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Soluble forms of membrane cofactor protein (CD46, MCP) are present in plasma, tears, and seminal fluid in normal subjects.  

PubMed Central

We have established an ELISA for determination of membrane cofactor protein (MCP, CD46) both solubilized from cell membranes and released in body fluids. In this assay, mouse MoAbs against MCP, M177 and M160 whose epitopes were different, were used as capture and detection antibodies, respectively. The NP-40 concentration in samples for MCP to be measured must be less than 0.05%. The detection limit of this MCP assay was 0.5 ng. The assay was used to quantify solubilized membrane MCP, and soluble MCP in normal human plasma, serum, urine, saliva, tears, and seminal fluid, and culture media of tumour cell lines. Soluble MCP was barely detected in the conditioned media of the cell lines. The levels of sMCP in plasma and serum were 10-60 ng/ml and that in tears, 0-50 ng/ml. Seminal fluid contained about 10-fold more soluble MCP than serum. Soluble MCP was not detectable by this assay in the other body fluids, suggesting that their MCP levels were less than the detection limit, if any.

Hara, T; Kuriyama, S; Kiyohara, H; Nagase, Y; Matsumoto, M; Seya, T



Effect of boar seminal plasma and seminal vesicle fluid on porcine lymphocytes.  


Boar seminal plasma and seminal vesicle fluid inhibited mitogen-induced blastic transformation of porcine lymphocytes. Chromatographic separation of seminal vesicle fluid on Sephadex G-100 yielded four fractions. Only the SV-1 fraction displayed significant inhibition of blastic transformation. The results demonstrated that the immunosuppressive factor(s) in seminal plasma is secreted in seminal vesicles. Increased inhibition of blastic transformation of lymphocytes stimulated with pokeweed mitogen indicates that seminal plasma inhibits mainly B lymphocytes. Both seminal plasma and seminal vesicle fluid inhibited unstimulated lymphocytes. PMID:2937377

Stan?k, R; Veselský, L; Dostál, J; Sedláková, E



Seminal plasma PSA in spinal cord injured men: a preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of spinal cord injury on seminal plasma PSA concentration. Material: Semen obtained from normal controls (n=20) and patients (n=16) with spinal cord injury. Results: The concentration of prostate specific antigen in seminal plasma depended on the level of spinal cord injury, with significantly lower concentrations in patients with spinal

Klaus Brasso; Jens Sønksen; Peter Sommer; Lars Ødum; Fin Biering-Sørensen; Peter Iversen; Jørgen Kvist Kristensen



Human Seminal Plasma Proteome Study: A Search for Male Infertility Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Seminal plasma is a potential source of biomarkers for many disorders of the male reproductive system including male infertility. Knowledge of the peptide and protein components of seminal fluid is accumulating especially with the appearance of high-throughput MS-based techniques. Of special interest in the field of male infertility biomarkers, is the identification and characterization of differentially expressed proteins in seminal plasma of men with normal and impaired spermatogenesis. However, the data obtained until now is still quite heterogeneous and with small percentage of overlap between independent studies. Extensive comparative analysis of seminal plasma proteome is still needed in order to establish a potential link between seminal plasma proteins and male infertility.

Davalieva, K; Kiprijanovska, S; Noveski, P; Plaseski, T; Kocevska, B; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D



Human seminal plasma proteome study: a search for male infertility biomarkers.  


Seminal plasma is a potential source of biomarkers for many disorders of the male reproductive system including male infertility. Knowledge of the peptide and protein components of seminal fluid is accumulating especially with the appearance of high-throughput MS-based techniques. Of special interest in the field of male infertility biomarkers, is the identification and characterization of differentially expressed proteins in seminal plasma of men with normal and impaired spermatogenesis. However, the data obtained until now is still quite heterogeneous and with small percentage of overlap between independent studies. Extensive comparative analysis of seminal plasma proteome is still needed in order to establish a potential link between seminal plasma proteins and male infertility. PMID:24052741

Davalieva, K; Kiprijanovska, S; Noveski, P; Plaseski, T; Kocevska, B; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D



Seasonal variation of goat seminal plasma proteins.  


The present study describes the investigation of seasonal changes in seminal plasma proteins of Saanen goats under natural conditions in south Brazil. Proteins were isolated by liquid chromatography on heparin Sepharose CL-6B column and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Important differences were observed in the pattern of heparin-affinity proteins (HAPs), such as a band of 178 kDa unique to the breeding season; a decrease in 119 kDa proteins; and an increase in proteins ranging from 73 to 104 kDa. HAP caused deterioration of sperm motility and acrosome breakage in media containing and not containing skimmed milk; the effect was most remarkable with the proteins from the nonbreeding season. Furthermore, HAP presented phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, which was 4.4-fold higher in nonbreeding season than in breeding season. Binding sites for HAP were identified in the sperm surface, particularly at the middle piece of the spermatozoa. These results indicate that proteins from goat seminal plasma are under seasonal control and associated with sperm function during breeding and nonbreeding seasons. PMID:12041898

La Falci, V S N; Tortorella, H; Rodrigues, J L; Brandelli, A



Relationship between semen quality and seminal plasma total carnitine in infertile men.  


This study was designed to determine any correlation between infertility and semen quality with concentrations of total carnitine in human seminal plasma. Seminal plasma total carnitine concentrations were determined in 79 men. The seminal plasma of 65 infertile men and 14 men as a control group with proved fertility were investigated. The concentrations of total carnitine were reduced significantly in the infertile group compared to the control group (31.52 +/- 20.77 vs. 45.52 +/- 10.73 mg/l, P<0.05). The 65 infertile men were divided into five groups according to their sperm analysis: normospermia (n=42), oligospermia (n=23), asthenospermia (n=40), teratospermia (n=44) and oligoasthenospermia (n=10). Total seminal plasma carnitine concentration differed significantly between controls and the patient groups (P<0.05). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between seminal plasma total carnitine concentration with total sperm count and the percentage of normal forms (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Total carnitine concentration was found to be low in the asthenospermia group when compared with the group of patients, whose total motile sperm percentage was 51 (P<0.05). These findings suggest that the determination of seminal carnitine levels may be a useful test in evaluation of male infertility. PMID:14617472

Gürbüz, B; Yalti, S; Fiçicio?lu, C; Zehir, K



Vasectomy effect on canine seminal plasma biochemical components and their correlation with seminal parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three semen samples were collected at 48h intervals from 20 mature research dogs previously conditioned to manual semen collection. Vasectomy was performed in all dogs, and 15 days after surgery, another three ejaculates were similarly collected. The semen was evaluated, and centrifuged to obtain seminal plasma for measurement of pH, and concentrations of total proteins (TP), total chlorides (Cl), calcium

Fabiana Ferreira de Souza; Maria Isabel Mello Martins; Maria Denise Lopes



Evidence of free leptin in human seminal plasma.  


Leptin is an adipose tissue-secreted hormone that actively participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Besides this principal role, leptin has been implicated in a large variety of neuroendocrine, paracrine, and autocrine actions involved in the regulation of reproductive function in both experimental animals and humans. Although the participation of leptin in female reproduction is well established, any role in male reproductive function is at best tenuous. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether true leptin is present in human seminal fluid and the tissue of its production. Pooled human seminal plasma obtained from healthy donors showed by direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) the presence of radioimmunoassayable leptin. Serial dilutions of unextracted semen paralleled the RIA standard curve, also devoid of interference in the assay. To prove that this activity was true leptin, seminal plasma was subjected to size-exclusion chromatography, which showed that leptin immunoreactivity eluted with the same partition coefficient as cold leptin, 125I-leptin, and 125I-leptin preincubated with seminal plasma. The results demonstrate that true leptin was present in semen in a free form, i.e., without binding proteins. The presence of leptin charge variants in seminal plasma was assessed by anion-exchange chromatography, which showed two peaks of leptin inmunoreactivity, while 125I-leptin eluted as a single peak. Preincubation of 125I-leptin with seminal fluid converted the single peak into a double peak, indicating that components of the seminal fluid introduce a charge variation in leptin. Leptin levels in seminal plasma of 40 healthy men were 0.95+/-0.19 ng/mL while in 5 vasectomized men the levels were 0.92+/-0.25 ng/mL, suggesting that testicular tissues were not the source of seminal leptin. No correlation was observed between leptin concentrations in semen and the physical characteristics of semen samples or physical characteristics of spermatozoids, such as concentration, motility, vitality, or morphology. In conclusion it was unambiguously demonstrated that human leptin is present in seminal fluid, with at least two charge variants and no binding proteins, the most likely source being either seminal vesicles or prostate tissue. The role of seminal fluid leptin in the male reproductive function or sperm capacitation is at present unknown. PMID:12108516

Camiña, Jesus P; Lage, Mary; Menendez, Carmela; Graña, Maria; García-Devesa, Jesus; Dieguez, Carlos; Casanueva, Felipe F



Lactotransferrin in Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Seminal Plasma Correlates with Semen Quality.  


Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have highly variable ejaculate quality within individuals, greatly reducing the efficacy of artificial insemination and making it difficult to devise a sperm cryopreservation protocol for this endangered species. Because seminal plasma influences sperm function and physiology, including sperm motility, the objectives of this study were to characterize the chemistry and protein profiles of Asian elephant seminal plasma and to determine the relationships between seminal plasma components and semen quality. Ejaculates exhibiting good sperm motility (?65%) expressed higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology (80.3±13.0 vs. 44.9±30.8%) and positive Spermac staining (51.9±14.5 vs. 7.5±14.4%), in addition to higher total volume (135.1±89.6 vs. 88.8±73.1 ml) and lower sperm concentration (473.0±511.2 vs. 1313.8±764.7×10(6) cells ml(-1)) compared to ejaculates exhibiting poor sperm motility (?10%; P<0.05). Comparison of seminal plasma from ejaculates with good versus poor sperm motility revealed significant differences in concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and glucose. These observations suggest seminal plasma influences semen quality in elephants. One- and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis revealed largely similar compositional profiles of seminal plasma proteins between good and poor motility ejaculates. However, a protein of ?80 kDa was abundant in 85% of ejaculates with good motility, and was absent in 90% of poor motility ejaculates (P<0.05). We used mass spectrometry to identify this protein as lactotransferrin, and immunoblot analysis to confirm this identification. Together, these findings lay a functional foundation for understanding the contributions of seminal plasma in the regulation of Asian elephant sperm motility, and for improving semen collection and storage in this endangered species. PMID:23976974

Kiso, Wendy K; Selvaraj, Vimal; Nagashima, Jennifer; Asano, Atsushi; Brown, Janine L; Schmitt, Dennis L; Leszyk, John; Travis, Alexander J; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S



Verification of Male Infertility Biomarkers in Seminal Plasma by Multiplex Selected Reaction Monitoring Assay*  

PubMed Central

Seminal plasma is a promising biological fluid to use for noninvasive clinical diagnostics of male reproductive system disorders. To verify a list of prospective male infertility biomarkers, we developed a multiplex selected reaction monitoring assay and measured the relative abundance of 31 proteins in 30 seminal plasma samples from normal, nonobstructive azoospermia and post-vasectomy individuals. Median levels of some proteins were decreased by more than 100-fold in nonobstructive azoospermia or post-vasectomy samples, in comparison with normal samples. To follow up the most promising candidates and measure their concentrations in seminal plasma, heavy isotope-labeled internal standards were synthesized and used to reanalyze 20 proteins in the same set of samples. Concentrations of candidate proteins in normal seminal plasma were found in the range 0.1–1000 ?g/ml but were significantly decreased in nonobstructive azoospermia and post-vasectomy. These data allowed us to select, for the first time, biomarkers to discriminate between normal, nonobstructive azoospermia, and post-vasectomy (simulated obstructive azoospermia) seminal plasma samples. Some testis-specific proteins (LDHC, TEX101, and SPAG11B) performed with absolute or nearly absolute specificities and sensitivities. Cell-specific classification of protein expression indicated that Sertoli or germ cell dysfunction, but not Leydig cell dysfunction, was observed in nonobstructive azoospermia seminal plasma. The proposed panel of biomarkers, pending further validation, could lead to a clinical assay that can eliminate the need for testicular biopsy to diagnose the category of male infertility, thus providing significant benefits to patients as well as decreased costs associated with the differential diagnosis of azoospermia.

Drabovich, Andrei P.; Jarvi, Keith; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.



Multinuclear magnetic resonance studies of boar seminal plasma.  


Multinuclear magnetic resonance studies were performed on aqueous solutions of lyophilisates of boar seminal plasma. 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral assignments were obtained by one- and two-dimensional experiments. Four prominent constituents were identified in the lyophilisate as well as in the original seminal plasma: inositol (95% myo-inositol, 5% scyllo-inositol), citrate, lactate and glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC). The concentrations of these compounds were evaluated from appropriate 1H- and 13C-NMR resonances using biochemically determined citrate as reference. 31P-NMR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of GPC and revealed phosphorylcholine, glycerophosphorylserine and glycerophosphorylethanolamine as further components. PMID:7827097

Kamp, G; Lauterwein, J



Advances in cooled semen technologies: seminal plasma and semen extender.  


This study evaluated motility and fertility of uncentrifuged and centrifuged equine semen following dilution in a skim milk-glucose extender with or without supplemental Tyrode's medium. In addition, the effect of seminal plasma addition to each extender was evaluated. For Experiment 1, motility of 48h cooled, stored spermatozoa was evaluated following eight dilution treatments: uncentrifuged and diluted 1:4 (v/v) in skim milk-glucose extender (EZ Mixin CSTJ; CST-1:4) or in CST supplemented 65:35 (v/v) with modified Tyrode's medium (KMT-1:4); uncentrifuged and diluted to 25x10(6) spermatozoa/ml in CST (CST-1:9) or in KMT (KMT-1:9); centrifuged and diluted in CST with 0% seminal plasma (CST-0) or 20% seminal plasma (CST-20) or centrifuged and diluted in KMT containing 0% seminal plasma (KMT-0) or in KMT containing 20% seminal plasma (KMT-20). Sperm motility parameters evaluated included percentage of total motile sperm (% TMOT), percentage of progressively motile sperm (% PMOT), curvilinear velocity (VCL) and straight-line velocity (VSL). Mean % PMOT was lower (P<0.05) for spermatozoa extended in CST-1:4 compared to CST-1:9, whereas, all motility parameters were reduced (P<0.05) in KMT-1:4 compared to KMT-1:9. Spermatozoa extended in CST-1:4 had greater % TMOT, % PMOT and VSL (P<0.05) than in KMT-1:4. Spermatozoa extended in CST-1:9 had greater (P<0.05) % PMOT than in KMT-1:9, however, VCL was greater (P<0.05) in KMT-1:9. Mean VCL and VSL were lower (P<0.05) for spermatozoa extended in CST-0 compared with CST-20, whereas, spermatozoa extended in KMT-0 had greater (P<0.05) % TMOT, % PMOT and VSL compared to spermatozoa extended in KMT-20. Mean % TMOT and % PMOT were greater (P<0.05) in CST-20 compared to KMT-20, however, KMT-0 increased (P<0.05) velocity measures (VCL and VSL) compared to CST-0. In Experiment 2, fertility of centrifuged spermatozoa diluted in either CST-20 or KMT-0 was similar (P>0.05). We conclude that modified Tyrode's medium was not detrimental to establishment of pregnancy. Use of modified Tyrode's medium may improve spermatozoal motility and pregnancy rates for cooled transport of semen from stallions in which all seminal plasma must be removed because of suspected toxic effects of seminal plasma on spermatozoal viability, however, Tyrode's medium may be detrimental to sperm motility when seminal plasma is present. PMID:11744262

Rigby, S L; Brinsko, S P; Cochran, M; Blanchard, T L; Love, C C; Varner, D D



Vasectomy effect on canine seminal plasma biochemical components and their correlation with seminal parameters.  


Three semen samples were collected at 48 h intervals from 20 mature research dogs previously conditioned to manual semen collection. Vasectomy was performed in all dogs, and 15 days after surgery, another three ejaculates were similarly collected. The semen was evaluated, and centrifuged to obtain seminal plasma for measurement of pH, and concentrations of total proteins (TP), total chlorides (Cl), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and sodium (Na). The seminal plasma protein profile was evaluated by SDS-PAGE; molecular weights and the integrated optical density (IOD) of each band were estimated. There was a negative correlation between K concentration and progressive motility (r = -0.49, P = 0.027), sperm vigor (r = -0.60, P = 0.0053), and plasma integrity, evaluated by both the hypo-osmotic swelling test (r = -0.50, P = 0.026) and a fluorescent stain (r = -0.45, P = 0.046). Positive correlations between Na and K pre- and post-vasectomy (r = 0.88, P < 0.001; r = 0.56, P < 0.01, respectively) were verified. There were a total of 37 bands pre-vasectomy and 35 post-vasectomy (range, 100.6-3.6 kDa). Bands B9 and B13 (42.6 and 29.2 kDa) were not present post-vasectomy. The IOD of band B3 (73.5 kDa) was higher (P = 0.03) pre-vasectomy, compared to post-vasectomy; conversely, the IODs of bands B29 and B37 (7.8 and 3.6 kDa) increased (P = 0.026 and 0.047). Pre-vasectomy, there was a positive correlation (r = 0.49, P = 0.029) between band B37 band (3.6 kDa) and the Na:K ratio. In conclusion, K appeared to be involved in sperm motility in dogs and could be a tool to evaluate sperm function. The prostate contributed several elements to canine seminal plasma. Vasectomy changed Ca concentrations and the protein profile of the seminal plasma. Further studies must be performed to clarify the function of these elements on the in vivo fertility of dogs. PMID:16644001

de Souza, Fabiana Ferreira; Martins, Maria Isabel Mello; Lopes, Maria Denise



Inhibition of neutrophil chemotaxis by pig seminal plasma in vitro: a potential method for modulating post-breeding inflammation in sows.  


The aim of this study was to determine the regulatory role of pig seminal plasma in post-breeding uterine inflammation. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) chemotaxis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated blood plasma or heat-inactivated blood plasma plus LPS containing increasing concentrations of seminal plasma was assessed in chemotactic chambers. Seminal plasma was diluted serially with McCoy's medium to concentrations of 50.0, 25.0, 12.5, 6.2 or 3.1% (v/v) and added to normal or heat-inactivated pig blood plasma that was activated with LPS before or after incubation in a 37 degrees C waterbath for 30 min. Chemotaxis was determined using blood-derived PMNs and was expressed as a percentage of the positive control of LPS-activated blood plasma. A linear dose-dependent suppression of chemotaxis by seminal plasma was observed for blood plasma activated before or after addition of seminal plasma. Compared with the positive control, concentrations of seminal plasma < 6.2% failed to suppress PMN chemotaxis (P < 0.05). A dose-dependent suppressive effect of seminal plasma on heat stable chemotactic components of pig blood plasma was also observed (P < 0.05). A marked suppression was observed at concentrations of seminal plasma > 12.5% of the sample volume (P < 0.05). These results indicate that seminal plasma suppresses chemotactic blood plasma components regardless of formation sequence (pre- or post-activation) or source (normal or heat-inactivated blood plasma). These results indicate that seminal plasma may be necessary in diluted boar semen used for artificial insemination to regulate post-breeding inflammation in sows. PMID:11277876

Rozeboom, K J; Rocha-Chavez, G; Troedsson, M H



Boar seminal plasma components and their relation with semen quality.  


Select boar seminal plasma (SP) components and their relation to semen quality were investigated. Thirty nine boars from three artificial insemination (AI) centers were divided into group A (GA:?>?80% normal sperm and >70% motility) and group B (GB:?normal sperm and?normal morphology. Only Mg was associated (p?

López Rodríguez, Alfonso; Rijsselaere, Tom; Beek, Josine; Vyt, Philip; Van Soom, Ann; Maes, Dominiek



Molecular heterogeneity of gelatin-binding proteins from human seminal plasma.  


Defining the molecular characteristics of seminal plasma proteins is essential for understanding their function in physiological and pathological conditions. Starting from the predicted importance of human seminal plasma gelatin-binding proteins, comprising fibronectin (FN) and FN-related molecules, for male fertility, this study aims at gaining insight into their immuno-glycobiochemical properties. Human seminal plasma from subjects with normal semen parameters were separated on a gelatin-Sepharose column and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting using antibodies against distinct FN forms. Heterogeneity of the isolated molecular species was examined by protein chip arrays combined with surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, on normal, metal and hydrophobic surfaces. Carbohydrate composition was investigated using mannose-, fucose- and sialic acid-specific plant lectins and galectin-1. The results obtained indicated a pattern of isolated proteins corresponding to that of known FN fragments, as confirmed by immunoreactivity. Among them heparin-binding ability was preferentially associated with low molecular mass species. As for posttranslational modifications, phosphorylation and glycosylation of distinct fragments were revealed. Lectin binding to fragments containing the gelatin-binding domain, particularly with Ricinus communis agglutinin I, was stronger than to fragments containing the cell-binding site of FN. A low level of sialylation and distinctive concanavalin A- and Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive species were also observed. Galectin-1 did not interact with the isolated preparation. Resolving the molecular heterogeneity of normal human seminal plasma FN and gaining initial insight into possible similarities/differences with known FN molecular species may be considered a prerequisite step preceding challenging the clinical usefulness of these molecular properties. PMID:20173767

Kosanovi?, Maja M; Jankovi?, Miroslava M



Proteomic identification of camel seminal plasma: purification of ?-nerve growth factor.  


The camel seminal plasma contains a diverse array of components including lipids, carbohydrates, peptides, ions and proteins. These are essential for maintaining normal physiology of spermatozoa and are secreted mainly from the prostrate, epidydimis and bulbo-urethral glands of reproductive system. The protein profiles of camel seminal plasma were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). The majority of the protein was found in acidic regions below pI 7.0 and the 19 brightly stained proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. On the basis of proteomic profiles, ?-nerve growth factor (?-NGF) was purified by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography and identified by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. It was further confirmed by western blotting experiments using rabbit anti-?-NGF primary antibody. PMID:23206437

Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Vinay Kumar; Singh, Sudhuman; Hariprasad, Guru Rao; Mal, Gorakh; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Yadav, Savita



Seminal plasma inhibits lymphocyte response to T-dependent and -independent antigens in vitro.  

PubMed Central

The effect of seminal plasma, epididymal spermatozoa, or whole semen on antibody producing cells was examined in vitro after (i) direct culture with spleen or B cells, and (ii) cocultivation of B cells with T cells previously incubated with seminal plasma. Seminal plasma, and not epididymal spermatozoa, have an inhibitory effect on the direct hemolytic plague forming cell response. This was mediated by a direct inhibitory effect on the B cell and not through the generation of suppressor T cells as demonstrated by responses to T-independent and -dependent antigens. Thus, the mode of suppressive action of seminal plasma in vitro is probably different from that previously reported in vivo.

Thomas, I K; Erickson, K L



Modulatory effects of bovine seminal plasma on uterine inflammatory processes.  


In this study, a simple model to simulate a uterine environment affected by subclinical endometritis was established by culturing isolated primary bovine uterine epithelial cells (pbUEC). Co-incubation of pbUEC and polymorphonuclear (PMN) granulocytes derived from peripheral bovine blood samples, was performed before testing the cell culture supernatant for production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) via ELISA. Cytokine secretion was only detectable after co-incubation of pbUEC with PMN, whereas neither pbUEC nor PMN alone generated IL-8 in relevant chemo attractive doses. Another objective was to examine the influence of bovine seminal plasma (SP) and vesicular gland fluid (VGF) on various functional parameters of PMN including cell viability, production of reactive oxygen species and chemotaxis. Analysis of these effects was conducted by flow cytometry. Viability of PMN was determined by staining the cells with propidium iodide. Seminal plasma was added to suspensions of PMN in increasing increments and resulted in a significant increase of cell membrane damaged PMN when using SP concentrations above 0.2%. The reactive oxygen species production of PMN suspensions, stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, was significantly decreased by 30% up to 90% when adding 0.06-30‰ of either SP or VGF. The PMN transmigration induced by IL-8 was diminished by 50% when 0.4‰ of either SP or VGF were added. The results of this study indicate a potential regulatory impact of SP and VGF on inflammatory processes in the bovine uterus. PMID:21535239

Aloé, S; Weber, F; Behr, B; Sauter-Louis, C; Zerbe, H



Angiotensin converting enzyme in human seminal plasma is synthesized by the testis, epididymis and prostate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The activity of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) was assessed in human body fluids (serum, seminal plasma, prostatic secretions), in tissue extracts of the testis, epididymis, prostate and skeletal muscle, in split ejaculates and in seminal plasma obtained from patients before and after vasectomy. To ensure the specificity of the results the dependence of ACE activity on specific inhibitors was




Ovulation-inducing factor in seminal plasma: a review.  


Ovulation in mammals involves pulsatile release of GnRH from the hypothalamus into the hypophyseal portal system with subsequent release of LH from the anterior pituitary into systemic circulation. Elevated circulating concentrations of LH induce a cascade of events within the mature follicle, culminating in follicle rupture and evacuation. The broad classification of species as either spontaneous or induced ovulators is based on the type of stimulus responsible for eliciting GnRH release from the hypothalamus. In spontaneously ovulating species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs), release of GnRH from the hypothalamus is triggered when, in the absence of progesterone, systemic estradiol concentrations exceed a threshold. In induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, camelids), release of GnRH is contingent upon copulatory stimuli; hence, ovulation is not a regular cyclic event. Since a classic 1970 Peruvian study, dogma has maintained that physical stimulation of the genitalia during copulation is the primary trigger for inducing ovulation in alpacas and llamas. Exciting results of recent studies, however, provide direct evidence for the existence of an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in semen, and compel us to re-examine the mechanism of ovulation in both induced and spontaneous ovulators. Ovulation-inducing factor in seminal plasma is a potent stimulant of LH secretion, ovulation and luteal gland development, and acts via a systemic rather than a local route. OIF is a protein molecule that is resistant to heat and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K. It has a molecular mass of 14kDa, and may be part of a larger protein complex or pro-hormone. The effect of OIF is dose-related and evident at physiologically relevant doses (i.e., as little as 1/100th that present in the ejaculate), and is mediated, in whole or in part, at the level of the hypothalamus in vivo. The factor exists in the seminal plasma of every species in which it has been examined thus far, including Bactrian camels, alpacas, llamas, cattle, horses, pigs, and koalas. Seminal plasma OIF does not appear to be a phylogenetic vestige in spontaneous ovulators since it (1) induced ovulation in pre-pubertal mice, (2) altered ovarian follicular wave dynamics in cows, and (3) elicited LH release in vitro from primary pituitary cell cultures of rats, mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, llamas and cows. PMID:23141951

Adams, Gregg P; Ratto, Marcelo H



Functional proteomic analysis of seminal plasma proteins in men with various semen parameters  

PubMed Central

Background Alterations at the molecular level in spermatozoa and seminal plasma can affect male fertility. The objective of this study was to determine if analysis of differential expression of proteins in varying semen parameters can serve as potential biomarkers for male infertility. Methods The differential expression of proteins in the seminal plasma of men based on sperm count and morphology were examined utilizing proteomic tools. Subjects were categorized based on sperm concentration and morphology into 4 groups: 1) normal sperm count and normal morphology (NN); 2) normal sperm count and abnormal morphology (NA); 3) oligozoospermia and normal morphology (ON); and 4) oligozoospermia and abnormal morphology (OA). Proteomic analysis was performed by LC-MS/MS followed by functional bioinformatics analysis. Protein distribution in the NA, ON and OA groups was compared with that of the NN group. Results Twenty proteins were differentially expressed among the 4 groups. Among the unique proteins identified, 3 were downregulated in the NA group, 1 in the ON group and 1 in the OA group while 2 were upregulated in the ON and OA groups. The functional analysis 1) identified biological regulation as the major processes affected and 2) determined that most of the identified proteins were of extracellular origin. Conclusions We have identified proteins that are over-or underexpressed in the seminal plasma of men with poor sperm quality. The distinct presence of some of the proteins may serve as potential biomarkers and provide insight into the mechanistic role played by these proteins in male infertility. Further studies using Western Blot analysis are required to validate these findings.



