium. The hGH

Michael K. Dyck; Dominic Gagné; Mariette Ouellet; Jean-François Sénéchal; Edith Bélanger; Dan Lacroix; Marc-André Sirard; François Pothier



Compartmental analysis of the plasma clearance of tetrabromsulphthalein and dibromsulphthalein in the normal dog and in patients with liver disease.  


A comparison has been made of the plasma clearances of the anionic dye analogues, tetrabromsulphthalein (BSP) and dibromsulphthalein (dBSP), analysed by means of a two-compartmental model. In the normal conscious dog all three transport rate constants and initial and steady state plasma clearances were greater with dBSP than BSP. On the other hand the equivalent liver volume (ELV) and storage capacity were lower with dBSP. In patients with various hepatic disorders dBSP values were greater than those obtained with BSP apart from rate constant b (liver to plasma). Patients with advanced liver impairment in general exhibited lower hepatic uptake, clearance and storage of both dyes compared to patients with mild forms of liver disease. The ratio of ELV values for BSP and dBSP appeared to be related to overall hepatic function, with ratios greater than 1 in the normal dogs and less than 1 in the patients. PMID:478199

Baker, P R; Cuschieri, A



Analysis of glass and glass melts during the vitrification process of fly and bottom ashes by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy. Part I: Normalization and plasma diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS) analysis of the main components (Si, Al, and Ca) in glasses utilized for vitrification of ashes from waste incineration, a normalization procedure for line ratios is presented. Even in homogeneous glass samples, considerable pulse-to-pulse variations of the plasma electronic excitation temperature and electron density were observed because of changes in the material-laser interaction. A normalization procedure is outlined using Saha-Boltzmann equilibrium relationships to include the electronic excitation temperature and density in the calibration model. As a result of the normalization, the variation of the line ratios is reduced and linear calibrations for LIPS intensity ratios versus concentration ratios are achieved. For samples with high aluminum concentrations, the analysis was hampered by self-reversal effects.

Panne, U.; Haisch, C.; Clara, M.; Niessner, R.



Increased plasma von Willebrand factor antigen levels but normal von Willebrand factor cleaving protease (ADAMTS13) activity in preeclampsia.  


The activity of ADAMTS13, the von Willebrand factor (VWF) cleaving protease is low in several conditions, including HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome. As HELLP syndrome develops in most cases on the basis of preeclampsia, our aim was to determine whether plasma ADAMTS13 activity is decreased in preeclampsia. Sixty-seven preeclamptic patients, 70 healthy pregnant women and 59 healthy non-pregnant women were involved in this case-control study. Plasma ADAMTS13 activity was determined with the FRETS-VWF73 assay, while VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) levels with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The multimeric pattern of VWF was analyzed by SDS-agarose gel electrophoresis. There was no significant difference in plasma ADAMTS13 activity between the preeclamptic and the healthy pregnant and non-pregnant groups (median [25-75 percentile]: 98.8 [76.5-112.8] %, 96.3 [85.6-116.2] % and 91.6 [78.5-104.4] %, respectively; p > 0.05). However, plasma VWF:Ag levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic patients than in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women (187.1 [145.6-243.1] % versus 129.3 [105.1-182.8] % and 70.0 [60.2-87.3] %, respectively; p < 0.001). The multimeric pattern of VWF was normal in each group. Primiparas had lower plasma ADAMTS13 activity than multi-paras (92.6 [75.8-110.6] % versus 104.2 [92.1-120.8] %; p = 0.011). No other relationship was found between clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters and plasma ADAMTS13 activity in either study group. In conclusion, plasma ADAMTS13 activity is normal in preeclampsia despite the increased VWF:Ag levels. However, further studies are needed to determine whether a decrease in plasma ADAMTS13 activity could predispose preeclamptic patients to develop HELLP syndrome. PMID:19190814

Molvarec, Attila; Rigó, János; Bõze, Tamás; Derzsy, Zoltán; Cervenak, László; Makó, Veronika; Gombos, Tímea; Udvardy, Miklós László; Hársfalvi, Jolán; Prohászka, Zoltán



Identification and function of proteolysis regulators in seminal fluid.  


Proteins in the seminal fluid of animals with internal fertilization effect numerous responses in mated females that impact both male and female fertility. Among these proteins is the highly represented class of proteolysis regulators (proteases and their inhibitors). Though proteolysis regulators have now been identified in the seminal fluid of all animals in which proteomic studies of the seminal fluid have been conducted (as well as several other species in which they have not), a unified understanding of the importance of proteolysis to male fertilization success and other reproductive processes has not yet been achieved. In this review, we provide an overview of the identification of proteolysis regulators in the seminal fluid of humans and Drosophila melanogaster, the two species with the most comprehensively known seminal fluid proteomes. We also highlight reports demonstrating the functional significance of specific proteolysis regulators in reproductive and post-mating processes. Finally, we make broad suggestions for the direction of future research into the roles of both active seminal fluid proteolysis regulators and their inactive homologs, another significant class of seminal fluid proteins. We hope that this review aids researchers in pursuing a coordinated study of the functional significance of proteolysis regulators in semen. PMID:23109270

Laflamme, Brooke A; Wolfner, Mariana F



Coefficient of Friction Measured from Nano- to Macro-Normal Loads on Plasma Sprayed Nanostructured Cermet Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alumina dispersed FeCuAl-based nanostructured cermet coatings were deposited from nanostructured powders by atmospheric plasma spraying on low carbon steel substrates. Nanostructuring was retained in the deposited coatings which exhibit up to four distinctive phases as revealed by electron microscopy. In this study, the friction behavior of the distinctive phases at nano-normal load scale was investigated alongside their contribution to the overall friction behavior at macro-normal load scale. Friction behavior at nano-normal load scale was investigated by lateral force microscopy, whereas conventional tribometers were used for investigations at micro and macro-normal loads. It appeared that, the friction measured at nano-normal loads on individual phases is dictated by both composition and hardness of the corresponding phases, and thus influences the overall friction behavior of the coatings at macro-normal loads. Moreover, the coefficient of friction at macro-normal loads differs from the one at nano-normal loads, and deviates from Amonton's friction law.

Basak, A. K.; Celis, J.-P.; Vardavoulias, M.; Matteazzi, P.



Molecular dynamics study of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of normal murine thymocytes and leukemic GRSL cells.  


Molecular dynamics (MD) calculations for the plasma membranes of normal murine thymocytes and thymus-derived leukemic GRSL cells in water have been performed under physiological isothermal-isobaric conditions (310.15K and 1 atm) to investigate changes in membrane properties induced by canceration. The model membranes used in our calculations for normal and leukemic thymocytes comprised 23 and 25 kinds of lipids, respectively, including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, lysophospholipids, and cholesterol. The mole fractions of the lipids adopted here were based on previously published experimental values. Our calculations clearly showed that the membrane area was increased in leukemic cells, and that the isothermal area compressibility of the leukemic plasma membranes was double that of normal cells. The calculated membranes of leukemic cells were thus considerably bulkier and softer in the lateral direction compared with those of normal cells. The tilt angle of the cholesterol and the conformation of the phospholipid fatty acid tails both showed a lower level of order in leukemic cell membranes compared with normal cell membranes. The lateral radial distribution function of the lipids also showed a more disordered structure in leukemic cell membranes than in normal cell membranes. These observations all show that, for the present thymocytes, the lateral structure of the membrane is considerably disordered by canceration. Furthermore, the calculated lateral self-diffusion coefficient of the lipid molecules in leukemic cell membranes was almost double that in normal cell membranes. The calculated rotational and wobbling autocorrelation functions also indicated that the molecular motion of the lipids was enhanced in leukemic cell membranes. Thus, here we have demonstrated that the membranes of thymocyte leukemic cells are more disordered and more fluid than normal cell membranes. PMID:23333323

Andoh, Yoshimichi; Okazaki, Susumu; Ueoka, Ryuichi



A short study of the seminal colliculus in some mammals.  


The seminal colliculus is completely absent in the donkey. It is fibroglandular in the males of camel, ox, buffalo and pig. Prostatic acini are richly found in its depth. They are lined by cubical or low columnar epithelium, are separated from each other by trabeculae of connective tissue and smooth muscle, and separated from the deeper prostrate gland by the striated muscle of the urethra. A rare type of seminal colliculus was once encountered in the ox. This type is muscular with autonomic ganglia and complete absence of glandular acini. It seems that the seminal colliculus shares the prostate in its glandular functions and prevents oozing of semen from the seminal ducts. PMID:7386162

Shehata, R



Seminal vesicle agenesis: An uncommon cause of azoospermia  

PubMed Central

Seminal vesicle malformations are a rare cause of obstructive azoospermia, often associated with other internal genitalia and upper urinary tract birth defects. We report 5 new cases of seminal vesicle agenesis in men presenting with hypospermia and azoospermia. Imaging showed seminal vesicle unilateral agenesis in all patients. The remaining seminal vesicle was hypoplastic in 3 cases, dilated in 1 case and with abnormally thick content in another case. Vas deferens agenesis was observed unilaterally in 2 patients and bilaterally in 2 other patients. No renal malformations were detected. Genetic study showed in all cases a 46 XY karyotype without any microdeletions. A single heterozygous cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene mutation was diagnosed in 1 man, but not found in his partner. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection using sperm from a testicular biopsy was performed in 3 couples, without success.

Bouzouita, Abderrazak; Kerkeni, Walid; Abouda, Hassine; Khrouf, Mohamed; Elloumi, Hanene; Mnif, Najla; Messaoud, Taieb; Zhioua, Amel; Zhioua, Fethi; Chebil, Mohamed



Diurnal variations in unconjugated and total plasma estriol levels in late normal pregnancy.  


Diurnal variations in plasma unconjugated and total estriol were assessed in 11 third-trimester subjects with uncomplicated pregnancies. Commercially available 125I-labeled radioimmunoassay kits were used. Total plasma estriols reach a nadir during the hours of sleep (400 and 700 hours) which exceeds the episodic fluctuations seen from day to day or during a given 90-minute period. Plasma unconjugated estriol fluctuations over 24 hours did not significantly exceed our previously reported episodic fluctuation of 15.6 +/- 8.2%. The data are interpreted as showing no circadian rhythm, but reflecting, in the case of total plasma estriols, an effect of improved renal clearance during hours of rest. Plasma unconjugated estriol emerges as the test of choice in the monitoring of high-risk pregnancies. PMID:571590

Compton, A A; Kirkish, L S; Parra, J; Stoecklein, S; Barclay, M L; McCann, D S



Seminal Monolateral Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy in Selected Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: In recent years there has been a shift in prostate cancer stage with the majority of patients nowadays being operated with cT1c disease, prostate-specific antigen levels of <10 ng\\/ml, and a decreased rate of seminal vesicle invasion. Recent data suggest the role of preservation of the seminal vesicle in improving continence and\\/or potency. We describe our preliminary experience with

Maurizio Bellina; Mauro Mari; Alessandra Ambu; Stefano Guercio; Luigi Rolle; Marco Tampellini



Wheat germ policosanol failed to lower plasma cholesterol in subjects with normal to mildly elevated cholesterol concentrations.  


Sugar cane policosanol, a mixture of long-chain primary alcohols (approximately 67% as octacosanol), has been reported to lower plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. We investigated the effect of wheat germ policosanol (WGP) on plasma lipid profiles in 58 adults (30 men and 28 women, aged 49 +/- 11 years) with normal to mildly elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations in a double-blind, randomized, parallel placebo-controlled study. Subjects consumed chocolate pellets with or without 20 mg/d WGP for 4 weeks. Plasma lipid concentrations, routine blood chemistry and hematology were determined at the start and the end of the study. The initial plasma total, LDL-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol concentrations in the WGP and the control groups were identical. Over the 4 weeks, neither the WGP nor the control treatment significantly changed plasma total cholesterol, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, or triacylglycerol concentrations when compared to baseline values. In addition, there was no significant difference in plasma lipid profiles between the WGP and the control groups at the end of the study. WGP did not result in any adverse effects as indicated by plasma activities of L-gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT), ALT, AST, bilirubin concentrations, and blood cell profiles. Chemical analysis showed that WGP consists of 8% hexacosanol, 67% octacosanol, 12% triacosanol, and 13% other long-chain alcohols, which is similar to the composition of sugar cane policosanol. In conclusion, WGP at 20 mg/d had no beneficial effects on blood lipid profiles. It therefore seems unlikely that the long chain (C24-34) alcohols have any cholesterol-lowering activity. PMID:15375787

Lin, Yuguang; Rudrum, Mike; van der Wielen, Reggy P J; Trautwein, Elke A; McNeill, Gerald; Sierksma, Aafje; Meijer, Gert W



Resistance Artery Adaptation to Pregnancy Counteracts the Vasoconstricting Influence of Plasma from Normal Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Using a rat model, we investigated the effects of circulating factors in pregnancy on cerebrovascular and systemic vascular function by comparing myogenic reactivity, tone, and endothelial vasodilator production of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and mesenteric artery (MA) of nonpregnant animals perfused with nonpregnant and pregnant human plasma. Arteries from late pregnant (LP) animals were then perfused similarly to evaluate a potential adaptive effect of pregnancy on vessel function. A three-hour exposure to pregnant plasma caused increased myogenic reactivity and tone in vessels from NP animals and produced a decreased endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor response in nonpregnant PCAs, findings that were not seen with MAs. The increased reactivity and tone noted in nonpregnant vessels was abolished when pregnant plasma was perfused through LP arteries, suggesting these vessels adapt during pregnancy to the vasoconstricting influence of pregnant plasma.

Amburgey, Odul A.; Reeves, Shane A.; Bernstein, Ira M.; Cipolla, Marilyn J.



Relative Ratios of Lactoferrin, Albumin, and Acid Phosphatase Seminal Levels as Sperm Quality Markers in Fertile and Infertile Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human seminal plasma proteins from fertile and infertile men were fractionated by electrophoresis. The amounts of threeCoomassie-stained proteinbands were measured by densitometry.Their relative ratios were constant in normosper- mic men but varied in the infertile patients. Laboratory manip- ulation of the semen was shown not to affect the protein ratios as observed after liquefaction, incubation at various tempera- tures, and



Seminal PDC-109 protein vis-à-vis cholesterol content and freezability of buffalo spermatozoa.  


Advancements in reproductive technologies have shown seminal plasma (SP) as a nutritive-protective medium for spermatozoa metabolism, function and transport. At the same time quality variables and thus freezability of spermatozoa are influenced by SP proteins originating from male reproductive tract. One such protein, viz. PDC-109 is reported to influence freezability of spermatozoa in cattle. Thus the present investigation was designed to evaluate effect of seminal PDC-109 protein concentration on post-thaw cholesterol content and semen quality variables (SQP) as an indicator of membrane integrity and freezability, respectively of buffalo spermatozoa. Ejaculates (n=42) selected on the basis of mass activity and individual motility were divided into three parts, first part for SP proteins isolation, second for cholesterol estimation and third part was cryo-preserved to evaluate freezability based on post-thaw SQP, viz. individual progressive motility, viability and acrosome integrity of spermatozoa. A total of 28 (66.7%) and 14 (33.3%) ejaculates from four bulls were found as freezable or non-freezable, respectively. Though total seminal plasma protein (TSPP) concentration was found similar in freezable and non-freezable ejaculates, the heparin binding proteins (HBP) content in non-freezable semen was greater (P<0.01) than freezable ejaculates. There was a similar trend for the PDC-109 protein content in respective ejaculates. Cholesterol content of spermatozoa and SQP were greater (P<0.05 and 0.01, respectively) in freezable as compared to non-freezable ejaculates of each bull at post-thaw stage. This study showed that concentrations of HBP and PDC-109 in non-freezable semen might be responsible for greater cryo-damage reflecting in poor freezability of buffalo spermatozoa. PMID:24289867

Singh, Mahak; Ghosh, S K; Prasad, J K; Kumar, Anuj; Tripathi, R P; Bhure, S K; Srivastava, N



4D tracking of clinical seminal samples for quantitative characterization of motility parameters  

PubMed Central

In this paper we investigate the use of a digital holographic microscope, with partial spatial coherent illumination, for the automated detection and tracking of spermatozoa. This in vitro technique for the analysis of quantitative parameters is useful for assessment of semen quality. In fact, thanks to the capabilities of digital holography, the developed algorithm allows us to resolve in-focus amplitude and phase maps of the cells under study, independently of focal plane of the sample image. We have characterized cell motility on clinical samples of seminal fluid. In particular, anomalous sperm cells were characterized and the quantitative motility parameters were compared to those of normal sperm.

Di Caprio, Giuseppe; El Mallahi, Ahmed; Ferraro, Pietro; Dale, Roberta; Coppola, Gianfranco; Dale, Brian; Coppola, Giuseppe; Dubois, Frank



Ectopic insertion of the ureter into the seminal vesicle  

PubMed Central

We present a case of left ectopic ureter insertion into the left seminal vesicle which is a rare anomaly. The incidence of ectopic insertion of the ureter is more common in females and is usually associated with incontinence, leading to the diagnosis, while in males it is present with infection. Ectopic ureter is defined as abnormal insertion of the ureter, occurring in the posterior urethra in approximately 50% of cases in males. Other sites include the seminal vesicle (approximately one-third), vas deferens, bladder neck, prostate and epididymis, while the urethra and vagina are commonly affected in females. Management is usually addressed to the upper tract only; if there is incontinence it requires removal of the ureteric stump. Our case was initially diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging and the diagnosis confirmed by computed tomography (CT) guided seminal vesiculography as transrectal guidance for seminal vesiculography was refused by the patient. CT guided seminal vesiculography is less painful and more tolerable than the transrectal route.

El-Ghar, Mohamed Abou; El-Diasty, Tarek



Ectopic insertion of the ureter into the seminal vesicle.  


We present a case of left ectopic ureter insertion into the left seminal vesicle which is a rare anomaly. The incidence of ectopic insertion of the ureter is more common in females and is usually associated with incontinence, leading to the diagnosis, while in males it is present with infection. Ectopic ureter is defined as abnormal insertion of the ureter, occurring in the posterior urethra in approximately 50% of cases in males. Other sites include the seminal vesicle (approximately one-third), vas deferens, bladder neck, prostate and epididymis, while the urethra and vagina are commonly affected in females. Management is usually addressed to the upper tract only; if there is incontinence it requires removal of the ureteric stump. Our case was initially diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging and the diagnosis confirmed by computed tomography (CT) guided seminal vesiculography as transrectal guidance for seminal vesiculography was refused by the patient. CT guided seminal vesiculography is less painful and more tolerable than the transrectal route. PMID:24198914

El-Ghar, Mohamed Abou; El-Diasty, Tarek



Plasma Sphingolipids as Potential Indicators of Hepatic Necroinflammation in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase Level  

PubMed Central

Accurate estimation of hepatic necroinflammation caused by chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is crucial for prediction of prognosis and design of therapeutic strategy, which is particularly true for CHC patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Recent studies have shown that sphingolipids have a close relationship with hepatitis C virus infection. The present study aimed to identify plasma sphingolipids related to hepatic necroinflammation. We included 120 treatment-naïve CHC patients and 64/120 had normal ALT levels (<40 U/L). CHC patients who underwent liver biopsies were subjected to Scheuer scoring analysis for scope of hepatic inflammation. Plasma sphingolipids were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Our results showed 44 plasma sphingolipids were detected altogether. Of all detected sphingolipids, hexosylceramide (HexCer) (d18?1/22?0) and HexCer (d18?1/24?0) showed a significant difference among G0/G1, G2, and G3/G4 (P<0.05). For identifying hepatic necroinflammation (G?2), after adjusting other factors, the odds ratio (OR) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) reached 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00–1.02). Furthermore, the area under the curve (AUC) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was 0.7 (P?=?0.01) and approached that of ALT (AUC?=?0.78). However, in CHC patients with normal ALT, HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was an independent factor (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01–1.03) to identify the hepatic necroinflammation (G?2). HexCer (d18?1/22?0) not only showed the largest AUC (0.78, P?=?0.001), but also exhibited the highest specificity of all indicators. These results indicate that plasma HexCer (d18?1/22?0) is a potential indicator to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation in CHC patients. For CHC with normal ALT, the ability of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation might be superior to conventional serum indicators.

Ren, Jin-Yu; Wu, Hui-Li; Liu, Mei; Liu, Hui; Ren, Feng; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Duan, Zhong-Ping



Plasma sphingolipids as potential indicators of hepatic necroinflammation in patients with chronic hepatitis C and normal alanine aminotransferase level.  


Accurate estimation of hepatic necroinflammation caused by chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is crucial for prediction of prognosis and design of therapeutic strategy, which is particularly true for CHC patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Recent studies have shown that sphingolipids have a close relationship with hepatitis C virus infection. The present study aimed to identify plasma sphingolipids related to hepatic necroinflammation. We included 120 treatment-naïve CHC patients and 64/120 had normal ALT levels (<40 U/L). CHC patients who underwent liver biopsies were subjected to Scheuer scoring analysis for scope of hepatic inflammation. Plasma sphingolipids were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Our results showed 44 plasma sphingolipids were detected altogether. Of all detected sphingolipids, hexosylceramide (HexCer) (d18?1/22?0) and HexCer (d18?1/24?0) showed a significant difference among G0/G1, G2, and G3/G4 (P<0.05). For identifying hepatic necroinflammation (G?2), after adjusting other factors, the odds ratio (OR) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) reached 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.02). Furthermore, the area under the curve (AUC) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was 0.7 (P?=?0.01) and approached that of ALT (AUC?=?0.78). However, in CHC patients with normal ALT, HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was an independent factor (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03) to identify the hepatic necroinflammation (G?2). HexCer (d18?1/22?0) not only showed the largest AUC (0.78, P?=?0.001), but also exhibited the highest specificity of all indicators. These results indicate that plasma HexCer (d18?1/22?0) is a potential indicator to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation in CHC patients. For CHC with normal ALT, the ability of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation might be superior to conventional serum indicators. PMID:24736528

Li, Jun-Feng; Qu, Feng; Zheng, Su-Jun; Ren, Jin-Yu; Wu, Hui-Li; Liu, Mei; Liu, Hui; Ren, Feng; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Duan, Zhong-Ping



Electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometric analysis of intact bikunin glycosaminoglycan from normal human plasma  

PubMed Central

A mixture of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains from a plasma proteoglycan bikunin was fractionated using native, continuous-elution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the resulting fractions were analyzed by electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ESI FTMS). Molecular mass analysis of the intact GAG afforded information about the length and composition of GAG chains in the mixture. Ambiguity in the interpretation of the intact GAG mass spectra was eliminated by conducting an additional experiment in which the GAG chains of known molecular mass were treated with a GAG-degrading enzyme, chondroitinase ABC, and the digestion products were analyzed by ESI FTMS. The plasma bikunin GAG chains consisted predominantly of odd number of saccharides, although few chains consisting of even number of saccharides were also detected. Majority of the analyzed chains were tetrasulfated or pentasulfated and comprised by 29 to 41 monosaccharides.

Laremore, Tatiana N.; Leach, Franklin E.; Amster, I. Jonathan; Linhardt, Robert J.



Sexual selection, seminal coagulation and copulatory plug formation in primates.  


This study examines the question of whether multipartner matings by female primates, with resulting sperm competition among males, may have favored the evolution of biochemical mechanisms to enhance seminal coagulationand copulatory plug formation. Comparative ratings of seminal coagulation (using a four-point scale where 1 = no coagulation and 4 = copulatory plug formation) were obtained for 40 species representing 26 primate genera. Coagulation ratings were highest (mean = 3.64) in those genera where females commonly mate with multiple partners, and lowest (mean = 2.09) in genera where females are primarily monogamous or belong to polygynous (one male) units(p < 0.0001). This result remained significant (p < 0.001) after the use of comparative analysis of independent contrasts (CAIC) to control for possible phylogenetic biases in the data set. Results indicate that sexual selection has played an important role in the evolution of seminal coagulation, and copulatory plug function, in primates. PMID:12207054

Dixson, Alan L; Anderson, Matthew J



Measurement of soft x-ray multilayer mirror reflectance at normal incidence using laser-produced plasmas  

SciTech Connect

We have used laser-produced plasmas as a broadband source of soft x rays to measure the normal incidence reflectance of multilayer mirrors in the 10--25 nm spectral region. The measurements have a spectral resolution of 0.03 nm and a reflectance resolution of 10%. Measurements made on a Mo/Si multilayer show excellent agreement with results obtained using a synchrotron and indicate a normal incidence peak reflectance of over 50% at 15 nm. By repeating the reflectance measurement at different positions across a single 7.5 cm mirror we determined multilayer uniformity as a function of position and we relate this dependence to the geometry of the deposition process.

Trail, J.A.; Byer, R.L.; Barbee T.W. Jr.



Metabolism of neutral glycosphingolipids in plasma of a normal human and a patient with Fabry's disease.  


[6-2H2]Glucose was used as a tracer for a comparative study on the metabolism of the neutral glycosylceramides in plasma of a control subject and a patient with Fabry's disease. The incorporation of the tracer into the glucosyl and galactosyl moieties of the glycosphingolipids was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the tetra-0-acetyl methyl glycoside derivatives. Experiments on the precision and accuracy for measurements of [6,6-2H2]hexose in a sample demonstrated that incorporation of 0.2% or more of [6,6-2H2]glucose could be detected with a 95% confidence limit of +/-0.16%. The labeled substrate (35g) was infused into each subject with a 5-g priming dose and the remainder administered at a constant rate of 3 g/hour over a 10-hour period. During the infusion, the plasma glucose of each subject attained a concentration of about 30% [6,6-2H2]glucose which diminished rapidly after the administration of substrate was complete. A concentration of 0.8% [6,6-2H2]glucose was observed in glucosylceramide (GL-la) from plasma of both subjects between 48 and 72 hours after the infusion began. The label disappeared from this lipid at a logarithmic rate and 0.2% or less of the molecules were labeled 9 days after the experiment began. In contrast to the results with GL-la, the maximum incorporation of [6,6-2H2]hexose into lactosylceramide (galactosyl-(beta1 leads to 4)-glucosylceramide) was 2-fold higher in the Fabry patient (1.6%) than in the control (0.8%). The trihexosylceramide (galactosyl-(alpha1 leads to 4)-galactosyl-(beta1 leads to 4)-glucosylceramide, GL-3a) from plasma of the control reached a maximum of 0.4% [6,6-2H2]hexose in both the glucosyl and galactosyl moieties whereas the GL-3a from the Fabry patient was not significantly labeled. The maximal labeling of the GL-4a fraction (N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-galactosyl-galactosyl-glucosylceramide) was slightly depressed in the Fabry patient (0.4%) as compared to the control (0.7%). Turnover times for the glycosphingolipids of plasma were calculated to be from 4 to 8 days and the turnover rates were from 1 to 6 mumol/day. PMID:809441

Vance, D E; Krivit, W; Sweeley, C C



Identification of multiple subclasses of plasma low density lipoproteins in normal humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density gradient ultracentrifugation of low density lipoproteins (LDL) from 12 normal subjects showed multiple, distinct isopycnic bands. Each band could be assigend to one of four density intervals and the boundaries of these intervals were consistent among all the subjects. Analytic ultracentrifuge flotation (S\\/sub f\\/°) rates were assigned to the four density intervals, and there was a strong correlation between

Ronald M. Krauss; David J. Burke



Plasma amino acid concentrations and amino acid ratios in normal adults and adults heterozygous for phenylketonuria ingesting a hamburger and milk shake meal13  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRAC'I' Plasma amino acid concentrations were mea- sured and selected amino acid ratios were calculated in 12 normal adults and 12 adults heterozygous for phenylketonuria (PKU) ingesting a hamburger and milk shake meal providing 1 g pro- tein\\/kg body wt. Plasma concentrations of all amino acids in- creased significantly over baseline after meal ingestion in both groups, reaching the highest

Lewis D Stegink; Marvin C Brummel; George L Baker; Wilma L Krause; Edward F Bell; Ekhard E Ziegler


Effect of an Abuse Dose of Aspartame upon Plasma and Erythrocyte Levels of Amino Acids in Phenylketonuric Heterozygous and Normal Adults1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma and erythrocyte levels of free amino acids were measured in five female subjects known to be heterozygous for phenylketonuria and six subjects assumed to be normal (three male, three female) who were ad ministered an abuse dose of aspartame (100 mg\\/kg) in orange juice. Small increases in plasma aspartate levels were noted 30 minutes after aspartame load ing in



Human noninsulin-dependent diabetes: identification of a defect in plasma cholesterol transport normalized in vivo by insulin and in vitro by selective immunoadsorption of apolipoprotein E.  

PubMed Central

Plasma cholesterol metabolism in patients with poorly controlled noninsulin-dependent diabetes was characterized by inhibition of cholesterol net transport between cultured cells (fibroblasts) and plasma, inhibition of cholesterol esterification, and inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer to low and very low density lipoproteins, relative to a normal control group. Plasma from these patients also contained a 2-fold higher level of apolipoprotein E (apo E). Effective control of hyperglycemia with insulin normalized both the parameters of plasma cholesterol metabolism and plasma levels of apo E. Removal of apo E by immunoaffinity chromatography normalized cell-to-plasma cholesterol transport but was without effect on the rate of cholesterol esterification or of cholesteryl ester transfer. These findings suggest that an inhibition in the chain of reactions by which cellular cholesterol is transferred in esterified form to low and very low density lipoproteins is associated with the appearance of an apo E-dependent "shunt" pathway, returning cholesterol from plasma back to the cells and so nullifying the normal cell-to-plasma transport pathway.

Fielding, C J; Reaven, G M; Fielding, P E



Effect of normalized plasma frequency on electron phase-space orbits in a free-electron laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irregular phase-space orbits of the electrons are harmful to the electron-beam transport quality and hence deteriorate the performance of a free-electron laser (FEL). In previous literature, it was demonstrated that the irregularity of the electron phase-space orbits could be caused in several ways, such as varying the wiggler amplitude and inducing sidebands. Based on a Hamiltonian model with a set of self-consistent differential equations, it is shown in this paper that the electron-beam normalized plasma frequency functions not only couple the electron motion with the FEL wave, which results in the evolution of the FEL wave field and a possible power saturation at a large beam current, but also cause the irregularity of the electron phase-space orbits when the normalized plasma frequency has a sufficiently large value, even if the initial energy of the electron is equal to the synchronous energy or the FEL wave does not reach power saturation.

Ji, Yu-Pin; Wang, Shi-Jian; Xu, Jing-Yue; Xu, Yong-Gen; Liu, Xiao-Xu; Lu, Hong; Huang, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Shi-Chang



Clinical application of 62Zn/62Cu positron generator: perfusion and plasma pool images in normal subjects.  


We have developed a new 62Zn/62Cu positron generator, and applied it for PET imaging of perfusion and plasma volume in 5 normal subjects. The generator makes it possible by a simple procedure to obtain 62Cu eluate and labeling compounds sufficiently every 40-60 minutes. 62Cu labeled pyruvaldehyde bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) copper II (62Cu-PTSM) was employed for cerebral and myocardial perfusion imaging and 62Cu labeled human serum albumin-dithiosemicarbazone (62Cu-HSA-DTS) was used for plasma pool imaging. The images of cerebral blood flow, cerebral plasma volume and myocardial perfusion were excellent. In addition, the analysis of tissue activity and blood activity demonstrated the microspheric character of 62Cu-PTSM. Correction of arterial activity with the standard disappearance curve of 62Cu-PTSM suggested the possibility of quantifying blood flow. The results of this study indicate the capability of the 62Zn/62Cu generator for wide clinical use without an in-house cyclotron. PMID:7662494

Okazawa, H; Fujibayashi, Y; Yonekura, Y; Tamaki, N; Nishizawa, S; Magata, Y; Ishizu, K; Tsuchida, T; Sadato, N; Konishi, J



A new principle to normalize plasma concentrations allowing single-sample clearance determinations in both children and adults.  


A sufficiently accurate quantification of renal function requiring only one plasma sample without an additional gamma-camera study has, until now, only been possible in adults. A new principle will be presented here allowing the universal application of known algorithms, regardless of the clearance substance used, by normalizing the plasma concentrations with respect to the individual body dimensions of the patients--for infants as well as for adults. In this respect, algorithms are developed for clearance determinations using technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3), which are based on steady-state studies as the reference. They allow the calculation of quantitative clearance values in infants, requiring only one blood sampling at any time between the 25th and the 40th min postinjection. The comparison with a combined camera/two-plasma-sample technique performed in 46 children aged between 9 days and 14 years (mean 6.05 years) resulted in a standard error of 8.5% from the line of identity (r = 0.94). Moreover, this procedure also increases the accuracy of results in adults. PMID:1386574

Bubeck, B; Piepenburg, R; Grethe, U; Ehrig, B; Hahn, K



Phallic and seminal masculinity: a theoretical and clinical confusion.  


Both inside and outside psychoanalysis, the word, 'seminal', is used to praise a creative contribution to science and culture. Rarely, however, does it refer to male procreativity, to the structures and functions that subserve it or to the anxiety related to a threat to it. This situation becomes evident in the concept of castration anxiety, which typically refers, with Freud, to cutting off the penis and not to extirpating the testicles. This phallic theory has been debated, repudiated and ignored. While there is an alternative literature on non-phallic masculinity, it is scattered and rarely refers to seminal function. Freud's theory meets his requirement for a well-articulated representation of absolute loss as an experience, but this clear structure--and its repudiation--obscure the observation and theory of the internal world of the male. I propose the concepts of 'seminal masculinity' and 'seminal castration', which I ground in Melanie Klein's concept of depressive anxiety. I contrast them with phallic masculinity and phallic castration anxiety, which I ground in her concept of paranoid-schizoid anxiety. I argue that they meet Freud's requirement that castration be a potential experience and that understanding masculinity demands such a basis. PMID:20433478

Figlio, Karl



Effect of Semen Sampling Frequency on Seminal Antiretroviral Drug Concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of male genital tract (MGT) pharmacology is relevant to the treatment of prostatitis, prostate cancer, infertility, and seminal human immunodeficiency virus transmission. However, the time course of drug concentrations in the MGT is largely unknown. To determine the feasibility of frequent semen sampling in assessing the pharmacokinetics of the MGT, we administered efavirenz, indinavir, and zidovudine to subjects to

YJ Cao; TT Ndovi; TL Parsons; AM Guidos; B Caffo; CW Hendrix



Alterations of seminal and hormonal parameters: An extrahepatic manifestation of HCV infection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate the possible infl uences of HCV infec- tion and relative antiviral treatment on seminal param- eters and reproductive hormonal serum levels. METHODS: Ten male patients with HCV-related chronic hepatitis and 16 healthy male volunteers were studied. In all subjects seminal parameters (nemaspermic con- centration, progressive motility, morphology) and hor- monal levels were determined. Seminal parameters and inhibin

Marilena Durazzo; Alberto Premoli; Angela Bertagna; Emanuela Fagà; Giampaolo Biroli; Chiara Manieri; Simona Bo; Gianfranco Pagano



An unusual cause of hematospermia: Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle  

PubMed Central

Adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles is one of the rare causes of hematospermia. Primary seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose due to frequent invasion of adenocarcinomas of the surrounding organs, especially the prostate. In the present study, a case of a primary seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma will be discussed in the light of the current literature.

Eken, Alper; Izol, Volkan; Aridogan, I. Atilla; Erdogan, Seyda; Ac?kal?n, Arbil; Tansug, Zuhtu



Fenofibrate reduces plasma cholesteryl ester transfer from HDL to VLDL and normalizes the atherogenic, dense LDL profile in combined hyperlipidemia.  


The effect of fenofibrate on plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity in relation to the quantitative and qualitative features of apoB- and apoA-I-containing lipoprotein subspecies was investigated in nine patients presenting with combined hyperlipidemia. Fenofibrate (200 mg/d for 8 weeks) induced significant reductions in plasma cholesterol (-16%; P < .01), triglyceride (-44%; P < .007), VLDL cholesterol (-52%; P = .01), LDL cholesterol (-14%; P < .001), and apoB (-15%; P < .009) levels and increased HDL cholesterol (19%; P = .0001) and apoA-I (12%; P = .003) levels. An exogenous cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) assay revealed a marked decrease (-26%; P < .002) in total plasma CETP-dependent CET activity after fenofibrate treatment. Concomitant with the pronounced reduction in VLDL levels (37%; P < .005), the rate of CET from HDL to VLDL was significantly reduced by 38% (P = .0001), whereas no modification in the rate of cholesteryl ester exchange between HDL and LDL occurred after fenofibrate therapy. Combined hyperlipidemia is characterized by an asymmetrical LDL profile in which small, dense LDL subspecies (LDL-4 and LDL-5, d = 1.039 to 1.063 g/mL) predominate. Fenofibrate quantitatively normalized the atherogenic LDL profile by reducing levels of dense LDL subspecies (-21%) and by inducing an elevation (26%; P < .05) in LDL subspecies of intermediate density (LDL-3, d = 1.029 to 1.039 g/mL), which possess optimal binding affinity for the cellular LDL receptor. However, no marked qualitative modifications in the chemical composition or size of LDL particles were observed after drug treatment. Interestingly, the HDL cholesterol concentration was increased by fenofibrate therapy, whereas no significant change was detected in total plasma HDL mass. In contrast, the HDL subspecies pattern was modified as the result of an increase in the total mass (11.7%) of HDL2a, HDL3a, and HDL3b (d = 1.091 to 1.156 g/mL) at the expense of reductions in the total mass (-23%) of HDL2b (d = 1.063 to 1.091 g/mL) and HDL3c (d = 1.156 to 1.179 g/mL). Such changes are consistent with a drug-induced reduction in CETP activity. In conclusion, the overall mechanism involved in the fenofibrate-induced modulation of the atherogenic dense LDL profile in combined hyperlipidemia primarily involves reduction in CET from HDL to VLDL together with normalization of the intravascular transformation of VLDL precursors to receptor-active LDLs of intermediate density. PMID:8640404

Guérin, M; Bruckert, E; Dolphin, P J; Turpin, G; Chapman, M J



Remembrance of weaning past: the seminal papers.  


The approach to ventilator weaning has changed considerably over the past 30 years. Change has resulted from research in three areas: pathophysiology, weaning-predictor testing, and weaning techniques. Physiology research illuminated the mechanisms of weaning failure. It also uncovered markers of weaning success. Through more reliable prediction, patients whose weaning would have been tedious in the 1970s are now weaned more rapidly. The weaning story offers several lessons in metascience: importance of creativity, the asking of heretical questions, serendipity, mental-set psychology, cross-fertilization, and the hazards of precocity. Weaning research also illustrates how Kuhnian normal (me-too) science dominates any field. Making the next quantum leap in weaning will depend on spending less time on normal science and more on the raising (and testing) of maverick ideas. PMID:16896845

Tobin, Martin J



Bleeding management with fibrinogen concentrate targeting a high-normal plasma fibrinogen level: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Bleeding diathesis after aortic valve operation and ascending aorta replacement (AV–AA) is managed with fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet concentrates. The aim was to compare haemostatic effects of conventional transfusion management and FIBTEM (thromboelastometry test)-guided fibrinogen concentrate administration. Methods A blood products transfusion algorithm was developed using retrospective data from 42 elective patients (Group A). Two units of platelet concentrate were transfused after cardiopulmonary bypass, followed by 4 u of FFP if bleeding persisted, if platelet count was ?100×103 µl?1 when removing the aortic clamp, and vice versa if platelet count was >100×103 µl?1. The trigger for each therapy step was ?60 g blood absorbed from the mediastinal wound area by dry swabs in 5 min. Assignment to two prospective groups was neither randomized nor blinded; Group B (n=5) was treated according to the algorithm, Group C (n=10) received fibrinogen concentrate (Haemocomplettan® P/Riastap, CSL Behring, Marburg, Germany) before the algorithm-based therapy. Results A mean of 5.7 (0.7) g fibrinogen concentrate decreased blood loss to below the transfusion trigger level in all Group C patients. Group C had reduced transfusion [mean 0.7 (range 0–4) u vs 8.5 (5.3) in Group A and 8.2 (2.3) in Group B] and reduced postoperative bleeding [366 (199) ml vs 793 (560) in Group A and 716 (219) in Group B]. Conclusions In this pilot study, FIBTEM-guided fibrinogen concentrate administration was associated with reduced transfusion requirements and 24 h postoperative bleeding in patients undergoing AV–AA.

Rahe-Meyer, N.; Pichlmaier, M.; Haverich, A.; Solomon, C.; Winterhalter, M.; Piepenbrock, S.; Tanaka, K. A.



Effects of seminal vesicle and coagulating gland ablation on fertility in rats.  


In rats the secretions of the seminal vesicles and coagulating glands clot after ejaculation in the female tract to form a copulatory plug. The plug plays a critical role in transcervical sperm transport. Factors that influence the secretions of accessory sex glands have the potential to alter fertility without adverse effects on the gametes themselves. In the present study, the effect of surgical removal of the rat seminal vesicles and coagulating glands (SVx) on mating and fertility was investigated. SVx males were completely infertile by natural mating. Observed mating of SVx males with LHRH synchronized females confirmed that mating performance was normal and that they were capable of ejaculating sperm but could not produce copulatory plugs. In the absence of the copulatory plug, no sperm was transported into the uterus. Epididymal sperm obtained from the same males were capable of fertilization after intrauterine insemination and gave comparable numbers of embryos and unfertilized oocytes as sham operated controls. These findings underscore the importance of examining the role of both males and females during insemination and that observed matings, uterine sperm counts, and intrauterine insemination are useful adjuncts to routine fertility assessment when effects on the accessory sex glands are suspected. PMID:1806140

Cukierski, M A; Sina, J L; Prahalada, S; Robertson, R T



Plasma NT-PRO BNP concentrations are associated with ambulatory blood pressure in black hypertensive patients with normal systolic function on echocardiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Plasma concentrations of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, independent of age, functional class and left ventricular function. We evaluate whether plasma concentrations of NT-pro BNP are associated with blood pressure or left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with moderate-to-severe hypertension with normal LV systolic function.Methods: 49 black African patients with moderate to severe hypertension

Elena N. Libhaber; Haroon Abbasi; Christina A. Toyin; Gavin R. Norton; Angela Woodiwiss; Carlos D. Libhaber; Mohammed R. Essop; Karen Sliwa



p-Chlorophenylalanine-induced proliferation of the seminal vesicle epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraperitoneal injection of p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) methylester (100 mg\\/kg body weight) results in an activation of the lysosomal system of the secretory cells in the rat seminal vesicle and an elevation of the activities of lysosomal enzymes within 15 min following the injection. Large autophagic vacuoles are formed, sequestering rough endoplasmic reticulum and part of the Golgi apparatus within 2 h.

G. Aumtiller; K. Giers; U. Giers; A. Völkl; J. Seitz



Cloning and chromosomal mapping of mouse seminal vesicle protein F.  


Seminal vesicle proteins (SVPs) are made by male rodents, and form the copulatory plug following mating. Here we report a partial nucleotide sequence of a mouse clone homologous to rat SVP F. Unexpectedly, we found that SVP F-related transcripts are expressed at high levels in mouse skeletal muscle. We mapped mouse SVP F to mouse chromosome 15 using somatic cell hybrid lines. PMID:8487016

Yoo-Warren, H; Willse, A G; Hull, J; Brownell, E



Does Cigarette Smoking Affect Seminal Fluid Parameters? A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal fluid parameters, namely; volume, sperm concentration, and motility, as well as morphology, leukocyte infiltration, among males complaining of infertility. Methods Between August 2010 and July 2011, seminal fluid analysis was done for 1438 males who are partners of couples who visited the infertility clinic at Prince Rashid Ben Al Hassan Hospital (PRH) for infertility. The men who fit the inclusion criteria (n=960) were classified into two groups: group a (non-smokers; n=564) and group B (smokers; n=396), which represents 41.25% of the study group. Seminal fluid was collected using masturbation after 3-5 days of abstinence then analyzed for volume, sperm count, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. In order to analyze whether the number of cigarettes smoked per day has an effect on the spermatogram; the smoking men were divided into two subgroups: the heavy smokers (n=266) and non-heavy smokers (n=130). Results A total of 960 adult males were enrolled. Their age ranged between 21 and 76 years, 564 were non-smokers with mean age of 36. 45±6.27 (Mean±SD). Three-hundred-and-ninety-six were smokers with a mean age of 34.35±4.25 (Mean±SD). There was a significant effect of smoking on the motility of sperms and the ratios of abnormality (p<0.005). Concentration appeared not to be affected by smoking. Furthermore, the group of heavy smokers were found to have lower sperm concentrations and a higher percentage of abnormal sperms compared to the non-heavy smokers. Conclusion Cigarette smoking has a deleterious effect on some of the seminal fluid parameters (motility, morphology and leukocyte count) which in turn may result in male subfertility.

Meri, Zakarya Bani; Irshid, Ibrahim Bani; Migdadi, Mohammad; Irshid, Ayat Bani; Mhanna, Somia A.



Leiomyoma of the Seminal Vesicle: A Rare Case  

PubMed Central

Leiomyomas though common benign tumors of smooth muscle cells are extremely rare in the male genitourinary tract. We present a case of an elderly male who presented with complaints suggestive of urinary bladder outlet obstruction since 1 year. His evaluation showed it due to a tumour arising from the left seminal vesicle. Excision of the tumor was done which was diagnosed on histopathology as leiomyoma. A brief case report and review of literature is being presented.

Shaikh, Aftab S.; Bakhshi, Girish D.; Khan, Arshad S.; Jamadar, Nilofar M.; Nirmala, Aravind Kotresh; Raza, Arif Ahmed



Proteomics Reveals Novel Drosophila Seminal Fluid Proteins Transferred at Mating  

PubMed Central

Across diverse taxa, seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) transferred at mating affect the reproductive success of both sexes. Such reproductive proteins often evolve under positive selection between species; because of this rapid divergence, Sfps are hypothesized to play a role in speciation by contributing to reproductive isolation between populations. In Drosophila, individual Sfps have been characterized and are known to alter male sperm competitive ability and female post-mating behavior, but a proteomic-scale view of the transferred Sfps has been missing. Here we describe a novel proteomic method that uses whole-organism isotopic labeling to detect transferred Sfps in mated female D. melanogaster. We identified 63 proteins, which were previously unknown to function in reproduction, and confirmed the transfer of dozens of predicted Sfps. Relative quantification of protein abundance revealed that several of these novel Sfps are abundant in seminal fluid. Positive selection and tandem gene duplication are the prevailing forces of Sfp evolution, and comparative proteomics with additional species revealed lineage-specific changes in seminal fluid content. We also report a proteomic-based gene discovery method that uncovered 19 previously unannotated genes in D. melanogaster. Our results demonstrate an experimental method to identify transferred proteins in any system that is amenable to isotopic labeling, and they underscore the power of combining proteomic and evolutionary analyses to shed light on the complex process of Drosophila reproduction.

Findlay, Geoffrey D; Yi, Xianhua; MacCoss, Michael J; Swanson, Willie J



Identification of messenger RNA of fetoplacental source in maternal plasma of women with normal pregnancies and pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction  

PubMed Central

Objective: to quantify placenta-specific RNA in plasma of women carrying foetuses with intrauterine growth restriction and pregnant women with normal pregnancies. Methods: 8 pregnant women with foetuses with intrauterine growth restriction were studied as well as 18 women with uncomplicated pregnancies in the third pregnancy trimester. Total free RNA was quantified in maternal plasma by spectrophotometry and the gene expression of hPL (Human Placental Lactogen) at the messenger RNA level through technical Real Time-Chain Reaction Polymerase. Results: plasma RNA of fetoplacental origin was successfully detected in 100% of pregnant women. There were no statistically significant differences between the values of total RNA extracted from plasma (p= 0.5975) nor in the messenger RNA expression of hPL gene (p= 0.5785) between cases and controls. Conclusion: messenger RNA of fetoplacental origin can be detected in maternal plasma during pregnancy.

Garcia Robles, Reggie; Rojas, Juan Diego; Bermudez, Martha; Bernal, Jaime



Environmental factors and not genotype influence the plasma level of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in normal individuals  

PubMed Central

Cytokine production may be regulated by both genotypic (single nucleotide or tandem repeat polymorphisms) and non-genotypic factors relating to the environment and inherent biology (i.e. gender). Interleukin (IL)-1 is one of the body's most highly proinflammatory cytokines and is implicated in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases, but also in the maintenance of homeostasis in a number of tissues. The cytokine IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is the competitive inhibitor of the IL-1 agonists IL-1? and IL-1?. In vivo IL-1Ra was measured in a cohort of 200 + blood donors and the effect of the IL-1 gene polymorphisms, environmental and biological factors assessed. In this study, we observed that possession of particular alleles of 5 IL-1 gene polymorphisms (IL1A-889, IL1? VNTR, IL1B -511, IL1B +3953 and the IL1RN VNTR) did not correlate with higher plasma IL-1Ra levels. Environmental factors such as smoking and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ingestion were associated with higher in vivo IL-1Ra levels (P = 0·015 and 0·022, respectively), but biological factors such as gender, age and menstruation status did not have any impact upon in vivo IL-1Ra levels. Genotypic associations of IL-1 gene family polymorphisms with disease features may reflect characteristics of stressed rather than normal control circuits for cytokine production.