Compartmentalization and antiviral effect of efavirenz metabolites in blood plasma, seminal plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid.  


Efavirenz (EFV) is one of the most commonly prescribed antiretrovirals for use in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. EFV is extensively metabolized by cytochrome P450 to a number of oxygenated products; however, the pharmacologic activity and distribution of these metabolites in anatomic compartments have yet to be explored. The systemic distribution of EFV oxidative metabolites was examined in blood plasma, seminal plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid from subjects on an EFV-based regimen. The 8-hydroxy EFV metabolite was detected in blood plasma, seminal plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid, with median concentrations of 314.5 ng/ml, 358.5 ng/ml, and 3.37 ng/ml, respectively. In contrast, 7-hydroxy and 8,14-hydroxy EFV were only detected in blood plasma and seminal plasma with median concentrations of 8.84 ng/ml and 10.23 ng/ml, and 5.63 ng/ml and 5.43 ng/ml, respectively. Interestingly, protein-free concentrations of metabolites were only detectable in seminal plasma, where a novel dihdyroxylated metabolite of EFV was also detected. This accumulation of protein-free EFV metabolites was demonstrated to be the result of differential protein binding in seminal plasma compared with that of blood plasma. In addition, the oxidative metabolites of EFV did not present with any significant pharmacologic activity toward HIV-1 as measured using an HIV green fluorescent protein single-round infectivity assay. This study is the first to report the physiologic distribution of metabolites of an antiretroviral into biologic compartments that the virus is known to distribute and to examine their anti-HIV activity. These data suggest that the male genital tract may be a novel compartment that should be considered in the evaluation of drug metabolite exposure. PMID:23166317

Avery, Lindsay B; VanAusdall, Jennifer L; Hendrix, Craig W; Bumpus, Namandjé N



The quantification of lipid and protein oxidation in stallion spermatozoa and seminal plasma: seasonal distinctions and correlations with DNA strand breaks, classical seminal parameters and stallion fertility.  


The goal of this work was to correlate oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage with classic semen parameters in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of fertile and subfertile stallions. Oxidation was measured in both lipids and proteins, using the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) assay and the DNPH carbonyl groups assay, respectively. Sperm DNA damage was monitored using the TUNEL assay. These parameters were monitored in samples obtained during the breeding and the non-breeding seasons. In general, fertile stallions showed better classical semen parameters, and those parameters improved from the non-breeding to the breeding season, although an increase in sperm production was accompanied by a decrease in the semen quality from subfertile stallions in the breeding season. In terms of oxidation levels we found that there were clear differences whether lipids or proteins were considered. In the breeding season there seemed to be a tendency towards normalizing lipid oxidation in spermatozoa and seminal plasma, and protein oxidation in the seminal plasma, of both fertile and subfertile animals. Thus, differences monitored in the non-breeding season were no longer visible. Interestingly, a higher level of protein oxidation was found in the sperm of fertile animals in the breeding season. Considering that there were positive correlations between sperm protein oxidation and sperm motility and vitality, these results suggests that the oxidation of semen proteins may be important for sperm function. On the other hand, lipid oxidation in the seminal plasma seemed to be a general indicator for sperm damage. In the non-breeding season positive correlations between lipid and protein oxidation levels in both sperm and seminal plasma and several defects in sperm function were found, but only for subfertile animals, thus suggesting that lipid and protein oxidation may aid in the identification of subfertile stallions during the non-breeding season. Levels of ROS production never seemed to result in compromised sperm DNA integrity, indicating that measurements were within physiological levels and/or that there is an efficient antioxidant activity in stallion sperm cells. PMID:17451892

Morte, Maria Inês; Rodrigues, Ana Margarida; Soares, Diana; Rodrigues, Ana Sofia; Gamboa, Sandra; Ramalho-Santos, João



Local versus systemic effect of ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas  

PubMed Central

Background Camelids are induced (reflex) ovulators. We have recently documented the presence of an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas. The objective was to test the hypothesis that OIF exerts its effect via a systemic rather than a local route and that endometrial curettage will enhance the ovulatory response to intrauterine deposition of seminal plasma in alpacas. Methods Female alpacas were assigned randomly to 6 groups (n = 15 to 17 per group) in a 2 × 3 factorial design to test the effect of seminal plasma versus phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) given by intramuscular injection, by intrauterine infusion, or by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage. Specifically, alpacas in the respective groups were given 1) 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma intramuscularly, 2) 2 ml of PBS intramuscularly (negative control group), 3) 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma by intrauterine infusion, 4) 2 ml of PBS by intrauterine infusion (negative control group), 5) 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage, or 6) 2 ml of PBS by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage (negative control group). The alpacas were examined by transrectal ultrasonography to detect ovulation and measure follicular and luteal diameters. Results Intramuscular administration of seminal plasma resulted in a higher ovulation rate than intrauterine administration of seminal plasma (93% versus 41%; P < 0.01), while intrauterine seminal plasma after endometrial curettage was intermediate (67%). None of the saline-treated controls ovulated. The diameter of the CL after treatment-induced ovulation was not affected by the route of administration of seminal plasma. Conclusion We conclude that 1) OIF in seminal plasma effects ovulation via a systemic rather than a local route, 2) disruption of the endometrial mucosa by curettage facilitated the absorption of OIF and increased the ovulatory effect of seminal plasma, and 3) ovulation in alpacas is not associated with a physical stimulation of the genital tract, and 4) the alpaca represents an excellent biological model to evaluate the bioactivity of OIF.

Ratto, Marcelo H; Huanca, Wilfredo; Singh, Jaswant; Adams, Gregg P



Characteristics of seminal plasma proteins and their correlation with canine semen analysis.  


The objectives were to separate canine seminal plasma proteins (with SDS-PAGE) and to determine the correlation between specific proteins and semen characteristics. Three ejaculates from 20 mixed-breed dogs, of unknown fertility, were collected by digital manipulation. Ejaculate volume and color, sperm motility, sperm vigor, percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa, and membrane integrity (hypoosmotic swelling test and fluorescent staining) were assessed. For each dog, seminal plasma was pooled from all three ejaculates and proteins were separated with SDS-PAGE, using polyacrylamide concentrations of 13% and 22% in the separation gels. After staining, gel images were digitized to estimate molecular weights (MW) and integrated optical density (IOD) of each lane and of individual bands. Total seminal plasma protein concentration was 2.19+/-1.56 g/dL (mean+/-SD; range 1.12-5.19 g/dL). A total of 37 protein bands were identified (although no dog had all 37 bands). In the 13% gel, molecular weights ranged from 100.6 to 17.1 kDa, with four bands (49.7, 33.2, 26.4, and 19.5 kDa) present in samples from all dogs. In the 22% gel, molecular weights ranged from 15.6 to 3.6 kDa, with nine bands (15.6, 13.5, 12.7, 11.7, 10.5, 8.7, 7.8, 5.6, and 4.9 kDa) present in samples from all dogs. Combined for both gels, the majority of bands (85%) had molecular weights <17 kDa, with B20 (15.6 kDa) in high concentrations in samples from all dogs. There were positive correlations (P < or = 0.01) between two bands, B4 (67 kDa) and B5 (58.6 kDa), and sperm motility (r=0.66 and r=0.46), sperm vigor (r=0.56 and r=0.66), percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa (r=0.55 and r=0.59), the hypoosmotic swelling test (r=0.76 and r=0.68), and fluorescent staining (r=0.56 and r=0.59), respectively. In conclusion, 37 proteins were identified in seminal plasma; two were significantly correlated with semen characteristics. PMID:17512978

de Souza, F F; Barreto, C S; Lopes, M D



Removal of seminal plasma enhances membrane stability on fresh and cooled stallion spermatozoa.  


Fertility is reduced after semen cooling for a considerable number of stallions. The main hypotheses include alterations in plasma membrane following cooling and deleterious influence of seminal plasma. However, interindividual variability is controversial. We hypothesized that the removal of seminal plasma could enhance motility in some 'poor cooler' stallions, but could also affect, negatively or positively, membrane quality in some stallions. This study examined the effect of centrifugation, followed or not by removal of seminal plasma, on parameters indicating semen quality after 48 h at 4 °C: motility, plasma membrane integrity as evaluated by hypo-osmotic swelling test, acrosome integrity and response to a pharmacological induction of acrosome reaction using ionophore A23187. Sixty-six ejaculates from 14 stallions were used, including stallions showing high or low sperm motility after cooled storage. Centrifugation without removal of seminal plasma did not affect sperm parameters. Removal of seminal plasma did not affect motility, but significantly stabilized sperm membranes, as demonstrated by a higher response to the osmotic challenge, and a reduced reactivity of the acrosome. Moreover, for the same semen sample, the response to an induction of acrosome reaction was significantly higher when the induction was performed in the presence of seminal plasma, compared with the induction in the absence of seminal plasma. This was observed both for fresh and cooled semen. When the induction of acrosome reaction with ionophore A23187 is used to evaluate sperm quality, care must therefore be taken to standardize the proportion of seminal plasma between samples. For the 10 stallions serving at least 25 mares, the only variable significantly correlated with fertility was motility. The influence of membrane stabilization regarding fertility requires further investigations. PMID:22524671

Barrier-Battut, I; Bonnet, C; Giraudo, A; Dubois, C; Caillaud, M; Vidament, M



Relationship of seminal plasma level and extender type to sperm motility and DNA integrity.  


The relationship between seminal plasma level (0, 10, or 20%) and extender type [Kenney type (EZ-Mixin-CST) or Kenney-modified Tyrodes-KMT] to the susceptibility of sperm DNA to denaturation and sperm motility measures were investigated in cooled (5 degrees C) stallion sperm. Three ejaculates from each of three fertile stallions were collected in an artificial vagina and processed as follows: diluted one part uncentrifuged semen with four parts of extender to a final concentration of 20% seminal plasma in either CST or KMT (20% CST; 20% KMT); diluted to a final concentration of 25 million sperm/mL in either CST or KMT (10% CST; 10% KMT); centrifuged to remove virtually all seminal plasma and resuspended in either CST or KMT (0% CST-Cent; 0% KMT-Cent); centrifuged semen to remove virtually all seminal plasma and resuspended with previously filtered seminal plasma from the same stallion in either CST or KMT to a final concentration of 20% seminal plasma (20% CST-Cent; 20% KMT-Cent). Sperm motion characteristics were determined by CASA and DNA integrity (%COMP, percent of cells outside the main population) evaluated by the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay prior to cooling, and after 24 and 48 h cooled-storage at 5 degrees C. After 48 h of storage at 5 degrees C, extenders with 0% seminal plasma (0% CST-Cent, 0% KMT-Cent) maintained highest quality DNA (P < 0.05), but 0% KMT-Cent maintained higher velocity measures (P < 0.05) than 0% CST-Cent. Total sperm motility was highest (P < 0.05) in 0% CST-Cent, 0% KMT-Cent, 10% CST, 20% CST-Cent, and 20% CST compared to the other treatment groups. Progressive sperm motility was highest (P < 0.05) after 48 h of storage in the treatment with 10% seminal plasma in Kenney extender (10% CST), despite a reduction in DNA integrity. Regardless of extender type, addition of 20% seminal plasma following centrifugation resulted in almost a two-fold increase in %COMP(alpha t), even though one of the treatments (20% CST-Cent) maintained total and progressive motility similar to treatments with no seminal plasma, suggesting that sperm motility and DNA integrity may respond independently to environmental conditions. Overall, better quality sperm features (motility and DNA) were maintained in sperm from which seminal plasma was removed followed by resuspension in either Kenney extender or modified Kenney Tyrodes-type extender. PMID:15763103

Love, C C; Brinsko, S P; Rigby, S L; Thompson, J A; Blanchard, T L; Varner, D D



Catalase-like and superoxide dismutase-like activities in human seminal plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human spermatozoa are highly susceptible to oxidative injury but are naturally protected from such injury by the antioxidant properties of seminal plasma. We measured catalase-like and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activities in the seminal plasma of fertile and vasectomized men in order to gain insight into the potential source(s) and function(s) of these antioxidants in semen. Semen samples were obtained from

A. Zini; M. Fischer; V. Mak; D. Phang; K. Jarvi



Cationic peptides obtained by reversible disaggregation of antibacterial proteins of bovine seminal plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the aggregating and disaggregating properties of anti-bacterial proteins. in seminal plasma. Little of the antibactenal activity of bovme seminal plasma diffused through dialysis membrane of retentivity 10 kDa at pH 7, but at pH 3 or with 0.1 mol\\/litre citrate at pH 7 most of the activity diffused through. Some of this

P. Shannon; B. Curson; P. C. Molan



Ovulation-inducing factor: a protein component of llama seminal plasma  

PubMed Central

Background Previously, we documented the presence of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma of llamas and alpacas. The purpose of the study was to define the biochemical characteristics of the molecule(s) in seminal plasma responsible for inducing ovulation. Methods In Experiment 1, llama seminal plasma was centrifuged using filtration devices with nominal molecular mass cut-offs of 30, 10 and 5 kDa. Female llamas (n = 9 per group) were treated i.m. with whole seminal plasma (positive control), phosphate-buffered saline (negative control), or the fraction of seminal plasma equal or higher than 30 kDa, 10 to 30 kDa, 5 to 10 kDa, or < 5 kDa. In Experiment 2, female llamas (n = 7 per group) were given an i.m. dose of seminal plasma treated previously by: 1) enzymatic digestion with proteinase-K, 2) incubation with charcoal-dextran, 3) heating to 65°C, or 4) untreated (control). In Experiment 3, female llamas (n = 10 per group) were given an i.m. dose of pronase-treated or non-treated (control) seminal plasma. In all experiments, llamas were examined by transrectal ultrasonography to detect ovulation and CL formation. Ovulation rate was compared among groups by Fisher's exact test and follicle and CL diameters were compared among groups by analyses of variance or student's t-tests. Results In Experiment 1, all llamas in the equal or higher than 30 kDa and positive control groups ovulated (9/9 in each), but none ovulated in the other groups (P < 0.001). In Experiment 2, ovulations were detected in all llamas in each treatment group; i.e., respective treatments of seminal plasma failed to inactivate the ovulation-inducing factor. In Experiment 3, ovulations were detected in 0/10 llamas given pronase-treated seminal plasma and in 9/10 controls (P < 0.01). Conclusions We conclude that ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in llama seminal plasma is a protein molecule that is resistant to heat and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K, and has a molecular mass of approximately equal or higher than 30 kDa.



Altered Antioxidant Status and Increased Lipid Per-Oxidation in Seminal Plasma of Tunisian Infertile Men  

PubMed Central

Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) for the first tentative. Patients were characterized by an idiopathic infertility. They were divided into three groups: normozoospermics who were considered as controls (n=40), asthenozoospermics (Astheno; n=45) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (OAT; n=35). Seminal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and the levels of glutathione (GSH), zinc (Zn) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. With the significant increase of the seminal activities of SOD and GPX in normozoospermics group, there were positive correlations observed between this enzymes and sperm quality. Also, significant elevated rates of seminal zinc and GSH were observed in control group, but there was contradictory associations reflecting the effects of these antioxidants on semen parameters. However, we noted significant increase of MDA levels in groups with abnormal seminogram. We showed negative associations between this per-oxidative marker and sperm parameters. These results obviously suggested that impairment on seminal antioxidants is an important risk factor for low sperm quality associated to idiopathic infertility and as a result can lead to poor IVF outcome.

Atig, Fatma; Raffa, Monia; Ali, Habib Ben; Abdelhamid, Kerkeni; Saad, Ali; Ajina, Mounir



‘Serum like’ albumin of fowl seminal plasma and effects of albumin on fowl spermatozoa stored at 4°c  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Using immunoelectrophoretic and immunodiffusion methods, serum?like albumin was detected in fowl seminal plasma. Immunodiffusion showed seminal plasma albumin concentration to be 4 mg\\/ml, corresponding to half of the total proteins (8 mg\\/ml).2. Replacing seminal plasma with a diluent containing either 1, 4, or 16 mg\\/ml albumin increased motility of spermatozoa stored for 24 h at 4°C, 16 mg\\/ml being

E. Blesbois; J. P. Caffin



Aromatase inhibitors in infertile patients: effects on seminal parameters, serum and seminal plasma testosterone levels, and estradiol levels during short-term follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To evaluate the effects of an aromatase inhibitor (anastrozole) on seminal parameters, and on serum and seminal plasma testosterone\\/estradiol ratios in infertile patients, as well as to clarify its place among empirical infertility treatment modalities. Patients and Methods: The study included 32 patients with spermatozoa numbering > 5 million\\/mL in ejaculate and a serum testosterone\\/estradiol ratio < 0.14. Anastrozole,

M. Murad


Properties and function of caltrin, the calcium-transport inhibitor of bull seminal plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indirect immunofluorescence studies with polyclonal antibodies show that caltrin binds to the plasma mem- brane over the acrosome and principal tail regions of bovine spermatozoa but not to the postacrosomal area or the midpiece. Calcium influx into bovine epididymal spermatozoa maintained in a simple salt medium con- taining DL-13-hydroxybutyrate is prevented by caltrin freshly prepared from bovine seminal plasma through



Selenium and glutathione peroxidase in seminal plasma of men and bulls.  


High levels of selenium and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were found in bull seminal plasma but low concentrations in human seminal plasma. In man the seminal plasma selenium was associated with two macromolecules separable by gel filtration, but no GSH-Px was found in the same fractions. Selenium in bull seminal plasma was associated with two proteins, which could be separated by gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. Both macromolecules coeluted with GSH-Px activity and had identical optima at pH 7.0. Their responses to thermal treatment, however, differed. Seminal vesicle secretory fluid in the bull contained both these proteins, while the larger molecule was also found in fractionations of ampulla, prostate and Cowper's glands. The larger enzyme form is evidently a tetramer of the smaller one. Both enzyme forms were extremely sensitive to heavy metals and some divalent metal ions. GSH caused an activation while other reducing agents were suppressive. Triton X-100 had no effect, while sodium deoxycholate was inhibitory. These properties are typical for a phospholipid hydroperoxide GSH-Px. It is concluded that this selenium-dependent enzyme may be important in the protection of bovine spermatozoa against damage caused by oxygen radicals, while in man such a mechanism is not functional. PMID:3411568

Kantola, M; Saaranen, M; Vanha-Perttula, T



Differential proteomics of human seminal plasma: A potential target for searching male infertility marker proteins.  


The clinical fertility tests, available in the market, fail to define the exact cause of male infertility in almost half of the cases and point toward a crucial need of developing better ways of infertility investigations. The protein biomarkers may help us toward better understanding of unknown cases of male infertility that, in turn, can guide us to find better therapeutic solutions. Many clinical attempts have been made to identify biomarkers of male infertility in sperm proteome but only few studies have targeted seminal plasma. Human seminal plasma is a rich source of proteins that are essentially required for development of sperm and successful fertilization. This viewpoint article highlights the importance of human seminal plasma proteome in reproductive physiology and suggests that differential proteomics integrated with functional analysis may help us in searching potential biomarkers of male infertility. PMID:22532450

Tomar, Anil Kumar; Sooch, Balwinder Singh; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita



Correlation between human clusterin in seminal plasma with sperm protamine deficiency and DNA fragmentation.  


Seminal proteins can be considered as factors that control fertilization. Clusterin is one such protein that has been implicated in many activities, including apoptosis inhibition, cell cycle control, DNA repair, and sperm maturation. In this study, the relationship between human secretory clusterin (sCLU) in seminal plasma with sperm parameters, protamine deficiency, and DNA fragmentation was investigated. Semen samples were collected from 63 Iranian men, and semen analysis was performed according to World Health Organization criteria and computer aided semen analysis (CASA). The concentration of sCLU in seminal plasma was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), protamine deficiency was determined by chromomycin A3 staining (CMA3 ), and sperm DNA fragmentation was checked by sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) assay. The level of sCLU in seminal fluid of fertile patients was 48.3?±?38.6?ng/ml and in infertile patients was 15.5?±?9.7?ng/ml; this difference was significant (P?seminal clusterin can be considered as a marker for the quick assessment of semen quality in male infertility studies. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 80: 718-724, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23740886

Salehi, Mohammad; Akbari, Hakimeh; Heidari, Mohammad Hassan; Molouki, Aidin; Murulitharan, Kavitha; Moeini, Hassan; Novin, Marefat Ghaffari; Aabed, Farhang; Taheri, Hossein; Fadaei, Fateme; Mohsenzadeh, Mehdi; Jafari, Mohammad; Pirouzi, Aliyar; Heidari, Reihane



Relationships between seminal plasma arginase activity and spermatological parameters in rams.  


This study was conducted to evaluate the correlation between seminal plasma arginase activity and spermatological parameters in rams. In this study, five fertility-proven Awassi rams were used as material. Six ejaculates were collected from each ram by an artificial vagina. Spermatological parameters (semen volume, mass activity, sperm motility and concentration and abnormal sperm rate) were immediately determined in each ejaculate. For enzyme assay, the semen samples were centrifuged and stored at -20 °C for the analysis of arginase activity. The average seminal plasma arginase activity was 0.61 ± 0.20 U (mg protein)(-1) . There was a positive correlation between arginase activity and semen volume (r = 0.412, P < 0.05), semen mass activity (r = 0.610, P < 0.01), sperm motility (r = 0.447, P < 0.05) and sperm concentration (r = 0.808, P < 0.01). However, there was a negative correlation between arginase activity and abnormal sperm rate (r = -0.424, P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study clearly suggests that there is a significant correlation between seminal plasma arginase activity and spermatological parameters. In light of these results, seminal plasma arginase activity may be a biochemical criterion for determining sperm quality besides classical semen analysis parameters in rams. PMID:21848887

Gür, S; Kandemir, F M



Association of Seminal Plasma Motility Inhibitors\\/Semenogelins with Sperm in Asthenozoospermia-Infertile Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seminal plasma motility inhibitors (SPMIs) are proteinase-resistant fragments of semenogelin I and II (Sgs), which are the major proteins of semen coagulum. SPMIs inhibit the motility of spermatozoa, and Sgs are thought to be natural regulators of human sperm function. The mechanism underlying sperm motility regulation and its association with defective motility in infertile men remain unclear. The purpose of

K. Terai; K. Yoshida; M. Yoshiike; M. Fujime; T. Iwamoto



Role of seminal plasma in the anti-HIV-1 activity of candidate microbicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Evaluation of microbicides for prevention of HIV-1 infection in macaque models for vaginal infection has indicated that the concentrations of active compounds needed for protection by far exceed levels sufficient for complete inhibition of infection in vitro. These experiments were done in the absence of seminal plasma (SP), a vehicle for sexual transmission of the virus. To gain insight

A Robert Neurath; Nathan Strick; Yun-Yao Li




EPA Science Inventory

Negative-chemical-ionization mass spectral screening of extracts of human seminal plasma has revealed a presence of a Cl7 ion cluster at a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 463 in a significant number of the samples examined (34 out of 123). Experiments with different gases used to g...


Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level in seminal plasma of infertile men and healthy donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are a group of free radicals that in excessive amounts have negative influence on sperm quality and function. Objective: We compared ROS levels in seminal plasma of infertile men with this level in healthy donors. We also determined the ROS level in semen of infertile men according to the etiology of infertility, and also the

Mohammad Reza Moein; Vali Ollah Dehghani; Nasim Tabibnejad; Serajadin Vahidi



The Effect of Spermatozoa and Seminal Plasma on Leukocyte Migration into the Uterus of Gilts1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yorkshire × Landrace gilts were used to determine the effect of spermatozoa and seminal plasma on postbreeding uterine leukocyte influx. Estrus detection was performed with a boar at 12-h intervals following synchronization with 400 IU eCG and 200 IU of hCG. All gilts were AI once, 24 h after the detection of estrus following random assign- ment to a 2

K. J. Rozeboom; M. H. T. Troedsson; T. W. Molitor; B. G. Crabo


Lack of Detection of XMRV in Seminal Plasma from HIV-1 Infected Men in The Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a recently discovered human gammaretrovirus with yet unknown prevalence and transmission route(s). Its presence in prostate stromal fibroblasts and prostatic secretions suggests that XMRV might be sexually transmitted. We chose to study a compartment closely connected to the prostate, a location where XMRV was detected in independent studies. Seminal plasma samples from HIV-1 infected men were examined as they have an increased probability of acquiring sexually transmitted pathogens. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the prevalence of XMRV in 93 seminal plasma samples of 54 HIV-1 infected men living in The Netherlands with a nested PCR amplification specifically targeting the XMRV gag gene. As a control for the presence and integrity of retrovirus particles, HIV-1 was amplified from the same samples with a PCR amplification targeting the env gene of the virus, or HIV-1 was quantified with a real-time PCR amplifying part of the pol gene. Conclusions/Significance Although HIV-1 was amplified from 25% of the seminal plasma samples, no XMRV was detected, suggesting that either the prevalence of XMRV is very low in The Netherlands, or that XMRV is not naturally present in the seminal plasma.

Cornelissen, Marion; Zorgdrager, Fokla; Blom, Petra; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Repping, Sjoerd; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth; Bakker, Margreet; Berkhout, Ben; van der Kuyl, Antoinette C.



Large-scale and high-confidence proteomic analysis of human seminal plasma  

PubMed Central

Background The development of mass spectrometric (MS) techniques now allows the investigation of very complex protein mixtures ranging from subcellular structures to tissues. Body fluids are also popular targets of proteomic analysis because of their potential for biomarker discovery. Seminal plasma has not yet received much attention from the proteomics community but its characterization could provide a future reference for virtually all studies involving human sperm. The fluid is essential for the survival of spermatozoa and their successful journey through the female reproductive tract. Results Here we report the high-confidence identification of 923 proteins in seminal fluid from a single individual. Fourier transform MS enabled parts per million mass accuracy, and two consecutive stages of MS fragmentation allowed confident identification of proteins even by single peptides. Analysis with GoMiner annotated two-thirds of the seminal fluid proteome and revealed a large number of extracellular proteins including many proteases. Other proteins originated from male accessory glands and have important roles in spermatozoan survival. Conclusion This high-confidence characterization of seminal plasma content provides an inventory of proteins with potential roles in fertilization. When combined with quantitative proteomics methodologies, it should be useful for studies of fertilization, male infertility, and prostatic and testicular cancers.

Pilch, Bartosz; Mann, Matthias



Relationship of seminal plasma level and extender type to sperm motility and DNA integrity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between seminal plasma level (0, 10, or 20%) and extender type [Kenney type (EZ-Mixin-CST) or Kenney-modified Tyrodes-KMT] to the susceptibility of sperm DNA to denaturation and sperm motility measures were investigated in cooled (5°C) stallion sperm. Three ejaculates from each of three fertile stallions were collected in an artificial vagina and processed as follows: diluted one part uncentrifuged

C. C. Love; S. P. Brinsko; S. L. Rigby; J. A. Thompson; T. L. Blanchard; D. D. Varner



The effect of spermatozoa and seminal plasma on leukocyte migration into the uterus of gilts.  


Yorkshire x Landrace gilts were used to determine the effect of spermatozoa and seminal plasma on postbreeding uterine leukocyte influx. Estrus detection was performed with a boar at 12-h intervals following synchronization with 400 IU eCG and 200 IU of hCG. All gilts were AI once, 24 h after the detection of estrus following random assignment to a 2x2x3 factorial arrangement of treatments (sperm or sperm-free AI doses), AI dose medium (seminal plasma or PBS), and lavage time following AI. Gilts were treated with sperm (5x10(9) spermatozoa; SPZ; n = 30) or sperm-free (SF; n = 30) doses containing either 100 mL of seminal plasma (SP; n = 15/treatment) or PBS (n = 15/treatment). Uterine lavage was performed once on each gilt (n = 20/time) at one of three times after AI (6, 12, or 36 h) to determine the total number of uterine leukocytes. The leukocytes consisted predominately (92 to 99%) of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMN). There was an AI x medium interaction on uterine PMN numbers. The number of uterine PMN recovered from gilts inseminated with sperm suspended in PBS was greater than the number of PMN recovered from the uterine lumen of gilts inseminated with sperm in SP, SP alone, or PBS alone (P<.05). Furthermore, SP accelerated the rate of uterine clearance when suspended with sperm cells during the first 36 h following AI (P<.05). These results indicate that seminal plasma suppresses PMN migration into the uterus following breeding and enhances the rate of disappearance of uterine inflammation. PMID:10462000

Rozeboom, K J; Troedsson, M H; Molitor, T W; Crabo, B G



Lack of Detection of XMRV in Seminal Plasma from HIV1 Infected Men in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundXenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a recently discovered human gammaretrovirus with yet unknown prevalence and transmission route(s). Its presence in prostate stromal fibroblasts and prostatic secretions suggests that XMRV might be sexually transmitted. We chose to study a compartment closely connected to the prostate, a location where XMRV was detected in independent studies. Seminal plasma samples from HIV-1

Marion Cornelissen; Fokla Zorgdrager; Petra Blom; Suzanne Jurriaans; Sjoerd Repping; Elisabeth van Leeuwen; Margreet Bakker; Ben Berkhout; Antoinette C. van der Kuyl; Douglas F. Nixon



Isolation of human cationic antimicrobial protein-18 from seminal plasma and its association with prostasomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cathelicidins are a group of antibiotic peptides with broad antimicrobial activity. They are considered to be an essential part of the innate immune system. The only known human cathelicidin is the human cationic antimicrobial protein (hCAP-18), from which the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is released. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, we purified hCAP-18 from seminal plasma and confirmed

E. Andersson; O. E. Sørensen; B. Frohm; N. Borregaard; A. Egesten; J. Malm



Seasonal changes in the biochemistry of seminal plasma and sperm motility in the ocean pout, Macrozoarces americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm motility, pH and osmolality of seminal plasma varied throughout the reproductive season spanning the period from June\\u000a to September. Initially, sperm motility was low, peaked in July and August and then fell again towards the end of the spawning\\u000a season. While the pH of seminal plasma increased from pH 7.4 to 7.9 during the period of spermiation, the average

Z. Wang; L. W. Crim



Quantitative analysis of anandamide and related acylethanolamides in human seminal plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endocannabinoids anandamide, palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide have been detected in human seminal plasma and are bioactive lipids implicated in regulation of sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction. Several methods exist for endocannabinoid quantification but none have been validated for measurement in human seminal plasma. We describe sensitive, robust, reproducible solid phase and isotope-dilution UHPLC-ESI-MS\\/MS methods for the extraction and quantification

Akwasi A. Amoako; Timothy H. Marczylo; Patricia M. W. Lam; Jonathon M. Willets; Amanda Derry; Janine Elson; Justin C. Konje



Isolation, characterization and cDNA sequencing of a Kazal family proteinase inhibitor from seminal plasma of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).  


The turkey reproductive tract and seminal plasma contain a serine proteinase inhibitor that seems to be unique for the reproductive tract. Our experimental objective was to isolate, characterize and cDNA sequence the Kazal family proteinase inhibitor from turkey seminal plasma and testis. Seminal plasma contains two forms of a Kazal family inhibitor: virgin (Ia) represented by an inhibitor of moderate electrophoretic migration rate (present also in the testis) and modified (Ib, a split peptide bond) represented by an inhibitor with a fast migration rate. The inhibitor from the seminal plasma was purified by affinity, ion-exchange and reverse phase chromatography. The testis inhibitor was purified by affinity and ion-exchange chromatography. N-terminal Edman sequencing of the two seminal plasma inhibitors and testis inhibitor were identical. This sequence was used to construct primers and obtain a cDNA sequence from the testis. Analysis of a cDNA sequence indicated that turkey proteinase inhibitor belongs to Kazal family inhibitors (pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitors, mammalian acrosin inhibitors) and caltrin. The turkey seminal plasma Kazal inhibitor belongs to low molecular mass inhibitors and is characterized by a high value of the equilibrium association constant for inhibitor/trypsin complexes. PMID:18430598

S?owi?ska, Mariola; Olczak, Mariusz; Wojtczak, Mariola; Glogowski, Jan; Jankowski, Jan; Watorek, Wies?aw; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Ciereszko, Andrzej



Improvement of Sperm Motility of Sex-Reversed Male Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss , by Incubation in High-pH Artificial Seminal Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the motility time of spermatozoa collected from the testes and the sperm duct of normal and sex-reversed male (XX)\\u000a rainbow trout in physiological balanced salt solution were examined after incubation in artificial seminal plasmas of various\\u000a pHs. Although untreated spermatozoa from the sperm duct retained motility for 60–90 s in the balanced salt solution, the spermatozoa\\u000a collected from

Toru Kobayashi; Shozo Fushiki; Koichi Ueno



Prostatic origin of fucosyl transferase in huma seminal plasma — A study on healthy controls and on men with infertility or with prostatic cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fucosyl transferase was recovered in soluble form in human seminal plasma. The enzyme had very little activity, as it was structurally bound to prostasomes, which are membrane-surrounded organelles in seminal plasma. The fucosyl transferase activity was recorded on Sephadex G200 chromatography of seminal plasma (supernatant after ultracentrifugation) in one single peak coinciding with that of prostate-specific acid phosphatase. Studies on

G. Ronquist; B. Stegmayr



Chromatographic separation of immunosuppressive factors from seminal plasma from vasectomized boars.  


Components of boar seminal plasma inhibiting the proliferation of murine and porcine lymphocytes were separated into four peaks by chromatography on Sephacryl S-200. Repeated chromatography of these peaks demonstrated that the substances responsible for inhibition of the blastic transformation of lymphocytes corresponded to components with high molecular weight that during separation were broken down to components with a lower molecular weight; these lower-molecular-weight components also inhibited lymphocyte proliferation. The component with inhibitory activity in peak II (molecular weight 70,000) was manifestly different from the component in peak I (170,000). PMID:2565318

Cechová, D; Veselský, L; Holán, V; Stan?k, R


A proton NMR study of the effect of Mucuna pruriens on seminal plasma metabolites of infertile males.  


The objective of this study was to employ proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy to evaluate the impact of Mucuna pruriens seeds on the metabolic profile of seminal plasma of infertile patients. A total of 180 infertile patients were administered M. pruriens seed powder for a period of three months. Age-matched healthy men comprised the control (n=50) group in the study. Lactate, alanine, choline, citrate, glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glutamine, tyrosine, histidine, phenylalanine, and uridine were measured in seminal plasma by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. To evaluate the degree of infertility and extent of hormonal imbalance induced by this milieu, separate sperm concentration, motility, lipid peroxide in seminal plasma and LH, FSH, T, and PRL hormone concentration in serum were measured using standard laboratory methods and RIA, respectively, in the same subjects. M. pruriens therapy rectifies the perturbed alanine, citrate, GPC, histidine and phenylalanine content in seminal plasma and improves the semen quality of post-treated infertile men with compared to pre-treated. Concomitantly, clinical variables in seminal plasma and blood serum were also improved over post therapy in infertile men. On the basis of these observations, it may be proposed that M. pruriens seed powder not only reactivates the enzymatic activity of metabolic pathways and energy metabolism but also rejuvenates the harmonic balance of male reproductive hormones in infertile men. These findings open more opportunities for infertility treatment and management by improving semen quality. PMID:21459537

Gupta, Ashish; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Shukla, Kamla Kant; Bansal, Navneeta; Jaiswer, Shyam Pyari; Shankhwar, Satya Narain



Assessment of post-thawed ram sperm viability after incubation with seminal plasma.  


A suggested alternative to improve post-thawed ram semen quality is the addition of seminal plasma (SP). This is thought to be capable of improving sperm resistance to thermal shock, reverting cryocapacitation and helping sperm survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of frozen-thawed ram semen incubation with SP on mitochondrial activity, acrosomal membrane integrity, necrosis and apoptosis. Frozen/thawed semen was divided into two groups: the SP Group and the control group. After 0, 30 and 60 min, fluorescent probes were added to aliquots from each treatment group and evaluated using flow cytometry. There was no difference between treatment groups in almost all viability parameters evaluated, with exception of the apoptosis, which was found increased in SP group. The increase in incubation period resulted in a decreased percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential and acrosomal membrane integrity and an increased percentage of necrotic and apoptotic sperm cells. In conclusion, the present study showed that addition of seminal plasma after thawing cryopreserved ram sperm had no identifiable beneficial effect on sperm quality. PMID:22661118

Rovegno, Mariana; Feitosa, Weber Beringui; Rocha, Andre Monteiro; Mendes, Camilla Mota; Visintin, Jose Antonio; D'Avila Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz



Human Seminal Plasma Fosters CD4+ Regulatory T cell Phenotype and Transforming Growth Factor-?1 Expression  

PubMed Central

Problem Semen mediates expansion of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in the murine female reproductive tract. The impact of semen on Treg in humans, however, remains unclear. Method of Study Using seminal plasma (SP) from 20 healthy donors, we investigated the impact of human semen on CD4+ T cell expression of CD127 and CD49d as well as CD4+ CD127lowCD49dlow Treg proliferation, apoptosis and intracellular expression of FoxP3, TGF-?1 and IL-10. Results SP reduced CD4+ T cell expression of CD127 and CD49d and increased the proportion of CD127lowCD49dlow Treg. This increase was non-proliferative, mediated in part via the conversion of CD4+ helper T cells into FoxP3? but not FoxP3+ Treg. Additionally, SP induced an increase in intracellular expression of the immunosuppressive cytokine TGF-?1 by the FoxP3? but not FoxP3+ Treg. SP had no impact on Treg intracellular expression of IL-10. Conclusions Human seminal plasma fosters the non-proliferative increase in the proportion and immunoregulatory activity of FoxP3? Treg.

Balandya, Emmanuel; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Sanders, Katherine; Lahey, Timothy



Biochemical and mass spectrometric characterization of soluble ecto-5'-nucleotidase from bull seminal plasma.  

PubMed Central

Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (ecto-5'-NT) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane-bound protein that is ubiquitous in mammalian tissues. It is a target for a number of therapeutic drugs since increased levels of the enzyme correlate with various disease states. In this investigation, we describe the properties of a soluble ecto-5'-NT derived from bull seminal plasma. The protein was highly heterogeneous as demonstrated by chromatofocusing and two-dimensional PAGE. Sequencing analyses revealed a truncated polypeptide lacking the glycosylphospatidylinositol attachment site, suggesting that it is produced post-translationally by cleavage at Gln(547) and/or Phe(548). Heterogeneity was largely due to differential glycosylation, especially in the oligosaccharides linked to Asn(403). Significant differences in substrate specificity were observed between isoforms and, on the basis of molecular-modelling studies, were interpreted in terms of variable glycosylation causing steric hindrance of the substrate-binding site. Thus the soluble forms of ecto-5'-NT found in bull seminal plasma are unique both biochemically and structurally, and have a putative role in signalling interactions with spermatozoa following ejaculation and capacitation in the female reproductive tract.

Fini, Carlo; Talamo, Fabio; Cherri, Silvia; Coli, Marcello; Floridi, Ardesio; Ferrara, Lino; Scaloni, Andrea



Characterization of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in seminal plasma of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).  


Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme present in quail seminal plasma has been characterized. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequently with LDH specific staining of seminal plasma revealed a single isozyme in quail semen. Studies on substrate inhibition, pH for optimum activity and inhibitor (urea) indicated the isozyme present in the quail semen has catalytic properties like LDH-1 viz. H-type. Furthermore, unlike other mammalian species, electrophoretic and kinetic investigations did not support the existence of semen specific LDH-X isozyme in quail semen. The effect of exogenous lactate and pyruvate on sperm metabolic activity was also studied. The addition of 1 mM lactate or pyruvate to quail semen increased sperm metabolic activity. Our results suggested that both pyruvate and lactate could be used by quail spermatozoa to maintain their basic functions. Since the H-type isozyme is important for conversion of lactate to pyruvate under anaerobic conditions it was postulated that exogenous lactate being converted into pyruvate via LDH present in semen may be used by sperm mitochondria to generate ATP. During conversion of lactate to pyruvate NADH is being generated that may be useful for maintaining sperm mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:21074838

Singh, R P; Sastry, K V H; Pandey, N K; Shit, N; Agrawal, R; Singh, K B; Mohan, Jag; Saxena, V K; Moudgal, R P



Effect of Coenzyme Q10 supplementation on antioxidant enzymes activity and oxidative stress of seminal plasma: a double-blind randomised clinical trial.  


Low seminal plasma concentrations of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) have been correlated with impaired sperm parameters, but the exact mechanism remains of dominating interest. This randomised, placebo-controlled study examined the effect of CoQ10 on catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and F(2) -isoprostanes in seminal plasma in infertile men and their relation with CoQ10 concentration. Sixty infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) were randomised to receive 200 mg d(-1) of CoQ10 or placebo for 3 months. 47 persons of them completed the study. Semen analysis, anthropometric measurements, diet and physical activity assessment were performed for subjects before and after treatment. Independent and paired t-test, chi-square test and ancova were compared outcomes of supplementation between two groups. CoQ10 levels increased from 44.74 ± 36.47 to 68.17 ± 42.41 ng ml(-1) following supplementation in CoQ10 (P < 0.001). CoQ10 group had higher catalase and SOD activity than the placebo group. There was a significant positive correlation between CoQ10 concentration and normal sperm morphology (P = 0.037), catalase (P = 0.041) and SOD (P < 0.001). Significant difference was shown between the mean of changes in seminal plasma 8-isoprostane in two groups (P = 0.003) after supplementation. Three-month supplementation with CoQ10 in OAT infertile men can attenuate oxidative stress in seminal plasma and improve semen parameters and antioxidant enzymes activity. PMID:23289958

Nadjarzadeh, A; Shidfar, F; Amirjannati, N; Vafa, M R; Motevalian, S A; Gohari, M R; Nazeri Kakhki, S A; Akhondi, M M; Sadeghi, M R



The structure of caltrin, the calcium-transport inhibitor of bovine seminal plasma.  

PubMed Central

The amino acid sequence of the bovine seminal protein, caltrin, which inhibits calcium transport into spermatozoa, has been determined. The protein contains 47 amino acid residues. Parts of the sequence are identical with that reported for bovine seminal plasmin, a protein possessing antibacterial activity. We believe the proteins are identical and that the previously reported sequence of seminal plasmin is in error.

Lewis, R V; Agustin, J S; Kruggel, W; Lardy, H A



The time-dependent effects of prostate granules and seminal plasma on the capacitation, acrosome reaction, and motility of rabbit sperm.  


The present study investigated the role of rabbit seminal plasma and prostate granules on capacitation, the acrosomal reaction (AR), and sperm motility. Semen ejaculates obtained from five mature New Zealand White rabbit bucks in three collection series were used in the study. Raw semen, Percoll-selected sperm alone and in presence of either seminal plasma or prostate granules were incubated for 120min in capacitation medium. Chlortetracycline fluorescence (reflecting capacitation and the acrosome reaction) and sperm kinetic traits were analysed in each sample. All traits were observed from 0 to 120min of incubation at 37°C in 5% CO2. Both seminal plasma and prostatic granules markedly improved the sperm motility but seminal plasma mainly inhibited the capacitation progress whereas prostatic granules inhibited the AR. In conclusion, prostatic granules and seminal plasma have specific roles in synchronising sperm capacitation and the AR with egg availability. PMID:23746619

Castellini, Cesare; Mattioli, Simona; Ruggeri, Silvia; Dal Bosco, Alessandro; Collodel, Giulia



The identification of factors in seminal plasma responsible for suppression of natural killer cell activity.  

PubMed Central

We have identified two components of human seminal plasma which suppress natural killer (NK) cell activity in vitro. Dialysis and gel filtration experiments have shown both components to be of low molecular weight. The first will suppress NK cells following a short period of pretreatment, but this suppression is dependent upon the presence of bovine serum in the medium and is directly related to a loss of cell viability as measured by trypan blue dye exclusion. We suggest that this molecule is a polyamine. The second factor will not suppress NK activity following pretreatment of lymphocytes, but is a potent suppressor when added for the duration of the assay. This suppression is completely bovine serum independent, unrelated to toxicity and appears to be mediated by prostaglandin E2. The relevance of these results to a clinical situation is discussed.

Vallely, P J; Sharrard, R M; Rees, R C



The impact of calcium, magnesium, zinc, and copper in blood and seminal plasma on semen parameters in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the impact of calcium, magnesium, zinc, and copper in blood and seminal plasma on semen parameters, 107 fertile and 103 subfertile males provided a standardized blood and semen specimen. Total calcium and magnesium concentrations were determined with colorimetric end point assay procedures. Zinc and copper were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Semen analysis was performed according

Wai Yee Wong; Gert Flik; Pascal M. W. Groenen; Dorine W. Swinkels; Chris M. G. Thomas; Jenny H. J. Copius-Peereboom; Hans M. W. M. Merkus; Régine P. M. Steegers-Theunissen



Cigarette smoking and the risk of male factor subfertility: minor association between cotinine in seminal plasma and semen morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the impact of cigarette smoking on male factor subfertility and the semen parameters of sperm count, motility, and morphology by questionnaire and determination of the cotinine concentrations in blood and seminal plasma of fertile and subfertile males.Design: Case-control study of 107 fertile and 103 subfertile males who provided a standardized blood and semen specimen and completed a

Wai Yee Wong; Chris M. G Thomas; Hans M. W. M Merkus; Gerhard A Zielhuis; Wim H Doesburg; Régine P. M Steegers-Theunissen



Myometrial activity around estrus in sows: spontaneous activity and effects of estrogens, cloprostenol, seminal plasma and clenbuterol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, nonsurgical, open-end catheter technique was used to study spontaneous uterine activity around estrus in sows, and the effects of estrogens, seminal plasma, cloprostenol, and clenbuterol on uterine activity. In the first experiment, uterine activity was studied in 14 multiparous, cyclic sows, during one or more estrous cycles, from day ?4 to day 4 of the cycle (day 0:

P. Langendijk; E. G. Bouwman; N. M. Soede; M. A. M. Taverne; B. Kemp



Human seminal plasma displays significant phospholipid transfer activity due to the presence of active phospholipid transfer protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid composition of germ cell membranes is considerably modified during spermatogenesis, sperm maturation and capacitation. Some of these modifications are caused by exchanges between soluble lipid donors or acceptors and cell membranes. The aim of this study was to assess whether significant lipid transfers between lipoprotein structures are detectable in human seminal plasma. Phospholipid and cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer

D. Masson; V. Drouineaud; P. Moiroux; T. Gautier; G. Dautin; M. Schneider; J. Fruchart-najib; M. Jauhiainen; C. Ehnholm; P. Sagot; P. Gambert; C. Jimenez; L. Lagrost



Human seminal clusterin (SP-40,40). Isolation and characterization.  

PubMed Central

Molecular cloning of the human complement inhibitor SP-40,40, has revealed strong homology to a major rat and ram Sertoli cell product, sulfated glycoprotein-2, known also as clusterin. This study reports the purification and characterization of human seminal clusterin. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed charge differences between clusterin purified from semen and the serum-derived material. Both preparations demonstrate comparable hemagglutination (clustering) activity and inhibition of C5b-6 initiated hemolysis. The average clusterin concentration in normal seminal plasma is considerably higher than that found in serum. Mean seminal plasma clusterin concentrations were significantly lower in azoospermia caused by obstruction or seminiferous tubule failure than with oligospermia or normospermia. Only men with vasal agenesis had undetectable seminal clusterin, suggesting that some of the seminal clusterin is produced by the seminal vesicles. Immunofluorescence of human spermatozoa revealed that clusterin was detected on 10% of spermatozoa, predominantly those that were immature or had abnormal morphology. A pilot study of 25 patients suggests that seminal clusterin concentration, together with sperm motility and morphology, is correlated with the fertilization rate in vitro. The function of seminal clusterin is unknown. Its extensive distribution in the male genital tract and its high concentration in seminal plasma suggests an important role in male fertility. Images

O'Bryan, M K; Baker, H W; Saunders, J R; Kirszbaum, L; Walker, I D; Hudson, P; Liu, D Y; Glew, M D; d'Apice, A J; Murphy, B F



Conserved ram seminal plasma proteins bind to the sperm membrane and repair cryopreservation damage.  


Whole seminal plasma (SP) enhances the function and fertility of frozen/thawed ram sperm. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether SP proteins capable of binding to molecules from the sperm plasma membrane were conserved among ram breeds, and whether these proteins were sufficient to overcome cryopreservation-induced reductions in sperm quality. Whole ram SP, obtained from rams of various breeds, improved progressive motility of frozen/thawed sperm at all times evaluated (P < 0.05); however, it did not improve total motility (15 min, P = 0.480; 30 min, P = 0.764; and 45 min, P = 0.795). To identify SP proteins responsible for this effect, a new method was developed to retain SP proteins that bound specifically to the sperm membrane by immobilization of sperm membrane proteins. These proteins specifically bound to the sperm surface, especially the acrosomal region. Lactotransferrin, epididymal secretory protein E1, Synaptosomal-associated protein 29, and RSVP-20 were identified (mass spectrometry) in this fraction. The retained SP proteins fraction repaired ultrastructural damage of frozen/thawed sperm and, with the addition of fructose, significantly improved motility of frozen/thawed sperm. We concluded that SP proteins that bound to the sperm membrane were conserved among ram breeds, and that when added to frozen/thawed semen (along with an energy source), they repaired ram sperm damage and enhanced sperm motility. PMID:21601269

Bernardini, A; Hozbor, F; Sanchez, E; Fornés, M W; Alberio, R H; Cesari, A



Biophysical investigations on the interaction of the major bovine seminal plasma protein, PDC-109, with heparin.  


PDC-109, the major bovine seminal plasma protein, binds to sperm plasma membrane and modulates capacitation in the presence of heparin. In view of this, the PDC-109/heparin interaction has been investigated employing various biophysical approaches. Isothermal titration calorimetric studies yielded the association constant and changes in enthalpy and entropy for the interaction at 25 °C (pH 7.4) as 1.92 (±0.2) × 10(5) M(-1), 18.6 (±1.6) kcal M(-1), and 86.5 (±5.1) cal M(-1) K(-1), respectively, whereas differential scanning calorimetric studies indicated that heparin binding results in a significant increase in the thermal stability of PDC-109. The affinity decreases with increase in pH and ionic strength, consistent with the involvement of electrostatic forces in this interaction. Circular dichroism spectroscopic studies indicated that PDC-109 retains its conformational features even up to 70-75 °C in the presence of heparin, whereas the native protein unfolds at about 55 °C. Atomic force microscopic studies demonstrated that large oligomeric structures are formed upon binding of PDC-109 to heparin, indicating an increase in the local density of the protein, which may be relevant to the ability of heparin to potentiate PDC-109 induced sperm capacitation. PMID:21939260

Sankhala, Rajeshwer S; Damai, Rajani S; Anbazhagan, V; Kumar, C Sudheer; Bulusu, Gopalakrishnan; Swamy, Musti J



Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of equine seminal plasma proteins and their relation with semen freezability.  


The objective was to evaluate protein profiles of equine seminal plasma using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and to determine whether any of these proteins were related to semen freezability. Seminal plasma was collected from 10 stallions, of high and low semen freezability, housed at the State Stud of Lower Saxony, and routinely used in AI programs. Twenty-five protein spots were identified from the two-dimensional gel (12%), seven of which were present in all samples (all proteins were identified by MALDI-MS). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has been used to generate ion images of samples in one or more mass-to-charge (m/z) values, providing the capability of mapping specific molecules to two-dimensional coordinates of the original sample. Of the 25 proteins identified, two spots had greater relative content (P < 0.05) in seminal plasma samples collected from stallions with high semen freezability: spot 5 (80-85 kDa, isoelectric point [pI] 7.54), identified as CRISP-3; and spot 45 (18.2 kDa, pI 5.0-5.2), identified as HSP-2. Conversely, protein content was greater (P < 0.05) in seminal plasma samples from stallions with low semen freezability: spot 7 (75.4 kDa, pI 6.9-7.4), identified as lactoferrin; spot 15 (26.7 kDa, pI 5.51), identified as kallikrein; spot 25 (25 kDa, pI 7.54), identified as CRISP-3; and spot 35 (13.9 kDa, pI 3.8-4.2), identified as HSP-1. In conclusion, there were differences in the seminal plasma protein profile from stallions with high and low semen freezability. Furthermore, CRISP-3 and HSP-2 were potential seminal plasma markers of high semen freezability. PMID:21601917

Jobim, M I M; Trein, C; Zirkler, H; Gregory, R M; Sieme, H; Mattos, R C



New insights into the mechanisms of ram sperm protection by seminal plasma proteins.  


To provide new insights into the mechanisms through which seminal plasma proteins (SPP) are able to protect spermatozoa, we tested the hypothesis that apoptosis can contribute to the negative effect of refrigeration on ram spermatozoa, and that SPP prevent this damage. Having proved the presence of key constituents of apoptosis-related pathways in ram sperm protein extracts, we carried out a comparative analysis of the effects of the addition of SPP before refrigeration (15 °C, 30 min) and induced-apoptosis with betulinic acid or fibroblast-associated receptor ligand, assessing sperm quality parameters and apoptotic markers. The protective effect of SPP on plasma membrane integrity and potential, motility and mitochondrial inner membrane potential, and surface (cardiolipin content) was evidenced in refrigerated and induced-apoptosis samples. The addition of SPP resulted in lower values of phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA damage, and caspase activity. Therefore, apoptosis in fresh or refrigerated ram spermatozoa can occur due to activation of both the extrinsic and the intrinsic mediated pathway, and SPP might interfere with both pathways. The addition of SPP also resulted in higher proportions of viable, noncapacitated sperm and fertilizing ability (ZBA rate). This report demonstrates that SPP support survival of ram spermatozoa acting not only at the plasma membrane but also by inhibition of capacitation, and proposes the possibility that SPP might interfere with the extrinsic and the intrinsic apoptotic pathways. This opens new, interesting perspectives for the study of cellular regulatory mechanisms in spermatozoa that could be crucial for the improvement of ram semen preservation protocols. PMID:23636812

Mendoza, Noelia; Casao, Adriana; Pérez-Pé, Rosaura; Cebrián-Pérez, José A; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa



Effect of seminal plasma fractions on stallion sperm survival after cooled storage.  


This study aimed to evaluate stallion sperm survival after 24 h of cooled storage in the presence of seminal plasma (SP) derived from the sperm-rich fractions (SRF) or sperm-poor fractions(SPF) of the ejaculate, without SP, or in the presence of SP from other stallions. Ejaculates were collected from four stallions using an automated phantom, which separated the semen into five cups. Centrifuged and washed spermatozoa from cup 2 (SRF) were mixed with skim milk extender to a concentration of 100 x 10(6) sperm/ml and then 1:1 (v/v) with SP from the stallion's own or another stallions' second (SP-SRF) or last cup (SP-SPF). Skim milk extender (K) and skim milk extender supplemented with modified Tyrode's medium (KMT) were used as control treatments. After a 24-h storage period in a transport container, spermatozoa were evaluated for motion characteristics and plasma membrane integrity by calcein acetoxymethyl (AM)/propidium iodide staining. The percentage of spermatozoa with intact plasma membranes after storage was lower in SP-SRF than in SP-SPF, and the highest in K (P < 0.05). Progressive motility (PMOT) was lower for sperm stored in SP-SRF than for sperm stored in SP-SPF (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in total motility (TMOT). Sperm stored in KMT (P < 0.05) registered the highest TMOT and PMOT percentages. Osmolarity was significantly higher and pH lower in K than in KMT or SP. Treatment with SP-SPF from three stallions benefited the PMOT of sperm from one stallion. These preliminary findings suggest that SP from SRFs may be more harmful during storage than SP from SPFs. Removal of SP improves sperm survival in KMT extender, and exchanging SP between stallions seems to influence sperm survival. PMID:17054486

Akcay, E; Reilas, T; Andersson, M; Katila, T



The bovine seminal plasma protein PDC109 extracts phosphorylcholine-containing lipids from the outer membrane leaflet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bovine seminal plasma protein PDC-109 modulates the maturation of bull sperm cells by removing lipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine\\u000a and cholesterol, from their cellular membrane. Here, we have characterized the process of extraction of endogenous phospholipids\\u000a and of their respective analogues. By measuring the PDC-109-mediated release of fluorescent phospholipid analogues from lipid\\u000a vesicles and from biological membranes (human erythrocytes, bovine epididymal

Astrid Tannert; Anke Kurz; Karl-Rudolf Erlemann; Karin Müller; Andreas Herrmann; Jürgen Schiller; Edda Töpfer-Petersen; Puttaswamy Manjunath; Peter Müller



Levels of Environmental Contaminants in Human Follicular Fluid, Serum, and Seminal Plasma of Couples Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental chemicals are thought to adversely affect human reproductive function, however there are no studies that have\\u000a explored the association between failed fertilization and exposure of both partners to environmental contaminants. Therefore,\\u000a we collected blood and follicular fluid from the female partner and seminal plasma from the male partner of 21 couples attending\\u000a an in vitro fertilization (IVF) program, in

E. V. Younglai; W. G. Foster; E. G. Hughes; K. Trim; J. F. Jarrell



Relationship between seminal plasma interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor a levels with semen parameters in fertile and infertile men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of two proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor ! (TNF-!) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), were investigated in seminal plasma (SP) of proven fertile (n=24) and infertile (n=55) men to evaluate the relationship between diagnosis and semen parameters in a prospective study. Infertile men were divided into four groups as follows: (1) varicocele (n=23), (2) 3 months after varicocelectomy

Izzet Koçak; Çigdem Yenisey; Mehmet Dündar; Pinar Okyay; Mukadder Serter



Lack of correlation between cadmium in seminal plasma and fertility status of nonexposed individuals and two cadmium-exposed patients.  