Cullup, H; Middleton, P G; Duggan, G; Conn, J S; Dickinson, A M



Plasma levels of factor XII, prekallikrein and high molecular weight kininogen in normal blood donors and patients having suffered venous thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The contact system proteins factor XII (FXII), prekallikrein (PK) and high molecular weight kininogen (HK) have roles in coagulation, fibrinolysis, thrombin-induced platelet activation, cell adhesion and angeogenisis. It has been suggested that inherited or acquired deficiencies of these proteins may be risk factors for thrombosis. Studies on the levels of FXII in plasma from normal and thrombotic patient populations

Michael J Gallimore; Simon L Harris; David W Jones; Mark Winter



Comparison of total blood volume in normal, preeclamptic, and nonproteinuric gestational hypertensive pregnancy by simultaneous measurement of red blood cell and plasma volumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to demonstrate reduced blood volume in preeclampsia compared with nonproteinuric gestational hypertension and normal pregnancy by use of independent measures of red blood cell and plasma volumes.STUDY DESIGN: Red blood cells labeled with a nonradioactive stable isotope of chromium and Evans’ blue were infused in subjects with preeclampsia or gestational hypertension and normotensive pregnant controls. Blood

Helayne M. Silver; MaryAnn Seebeck; Rose Carlson



The impact force acting on a flat plate exposed normally to a rarefied plasma plume issuing from an annular or circular nozzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the indirect thrust measurement of electric thrusters working at a low vacuum chamber pressure as the research background, this paper analyses the impact force acting on a flat plate exposed normally to a rarefied plasma plume issuing from a thruster with an annular or circular exit section for the free-molecule flow regime (at large Knudsen numbers). The constraint relation

Xi Chen



Changes in plasma lipid and Iipoprotein fractions after alteration in dietary cholesterol, polyunsaturated, saturated, and total fat in free-living normal and hypercholesterolemic children13  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effects of dietary cholesterol and the amount and type of fat on plasma lipid and lipoproteins, nutrient intakes were altered sequentially over I 5 months in 11 normal children and 12 children with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. After a 3-month base-line assessment period, on an ad hibitum diet, the following diets were given sequentially for three months each:

Evan A. Stein; Julie Shapero; Connie McNerney; Charles J. Glueck; Trent Tracy; Peter Gartside


Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects  

SciTech Connect

SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values.

Itoh, S.; Tanaka, K.; Kumagae, M.; Takeda, F.; Morio, K.; Kogure, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Watabe, T.; Miyabe, S.



Comparative N-Glycoproteomic and Phosphoproteomic Profiling of Human Placental Plasma Membrane between Normal and Preeclampsia Pregnancies with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy, which affects 2–8% of all pregnancies and is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in pathological development of placenta in preeclampsia, we used high-resolution LC-MS/MS technologies to construct a comparative N-glycoproteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling of human placental plasma membrane in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. A total of 1027 N-glyco- and 2094 phospho- sites were detected in human placental plasma membrane, and 5 N-glyco- and 38 phospho- proteins, respectively, with differentially expression were definitively identified between control and preeclamptic placental plasma membrane. Further bioinformatics analysis indicated that these differentially expressed proteins correlate with several specific cellular processes occurring during pathological changes of preeclamptic placental plasma membrane.

Wang, Fuqiang; Wang, Ling; Shi, Zhonghua; Liang, Gaolin



Relationship amongst teratozoospermia, seminal oxidative stress and male infertility  

PubMed Central

Background Spermatozoa morphology is an important and complex characteristic of the fertilization capacity of male germ cells. Morphological abnormalities have been observed to be accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and further damage to spermatozoa, ultimately leading to infertility. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between seminal ROS production and sperm morphology in infertile teratozoospermic patients as well as in healthy men of proven and unproven fertility. Methods Semen samples were collected from 79 patients classified as teratozoospermic and 56 healthy donors (control). Standard semen analysis was performed and spermatozoa morphology was assessed according to the WHO 2010 guidelines. Seminal ROS was measured by chemiluminescence assay. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated, and sensitivity, specificity, cutoff value and area under curve (AUC) were determined. Results Sperm morphology was significantly poor in the Teratozoospermic Group compared with the 3 Donor Groups (P?seminal ROS. Therefore, besides sperm concentration and motility, spermatozoa morphology should receive an equally important consideration in the overall assessment of male fertility.



On the presence of prostatic secretion protein in rat seminal fluid.  


The copulating plug collected from the tip of the penis from rats immediately after decapitation contains a protein very similar and probably identical to PSP (prostatic secretion protein); this protein has earlier been purified from rat prostatic cytosol and characterized. The protein present in the copulating plug interacts with [3H]estramustine and binds to the antibody raised against rat PSP. The concentration of the protein in the copulating plug is 400 ng/mg of total protein, when measured using the radioimmunoassay technique developed earlier for measurement of PSP in rat prostate. The [3H]estramustine-protein complex formed in a preparation of the copulating plug has an apparent molecular weight of about 50,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of about 3S when analyzed using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The complex was retained on Concanavalin-A Sepharose indicating that the protein is a glycoprotein. Binding of the complex was also observed on hydroxylapatite and DEAE-Sephadex columns, from which it was eluted at 0.18 M KCl. Light microscope autoradiograms of rat sperms incubated with 125I-labeled PSP indicated that PSP is bound to all parts of the sperms. A macromolecule interacting with the PSP-antibodies is also present in human seminal fluid but at a concentration considerably lower than in rat seminal fluid. The present study shows that a macromolecule probably identical to prostatic secretion protein is present in the copulating plug from the rat. The biological role of this protein in normal male fertility is discussed. PMID:7329874

Borgström, E; Pousette, A; Björk, P; Högberg, B; Carlström, K; Sundelin, B; Gustafsson, J A



Seminal Fluid Regulation of Female Sexual Attractiveness in Drosophila melanogaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finding a willing and suitable mate is critical for sexual reproduction. Visual, auditory, and chemical cues aid in locating and/or attracting partners. After mating, females from many insect species become less attractive. This is caused by changes in the quantity and/or quality of pheromones synthesized by the female and to changes in the female's behavior. For example, female insects may stop releasing pheromones, assume a mate refusal posture, or move less in response to males. Many postmating changes in female insects are triggered by seminal fluid proteins from the male's accessory gland proteins (Acps) and by sperm. To determine the role of seminal fluid components in mediating changes in attractiveness, we measured the attractiveness of Drosophila melanogaster females that had been mated to genetically altered males that lack sperm and/or Acps. We found that the drop in female attractiveness occurs in two phases. A short-term drop in attractiveness is triggered independent of the receipt of sperm and Acps. Maintenance of lowered attractiveness is dependent upon sperm.

Tram, Uyen; Wolfner, Mariana F.



Biochemical properties of secretory proteins from rat seminal vesicles.  


The secretions of rat seminal vesicles from the so-called copulatory plug when getting in contact with the secretions of the coagulating gland. Depending on the sexual activity of the respective animal and the extraction conditions, the protein pattern of the seminal vesicle secretion varies to some extent. We have studied the biochemical properties of the proteins SVS I, SVS II, sulfhydryl oxidase and SVS III-VIII. The most interesting protein is SVS II which is the main substrate of coagulating gland transglutaminase and serves as the most important monomer during semen coagulation. It is highly soluble in acidic solutions. The monomeric polypeptide has a molecular mass of 49 kDa, is glycosylated with fucose, glucose, mannose and N-acetylated sugars and has a highly basic pI of 10.5. Particularly interesting are its functional and structural relationships with actin. It is the first described protein with actin modulating properties that is secreted in an androgen-dependent manner. PMID:2132072

Seitz, J; Aumüller, G



Effect of semen and seminal amyloid on vaginal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus  

PubMed Central

Background Semen and semen-derived amyloid fibrils boost HIV infection in vitro but their impact on sexual virus transmission in vivo is unknown. Here, we examined the effect of seminal plasma (SP) and semen-derived enhancer of virus infection (SEVI) on vaginal virus transmission in the SIV/rhesus macaque (Macacca mulatta) model. Results A total of 18 non-synchronized female rhesus macaques (six per group) were exposed intra-vaginally to increasing doses of the pathogenic SIVmac239 molecular clone in the presence or absence of SEVI and SP. Establishment of productive virus infection was assessed by measuring plasma viral RNA loads at weekly intervals. We found that the first infections occurred at lower viral doses in the presence of SP and SEVI compared to the control group. Furthermore, the average peak viral loads during acute infection were about 6-fold higher after exposure to SP- and SEVI-treated virus. Overall infection rates after a total of 27 intra-vaginal exposures to increasing doses of SIV, however, were similar in the absence (4 of 6 animals) and presence of SP (5 of 6), or SEVI (4 of 6). Furthermore, the infectious viral doses required for infection varied considerably and did not differ significantly between these three groups. Conclusions Semen and SEVI did not have drastic effects on vaginal SIV transmission in the present experimental setting but may facilitate spreading of virus infection after exposure to low viral doses that most closely approximate the in vivo situation.



Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infects Human Seminal Vesicles in Vitro and in Vivo  

PubMed Central

Semen represents the main vector of HIV dissemination worldwide, yet the origin of HIV in semen remains unclear. Viral populations distinct from those found in blood have been observed in semen, indicating local viral replication within the male genital tract. The seminal vesicles, the secretions of which constitute more than 60% of the seminal fluid, could represent a major source of virus in semen. This study is the first to investigate the susceptibility of human seminal vesicles to HIV infection both in vitro and in vivo. We developed and characterized an organotypic culture of human seminal vesicles to test for target cells and HIV infection, and, in parallel, analyzed the seminal vesicle tissues from HIV-infected donors. In vitro, in contrast to HIV-1 X4, HIV-1 R5 exposure induced productive infection. Infected cells consisted primarily of resident CD163+ macrophages, often located close to the lumen. In vivo, HIV protein and RNA were also detected primarily in seminal vesicle macrophages in seven of nine HIV-infected donors, some of whom were receiving prolonged suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy. These results demonstrate that human seminal vesicles support HIV infection in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, have the potential to contribute virus to semen. The presence of infected cells in the seminal vesicles of treated men with undetectable viremia suggests that this organ could constitute a reservoir for HIV.

Deleage, Claire; Moreau, Marina; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Ruffault, Annick; Jegou, Bernard; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie



Immunodominant semen proteins II: contribution of seminal proteins to female immune infertility.  


Seminal fluid is a protective medium for sperm, but it also represents potential immunogenic structures for the female immune system. Anti-seminal antibodies may threaten early fertilization. The aim of our work is to detect and identify seminal proteins that are related to female isoimmunization. In this report, we quantified serum anti-seminal IgG antibodies. Seminal proteins were analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting. To identify IgG-binding proteins of interest, a proteomic approach was selected. The dominant seminal antigens were detected within the relative molecular mass ranging from 25 to 85 kDa and the isoelectric point from 5 to 7. The detected proteins were further identified as prostate-specific antigen, prostatic acid phosphatase, zinc-?-2-glycoprotein and zinc finger protein 778. Since these proteins were recognized by IgGs produced by infertile women and not by fertile women, we presume that major seminal antigens may play an important role in the pathogenesis of female immune infertility. Our study suggests the pattern of seminal proteins for further therapeutic attempts in the diagnosis of female immune infertility. PMID:24280142

Brázdová, A; Vermachová, M; Zídková, J; Sénéchal, H; Poncet, P; Ul?ová-Gallová, Z; Peltre, G



Dual function of seminal substances for mate guarding in a ground beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of internally fertilizing animals often produce ejaculates consisting of various substances in addition to sperm. Seminal substances can inhibit female remating through physical blocking of the female genitalia or by physiological induction of the female refractory period. We demonstrated that the seminal substances of the ground beetle Leptocarabus procerulus serve as both physical (i.e., mating plugs) and physiological (i.e.,

Yasuoki Takami; Masataka Sasabe; Nobuaki Nagata; Teiji Sota



Human immunodeficiency virus infects human seminal vesicles in vitro and in vivo.  


Semen represents the main vector of HIV dissemination worldwide, yet the origin of HIV in semen remains unclear. Viral populations distinct from those found in blood have been observed in semen, indicating local viral replication within the male genital tract. The seminal vesicles, the secretions of which constitute more than 60% of the seminal fluid, could represent a major source of virus in semen. This study is the first to investigate the susceptibility of human seminal vesicles to HIV infection both in vitro and in vivo. We developed and characterized an organotypic culture of human seminal vesicles to test for target cells and HIV infection, and, in parallel, analyzed the seminal vesicle tissues from HIV-infected donors. In vitro, in contrast to HIV-1 X4, HIV-1 R5 exposure induced productive infection. Infected cells consisted primarily of resident CD163(+) macrophages, often located close to the lumen. In vivo, HIV protein and RNA were also detected primarily in seminal vesicle macrophages in seven of nine HIV-infected donors, some of whom were receiving prolonged suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy. These results demonstrate that human seminal vesicles support HIV infection in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, have the potential to contribute virus to semen. The presence of infected cells in the seminal vesicles of treated men with undetectable viremia suggests that this organ could constitute a reservoir for HIV. PMID:21925468

Deleage, Claire; Moreau, Marina; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Ruffault, Annick; Jégou, Bernard; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie



Pharmacokinetic comparison of berberine in rat plasma after oral administration of berberine hydrochloride in normal and post inflammation irritable bowel syndrome rats.  


In the present study, post inflammation irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) rats were firstly established by intracolonic instillation of acetic acid with restraint stress. Then the pharmacokinetics of berberine in the rat plasma were compared after oral administration of berberine hydrochloride (25 mg/kg) to normal rats and PI-IBS rats. Quantification of berberine in the rat plasma was achieved by using a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method. Plasma samples were collected at 15 different points in time and the pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by WinNonlin software. Compared with the normal group, area under the plasma concentration vs. time curve from zero to last sampling time (AUC0-t) and total body clearance (CL/F) in the model group significantly increased or decreased, (2039.49 ± 492.24 vs. 2763.43 ± 203.14; 4999.34 ± 1198.79 vs. 3270.57 ± 58.32) respectively. The results indicated that the pharmacokinetic process of berberine could be altered in PI-IBS pathological conditions. PMID:24451127

Gong, Zipeng; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Ruijie; Wang, Yinghan; Guo, Yan; Yang, Qing; Zhang, Haixian; Dong, Yu; Weng, Xiaogang; Gao, Shuangrong; Zhu, Xiaoxin



Expression of genes encoding for proteins involved in heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate chain synthesis and modification in normal and malignant plasma cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Syndecan-1 is a proteoglycan concentrating heparin-binding factors on the surface of multiple myeloma cells, playing likely a major role in multiple myeloma biology. As heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate are the bioactive components of syndecan-1, we analyzed the signature of genes encoding 100 proteins involved in synthesis of these chains, i.e. from precursor uptake to post-translational modifications, using Affymetrix microarrays. Throughout the differentiation of memory B cells into plasmablasts and normal bone marrow plasma cells, we show that expression of enzymes required for heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate biosynthesis is increasing, in parallel with syndecan-1 expression. Sixteen genes were significantly different between normal and malignant plasma cells, nine of these genes -EXT2, CHSY3, CSGALNACT1, HS3ST2, HS2ST1, CHST11, CSGALNACT2, HPSE, SULF2- encoding for proteins involved in glycosaminoglycan chain synthesis or modifications. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed in two independent series of patients: B4GALT7, CSGALNACT1, HS2ST1 were associated with a good prognosis whereas EXT1 was linked to a bad prognosis. This study provides an overall picture of the major genes encoding for proteins involved in heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate synthesis and modifications that can be implicated in normal and malignant plasma cells.

Bret, Caroline; Hose, Dirk; Reme, Thierry; Sprynski, Anne-Catherine; Mahtouk, Karene; Schved, Jean-Francois; Quittet, Philippe; Rossi, Jean-Francois; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Klein, Bernard



[Seminal vesicle cysts and infertility in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease].  


Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a systemic hereditary disorder characterized by bilateral diffuse renal cysts. Extrarenal involvement is a well known manifestation of ADPKD. Cysts in the liver, pancreas, lung, spleen, oesophagus, ovary, testis, epididymis, prostate, thyroid, bladder, uterus, brain, paraespinal, and seminal vesicle have also been described. The occurrence of seminal vesicle cysts is often unrecognised. We report here a man with seminal vesicle cysts and azoospermia associated with ADPKD. Seminal vesicle cysts are not uncommon in ADPKD and in some cases it is associated with infertility. Ultrasound and computed tomography imaging were effective in documenting the underlying lesions non-invasively. Studies evaluating fertility in patients with seminal vesicle cysts and ADPKD are needed. PMID:15789541

Peces, R; Venegas, J L



Chemical characterization of the predominant proteins secreted by mouse seminal vesicles.  


Mouse seminal vesicles secrete four major protein components with estimated molecular masses of 95, 38, 17, and 16 kDa. Amino acid sequencing revealed that the 95-kDa component represents a protein with an unknown structure, while the 38-kDa component was identified as semenoclotin, the 17-kDa component as seminal-vesicle-secreted protein IV, and the 16-kDa component as seminal-vesicle-secreted protein V. Semenoclotin and the 95-kDa component were readily cross-linked by transglutaminase, suggesting that the two proteins are involved in the formation of the mouse copulatory plug. Treatment of mouse seminal vesicle fluid with human prostate-specific antigen rapidly degraded semenoclotin, indicating a structural resemblance of this protein to human semenogelins, despite the vast difference in primary structure. As previously reported for other seminal-vesicle-secreted proteins, the semenoclotin transcripts are shown to be under androgen control. PMID:9363751

Lundwall, A; Peter, A; Lövgren, J; Lilja, H; Malm, J



Laparoscopic Removal of a Congenital Seminal Vesicle Cyst in Zinner's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Seminal vesicle cysts are rarely diagnosed, but symptomatic congenital seminal vesicle cysts are reported in the literature describing Zinner syndrome. Case Description: We present the case of a 26-year-old patient admitted to the urology department because of abdominal pain. A left seminal vesicle cyst and left kidney agenesis were found on examination, and the patient qualified for laparoscopic removal of the left seminal vesicle cyst. The procedure was performed with transperitoneal access using 5 trocars. The peritoneum was incised between the bladder and the rectum to reveal the left seminal vesicle, which was resected from the surrounding tissue. A TachoSil (Takeda Pharmaceuticals, Zurich, Switzerland) hemostatic sponge was placed in the ledge after cutting the base of the seminal vesicle. Discussion: The aim of this study was to evaluate usefulness of the laparoscopic technique to remove a cystic seminal vesicle. The procedure lasted 180 minutes, and the estimated blood loss was 50 mL. We did not record any intra- or postoperative complications. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the third postoperative day and remains symptom-free after 12 months. Histopathologic examination confirmed the presence of a seminal vesicle cyst, and renal agenesis and stenosis of the vas deferens suggests Zinner syndrome. Symptomatic seminal vesicle cysts are a good indication for the application of a laparoscopic technique and, in our opinion, this is better than the open technique because of the view into the surgical area. Therefore, it should be used as the method of choice in treating seminal vesicle defects.

Listopadzki, Slawomir; Kowalski, Marek



Male Mating Rate Is Constrained by Seminal Fluid Availability in Bedbugs, Cimex lectularius  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection, differences in reproductive success between individuals, continues beyond acquiring a mating partner and affects ejaculate size and composition (sperm competition). Sperm and seminal fluid have very different roles in sperm competition but both components encompass production costs for the male. Theoretical models predict that males should spend ejaculate components prudently and differently for sperm and seminal fluid but empirical evidence for independent variation of sperm number and seminal fluid volume is scarce. It is also largely unknown how sperm and seminal fluid variation affect future mating rate. In bedbugs we developed a protocol to examine the role of seminal fluids in ejaculate allocation and its effect on future male mating rate. Using age-related changes in sperm and seminal fluid volume we estimated the lowest capacity at which mating activity started. We then showed that sexually active males allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid volume per mating and predicted that males would be depleted of seminal fluid but not of sperm. We tested (and confirmed) this prediction empirically. Finally, the slightly faster replenishment of seminal fluid compared to sperm did not outweigh the faster decrease during mating. Our results suggest that male mating rate can be constrained by the availability of seminal fluids. Our protocol might be applicable to a range of other organisms. We discuss the idea that economic considerations in sexual conflict research might benefit from distinguishing between costs and benefits that are ejaculate dose-dependent and those that are frequency-dependent on the mating rate per se.

Reinhardt, Klaus; Naylor, Richard; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.



Plasma non-equilibrium of the DC normal glow discharges in atmospheric pressure atomic and molecular gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical and spectroscopic results of comprehensive investigations of atmospheric pressure glow discharges in helium, argon, nitrogen and air in a large current range are presented. Our attention in these investigations is mainly focused on the characterization of positive column plasmas at discharge gap of 10 mm. It was shown that helium, nitrogen and air positive columns transform from diffuse to constricted mode when discharge current increases. In argon discharge, it is constricted in the whole range of investigated currents. Reduced electric field, gas temperature, average electron energy and electron concentration were determined. The positive column plasmas of all the atmospheric pressure glow discharges studied are non-equilibrium and weakly ionized. Plasma non-equilibrium degree in atomic gases of helium and argon is essentially higher than in molecular nitrogen and air. For all gases, plasma non-equilibrium degree in a positive column decreases with discharge current increase.

Arkhipenko, V. I.; Kirillov, A. A.; Safronau, Y. A.; Simonchik, L. V.; Zgirouski, S. M.



Measurement of warfarin in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its correlation with the international normalized ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of plasma warfarin is required to investigate non-compliance, resistance to anticoagulation, drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic. Methods so far described are based on extraction of warfarin from plasma followed by reversed-phase HPLC. Extraction is the crucial step and may be performed in liquid- or solid-phase. The latter requires the preparation of columns, which makes the procedure variable. We investigated

Rossana Lombardi; Veena Chantarangkul; Marco Cattaneo; Armando Tripodi



Influence of salazosulphapyridine and 5-aminosalicylic acid on seminal qualities and male sex hormones.  


Seminal abnormalities are a common side effect of salazosulphapyridine (SASP) treatment. We evaluated semen qualities and sex hormone concentrations in 11 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during SASP treatment and 4 months after replacing SASP with an oral slow-release preparation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). Significant improvement in sperm count (p less than 0.01), morphology (p less than 0.02), and motility (p less than 0.02) could be observed during 5-ASA therapy, in comparison with SASP treatment. Three pregnancies occurred during the study period. The serum concentrations of gonadotrophins, prolactin, and sex hormone-binding globulin were normal in all patients and not significantly different in the two treatment periods. The mean total testosterone concentration decreased significantly (p less than 0.02) after 5-ASA substitution, together with serum albumin (p less than 0.005), although all values remained within normal limits. The apparent free testosterone concentration was not significantly different in the two treatment periods. It is concluded that a significant improvement in semen quality can be obtained in male patients with IBD after replacing SASP with 5-ASA. PMID:2907823

Zelissen, P M; van Hattum, J; Poen, H; Scholten, P; Gerritse, R; te Velde, E R



Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects.  

PubMed Central

Resonances for the ketone bodies 3-D-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and acetoacetate are readily detected in serum, plasma and urine samples from fasting and diabetic subjects by 1H n.m.r. spectroscopy at 400 MHz. Besides the simultaneous observation of metabolites, the major advantage of n.m.r. is that little or no pretreatment of samples is required. N.m.r. determinations of 3-D-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, lactate, valine and alanine were compared with determinations made with conventional assays at six 2-hourly intervals after insulin withdrawal from a diabetic subject. The n.m.r. results closely paralleled those of other assays although, by n.m.r., acetoacetate levels continued to rise rather than reaching a plateau 4h after insulin withdrawal. The 3-D-hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate ratio in urine during withdrawal gradually increased to the value observed in plasma (3.0 +/- 0.2) as determined by n.m.r. The acetoacetate/acetone ratio in urine (17 +/- 6) was much higher than in plasma (2.5 +/- 0.7). Depletion of a mobile pool of fatty acids in plasma during fasting, as seen by n.m.r., paralleled that seen during insulin withdrawal. These fatty acids were thought to be largely in chylomicrons, acylglycerols and lipoproteins, and were grossly elevated in plasma samples from a non-insulin-dependent diabetic and in cases of known hyperlipidaemia.