Cadmium concentrations were determined in semen samples of 12 men with proven fertility (group I) and 44 normozoospermic patients (group II) as well as 118 unselected patients of an infertility clinic (group III) and 2 industrial workers with occupational exposure to cadmium. Mean cadmium concentrations in seminal plasma for groups I, II, and III did not show significant differences: 0.38 +/- 0.64; 0.43 +/- 0.69; 0.44 +/- 0.73 (mean +/- SD, micrograms/L), but the two cadmium-exposed patients revealed exceptionally high cadmium levels: 3.46 micrograms/L and 2.99 micrograms/L, respectively. There was no significant correlation between seminal cadmium concentrations and conventional semen parameters or between cadmium concentration and the fertility status of the patients. However, mean cadmium concentrations in seminal plasma of normozoospermic patients were higher in the group of smokers (0.55 +/- 0.81 micrograms/L), compared with the group of nonsmokers (0.42 +/- 0.67 micrograms/L), and there was a weak correlation between cadmium concentration and number of cigarettes consumed per day. PMID:8520129

Keck, C; Bramkamp, G; Behre, H M; Müller, C; Jockenhövel, F; Nieschlag, E


Role of seminal plasma in the anti-HIV-1 activity of candidate microbicides  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluation of microbicides for prevention of HIV-1 infection in macaque models for vaginal infection has indicated that the concentrations of active compounds needed for protection by far exceed levels sufficient for complete inhibition of infection in vitro. These experiments were done in the absence of seminal plasma (SP), a vehicle for sexual transmission of the virus. To gain insight into the possible effect of SP on the performance of selected microbicides, their anti-HIV-1 activity in the presence, and absence of SP, was determined. Methods The inhibitory activity of compounds against the X4 virus, HIV-1 IIIB, and the R5 virus, HIV-1 BaL was determined using TZM-bl indicator cells and quantitated by measuring ?-galactosidase induced by infection. The virucidal properties of cellulose acetate 1,2-benzene-dicarboxylate (CAP), the only microbicide provided in water insoluble, micronized form, in the presence of SP was measured. Results The HIV-1 inhibitory activity of the polymeric microbicides, poly(naphthalene sulfonate), cellulose sulfate, carrageenan, CAP (in soluble form) and polystyrene sulfonate, respectively, was considerably (range ? 4 to ? 73-fold) diminished in the presence of SP (33.3%). Formulations of micronized CAP, providing an acidic buffering system even in the presence of an SP volume excess, effectively inactivated HIV-1 infectivity. Conclusion The data presented here suggest that the in vivo efficacy of polymeric microbicides, acting as HIV-1 entry inhibitors, might become at least partly compromised by the inevitable presence of SP. These possible disadvantages could be overcome by combining the respective polymers with acidic pH buffering systems (built-in for formulations of micronized CAP) or with other anti-HIV-1 compounds, the activity of which is not affected by SP, e.g. reverse transcriptase and zinc finger inhibitors.

Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao



Changes in Prostaglandin E2 Levels in Seminal Plasma during Ejaculation and the Effect of Exogenous Prostaglandin E2 on Semen Volume in the Dog.  


In healthy male dogs, peripheral plasma testosterone (T), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and seminal plasma PGE2 levels were measured before, during, and after ejaculation and semen quality was examined after oral administration of PGE2. Plasma T and PGE2 levels did not change during these periods, but seminal plasma PGE2 level in the first and second fraction was significantly higher than that at 0-5 and 5-10 min after the start of ejaculation of the third fraction. Semen volume but not quality increased after PGE2 administration. In conclusion, large amounts of PGE2 are released from the prostate gland during the early part of ejaculation and that PGE2 plays an essential role in secretion of seminal plasma. PMID:23629017

Kobayashi, Masanori; Hori, Tatsuya; Kawakami, Eiichi



Quick recovery and characterization of cell-free DNA in seminal plasma of normozoospermia and azoospermia: implications for non-invasive genetic utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We established a quick and reliable method for recovering cell-free seminal DNA (cfsDNA), by using the binding-washing-elution procedure on the DNA purification column. Low variations (below 15%) among the triplicate values of cfsDNA quantity verified the reproducibility of our cfsDNA recovery method. Similar cfsDNA yield and size distribution between seminal plasma acquired by filtration and centrifugation confirmed the presence of

Hong-Gang Li; Shi-Yun Huang; Hui Zhou; Ai-Hua Liao; Cheng-Liang Xiong



The importance of seminal plasma on the fertility of subsequent artificial inseminations in swine.  


Yorkshire x Landrace sows and gilts were used in a 3x2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effect of uterine inflammation induced by either killed spermatozoa (KS) or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the fertility of a subsequent, optimally timed AI. Estrus was detected with a mature boar twice daily. Twelve hours after the first detection of estrus, females received intrauterine infusions of an inflammatory stimulus consisting of a 100-mL dose of extender containing 3x10(9) KS (n = 40), 20 microg of LPS (n = 40; positive control) or extender alone (n = 40; negative control). An insemination was performed 12 to 18 h later with 3x10(9) motile spermatozoa (i.e., fertile AI) suspended in either 100 mL of seminal plasma (SP; n = 60) or extender replenished with of estrogens (5 microg of estradiol-17beta, 4.5 microg of estrone sulfate, and 2 microg of estrone; n= 60). Transcutaneous ultrasound was performed at the time of fertile AI and again 24 h later to detect the presence or absence of preovulatory follicles. A fertile AI performed within 24 h before ovulation was considered optimal. Conception (CR) and farrowing rates (FR) were greater in females that received a fertile AI diluted with SP compared with extender (P<.01), and there was a significant (P<.05) treatment x fertile AI dilution medium interaction for both CR and FR. Females that received a fertile AI 12 h after infusion of extender had similar CR and FR regardless of fertile AI dilution medium. After inducing an inflammatory response with either KS or LPS, CR and FR were higher in females that received a fertile AI diluted with SP compared with fertile AI dilution with extender (P<.05). The effects of treatment and AI dilution media and their interactions were not significant for litter size in females that farrowed. These results show that the fertility of a subsequent AI can be impaired when semen is deposited into an inflamed environment created by an earlier AI, and this impairment was offset by inclusion of SP in the subsequent insemination. PMID:10709936

Rozeboom, K J; Troedsson, M H; Hodson, H H; Shurson, G C; Crabo, B G



Characterization of the cDNA and in vitro expression of the ram seminal plasma protein RSVP14.  


In previous studies we have shown that seminal plasma (SP) proteins can prevent and repair cold-shock membrane damage to ram spermatozoa. Three proteins of approximately 14, 20 and 22kDa, mainly responsible for this protective ability, were identified in ram SP. They are exclusively synthesized in the seminal vesicles and, consequently, named RSVP14, RSVP20 and RSVP22. The aim of this study is to characterize and express the RSVP14 gene to provide new insights into the mechanisms through which SP proteins are able to protect spermatozoa. Additionally, a first approach has been made to the recombinant protein production. The cDNA sequence obtained encodes a 129 amino acid chain and presents a 25-amino acid signal peptide, one potential O-linked glycosylation site and seven phosphorylation sites on tyrosine, serine and threonine residues. The sequence contains two FN-2 domains, the signature characteristic of the bovine seminal plasma (BSP) protein family and related proteins of different species. More interestingly, it was shown that RSVP14 contains four disulphide bonds and a cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC) domain, also found in BSP and similar proteins. Analysis of the relationships between RSVP14 and other mammalian SP proteins revealed a 76-85% identity, particularly with the BSP protein family. The recombinant protein was obtained in insect cell extracts and in Escherichia coli in which RSVP14 was detected in both the pellet and the supernatant. The results obtained corroborate the role of RSVP14 in capacitation and might explain its protective effect against cold-shock injury to the membranes of ram spermatozoa. Furthermore, the biochemical and functional similarities between RSVP14 and BSP proteins suggest that it might play a similar role in sperm functionality. PMID:23462333

Serrano, Edith; Pérez-Pé, Rosaura; Calleja, Lucía; Guillén, Natalia; Casao, Adriana; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramón; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José A



1H NMR spectroscopic studies on human seminal plasma: A probative discriminant function analysis classification model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional seminal fluid-based clinical descriptors used to predict infertility and sub-fertility have shortcomings, including lack of insight into the underlying pathology. These methods are also time-consuming and labor-intensive. To address these limitations, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to identify and classify signature biomarkers. Semen samples collected from 60 healthy, fertile men and from 125 infertile (normozoospermic and

Ashish Gupta; Abbas Ali Mahdi; Mohammad Kaleem Ahmad; Kamla Kant Shukla; Shyam Pyari Jaiswer; Satya Narain Shankhwar



Isothermal Titration Calorimetric Studies on the Interaction of the Major Bovine Seminal Plasma Protein, PDC-109 with Phospholipid Membranes  

PubMed Central

The interaction of the major bovine seminal plasma protein, PDC-109 with lipid membranes was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Binding of the protein to model membranes made up of diacyl phospholipids was found to be endothermic, with positive values of binding enthalpy and entropy, and could be analyzed in terms of a single type of binding sites on the protein. Enthalpies and entropies for binding to diacylphosphatidylcholine membranes increased with increase in temperature, although a clear-cut linear dependence was not observed. The entropically driven binding process indicates that hydrophobic interactions play a major role in the overall binding process. Binding of PDC-109 with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine membranes containing 25 mol% cholesterol showed an initial increase in the association constant as well as enthalpy and entropy of binding with increase in temperature, whereas the values decreased with further increase in temperature. The affinity of PDC-109 for phosphatidylcholine increased at higher pH, which is physiologically relevant in view of the basic nature of the seminal plasma. Binding of PDC-109 to Lyso-PC could be best analysed in terms of two types of binding interactions, a high affinity interaction with Lyso-PC micelles and a low-affinity interaction with the monomeric lipid. Enthalpy-entropy compensation was observed for the interaction of PDC-109 with phospholipid membranes, suggesting that water structure plays an important role in the binding process.

Anbazhagan, V.; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Swamy, Musti J.



Cryopreservation increases coating of bull sperm by seminal plasma binder of sperm proteins BSP1, BSP3, and BSP5.  


Artificial insemination with frozen semen allows affordable, worldwide dissemination of gametes with superior genetics. Nevertheless, sperm are damaged by the cryopreservation process. Elucidating the molecular effects of cryopreservation on sperm could suggest methods for improving fertility of frozen/thawed semen. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of cryopreservation on the coating of sperm by binder of sperm (BSP) proteins in seminal plasma. BSP proteins are secreted by the seminal vesicles and coat the surface of sperm by partially intercalating into the outer leaflet of the sperm plasma membrane. The BSP proteins are known to play roles in the formation of the oviductal sperm storage reservoir and in sperm capacitation. We investigated the effects of cryopreservation on the sperm BSP protein coat using Bovipure to separate live sperm from extended semen and then assaying the amounts of BSP proteins on sperm using quantitative western blotting with custom-made antibodies against unique sequences of each BSP protein. Greater amounts of all three BSP proteins (BSP1, BSP3, and BSP5) were detected on frozen/thawed sperm than on fresh sperm. Furthermore, the reduction of BSP3 from 15 to 13?kDa in mass, which occurs during incubation of sperm under mild capacitating conditions, was enhanced by cryopreservation. We concluded that freezing alters the BSP protein coating on sperm, which could account in part for reduced fertility of cryopreserved semen samples. PMID:23740081

Ardon, Florencia; Suarez, Susan S



Cytokine expression in the gilt oviduct: effects of seminal plasma, spermatozoa and extender after insemination.  


Effects of semen components [fresh semen in extender, spermatozoa in extender (Spz), seminal plasma (SP)], or extender alone (Beltsville thawing solution, BTS) on the expression of selected cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1)] as well as the presence of cells positive for CD8 or CD25 were studied in the pig oviduct. In addition, cytokines in SP and oviductal flushings were analyzed. In experiment (Exp) I, groups of gilts were sampled at 5-6h after insemination with SP, Spz, fresh semen in BTS or only BTS (control). In Exp II, gilts were sampled 35-40 h after insemination with SP, Spz, BTS or only catheter insertion (control). Most oviductal flushing samples were positive (> or =detectable limits) for IL-10 and TGF-beta1 but only few for IL-6. The IHC-labelling of IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-beta1 was evident, especially in the epithelial cells of the isthmus and infundibulum as well as in the cells of the regional (mesometrial) lymph node. Cilia of the epithelium were positive for IL-6 (strongest in the infundibulum) and TGF-beta1 (strongest in the isthmus) but negative for IL-10. There were no consistent differences in IHC-labelling of the cytokines in relation to different treatments, except at 35-40 h after insemination (Exp II), when IL-6 was slightly higher in epithelium of the SP group and IL-10 in the infundibular connective tissue was higher in the SP and Spz groups. In the isthmus and infundibulum, there were no differences between animals inseminated with BTS (control) and the semen components for any of the cytokine mRNAs at 5-6h after insemination (Exp I). However, later (35-40 h, Exp II), insemination with SP, Spz and BTS alone appeared to up-regulate TGF-beta1 mRNA expression compared with the control group (without any fluid infused). In all treatment groups, the mRNA level for TGF-beta1 was higher than for IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-10. Higher mRNA levels of all cytokines were found in the isthmus compared with the infundibulum. Numbers of CD8-positive cells (both in epithelium and connective tissue) appeared higher in the infundibulum compared with the isthmus and were mostly higher shortly (Exp I) after treatment with SP, SPZ and BTS than later (Exp II) in both segments. CD25-positive cells were few and found solely in the sub-epithelial connective tissue. The results indicate that in the porcine oviduct, IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-beta1 are endogenous produced and that TGF-beta1 may have a more important role for immunomodulation than the other cytokines, especially in isthmus. Differences between isthmus and infundibulum in cytokine mRNA expression and in presence of CD8-positive cells indicate different patterns of immune reactivity in the upper and lower parts of the oviduct. PMID:20171026

Jiwakanon, J; Berg, M; Persson, E; Fossum, C; Dalin, A-M



Resuspending ram spermatozoa in seminal plasma after cryopreservation does not improve pregnancy rate in cervically inseminated ewes.  


The role of seminal plasma (SP) components on the maintenance of motility, viability and fertilising ability of frozen-thawed spermatozoa is of considerable interest. However, differences observed in constituents of SP among males could explain differences in fertility obtained in vivo. Two experiments were designed to examine the effects of seminal plasma on fertility from cervically inseminated frozen-thawed semen. The objective of Experiment 1 was to investigate if source or type of SP influences pregnancy rate. Seminal plasma was collected from rams previously classified as having either High (HSP; n=3) or Low (LSP; n=3) fertility in vivo. Artificial SP (fructose/sodium solution with 10% BSA; ASP) was made. Frozen semen from the same 6 rams was thawed and inseminated (Control) or resuspended either in HSP, LSP or ASP (20% in semen) prior to insemination of ewes (n=284, over 2 farms). The overall pregnancy rate was 28.1%. Treatments (Control, ASP, HSP and LSP) were not significantly different (P>0.3). There was no difference between HSP and LSP (P>0.5), and no effect of using ASP compared to ram SP (P>0.7), on pregnancy rate. As there was no effect of SP on pregnancy rate a repeat experiment (Experiment 2) was designed to test the effect of washing and selecting motile sperm prior to resuspending in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing SP on pregnancy rate. Frozen-thawed semen from each of 2 rams was centrifuged through a density gradient, pellets were centrifuged through a wash medium and the sperm concentration/ram was counted. Sperm cells were resuspended in: (1) control PBS, (2) PBS containing 30% HSP or (3) PBS containing 30% LSP to give 100 x 10(6) motile sperm in 0.25 mL. Control straws were thawed and inseminated directly. Ewes (n=223 over 2 farms) were inseminated 57 h post-sponge withdrawal and those not returning to oestrus were slaughtered 29-50 days post-insemination for pregnancy determination. In Experiment 2, the pregnancy rate for Control, PBS, HSP and LSP were 15.4%, 2.3%, 0% and 0%, respectively, for Farm 1 (P>0.05) and 17.8%, 11.0%, 3.9% and 12.4%, respectively, for Farm 2. Under the conditions of the current study, addition of SP from different donors of either High or Low fertility status to frozen-thawed ram semen post-thawing did not improve pregnancy rate in ewes. ASP had no effect on pregnancy rate in ewes when added to frozen-thawed semen. Washing and selection of motile sperm prior to resuspension in PBS with or without SP (30%) before insemination had a negative effect on pregnancy rate in cervically inseminated ewes. Hence, the addition of seminal plasma or some of its constituents to semen does not appear to improve pregnancy rate in cervically inseminated ewes. PMID:17336375

O'Meara, C M; Donovan, A; Hanrahan, J P; Duffy, P; Fair, S; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P



A Five-Year Followup of Human Seminal Plasma Allergy in an 18-Year-Old Woman  

PubMed Central

Case reports of women with the rare condition of human seminal plasma allergy have indicated that the condition may be associated with life-threatening anaphylactic reactions in relation to coitus. Few observations, if any, of long-term outcome of the condition are available. The aim of this paper was to present a case diagnosed in an 18-year-old girl who presented with generalized urticaria, nasal congestion and secretion, conjunctivitis, and periorbital and labial oedema 6–8 hours after coitus. During five years of followup the condition improved clinically significantly. Due to intimacy concerns and the low prevalence of the condition robust long term data on the natural course of the condition are difficult to obtain. The present case suggests that in some patients the condition may improve over time.

Wolthers, Ole D.



Concentrations of Gatifloxacin in Plasma and Urine and Penetration into Prostatic and Seminal Fluid, Ejaculate, and Sperm Cells after Single Oral Administrations of 400 Milligrams to Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gatifloxacin (GTX), a new fluoroquinolone with extended antibacterial activity, is an interesting candidate for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). Besides the antibacterial spectrum, the concentrations in the target tissues and fluids are crucial for the treatment of CBP. Thus, it was of interest to investigate its penetration into prostatic and seminal fluid. GTX concentrations in plasma, urine, ejaculate,




Seminal Plasma Cytokines and Chemokines in Prostate Inflammation: Interleukin 8 as a Predictive Biomarker in Chronic Prostatitis\\/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis prospective study quantified cytokine and chemokine levels in seminal plasma of patients with chronic prostatitis\\/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP\\/CPPS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), to evaluate inflammatory mediators as possible surrogate markers for diagnosis and treatment efficacy.

Giuseppe Penna; Nicola Mondaini; Susana Amuchastegui; Selene Degli Innocenti; Marco Carini; Gianluca Giubilei; Benedetta Fibbi; Enrico Colli; Mario Maggi; Luciano Adorini



The effect of exogenous melatonin during the non-reproductive season on the seminal plasma hormonal profile and the antioxidant defence system of Rasa Aragonesa rams.  


The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of melatonin implants, during the non-reproductive season, on the content of melatonin, testosterone and 17-? estradiol levels, and the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase of seminal plasma in Rasa Aragonesa rams. Five rams were implanted with melatonin, and four others were used as a control group. Seminal plasma was separated from ejaculates collected one week before melatonin treatment until 21 weeks after melatonin placement, and the hormonal levels and the antioxidant enzyme activity were determined. Exogenous melatonin treatment significantly (P<0.05) increased the levels of endogenous melatonin in seminal plasma immediately, and this effect lasted for 14 weeks. Testosterone and 17-? estradiol levels significantly (P<0.05) increased four and eight weeks after melatonin treatment, respectively. As regards the antioxidant enzymes, melatonin treatment significantly increased (P<0.05) glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity only, and had no effect on superoxide dismutase and catalase. Therefore, melatonin treatment during the non-breeding season modifies the seminal plasma hormonal profile and some antioxidant enzyme activity in Rasa Aragonesa rams. PMID:23522696

Casao, Adriana; Pérez-Pé, Rosaura; Abecia, José Alfonso; Forcada, Fernando; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José Álvaro



Exposure of beef females to the biostimulatory effects of bulls with or without deposition of seminal plasma prior to AI.  


The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the biostimulatory effect of bull exposure, with or without the deposition of seminal plasma, on expression of estrus and pregnancy rate to AI in cattle. Beef heifers (n=86) and cows (n=193) were allocated to one of three treatments: (1) no bull exposure (CON; n=95), (2) exposure to a bull with a surgically-deviated penis for 21 d prior to AI (DB; n=88), or (3) exposure to a vasectomized bull for 21 d prior to AI (VB; n=96). The DB treatment provided the physical presence of a bull but prevented intromission, whereas the VB treatment allowed for intromission and deposition of seminal plasma but not spermatozoa. The estrous cycles of all females were synchronized using the Select Synch+CIDR protocol (GnRH+CIDR-7d-CIDR removal+PGF(2?), detection of estrus+AI 12h later for 84 h-clean-up TAI+GnRH). Pregnancy was detected via transrectal ultrasonography on d 35 post-AI. At the onset of the experiment, 75.7% of heifers and 86.1% of cows were estrous cycling. The percentages of females that displayed estrus were similar (P>0.05) among treatments (71.4%, 76.8%, and 74.4% for CON, DB, and VB, respectively). Pregnancy rates tended to be greater (P=0.06) in females in the DB treatment (60.5%) compared to females in the VB treatment (42.2%), with the control group intermediate (49.5%). In conclusion, biostimulation did not affect the expression of estrus but females exposed to the DB treatment tended to have an increased pregnancy rate. PMID:22763235

Pfeiffer, K E; Binversie, J A; Rhinehart, J D; Larson, J E



Effects of vitamins, probiotics, and protein level on semen traits and some seminal plasma macro- and microminerals of male broiler breeders after zinc-induced molting.  


This study was conducted to investigate the effects of vitamin E, vitamin C, probiotics, dietary protein level, and their combination on semen traits and seminal plasma macro- and microminerals in 65-week-old male broiler breeders after zinc-induced molting. One hundred eighty birds were induced to molt by mixing zinc oxide (3,000 mg/kg) in the diet. The birds were divided into six groups (five replicates) by completely randomized design. One group was kept as control (16% CP), while the other five were supplemented with vitamin E (100 IU/kg feed), vitamin C (500 IU/kg feed) probiotics (50 mg/L), protein level (14% CP), and their combination. Semen samples were weekly collected for determination of semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, and dead sperm percentage. Analyses of Na, K, Ca and Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, and Cu in seminal plasma were also performed. Overall, mean semen volume was significantly high in vitamin E and C supplemented groups compared to control. Overall mean sperm motility was significantly higher in vitamin E supplemented group, whereas dead sperm percentage was significantly lower in the vitamin C group compared to control. Mineral analyses revealed that overall mean seminal plasma Mg increased significantly in vitamin E and C supplemented groups compared to control. Similarly, significantly high overall mean seminal plasma Cu concentration was observed in vitamins E and C and combination groups. It can be concluded that vitamins have a vital role in improving semen quality and bioavailability of Mg and Cu in seminal plasma of the post-molt cockerels. PMID:22318702

Khan, Rifat Ullah; Zia-Ur-Rahman; Javed, Ijaz; Muhammad, Faqir



Seasonal variations in the composition of ram seminal plasma and its effect on frozen-thawed ram sperm.  


It has been proposed that seminal plasma (SP) in the extender or in post-thaw media can prevent and revert cold-shock damage in cryopreserved ram sperm; however, this was dependent on season. We evaluated sperm parameters from Frisian ram semen incubated for various intervals with SP from all seasons and stored at -18 or -196 degrees C. At both temperatures, SP from autumn or winter increased (P<0.05) sperm motility, whereas no SP, or SP from spring or summer, had no effect. However, neither viability nor membrane or acrosomal status were modified by SP. Thirteen SP proteins were bound to the sperm surface (16.1, 16.7, 17.4, 23.3, 25.2, 27.5, 35.0, 40.0, 49.0, 53.5, 55.5, 61.0, and 86.0kDa). The SP proteins that bound to sperm were affected by season, but not by conservation temperature. Sperm incubated with SP from autumn had increased concentrations of five proteins; two were identified (with specific antibodies) as RSVP14 and RSVP20. In conclusion, SP from autumn and winter improved sperm motility of frozen-thawed ram sperm, and storage of ram SP at -18 or -196 degrees C did not affect protein composition. The SP proteins that bound to the sperm surface may be responsible for sperm membrane stabilization and should be further investigated. PMID:18242682

Domínguez, M P; Falcinelli, A; Hozbor, F; Sánchez, E; Cesari, A; Alberio, R H



Seminal plasma peptides may determine maternal immune response that alters success or failure of pregnancy in the abortion-prone CBAxDBA/2 model.  


Spontaneous abortion (resorption) in the DBA/2-mated CBA/J mouse involves a deficiency in Treg cell activity against paternal antigens at the time of mating. Preimmunization of female CBA/J by BALB/c splenocytes, but not DBA/2 splenocytes, protects against subsequent abortions after a CBAxDBA/2 mating. Previous immunogenetic studies with BALB/cxDBA/2 recombinants have indicated that H-2(d)-restricted presentation of a single minor non-H-2(d) peptide might be responsible for protection, while the product of a second independent allele might promote abortions. Using brefeldin-treated BALB/c and DBA/2 splenocytes, we found that incubation in BALB/c seminal plasma rendered DBA/2 splenocytes protective and DBA/2 seminal plasma eliminated protection. The active protective moiety was <10kD consistent with a peptide. DBA/2 seminal plasma contained a <10-kD peptide that boosted the abortion rate. Maternal H-2(k) CBA/J splenocytes were unable to present the protective activity. Amicon fractionation also unmasked a <10-kD activity in DBA/2 seminal plasma that could boost abortion rates when presented by BALB/c splenocytes. SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry proteomic analysis of <10-kD filtrates reproducibly detected 1416, 1468, 1774D peptides in BALB/c that were reduced or absent in DBA/2, and the presence of 2662, 4559 and 5320D molecules in DBA/2, the latter two definitely not present in BALB/c. Direct antigen presentation of paternal H-2(d)-restricted paternal peptides (600-1800D) may prevent the rejection of the CBAxDBA/2 embryos, and larger sized peptides may bind to immunizing splenocytes and augment abortion mechanisms. PMID:23701834

Clark, David A; Rahmati, Mona; Gohner, Claudia; Bensussan, Armand; Markert, Udo R; Chaouat, Gerard



Prostaglandin levels in seminal plasma and sperm extracts of the domestic turkey, and the effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors on sperm mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Turkey reproduction is by artificial insemination using pooled semen so there is interest in storing semen. Fertilizing capacity\\u000a declines after six hours storage, possibly due to poor sperm mobility. Prostaglandins (PG) affect mammalian sperm motility,\\u000a but avian sperm has not been widely studied. For this study, levels of PG E1, E2, and F2 alpha in turkey seminal plasma and\\u000a sperm

Jessica H Kennedy; Nancy Korn; Ronald J Thurston



The effects of honey supplementation on seminal plasma cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidants during 8 weeks of intensive cycling training.  