Nicholson, J K; O'Flynn, M P; Sadler, P J; Macleod, A F; Juul, S M; Sonksen, P H



Prebeta-migrating high density lipoprotein: quantitation in normal and hyperlipidemic plasma by solid phase radioimmunoassay following electrophoretic transfer  

SciTech Connect

A quantitative solid phase immunoassay has been developed for the determination of the mass of electrophoretically separated prebeta apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in human plasma. Conditions have been identified for the quantitative transfer and immunoblotting of the apolipoprotein in the absence of organic solvents or detergents. In normolipidemic plasma, the prebeta-migrating fraction of apoA-I represented 4.2 +/- 1.8% of total apoA-I (61 +/- 26 micrograms of apoA-I per ml of plasma). Significantly higher levels were found in hypercholesterolemia of genetic origin, in primary and secondary hypertriglyceridemia, and in congenital lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency. In all cases prebeta-migrating apoA-I consisted in large part of low molecular weight lipoprotein species, compared to the size of the major, alpha-migrating apoA-I fraction.

Ishida, B.Y.; Frolich, J.; Fielding, C.J.



Seminal fluid proteins differ in abundance between genetic lineages of honeybees.  


Seminal fluid is transferred to the females' reproductive tract as part of the ejaculate and contains highly complex molecular machinery that is of central importance for male and female reproductive success. Interspecific studies suggest rapid evolutionary changes in the sequences of some seminal fluid proteins and also highlight the importance of specific seminal fluid proteins for sperm function and paternity success. Much less work has been conducted to study if variation in the steady-state abundance of seminal fluid proteins occurs within a species, which could provide a foundation for future selection to act upon. Here we used a unique breeding program of the honeybee Apis mellifera to provide evidence for quantified differences in seminal fluid protein abundances between three genetic lineages that have been bred for ~20 generations. We found the same subset of seminal fluid proteins to be present in all lines, but protein abundance or protein modification state varied significantly for 16% of the protein spots investigated. Protein spots with changed abundances were identified using mass spectrometry, with the abundance of a number documented from other species to be correlated with male fertility, reproductive success or immune-competence. We conclude that significant alterations in the abundance or modification state of specific proteins in seminal fluid can be linked to different genotypes in honeybees. PMID:22981951

Baer, Boris; Zareie, Reza; Paynter, Ellen; Poland, Veronica; Millar, A Harvey



Calculation Procedure, Optimization and Cost Factors of Normal-Conductive, Cryogenic and Superconducting Magnets for Experimental Plasma Physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of calculations and optimizing methods are presented for normally conductive, cryogenic, and superconducting magnets in linear (cylindrical) and toroidal devices. Relevant cost factors and functions are given as a basis for the comparison of cost...

B. Oswald



Effect of cryoprotectants on certain seminal attributes and on the fertility of buck spermatozoa.  


Semen samples were obtained from 12 bucks (3 Beetal, 3 Black Bengal and 6 Beetal x Black Bengal) and 10 different extenders were constituted with varying concentrations of glycerol, DMSO, glycerol + DMSO and glycerol + lactose as the sperm cryoprotective agents. After the collection of semen samples, they were assessed for quality, diluted in different extenders after removal of seminal plasma, packaged in ministraws and frozen after equilibration (5'C) for 5 h. The samples were evaluated immediately after equilibration and again 24 h after freezing for progressive motility, percentage of live spermatozoa and acrosome, head and tail abnormalities. Both motility and the percentage of live spermatozoa were most affected by extenders containing only DMSO and these values improved in glycerol + DMSO extenders as the concentration of glycerol was increased while DMSO was decreased. However, these values were significantly higher in extenders containing glycerol + lactose as the cryoprotective agents, and were found to increase with increased concentration of lactose, being highest in TYGL (180). Acrosomal and tail abnormalities tended to increase between post equilibration and post thawing stage, and were higher in extenders containing the higher levels of DMSO. Significantly (P < 0.01) lower percentages of abnormalities were recorded in the glycerol + lactose extenders. The fertility results showed nonsignificant effect of extenders on the conception rate of does. PMID:16727691

Singh, M P; Sinha, A K; Singh, B K



Preferential induction of apoptotic cell death in melanoma cells as compared with normal keratinocytes using a non-thermal plasma torch  

PubMed Central

Selective induction of apoptosis in melanoma cells is optimal for therapeutic development. To achieve this goal, a non-thermal helium plasma torch was modified for use on cultured cells in a temperature-controlled environment. Melanoma cells were targeted with this torch (1) in parallel cultures with keratinocytes, (2) in co-culture with keratinocytes and (3) in a soft agar matrix. Melanoma cells displayed high sensitivity to reactive oxygen species generated by the torch and showed a 6-fold increase in cell death compared with keratinocytes. The extent of cell death was compared between melanoma cells and normal human keratinocytes in both short-term (5 min) co-culture experiments and longer assessments of apoptotic cell death (18–24 h). Following a 10 sec plasma exposure there was a 4.9-fold increase in the cell death of melanoma vs. keratinocytes as measured after 24 h at the target site of the plasma beam. When the treatment time was increased to 30 sec, a 98% cell death was reported for melanoma cells, which was 6-fold greater than the extent of cell death in keratinocytes. Our observations further indicate that this preferential cell death is largely due to apoptosis.. In addition, we report that this non-thermal plasma torch kills melanoma cells growing in soft agar, suggesting that the plasma torch is capable of inducing melanoma cell death in 3D settings. We demonstrate that the presence of gap junctions may increase the area of cell death, likely due to the “bystander effect” of passing apoptotic signals between cells. Our findings provide a basis for further development of this non-invasive plasma torch as a potential treatment for melanoma.

Zucker, Shoshanna N.; Zirnheld, Jennifer; Bagati, Archis; DiSanto, Thomas M.; Des Soye, Benjamin; Wawrzyniak, Joseph A.; Etemadi, Kasra; Nikiforov, Mikhail; Berezney, Ronald



Competition between clonal plasma cells and normal cells for potentially overlapping bone marrow niches is associated with a progressively altered cellular distribution in MGUS vs myeloma.  


Disappearance of normal bone marrow (BM) plasma cells (PC) predicts malignant transformation of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering myeloma (SMM) into symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM). The homing, behavior and survival of normal PC, but also CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), B-cell precursors, and clonal PC largely depends on their interaction with stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) expressing, potentially overlapping BM stromal cell niches. Here, we investigate the distribution, phenotypic characteristics and competitive migration capacity of these cell populations in patients with MGUS, SMM and MM vs healthy adults (HA) aged >60 years. Our results show that BM and peripheral blood (PB) clonal PC progressively increase from MGUS to MM, the latter showing a slightly more immature immunophenotype. Of note, such increased number of clonal PC is associated with progressive depletion of normal PC, B-cell precursors and CD34(+) HSC in the BM, also with a parallel increase in PB. In an ex vivo model, normal PC, B-cell precursors and CD34(+) HSC from MGUS and SMM, but not MM patients, were able to abrogate the migration of clonal PC into serial concentrations of SDF-1. Overall, our results show that progressive competition and replacement of normal BM cells by clonal PC is associated with more advanced disease in patients with MGUS, SMM and MM. PMID:21252988

Paiva, B; Pérez-Andrés, M; Vídriales, M-B; Almeida, J; de las Heras, N; Mateos, M-V; López-Corral, L; Gutiérrez, N C; Blanco, J; Oriol, A; Hernández, M T; de Arriba, F; de Coca, A G; Terol, M-J; de la Rubia, J; González, Y; Martín, A; Sureda, A; Schmidt-Hieber, M; Schmitz, A; Johnsen, H E; Lahuerta, J-J; Bladé, J; San-Miguel, J F; Orfao, A



Relation of cholesterol esterification rate to the plasma distribution of high-density lipoprotein subclasses in normal and hypertensive women.  


We studied the particle size distribution of plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) by gradient gel electrophoresis and by assay of cholesterol esterification rate (FERHDL) in plasma depleted of very low (VLDL) and low-density (LDL) lipoproteins in 32 hypertensive women (53 +/- 10 y old) and in an age-matched group of 21 apparently healthy women. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to their plasma total, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol. The plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration was significantly higher in the group of hypertensive women, and HDL-free cholesterol was significantly lower in the hypertensive group. There were highly significantly differences in the relative proportions of HDL subclasses between the hypertensive and control women: HDL2b was significantly lower and HDL3b,c was significantly higher in hypertensive patients compared to controls. FERHDL was 12 +/- 4%/h in the control group and 18 +/- 6%/h in patients with hypertension (p < 0.001). There was a strong positive correlation between FERHDL and the relative content of HDL3b,c, and a strong negative correlation between FERHDL and HDL2b in both groups. Comparison of subgroups of healthy and hypertension pre- and postmenopausal women revealed, apart from age, no significant differences between the healthy subjects in any of the above parameters. PMID:8714788

Dobiásová, M; Stríbrná, J; Frohlich, J J



Fertility preservation in cases of laparoscopic treatment of seminal vesicle cysts  

PubMed Central

Seminal vesicle cysts can cause sub- or infertility. Minimally invasive techniques have the advantage of preserving the vas deferens by the treatment of symptomatic cases. After reviewing the published articles, only a few of them presented data on fertility before and after surgery. The authors now report the successful treatment of two patients with seminal vesicle cysts, in which laparoscopic cyst removal resolved the symptoms, preserving fertility and erectile function. Due to the rarity of seminal vesicle cysts, preoperative examinations and treatment modalities should focus not only on the relief of symptoms but also on the preservation of fertility and erectile function.

Berczi, Csaba; Jozsa, Tamas; Csanadi, Gabor; Varga, Attila; Flasko, Tibor



Reduced Seminal Concentration of CD45pos Cells after Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Treatment in Selected Patients with Idiopathic Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia  

PubMed Central

The present study evaluated the conventional sperm parameters and the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells (pan-leukocyte marker) of infertile patients with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT). The patients were arbitrarily divided into three groups treated with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone FSH: ? (Group A = 20 patients), recombinant FSH-? (Group B = 20 patients), and highly purified human FSH (Group C = 14 patients). All treated groups achieved a similar improvement of the main sperm parameters (density, progressive motility, and morphology), but only the increase in the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology was significant compared to the baseline in all three examined groups. Moreover, all groups had a significant reduction of the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells and of the percentage of immature germ cells. Before and after the treatment, the concentration of CD45pos cells showed a positive linear correlation with the percentage of immature germ cells and a negative correlation with the percentage of spermatozoa with regular morphology. These results demonstrate that treatment with FSH is effective in patients with idiopathic OAT and that there are no significant differences between the different preparations. The novelty of this study is in the significant reduction of the concentration of CD45pos cells observed after the treatment.

Condorelli, Rosita A.; Calogero, Aldo E.; Vicari, Enzo; Mongioi', Laura; Cannarella, Rossella; Giacone, Filippo; Iacoviello, Linda; Favilla, Vincenzo; La Vignera, Sandro



Conservative Management of a Congenital Seminal Vesicle Cyst Associated with Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis Revealed by Cystitis: One Case Report  

PubMed Central

Seminal vesicle cyst is an extremely rare disease. Its association with ipsilateral renal agenesis is even more exceptional. We present herein one case of a 16-year-old male who presented with a four-month history of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) and micturition pain. The digital rectal examination revealed a small mass arising from the prostate. The urine culture showed that E. coli is sensitive to all antibiotics tested. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) revealed a cystic mass in the outer prostate. Seminal vesicle cyst and left renal agenesis were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Maximum flow (Qmax) at uroflow was greater than 15?mL/sec. We therefore decided to manage this disease conservatively with alpha blockers and antibiotics. After 6-month' followup the patient did not report any complain and the uroflow test was similar to a normal urination. From one case report and literature review, the authors suggest a diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for the management of this rare condition.

Ahallal, Youness; Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Khallouk, Abdelhak; Elammari, Jalaleddine; Elfassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan



Reduced Seminal Concentration of CD45pos Cells after Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Treatment in Selected Patients with Idiopathic Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia.  


The present study evaluated the conventional sperm parameters and the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells (pan-leukocyte marker) of infertile patients with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT). The patients were arbitrarily divided into three groups treated with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone FSH: ? (Group A = 20 patients), recombinant FSH- ? (Group B = 20 patients), and highly purified human FSH (Group C = 14 patients). All treated groups achieved a similar improvement of the main sperm parameters (density, progressive motility, and morphology), but only the increase in the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology was significant compared to the baseline in all three examined groups. Moreover, all groups had a significant reduction of the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells and of the percentage of immature germ cells. Before and after the treatment, the concentration of CD45pos cells showed a positive linear correlation with the percentage of immature germ cells and a negative correlation with the percentage of spermatozoa with regular morphology. These results demonstrate that treatment with FSH is effective in patients with idiopathic OAT and that there are no significant differences between the different preparations. The novelty of this study is in the significant reduction of the concentration of CD45pos cells observed after the treatment. PMID:24550984

Condorelli, Rosita A; Calogero, Aldo E; Vicari, Enzo; Mongioi', Laura; Burgio, Giovanni; Cannarella, Rossella; Giacone, Filippo; Iacoviello, Linda; Morgia, Giuseppe; Favilla, Vincenzo; Cimino, Sebastiano; La Vignera, Sandro



Bone morphogenic protein 6: a member of a novel class of prognostic factors expressed by normal and malignant plasma cells inhibiting proliferation and angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Pathogenesis of multiple myeloma is associated with an aberrant expression of pro-proliferative, pro-angiogenic and bone-metabolism modifying factors by malignant plasma cells. Given the frequently long time-span from diagnosis of early-stage plasma cell dyscrasias to overt myeloma and the mostly low proliferation rate of malignant plasma cells, we hypothesize these likewise to express a novel class of inhibitory factors of potential prognostic relevance. Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) represent possible candidates as they inhibit proliferation, stimulate bone formation, and have impact on the survival of cancer patients. We assessed expression of BMPs and their receptors by Affymetrix DNA-microarrays (n=779) including CD138-purified primary myeloma cell samples (n=635) of previously untreated patients. BMP6 is the only BMP expressed by malignant and normal plasma cells. Its expression is significantly lower in proliferating myeloma cells, myeloma cell lines, or plasmablasts. BMP6 significantly inhibits proliferation of myeloma cell lines, survival of primary myeloma cells, and in vitro angiogenesis. High BMP6-expression in primary myeloma cell samples delineates significantly superior overall survival for patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy independent of conventional prognostic factors (ISS-stage, beta-2-microglobulin).

Seckinger, Anja; Meissner, Tobias; Moreaux, Jerome; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Fuhler, Gwenny M.; Benner, Axel; Hundemer, Michael; Reme, Thierry; Shaughnessy, John D.; Barlogie, Bart; Bertsch, Uta; Hillengass, Jens; Ho, Anthony D.; Pantesco, Veronique; Jauch, Anna; De Vos, John; Rossi, Jean-Francois; Mohler, Thomas; Klein, Bernard; Hose, Dirk



A novel specific immunoassay for plasma two-chain factor VIIa: investigation of FVIIa levels in normal individuals and in patients with acute coronary syndromes.  


We report the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that is specific for factor VIIa (FVIIa). This assay uses a neoantigen specific capture antibody directed to the amino acid peptide sequence N terminal to the FVII cleavage activation site. The antibody exhibits approximately 3,000-fold greater reactivity to FVIIa than FVII on a molar basis. Experiments using plasma with added (exogenous) human FVIIa gave quantitative recovery in the ELISA over a range of 0.20 to 3.2 ng/mL of FVIIa. The intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation (CVs) of the ELISA are 4.5% and 9.8%, respectively. The ELISA shows excellent correlation (r = .99) with a functional assay (using recombinant soluble tissue factor) in detecting FVIIa added to plasma over the range 0.05 to 18.0 ng/mL. However, a major discrepancy exists between the two assays when normal endogenous plasma concentrations of FVIIa are measured. Using normal plasma (n = 14) the functional assay reported 3.10 +/- 0.30 ng/mL (mean +/- SE) whereas only 0.025 +/- 0.010 ng/mL was detected in the same samples by the immunoassay. Patients (n = 43) presenting with acute coronary syndromes (myocardial infarction and unstable angina) exhibited elevations (P < .05) in immunologically detected FVIIa, 0.093 +/- 0.013 ng/mL (mean +/- SE) compared to patient controls (n = 20) contemporaneously admitted with noncardiac chest pain, 0.048 +/- 0.007 ng/mL (mean +/- SE). These elevations in the acute coronary syndromes were accompanied by increased (P < .05) and correlating prothrombin fragment F1 + 2 levels (Spearman correlation coefficient rs = .4, P < .01), demonstrating that thrombin generation is certainly associated with, and may even be caused by, extrinsic pathway activation. PMID:9028306

Philippou, H; Adami, A; Amersey, R A; Stubbs, P J; Lane, D A



On the Ability of an Extreme-Ultraviolet Multilayer Normal-Incidence Telescope to Provide Temperature Information for Solar Plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, multilayer-coated optics have been used in solar-soft X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet telescopes to record high-resolution, full Sun images. The multilayer coatings reflect efficiently over rather narrow wavelength bands that are selected to contain spectral emission lines considered to have plasma diagnostic importance for determining approximate electron temperatures. The purpose of this Letter is to discuss the effect of

U. Feldman; J. M. Laming; G. A. Doschek; H. P. Warren; L. Golub



Undetectable plasma viral load predicts normal survival in HIV2-infected people in a West African village  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There have been no previous studies of the long-term survival and temporal changes in plasma viral load among HIV-2 infected subjects. METHODS: 133 HIV-2 infected and 158 HIV-uninfected subjects from a rural area in North-west Guinea-Bissau, West Africa were enrolled into a prospective cohort study in 1991 and followed-up to mid-2009. Data were collected on four occasions during that

Maarten F Schim van der Loeff; Natasha Larke; Steve Kaye; Neil Berry; Koya Ariyoshi; Abraham Alabi; Carla van Tienen; Aleksandra Leligdowicz; Ramu Sarge-Njie; Zacharias da Silva; Assan Jaye; Dominique Ricard; Tim Vincent; Sarah Rowland Jones; Peter Aaby; Shabbar Jaffar; Hilton Whittle



Insulin and vanadate restore decreased plasma endothelin concentrations and exaggerated vascular responses to normal in the streptozotocin diabetic rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   Although insulin has been shown to raise plasma concentrations of endothelin (ET) and up regulate vascular smooth muscle\\u000a ETA receptor expression, the interaction of vanadate, an insulinomimetic agent, with the vascular ET system has not been investigated.\\u000a We compared the effects of oral vanadate treatment (0.5 mg\\/ml; p. o.) and insulin infusion (12 mU · kg–1· min–1 s. c.)

R. L. Hopfner; D. Misurski; T. W. Wilson; J. R. McNeill; V. Gopalakrishnan



Submucosal injection of normal saline may prevent tissue damage from argon plasma coagulation: an experimental study using resected porcine esophagus, stomach, and colon.  


Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is considered to be a safe thermocoagulation technique, but some reports show perforation and deformity during and after APC. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of prior submucosal injection for APC. APC over the mucosa was performed on fresh resected porcine esophagus, stomach, and colon with prior submucosal injection of normal saline (injection group) and without it (control group). The depth of tissue damage increased linearly with pulse duration up to the shallower submucosal layer in both groups. After that, tissue damage in the injection group remained confined to the shallower submucosal layer under any condition, whereas that in the control group continued to extend. The tissue damages of the injection groups were significantly (P<0.05) shallower than those of the control groups that reached the deeper submucosal layer in all the organs. Submucosal injection of normal saline before the application of APC may limit tissue damage and prevent perforation and deformity. PMID:17057569

Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Yahagi, Naohisa; Nakamura, Masanori; Kakushima, Naomi; Kodashima, Shinya; Ono, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Hashimoto, Takuhei; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Tateishi, Ayako; Shimizu, Yasuhito; Oka, Masashi; Ichinose, Masao; Omata, Masao



[Seminal vesicle cyst associated with ipsilateral renal dysplasia and vena cava malformation : a case report].  


We report a rare case of seminal vesicle cyst associated with ipsilateral renal dysplasia and vena cava malformation. A 76-year-old man was hospitalized because of difficulty in urination. We diagnosed benign prostate hyperplasia with vesical diverticulum and administered medication that was found to improve urination. However, positron emission tomography-computed tomography showed a large mass in the pelvic region ; therefore, additional examinations were performed. Urethrocystography showed a filling defect in the bladder. Computed tomography revealed the absence of the right kidney and the presence of a double vena cava and a large seminal vesicle cyst on the same side. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a cystic ectopic ureter associated with the seminal vesicle cyst. Therefore, we diagnosed the patient with a seminal vesicle cyst associated with ipsilateral renal dysplasia and performed cyst puncture. The patient is currently free from urinary symptoms at 12 months after surgery. PMID:23070393

Fujita, Masahiro; Goto, Takayasu; Saiki, Shigeru



Primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle: Case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle is exceedingly rare. Case Presentation We report a case of a 59-year-old man with tumour detected by rectal symptoms and ultrasonography. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging suggested an origin in the right seminal vesicle. Transperineal biopsy of the tumour revealed leiomyosarcoma. A radical vesiculo-prostactectomy with bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed a grade 2 leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy. He developed distant metastases 29 months after diagnosis, and received chemotherapy. Metastatic disease was controlled by second-line gemcitabine-docetaxel combination. Fifty-one months after diagnosis of the primary tumour, and 22 months after the first metastases, the patient is alive with excellent performance status, and multiple asymptomatic stable lung and liver lesions. Conclusions We report the eighth case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle and the first one with a so long follow-up.



21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR




Multicolor flow cytometry and nanoparticle tracking analysis of extracellular vesicles in the plasma of normal pregnant and pre-eclamptic women.  


Excessive release of syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBMs) from the placenta into the maternal circulation may contribute to the systemic inflammation that is characteristic of pre-eclampsia (PE). Other intravascular cells types (platelets, leukocytes, red blood cells [RBCs], and endothelium) may also be activated and release extracellular vesicles (EVs). We developed a multicolor flow cytometry antibody panel to enumerate and phenotype STBMs in relation to other EVs in plasma from nonpregnant (NonP) and normal pregnant (NormP) women, and women with late-onset PE. Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) was used to determine EV size and concentration. In vitro-derived STBMs and EVs from platelets, leukocytes, RBCs, and endothelial cells were examined to select suitable antibodies to analyze the corresponding plasma EVs. Flow cytometry analysis of plasma from NonP, NormP, and PE showed that STBMs comprised the smallest group of circulating EVs, whereas most were derived from platelets. The next most abundant group comprised unidentified orphan EVs (which did not label with any of the antibodies in the panel), followed by EVs from RBCs and leukocytes. NTA showed that the total number of EVs in plasma was significantly elevated in NormP and late-onset PE women compared to NonP controls, and that EVs were smaller in size. In general, EVs were elevated in pregnancy plasma apart from platelet EVs, which were reduced. These studies did not show any differences in EVs between NormP and PE, probably because late-onset PE was studied. PMID:24227753

Dragovic, Rebecca A; Southcombe, Jennifer H; Tannetta, Dionne S; Redman, Christopher W G; Sargent, Ian L



Spectroscopic studies and rotational and vibrational temperature measurements of atmospheric pressure normal glow plasma discharges in air  

Microsoft Academic Search

DC normal glow (NG) discharges were created in atmospheric pressure air for a pin to plate type geometry. The rotational and vibrational temperatures of the discharge were measured by comparing modelled optical emission spectra with spectroscopic measurements from the discharge. The temperatures were measured as a function of discharge current, ranging from 50 µA to 30 mA, and discharge length,

David Staack; Bakhtier Farouk; Alexander F. Gutsol; Alexander A. Fridman



Selenium, zinc and copper plasma levels in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, in normal pregnancies and in healthy individuals, in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Low blood Se levels have been previously shown in normal pregnancies (third trimester) and significantly lower levels in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), in Finland and in Chile, suggesting that a low or marginal dietary availability of Se may contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a temporal

Humberto Reyes; María E. Báez; Manuel C. González; Ismael Hernández; Joaquín Palma; José Ribalta; Lorena Sandoval; Rodrigo Zapata



Unilateral renal agenesis with absent ductus deferens, epididymis and seminal vesicle: incidental finding in a 22-year-old patient with maldevelopment of the mesonephric duct.  


Unilateral renal agenesis with an absence of the seminal vesicle, epididymis and ductus deferens is rare and is the result of a developmental disorder of the mesonephric or Wolffian duct. We report the case of a 22-year-old man who presented with testicular pain on the left side of 3 weeks' duration. During the clinical investigation of the scrotum a nonpalpable ductus deferens on the left side was found incidentally. As a result of the urological ultrasound the diagnosis of renal, epididymal, seminal vesicle and ductus deferens agenesis on the left was confirmed. As a vascular variety the CT demonstrated 2 renal veins and 2 renal arteries on the right originating from the superior mesenteric artery together with the right hepatic artery. The testicular artery was placed on both sides. Further diagnostic investigations including a spermiogram, hormone analysis and kidney function tests were normal. Congenital urogenital malformations can be found in various combinations even in adults. Unilateral absence of the vas deferens during clinical examination should alert the clinician to an underlying renal, seminal vesicle and epididymal anomaly; further urological investigation is mandatory. A genetic investigation of the CFTR gene is not necessary in the absence of both ductus deferentes with renal agenesis. PMID:21160165

Pichler, Renate; Oswald, Josef; Glodny, Bernhard; Skradski, Viktor; Aigner, Friedrich; Rehder, Peter



Plasma clearance of sulfobromophthalein and its interaction with hepatic binding proteins in normal and analbuminemic rats: is plasma albumin essential for vectorial transport of organic anions in the liver?  

PubMed Central

To investigate a possible function of plasma albumin in the vectorial transport of organic anions by the liver, the plasma disappearance of sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and its interaction with plasma and liver cytosolic proteins were studied in normal rats and mutant Nagase analbuminemic rats (NAR). After intravenous administration of BSP, plasma BSP decreased rapidly in both NAR and control animals: plasma clearance values of BSP in NAR and controls were 12.45 and 7.40 ml/min per kg, respectively. Gel exclusion Sephadex G-100 chromatography of BSP with control rat serum revealed a protein peak in the void volume and another in the albumin fraction. BSP chromatographed exclusively with the albumin fraction; binding of BSP to plasma albumin occurred stoichiometrically. Similar studies with NAR serum revealed a single protein peak, in the void volume; a small amount of BSP chromatographed with this protein peak. The amount of BSP that chromatographed with NAR serum protein(s) was 8% of that with control rat serum albumin. Sephadex G-100 chromatography of BSP with control rat liver cytosol revealed four peaks of protein-bound BSP in fractions corresponding to the void volume (fraction X), albumin, glutathione S-transferases (fraction Y, Mr 45,000), and fraction Z (Mr 12,000); fraction Y was the major component of BSP binding. Gel chromatography of NAR liver cytosol with BSP revealed three BSP peaks, fractions X, Y, and Z; fraction X was the major component of BSP binding. Total BSP binding by 30 mg of hepatic cytosolic proteins was 4.5 nmol for controls and 10.4 nmol for NAR. Isoelectric focusing of liver cytosol revealed no quantitative or qualitative differences in glutathione S-transferase isozymes between control and mutant animals. Intravenously administered BSP (5 mumol/kg) rapidly appeared in bile as the free form and the glutathione conjugate in normal rats and NAR; 41% and 57% of injected BSP was excreted within 60 min in NAR and control rat bile, respectively. These results indicate that binding of BSP to plasma albumin is not indispensable to transhepatocyte transport of BSP in vivo.

Inoue, M; Okajima, K; Nagase, S; Morino, Y



Cognitive Function, Plasma MnSOD Activity, and MnSOD Ala-9Val Polymorphism in Patients With Schizophrenia and Normal Controls.  


Excessive reactive oxygen species are thought to produce oxidative damage that underlies neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment in several disorders including schizophrenia. The functional Ala-9Val polymorphism of the mitochondrial enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), which detoxifies superoxide radicals to hydrogen peroxide, has been associated with schizophrenia. However, no study has reported its role in cognitive deficits of schizophrenia as mediated through MnSOD activity. We recruited 923 schizophrenic inpatients and 566 healthy controls and compared them on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), plasma MnSOD activity, and the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism. We assessed patient psychopathology using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. We showed that the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism may not contribute directly to the susceptibility to schizophrenia. The Ala variant was associated with worse attention performance among chronic schizophrenic patients but not among normal controls. Plasma MnSOD activity was significantly decreased in patients compared with that in normal controls. Moreover, MnSOD activity among the schizophrenic Ala allele carriers was correlated with the degree of cognitive impairments, especially attention and RBANS total score. We demonstrated an association between the MnSOD Ala-9Val variant and poor attention in schizophrenia. The association between higher MnSOD activity and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is dependent on the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism. PMID:23588476

Zhang, Xiang Y; Chen, Da C; Xiu, Mei H; Yang, Fu D; Tan, Yunlong; Luo, Xingguang; Zuo, Lingjun; Kosten, Therese A; Kosten, Thomas R



Plasma levels of adiponectin and soluble thrombomodulin in hypothyroid patients with normal thyroid function following levothyroxine replacement therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothyroidism is associated with increased morbidity from cardiovascular disease, and adiponectin (ApN) is a newly-identified adipocytokine, which is expressed in human adipose cells and may have a protective effect against the development of coronary artery disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the involvement of ApN secretion in hypothyroid patients with normal thyroid function following levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement

Toshiki Nagasaki; Masaaki Inaba; Yoshikazu Hiura; Hideki Tahara; Yasuro Kumeda; Kumi Shirakawa; Naoyoshi Onoda; Tetsuro Ishikawa; Eiji Ishimura; Yoshiki Nishizawa



Failure of substrate-induced gluconeogenesis to increase overall glucose appearance in normal humans. Demonstration of hepatic autoregulation without a change in plasma glucose concentration.  


It has been proposed that increased supply of gluconeogenic precursors may be largely responsible for the increased gluconeogenesis which contributes to fasting hyperglycemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Therefore, to test the hypothesis that an increase in gluconeogenic substrate supply per se could increase hepatic glucose output sufficiently to cause fasting hyperglycemia, we infused normal volunteers with sodium lactate at a rate approximately double the rate of appearance observed in NIDDM while clamping plasma insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone at basal levels. In control experiments, sodium bicarbonate was infused instead of sodium lactate at equimolar rates. In both experiments, [6-3H]-glucose was infused to measure glucose appearance and either [U-14C]lactate or [U-14C]alanine was infused to measure the rates of appearance and conversion of these substrates into plasma glucose. Plasma insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, C-peptide, and glycerol concentrations, and blood bicarbonate and pH in control and lactate infusion experiments were not significantly different. Infusion of lactate increased plasma lactate and alanine to 4.48 +/- 3 mM and 610 +/- 33 microM, respectively, from baseline values of 1.6 +/- 0.2 mM and 431 +/- 28 microM, both P less than 0.01; lactate and alanine rates of appearance increased to 38 +/- 1.0 and 8.0 +/- 0.3 mumol/kg per min (P less than 0.01 versus basal rates of 14.4 +/- 0.4 and 5.0 +/- 0.5 mumol/kg per min, respectively). With correction for Krebs cycle carbon exchange, lactate incorporation into plasma glucose increased nearly threefold to 10.4 mumol/kg per min and accounted for about 50% of overall glucose appearance. Alanine incorporation into plasma glucose increased more than twofold. Despite this marked increase in gluconeogenesis, neither overall hepatic glucose output nor plasma glucose increased and each was not significantly different from values observed in control experiments (10.8 +/- 0.5 vs. 10.8 +/- 0.5 mumol/kg per min and 5.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 5.3 +/- 0.3 mM, respectively). We, therefore, conclude that in normal humans there is an autoregulatory process independent of changes in plasma glucose and glucoregulatory hormone concentrations which prevents a substrate-induced increase in gluconeogenesis from increasing overall hepatic glucose output; since this process cannot be explained on the basis of inhibition of gluconeogenesis from other substrates, it probably involves diminution of glycogenolysis. A defect in this process could explain at least in part the increased hepatic glucose output found in NIDDM. PMID:2200805

Jenssen, T; Nurjhan, N; Consoli, A; Gerich, J E



Growth hormone (GH) therapy markedly increases the motility of spermatozoa and the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I in seminal vesicle fluid in the male GH-deficient dwarf rat.  


There is increasing evidence for an important role of the somatotropic axis in male reproductive function. We investigated the effect of recombinant bovine GH (rbGH) treatment for 21 days on semen characteristics in post-pubertal GH-deficient dwarf (dw/dw) rats. Male dw/dw rats at an age of 75-80 days were divided into two groups (n = 10 per group) and injected twice per day with either rbGH (2 micrograms/g/day) or saline. While the concentration (96.4 +/- 51.3 x 10(6) per ml) and morphology of spermatozoa (spermatozoa with normal morphology 73.5 +/- 6.3%) in the dw/dw rat were within the normal range, the motility of spermatozoa was very low (27.5 +/- 11.7%), establishing a state of sub-fertility. The rbGH treatment markedly increased (p < 0.01) motility of spermatozoa (44.5 +/- 10.7%) but did not change the concentration (144 +/- 80.3 x 10(6) per ml) and morphology (spermatozoa with normal morphology 79.5 +/- 6.0%). The rbGH treatment also significantly increased the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in blood plasma (control 389.1 +/- 65 ng/ml, rbGH 813.9 ng/ml, p < 0.001) and in seminal vesicle fluid (control 11.3 +/- 3.0 ng/ml, rbGH 16.1 +/- 5.4 ng/ml, p < 0.05). We conclude that rbGH therapy markedly increases motility of spermatozoa in sub-fertile male GH-deficient dw/dw rats. Thus, GH therapy may offer considerable potential for the treatment of impaired male reproductive performance. PMID:8756586

Breier, B H; Vickers, M H; Gravance, C G; Casey, P J



Comparative responses of plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide following ingestion of isocaloric glucose, a modified urban Saudi breakfast and dates in normal Saudi persons.  


Diabetic patients are commonly advised without scientific basis to avoid ingestion of dates. Prior to undertaking studies in diabetic persons, we considered it important to establish the metabolic consequences of date ingestion in normal Saudi subjects. Nineteen normal subjects, 11 males and 8 females, aged 29.4 +/- 1.5 (mean +/- SEM) with a body mass index (BMI) of 22.1 +/- 0.5 were fed in a random order: a) a date meal (DM) consisting of approximately 300 calories (Carbohydrates - CHO 74.5 g, proteins 3.7 g and fats 0.66 g), b) a modified urban Saudi breakfast (SBF) 300 calories (oral glucose tolerance test - OGTT), on 3 different days at least 1 week apart. Plasma glucose (G), insulin (I) and C-peptide (C) values were determined at -30,0 and then every 30 minutes for 180 minutes. Glycemic indices for DM and SBF were also determined. G, I and C area profiles were not different between DM and SBF but were when compared with OGTT. This is the first documentation of the glycemic index for dates. For the "Khalas" variety it was found to be 57.7 +/- 8.5 and was significantly lower than that for SBF which was 79.0. Contrary to the usual belief, this study refutes the notion that ingestion of date adversely affects glucose tolerance compared with SBF in normal subjects. Similar results are observed in preliminary studies in diabetic subjects in our laboratory. PMID:17590758

Ahmed, M; Al-Othaimeen, A; De Vol, E; Bold, A



Plasma galanin response to head-up tilt in normal subjects and patients with recurrent vasovagal syncope.  


Neurohumoral factors may contribute to cardiovascular changes associated with vasovagal syncope (VVS). Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide, widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, that interacts with both sympathetic and vagal systems as well as with neurotransmitters, such as serotonin. We investigated the changes in plasma GAL and catecholamine levels during head-up tilt (HUT) test in patients with recurrent VVS. Twenty-two patients (11 women, aged 33.1 +/- 4.2 years) with a history of VVS and 10 healthy subjects (5 women, aged 38.0 +/- 5.8 years) underwent HUT test (60 degrees, 45 minutes). GAL and catecholamine plasma levels were measured in the supine position, during HUT and, in patients with positive response, at presyncope, syncope, and after recovery of consciousness. Thirteen patients developed syncope during HUT, whereas no healthy subjects had a positive response. In healthy subjects, GAL did not change during HUT. By contrast, in patients with a history of VVS and a negative response to tilting (no syncope), GAL significantly (P <.001) increased in response to tilting (supine, 10.2 +/- 0.6 pmol/L; tilting, 18.1 +/- 1.1 pmol/L at 45 minutes) and correlated positively with the increases in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). In patients with a positive response, GAL did not change either before the loss of consciousness or during syncope. In patients with a positive response, norepinephrine (NE) significantly (P <.001) increased during tilting and then remained practically unchanged during syncope, whereas epinephrine (E) significantly (P <.001) increased during tilting and then showed further significant increases at presyncope and syncope. In conclusion, this study shows that circulating GAL levels progressively increase in correlation with the cardiovascular parameters during a negative HUT in patients with a history of VVS, whereas they remain unchanged in healthy subjects. Moreover, in the patients with tilting-induced syncope GAL does not change either before or during loss of consciousness. These data suggest a role for endogenous GAL in the adaptive responses to acute orthostatic stress preventing syncope in susceptible individuals. PMID:12647269

Bondanelli, Marta; Alboni, Paolo; Margutti, Angelo; Franceschetti, Paola; Dinelli, Maurizio; Gruppillo, Paolo; Marchi, Paola; degli Uberti, Ettore C



1/f ruffle oscillations in plasma membranes of amphibian epithelial cells under normal and inverted gravitational orientations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Membrane ruffle fluctuations of amphibian epithelial cells A6 (CCL102) cultured in normal and upside down oriented plates have been analyzed through video microscopy. Our results reveal that their edge ruffle fluctuations exhibit a stochastic dynamics with 1/f? power spectrum over at least two decades at low frequencies and long range correlated, self-affine lateral border profiles. In a few and small areas of the membrane, probably nearby focal contacts, we found periodic oscillations which could be induced by myosin driven contraction of stress fibers. Furthermore, whereas the different gravitational orientations had none or little effect on the structure (power spectra and surface roughness) of these membrane ruffle fluctuations, their dynamic parameters were differentially affected. Indeed, the decay time of ruffles remained unchanged, but the period of lamellipodia oscillations near the focal adhesion points was significantly altered in A6 cells cultured upside down.

Silva, H. S.; Martins, M. L.; Vilela, M. J.; Jaeger, Ruy; Kachar, B.



KOBITO1 Encodes a Novel Plasma Membrane Protein Necessary for Normal Synthesis of Cellulose during Cell Expansion in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

The cell wall is the major limiting factor for plant growth. Wall extension is thought to result from the loosening of its structure. However, it is not known how this is coordinated with wall synthesis. We have identified two novel allelic cellulose-deficient dwarf mutants, kobito1-1 and kobito1-2 (kob1-1 and kob1-2). The cellulose deficiency was confirmed by the direct observation of microfibrils in most recent wall layers of elongating root cells. In contrast to the wild type, which showed transversely oriented parallel microfibrils, kob1 microfibrils were randomized and occluded by a layer of pectic material. No such changes were observed in another dwarf mutant, pom1, suggesting that the cellulose defect in kob1 is not an indirect result of the reduced cell elongation. Interestingly, in the meristematic zone of kob1 roots, microfibrils appeared unaltered compared with the wild type, suggesting a role for KOB1 preferentially in rapidly elongating cells. KOB1 was cloned and encodes a novel, highly conserved, plant-specific protein that is plasma membrane bound, as shown with a green fluorescent protein–KOB1 fusion protein. KOB1 mRNA was present in all organs investigated, and its overexpression did not cause visible phenotypic changes. KOB1 may be part of the cellulose synthesis machinery in elongating cells, or it may play a role in the coordination between cell elongation and cellulose synthesis.

Pagant, Silvere; Bichet, Adeline; Sugimoto, Keiko; Lerouxel, Olivier; Desprez, Thierry; McCann, Maureen; Lerouge, Patrice; Vernhettes, Samantha; Hofte, Herman



[Role of deep seminal tract imaging in the diagnosis of unilateral agenesis of the vas deferens. Case report of a patient with CFTR gene mutation].  


The authors report the cases of a 35-year-old man with a 4-year history of primary infertility with normal clinical examination and semen parameters. Deep genital tract imaging demonstrated isolated unilateral agenesis of the pelvic portion of the left vas deferens associated with abnormalities of the homolateral seminal vesicle. Molecular analysis of the CFTR gene demonstrated composite heterozygosity with the presence of DeltaF508 / V938G mutations. In the light of this case, the authors recommend urogenital imaging for all men consulting for infertility. PMID:17175965

Marcelli, François; Robin, Geoffroy; Mitchell, Valérie; Dumur, Viviane; Puech, Philippe; Lemaitre, Laurent; Rigot, Jean-Marc



Role of the apolipoprotein A-IV polymorphism at codon 347 in affecting normal plasma lipid and apolipoprotein variation  

SciTech Connect

Apolipoprotein A-IV (APOA-IV) is a major component of several lipoprotein particles, and is therefore expected to play an important role in lipid metabolism. Sequence analysis of the APOA-IV coding region has revealed a common nucleotide substitution at codon 347 which converts the commonly present threonine residue (allele A) into serine (allele T). In this investigation, we determined the APOA-IV polymorphism at codon 347 by polymerase chain reaction-based assay in 537 normolipidemic non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), and 377 normolipidemic Hispanics from the San Luis Valley, Colorado, and examined its effect on quantitative lipid and apolipoprotein traits. The frequency of the less common allele (APOA-IV*T) was significantly lower in Hispanics than in NHWs (0.13 vs. 0.20; P<0.01), most probably due to substantial Amerindian admixture. After adjusting for concomitant variables including age, cigarette smoking, body mass index and premenopausal or postmenopausal status in women, we found significant ethnic and gender-specific effects of the APOA-IV polymorphism on plasma levels of APOA-I (P=0.01) and LP(a) (P=0.03) in NHW women only. There was a clear gene dosage effect on the two quantitative traits: APOA-I levels were lowest in the TT genotype, intermediate in the AT genotype, and highest in the AA genotype; the trend was reversed for LP(a) levels among the three genotypes. The average effect of the APOA-IV*T allele was to lower APOA-I levels by 7.8 mg/dl and to raise LP(a) levels by 2.6 mg/dl. These data suggest that the APO-IV*T allele may be associated with atherogenic apolipoprotein profile in NHW women as lower levels of APOA-I and higher levels of LP(a) are considered to be major risk factors for coronary heart disease.

Wang, G.O.; Kamboh, M.I.; Aston, C.E. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others



Dietary inclusion of dried tomato pomace improves the seminal characteristics in Iranian native roosters.  


Because of a paucity of information on the effect of tomato pomace in male chickens, a study was undertaken to determine the influence of dietary inclusion of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on seminal characteristics in Iranian native breeder roosters. Fifty-four roosters (24 wk old) were randomly allotted to 3 treatment groups and received either a basal diet without DTP (T(0)), or a diet containing 15% (T(15)) or 30% (T(30)) DTP for an 8-wk-long experimental period. Semen samples were obtained weekly by abdominal massage to evaluate the seminal characteristics. Dietary inclusion of DTP increased sperm concentration, accompanied by a decreased seminal volume (P ? 0.05). The percentage of live sperm in ejaculate was increased in T(15) and T(30) groups, but sperm forward motility was not affected by DTP inclusion. A decreased percentage of abnormal sperm and improved membrane integrity (as determined by the hypoosmotic swelling test) were observed in T(15) and T(30) groups. Lower concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (as an index of sperm membrane lipid peroxidation) was recorded in roosters fed DTP. A diet × time (wk) interaction was also found for most of seminal characteristics, except for the sperm forward motility (P ? 0.05). The results indicated that dietary inclusion of DTP up to 30% improved seminal quality attributes within 4 to 5 wk in roosters; however, the underlying mechanism(s) warrants further study. PMID:22912468

Saemi, F; Zamiri, M J; Akhlaghi, A; Niakousari, M; Dadpasand, M; Ommati, M M



Sperm: seminal fluid interactions and the adjustment of sperm quality in relation to female attractiveness  

PubMed Central

An important predictor of male fitness is the fertilizing efficiency of their ejaculates. Ejaculates are costly to produce and males are predicted to devote greater resources to copulations with reproductively superior females. It is well established that males allocate different numbers of sperm to ejaculates. However, less is known about how males adjust their sperm quality, which has important implications for our understanding of fertilization and the evolution of sexual strategies. Here we test in the fowl, Gallus gallus, whether males adjust their sperm velocity by differentially allocating seminal fluid to copulations with attractive and unattractive females. To disentangle the contributions of sperm and seminal fluid to sperm velocity, we separated and remixed sperm and seminal fluid from ejaculates allocated to females of different attractiveness. We show that dominant males increase the velocity of the sperm they invest in more attractive females by allocating larger ejaculates that contain seminal fluid that increases sperm velocity. Furthermore, we find weak evidence that males also allocate sperm with higher velocity, irrespective of seminal fluid, to more attractive females.

Cornwallis, Charlie K.; O'Connor, Emily A.



Relationship among plasma adipokines, insulin and androgens level as well as biochemical glycemic and lipidemic markers with incidence of PCOS in women with normal BMI.  


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder in women. Omentin-1 and vaspin are secretary adipokines that are produced by the visceral adipose tissue. These levels change in obese women with PCOS. The aim of this study is to investigate whether omentin and vaspin levels change in nonobese PCOS subjects. This study is a cross-sectional case control study in which 39 women with PCOS were picked out for this study. The inclusion criteria were based on the Rotterdam 2003 diagnostic criteria. The control group consisted of 39 women with normal pelvic sonographic reports having regular menstruation and showing no signs of infertility. The fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglyceride (TG), Chol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), insulin, testosterone, omentin and vaspin were measured by the enzymatic methods. The differences within these groups were calculated by the un-paired t-test and the Mann-Whitney test. The results from this study show a significant increase in the amount of insulin, testosterone, homeostasis model assessments for insulin resistance, TG and lower HDL in the patient group. No significant differences were seen in omentin, vaspin, FPG, Cho, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, Cr and homeostasis model assessments for B cell function levels between groups. Results show that PCOS is not a determinant of decreased omentin and vaspin plasma levels and those high androgen level and insulin resistances are warning signs of PCOS. PMID:22309615

Akbarzadeh, Samad; Ghasemi, Soghra; Kalantarhormozi, Mohamadreza; Nabipour, Iraj; Abbasi, Fateme; Aminfar, Alnaz; Jaffari, Seyed Mojtaba; Motamed, Niloofar; Movahed, Ali; Mirzaei, Mostafa; Rahbar, Ali Reza



Evaluation of Aldosterone-and Cortisol Levels in Blood Plasma in Normal Conditions of Ingestion of Sodium and Potassium, after Saline-Increase and Depletion, in Regard to Position, and after Stimulation with ACTH and Angiotensin II. Radioimmunoassay of Plasma-Aldosterone and Cortisol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods for the determination of plasma aldosterone and cortisol, by radioimmunoassay, were performed utilizing highly specific antisera. With this methodology it was possible to evaluate cortisol and aldosterone secretion, in six normal subjects, submitt...

H. Okada



Primary yolk sac tumor of seminal vesicle: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor) is a rare malignant germ cell tumor arising in the testis or ovary. Extragonadal yolk sac tumor is even rarer and has only been described in case reports. Due to the rarity of the tumors, the appropriately optimal treatment remains unclear. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the seminal vesicle. Case A 38-year-old Asian male presented with gross hematuria and hemospermia. Transrectal ultrasound scan showed a solid mass in the left seminal vesicle and the scrotal sonography showed no abnormalities. Bilateral seminal vesicles were resected, and histopathological examination showed a typical pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST). The patient responded poorly to comprehensive treatment of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgeries, developed systemic multiple metastases, and died of cachexia one and half years after diagnosis.



Approximating Multivariate Normal Orthant Probabilities. ONR Technical Report. [Biometric Lab Report No. 90-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The probability integral of the multivariate normal distribution (ND) has received considerable attention since W. F. Sheppard's (1900) and K. Pearson's (1901) seminal work on the bivariate ND. This paper evaluates the formula that represents the "n x n" correlation matrix of the "chi(sub i)" and the standardized multivariate normal density…

Gibbons, Robert D.; And Others


Angiosarcoma of the Seminal Vesicle: A Case Report of Long-Term Survival Following Multimodality Therapy  

PubMed Central

Angiosarcoma of the seminal vesicle is an extremely rare malignancy, with few published case reports in the literature. We present a case of primary angiosarcoma of the seminal vesicle in a 45-year-old male who was treated with multimodality therapy, consisting of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiation followed by surgical resection and intraoperative radiation therapy. He has been free of cancer recurrence for more than six years after completion of therapy. To our knowledge, this represents the longest reported survival of a patient with this rare tumor, and one of the few cases reported using a multimodality therapy approach.

Chang, Kenneth; Sio, Terence T.; Chandan, Vishal S.; Iott, Matthew J.; Hallemeier, Christopher L.



Drosophila seminal fluid proteins enter the circulatory system of the mated female fly by crossing the posterior vaginal wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seminal fluid proteins from males of many insect species affect the behavior and physiology of their mates. In some cases, these effects result from entry of the proteins into the female's circulatory system. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, some seminal fluid proteins enter the female's circulatory system after transfer from the male while others remain confined within the reproductive

Oliver Lung; Mariana F. Wolfner



Differential progression of neonatal diethylstilbestrol-induced disruption of the hamster testis and seminal vesicle.  