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of natural honey supplementation on seminal plasma cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidants during 8 weeks of intensive cycling training in male road cyclists. Thirty-nine healthy nonprofessional male road cyclists aged 18-28 years participated in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to exercise + supplement (E + S, n = 20) and exercise (E, n = 19) groups. All subjects participated in 8 weeks of intensive cycling training. Ninety minutes before each training session, subjects in the E + S group supplemented with 70 g of honey, whereas subjects in the E group received 70 g of an artificial sweetener. All subjects had an initial semen sampling at baseline (T(1)). The next 6 semen collections were collected immediately (T(2)) and 12 (T(3)) and 24 hours (T(4)) after the last training session in week 4, as well as immediately (T(5)) and 12 (T(6)) and 24 hours (T(7)) after the last training session in week 8, respectively. In the E group, 8 weeks of intensive cycling training significantly increased seminal interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (P < .008) and significantly decreased the levels of seminal superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (P < .008). Significantly less elevation in seminal IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, ROS, and MDA levels (P < .008) and significant increases in seminal SOD, catalase, and TAC concentrations were observed after the honey supplementation in the E + S group (P < .008). It may be possible that honey supplementation following long-term intensive cycling training would be effective in attenuating the probable aggravating effects of intensive cycling training on spermatogenesis and fertility capacity in road cyclists. PMID:21636735

Tartibian, Bakhtyar; Maleki, Behzad Hajizadeh



The detoxication of nitrate by two antioxidants or a probiotic, and the effects on blood and seminal plasma profiles and reproductive function of New Zealand White rabbit bucks.  


Forty-two New Zealand White male rabbits were housed individually in wire cages and randomly distributed among six experimental groups of seven rabbits each, during 16 to 61 weeks of age. There were three main nitrate groups: 0 (tap water), 350 and 700 ppm. Within the 700 ppm of nitrate, there were four subgroups, in which one group was used as control group and the other three groups were supplemented with either 200 ppm of ascorbic acid (vitamin (Vit) C), 200 ppm of Vit E with 0.2 ppm of selenium (Se) and 1000 ppm of probiotic. The nitrate was supplemented as a sodium nitrate. The aim is to test the ability of Vit C and Vit E, Se and probiotic on the deleterious effects (blood and seminal plasma biochemical constituents, semen quality and productive performance) of nitrate in drinking water. Rabbits given nitrate at 700 ppm had significantly lower plasma globulin, red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hgb), packed cell volume % (PCV%) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) than those given the other concentrations of nitrate. Vit C, Vit E with Se and probiotic resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) greater Hgb, RBCs, PCV% and TAC than those of bucks given water supplemented with only 700 ppm nitrate, but the aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase concentrations in seminal plasma were lower. Testosterone in the blood plasma and the seminal plasma was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in rabbits given 700 ppm nitrate than in those given other concentrations of nitrate. Vit C, Vit E with Se and the probiotic significantly increased testosterone, fertility, number of offspring and total offspring weight of rabbits sired by bucks supplemented with 700 ppm of nitrate. PMID:23177268

Attia, Y A; Abd El Hamid, E A; Ismaiel, A M; El-Nagar, A



Restoration of seminal plasma to stallion spermatozoa selected by colloid centrifugation increases sperm progressive motility but is detrimental to chromatin integrity.  


There is controversy about whether the presence of some seminal plasma (SP) in an equine insemination dose is necessary for promoting fertility. A new technique for improving stallion sperm quality, single layer centrifugation (SLC) using a species-specific colloid, Androcoll-E, selects a sperm subpopulation that is highly motile with normal morphology, intact membranes and good chromatin integrity from the rest of the ejaculate and removes SP. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of restoring homologous SP (5% and 10%) on the progressive motility, velocity, and chromatin integrity of SLC-selected stallion spermatozoa in 44 semen samples over time. Sperm progressive motility (P<0.01) and the proportion with class A velocity (>50 ?m/sec) were increased in samples where SP was restored, whereas the proportion with class B velocity (10 to 50 ?m/sec) was decreased compared with SLC samples. However, after 24 h cold storage of treated samples, progressive motility was not different for the SP-treated groups compared with SLC, whereas chromatin damage DNA fragmentation index (%DFI) was higher. In contrast, adding SP to untreated 24 h-stored SLC samples did not affect progressive motility although it did increase the proportion of spermatozoa with class A velocity. There was individual variation between stallions whether 5% or 10% SP produced a greater increase in progressive motility. In conclusion, 5% to 10% SP can be added back to SLC-selected samples if considered necessary to optimize fertility. However, it should be added immediately before insemination rather than before storage of the sperm dose, to benefit from the transient increase in sperm progressive motility and avoid increased chromatin damage. PMID:22494676

Morrell, J M; Pihl, J; Dalin, A-M; Johannisson, A



Pancreastatin molecular forms in normal human plasma.  


Circulating molecular forms with pancreastatin (PST)-like immunoreactivity in plasma from normal subjects were examined. An immunoreactive form corresponding to a human PST-like sequence [human chromogranin-A-(250-301)] (hPST-52) and a larger form (mol wt 15-21 kDa) were detected by gel filtration of plasma from normal subjects. On high performance liquid chromatography, predominant immunoreactive forms coeluted with the three larger forms which were purified from the xenograft of human pancreatic islet cell carcinoma cell line QGP-1N cells and with synthetic hPST-52. The fraction containing larger forms purified from xenograft of QGP-1N cells had biological activity equivalent to that of hPST-52 on the inhibition of pancreatic exocrine secretion. These results suggest that the larger molecular forms as well as hPST-52 may be physiologically important circulating forms of PST in human. PMID:8196476

Kitayama, N; Tateishi, K; Funakoshi, A; Miyasaka, K; Shimazoe, T; Kono, A; Iwamoto, N; Matsuoka, Y



Spermatozoa concentration, seminal plasma composition and their physiological relationship in the endangered stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) and Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii?).  


Comparative studies of ionic composition, osmolality, protein concentration and pH of seminal plasma along with spermatozoa concentrations were carried out in stellate sturgeon, Acipenser stellatus, and Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii. Analysis of A. gueldenstaedtii sperm showed significantly higher concentrations of Na(+) (34.58 ± 4.61 mm), Ca²(+) (0.35 ± 0.12 mm), Mg²(+) (0.70 ± 0.25 mm), Cl(-) (13.50 ± 4.04 mm) and proteins (0.60 ± 0.29 mg/ml) in the seminal plasma than did seminal plasma of A. stellatus: Na(+) (20.08 ± 10.75 mm), Ca²(+) (0.28 ± 0.06 mm), Mg²(+) (0.29 ± 0.05 mm), Cl(-) (7.50 ± 3.00 mm) and 0.30 ± 0.11 mg/ml proteins. Significantly higher concentration of K(+) (5.42 ± 1.06 mm) was observed in A. stellatus compared to A. gueldenstaedtii K(+) (2.29 ± 0.50 mm). Concentration of Na(+) was positively correlated with osmolality (r = 0.819), levels of Cl(-) (r = 0.922) and Mg²(+) (r = 0.727) and pH (r = 0.848). The concentration of Mg²(+) was positively correlated with protein concentration (r = 0.774), Na(+) (r = 0.727), Cl(-) (r = 0.872) and Ca²(+) (r = 0.801). A positive relationship was also found between concentration of K(+) and spermatozoa concentration (r = 0.709). Results revealed strong inter-species differences in several parameters. The data should be useful for artificial fertilization and for cryopreservation of sturgeon sperm. PMID:20546171

Li, P; Rodina, M; Hulak, M; Li, Z-H; Linhart, O



The percentage of spermatozoa lost during the centrifugation of brown bear (Ursus arctos) ejaculates is associated with some spermatozoa quality and seminal plasma characteristics.  


Cryopreservation of brown bear (Ursus arctos) semen requires centrifugation to increase concentration and/or remove urine contamination. However, a percentage of the spermatozoa are lost in the process. This percentage varies considerably between males and ejaculates, and we have studied the effect of sperm quality and seminal plasma characteristics on the spermatozoa recovery rate after centrifugation. One hundred and thirty one sperm samples obtained from fifteen brown bear males by electroejaculation under general anaesthesia were used. The ejaculates were centrifuged 600 × g for 6 min. Motility was assessed by CASA, and acrosomal status (PNA-FITC) and viability (SYBR-14/propidium iodide) were determined by flow cytometry. Seminal plasma characteristics (albumin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, cholesterol, creatine, glucose, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), lactate, lipase, magnesium, phosphate and total protein) were determined by a biochemical and gas analysis. Total motility (r = 0.26; P=0.005) and cell viability (r = 0.20; P = 0.033) were positively correlated with the percentage of recovered spermatozoa. Sperm recovery was correlated with the concentration of several components of seminal plasma: negatively with glucose concentration (r = -0.47; P = 0.005) and positively with the enzymes GOT (r = 0.36; P = 0.040) and lactate dehydrogenase (r = 0.36; P = 0.041). After sorting the data into classes according to sperm recovery (Low: 0-39, Medium: 40-69, High: 70-100), we observed that the samples with a lower recovery rate derived from ejaculates with lower values for TM, VAP and viability (P<0.05). Multiple regression analysis rendered two models to define the post-centrifugation spermatozoa recovery which included total motility and damaged acrosome or glucose, GOT and lactate dehydrogenase. We discuss these relationships and their implications in the electroejaculation procedure and the handling of the sample during centrifugation. PMID:23084761

Alvarez, M; Nicolas, M; Borragán, S; Lopez-Urueña, E; Anel-López, L; Martinez-Pastor, F; Tamayo-Canul, J; Anel, L; de Paz, P



Glutathione and free sulphydryl content of seminal plasma in healthy medical students during and after exam stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It has been reported that there is a relationship between stress and infertility. The mechanisms of stress-related semen quality alterations have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of examination stress on seminal glutathione and free sulphydryl content and sperm quality. METHODS: Semen samples were collected from 34 healthy volunteers who were students of

S. Eskiocak; A. S. Gozen; S. B. Yapar; F. Tavas; A. S. Kilic; M. Eskiocak



Influence of seminal plasma, spermatozoa and semen extender on cytokine expression in the porcine endometrium after insemination.  


The effects of semen components or extender alone on the expression of selected cytokines [interleukine (IL)-1?, IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1] on the porcine endometrium were studied, as well as the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs). In experiment (Exp) I, groups of gilts were sampled at 5-6h after insemination with fresh semen in extender (Beltsville thawing solution, BTS), spermatozoa in extender (Spz), seminal plasma (SP), or only BTS (control). In Exp II, gilts were sampled 35-40h after insemination with Spz, SP, BTS or only catheter inserted (as control). Immunohistochemical (IHC) labelling of IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-?1 was evident, especially in surface and glandular epithelia of the porcine endometrium. There were no consistent differences in IHC-labelling of the cytokines in relation to different treatments. However, the scores for IL-6 and IL-10 in surface epithelium and sub-epithelial connective tissue compartments were higher at 35-40h than shortly (5-6h) after treatment. Cytoplasmic labelling in the sub-epithelial connective tissue was observed in scattered individual cells but not in PMNs. Shortly (5-6h) after insemination, there were no differences between animals inseminated with BTS (control) and the semen components for any of the cytokine mRNAs. Later however, at 35-40h, lower endometrial expression of TGF-?1 mRNA was observed in the Spz and BTS groups compared with the control (catheter only). The same pattern was found for IL-10 (NS). The mRNA expression of IL-6 in the BTS inseminated group was higher compared to the control group. Insemination with SP resulted in significantly lower PMN cell infiltration in the sub-epithelial connective tissue compared with Spz or BTS groups shortly (5-6h) after insemination. Later (35-40h), a significant difference was found between SP (lower) and the control group (only catheter). To conclude, our results show that insemination and/or inseminated components modulated cytokine expression in the gilt endometrium. The semen extender BTS stimulated immune reactivity, as shown by down-regulation of the suppressive cytokine TGF-?1. Insemination with solely SP clearly decreased PMN cell infiltration of the gilt endometrium. However, no clear relation between the cytokines studied and PMN cell presence was found. PMID:21196090

Jiwakanon, J; Persson, E; Berg, M; Dalin, A-M



Reactive oxygen species, total antioxidant concentration of seminal plasma and their effect on sperm parameters and outcome of IVF\\/ICSI patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total antioxident\\u000a (TAS) in seminal plasma of IVF (in vitro fertilization) and ICSI patients, to establish their effect on sperm quality (count,\\u000a vitality, HOS, morphology, maturity, DNA strand breaks) and assess the fertilization potential of spermatozoa and IVF\\/ICSI\\u000a outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  IVF\\/ICSI patients (n = 48)

M. E. Hammadeh; S. Al Hasani; P. Rosenbaum; W. Schmidt; C. Fischer Hammadeh



Primary seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma.  


We describe the case of a 48-year-old male with primary seminal vesicle carcinoma. Although most malignant lesions involving the seminal vesicles are the result of secondary spread from other tumors, primary seminal vesicle carcinoma must be considered in the differential diagnosis, as the prognosis for this condition is dismal. Magnetic resonance imaging plays a crucial role in assessment, as it can exquisitely depict the anatomy of this region and define the extent of a seminal vesicle lesion. PMID:22040796

Navallas, Maria; Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Akin, Oguz; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Fine, Samson W; Eastham, James A; Hricak, Hedvig


Seminal Plasma Accelerates Semen-derived Enhancer of Viral Infection (SEVI) Fibril Formation by the Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP248–286) Peptide*  

PubMed Central

Amyloid fibrils contained in semen, known as SEVI, or semen-derived enhancer of viral infection, have been shown to increase the infectivity of HIV dramatically. However, previous work with these fibrils has suggested that extensive time and nonphysiologic levels of agitation are necessary to induce amyloid formation from the precursor peptide (a proteolytic cleavage product of prostatic acid phosphatase, PAP248–286). Here, we show that fibril formation by PAP248–286 is accelerated dramatically in the presence of seminal plasma (SP) and that agitation is not required for fibrillization in this setting. Analysis of the effects of specific SP components on fibril formation by PAP248–286 revealed that this effect is primarily due to the anionic buffer components of SP (notably inorganic phosphate and sodium bicarbonate). Divalent cations present in SP had little effect on the kinetics of fibril formation, but physiologic levels of Zn2+ strongly protected SEVI fibrils from degradation by seminal proteases. Taken together, these data suggest that in the in vivo environment, PAP248–286 is likely to form fibrils efficiently, thus providing an explanation for the presence of SEVI in human semen.

Olsen, Joanna S.; DiMaio, John T. M.; Doran, Todd M.; Brown, Caitlin; Nilsson, Bradley L.; Dewhurst, Stephen



Determination of glutation peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in canine seminal plasma and its relation with sperm quality and lipid peroxidation post thaw.  


Lipid peroxidation (LPO) of dog spermatozoa was assessed in fresh semen and in samples of the same ejaculates after freezing and thawing. Particular attention was paid to individual differences in the susceptibility to LPO and its possible relationship with freezeability. Innate levels of LPO were low in fresh spermatozoa but increased after thawing in one of the dogs included in our study. The level of lipid peroxidation in fresh spermatozoa was not correlated with that of thawed spermatozoa. Negative correlations were detected between the activity in seminal plasma of GPx and sperm velocities post thaw (P < 0.01), however SOD activity was positively correlated with the percentage of linear motile sperm post thaw (P < 0.05). PMID:20833419

Neagu, V R; García, B Macías; Rodríguez, A Morillo; Ferrusola, C Ortega; Bolaños, J M Gallardo; Fernández, L González; Tapia, J A; Peña, F J



Quick recovery and characterization of cell-free DNA in seminal plasma of normozoospermia and azoospermia: implications for non-invasive genetic utilities  

PubMed Central

We established a quick and reliable method for recovering cell-free seminal DNA (cfsDNA), by using the binding-washing-elution procedure on the DNA purification column. Low variations (below 15%) among the triplicate values of cfsDNA quantity verified the reproducibility of our cfsDNA recovery method. Similar cfsDNA yield and size distribution between seminal plasma acquired by filtration and centrifugation confirmed the presence of cfsDNA. To investigate the general characterization of cfsDNA, the quantitation and size distribution of cfsDNA from normozoospermic and azoospermic semen were analyzed by real-time PCR and electrophoresis, respectively. CfsDNA concentration in semen with normozoospermia (n = 11) was 1.34 ± 0.65 ?g mL?1, whereas a higher cfsDNA concentration was observed in azoospermia (2.56 ± 1.43 ?g mL?1, n = 9). The continuous distribution of DNA fragments ranging from ?1 kb to 15 kb and a spectrum of multiples of 180-bp fragments were observed in each normozoospermic and azoospermic sample. Distinct characteristic DNA ladder fragmentations in some azoospermic samples implicated that cfsDNA originate partly from apoptotic cells. CfsDNAs of 36 selected azoospermic patients with known information of Y chromosome microdeletion were subjected to the same microdeletion analysis by multiplex PCR and PCR amplification of sY114 (1 450 bp). All multiplex PCR reactions with cfsDNA amplified successfully and provided the same result as leukocyte DNA. PCR amplification of sY114 gave a 1 450-bp amplicon as expected. Our data suggested the potential use of cfsDNA in search of biomarker or diagnostic procedures.

Li, Hong-Gang; Huang, Shi-Yun; Zhou, Hui; Liao, Ai-Hua; Xiong, Cheng-Liang



A prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study of the effect of saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) on semen parameters and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia.  


Male factor infertility is a multifactorial disorder that affects a significant percentage of infertile couples; however, many of them remained untreated. In recent years, considerable numbers of infertile men have sought 'herbal remedies' as an effective treatment. Among 'herbal remedies', saffron is recommended for male infertility in our community. The effect of saffron was evaluated compared with placebo for the treatment of idiopathic male factor infertility. The study included 260 infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) who were randomized to saffron 60?mg/day (130, group 1) or a similar regimen of placebo (130, group 2) for 26 weeks. The two groups were compared for changes in semen parameters and total seminal plasma antioxidant capacity. Saffron administration did not result in beneficial effects. At the end of the study no statistically significant improvements were observed in either group in any of the studied semen parameters (sperm density, morphology and motility) (all p = 0.1). At the end of the trial, patients in group 1 had a mean motility of 25.7 ± 2.4%, which was not statistically different from the mean of 24.9 ± 2.8% in the placebo group (p = 0.1). Normal sperm morphology was 18.7 ± 4.7% and 18.4 ± 4.3%, in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.1). Patients treated with saffron and placebo had a mean sperm density of 20.5 ± 4.6% and 21.4 ± 4.6% per mL, respectively (p = 0.1). Saffron administration did not improve total seminal plasma antioxidant capacity, compared with baseline (p = 0.1) and placebo subjects (p = 0.1). Based on Pearson correlations, each semen parameter did not correlate significantly with treatment duration, including sperm density (r = 0.146, p = 0.13), percent of motile sperm (r = 0.145, p = 0.15) and percent of sperm with normal morphology (r = 0.125, p = 0.30). Saffron does not statistically significantly improve semen parameters in infertile men with idiopathic OAT. If medical professionals want to prescribe herbal remedies for male infertility, previous rigorous scientific investigations, documenting their safety and efficacy are required. PMID:20824894

Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Shafiei, Nayyer; Safarinejad, Shiva



Plasma Fibrinogen Levels in Normal and Sick Cows  

PubMed Central

Mean plasma fibrinogen levels were determined in 133 normal calves, bulls, non-pregnant and pregnant cows. These were 508, 505, 660, and 581 mg per 100 ml of plasma respectively. The levels in 233 sick cows were often greatly increased. This appeared to be related to inflammation and tissue destruction. Lower than normal levels were sometimes seen in liver disease and terminal states.

McSherry, B. J.; Horney, F. D.; deGroot, J. J.



Effect of dietary energy on seminal plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), serum IGF-I and testosterone levels, semen quality and fertility in adult rams.  


The objective of the present study was to modulate seminal plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) by dietary energy and assess the relationship among testosterone and IGF-I levels, semen quality and fertility in adult rams. Twenty-four 1-yr old adult Nellore rams were equally divided into three groups (n = 8) and fed with three different concentrate mixtures formulated using conventional ingredients and finger millet (Eleucine corocana) straw to ensure rams received with similar amount of crude protein with three levels of energy. Rams in low-energy group were offered diets with 20% less energy than the control energy group (optimum energy, 100%, recommended energy level), whereas rams in high energy group were offered diets with 20% more energy than the optimum energy group. Semen was collected from rams 60 days after start of the experimental feeding. The percentages of progressive forward motility, functional membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential of the spermatozoa were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in control and high energy groups as compared to low-energy group. Feeding of low-energy diet significantly (P < 0.05) decreased spermatozoa VSL, VCL and VAP when compared to control and high energy fed groups. The number of spermatozoa binding/oocyte was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in control (11.23 ± 0.20) and high energy (10.57 ± 0.19) groups as compared to the low energy (6.14 ± 0.01) group. The serum and seminal plasma IGF-I levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in control and high energy fed groups as compared to the low-energy group. The serum testosterone and cholesterol levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the control group as compared to the low-energy group. The seminal plasma fructose levels in optimum energy fed animals were significantly (P < 0.05) higher as compared to other two groups. The seminal plasma IGF-I level had positive correlation with progressive forward motility (r = 0.7) and other velocity (linearity, r = 0.7; straightness, r = 0.7) parameters. The study suggested that the modulation of seminal plasma IGF-I levels by dietary energy is possible and the optimum level of seminal plasma IGF-I is necessary and sufficient to influence semen quality. PMID:22626778

Selvaraju, S; Sivasubramani, T; Raghavendra, B S; Raju, P; Rao, S B N; Dineshkumar, D; Ravindra, J P



Inhibition of activated coagulation factor VII by normal human plasma.  


An amidolytic assay system with tissue thromboplastin (Tpl), purified coagulation factors VII and X, and the chromogenic substrate S-2222 was developed. Antithrombin III (AT) accounts for about one third of the total inhibition exerted by normal plasma in this test system. This effect of AT was prevented by adding purified AT blocking antibodies. Normal plasma and serum showed approximately similar inhibitory effects. The inhibition was probably directed against activated factor VII (F VIIa). Gel filtration of adsorbed normal plasma on Ultrogel AcA 34 showed three inhibitory peaks which were different from AT. PMID:7164015

Dahl, P E; Abildgaard, U; Larsen, M L; Tjensvoll, L




PubMed Central

Labeled plasma proteins are produced by administering to dogs the amino acid lysine synthesized with heavy nitrogen. Such labeled proteins are apparently indistinguishable biologically from proteins of normal isotope concentration. Labeled plasma proteins, as plasma, injected into normal dogs pass out of the blood stream at an initially rapid but constantly decreasing non-logarithmic rate. This outflow is balanced by a simultaneous inflow of plasma proteins from the tissues. Fifty per cent of the labeled protein is out of the blood stream in about 24 hours; 75 per cent in about 6 days. Shock due to trauma of intestine or leg shows a dilution curve of labeled plasma protein not unlike that of the normal dog. If anything, dilution appears a little less rapid in shock. Since the usual shrinkage of plasma volume and plasma protein mass is present in these shocked dogs, these data are compatible with a decreased inflow of protein into the plasma during shock. Methods are described which are suitable for the use of heavy nitrogen incorporated in the epsilon group of lysine and its subsequent analysis in body fluids. These data may indicate that the plasma proteins are normally in constant and rapid exchange with a mobile pool of body protein.

Fink, R. M.; Enns, T.; Kimball, C. P.; Silberstein, H. E.; Bale, W. F.; Madden, S. C.; Whipple, G. H.



Correlation of Membrane Binding and Hydrophobicity to the Chaperone-Like Activity of PDC-109, the Major Protein of Bovine Seminal Plasma  

PubMed Central

The major protein of bovine seminal plasma, PDC-109 binds to choline phospholipids present on the sperm plasma membrane upon ejaculation and plays a crucial role in the subsequent events leading to fertilization. PDC-109 also shares significant similarities with small heat shock proteins and exhibits chaperone-like activity (CLA). Although the polydisperse nature of this protein has been shown to be important for its CLA, knowledge of other factors responsible for such an activity is scarce. Since surface exposure of hydrophobic residues is known to be an important factor which modulates the CLA of chaperone proteins, in the present study we have probed the surface hydrophobicity of PDC-109 using bisANS and ANS. Further, effect of phospholipids on the structure and chaperone-like activity of PDC-109 was studied. Presence of DMPC was found to increase the CLA of PDC-109 significantly, which could be due to the considerable exposure of hydrophobic regions on the lipid-protein recombinants, which can interact productively with the nonnative structures of target proteins, resulting in their protection. However, inclusion of DMPG instead of DMPC did not significantly alter the CLA of PDC-109, which could be due to the lower specificity of PDC-109 for DMPG as compared to DMPC. Cholesterol incorporation into DMPC membranes led to a decrease in the CLA of PDC-109-lipid recombinants, which could be attributed to reduced accessibility of hydrophobic surfaces to the substrate protein(s). These results underscore the relevance of phospholipid binding and hydrophobicity to the chaperone-like activity of PDC-109.

Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Damai, Rajani S.; Swamy, Musti J.



Seminal plasma and prostaglandin E2 up-regulate fibroblast growth factor 2 expression in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells via E-series prostanoid-2 receptor-mediated transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to modulate angiogenesis and tumour progression via the E-series prostanoid-2 (EP2) receptor. Endometrial adenocarcinomas may be exposed to endogenous PGE2 and exog- enous PGE2, present at high concentration in seminal plasma. METHODS: This study investigated fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) mRNA expression and cell signalling in response to seminal plasma or PGE2, using

S. Battersby; K. J. Sales; A. R. Williams; R. A. Anderson; S. Gardner; H. N. Jabbour



Membrane insertion and lipid-protein interactions of bovine seminal plasma protein PDC-109 investigated by spin-label electron spin resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed Central

The interaction of the major acidic bovine seminal plasma protein, PDC-109, with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes has been investigated by spin-label electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Studies employing phosphatidylcholine spin labels, bearing the spin labels at different positions along the sn-2 acyl chain indicate that the protein penetrates into the hydrophobic interior of the membrane and interacts with the lipid acyl chains up to the 14th C atom. Binding of PDC-109 at high protein/lipid ratios (PDC-109:DMPC = 1:2, w/w) results in a considerable decrease in the chain segmental mobility of the lipid as seen by spin-label electron spin resonance spectroscopy. A further interesting new observation is that, at high concentrations, PDC-109 is capable of (partially) solubilizing DMPC bilayers. The selectivity of PDC-109 in its interaction with membrane lipids was investigated by using different spin-labeled phospholipid and steroid probes in the DMPC host membrane. These studies indicate that the protein exhibits highest selectivity for the choline phospholipids phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin under physiological conditions of pH and ionic strength. The selectivity for different lipids is in the following order: phosphatidylcholine approximately sphingomyelin > or = phosphatidic acid (pH 6.0) > phosphatidylglycerol approximately phosphatidylserine approximately and rostanol > phosphatidylethanolamine > or = N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine >> cholestane. Thus, the lipids bearing the phosphocholine moiety in the headgroup are clearly the lipids most strongly recognized by PDC-109. However, these studies demonstrate that this protein also recognizes other lipids such as phosphatidylglycerol and the sterol androstanol, albeit with somewhat reduced affinity.

Ramakrishnan, M; Anbazhagan, V; Pratap, T V; Marsh, D; Swamy, M J



Seminal Literature of Anthrax Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A chronically weak area in research papers, reports, and reviews is the complete identification of seminal background documents that formed the building blocks for these papers. A method for systematically determining these seminal references is presented...