The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) is now recognized as the prototypical endocrine disruptor. Using a hamster experimental system, we performed a detailed temporal assessment of how neonatal DES-induced disruption progresses in the testis compared to the seminal vesicle. Both morphological and Western blot analyses confirmed that neonatal DES exposure alters androgen responsiveness in the male hamster reproductive tract. We also determined that the disruption phenomenon in the male hamster is manifest much earlier in the seminal vesicle than in the testis and that testis disruption often occurs differently between the pair of organs in a given animal. In the neonatally DES-exposed seminal vesicle, histopathological effects included: (1) general atrophy, (2) lack of exocrine products, (3) epithelial dysplasia, (4) altered organization of stromal cells and extracellular matrix, and (5) striking infiltration with polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Also, the morphological disruption phenomenon in the seminal vesicle was accompanied by a range of up-regulation and down-regulation responses in the whole organ levels of various proteins. PMID:16439099

Hendry, William J; Weaver, Benjamin P; Naccarato, Teran R; Khan, Shafiq A



Origin of the catalytic activity of bovine seminal ribonuclease against double-stranded RNA.  


Bovine seminal ribonuclease (RNase) binds, melts, and (in the case of RNA) catalyzes the hydrolysis of double-stranded nucleic acid 30-fold better under physiological conditions than its pancreatic homologue, the well-known RNase A. Reported here are site-directed mutagenesis experiments that identify the sequence determinants of this enhanced catalytic activity. These experiments have been guided in part by experimental reconstructions of ancestral RNases from extinct organisms that were intermediates in the evolution of the RNase superfamily. It is shown that the enhanced interactions between bovine seminal RNase and double-stranded nucleic acid do not arise from the increased number of basic residues carried by the seminal enzyme. Rather, a combination of a dimeric structure and the introduction of two glycine residues at positions 38 and 111 on the periphery of the active site confers the full catalytic activity of bovine seminal RNase against duplex RNA. A structural model is presented to explain these data, the use of evolutionary reconstructions to guide protein engineering experiments is discussed, and a new variant of RNase A, A(Q28L K31C S32C D38G E111G), which contains all of the elements identified in these experiments as being important for duplex activity, is prepared. This is the most powerful catalyst within this subfamily yet observed, some 46-fold more active against duplex RNA than RNase A. PMID:9521723

Opitz, J G; Ciglic, M I; Haugg, M; Trautwein-Fritz, K; Raillard, S A; Jermann, T M; Benner, S A



Melatonin promotes seminal root elongation and root growth in transgenic rice after germination.  


The effect of melatonin on root growth after germination was examined in transgenic rice seedlings expressing sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT). Enhanced melatonin levels were found in T(3) homozygous seedlings because of the ectopic overexpression of sheep NAT, which is believed to be the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis in animals. Compared with wild-type rice seeds, the transgenic rice seeds showed enhanced seminal root growth and an analogous number of adventitious roots 4 and 10 days after seeding on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium. The enhanced initial seminal root growth in the transgenic seedlings matched their increased root biomass well. We also found that treatment with 0.5 and 1 ?M melatonin promoted seminal root growth of the wild type under continuous light. These results indicate that melatonin plays an important role in regulating both seminal root length and root growth after germination in monocotyledonous rice plants. This is the first report on the effects of melatonin on root growth in gain-of-function mutant plants that produce high levels of melatonin. PMID:22640001

Park, Sangkyu; Back, Kyoungwhan



Prediction of Capsular Perforation and Seminal Vesicle Invasion in Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeCapsular perforation and seminal vesicle invasion are unfavorable, prognostic factors in prostate cancer. Accurate preoperative prediction of these factors would be clinically useful for planning treatment, especially in patients being considered for radiation therapy, nerve sparing radical prostatectomy and watchful waiting. However, current methods are imprecise at predicting the presence and extent of these factors. We determined which combination of

David G. Bostwick; Junqi Qian; Erik Bergstralh; Paul Dundore; Dugan James; Robert P. Myers; Joseph E. Oesterling



Genes Regulated by Mating, Sperm, or Seminal Proteins in Mated Female Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Drosophila melanogaster, sperm and accessory gland proteins (“Acps,” a major component of seminal fluid) transferred by males during mating trigger many physiological and behavioral changes in females (reviewed in [1–5]). Determining the genetic changes triggered in females by male-derived molecules and cells is a crucial first step in understanding female responses to mating and the female's role in postcopulatory

Lisa A. McGraw; Greg Gibson; Andrew G. Clark; Mariana F. Wolfner



No increase in sperm DNA damage and seminal oxidative stress in patients with idiopathic infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common cause of male infertility is idiopathic. Standard investigations reveal no abnormality in such cases. The aim of the study was to investigate the levels of sperm DNA damage and seminal oxidative stress and their relationships with idiopathic infertility. The study included 30 normozoospermic infertile men seeking infertility treatment and 20 fertile donors. Semen analysis was performed according

Fatma Ferda Verit; Ayhan Verit; Abdurrahim Kocyigit; Halil Ciftci; Hakim Celik; Mete Koksal



[Postprandial plasma variations of 3-methylhistidine compared to those of lysine, homoarginine and xylose on the normal conditions and in malabsorption in the suckling calf].  


We have studied the absorption of 3-methylhistidine (3MH) in vitro and changes in its plasma concentration in preruminant calves after ingestion of milk containing 3MH under normal and malabsorptive conditions. Changes in 3MH concentration were compared to those in lysine, homoarginine (as a component of guanidinated caseine) and xylose, also added to milk. The absorption of 3MH in vitro was dose-dependent and was inhibited by leucine, indicating that 3 MH was transported in the same manner as neutral amino acids. After the ingestion of milk supplying 2.5-20 mumols (3MH)/kg body weight, 3MH increased dose-dependently within 1.75 h and reached maximal levels between 3 and 8 h. Lysine concentration initially parallelled the course of blood 3MH levels but dropped sooner. Homoarginine concentration did not increase until 2-4 h postprandially, probably as a consequence of the time needed for casein degradation. Xylose concentration increased as rapidly as 3MH and lysine concentration. Feeding a diet containing soybean protein for 36 d and administration of neomycine for 5 d to newborn calves induced malabsorption of xylose. However, 3MH absorption and caseine digestion, which increased after homoarginine absorption were not reduced. PMID:1700910

Vacher, P Y; Schmitz, M; Hirni, H; Blum, J W



Multi-element quantification of ancient/historic glasses by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using sum normalization calibration.  


Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for quantitative analysis of ancient/historic glasses is subject to calibration issues which have been addressed in this work. Since ancient/historic glasses have widely ranging matrix compositions, a complementary analysis by an alternative method is generally employed to determine at least one major element which can be used as an internal standard. We demonstrate that such a complementary analysis is unnecessary using a so-called sum normalization calibration technique (mathematically formulated) by simultaneous measurement of 54 elements and normalizing them to 100% [w/w] based on their corresponding oxide concentrations. The crux of this approach is that by assuming a random internal standard concentration of a particular major oxide, e.g. SiO2, the normalization algorithm varies the internal standard concentration until the cumulated concentrations of all 54 elemental oxides reach 100% [w/w]. The fact that 54 elements are measured simultaneously predetermines the laser ablation mode to rastering. Nine glass standards, some replicating historic compositions, were used for calibration. The linearity of the calibration graphs (forced through the origin) represented by the relative standard deviations in the slope were between 0.1 and 6.6% using SiO2 as an internal standard. This allows high-accuracy determination of elemental oxides as confirmed by good agreement between found and reported values for major and minor elemental oxides in some synthetic glasses with typical medieval composition (European Science Foundation 151 and 158). Also for trace elemental concentrations of lanthanides in a reference glass (P&H Developments Ltd. DLH7, a base glass composition with nominally 75 microg g(-1) elements added) accurate data were obtained. Interferences from polyatomic species and doubly charged species on the masses of trace elements are possible, depending on the base composition of the glass, with Ba and Sb glasses showing potential interferences on some lanthanides. We showed that they may be reduced to a great extent by using an Octopole Reaction System although the overall sensitivity decreases which may be a problem for some low-level determinations. PMID:19463554

van Elteren, Johannes T; Tennent, Norman H; Selih, Vid S



Effect of systemic inflammation on level of ferritin seminal in chronic renal male patient undergoing hemodialysis  

PubMed Central

Background Most hemodialysis patients present with chronic systemic inflammation characterized by the elevation of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and/or the production of proinflammatory interleukins by the immune system in response to the hemodialysis process. Plasma ferritin(PF) is one of the parameters used to correct anemia. An PF level of >500 ng/mL is not recommended for correction of anemia because of the uncertainty of whether these levels are elevated because of anemia or a mere reaction to inflammation. we aimed to study the effects of inflammation on seminal ferritin (SF) levels and hypothesized that SF is not affected because of the testicular immune privilege. Methods A prospective prevalence study was conducted at the Department of Hemodialysis of the University Hospital of Brasília (HuB) between June 2010 and July 2011. The sample included 60 chronic renal patients undergoing hemodialysis and 20 control subjects from the health promotion general outpatient clinic. All participants were males aged 18–60 years. Inflammation was assessed through serum CRP levels, and the testicular condition was determined by measuring sex hormone levels. In the patient group, inflammation was considered to be present when CRP was >5 mg/L (n?=?27) and absent when CRP was ?5 mg/L (n?=?33). Control group (n?=?20) CRP was ?1 mg/L. Blood and semen were collected via arm venoclysis and after voluntary masturbation, respectively. CRP was measured by turbidimetry; PF, SF, and sex hormone levels by immunochemoluminescence. Statistical significance was set at p?



Copulation without seminal expulsion: the consequence of sexual satiation and the Coolidge effect.  


The studies of sexual satiety in male rats under the Coolidge effect indicate that males reassume copulation until ejaculation. Recently, it was demonstrated that sexually satiated males preserve the motor patterns of intromission and ejaculation, also penile erection, but not seminal expulsion. The first aim was to investigate if penile erections displayed by sexually satiated males dislodge the seminal plugs from the vagina and its effect on sperm transcervical transport. The second aim was to determine the recovery time of seminal expulsion after sexual satiety and its optimal ability to induce pregnancy. Results show that during the Coolidge effect males were able to dislodge the seminal plugs deposited by others (experiment 1A) disturbing the sperm transport (experiment 1B) then interfering with pregnancy (experiment 1C). After satiation, the ejaculate parameters recover slowly: it starts after 10 days with the seminal plug formation, and continues with an increase in sperm count in the uterus 15 days post-satiety (experiment 2). Sexually satiated males impregnated only 28% of the females during 15 days of cohabitation, whereas, satiated males that rested for 15 days impregnated 89% of the females (experiment 3). We concluded that males with successive ejaculations remain potential rivals, because they may disrupt the sperm transport of other males. The ejaculate features recovery after sexual satiety is gradual, begins with the secretions of the sex accessory glands and is followed by the sperm count. Full fertility recovery is reached after 15 days of sexual abstinence when males are able to impregnate most females. PMID:24677685

Lucio, R A; Rodríguez-Piedracruz, V; Tlachi-López, J L; García-Lorenzana, M; Fernández-Guasti, A



Determination of lycopene in tissues and plasma of rats by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method for the determination of lycopene in tissues and plasma of rats is described. The method was validated for the determination of lycopene in liver and plasma with respect to selectivity, linearity, accuracy, recovery and precision. Following precipitation of proteins with water–ethanol plasma was extracted with hexane; tissues were extracted with acetone followed by precipitation of proteins with

O Froescheis; S Moalli; H Liechti; J Bausch



Comparative proteomics reveals evidence for evolutionary diversification of rodent seminal fluid and its functional significance in sperm competition.  


During insemination, males of internally fertilizing species transfer a complex array of seminal fluid proteins to the female reproductive tract. These proteins can have profound effects on female reproductive physiology and behavior and are thought to mediate postcopulatory sexual selection and intersexual conflict. Such selection may cause seminal fluid to evolve rapidly, with potentially important consequences for speciation. Here we investigate the evolution of seminal fluid proteins in a major mammalian radiation, the muroid rodents, by quantifying diversity in seminal fluid proteome composition for the first time across a broad range of closely related species. Using comparative proteomics techniques to identify and cross-match proteins, we demonstrate that rodent seminal fluid is highly diverse at the level of both proteomes and individual proteins. The striking interspecific heterogeneity in seminal fluid composition revealed by our survey far exceeds that seen in a second proteome of comparable complexity, skeletal muscle, indicating that the complement of proteins expressed in seminal fluid may be subject to rapid diversification. We further show that orthologous seminal fluid proteins exhibit substantial interspecific variation in molecular mass. Because this variation cannot be attributed to differential glycosylation or radical differences in termination sites, it is strongly suggestive of rapid amino acid divergence. Sperm competition is implicated in generating such divergence for at least one major seminal fluid protein in our study, SVS II, which is responsible for copulatory plug formation via transglutaminase-catalyzed cross-linking after insemination. We show that the molecular mass of SVS II is positively correlated with relative testis size across species, which could be explained by selection for an increased number of cross-linking sites involved in the formation of the copulatory plug under sperm competition. PMID:18931385

Ramm, Steven A; McDonald, Lucy; Hurst, Jane L; Beynon, Robert J; Stockley, Paula



Enantioselective determination of cetirizine in human plasma by normal-phase liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.  


A highly sensitive and enantioselective method has been developed and validated for the determination of levocetirizine [(R)-cetirizine] in human plasma by normal-phase liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface in the positive ion mode. Enantioselective separation was achieved on a CHIRALPAK AD-H column using an isocratic mobile phase consisting of a mixture of n-hexane, ethyl alcohol, diethylamine, and acetic acid (60:40:0.1:0.1, v/v/v/v). Levocetirizine-D(8) was used as an internal standard (IS). Levocetirizine and the IS were detected by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM). Mass transitions of analyte and IS were m/z 389.2?201.1 and 397.2?201.1, respectively. Under optimized analytical conditions, a baseline separation of two enantiomers and IS was obtained in less than 11 min. Samples were prepared by a simple two-step extraction by protein precipitation using acetonitrile followed by liquid-liquid extraction with a n-hexane-dichloromethane mixture (50:50, v/v). The standard curve for levocetirizine was linear (r(2)>0.995) in the concentration range 0.5-300 ng/mL. Recovery was between 97.0 and 102.2% at low, medium, and high concentration. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 ng/mL. Other method validation parameters, such as precision, accuracy, and stability, were very satisfactory. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the study of enantioselective oral pharmacokinetics of levocetirizine in healthy Korean volunteers. PMID:21081290

Kang, Seung Woo; Jang, Hae Jong; Moore, Victor S; Park, Ji-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Ah; Youm, Jeong-Rok; Han, Sang Beom



The impact force acting on a flat plate exposed normally to a rarefied plasma plume issuing from an annular or circular nozzle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the indirect thrust measurement of electric thrusters working at a low vacuum chamber pressure as the research background, this paper analyses the impact force acting on a flat plate exposed normally to a rarefied plasma plume issuing from a thruster with an annular or circular exit section for the free-molecule flow regime (at large Knudsen numbers). The constraint relation proposed by Cai and Boyd (2007 J. Spacecr. Rockets 44 619, 1326) about the velocity components of gas particles leaving a location on the nozzle exit section and arriving at a given spatial point outside the nozzle has been employed here to derive the analytical expressions for calculating the impact force. Sample calculation results show that if the flat plate is sufficiently large, the impact force acting on the flat plate calculated for the case without accounting for gas particle reflection at the plate surface agrees well with the axial momentum flux calculated at the thruster exit or the theoretical thrust force of the studied thruster, while accounting for the contribution of gas particles reflected from the plate surface to the impact force production may significantly increase the calculated impact force acting on the flat plate. For a Hall-effect thruster in which the thrust force is dominantly produced by the ions with high directional kinetic energy and the ions are not directly reflected from the plate surface, the contribution to the impact force production of atom species and of gas particles reflected from the plate surface is negligibly small and thus the measured axial impact force acting on a sufficiently large plate can well represent the thrust force of the thruster. On the other hand, if the contribution of the gas particles reflected from the plate surface to the impact force production cannot be neglected (e.g. for the electric thrusters with comparatively low thruster exit temperatures), appreciable error would appear in the indirect thrust measurement.

Chen, Xi



Cryopreservation of bull semen shipped overnight and its effect on post-thaw sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential and normal acrosomes.  


In the Canadian Animal Genetic Resource Program, bull semen is donated in frozen or fresh (diluted) states. This study was designed to assess the cryopreservation of diluted bull semen shipped at 4°C overnight, and to determine the post-thaw quality of shipped semen using different straw volumes and freezing rates. Semen was collected from four breeding bulls (three ejaculates per bull). Semen was diluted in Tris-citric acid-egg yolk-glycerol (TEYG) extender, cooled to 4°C and frozen as per routine (control semen). After cooling to 4°C, a part of semen was removed and shipped overnight to the research laboratory via express courier (shipped semen). Semen was packaged in 0.25 or 0.5 ml straws and frozen in a programmable freezer using three freezing rates, i.e., -10, -25 or -40°C/min. Control semen was also shipped to the research laboratory. Post-thaw sperm motility characteristics were assessed using CASA, and post-thaw sperm plasma membrane, mitochondrial membrane potential and normal acrosomes were assessed using flow cytometry. Post-thaw sperm quality was greater in shipped semen as compared to control (P<0.001). The shipped semen packaged in 0.25 ml straws had better post-thaw sperm quality than in 0.5 ml straws (P<0.001). Freezing rate had no effect on post-thaw sperm quality. In conclusion, bull semen can be shipped overnight for subsequent cryopreservation and gene banking. Overnight shipping of semen was found advantageous for bull semen cryopreservation. Semen packaging in 0.25 ml straws yielded better post-thaw quality than 0.5 ml straws. PMID:21621352

Anzar, M; Kroetsch, T; Boswall, L



Inhibition of Intestinal Bile Acid Transporter Slc10a2 Improves Triglyceride Metabolism and Normalizes Elevated Plasma Glucose Levels in Mice  

PubMed Central

Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2) and ob/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma TG levels were reduced in Slc10a2-deficient mice, and when challenged with a sucrose-rich diet, they displayed a reduced response in hepatic TG production as observed from the mRNA levels of several key enzymes in fatty acid synthesis. This effect was paralleled by a diminished induction of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c). Unexpectedly, the SR-diet induced intestinal fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 mRNA and normalized bile acid synthesis in Slc10a2?/? mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of Slc10a2 in diabetic ob/ob mice reduced serum glucose, insulin and TGs, as well as hepatic mRNA levels of Srebp1c and its target genes. These responses are contrary to those reported following treatment of mice with a bile acid binding resin. Moreover, when key metabolic signal transduction pathways in the liver were investigated, those of Mek1/2 - Erk1/2 and Akt were blunted after treatment of ob/ob mice with the Slc10a2 inhibitor. It is concluded that abrogation of Slc10a2 reduces hepatic Srebp1c activity and serum TGs, and in the diabetic ob/ob model it also reduces glucose and insulin levels. Hence, targeting of Slc10a2 may be a promising strategy to treat hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes.

Snaith, Michael; Lindmark, Helena; Lundberg, Johanna; Ostlund-Lindqvist, Ann-Margret; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats



Plasma visfatin levels and mRNA expression of visfatin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages from normal weight females with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrinology disease, however, an explicit etiology is not known. Insulin resistance (IR) appears to be central to the pathogenesis of PCOS and inflammation may be significant in the pathogenesis of IR in PCOS. The aims of the present study were to investigate the plasma visfatin level and the gene expression of visfatin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages (PBMMs) from PCOS patients, in addition to investigating the association between PCOS and IR. A total of 21 PCOS patients and 21 control subjects were enrolled in the study; the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was considered to be a stratified method for establishing the subgroups. Fasting blood samples were collected and the levels of sex hormones, insulin, glucose, blood lipids and visfatin were measured. In addition, visfatin gene expression levels in PBMCs and PBMMs were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The plasma visfatin and gene expression levels of visfatin in PBMCs and PBMMs were not observed to increase in the normal weight PCOS and normal weight IR patients. Furthermore, plasma visfatin levels did not correlate with the normal weight PCOS patients or the normal weight IR patients per se. Further investigation into the role of visfatin in the pathogenesis of PCOS or IR should examine macrophages in the tissues, rather than macrophages in the peripheral blood.




Proteomic analysis of Drosophila mojavensis male accessory glands suggests novel classes of seminal fluid proteins.  


Fruit-flies of the genus Drosophila are characterized by overwhelming variation in fertilization traits such as copulatory plug formation, sperm storage organ use, and nutritional ejaculatory donation. Despite extensive research on the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster, little is known about the molecular underpinnings of these interspecific differences. This study employs a proteomic approach to pin-point candidate seminal fluid proteins in Drosophila mojavensis, a cactophilic fruit-fly that exhibits divergent reproductive biology when compared to D. melanogaster. We identify several classes of candidate seminal fluid proteins not previously documented in the D. melanogaster male ejaculate, including metabolic enzymes, nutrient transport proteins, and clotting factors. Conversely, we also define 29 SFPs that are conserved despite >40 million years of Drosophila evolution. We discuss our results in terms of universal processes in insect reproduction, as well as the specialized reproductive biology of D. mojavensis. PMID:19328853

Kelleher, Erin S; Watts, Thomas D; LaFlamme, Brooke A; Haynes, Paul A; Markow, Therese A



Localization of SNAREs, NSF and Caveolin 1 in human spermatozoa: relationship with seminal parameters.  


Membrane fusion is a very important process in gametes. The mechanism of membrane fusion during the AR has been proposed to involve SNAREs. Our aim is to quantify patterns of localization of Caveolin 1, SNAREs (Syntaxin 1A, Syntaxin 2 and VAMP 1) and NSF on human sperm, to determine how the differential distribution of these proteins might be interdependent and to evaluate if this distribution is related with seminal parameters. These proteins are present in different regions of the head of human sperm: anterior, equatorial and posterior regions and that Syntaxin 2 and Syntaxin 1A had a slightly different pattern of labelling. The presence and localization of SNAREs, NSF and Caveolin 1 do not correlate with seminal parameters. There is significant correlation between NSF and SNAREs, which may indicate a cooperation of these proteins in membrane fusion mechanisms of human sperm. PMID:16873134

Sousa, A P M; Gomes-Santos, C S S; Ramalho-Santos, J



An extragastrointestinal stromal tumor originating from the seminal vesicles: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

The present study reports a case of an extragastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST) originating from the seminal vesicles. A 74-year-old male patient with a tumor in the seminal vesicles underwent a radical spermatocystectomy due to an increased defecation frequency and a huge mass in the seminal vesicles. Ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) initially diagnosed the mass as a tumor originating from the prostate. However, the mass was ultimately confirmed as an EGIST from the seminal vesicles following a laparotomy. According to the size, mitotic activity, cellularity, necrotic situation and immunohistochemical data, the tumor belonged to a low-risk group. No recurrence or metastasis has been identified during six years of follow-up observations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report this particular pathological type of EGIST.




Structural analysis of seminal and serum human transferrin by second derivative spectrometry and fluorescence measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denaturation of human seminal transferrin (HSmT) compared with human serum transferrin (HSrT) was followed to check structural differences between these two proteins. Second derivative UV spectroscopy indicated that treatment with 6 M guanidine hydrochloride (Gnd·HCl) induced greater structural changes in HSrT than in HSmT and, in particular; (i) the exposure value of tyrosinyl residues was almost 2.5-fold higher in native

Gabriele D'Andrea; Giovanni Maurizi; Anna M. D'Alessandro; M. Luisa Salucci; Angela Impagnatiello; M. Antonietta Saletti; Arduino Oratore



Comparison of seminal vesicle secretory proteins of rodents using antibody and nucleotide probes.  