R. N. Kostoff S. Oncu S. A. Morse



Seminal Literature of Nanotechnology Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A chronically weak area in research papers, reports, and reviews is the complete identification of seminal background documents that formed the building blocks for these papers. A method for systematically determining these seminal references is presented...

R. N. Kostoff J. S. Murday C. G. Lau W. M. Tolles



Cardiolipin is a normal component of human plasma lipoproteins.  


Anticardiolipin (anti-CL) antibodies, diagnostic for antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, are associated with increased risks of venous and arterial thrombosis. Because CL selectively enhances activated protein C/protein S-dependent anticoagulant activities in purified systems and because CL is not known to be a normal plasma component, we searched for CL in plasma. Plasma lipid extracts [chloroform/methanol (2:1, vol/vol)] were subjected to analyses by using TLC, analytical HPLC, and MS. A plasma lipid component was purified that was indistinguishable from reference CL (M:1448). When CL in 40 fasting plasma lipid extracts (20 males, 20 females) was quantitated by using HPLC, CL (mean +/- SD) was 14.9 +/- 3.7 microgram/ml (range 9.1 to 24.2) and CL was not correlated with phosphatidylserine (3.8 +/- 1.7 microgram/ml), phosphatidylethanolamine (64 +/- 20 microgram/ml), or choline-containing phospholipid (1,580 +/- 280 microgram/ml). Based on studies of fasting blood donors, CL (>/=94%) was recovered in very low density, low density, and high density lipoproteins (11 +/- 5.3%, 67 +/- 11.0%, and 17 +/- 10%, respectively), showing that the majority of plasma CL (67%) is in low density lipoprotein. Analysis of relative phospholipid contents of lipoproteins indicated that high density lipoprotein is selectively enriched in CL and phosphatidylethanolamine. These results shows that CL is a normal plasma component and suggest that the epitopes of antiphospholipid antibodies could include CL or oxidized CL in lipoproteins or in complexes with plasma proteins (e. g., beta(2)-glycoprotein I, prothrombin, protein C, or protein S) or with platelet or endothelial surface proteins. PMID:10677528

Deguchi, H; Fernandez, J A; Hackeng, T M; Banka, C L; Griffin, J H



Cardiolipin is a normal component of human plasma lipoproteins  

PubMed Central

Anticardiolipin (anti-CL) antibodies, diagnostic for antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, are associated with increased risks of venous and arterial thrombosis. Because CL selectively enhances activated protein C/protein S-dependent anticoagulant activities in purified systems and because CL is not known to be a normal plasma component, we searched for CL in plasma. Plasma lipid extracts [chloroform/methanol (2:1, vol/vol)] were subjected to analyses by using TLC, analytical HPLC, and MS. A plasma lipid component was purified that was indistinguishable from reference CL (M:1448). When CL in 40 fasting plasma lipid extracts (20 males, 20 females) was quantitated by using HPLC, CL (mean ± SD) was 14.9 ± 3.7 ?g/ml (range 9.1 to 24.2) and CL was not correlated with phosphatidylserine (3.8 ± 1.7 ?g/ml), phosphatidylethanolamine (64 ± 20 ?g/ml), or choline-containing phospholipid (1,580 ± 280 ?g/ml). Based on studies of fasting blood donors, CL (?94%) was recovered in very low density, low density, and high density lipoproteins (11 ± 5.3%, 67 ± 11.0%, and 17 ± 10%, respectively), showing that the majority of plasma CL (67%) is in low density lipoprotein. Analysis of relative phospholipid contents of lipoproteins indicated that high density lipoprotein is selectively enriched in CL and phosphatidylethanolamine. These results shows that CL is a normal plasma component and suggest that the epitopes of antiphospholipid antibodies could include CL or oxidized CL in lipoproteins or in complexes with plasma proteins (e.g., ?2-glycoprotein I, prothrombin, protein C, or protein S) or with platelet or endothelial surface proteins.

Deguchi, Hiroshi; Fernandez, Jose A.; Hackeng, Tilman M.; Banka, Carole L.; Griffin, John H.



Survival and proliferation factors of normal and malignant plasma cells  

PubMed Central

Since the first identifications of interleukin(IL)-6 as a myeloma cell growth factor by Dr Kawano’s and Dr Klein’s groups 14 years ago, numerous studies have emphasized its major role in the emergence of malignant plasma cells in vivo and in the generation of normal plasma cells. Four transcription factors control B cell differentiation into plasma cells. The B cell transcription factor pax-5 is mainly responsible for a B cell phenotype and bcl-6 represses the plasma cell transcription factor blimp-1 and plasma cell differentiation. Bcl-6 expression is triggered by CD40 and IL-4 activation. A lack of CD40 and IL-4 activation yields a down regulation of bcl-6 expression and IL-6 stimulation an upregulation of blimp-1, mainly through STAT3 activation. Blimp-1 will further downregulate bcl-6 and pax-5 expression and makes it possible plasma cell differentiation. IL-6 as well as IL-10 upregulate XBP-1. XBP-1 is another transcription factor involved in plasma cell differentiation whose gene expression is shut down by pax-5. These plasma cell transcription factors blimp-1 and XBP-1 are upregulated and the B cell transcription factors bcl-6 and pax-5 downregulated in malignant cells compared to B cells. Apart for this recent identification of these four transcription factors, the factors involved in normal plasma cell generation are mostly unknown. Regarding malignant plasma cells, three categories of growth factors have been identified. 1) the IL-6 family cytokines, IL-10 and IFN? that activate the JAK/STAT and MAPK pathways. 2) growth factors activating the PI-3 kinase/AKT and MAPkinase pathways, unlike the JAK/STAT pathway (insulin like growth factor 1, hepatocyte growth factor and members of the epidermal growth factor family able to bind syndecan-1 proteoglycan). 3) BAFF or APRIL that activate the NF-kappaB and PI-3 kinase/AKT pathways. BAFF and APRIL bind to BAFF receptor and TACI and are major B cell survival factors. Recent data indicate that these various growth factors may cooperate together to provide optimum signalling, eventually because ther are colocalized together and with cytoplasmic transduction elements in caveolin-linked membrane caveolae. The identification of these myeloma cell growth factors and of the associated transduction pathways should provide novel therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma.

Klein, Bernard; Tarte, Karin; Jourdan, Michel; Mathouk, Karene; Moreaux, Jerome; Jourdan, Eric; Legouffe, Eric; De Vos, John; Rossi, Jean Francois



Plasma cAMP in Normal and Abnormal Human Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma cAMP was determined using the method of Toveyetal. in normal pregnant women with a mean concentration of 18.9 ± 0.8 pmol\\/ml (x ± SEM). Between weeks 9–12 and 33–36 of gestation, there were two peaks, with a mean cAMP of 22.5 ± 2.4, which were significantly increased in comparison to the other weeks of pregnancy. Significantly decreased values were

R. Göser; K. Jaschonek; D. Kindler; E. Keller; A. E. Schindler



Lipid analysis of human spermatozoa and seminal plasma by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy — effects of freezing and thawing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the applicability of proton NMR spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to the analysis of the lipid composition of human spermatozoa and seminal fluids as well as changes after cryopreservation of human spermatozoa was investigated. Whereas NMR spectra primarily indicated a high content of double bonds within the spermatozoa but

Jürgen Schiller; Jürgen Arnhold; Hans-Jürgen Glander; Klaus Arnold



Primary paraganglioma of seminal vesicle?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Paragangliomas are rare tumors arising from neural crest tissue located outside the adrenal gland. Primary seminal vesicle paraganglioma is extremely rare entity. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 26-year-old male patient presented with symptoms and signs of acute appendicitis where a CT of abdomen and pelvis showed an inflamed appendix and incidental finding of left seminal vesicle mass. The patient underwent uneventful laparoscopic appendectomy followed by transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided seminal vesicle biopsies. Histopathology revealed a neuroendocrine neoplasm consistent with paraganglioma. Surgical excision of the left seminal vesicle was carried out. DISCUSSION Paraganglioma of genitourinary tract is rare. The urinary bladder is the most common site, followed by the urethra, pelvis and ureter. Seminal vesicle paragangliomas were reported in association with other genitourinary organ involvement such as bladder and prostate. Isolated seminal vesicle paraganglioma is extremely rare and surgical excision remains the standard treatment for localized paraganglioma. CONCLUSION Primary tumors of seminal vesicle are rare and represent a diagnostic challenge. Differential diagnosis includes a list of benign and malignant tumors. Primary seminal vesicle paraganglioma is a rare but important diagnosis to be included in the differential diagnosis.

Alharbi, Badr; Al-Ghamdi, Abdullah



Perioperative haemostatic management of haemophilic mice using normal mouse plasma.  


Intense haemostatic interventions are required to avoid bleeding complications when surgical procedures are performed on haemophilia patients. The objective of this study was to establish an appropriate protocol for perioperative haemostatic management of haemophilic mice. We assessed the prophylactic haemostatic effects of normal mouse plasma (NMP) on haemophilia B (HB) mice for both a skin flap procedure and a laparotomy. When 500 ?L of NMP was administered to the mice, plasma factor IX (FIX:C) levels peaked at 15.1% immediately after intravenous (IV) administration, at 6.1% 2 h after intraperitoneal (IP) administration and at 2.7% 6 h after subcutaneous administration. Administering 500 ?L of NMP via IP or IV 30 min in advance enabled the skin flap procedure to be performed safely without any complications. After the laparotomy procedure, several mice in the IP administration group exhibited lethal bleeding, but all mice survived in the IV administration group. Anti-mouse FIX inhibitors did not develop, even after repetitive administrations of NMP. However, human FIX concentrates, especially plasma-derived concentrates, elicited the anti-human FIX inhibitors. The results show that administering 500 ?L of NMP via IV or IP 30 min in advance enables surgical procedures to be safely performed on HB mice, and that IV administration is more desirable than IP if the procedure requires opening of the abdominal wall. PMID:23855819

Tatsumi, K; Ohashi, K; Kanegae, K; Shim, I K; Okano, T



Absorption of plasma proteins from peritoneal cavity of normal rats  

SciTech Connect

The present study was undertaken to examine whether the uptake of plasma proteins from the peritoneal cavity is quantitative so that tracers could be introduced that way for measuring their turnover. To this end, the metabolic behavior of seven homologous plasma proteins, labeled with 125I, was compared in rats after intravenous or intraperitoneal administration. The animals were maintained under physiological conditions. Total body radiation measurements showed that the degradation rates of albumin, immunoglobulins A and G, alpha 1-macroglobulin, and transferrin were the same regardless of the route of injection. This implies that these proteins are quantitatively absorbed from the peritoneum without undergoing modifications. The half-life of intraperitoneally injected alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was consistently shorter by an average 9%, thus suggesting that this protein becomes slightly altered if introduced that way. Only one-half of intraperitoneally injected fibrinogen survived normally, whereas the other underwent rapid degradation. The surviving molecules had the same half-life as fibrinogen injected intravenously. The fraction of surviving fibrinogen could be augmented by mixing the dose with serum. Within a wide range of concentrations and quantities injected, the degradation rate of transferrin remained the same. Analysis by deconvolution of the plasma curves of albumin and alpha 1-macroglobulin absorbed from the peritoneum showed that the transport process was independent of protein size and, at least up to 35 mg, of the amount injected. According to the same technique, intraperitoneally administered diferric transferrin retained its iron during passage into the circulation.

Regoeczi, E.; Zaimi, O.; Chindemi, P.A.; Charlwood, P.A.



Evaluating the Relationships Between Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability and the Portion of Seminal Vesicles Included in the Clinical Target Volume in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare dose-volume consequences of the inclusion of various portions of the seminal vesicles (SVs) in the clinical target volume (CTV) in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: For 10 patients with prostate cancer, three matched IMRT plans were generated, including 1 cm, 2 cm, or the entire SVs (SV1, SV2, or SVtotal, respectively) in the CTV. Prescription dose (79.2 Gy) and IMRT planning were according to the high-dose arm of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0126 protocol. We compared plans for percentage of rectal volume receiving minimum doses of 60-80 Gy and for rectal normal tissue complication probability (NTCP[R]). Results: There was a detectable increase in rectal dose in SV2 and SVtotal compared with SV1. The magnitude of difference between plans was modest in the high-dose range. In 2 patients, there was underdosing of the planning target volume (PTV) because of constraints on rectal dose in the SVtotal plans. All other plans were compliant with RTOG 0126 protocol requirements. Mean NTCP(R) increased from 14% to 17% and 18% for SV1, SV2, and SV total, respectively. The NTCP(R) correlated with the size of PTV-rectum volume overlap (Pearson's r = 0.86; p < 0.0001), but not with SV volume. Conclusions: Doubling (1 to 2 cm) or comprehensively increasing (1 cm to full SVs) SV volume included in the CTV for patients with prostate IMRT is achievable in the majority of cases without exceeding RTOG dose-volume limits or underdosing the PTV and results in only a moderate increase in NTCP(R)

Gluck, Iris [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)], E-mail:; Vineberg, Karen A.; Haken, Randall K. ten; Sandler, Howard M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)



Normal spermatogenesis and sperm function in a subject affected by cerebellar ataxia due to congenital vitamin E deficiency.  


Vitamin E possesses potent beneficial effects on mammalian spermatogenesis and sperm quality. Subjects affected by cerebellar ataxia due to congenital isolated vitamin E deficiency (AVED) show vitamin E deficiency caused by a selective impaired gastrointestinal absorption of vitamin E for a mutation in the gene for ?-tocopherol transfer protein leading to impairment of vitamin E absorption and decreased vitamin E plasma levels. Here, we present a 34-year-old male patient with AVED showing normal seminal parameters and normal gonadotrophins, testosterone and inhibin B plasma levels. The normal standard seminal parameters of this patient with AVED possibly question the role of vitamin E in human spermatogenesis. PMID:23445347

Rossato, M; Mariotti, C



Interaction of laser plasmas upon optical breakdown in the normal atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

The plasma front propagation regimes and the spectral characteristics of plasma emission upon laser breakdown in the normal atmosphere are experimentally investigated. The molecular emission of atmospheric gases is recorded at the initial instants of the development of the laser plasma. The behaviour of the intensities of continuous and line emission spectra is investigated upon interaction of counterpropagating plasma fronts; in this case, an increase in the integrated intensity of the plasma emission and a rise in the contrast of emission lines against the background of continuous plasma emission was recorded. (laser plasma)

Bukin, O A; Il'in, Aleksei A; Nagornyi, I G; Pavlov, A N; Bulanov, A V [V.I. Il'ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far-Eastern Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Kulchin, Yurii N [Institute for Automation and Control Processes, Far-Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)



TGF-? mediates proinflammatory seminal fluid signaling in human cervical epithelial cells.  


The cervix is central to the female genital tract immune response to pathogens and foreign male Ags introduced at coitus. Seminal fluid profoundly influences cervical immune function, inducing proinflammatory cytokine synthesis and leukocyte recruitment. In this study, human Ect1 cervical epithelial cells and primary cervical cells were used to investigate agents in human seminal plasma that induce a proinflammatory response. TGF-?1, TGF-?2, and TGF-?3 are abundant in seminal plasma, and Affymetrix microarray revealed that TGF-?3 elicits changes in Ect1 cell expression of several proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes, replicating principal aspects of the Ect1 response to seminal plasma. The differentially expressed genes included several induced in the physiological response of the cervix to seminal fluid in vivo. Notably, all three TGF-? isoforms showed comparable ability to induce Ect1 cell expression of mRNA and protein for GM-CSF and IL-6, and TGF-? induced a similar IL-6 and GM-CSF response in primary cervical epithelial cells. TGF-? neutralizing Abs, receptor antagonists, and signaling inhibitors ablated seminal plasma induction of GM-CSF and IL-6, but did not alter IL-8, CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL20 (MIP-3?), or IL-1? production. Several other cytokines present in seminal plasma did not elicit Ect1 cell responses. These data identify all three TGF-? isoforms as key agents in seminal plasma that signal induction of proinflammatory cytokine synthesis in cervical cells. Our findings suggest that TGF-? in the male partner's seminal fluid may influence cervical immune function after coitus in women, and potentially be a determinant of fertility, as well as defense from infection. PMID:22706080

Sharkey, David J; Macpherson, Anne M; Tremellen, Kelton P; Mottershead, David G; Gilchrist, Robert B; Robertson, Sarah A



A Highly Sensitive Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) Technique for Quantitation of Protein Free and Bound Efavirenz (EFV) in Human Seminal and Blood Plasma  

PubMed Central

A combined UPLC-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) technique has been validated for quantitation of protein free efavirenz (EFV) as well as total concentrations of EFV in human blood and seminal plasma. The analytical method possesses capabilities for concentration measurements of EFV ranging from 0.5 ng/ml to 10,000 ng/ml with an accuracy (%dev) of ?5.2% to 8.0% and precision (%CV) of <8%. Standard curves were linear with coefficients of variation (r2) > 0.98. The method employs a racemic fluorinated analog of EFV (F-EFV) as the internal standard. EFV and F-EFV were eluted from a reverse-phase UPLC column via gradient elution with detection via negative ion multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). EFV and F-EFV, respectively, were detected via the following MRM transitions: m/z 314.0 > 244.1 and m/z 298.0 > 227.9. The time required for the analysis of each sample was 8.0 minutes. The analytical technique is capable of a reliable detection limit of ~15–20 femtomoles of EFV injected on column.

Avery, Lindsay B.; Parsons, Teresa L.; Meyers, David J.; Hubbard, Walter C.



Carbohydrate metabolism in pregnancy. Part I. Diurnal plasma glucose profile in normal and diabetic women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diurnal plasma glucose profiles and oral glucose tolerance during pregnancy were studied in normal women, chemical diabetics, and insulin-requiring diabetics. In normal women the mean diurnal plasma glucose rose by only 0.22 mmol\\/1 (4 mg\\/100 m1) during pregnancy. Mild chemical diabetes resulted in an increase in both the mean diurnal glucose concentration and the fluctuation of plasma glucose levels during

M D Gillmer; R W Beard; F M Brooke; N W Oakley



Biologically Active Cortisol in Plasma of Oestrogen-treated and Normal Subjects  

PubMed Central

Biologically active (non-protein-bound) cortisol levels in the plasma of 13 women taking oral contraceptives and of 67 normal subjects were compared, using a new method—steady-state gel filtration. Both total and unbound cortisol levels in the 67 normal subjects showed a skew distribution, which was roughly log-normal. Unbound cortisol levels in 11 of the oestrogen-treated women were in the normal range, but the median value was significantly increased in this group. Total plasma cortisol levels in the oestrogen-treated group were, as expected, increased threefold, and all were outside the normal range.

Burke, C. W.



Normalization of Serum Rapid Plasma Reagin Titer Predicts Normalization of Cerebrospinal Fluid and Clinical Abnormalities after Treatment of Neurosyphilis  

PubMed Central

Background Success of neurosyphilis treatment is defined by normalization of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and clinical abnormalities. The goal of this study was to determine whether normalization of serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer could accurately predict treatment success. Methods One hundred ten patients who were enrolled in a longitudinal study of CSF abnormalities in syphilis had asymptomatic syphilitic meningitis, symptomatic syphilitic meningitis, or syphilitic eye disease and were treated for neurosyphilis. At 4, 7, and 13 months after treatment, serum RPR titer and CSF and clinical abnormalities were analyzed for normalization. Odds ratios for normalization of each CSF and clinical abnormality when serum RPR titer had normalized and the positive predictive value of normalization of serum RPR titer for normalization of CSF and clinical abnormalities were determined. Results Serum RPR titer had normalized in 63 patients (57%) by 4 months after treatment, in 94 (85%) by 7 months, and in 97 (88%) by 13 months. Except for CSF protein concentration, normalization of serum RPR titer predicted normalization of other CSF and clinical abnormalities in >80% of patients at 4 months, >85% at 7 months, and >90% at 13 months. The odds of normalization of CSF and clinical abnormalities were 28–57-fold higher when serum RPR titer had normalized, compared with when it had not. Normalization of serum RPR titer was consistently less accurate in predicting treatment success in human immunodeficiency virus–infected patients who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy, compared with those who were receiving such therapy. Conclusions In most instances, normalization of serum RPR titer correctly predicts success of treatment of neurosyphilis, and follow-up lumbar puncture can be avoided.

Marra, Christina M.; Maxwell, Clare L.; Tantalo, Lauren C.; Sahi, Sharon K.; Lukehart, Sheila A.



Proteins of human semen. I. Two-dimensional mapping of human seminal fluid  

SciTech Connect

The proteins in human seminal plasma were mapped by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (ISO-DALT and BASO-DALT systems). When analyzed under dissociating conditions, samples from normal fertile males revealed a pattern of over 200 proteins, ranging in mass from 10,000 to 100,000 daltons. Comparison of the mapped proteins from these males and those who had undergone vasectomy allowed us to identify one series of glycoproteins as missing from the semen from vasectomized individuals. Glycoproteins isolated by affinity chromatography with use of concanavalin A were also mapped. Some of the protein spots were identified either by coelectrophoresis with purified proteins or by the electrophoretic transfer of proteins to nitrocellulose sheets and subsequent detection by immunological procedures. The proteins identified include a number of serum proteins as well as prostatic acid phosphatase and creatine kinase. Proteolytic events shown to occur during the liquefaction of semen that occurs early after collection indicate the importance of carefully controlled collection and preparation methods for clinical evaluation of seminal plasma. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibit this proteolysis.

Edwards, J.J.; Tollaksen, S.L.; Anderson, N.G.



Orgasmic frequency and plasma testosterone levels in normal human males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty males participated in a 2-month study examining the relationship between 8 a.m. plasma testosterone levels and orgasmic frequency. Within subjects, higher levels of testosterone are associated with periods of sexual activity. Over subjects, however, the direction of the relationship is reversed. Mean testoster-one levels were higher for sexually less active individuals.

Helena C. Kraemer; Heather B. Becker; H. Keith H. Brodie; Charles H. Doering; Rudolf H. Moos; David A. Hamburg



Model for ultraintense laser-plasma interaction at normal incidence.  


An analytical study of the relativistic interaction of a linearly polarized laser field of ? frequency with highly overdense plasma is presented. In agreement with one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, the model self-consistently explains the transition between the sheath inverse bremsstrahlung absorption regime and the J×B heating (responsible for the 2? electron bunches), as well as the high harmonic radiations and the mean electron energy. PMID:22680590

Sanz, J; Debayle, A; Mima, K



Plasma Progesterone Levels in Normal and Pregnant Chinese Women and Effects of Contraceptives on Them.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurement of progesterone levels in peripheral plasma during normal human menstrual cycles and pregnancy by competitive protein binding assay shows that during the follicular phase mean plasma progesterone concentrations are 0.39 plus or minus 0.14 ng/m...

G. Zhiping W. Weicheng L. Rongfa J. Ziujuan



The influence of aspirin on plasma and platelet catecholamine levels, and platelet function in normal man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine whether aspirin influences sympathoadrenal output in normal human subjects. Plasma and platelet adrenaline and noradrenaline levels were measured before and after chronic administration of oral aspirin (300 mg per day for 7 days). Catecholamine concentrations measured immediately following aspirin did not differ from control (pre-treatment) values. Platelet noradrenaline and plasma adrenaline levels

Christopher C. T. Smith; Anne P. Wilson; D. John Betteridge



Plasma sulfoconjugated dopamine levels are normal in patients with autonomic failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma levels of norepinephrine (NE), dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), dopamine (DA), and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)—all of which are free catechols—and sulfoconjugated DA (DASO4) were determined in 14 normal subjects and 18 patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension caused by either multiple system atrophy (MSA) (n = 11) or pure autonomic failure (n = 7). All free catechols were normal in patients

Toshimasa Yamamoto; Ronald J. Polinsky; David S. Goldstein; Celeste E. Baucom; Irwin J. Kopin



Ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy of blood plasma in the discrimination of cancer from normal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Native fluorescence spectroscopy of biomolecules has emerged as an intrinsic parameter in the characterization of the physiological state and the discrimination of pathological from normal conditions of cells and tissues. The key fluorescing biomolecules inc ells and tissues ar tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine, collagen, elastin, NADH, flavin and porphyrin. Extensive studies were made on tissues of various origin to discriminate the malignancy from normal. The differences in the fluorescence emission spectra have been shown to separate benign and malignant tissues. In the present work, a pilot study was carried out on the characterization of blood plasma of both normal and cancerous subjects. The blood plasma was separated by centrifuging the blood and it was diluted in PBS by adjusting the O.D. to 0.5 at 280 nm. This diluted sample as excited in the UV region between 250-340 nm. Among the various excitation wavelengths, emission spectrum at 300 nm excitation has considerable difference between blood plasma of normal subjects and cancer patients. To quantify these differences and to verify if there is any diagnostic potential exists, the ratio of fluorescence intensities at 340 and 440 nm was calculated. It is found that the ratio value of normal blood plasma is less than 11 and for tumor, it is greater than 11. Besides, it is found that the ratio value of blood plasma from patients with cancer varies from 11 to 28, depending upon the stage of malignancy.

Madhuri, S.; Aruna, P.; Summiya Bibi, M. I.; Gowri, V. S.; Koteeswaran, D.; Ganesan, S.




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Acute renal failure is a syndrome that usually runs with an increase in creatinine and urea plasma levels. However, there are clinical situations in which this syndrome may run with an increase in plasma creatinine keeping normal the urea one. In this report we present a case of acute renal failure with normal plasma urea level secondary to an

Musso CG; Vilas M; Fernandez Otero L; Jauregui R; Imperiali N; Algranati L; Rev Electron Biomed; Electron J Biomed



Effect of aging on plasma renin and aldosterone in normal man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of aging on plasma renin and aldosterone in normal man. The influence of aging on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was evaluated by comparing young (20 to 30 yr) with elderly (62 to 70 yr) healthy subjects. Despite comparable body sodium-fluid balance in the two age groups, serum renin concentration, plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentrations were lower in the elderly.

Peter Weidmann; Sylvianne De Myttenaere-Bursztein; Morton H Maxwell; José de Lima



Parenteral iron treatment induces MCP-1 accumulation in plasma, normal kidneys, and in experimental nephropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parenteral iron treatment induces MCP-1 accumulation in plasma, normal kidneys, and in experimental nephropathy.IntroductionMonocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) promotes renal inflammation, thereby contributing to acute and chronic nephropathies. Its production is stimulated by oxidative stress. Thus, this study tested whether pro-oxidant iron\\/carbohydrate complexes, used to treat iron deficiency, induce MCP-1 in renal\\/extrarenal tissues, in plasma, and in the setting of experimental




Plasma vitronectin polymorphism in normal subjects and patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation.  


Vitronectin, also known as serum-spreading factor or S-protein, mediates cell adhesion and inhibits formation of the membrane-lytic complex of complement and the rapid inactivation of thrombin by antithrombin III in the presence of heparin. Vitronectin is normally present in plasma at a concentration of approximately 300 micrograms/mL. The investigators quantified plasma vitronectin with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and visualized reduced and nonreduced vitronectin by immunoblotting after separation of plasma or serum by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The concentration of plasma vitronectin was markedly reduced in some patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation, especially in those with liver failure; it was near normal in patients with metastatic cancer and acute leukemia. Patients with vitronectin levels less than 40% normal invariably had low fibrinogen and antithrombin III and a prolonged prothrombin time. In both normal and patient plasmas there was heterogeneity in the ratio of the 75,000- and 65,000-mol wt polypeptides of reduced vitronectin: 18% had mostly the 75,000-mol wt polypeptide, 59% had roughly equal amounts of the two polypeptides, and 22% had mostly the 65,000-mol wt polypeptide. This polymorphism is inherited and appears to be due to two alleles that are present with approximately equal frequency. The blotting patterns of vitronectin in reduced and nonreduced plasmas were largely unaltered in plasma of patients with defibrination syndrome, fibrinolysis, liver failure, sepsis, metastatic cancer, and acute leukemia. There was no evidence of fragmentation of vitronectin or formation of the disulfide-bonded complex of vitronectin and thrombin-antithrombin III that is found when blood is clotted. Thus these results corroborate in vitro observations that the liver is the major source of plasma vitronectin, suggest that vitronectin may become depleted during disseminated intravascular coagulation, and define a genetic polymorphism of vitronectin. PMID:2455567

Conlan, M G; Tomasini, B R; Schultz, R L; Mosher, D F



Differential responses of human liver cancer and normal cells to atmospheric pressure plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

When treated by atmospheric pressure plasma, human liver cancer cells (SK-HEP-1) and normal cells (THLE-2) exhibited distinctive cellular responses, especially in relation to their adhesion behavior. We discovered the critical threshold voltage of 950 V, biased at the electrode of the micro-plasma jet source, above which SK-HEP-1 started to detach from the substrate while THLE-2 remained intact. Our mechanical and

Bomi Gweon; Mina Kim; Dan Bee Kim; Daeyeon Kim; Hyeonyu Kim; Heesoo Jung; Jennifer H. Shin; Wonho Choe



Lipolysis, fatness, gender and plasma leptin concentrations in healthy, normal-weight subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background: Relationship between plasma leptin and adioposity and gender has been reported in adults. Effect of age on plasma leptin\\u000a is unclear and regulation of leptin production by white adipose tissue is still poorly understood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives: To study if age and parameters of lipolysis are related to plasma leptin concentrations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Seventy-seven healthy, normal-weight subjects (age range 19–82 y.)

B. Morio; A. M. Gachon; Y. Boirie; P. Rousset; P. Gachon; B. Beaufrère; P. Ritz



Immunophenotypic heterogeneity of normal plasma cells: comparison with minimal residual plasma cell myeloma.  


Plasma cell myeloma (PCM) exhibits immunophenotypic aberrancies that can be used for minimal residual disease (MRD) detection after therapy. The authors sought to determine whether non-neoplastic plasma cells, especially in the bone marrow (BM) post various therapies, would exhibit immunophenotypic variations interfering PCM MRD detection. The authors studied the flow cytometric immunophenotypes of non-neoplastic plasma cells from 50 BM specimens, including 12 untreated BM and 38 BM specimens from patients with non-plasmacytic haematological malignancies undergoing various therapies, and compared with 59 BM specimens positive for PCM MRD. Non-neoplastic plasma cells showed heterogeneous expressions of CD45 (78% (41-100)) and CD19 (80% (52-97)), and were negative for CD20 and CD117. CD56 was observed in a small subset (6% (0-37)) and CD28 in a larger subset (15% (0-59)) of non-neoplastic plasma cells, with the latter more frequently expressed in post-treatment BMs (p=0.01). However, despite a partial immunophenotypic overlap, PCM cells could be reliably discriminated from non-neoplastic plasma cells by the presence of a higher number of aberrancies (3 (1-6) vs 0 (0-2)) and stronger intensity and uniformity of aberrant expression (p<0.001 in each marker using a cut-off value). In addition, simultaneous assessment of cytoplasmic ?/? with surface markers detected light chain restriction in all 59 PCM cases. In conclusion, non-neoplastic plasma cells in BM are more immunophenotypically heterogeneous than previously understood; however, these immunophenotypic variations differ from those of PCM. With advances in multicolour flow cytometry and application of recently validated markers, PCM MRD may still be reliably distinguished from non-neoplastic plasma cells. PMID:22685235

Liu, Dingsheng; Lin, Pei; Hu, Ying; Zhou, Yi; Tang, Guilin; Powers, Linda; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; Wang, Sa A



Fatty acids in plasma and red cell membranes in normal humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study was made of the fatty acid composition of plasma triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, red cell\\u000a total phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in 32 normal males and 18 normal females. No sex differences\\u000a could be detected. There were substantial differences in the compositions of the various fractions and long-chain polyunsaturated\\u000a fatty acids were particularly important in the red

M. S. Manku; D. F. Horrobin; Y. S. Huang; N. Morse



Fetal plasma contains coagulation factor XIIIa inhibitor absent in normal human plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protein inhibitor of fibrin-stabilizing coagulation factor XIII was isolated from fetal human plasma. The inhibitor is absent\\u000a in newborns and adults. The purified protein is a 67-kD single-chain immunoglobulin; factor XIIIa activity in inhibited by\\u000a 80% with 100 ?l fetal plasma (16–22 weeks gestation) and by 100% with pure inhibitor (0.2 mg\\/ml). The persistence of this\\u000a inhibitor and low

I. S. Kolotushkina; Yu. A. Blidchenko; G. T. Sukhikh



Identification and preliminary characterization of a sperm-binding protein in normal human semen.  


In the seminal plasma of normal men a protein, immunologically related to a major protein (RSV-IV) secreted from the rat seminal vesicle epithelium, was detected by competition with RSV-IV in a specific radioimmunoassay using a rabbit anti RSV-IV antiserum. The protein was partly (80%) purified by column chromatography; characterization by gel electrophoresis indicated that the protein is slightly basic and has a molecular weight of 140 000. The protein was present on the surface of human spermatozoa as well as in the ejaculates of azoospermic men and it is believed to be a sperm-binding protein. PMID:3968664

Abrescia, P; Lombardi, G; De Rosa, M; Quagliozzi, L; Guardiola, J; Metafora, S



Identification of candidate prostate cancer genes through comparative expression-profiling of seminal vesicle  

PubMed Central

Background Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men in the United States. In contrast, cancer of the seminal vesicle is exceedingly rare, despite that the prostate and seminal vesicle share similar histology, secretory function, androgen dependency, blood supply, and (in part) embryonic origin. We hypothesized that gene-expression differences between prostate and seminal vesicle might inform mechanisms underlying the higher incidence of prostate cancer. Methods Whole-genome DNA microarrays were used to profile gene expression of 11 normal prostate and 7 seminal vesicle specimens (including 6 matched pairs) obtained from radical prostatectomy. Supervised analysis was used to identify genes differentially expressed between normal prostate and seminal vesicle, and this list was then cross-referenced to genes differentially expressed between normal and cancerous prostate. Expression patterns of selected genes were confirmed by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray. Results We identified 32 genes that displayed a highly statistically-significant expression pattern with highest levels in seminal vesicle, lower levels in normal prostate, and lowest levels in prostate cancer. Among these genes was the known candidate prostate tumor suppressor GSTP1 (involved in xenobiotic detoxification). The expression pattern of GSTP1 and four other genes, ABCG2 (xenobiotic transport), CRABP2 (retinoic acid signaling), GATA3 (lineage-specific transcription) and SLPI (immune response), was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Conclusions Our findings identify candidate prostate cancer genes whose reduced expression in prostate (compared to seminal vesicle) may be permissive to prostate cancer initiation. Such genes and their pathways may inform mechanisms of prostate carcinogenesis, and suggest new opportunities for prostate cancer prevention.

Thompson, Maxwell; Lapointe, Jacques; Choi, Yoon-La; Ong, David E.; Higgins, John P.; Brooks, James D.; Pollack, Jonathan R.



X-UV gain amplification studies in laser plasma using normal incidence multilayers mirrors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were carried out in order to measure the amplification of spontaneous emission (ASE) of XUV radiation in a laser plasma. The experimental setup consisted of a multilayer mirror, an Optical Multichannel Analyzer detector, and a scintillator. The normal incidence reflectivity of the multilayer mirror was measured in the 100 A range. The contribution of incidence reflectivity to the shape of the recorded laser spectra is described within the framework of a theoretical model which takes into account effects of the imperfections between successive layers. The effect of single pass amplification enhancement on the absorption coefficient of the laser plasma is discussed.

Dhez, P.; Jamelot, G.; Carillon, A.; Jaegle, P.; Pardo, P.


JET intrinsic rotation studies in plasmas with a high normalized beta and varying toroidal field ripple  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the origin of rotation in ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heated plasmas is important for predictions for burning plasmas sustained by alpha particles, being characterized by a large population of fast ions and no external momentum input. The angular velocity of the plasma column has been measured in JET H-mode plasmas with pure ICRF heating both for the standard low toroidal magnetic ripple configuration, of about ˜0.08% and, for increased ripple values up to 1.5% (Nave et al 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 105005). These new JET rotation data were compared with the multi-machine scaling of Rice et al (2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 1618) for the Alfvén-Mach number and with the scaling for the velocity change from L-mode into H-mode. The JET data do not fit well any of these scalings that were derived for plasmas that are co-rotating with respect to the plasma current. With the standard low ripple configuration, JET plasmas with large ICRF heating power and normalized beta, ?N ? 1.3, have a very small co-current rotation, with Alfvén-Mach numbers significantly below those given by the rotation scaling of Rice et al (2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 1618). In some cases the plasmas are actually counter-rotating. No significant difference between the H-mode and L-mode rotation is observed. Typically the H-mode velocities near the edge are lower than those in L-modes. With ripple values larger than the standard JET value, between 1% and 1.5%, H-mode plasmas were obtained where both the edge and the core counter-rotated.

Nave, M. F. F.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Giroud, C.; Johnson, T. J.; Kirov, K.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Ongena, J.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Rimini, F.; Tala, T.; de Vries, P.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Contributors, JET-EFDA



Plasma and whole blood taurine in normal dogs of varying size fed commercially prepared food.  


The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of signalment, body size and diet on plasma taurine and whole blood taurine concentrations. A total of 131 normal dogs consuming commercially prepared dog food had blood drawn 3-5 h post-prandially to be analysed for plasma amino acids and whole blood taurine. Body weight and morphometric measurements of each dog were taken. Plasma and whole blood taurine concentrations were 77 +/- 2.1 nmol/ml (mean +/- SEM) and 266 +/- 5.1 nmol/ml (mean +/- SEM), respectively. No effect of age, sex, body weight, body size, or diet was seen on plasma and whole blood taurine concentrations. Mean whole blood taurine concentrations were lower in dogs fed diets containing whole grain rice, rice bran or barley. The lowest whole blood concentrations were seen in dogs fed lamb or lamb meal and rice diets. Plasma methionine and cysteine concentrations were lower in dogs fed diets with animal meals or turkey, and whole grain rice, rice bran or barley. Fifteen of 131 dogs had plasma taurine concentrations lower than, or equal, to the previously reported lowest mean food-deprived plasma taurine concentration in normal dogs of 49 +/- 5 nmol/ml (mean +/- SEM) (Elliott et al., 2000). These findings support the theory that taurine deficiency in dogs may be related to the consumption of certain dietary ingredients. Scientific and clinical evidence supports the hypothesis that dilated cardiomyopathy is associated with low blood taurine concentration in dogs; therefore, further work is indicated to determine the mechanism by which diet can affect taurine status in dogs. PMID:12752830

Delaney, S J; Kass, P H; Rogers, Q R; Fascetti, A J



Determination of Normal Vectors for Boundaries of Plasmas Based Upon Rankine-Hugoniot Relations Estimated With a Single Spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to determine normal vectors for boundaries of plasmas with a series of data acquired from a single spacecraft is investigated. The determination of the normal vector is possible through a set of Rankine-Hugoniot (R-H) relations that are conservation relations of plasmas across a boundary. It is assumed that the boundary is planar and that the structure of the

J. Seon



The lack of effect of parvovirus vaccination on the seminal characteristics of dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The onset of ejaculation and development of normal seminal characteristics in six young dogs vaccinated and seroconverting against canine parvovirus did not differ from the accepted range, and by 45 weeks of age the ejaculates were considered to be normal. At one year of age three of the dogs were given a large antigenic stimulus by vaccination once a week

GC England; WE Allen



Deletion of Androgen Receptor in the Smooth Muscle of the Seminal Vesicles Impairs Secretory Function and Alters Its Responsiveness to Exogenous Testosterone and Estradiol  

PubMed Central

The seminal vesicles (SVs), like much of the male reproductive tract, depend on androgen-driven stromal-epithelial interactions for normal development, structure, and function. The primary function of the SVs is to synthesize proteins that contribute to the seminal plasma and this is androgen dependent. However, the cell-specific role for androgen action in adult SVs remains unclear. This study analyzed the SV in mice with targeted ablation of androgen receptors specifically in smooth muscle cells (PTM-ARKO) to determine in vivo whether it is androgen action in a subset of the SV stroma, the smooth muscle cells, that drives epithelial function and identity. These mice have significantly smaller SVs in adulthood with less smooth muscle and reduced epithelial cell height. Less epithelial cell proliferation was observed in adult PTM-ARKO SVs, compared with controls, and production of seminal proteins was reduced, indicating global impairment of epithelial cell function in PTM-ARKO SVs. None of these changes could be explained by altered serum testosterone or estradiol concentrations. We also demonstrate altered SV responsiveness to exogenous testosterone and estradiol in PTM-ARKO mice, indicating that smooth muscle androgen receptors may limit the SV epithelial proliferative response to exogenous estrogens. These results therefore demonstrate that the smooth muscle cells play a vital role in androgen-driven stromal-epithelial interactions in the SV, determining epithelial cell structure and function as well as limiting the SV epithelial proliferative response to exogenous estrogens.

Welsh, Michelle; Moffat, Lindsey; Jack, Laura; McNeilly, Alan; Brownstein, David; Saunders, Philippa T. K.; Sharpe, Richard M.; Smith, Lee B.



Immunotherapy with tumor vaccine, BCG, and normal plasma during radiation-reduced tumor immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The therapeutic use of (a) radiation-inactivated tumor cells, (b) Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), and (c) heparinized plasma from normal mice to reduce radiation-induced impairment of existing antitumor resistance was investigated in female C3H\\/He hosts of syngeneic mammary carcinoma implants. The mice, which had been moderately presensitized 50 days before challenge, were given 300 rad whole-body irradiation at various times up to

J. Vaage



Salivary cortisol measurement in normal-weight, obese and anorexic women: comparison with plasma cortisol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare salivary, plasma and urinary free cortisol (UFC) measurements in patients with anorexia nervosa, in whom an overdrive of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is well established but information on salivary cortisol is lacking, in viscerally obese patients in whom subtle abnormalities of cortisol secretion and metabolism are postulated, and in normal-weight healthy women. Participants and experimental design: Measurement

Pietro Putignano; Antonella Dubini; Paola Toja; Cecilia Invitti; Simona Bonfanti; Gabriella Redaelli; Daniela Zappulli; Francesco Cavagnini



Inverse relationship between plasma adiponectin and leptin concentrations in normal-weight and obese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Adiponectin, a novel adipocyte-derived collagen-like protein, is the gene product of the adipose most-abundant gene transcript 1 (apM1), which has been considered to have anti-inflamma- tory and anti-atherogenic effects. Objective: To characterize the relationship between adiponectin and leptin, the ob gene product, in normal-weight and obese women. Design and methods: In this cross-sectional study, we measured fasting plasma adiponectin

Miyao Matsubara; Shoji Maruoka; Shinji Katayose





... along with family and friends, or coping with stress Child and adolescent psychiatrists can help parents and families answer these questions about what’s normal and what’s not. They usually interview the child and ask the parents about the ...


The chemotactic properties of porcine seminal components toward neutrophils in vitro.  


Our objectives were to investigate the mechanisms of postbreeding inflammation in swine by examining the chemotactic properties of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMN) and of various populations of spermatozoa and seminal plasma. Epididymal spermatozoa from two boars obtained under sterile conditions, washed ejaculated spermatozoa from two boars, and pooled seminal plasma from eight boars of known fertility were examined for chemotaxis to PMN. The chemotaxis of blood-derived PMN in response to sperm and seminal plasma was evaluated and expressed as a percentage of a positive control (lipopolysaccharide-activated blood plasma). The mean chemotactic effect of washed sperm alone (4.4+/-0.04) and of epididymal sperm alone (3.4+/-0.06) was not different from that of the negative controls (3.1+/-0.05) of McCoy's medium with 10% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum. A marked chemotactic effect was detected when washed ejaculated and epididymal sperm were incubated with blood plasma, compared with blood plasma without spermatozoa (P < 0.001). Washed sperm in blood plasma (86.2+/-5.6) and epididymal sperm in blood plasma (83.9+/-7.7) were different from blood plasma alone (11.2+/-1.5), but no differences were detected between the two populations of sperm. This effect, however, was not completely inhibited by heat inactivation of the blood plasma. The chemotactic response of washed ejaculated and epididymal spermatozoa incubated in lipopolysaccharide-treated, heat-inactivated blood plasma were greater than that of the negative control (P < 0.05). Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocyte migration toward seminal plasma was similar to the negative control (4.0+/-0.04 vs 3.1+/-0.05). It seems that porcine epididymal sperm and ejaculated sperm activate chemotactic components in porcine blood plasma and heat-inactivated blood plasma, suggesting that, at least partially, a heat-stable (noncomplement) blood plasma component may be involved in sperm-induced PMN chemotaxis. In contrast, porcine seminal plasma was not chemotactic to PMN. These results support the hypothesis that spermatozoa play an active role in initiating postbreeding endometritis. PMID:11325207

Rozeboom, K J; Troedsson, M H; Rocha, G R; Crabo, B G



Seminal gold content in healthy fertile men in India  

PubMed Central

Objective: Since centuries Ayurveda, mentions the role of gold in the treatment of male infertility ‘Swarna Bhasma’ (Ash of gold) has been used with good results by Ayurvedic practitioners in the treatment of infertility. Hence, a study was planned to estimate gold in whole semen by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Materials and Methods: Whole semen from 11 healthy males of proved fertility from Lucknow (India) was analyzed for gold content by Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry at wavelength 242.8 nm with Hollow Cathode Gold Lamp. Prior to analysis, all the samples were subjected to digestion procedure, achieved by treating them with mixture of concentrated Nitric acid and concentrated Perchloric acid in 6: 1 ratio. Observation: On analysis all semen samples were found to contain gold ranging from 0.36 to 1.98 ?g/ml with a mean value of 0.88 ?g/ml and a standard deviation of 0.51 ?g/ml. Conclusion: In the present study, gold was estimated after complete digestion (oxidation of organic matters; hence, whatever amount of gold detected, denotes the levels in seminal plasma as well as the sperm itself) in whole semen (seminal plasma and sperm). It seems that the hypothesis made for presence of gold in sperm might be true. However, the literature available in this connection is very scanty and further studies are needed for scientific documentation of gold in male infertility.

Jain, Vinod; Rai, Anurag; Misra, Samir; Singh, K.M.



High normal plasma triglycerides are associated with preserved cognitive function in Chinese oldest-old  

PubMed Central

Objective: to explore the relationship between blood lipids/lipoproteins and cognitive function in the Chinese oldest-old. Design: multivariate statistical analysis using cross-sectional data. Setting: community-based setting in longevity areas in China. Subjects: eight hundred and thirty-six subjects aged 80 and older were included in the sample. Methods: plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose were measured and information about demographics and lifestyle was collected. Cognitive status was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Results: cumulative logit model analysis showed that triglyceride was significantly negatively associated with cognitive impairment. By general linear modelling, there was a significant linear trend of MMSE scores with the level of triglyceride, but not with levels of cholesterol after adjustment. The odds ratio (OR) of cognitive impairment (MMSE score < 18) was significantly reduced for the highest quartile of plasma triglyceride concentration (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.33–0.84), but not for the second or third quartile, compared with the lowest quartile (adjusted models). There were no significant associations between cognitive impairment and cholesterol. Conclusion: we concluded that high normal plasma triglyceride was associated with preservation of cognitive function while lower concentrations were not in the Chinese oldest-old.

Yin, Zhao-Xue; Shi, Xiao-Ming; Kraus, Virginia B.; Fitzgerald, Simon M.; Qian, Han-zhu; Xu, Jian-wei; Zhai, Yi; Sereny, Melanie D.; Zeng, Yi



Studies of blood glucose and plasma insulin in "normal" women using mechanical contraception for 6 months.  


A prospective study of carbohydrate metabolism was done with 56 "normal" women who were 4 to 11 weeks post partum. Each had a 3 hour oral glucose tolerance test performed before and after 6 months of using an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD). The results showed only slight changes in blood glucose and plasma insulin levels between the two tests. There were elevations of the fasting and 0.5 hour glucose values and the 2 hour plasma insulin value at the 6 month test. These data provide a further understanding of the changing metabolic parameters associated with pregnancy and they also give the "control" baseline information for comparison with other postpartum studies on the metabolic effects of contraceptive steriods. PMID:1106200

Spellacy, W N; Buhi, W C; Birk, S A



Potassium concentration in equine red blood cells: normal values and correlation with potassium levels in plasma.  


The concentration of potassium in plasma and in red blood cells was determined in 948 horses. The coefficient of correlation between the two parameters was low. In 436 of these horses, which were clinically healthy, the red blood cell potassium (RBCK+) levels did not fit within a normal distribution curve, but a bimodal distribution was observed with a section point at 90 mmol/litre. In 90 per cent of these normal horses, mean RBCK+ content was 97.5 mmol/litre. In the remaining 10 per cent, mean RBCK+ concentration was 93.8 mmol/litre. A subdivision into a 'low potassium group' and a 'high potassium group' was made. In 10 out of 15 horses in the 'low potassium group', bimonthly sampling over a period of one year showed that RBCK+ content remained low. In the remaining five horses an increase was observed. PMID:6489306

Muylle, E; Van den Hende, C; Nuytten, J; Deprez, P; Vlaminck, K; Oyaert, W



Wheat germ policosanol failed to lower plasma cholesterol in subjects with normal to mildly elevated cholesterol concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane policosanol, a mixture of long-chain primary alcohols (?67% as octacosanol), has been reported to lower plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. We investigated the effect of wheat germ policosanol (WGP) on plasma lipid profiles in 58 adults (30 men and 28 women, aged 49 ± 11 years) with normal to mildly elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations in a double-blind, randomized, parallel

Yuguang Lin; Mike Rudrum; Reggy P. J. van der Wielen; Elke A. Trautwein; Gerald McNeill; Aafje Sierksma; Gert W. Meijer



Comparison of spin-flip and normal synchrotron radiations from a charge rotating in a magnetized plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have deduced the intensity spectral function for the spin-flip synchrotron radiation in the presence of a plasma. Using parameters appropriate to astrophysical conditions, we have attempted to compare the characteristics of the spin-flip synchrotron radiation and the normal synchrotron radiation in a magnetized plasma arising from an electron or positron rotating around the magnetic field. A rotating charge gives

P. C. W. Fung; W. Y. P. Fung



Flow cytometric disease monitoring in multiple myeloma: the relationship between normal and neoplastic plasma cells predicts outcome after transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional monitoring strategies for myeloma are not sufficiently sensitive to identify patients likely to benefit from further therapy immediately after trans- plantation. We have used a sensitive flow cytometry assay that quantitates normal and neoplastic plasma cells to monitor the bone marrow of 45 patients undergo- ing high-dose chemotherapy. Neoplastic plasma cells were detectable at 3 months after transplantation in

Andy C. Rawstron; Faith E. Davies; Ranjit DasGupta; A. John Ashcroft; Russell Patmore; Mark T. Drayson; Roger G. Owen; Andrew S. Jack; J. Anthony Child; Gareth J. Morgan


Effect of Total and Ionized Calcium Levels of Seminal Fluid on Sperm Motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total and ionized calcium (Ca2+) levels of seminal fluid were assessed in 75 semen samples obtained from infertile patients and fertile patients referred to our clinic with different complaints. Patients who showed only motility disorders on sperm analysis were include into the study program. Forty-five patients showing hypomotility (motility < 60%) and 30 patients with normal motility (motility > 60%)

Sahir Kiliç; Kemal Sarica; Önder Yaman; Tarkan Soygür; Sezai Yaman



High Levels of Cadmium and Lead in Seminal Fluid and Blood of Smoking Men are Associated with High Oxidative Stress and Damage in Infertile Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and reducte glutathione (GSH) in seminal plasma and spermatozoa from 95 subjects including 50 infertile\\u000a patients to evaluate the association between oxidative stress and damage and the components of the anti-oxidant defenses in\\u000a seminal plasma and spermatozoa of infertile subjects and concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb)

Ali Riza Kiziler; Birsen Aydemir; Ilhan Onaran; Bulent Alici; Hamdi Ozkara; Tevfik Gulyasar; Mehmet Can Akyolcu



Double passage of electromagnetic waves through magnetized plasma: approximation of independent normal waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarization properties of electromagnetic waves, double-passed through magnetized plasma, are studied. Analyses are performed in the case of non-interacting normal modes, propagating in homogeneous and weakly inhomogeneous plasmas, and for three kinds of reflectors: metallic plane, 2D corner retro-reflector (2D-CR), and cubic corner retro-reflector (CCR). It is shown that an electromagnetic wave, reflected from a metallic plane and from a CCR, contains only “velocity-preserving” channels, whose phases are doubled in comparison with those of a single-passage propagation. At the same time, an electromagnetic wave reflected from a 2D-CR is shown to contain both “velocity-preserving” and “velocity-converting” channels, the latter converting the fast wave into the slow one and vice-versa. One characteristic feature of “velocity-converting” channels is that they reproduce the initial polarization state near the source, which might be of practical interest for plasma interferometry. In the case of circularly polarized modes, “velocity-preserving” channels completely disappear, and only “velocity-converting” channels are to be found.

Kravtsov, Yury A.; Bieg, Bohdan



Drosophila seminal protein ovulin mediates ovulation through female octopamine neuronal signaling.  


Across animal taxa, seminal proteins are important regulators of female reproductive physiology and behavior. However, little is understood about the physiological or molecular mechanisms by which seminal proteins effect these changes. To investigate this topic, we studied the increase in Drosophila melanogaster ovulation behavior induced by mating. Ovulation requires octopamine (OA) signaling from the central nervous system to coordinate an egg's release from the ovary and its passage into the oviduct. The seminal protein ovulin increases ovulation rates after mating. We tested whether ovulin acts through OA to increase ovulation behavior. Increasing OA neuronal excitability compensated for a lack of ovulin received during mating. Moreover, we identified a mating-dependent relaxation of oviduct musculature, for which ovulin is a necessary and sufficient male contribution. We report further that oviduct muscle relaxation can be induced by activating OA neurons, requires normal metabolic production of OA, and reflects ovulin's increasing of OA neuronal signaling. Finally, we showed that as a result of ovulin exposure, there is subsequent growth of OA synaptic sites at the oviduct, demonstrating that seminal proteins can contribute to synaptic plasticity. Together, these results demonstrate that ovulin increases ovulation through OA neuronal signaling and, by extension, that seminal proteins can alter reproductive physiology by modulating known female pathways regulating reproduction. PMID:24101486

Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F



Plasma leptin suppression by arginine vasopressin in normal women and men.  


Leptin inhibits appetite by activating several neuroendocrine systems, including the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal cortical (HPA) axis. In turn, elevated glucocorticoids can increase circulating leptin. We therefore measured plasma leptin in 12 normal women and eight normal men administered low-dose physostigmine (PHYSO) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) to stimulate the HPA axis. The subjects underwent four test sessions 5-7 days apart: PHYSO (8 microg/kg IV), AVP (0.08 U/kg IM), PHYSO + AVP, and saline control. Serial blood samples were taken before and after pharmacologic challenge and analyzed for leptin, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)1-39, cortisol, and AVP. Estradiol and testosterone also were measured at each test session. PHYSO and AVP produced no side effects in about half the subjects and predominantly mild side effects in the other half, with no significant female-male differences. Correlations between side effects (absent or present) after PHYSO or AVP and the corresponding leptin responses were nonsignificant. Baseline plasma leptin concentrations were significantly higher in the women than in the men (p < 0.003). Leptin concentrations following PHYSO remained unchanged from baseline, indicating that the short-lived ACTH and cortisol increases produced by PHYSO did not affect leptin secretion. In contrast, AVP administration, while also increasing ACTH and cortisol, suppressed leptin, to a significantly greater degree in the women than in the men (p = 0.01). This significant suppression of leptin by AVP has not been previously described; physiologically, it may be part of a negative feedback regulatory system between central leptin and its activation of the HPA axis, by inhibition of leptin production or acceleration of its clearance. PMID:12570922

Rubin, Robert T; Rhodes, Michael E; Czambel, R Kenneth



Plasma tocopherol and tocopherol to lipid ratios in a normal population of infants and children.  