The copulatory vaginal plug is a conspicuous feature of rodent reproduction. The five major seminal vesicle secretory proteins of Rattus norvegicus (proteins I-V), which form the copulatory plug, constitute a closely related androgen-regulated family that appears to share a common evolutionary origin. The relationships between these rat proteins and the major seminal vesicle proteins of other rodents were explored using antibodies specific for the individual rat proteins. Immunoblotting of proteins separated by SDS-PAGE showed that the vesicular proteins of R. rattus are identical to those of R. norvegicus except for an additional protein related to protein III. No differences were seen in inbred and outbred strains of R. norvegicus. Of the major proteins of Mus musculus, one showed strong homology with rat protein II and three others were weakly homologous to proteins I, IV (or S) and V (or F); none showed homology to rat protein III. The only homology between the vesicular proteins of Mesocricetus auratus (Syrian hamster) and Meriones ungulatus (Mongolian gerbil) was with rat protein II while those of Cavia porcellus (guinea pig) showed no homology at all with the rat proteins. In addition, cDNA probes for rat genes IV and V both detected weak homologues in seminal vesicle RNA from mice but not guinea pigs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2438167

Fawell, S E; McDonald, C J; Higgins, S J



Multi-scale feature learning on pixels and super-pixels for seminal vesicles MRI segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a learning-based approach to segment the seminal vesicles (SV) via random forest classifiers. The proposed discriminative approach relies on the decision forest using high-dimensional multi-scale context-aware spatial, textual and descriptor-based features at both pixel and super-pixel level. After affine transformation to a template space, the relevant high-dimensional multi-scale features are extracted and random forest classifiers are learned based on the masked region of the seminal vesicles from the most similar atlases. Using these classifiers, an intermediate probabilistic segmentation is obtained for the test images. Then, a graph-cut based refinement is applied to this intermediate probabilistic representation of each voxel to get the final segmentation. We apply this approach to segment the seminal vesicles from 30 MRI T2 training images of the prostate, which presents a particularly challenging segmentation task. The results show that the multi-scale approach and the augmentation of the pixel based features with the super-pixel based features enhances the discriminative power of the learnt classifier which leads to a better quality segmentation in some very difficult cases. The results are compared to the radiologist labeled ground truth using leave-one-out cross-validation. Overall, the Dice metric of 0:7249 and Hausdorff surface distance of 7:0803 mm are achieved for this difficult task.

Gao, Qinquan; Asthana, Akshay; Tong, Tong; Rueckert, Daniel; Edwards, Philip "Eddie"



Radiosensitivity of mouse seminal vesicle cells which show proliferative response to androgen and estrogen  

SciTech Connect

Injections of either androgen or estrogen have been shown to induce proliferation of epithelial cells in the seminal vesicle of castrated mice. Uptake of 5-(/sup 125/I)iodo-2'-deoxyuridine ((/sup 125/I)IdUrd) by the whole seminal vesicle was used as an index for cell proliferation. Although uptake of (/sup 125/I)IdUrd induced by androgen was about four times as great as that induced by estrogen, both values decreased with a similar pattern after irradiation. Uptake of (/sup 125/I)IdUrd showed a dose-dependent decrease up to 1000 rad; the values remained unchanged until 4000 rad. Uptake of (/sup 125/I)IdUrd by the radiosensitive cell population was calculated by substracting (I-125)IdUrd uptake attributable to the radioresistant cell population from total (I-125)IdUrd uptake. Androgen- and estrogen-responsive cells were equally sensitive to irradiation. Recovery of androgen-responsive cells from radiation-induced decrease was examined with or without androgen stimulation. Although recovery occurred without androgen, it was significantly enhanced by androgen stimulation following irradiation. Irradiation seems useful for investigation of kinetic characteristics of epithelial stem cells in the seminal vesicle of mice.

Okamoto, S.; Ogasawara, Y.; Kitamura, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Mori, K.J.



Association of Coronary Atherosclerosis with Hyper Apo Betalipoproteinemia [Increased Protein but Normal Cholesterol Levels in Human Plasma Low Density (beta) Lipoproteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most patients with coronary artery disease do not have elevated plasma or low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. To test whether the protein moiety of LDL, LDL B, might be a parameter to identify ischemic heart disease, the plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and LDL B were measured in 100 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. On the basis of coronary angiography,

Allan Sniderman; Stanley Shapiro; Derek Marpole; Bernard Skinner; Babie Teng; Peter O. Kwiterovich



Inhibition of antithrombin by protein SV-IV normalizes the coagulation of hemophilic blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the protein Seminal Vesicle Protein No. 4 (SV-IV), a potent inhibitor of antithrombin III (antithrombin), on the coagulation of blood obtained from patients affected by hemophilia A. In the coagulating blood of these patients, the antithrombin\\/thrombin ratio was found to be markedly higher (about 44) than in normal individuals

Biagio Di Micco; Jacques Caen; Giovanni Colonna; Maria A Macalello; Magda Marchese; Paola Stiuso; Pierpaolo Di Micco; Francesco Morelli; Salvatore Metafora



Multiparameter analyses of normal and malignant human plasma cells: CD38 ++ , CD56 + , CD54 + , cIg + is the common phenotype of myeloma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma cells obtained from bone marrow samples of 45 patients with MM, eight patients with MGUS, eight patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia (WM), one patient with immunocytoma, and 12 controls were characterized by immunophenotyping, estimation of DNA content, and labeling index, as well as by morphological analysis. Plasma cells from 37\\/45 myeloma and 5\\/8 MGUS patients expressed CD38 and CD56 (N-CAM)

R. Leo; M. Boeker; D. Peest; R. Hein; R. Bartl; J. E. Gessner; J. Seibach; G. Wacker; H. Deicher



Presence of neuropeptide Y in the rat seminal vesicle and its effects on noradrenaline- and nerve-induced contractions.  

PubMed Central

1. Immunohistochemical and functional studies have been performed to localize and determine the effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the rat seminal vesicle. 2. An abundant presence of NPY-immunoreactive nerves, mainly concentrated in the smooth muscle layer of the seminal vesicle was found. Chronic 6-hydroxydopamine treatment (four doses of 50 mg kg-1 i.p. on days 1, 2, 4 and 6; rats killed one week after the last injection) led to a large reduction but not abolition of the NPY-immunoreactivity. 3. NPY (1-250 nM) did not affect the resting tone of the seminal vesicle. 4. The seminal vesicle was contracted by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and by exposure to 5 microM noradrenaline (NA). These contractions were abolished by phentolamine (1 microM). Tetrodotoxin (0.5 microM) abolished EFS-evoked contractions but did not affect NA-evoked contractions. 5. Seminal vesicles, from animals chronically-treated with reserpine (5 mg kg-1 i.p. on days 1 and 2; rats killed on day 3), were contracted by NA but not by EFS. 6. NPY (0.25-250 nM), concentration-dependently, inhibited EFS-evoked contractions by up to 70% maximum inhibition. Contractions evoked by EFS with short trains of pulses were inhibited by NPY to a greater degree than those with longer trains. 7. NPY had no significant effect on NA-evoked contractions. 8. These data provide strong evidence that the motor transmission in rat seminal vesicle is predominantly if not exclusively, adrenergic. It is further concluded that a rich NPY-containing innervation is present in the smooth muscle layer of rat seminal vesicle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1

Iravani, M M; Zar, M A



Subunit composition of plasma von Willebrand factor. Cleavage is present in normal individuals, increased in IIA and IIB von Willebrand disease, but minimal in variants with aberrant structure of individual oligomers (types IIC, IID, and IIE).  

PubMed Central

We have evaluated the subunit composition of plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF) and found evidence that cleavage is present in normal individuals, increased in IIA and IIB von Willebrand disease (vWD), but decreased or absent in variants with aberrant structure of individual oligomers. vWF was rapidly purified from plasma on an analytical scale by monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity chromatography in the presence of protease inhibitors. After reduction and electrophoresis in 5% polyacrylamide gels containing sodium dodecyl sulfate, fragments of 189, 176, and 140 kD, as well as the predominant 225-kD subunit, were identified in plasma vWF from 25 normal individuals. The vWF polypeptides were detected by immunoblotting with a mixture of 55 anti-vWF monoclonal antibodies followed by 125I-rabbit anti-mouse antibody and autoradiography. In five individuals with type IIA and five individuals with type IIB vWD, the proportions of 176 and 140-kD fragments were increased relative to the intact 225-kD subunit, as determined by excising each band and quantitating incorporated radioactivity. In contrast, these fragments were either not detectable or were present in only trace amounts in variants with abnormal structure of individual oligomers (types IIC and IID, and a new variant, type IIE vWD). The results reported here provide evidence that absence of large vWF multimers in these two groups of variants results from different mechanisms. In addition, they demonstrate that partial cleavage of the plasma vWF subunit is a normal event. Images

Zimmerman, T S; Dent, J A; Ruggeri, Z M; Nannini, L H



Transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy using a 6F vesiculoscope for ejaculatory duct obstruction: initial experience.  


Ejaculatory duct obstruction (EDO) is a surgically correctable condition that occurs in some infertile men. The standard therapy is transurethral resection of ejaculatory ducts (TURED). However, TURED has been associated with a high risk of complications, including the impairment of semen parameters and retrograde ejaculation. In our clinical practice, vesiculoscopy has demonstrated potential as a minimally invasive alternative technique for the diagnosis and treatment of EDO. Very few studies have examined transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy (TRU-SVS) in recent years, and no study has examined 6F vesiculoscopes. Therefore, we performed a retrospective study of TRU-SVS using a 6F vesiculoscope and its effect on the diagnosis and treatment of EDO. A total of 21 patients who underwent this procedure were included in the study. The mean patient age was 28.8 years (range, 23-36 years). The procedure was completed successfully in all patients within a mean time of 31.5 minutes and a mean hospital stay of 1.17 days. All patients had EDO. Calculi were found in the ejaculatory ducts or in the seminal vesicles of 5 patients. Sperm was detected in 11 patients 1-3 months postsurgery and in another 8 patients 3-12 months postsurgery. No sperm was detected in the remaining 2 patients by 12 months postsurgery. Epididymitis, retrograde ejaculation, urinary incontinence, and rectal injury were not observed. These data indicate that TRU-SVS using a 6F vesiculoscope affords direct access to the seminal vesicle and offers the advantages of fewer complications and more optimal sperm recovery as well as direct, dynamic video imaging. PMID:22096085

Wang, Haifeng; Ye, Huamao; Xu, Chuanliang; Liu, Zhiyong; Gao, Xu; Hou, Jianguo; Wang, Lei; Piao, Shuguang; Sun, Yinghao



Seminal plug expulsion induced by electrical stimulation of the intermesenteric nerve in anesthetized rats.  


Synchronized activation of autonomic and somatic divisions of the nervous system respectively destined to the seminal tract, including the bladder neck and the pelvi-perineal striated musculature, is necessary for anterograde ejaculation. We aimed at investigating the role of intermesenteric nerves (IMNs) in ejaculation in anesthetized rats. Electrical stimulation of intact IMNs and distal and proximal stumps of the sectioned IMN were tested in isoflurane-anesthetized male rats. Electrical stimulation of the intact IMN was also applied to rats with acute spinal transection at the T8 level. The effects of IMN electrical stimulation on emission and expulsion phases of ejaculation were evaluated by measuring seminal vesicle pressure (SVP) and bulbospongiosus (BS) muscle contractions, respectively. IMN electrical stimulation could induce SVP increase and rhythmic contractions of BS muscle concomitantly with expulsion of the seminal plug. When compared with intact IMN electrical stimulation, the occurrence of ejaculation and rhythmic BS muscle contractions, but not SVP increase, was reduced in response to electrical stimulation of the distal stump of the sectioned IMN. In comparison to intact IMN electrical stimulation, the occurrence of ejaculation and rhythmic BS muscle contractions was not significantly modified, whereas the increase in SVP was diminished when the proximal stump of the sectioned IMN was stimulated. Spinalization abolished ejaculation and rhythmic BS muscle contraction but did not impair SVP increase. It is concluded that both afferents conveyed by IMN and relaying supraspinally and efferents of IMN are involved in IMN electrical stimulation-induced ejaculation. We propose that the IMN electrical stimulation paradigm can be used to investigate physiological and pharmacologic aspects of ejaculation. PMID:17582012

Bernabé, Jacques; Clément, Pierre; Denys, Pierre; Alexandre, Laurent; Giuliano, François



Multiple effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and on vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility  

SciTech Connect

Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine and 5-HT reuptake largely used in the management of obesity. Although a fairly safe drug, postmarketing adverse effects of sibutramine were reported including abnormal ejaculation in men. This study investigates the effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility. Adult male rats received sibutramine (5; 20; or 50 mg kg{sup -1}, ip) and after 60 min were exposed to receptive females for determination of ejaculation parameters. The vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles of untreated rats were mounted in isolated organ baths for recording of isometric contractions and HEK293 cells loaded with fluorescent calcium indicator were used to measure intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transients. Sibutramine 5 and 20 mg kg{sup -1} reduced ejaculation latency whereas 50 mg kg{sup -1} increased ejaculation latency. Sibutramine 3 to 30 {mu}M greatly increased the sensitivity of the seminal vesicle and vas deferens to norepinephrine, but at concentrations higher than 10 {mu}M there were striking depressions of maximal contractions induced by norepinephrine, carbachol and CaCl{sub 2}. In HEK293 cells, sibutramine 10 to 100 {mu}M inhibited intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transients induced by carbachol. Depending on the doses, sibutramine either facilitates or inhibits ejaculation. Apart from its actions in the central nervous system, facilitation of ejaculation may result from augmented sensitivity of smooth muscles to norepinephrine while reductions of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} may be involved in the delayed ejaculation observed with high doses of sibutramine.

Nojimoto, Fernanda D.; Piffer, Renata C.; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo de A. [Department of Pharmacology, Instituto de Biociencias, UNESP, Botucatu, SP 18618000 (Brazil); Lameu, Claudiana; Camargo, Antonio C.M. de [Center for Applied Toxinology-CAT/CEPID, Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pereira, Oduvaldo C.M. [Department of Pharmacology, Instituto de Biociencias, UNESP, Botucatu, SP 18618000 (Brazil); Pupo, Andre S. [Department of Pharmacology, Instituto de Biociencias, UNESP, Botucatu, SP 18618000 (Brazil)], E-mail:



Chronic growth hormone treatment in normal rats reduces post-prandial skeletal muscle plasma membrane GLUT1 content, but not glucose transport or GLUT4 expression and localization.  

PubMed Central

Whether skeletal muscle glucose transport system is impaired in the basal, post-prandial state during chronic growth hormone treatment is unknown. The current study was designed to determine whether 4 weeks of human growth hormone (hGH) treatment (3.5 mg/kg per day) would impair glucose transport and/or the number of glucose transporters in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from hindlimb skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats under basal, post-prandial conditions. hGH treatment was shown to have no effect on glucose influx (Vmax or K(m)) determined under equilibrium exchange conditions in isolated plasma membrane vesicles. Plasma membrane glucose transporter number (Ro) measured by cytochalasin B binding was also unchanged by hGH treatment. Consequently, glucose transporter turnover number (Vmax/Ro), a measure of average glucose transporter intrinsic activity, was similar in hGH-treated and control rats. hGH did not change GLUT4 protein content in whole muscle or in the plasma membrane, and muscle content of GLUT4 mRNA also was unchanged. In contrast, GLUT1 protein content in the plasma membrane fraction was significantly reduced by hGH treatment. This was associated with a modest, although not significant, decrease in muscle content of GLUT1 mRNA. In conclusion, high-dose hGH treatment for 4 weeks did not alter post-prandial skeletal muscle glucose transport activity. Neither the muscle level nor the intracellular localization of GLUT4 was changed by the hormone treatment. On the contrary, the basal post-prandial level of GLUT1 in the plasma membrane was reduced by hGH. The mRNA data suggest that this reduction might result from a decrease in the synthesis of GLUT1.

Napoli, R; Cittadini, A; Chow, J C; Hirshman, M F; Smith, R J; Douglas, P S; Horton, E S



Formation of rat copulatory plug: purified seminal vesicle secretory proteins serve as transglutaminase substrates.  


An in vitro system has been used to study the role of purified rat seminal vesicle proteins in the formation of the copulatory vaginal plug. Proteins II, IV (or S) and V (or F) were each separately coagulated using the transglutaminase in coagulating gland extracts. In each case the coagulum required Ca2+ ions for its formation and was insoluble in denaturing solvents. In experiments with [3H]lysine, proteins II and S incorporated [3H]lysine into glu-lys dipeptide with similar kinetics. Both the N-terminal and C-terminal glutamine residues of protein S participated in the reaction. PMID:2889639

Fawell, S E; Higgins, S J



Radiotherapy Treatment Plans With RapidArc for Prostate Cancer Involving Seminal Vesicles and Lymph Nodes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Dosimetric results and treatment delivery efficiency of RapidArc plans to those of conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were compared using the Eclipse treatment planning system for high-risk prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: This study included 10 patients. The primary planning target volume (PTV{sub P}) contained prostate, seminal vesicles, and pelvic lymph nodes with a margin. The boost PTV (PTV{sub B}) contained prostate and seminal vesicles with a margin. The total prescription dose was 75.6 Gy (46.8 Gy to PTV{sub P} and an additional 28.8 Gy to PTV{sub B}; 1.8 Gy/fraction). Three plans were generated for each PTV: Multiple-field IMRT, one-arc RapidArc (1ARC), and two-arc RapidArc (2ARC). Results: In the primary IMRT with PTV{sub P}, average mean doses to bladder, rectum and small bowel were lower by 5.9%, 7.7% and 4.3%, respectively, than in the primary 1ARC and by 3.6%, 4.8% and 3.1%, respectively, than in the primary 2ARC. In the boost IMRT with PTV{sub B}, average mean doses to bladder and rectum were lower by 2.6% and 4.8% than with the boost 1ARC and were higher by 0.6% and 0.2% than with the boost 2ARC. Integral doses were 7% to 9% higher with RapidArc than with IMRT for both primary and boost plans. Treatment delivery time was reduced by 2-7 minutes using RapidArc. Conclusion: For PTVs including prostate, seminal vesicles, and lymph nodes, IMRT performed better in dose sparing for bladder, rectum, and small bowel than did RapidArc. For PTVs including prostate and seminal vesicles, RapidArc with two arcs provided plans comparable to those for IMRT. The treatment delivery is more efficient with RapidArc.

Yoo, Sua, E-mail: sua.yoo@duke.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Wu, Q. Jackie; Lee, W. Robert; Yin Fangfang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)



Seasonal emission of seminal coagulum and in vivo sperm dynamics in the black-handed spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi).  


The ejaculate of diverse primate species consists of two portions, liquid and solid; the latter, known as the seminal coagulum, is thought to sequester large numbers of sperm. In the black-handed spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), ejaculates collected by electroejaculation did not always contain seminal coagulum. The objective of the present study was to determine seasonal emission of seminal coagulum and in vivo sperm dynamics in the black-handed spider monkey. Seminal coagulum emission was related to season; it was more frequent in the dry season, coincident with maximal female fertility. Sperm concentration was higher (P = 0.02) in the dry season (dry vs. rainy season: 137.9 +/- 15.7 sperm/mL vs. 82.56 +/- 14.7 x1 0(6) sperm/mL; mean +/- S.E.M.) but also in ejaculates (collected during the rainy season) that had seminal coagulum (coagulum vs. no coagulum: 140.0 +/- 29.3 sperm/mL vs. 31.2+/-0.1 x 10(6) sperm/mL, P<0.001). In semen samples collected from the uterus after AI, the percentage of linearly motile sperm was higher during the dry season (dry vs. rainy: 9.1+/-2.1% vs. 5.9+/-2.5%), as well as whenever coagulum was present (coagulum vs. no coagulum: 13.0+/-3.2% vs. 2.0+/-0.9%, P<0.001). PMID:18068757

Hernández-López, L; Cerda-Molina, A L; Páez-Ponce, L D; Mondragón-Ceballos, R



Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Baicalin, Wogonoside, Baicalein and Wogonin in Plasma after Oral Administration of Pure Baicalin, Radix Scutellariae and Scutellariae-Paeoniae Couple Extracts in Normal and Ulcerative Colitis Rats  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein and wogonin after oral administration of pure baicalin, Radix scutellariae and Scutellariae-Paeoniae couple extracts were administered and the pharmacokinetics profiles were compared between normal and ulcerative colitis rats. The plasma concentrations of the four flavonoids were determined by using a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method. All the rats were divided randomly into two groups (ulcerative colitis and normal groups). Each group contained three subgroups: pure baicalin, Radix scutellariae and Scutellariae-Paeoniae couple extracts subgroup. Each group received oral administration of pure baicalin, Radix Scutellariae and Scutellariae-Paeoniae couple extracts at the same dose of 200 mg/kg baicalin. The results showed that wogonoside, possibily as a methylated product of baicalin, was found in plasma after oral administration of pure baicalin or formulas to rats. Baicalin and wogonoside demonstrated bimodal phenomenon. Baicalin and wogonoside in Scutellariae-Paeoniae couple extract had shown better absorption than which in pure baicalin and Radix Scutellariae extract. Whether oral administration of pure baicalin, Radix Scutellariae or Scutellariae-Paeoniae couple extracts, ulcerative colitis rats showed better absorption than normal rats. For example AUC(0–t) of baicalin were: (41.46 ± 0.62), (59.12 ± 6.42) and (104.87 ± 0.86) (?g/mL)·h in UC groups vs (17.77 ± 0.66), (28.04 ± 4.06) and (49.01 ± 4.61) (?g/mL)·h in normal groups, respectively. The pharmacokinetics properties of the four flavonoids differed between ulcerative colitis and normal rats, including AUC(0–t) and Cmax (p < 0.05).

Zhang, Zhen-Qiu; Liua, Wei; Zhuang, Li; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Shuai



Comparative pharmacokinetics of baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein and wogonin in plasma after oral administration of pure baicalin, radix scutellariae and scutellariae-paeoniae couple extracts in normal and ulcerative colitis rats.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein and wogonin after oral administration of pure baicalin, Radix scutellariae and Scutellariae-Paeoniae couple extracts were administered and the pharmacokinetics profiles were compared between normal and ulcerative colitis rats. The plasma concentrations of the four flavonoids were determined by using a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method. All the rats were divided randomly into two groups (ulcerative colitis and normal groups). Each group contained three subgroups: pure baicalin, Radix scutellariae and Scutellariae-Paeoniae couple extracts subgroup. Each group received oral administration of pure baicalin, Radix Scutellariae and Scutellariae-Paeoniae couple extracts at the same dose of 200 mg/kg baicalin. The results showed that wogonoside, possibily as a methylated product of baicalin, was found in plasma after oral administration of pure baicalin or formulas to rats. Baicalin and wogonoside demonstrated bimodal phenomenon. Baicalin and wogonoside in Scutellariae-Paeoniae couple extract had shown better absorption than which in pure baicalin and Radix Scutellariae extract. Whether oral administration of pure baicalin, Radix Scutellariae or Scutellariae-Paeoniae couple extracts, ulcerative colitis rats showed better absorption than normal rats. For example AUC (0-t) of baicalin were: (41.46 ± 0.62), (59.12 ± 6.42) and (104.87 ± 0.86) (?g/mL)·h in UC groups vs (17.77 ± 0.66), (28.04 ± 4.06) and (49.01 ± 4.61) (?g/mL)·h in normal groups, respectively. The pharmacokinetics properties of the four flavonoids differed between ulcerative colitis and normal rats, including AUC ( 0-t ) and Cmax (p < 0.05). PMID:24250647

Zhang, Zhen-Qiu; Liua, Wei; Zhuang, Li; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Shuai



A normal paediatric amylase range.  


A normal paediatric range of plasma alpha-amylase activity was determined using the Phadebas blue starch method. The range for children over one year was 98--405 IU/l. Plasma amylase activity increased throughout infancy. Mature levels of activity were observed in some children by age 2 months and in most of them by 9 months. PMID:6155826

Aggett, P J; Taylor, F



Normal Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet, created by Tom Malloy of the University of Utah, demonstrates probability as the area under the normal and the standard normal curves. Students can manipulate mean, standard deviation, and lower and upper bounds to find probabilities. This is a nice interactive resource allowing students a more hands on approach to statistics.

Malloy, Tom



A UFLC-MS/MS method with a switching ionization mode for simultaneous quantitation of polygalaxanthone III, four ginsenosides and tumulosic acid in rat plasma: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and Alzheimer's disease rats.  


A fast, sensitive and reliable ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of polygalaxanthone III (POL), ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), ginsenoside Rd (GRd), ginsenoside Re (GRe), ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1) and tumulosic acid (TUM) in rat plasma after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San, which plays an important role for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The plasma samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate-isopropanol (1:1, v/v) with salidrdoside as internal standard (IS). Good chromatographic separation was achieved using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.01% acetic acid in water. The tandem mass spectrometric detection was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode on 4000Q UFLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in a negative and positive switching ionization mode. The lower limits of quantification were 0.2-1.5?ng/ml for all the analytes. Both intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of analytes were well within acceptance criteria (±15%). The mean absolute extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rat plasma were all more than 60.0%. The validated method has been successfully applied to comparing pharmacokinetic profiles of analytes in normal and AD rat plasma. The results indicated that no significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of GRe, GRg1 and TUM were observed between the two groups, while the absorption of POL and GRd in AD group were significantly higher than those in normal group; moreover, the GRb1 absorbed more rapidly in model group. The different characters of pharmacokinetics might be caused by pharmacological effects of the analytes. PMID:23893636

Lv, Chunxiao; Li, Qing; Zhang, Yaowen; Sui, Zhenyu; He, Bosai; Xu, Huarong; Yin, Yidi; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun



Sperm bundles in the seminal vesicles of sexually mature Lasius ant males.  


In many insects, sperm cells are produced in bundles with their heads being held together by a glycoprotein matrix secreted by a cyst cell. Mature sperm cells in the seminal vesicles are usually free, but in sawflies and several other insects, such structures (spermatodesmata) remain intact and sperm cells may be ejaculated as bundles. Here we report the occurrence of spermatodesmata in mature males of the ant Lasius pallitarsis. Microscopic investigations of the abdominal contents of males immediately prior to their nuptial flights showed that the anterior ends of numerous sperm cells were embedded in an oval-shaped 20 by 30 micrometer extracellular fibrous cap. Individual sperm ranged in length from 55 to 75 micrometers with an average overall length of 65 micrometers. The bulb-shaped heads of the sperm were relatively small, only about 1.5 micrometers in length and about 1.1 micrometers in diameter. The diameter of the sperm tails was approximately 1 micrometer. Observations of live preparations of the spermatodesmata showed increasingly active undulating wave-like movement of the sperm tails as the slide preparations aged. This appears to be the first case of sperm bundles being present in the seminal vesicles of mature ant males--males that are immediately poised to complete their nuptial mating flight. PMID:24671307

Burnett, William E; Heinze, Jürgen



Dynamics of estradiol and testosterone and seminal fluid indexes in smokers and nonsmokers.  


The serum levels of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T), the metabolic clearance rates of estradiol (MCRE2) and testosterone (MCRT), and the production rates of estradiol and testosterone (PRE2) and (PRT) were examined in 22 male smokers and 21 male nonsmokers. Seminal fluid indexes (sperm count, % motility, grade of motility, and % of sperm with abnormal morphology) were also assessed. The mean E2 level and the mean PRE2 were significantly greater in smokers than in nonsmokers (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.01, respectively); however, the means of MCRE2, MCRT, PRT, and T did not differ significantly in smokers compared to nonsmokers. No significant product-moment correlations were found between the various hormonal measures and the seminal fluid indexes in the overall sample. However, the smokers with sperm counts below the median sperm count of the sample had significantly higher mean levels of E2 and PRE2 than did the smokers with sperm counts above that median. Mechanisms that might mediate the greater PRE2 of smokers and a negative relationship between estradiol and sperm count are discussed. PMID:3169284

Klaiber, E L; Broverman, D M



Contribution of Non-Esterified Fatty Acids to Insulin Resistance in the Elderly with Normal Fasting but Diabetic 2h Post Challenge Plasma Glucose Levels: Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging  

PubMed Central

Isolated postchallenge hyperglycemia (IPH) with normal fasting plasma glucose (NFG) <100mg/dl and plasma glucose with diabetic 2h plasma glucose (DGT) ? 200mg/dl after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a common occurrence in the elderly. We sought to understand what unique characteristics this population might have that puts them at risk for this particular metabolic finding. We therefore conducted a longitudinal study of volunteers in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). All volunteers had an OGTT performed (75g) on two or more occasions. We measured plasma levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, GIP, ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, C-reactive protein, cytokines and their soluble receptors, as well as NEFAs. We determined that 22 subjects in BLSA had IPH, accounting for 2.1% of the BLSA population. All 22 were >65 yrs old. They were then matched by age, sex and BMI to 12 subjects who had isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 15 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). All subjects had normal fasting glucose (NFG) levels <100mg/dl in accordance with American Diabetes Association (ADA): Expert Committee on the Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus criteria (2003). We found that subjects with IPH had similar plasma insulin levels to the other two groups, except at the 2h time, when their insulin levels were higher than NGT (P<0.05). Although there was a clear trend for differences in the insulinogenic index (II0–20 min), the areas under the curves for insulin, systolic BP, adiponectin and C-reactive protein across the glucose tolerance categories revealed no statistical significance. Cytokines and their soluble receptors, gut hormones, and adipokines were similar in all three groups. NEFA levels were significantly elevated in the fasting state (P<0.05) in the IPH compared to NGT, with IGT intermediate between the other two groups. The rate of clearance of NEFAs after the OGTT decreased progressively from the NGT to the IPH group (NGT-11.9 vs. IGT-7.6 vs. IPH-3.0, ?mol/l·min?1). We conclude that the rate of suppression of lipolysis in the elderly determines the sensitivity of glucose uptake to insulin after OGTT.

Carlson, Olga D.; David, Jehan D.; Schrieder, Jessica M.; Muller, Dennis C.; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Kim, Byung-Joon; Egan, Josephine M.



Purification, preliminary characterization and immunohistochemical localization of POSVP21 in the sand rat (Psammomys obesus) seminal vesicles.  


The sand rat Psammomys obesus is a mammalian species with male seasonal reproduction. Previously Gernigon et al. (1994) [Gernigon T, Berger M, Lecher P. Seasonal variations in the ultrastructure and production of androgen-dependent proteins in the seminal vesicles of a saharian rodent (Psammomys obesus). J Endocrinol 1994;142:37-46.] reported that the seminal vesicles of the adult sand rat contained a major secretory protein band (M.W. 21000) regulated by testosterone. This protein is synthesized in large amounts when the androgen level increases, and accounts for over 22% of soluble proteins from homogenate of seminal vesicles during the breeding season. When analyzed by NepHGE the protein band of 21kDa appeared to be composed of at least 3 visible spots with pHi values varying from 4 to 7. Its partially internal sequence was identified and exhibited five peptides. Polyclonal antibodies against POSVP21 were obtained in rabbits. They were also used to study immunohistochemical antigen localization by the means of an avidin-biotin peroxidase procedure. Observation showed that it is localized in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells and in secretory products in the lumen. The whole RNA of seminal vesicles was translated in a cell-free system derived from rabbit reticulocyte lysate and [35S]-methionine. Two major bands of 14.4 and 21kDa were visualized by means of denaturing gel electrophoresis. SDS-PAGE from medium incubation of seminal vesicle tissue with [35S]-methionine revealed one band with an apparent molecular weight of 21kDa. The results obtained indicate that seminal vesicle epithelium is the site of POSVP21 synthesis and the comparison of the partial amino acid composition of the internal sequence, indicated that POSVP21 constitute a family of most unusual proteins. PMID:18242676

Kaci-Ouchfoun, N; Hadj-Bekkouche, F; Abbadi, M C; Gernigon-Spychalowicz, T



Intraluminal occlusion of the seminal duct by laser and Histoacryl: Two non-invasive alternatives for vasectomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction and objective: Vasectomy is a well-established method in family control. Even though it is a safe and low risk operation, this surgery is invasive and difficult to reverse. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate new non-invasive methods for occlusion of the seminal duct. Material and Methods: Seminal duct tissue was obtained from patients (n=30) suffering from prostate cancer and therefore undergoing prostatectomy. In a first set of experiments, the seminal duct was occluded by intraluminal application of Histoacryl® (Braun Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany). In a 2nd set of experiments, endoluminal laser induced occlusion was performed. Four different laser wavelengths (1940nm, 1470nm, 1064nm, 940nm) and different sets of laser parameters (e.g. power, exposure duration, fibre diameter, energy applied) were compared. Effectiveness of occlusion of the seminal duct was proven by post-treatment irrigation flow measurement, as well as by morphological analyses. To evaluate a potential damage of the surrounding tissue, external temperature was measured using a thermometer during laser application. Results: Intraluminal application of Histoacryl® induced an immediate and complete occlusion of the seminal duct. The underlying connective tissue maintained its functional integrity after this treatment. By laser light application to a Histoacryl® block, a hole could be created into the block thus indicating the possibility of recanalization. Treatment with laser energy resulted in shrinkage of the ductal lumen. The laser application generally caused necrosis in the epithelium and induced formation of vacuoles in the underlying connective tissue. As described for endoluminal varicose treatment, this distinct local reaction might result in an intense inflammation leading to a functional occlusion of the vas deferens. Conclusions: Both laser-induced occlusion and application of Histoacryl® are fast and simple techniques which may be able to achieve a functional occlusion of the seminal duct. The application of Histoacryl® additionally may be easily reversible by laser treatment.

Freitag, B.; Sroka, R.; Koelle, S.; Becker, A. J.; Khoder, W.; Pongratz, T.; Stief, C. G.; Trottmann, M.



Spermatogenesis, seminal characteristics and reproductive hormone levels in mature rams with induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.  


Mature Merino rams were made hypothyroid by daily oral drenching with methylthiouracil or hyperthyroid by daily subcutaneous injections of thyroxine for 8 weeks. Neither hypothyroidism nor hyperthyroidism had any apparent effect on either spermatogenesis or daily sperm production, but motility of ejaculated spermatozoa and circulating testosterone concentrations were reduced in both conditions. The ratio of testosterone concentrations in plasma from the internal spermatic vein to those in peripheral blood plasma was higher in hyperthyroid (21.2 +/- 3.5) than in control (11.1 +/- 4.4) and hypothyroid (7.6 +/- 1.4) rams. The basal secretion rate for testosterone was slightly lower in hypothyroid rams and testosterone responses to human chorionic gonadotrophin and after LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) were very much reduced. Basal serum LH levels were low in both hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rams compared with controls whereas there were no differences in FSH levels. The LH response to exogenous LHRH was reduced in hypothyroid rams but not in hyperthyroid rams. Serum prolactin levels on the other hand were higher than control in both hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rams. Reduced testosterone secretion in hypothyroid rams indicates that the normal function of Leydig cells depends on an adequate level of thyroid hormones. The decrease in circulating testosterone concentrations in hyperthyroid rams with normal secretion rates suggests an increased testosterone clearance rate in these animals. The decreased spermatozoal motility in hypo- and hyperthyroid rams suggests that the lowered testosterone level in these animals has altered the androgen-dependent maturation of spermatozoa in the epididymis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3921644

Chandrasekhar, Y; Holland, M K; D'Occhio, M J; Setchell, B P



High-resolution imaging of laser-produced plasmas at a wavelength of 130 A by a normal-incidence multilayer-mirror microscope.  


Laser-produced plasmas were imaged by a microscope consisting of spherical, primary, and secondary mirrors in a Cassegrain-type optical configuration. The mirrors were coated with 40 periods of Mo and Si and had a peak reflectance of ?60% at a wavelength of 130 Å. Nb, Au, and Al targets were irradiated by as many as 24 beams of the Omega laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester. The images were recorded on Kodak 101 film, and the resolution was limited by the 10-µm emulsion grain size. Two different secondary mirrors produced images with a magnification of 0.8 or 2.2, and a variety of plasma emission features were recorded with 5-µm (0.6-arcsec) resolution in the target plane. The possibility of operating a similar microscope in the wavelength region of 34-50 A is discussed. PMID:20856465

Seely, J F; Holland, G E; Giasson, J V



Inhibition of Intestinal Bile Acid Transporter Slc10a2 Improves Triglyceride Metabolism and Normalizes Elevated Plasma Glucose Levels in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2) and ob\\/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma

Thomas Lundåsen; Eva-Marie Andersson; Michael Snaith; Helena Lindmark; Johanna Lundberg; Ann-Margret Östlund-Lindqvist; Bo Angelin; Mats Rudling



Normalized Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discussions of diagnostic tools that gauge students' conceptual understanding permeate the literature. Many instructors report their class' normalized gain to characterize the change in scores from pre-test to post-test. We describe a new procedure for characterizing these changes. This procedure, which we call the normalized change, c, involves the ratio of the gain to the maximum possible gain or the loss to the maximum possible loss. We also advocate reporting the average of a class' normalized changes and utilizing a particular statistical and graphical approach for comparing average c values.

Marx, Jeffrey; Cummings, Karen



Correlations of trace element levels within and between different normal autopsy tissues analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imbalance in trace metal metabolism may lead to metal interactions that may be of patho-physiological importance. Knowledge of the relation between trace metals in normal tissues is needed to assess abnormal deviations associated with disease. In this study correlations between Cu, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn, Al, Ba, Cd, Pb and Sr within the same and between 6

Reem Rahil-Khazen; Bjørn Johan Bolann; Rune Johan Ulvik



Simultaneous determination of corosolic acid and euscaphic acid in the plasma of normal and diabetic rat after oral administration of extract of Potentilla discolor Bunge by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.  


Potentilla discolor Bunge has been used for diabetes in China for a long time. Corosolic acid (CA) and euscaphic acid (EA), with significant anti-diabetic activity, are two major triterpenoids in P. discolor. In this study, a specific, sensitive and convenient LC-MS method has been developed for simultaneous determination of CA and EA in the plasma of normal and diabetic rats after oral administration of the extract of P. discolor. The chromatographic separation was achieved using an Alltima C18 column (53?×?7.0 mm, i.d., 3 µm) with a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid water and 0.1% formic acid acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection was performed by MS with electrospray ionization interface in negative selected ion monitoring mode. All the validation data, such as specificity, linearity (r(2) ?>?0.9991 within 0.025-10.0 µg/mL), lower limit of quantitation (2.5 ng/mL), precision (intra- and inter-day <14.7%), accuracy (<15.0%), recovery (85.7-110.8%) and stability were determined and all of them were within the required limits. This method was successfully applied for the evaluation of the pharmacokinetic behaviors of these two compounds in the plasma of normal and diabetic rats. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24311372

Li, Jing-Jing; Li, Yi; Bai, Min; Tan, Jing-Fu; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Jie



Structural characterization of the rat seminal vesicle secretion II protein and gene.  


The gene encoding rat seminal vesicle secretion II (SVS II) protein has been cloned from a rat genomic DNA library using a cDNA probe generated from rat dorsal prostate androgen-dependent mRNA. The cloned 7.3-kilobase pair genomic fragment contains approximately 5000 base pairs (bp) of the 5'-flanking region and the entire coding region of the SVS II protein within two exons. A sequence of 4156 bp of the rat SVS II gene has been determined, including 2037 bp of the 5'-flanking region, exon 1 (95 bp), intron 1 (236 bp), exon 2 (1171 bp), and 614 bp of the 3'-flanking region. The 5'-flanking region contains three conserved elements found in other seminal vesicle secretion genes (SVS IV-VI proteins) within 250 bp of the transcription start site as well as a glucocorticoid response element at position -314 in the SVS II gene. The first exon encodes a 22-amino acid leader peptide plus the first 2 amino acids of the secreted protein. The second exon encodes the remaining amino acids in the SVS II protein sequence. The mature protein contains 392 residues and has an Mr of 43,116. Concomitant with the gene analysis, the rat SVS II protein was purified to homogeneity, and 333 residues (85%) of the amino acid sequence were determined by automated Edman degradation. The DNA-deduced sequence and that determined by direct analysis of the protein are in complete agreement. The blocked NH2-terminal amino acid was identified as pyroglutamic acid by mass spectrometry and aminopeptidase digestion. A 13-residue structure with the consensus sequence GSQLKSFGQVKSS is repeated 13 times within the SVS II protein and appears to be involved in the formation of the rat copulatory plug via a transglutaminase reaction cross-linking glutamine and lysine residues. Overall, the SVS II protein sequence exhibits little structural relatedness to any other known protein sequence; however, some similarity can be found between the 13-residue repeat and another repeating structure and apparent transglutaminase substrate in the guinea pig seminal vesicle clotting protein. PMID:2351680

Harris, S E; Harris, M A; Johnson, C M; Bean, M F; Dodd, J G; Matusik, R J; Carr, S A; Crabb, J W



A plasma membrane-bound putative endo-1,4-beta-D-glucanase is required for normal wall assembly and cell elongation in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed Central

Endo-1,4-beta-D-glucanases (EGases) form a large family of hydrolytic enzymes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In higher plants, potential substrates in vivo are xyloglucan and non-crystalline cellulose in the cell wall. Gene expression patterns suggest a role for EGases in various developmental processes such as leaf abscission, fruit ripening and cell expansion. Using Arabidopsis thaliana genetics, we demonstrate the requirement of a specialized member of the EGase family for the correct assembly of the walls of elongating cells. KORRIGAN (KOR) is identified by an extreme dwarf mutant with pronounced architectural alterations in the primary cell wall. The KOR gene was isolated and encodes a membrane-anchored member of the EGase family, which is highly conserved between mono- and dicotyledonous plants. KOR is located primarily in the plasma membrane and presumably acts at the plasma membrane-cell wall interface. KOR mRNA was found in all organs examined, and in the developing dark-grown hypocotyl, mRNA levels were correlated with rapid cell elongation. Among plant growth factors involved in the control of hypocotyl elongation (auxin, gibberellins and ethylene) none significantly influenced KOR-mRNA levels. However, reduced KOR-mRNA levels were observed in det2, a mutant deficient for brassinosteroids. Although the in vivo substrate remains to be determined, the mutant phenotype is consistent with a central role for KOR in the assembly of the cellulose-hemicellulose network in the expanding cell wall.

Nicol, F; His, I; Jauneau, A; Vernhettes, S; Canut, H; Hofte, H



Collection, seminal characteristics and chilled storage of spermatozoa from three species of free-range flying fox ( Pteropus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports observations on the collection and characteristics of semen from free-range populations of flying fox in Brisbane, Australia. Semen was successfully recovered by electroejaculation from 107 of 115 wild flying foxes (Pteropus alecto, Pteropus poliocephalus and Pteropus scapulatus). A proportion of ejaculates collected from all three species contained seminal vesicle secretions, the incidence of which appeared related to

C. E. de Jong; N. Jonsson; H Field; C. Smith; E. G. Crichton; N. Phillips; S. D. Johnston



Rate of molecular evolution of the seminal protein gene SEMG2 correlates with levels of female promiscuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

in mammals, particularly primates, showed that, owing to greater sperm competition, polyandrous taxa generally have physiological traits that make them better adapted for fertilization than monandrous species, including bigger testes, larger seminal vesicles, higher sperm counts, richer mitochondrial loading in sperm and more prominent semen coagulation2,5-8. Here, we show that the degree of polyandry can also impact the dynamics of

Steve Dorus; Patrick D Evans; Gerald J Wyckoff; Sun Shim Choi; Bruce T Lahn




EPA Science Inventory

TIME-DEPENDENT EFFECTS ON GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT SEMINAL VESICLE DEVELOPMENTALLY ALTERED BY IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO TCDD. V M Richardson', J T Hamm2, and L S Birnbaum1. 'USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, 'Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, ...


[A case of ectopic prostatic tissue in urinary bladder and uretero-seminal vesicle fistula with ipsilateral aplastic kidney].  


A case of ectopic prostatic tissue in urinary bladder and uretero-seminal vesicle fistula with ipsilateral aplastic kidney is reported. A 29-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for residual sensation and perineal pain. Ultrasound examination revealed a cystic change in the right side of urinary bladder. C.T. and M.R.I. revealed a defect of a right kidney and ipsilateral ureteral dilation and seminal vesicle swelling. A cystscopy under lumbar anesthesia revealed a edematous cystic change of the right side of trigone and defect of the right ureteral orifice. Trans urethral resection of the wall of urinary bladder was simultaneously performed. And the contents of the cyst were sperum and old red blood cells. A retrograde ureterograph showed blind-ending ureter at L5 level and seminal vesicle swelling. A resected bladder tissue contained prostatic tissue. After operation he was free from complaints. Uretero-seminal vesicle fistula with ipsilater aplastic kidney is rare disease. In addition a case complicated ectopic prostatic tissue in urinary bladder was not reported in Japanese medical literature. PMID:11201133

Nozawa, M; Saito, N; Fukasawa, M



Seminal vesicle protein SVS2 is required for sperm survival in the uterus.  


In mammals, sperm migrate through the female reproductive tract to reach the egg; however, our understanding of this journey is highly limited. To shed light on this process, we focused on defining the functions of seminal vesicle secretion 2 (SVS2). SVS2(-/-) male mice produced sperm but were severely subfertile, and formation of a copulatory plug to cover the female genital opening did not occur. Surprisingly, even when artificial insemination was performed with silicon as a substitute for the plug, sperm fertility in the absence of SVS2 remained severely reduced because the sperm were already dead in the uterus. Thus, our results provide evidence that the uterus induces sperm cell death and that SVS2 protects sperm from uterine attack. PMID:24591616

Kawano, Natsuko; Araki, Naoya; Yoshida, Kaoru; Hibino, Taku; Ohnami, Naoko; Makino, Maako; Kanai, Seiya; Hasuwa, Hidetoshi; Yoshida, Manabu; Miyado, Kenji; Umezawa, Akihiro



Quantification of shape variation of prostate and seminal vesicles during external beam radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The prostate is known to translate and rotate under influence of rectal filling changes and many studies have addressed the magnitude of these motions. However, prostate shape variations also have been reported. For image-guided radiotherapy, it is essential to know the relative magnitude of translations, rotations, and shape variation so that the most appropriate correction strategy can be chosen. However, no quantitative analysis of shape variation has been performed. It is, therefore, the purpose of this article to develop a method to determine shape variation of complex organs and apply it to determine shape variation during external beam radiotherapy of a GTV (gross tumor volume) consisting of prostate and seminal vesicles. Methods and materials: For this study, the data of 19 patients with prostate cancer were used. Each patient received a planning computed tomography (CT) scan and 8-12 (11 on average) repeat CT scans that were made during the course of conformal radiotherapy. One observer delineated the GTV in all scans, and volume variations were measured. After matching the GTVs for each patient for translation and rotation, a coverage probability matrix was constructed and the 50% isosurface was taken to determine the average GTV surface. Perpendicular distances between the average GTV and the individual GTVs were calculated for each point of the average GTV, and their variation was expressed in terms of local standard deviation (SD). The local SDs of the shape variation of all 19 patients were mapped onto a reference case by matching and morphing of the individual average GTVs. Repeated delineation of the GTV was done for 6 patients to determine intraobserver variation. Finally, the measured shape variation was corrected for intraobserver variation to estimate the 'real' shape variation. Results: No significant variations in GTV volume were observed. The measured shape variation (including delineation variation) was largest at the tip of the vesicles (SD = 2.0 mm), smallest at the left and right side of the prostate (SD = 1.0 mm), and average elsewhere (SD = 1.5 mm). At the left, right, and cranial sides of the prostate, the intraobserver variation was of the same order of magnitude as the measured shape variation; elsewhere it was smaller. However, the accuracy of the estimated SD for intraobserver variation was about half of the accuracy of the estimated SD for the measured shape variation, giving an overall uncertainty of maximum 0.6 mm SD in the estimate of the 'real' shape variation. The 'real' shape variation was small at the left, right, and cranial side of the prostate (SD < 0.5 mm) and between 0.5 mm and 1.6 mm elsewhere. Conclusions: We developed a method to quantify shape variation of organs with a complex shape and applied it to a GTV consisting of prostate and seminal vesicles. Deformation of prostate and seminal vesicles during the course of radiotherapy is small (relative to organ motion). Therefore, it is a valid approximation in image-guided radiotherapy of prostate cancer, in first order, to correct only for setup errors and organ motion. Prostate and seminal vesicles deformation can be considered as a second-order effect.

Deurloo, Kirsten [Radiotherapy Department, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Steenbakkers, Roel [Radiotherapy Department, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zijp, Lambert J. [Radiotherapy Department, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bois, Josien A. de [Radiotherapy Department, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nowak, Peter [Radiotherapy Department, Erasmus MC-Dijkzigt, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rasch, Coen [Radiotherapy Department, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Herk, Marcel van [Radiotherapy Department, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail:



The Role of Imaging in the Diagnosis of Recurrence of Primary Seminal Vesicle Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Primary seminal vesicle (SV) adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor. A small amount of data about the role of imaging to detect tumor recurrence is available. We report the case of a 58-year-old patient with primary SV clear-cell well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Clinical and instrumental examinations were negative for the 32 months after treatments when computed tomography scan, [18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging showed the appearance of a lesion in the left perineal muscle suspected for recurrence. Patient was symptomless. Cytology of the suspected lesion confirmed SV adenocarcinoma recurrence. The combined approach, using radiological and nuclear medicine techniques, seems to be effective in the follow-up of SV adenocarcinoma. Technological advances, together with awareness of this rare tumor, have the potential of improving patients outcomes not only by providing earlier detection and accurate staging, but also by detecting recurrence and thereby avoiding delays and therapeutic dilemmas.

Silvotti, Monica; Casali, Massimiliano; Giovanardi, Franco; Zadro, Alvise; Froio, Armando; Erba, Paol