The plasma tocopherol concentrations were measured by HPLC in 73 apparently healthy West German children aged from 1 to 14 years and in 7 cord blood samples and 5 infants below 1 year of age. Total tocopherols ranged from 584 to 2024 micrograms/dl in the children above 1 year of age (mean 1046 +/- 283 micrograms/dl) and from 511 to 1155 micrograms/dl in the infants below 1 year of age (mean 879 +/- 270 micrograms/dl). The total tocopherol/total lipid ratio-representing the reliable index for vitamin E status-was far above 0.6 mg/g lipid, a level which is regarded as the lower limit of normal (range 1.23 to 4.09 mg/g total lipid in the older children and 1.52 to 2.05 in the infants below 1 year). A positive correlation was found between plasma lipids and total tocopherol (r = 0.71). Our investigation demonstrated an excellent vitamin E status in the children investigated which is considered to reflect the high supply of West German food with PUFA and vitamin E. PMID:2599792

Laryea, M D; Biggemann, B; Cieslicki, P; Wendel, U



Mild hypercholesterolemia, normal plasma triglycerides, and normal glucose levels across dementia staging in Alzheimer's disease: a clinical setting-based retrospective study.  


We examined retrospectively the concurrent relationships between fasting plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels, and Alzheimer's disease (AD), in a clinical setting-based study. Total cholesterol level was higher in patients with AD compared to elderly controls; triglycerides or glucose levels did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. Respective plotted trajectories of change in cholesterol level across age were fairly parallel. No significant difference in total cholesterol levels was recorded between patients with AD classified by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score subgroups. These results suggest that patients with AD have relative mild total hypercholesterolemia, normal triglyceridemia, and normal fasting plasma glucose level. Mild total hypercholesterolemia seems to be permanent across age, and across dementia severity staging, and fairly parallels the trajectory of age-related change in total cholesterolemia of healthy controls. We speculate that these biochemical parameters pattern may be present long before-a decade at least-the symptomatic onset of the disease. PMID:21715465

Ramdane, Said; Daoudi-Gueddah, Doria



Bovine seminal PDC-109 protein: An overview of biochemical and functional properties.  


Although long-term storage of bovine semen is desirable for wider use, successful cryopreservation depends on several factors, including various proteins present in seminal plasma. One such group of proteins, viz. bovine seminal plasma (BSP) proteins represents the major protein fraction in bovine seminal plasma. They constitute three major heparin-binding (HB-) acidic proteins secreted by seminal vesicles, viz. BSP-A1/-A2 (PDC-109), BSP-A3 and BSP-30-kDa. By purification studies it was deduced that PDC-109 is a polypeptide of 109 amino acids and contains two tandem repeating fibronectin type-II (Fn-II) domains, preceded by a 23 residue N-terminal domain. Though BSP-A1 and BSP-A2 are biochemically similar they differ only in glycosylation and their mixture is called PDC-109 or gonadostatins. PDC-109 exists as a polydisperse, multimeric self-associated molecule and possesses multifunctional properties, viz. binding to the surface of plasma membrane of spermatozoa causing conformational change in the sperm surface proteins and enhances motility. Besides binding, PDC-109 protein provokes cholesterol efflux from sperm membrane and promotes sperm reservoir by interacting with oviductal membrane. Interaction of sperm with PDC-109 protein induces sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction. However, prolonged exposure of spermatozoa with free floating PDC-109 protein as during processing for preservation, increases cholesterol efflux from spermatozoa. The efflux of sperm membrane cholesterol and disturbance in cholesterol:phospholipids ratio causes destabilization of plasma membrane thereby inducing cryoinjury to the sperm. In this review, the biochemical, functional properties of PDC-109 protein and its role during semen cryopreservation is summarized. PMID:23489472

Srivastava, N; Jerome, A; Srivastava, S K; Ghosh, S K; Kumar, Amit



Proliferative activity of benign human prostate, prostatic adenocarcinoma and seminal vesicle evaluated by thymidine labeling  

SciTech Connect

The thymidine labeling index (TLI) was measured in vitro in the epithelium and stroma of benign prostate glands and seminal vesicles and in the epithelium of prostatic adenocarcinomas. The mean epithelial TLI of normal peripheral (posterior) prostatic zone was 0.12 per cent, and that of the normal central (deep) zone was 0.11 per cent. Mean normal stromal TLI's were 0.08 per cent and 0.06 per cent, respectively. The mean TLI of epithelium in nodular hyperplasia was 0.31 per cent, which differs significantly from normal epithelium, and the mean stromal TLI was also increased. The mean TLI of prostatic adenocarcinomas was 0.90 per cent (range 0.14 to 3.90 per cent) which was significantly higher than for either normal epithelium or epithelium of nodular hyperplasia. Trends of increasing TLI with increasing histologic grades and increasing nuclear size and numbers of nucleoli were not significant. The data support participation of both epithelial and stromal proliferation in nodular hyperplasia, and indicate a low basal proliferative rate in normal prostatic glands. The low TLI's of prostatic adenocarcinomas relative to other malignancies are consistent with their frequently slowly progressive course. The very low proliferative rate of seminal vesicular epithelium may account for the rarity of seminal vesicular carcinomas.

Meyer, J.S.; Sufrin, G.; Martin, S.A.



Proliferative activity of benign human prostate, prostatic adenocarcinoma and seminal vesicle evaluated by thymidine labeling  

SciTech Connect

The thymidine labeling index (TLI) was measured in vitro in the epithelium and stroma of benign prostate glands and seminal vesicles and in the epithelium of prostatic adenocarcinomas. The mean epithelial TLI of normal peripheral (posterior) prostatic zone was 0.12 percent, and that of the normal central (deep) zone was 0.11 percent. Mean normal stromal TLI's were 0.08 percent and 0.06 percent, respectively. The mean TLI of epithelium in nodular hyperplasia was 0.31 percent, which differs significantly from normal epithelium (p less than 0.05), and the mean stromal TLI was also increased (0.16 percent, p less than 0.1). The mean TLI of prostatic adenocarcinomas was 0.90 percent (range 0.14 to 3.90 percent) which was significantly higher than for either normal epithelium (p less than 0.001) or epithelium of nodular hyperplasia (p less than 0.05). Trends of increasing TLI with increasing histologic grades and increasing nuclear size and numbers of nucleoli were not significant. The data support participation of both epithelial and stromal proliferation in nodular hyperplasia, and indicate a low basal proliferative rate in normal prostatic glands. The low TLI's of prostatic adenocarcinomas relative to other malignancies are consistent with their frequently slowly progressive course. The very low proliferative rate of seminal vesicular epithelium (mean TLI 0.02 percent) may account for the rarity of seminal vesicular carcinomas.

Meyer, J.S.; Sufrin, G.; Martin, S.A.



Marked delay in indocyanine green plasma clearance with a near-normal bromosulphophthalein retention test: a constitutional abnormality?  

PubMed Central

Five patients showing a normal to near-normal BSP test and a marked delay in ICG plasma clearance, and two families with clustering of the same abnormality, are described. Two had Gilbert's syndrome, one was convalescing from acute hepatitis, and the other two had no detectable liver abnormality. Measured indices of ICG metabolism indicated a marked reduction in the hepatic uptake, storage capacity, biliary transport maximum, and an increased reflux into plasma. Biochemical studies on the binding of ICG by plasma proteins failed to demonstrate any difference from normal controls. Thus, the primary defect seems to be in the transport of ICG by the hepatocyte. Although the relationship of the defect in ICG metabolism to other constitutional hyperbilirubinaemias is not clear, it is possible that the defect in these patients is a constitutional one involving some steps in the hepatic disposal of organic anions.

Okuda, K; Ohkubo, H; Musha, H; Kotoda, K; Abe, H; Tanikawa, K



Effect of antioxidants and antibiotics on levels of seminal oxidative stress in leukocytospermic infertile men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defective sperm function is the most common cause of infertility. A prospective study was carried out to correlate the concentration\\u000a of nitrite (the stable metabolite of nitric oxide) in seminal plasma with leukocytospermia, and sperm membrane integrity.\\u000a Total Fifty-seven normozoospermic subjects with and without leukocytospermia visiting the Infertility clinic at KH and MRC,\\u000a Karad, were included in the present study.

Sunil B. Yadav; Adinath N. Suryakar; Anil D. Huddedar; Pramod S. Shukla



Numerical analysis of shroud gas effects on air entrainment into thermal plasma jet in ambient atmosphere of normal pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical analysis of the influence of air entrainment into the plasma jet on the thermal plasma characteristics is performed to provide a design basis for nontransferred plasma torches operated in an ambient air of atmospheric pressure along with shroud gas injection. The assumption of steady-state, axisymmetric, local thermodynamic equilibrium, and optically thin plasma is adopted in a two-dimensional modeling of thermal plasma flow with an annular shroud gas shell. A control volume method and a modified semi-implicit pressure linked equations revised algorithm (known as SIMPLER) are used for solving the governing equations, i.e., the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy along with the equations describing the so-called K-? model for flow turbulent kinetic energy (K) and its dissipation rate (?), and the mass fraction equations for gas mixing. The two-dimensional distributions of temperature and flow velocity of the thermal plasma jet as well as the air mole fraction mixed with the plasma are found in an exterior jet expanding region outside the torch, and they are compared for the two cases with and without shroud gas injection. As a result of calculations, the flow rate of the injected shroud gas and the location of its injector turn out to be major parameters for controlling ambient air entrainment. The calculations also reveal that the annular injection of shroud gas surrounding the plasma jet reduces air entrainment into the plasma jet remarkably while it does not significantly affect the plasma temperature and velocity. The present numerical modeling suggests the optimum design and operating values of an argon shroud gas injector for minimizing air entrainment into the thermal plasma flame ejected from the nontransferred plasma torch operated at normal pressure in the ambient atmosphere.

Kang, Kyoung Doo; Hong, Sang Hee



Molecular Microheterogeneity of Prostate Specific Antigen in Seminal Fluid by Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Objectives Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used and clinically valuable marker for prostate disease. In order to enable the development of new PSA assays and progress the understanding of the biology of PSA we have analyzed PSA in seminal plasma. Design and Methods PSA in seminal plasma from men attending a fertility clinic and healthy controls was analyzed using SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and mass spectrometry. Results Using mass spectrometry, different forms of PSA could be identified in 1–9 bands seen on SDS-PAGE analysis of the respective sample. However, a majority of these molecular forms of PSA were not observed on Western blots. Enzymatic activity of PSA isoforms was demonstrated by sequencing data in zymogram gels. Multivariate analysis of clinical data revealed well-separated patient groups. Conclusions We demonstrated that PSA in seminal plasma occurs in several isoforms, yet not all were detectable using an antibody based clinical routine method. The heterogeneity of PSA expression might be of clinical significance, by an improved patient phenotyping.

Vegvari, Akos; Rezeli, Melinda; Sihlbom, Carina; Hakkinen, Jari; Carlsohn, Elisabet; Malm, Johan; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas; Marko-Varga, Gyorgy



An Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) For Detection of Seminal Fluid Using a Monoclonal Antibody to Prostatic Acid Phosphatase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microtitre plate format enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), employing commercially available PASE\\/4LJ mouse monoclonal hybridoma antibody is described. The technique is a solid phase indirect ELISA for prostatic acid phosphatase, applicable to specific detection of semen. Maximal detectability was found to be one hundred thousand fold dilution of pooled seminal plasma. No cross reactivities with human vaginal fluid, blood,

Stewart M. Allen



Comparison of platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate secretion in whole blood and platelet-rich plasma from normal dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion were measured in whole blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) from normal dogs using electrical impedance and turbidimetric techniques. General appearance of the aggregation curves, ATP secretion, and aggregation rate were similar in PRP in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or collagen using both techniques. In response to ADP, aggregation was detected sooner while

J. S. Thomas



Water and sodium excretion in unilaterally denervated normal and sodium depleted anesthetized rats before and after plasma volume repletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible role of a reduction in plasma volume (PV) by surgery as well as the importance of dietary Na supply in denervation natriuresis have been investigated on Inactinanesthetized male rats subjected to acute unilateral renal sympathectomy. Four groups were studied: I. Normal Na diet (n=14); II. Low Na diet (boiled rice for 2 weeks)-isotonic glucose infusion (n=10); III. Low

Gábor Szénási; Pál Bencsáth; Lajos Takács; Bozena Asztalos



Simulation experimental investigation of plasma off-normal events on advanced silicon doped CFC-NS31  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion devices high heat loading due to off-normal events (e.g., plasma disruption, slow transients and ELMs, which can occur during a transition from detached to attached divertor operation) requires high thermal conductivity materials. Therefore, carbon fiber composites (CFCs) with high thermal conductivity are favorable. In the framework of the European Fusion Technology program, a great effort has been made to

J. P Bonal; C. H Wu; D Gosset



Increased plasma von Willebrand factor antigen levels but normal von Willebrand factor cleaving protease (ADAMTS13) activity in preeclampsia.  


The activity of ADAMTS13, the von Willebrand factor (VWF) cleaving protease is low in several conditions, including HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome. As HELLP syndrome develops in most cases on the basis of preeclampsia, our aim was to determine whether plasma ADAMTS13 activity is decreased in preeclampsia. Sixty-seven preeclamptic patients, 70 healthy pregnant women and 59 healthy non-pregnant women were involved in this case-control study. Plasma ADAMTS13 activity was determined with the FRETS-VWF73 assay, while VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) levels with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The multimeric pattern of VWF was analyzed by SDS-agarose gel electrophoresis. There was no significant difference in plasma ADAMTS13 activity between the preeclamptic and the healthy pregnant and non-pregnant groups (median [25-75 percentile]: 98.8 [76.5-112.8] %, 96.3 [85.6-116.2] % and 91.6 [78.5-104.4] %, respectively; p > 0.05). However, plasma VWF:Ag levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic patients than in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women (187.1 [145.6-243.1] % versus 129.3 [105.1-182.8] % and 70.0 [60.2-87.3] %, respectively; p < 0.001). The multimeric pattern of VWF was normal in each group. Primiparas had lower plasma ADAMTS13 activity than multi-paras (92.6 [75.8-110.6] % versus 104.2 [92.1-120.8] %; p = 0.011). No other relationship was found between clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters and plasma ADAMTS13 activity in either study group. In conclusion, plasma ADAMTS13 activity is normal in preeclampsia despite the increased VWF:Ag levels. However, further studies are needed to determine whether a decrease in plasma ADAMTS13 activity could predispose preeclamptic patients to develop HELLP syndrome. PMID:19190814

Molvarec, Attila; Rigó, János; Bõze, Tamás; Derzsy, Zoltán; Cervenak, László; Makó, Veronika; Gombos, Tímea; Udvardy, Miklós László; Hársfalvi, Jolán; Prohászka, Zoltán



Human sperm and other seminal constituents in male infertile patients from arsenic and cadmium rich areas of Southern Assam.  


In the present study the occurrence of two heavy metals, arsenic and cadmium, have been reported in the drinking water and seminal plasma of infertile male patients as compared to a control group. The study originated from a survey of geogenic groundwater contamination with the heavy metals arsenic and cadmium in Southern Assam, India as an increase in the incidence of male infertility was being reported from these areas. According to WHO protocol, patients with sperm concentration < 20 x 10(6)/ml were selected as cases (oligozoospermic and azoospermic), and those with > 20 x 10(6)/ml, without any extreme pathological disorders and having fathered a child within 1-2 years of marriage were the control (normozoospermic) group. The study reports an inverse relationship between total sperm count and heavy metal content in drinking water as well as seminal plasma of the subjects. Moreover, a high correlation between altered semenological parameters and lower expression of accessory sex gland markers like fructose, acid phosphatase, and neutral ?-glucosidase in the seminal plasma of patients is reported. The study also highlights significant differences of the sperm function parameters like hypo-osmotic swelling, acrosome reaction, and nuclear chromatin decondensation in the patient group as compared to controls. These findings are significant as they address a likely association between heavy metal stress and altered sperm function as well as seminal enzyme inhibition. PMID:23651453

Sengupta, Mahuya; Deb, Ishita; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Kar, Kushal Kumar



Quantum Effects in Plasma Dielectric Response: Plasmons and Shielding in Normal Systems and Graphene  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A brief review of quantum plasma theory and phenomenology in solid-state plasmas is presented here, with attention to dynamic\\u000a and nonlocal features of dielectric response. Focussing on the random-phase approximation, we discuss the RPA screening and\\u000a dielectric functions in three, two, and one dimensions corresponding to bulk, quantum well, and quantum wire plasmas, respectively,\\u000a taking care to distinguish quantum effects

Norman J. M. Horing


21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. 866...Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...



21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. 866...Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...



[The volume of the seminal vesicles in general senior population].  


The volume of the seminal vesicles in 413 males, who were submitted to a mass screening program for prostatic diseases by transrectal sonography, was measured by tracing ultrasonograms using a multi-planimeter. Ages of the subjects ranged from 46 to 88 years (mean age 67.0 years). The mean volume of the seminal vesicles for all cases was 14.55 +/- 5.11 cm3. The volume of the seminal vesicles was not related statistically to the height, body weight and body mass index of the subject. The volume of the seminal vesicles in cases of no prostatic diseases decreased with age, while that of cases of benign prostatic hypertrophy increased with the progress of the disease. These facts suggested that the seminal vesicles were androgen dependent, similar to the prostate. PMID:8065075

Akiyama, K



Coefficient of Friction Measured from Nano- to Macro-Normal Loads on Plasma Sprayed Nanostructured Cermet Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alumina dispersed FeCuAl-based nanostructured cermet coatings were deposited from nanostructured powders by atmospheric plasma spraying on low carbon steel substrates. Nanostructuring was retained in the deposited coatings which exhibit up to four distinctive phases as revealed by electron microscopy. In this study, the friction behavior of the distinctive phases at nano-normal load scale was investigated alongside their contribution to the overall friction behavior at macro-normal load scale. Friction behavior at nano-normal load scale was investigated by lateral force microscopy, whereas conventional tribometers were used for investigations at micro and macro-normal loads. It appeared that, the friction measured at nano-normal loads on individual phases is dictated by both composition and hardness of the corresponding phases, and thus influences the overall friction behavior of the coatings at macro-normal loads. Moreover, the coefficient of friction at macro-normal loads differs from the one at nano-normal loads, and deviates from Amonton's friction law.

Basak, A. K.; Celis, J.-P.; Vardavoulias, M.; Matteazzi, P.



Plasma monoamine metabolites and aggression: two studies of normal and oppositional defiant disorder children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two studies the relationship between plasma monoamine metabolites and different parameters of aggression were examined in children suffering from severe aggression and antisocial behavior. No prior studies have related measures of serotonergic function to experimentally elicited aggression and only a few included healthy comparison groups. Plasma 5-HIAA, HVA and MHPG were measured in 15 boys with a oppositional defiant

Stephanie H. M van Goozen; Walter Matthys; Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis; Herman Westenberg; Herman van Engeland



Modulation of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase expression in catfish seminal vesicles by thyroid disrupting agents and hormones.  


Thyroid hormones play crucial role in several biological processes including reproduction. Disruption of normal thyroid status by environmental contaminants can cause severe impairment in reproductive functions. In our previous study, we reported down-regulation of a protein in seminal vesicular fluid of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus during experimentally induced hyperthyroidism. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis followed by search in sequence database denoted it to be lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (ptgds-b). In the present study, we cloned full-length cDNA of ptgds-b based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence. Surprisingly, Northern blot as well as RT-PCR analysis demonstrated the presence of ptgds-b transcript predominantly in seminal vesicles and developing testis. Further, ptgds-b mRNA significantly decreased in seminal vesicles following L-thyroxine overdose while there was an increased expression of ptgds-b after depletion of thyroid hormone by thiourea and withdrawal of the treatments reverted this effect. Treatment of catfish with human chorionic gonadotropin and estradiol significantly reduced ptgds-b expression. Taken together, we report ptgds-b as a thyroid hormone regulated protein in the seminal vesicles in addition to gonadotropin and estradiol. Further studies might explain the exclusive presence of ptgds-b in seminal vesicles and developing testis yet present data evaluated it as a putative biomarker for thyroid hormone disruption. PMID:23973827

Gunti, Sreenivasulu; Ayinampudi, Pavani; Chenichery, Sudhakumari; Aparna, Dutta-Gupta; Balasubramanian, Senthilkumaran



Disease-causing missense mutations in NPHS2 gene alter normal nephrin trafficking to the plasma membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disease-causing missense mutations in NPHS2 gene alter normal nephrin trafficking to the plasma membrane.BackgroundPodocin is a membrane-integrated protein that is located at the glomerular slit diaphragm and directly interacts with nephrin. The gene encoding podocin, NPHS2, is mutated in patients with autosomal-recessive steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRN). In order to study a potential pathomechanism of massive proteinuria in patients with SRN,




Plasma and Membrane Ca2+ and Mg2+ Concentrations in Normal Pregnancy and in Preeclampsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Changes in intracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, whereas the role of cell membranes has not been studied in detail yet. To investigate the changes in Ca2+ and Mg2+ metabolism in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia, plasma and membrane Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations were determined in a clinical study as compared to

Klaus Kisters; Jens Körner; Frank Louwen; Ralph Witteler; Christian Jackisch; Walter Zidek; Stephanie Ott; Gerald Westermann; Michael Barenbrock; Karl H. Rahn



Management of Zinner's Syndrome Associated with Contralateral Seminal Vesicle Hypoplasia: A Case Report.  


A 27-year-old man presented with chronic hematospermia, painful ejaculation, and primary infertility. Physical examination, transrectal ultrasonography, and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated left seminal vesicle cyst, left renal agenesia, and contralateral seminal vesicle hypoplasia. Hormone workup (LH, FSH, prolactin, and testosterone) was normal. Sperm analysis showed oligoasthenozoospermia and low ejaculate volume. We performed transurethral resection of the ejaculatory duct (TUR-ED) using methylene blue vasography guidance without surgical-related complications. Hematospermia and painful ejaculation completely improved at 2-month followup, and the patient's wife experienced a missed abortion thereafter. This patient was considered as a rare variant of Zinner's syndrome and was managed effectively with a less invasive treatment modality (TUR-ED). PMID:23401842

Kardoust Parizi, Mehdi; Shakhssalim, Nasser



Management of Zinner's Syndrome Associated with Contralateral Seminal Vesicle Hypoplasia: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

A 27-year-old man presented with chronic hematospermia, painful ejaculation, and primary infertility. Physical examination, transrectal ultrasonography, and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated left seminal vesicle cyst, left renal agenesia, and contralateral seminal vesicle hypoplasia. Hormone workup (LH, FSH, prolactin, and testosterone) was normal. Sperm analysis showed oligoasthenozoospermia and low ejaculate volume. We performed transurethral resection of the ejaculatory duct (TUR-ED) using methylene blue vasography guidance without surgical-related complications. Hematospermia and painful ejaculation completely improved at 2-month followup, and the patient's wife experienced a missed abortion thereafter. This patient was considered as a rare variant of Zinner's syndrome and was managed effectively with a less invasive treatment modality (TUR-ED).

Kardoust Parizi, Mehdi; Shakhssalim, Nasser



[Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle difficult to differentiate from rectal carcinoma : a case report].  


A 78-year-old man with urinary retention visited our hospital in June 2011. He presented with intestinal bleeding one month later and was admitted immediately. Contrast enhancement computed tomography revealed a lobulated intrapelvic tumor and liver metastasis. The prostate specific antigen level was normal, but his carcinoembryonic antigen level was elevated. Based on these results, his tumor was diagnosed as rectal carcinoma. On day 26, total pelvic exenteration and pelvic lymph node dissection to arrest bleeding were performed. We created an ileal conduit for urinary diversion and performed a sigmoid colostomy. The final histopathological assessment confirmed that he had primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle. The patient received the best supportive care because he rejected postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. He died three months postoperatively. Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle is very rare. The prognosis for this carcinoma is poor. PMID:24113760

Kinjo, Takanori; Nonomura, Daichi; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Yoneda, Suguru; Nomura, Hironori; Tei, Norihide; Takada, Shingo; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Yanagimoto, Yoshitomo; Akamatsu, Daiki; Jokoji, Ryu; Tsujimoto, Masahiko



Vacuum ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, and x-ray line intensity normalization technique applied to tokamak plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An empirical procedure, ``LINT,'' for relating emission line intensities of intrinsic impurity ions to their elemental contributions to the total, bolometric, radiation loss and the volume-averaged effective ion charge, Zeff, has been developed and applied to limiter plasmas in the JET tokamak. In this article we discuss extensions to the data base to include x-ray lines and continua intensities, applicable to a wider range of tokamak plasma configurations such as X-point plasmas and quasi-steady-state, edge-cooled ELMy H modes. Examples are shown of the technique applied to reference discharges during which the plasma configuration is changed continuously. The total data set, comprising line and continua irradiances, tomographic bolometry, and x-ray emission and Zeff imposes constraints on the diffusion parameters used in models of impurity ion transport.

Peacock, N. J.; Lawson, K. D.; Barnsley, R.; Chen, H.



Plasma homocysteine and DNA damage profiles in normal and obese subjects in the Pakistani population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dependence of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and DNA damage profiles on melanodialdehyde (MDA), oxidative stress, liver\\u000a function tests (LFT), and lipids was studied in non-obese and obese subjects in the Pakistani population. Development of obesity\\u000a is influenced by both genetic, biochemical and environmental factors. Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and DNA damage profiles play\\u000a a pivotal role in its progression. We studied

Shazia A. Bukhari; Muhammad I. Rajoka; Saeed A. Nagra; Zia Ur Rehman



Estradiol and estetrol plasma levels before and after intravenous administration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in normal and pathologic pregnancies.  


Intravenous injections of 50 mg dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were given to 7 women with normal pregnancies and 5 with pathologic pregnancies and the serum levels of 17 beta-estradiol and estetrol were assayed before and at 15 or 30-minute intervals for three hours after the injection. All tests were carried out during the 25th to 36th week of amenorrhea. Serum estradiol rose rapidly in normal subjects and remained high to the end of the test. In patients with gestational pathology the estradiol pattern was not significantly different from that of the controls. Esterol plasma levels showed a biphasic pattern with an initial rise at 30 min. and a second rise at 90 min. in normal pregnancies, whereas in pathologic pregnancies this response was either lacking completely or was markedly reduced compared to the controls. PMID:161846

De Cecco, L; Capitanio, G L; Lanera, P; Pedretti, E; Ragni, N; Rossato, P; Venturini, P L



Calcium as a Regulator of the Proliferation of Normal, but Not of Transformed, Chicken Fibroblasts in a Plasma-Containing Medium  

PubMed Central

In a culture medium of low calcium concentration containing 5% heat-inactivated chicken plasma, normal chicken fibroblasts divide very slowly, while their counterparts transformed with Schmidt-Ruppin Rous sarcoma virus divide much more rapidly. In the same low-calcium medium, the use of heat-inactivated serum, rather than heat-inactivated plasma, results in rapid division of both normal and transformed cells. The use of heat-inactivated plasma rather than serum, and the use of a low-calcium medium, combine to permit the demonstration of a marked difference between the proliferative behaviors of normal and neoplastic cells and suggest a basis for the autonomy of the latter.

Balk, Samuel D.



Characterization of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma NPY levels in normal volunteers over a 24-h timeframe.  


Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundant in mammals, where it contributes to diverse behavioral and physiological functions, centrally and peripherally, but little information is available in regard to NPY cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/plasma concentration relationships and dynamics. Since plasma NPY levels are commonly used as proxy "biomarkers" for central NPY activity in stress and mental health research in humans this study aims to better characterize the CSF/plasma NPY relationships. Subjects were eleven healthy male volunteers, admitted to the clinical research center for placement of an indwelling CSF catheter, as well as venous catheter, for 24-h collection of CSF NPY (cNPY) and plasma NPY (pNPY) samples. As observed in prior studies, group mean (SE) cNPY concentrations [792.1 (7.80) pg/mL] were higher than pNPY concentrations [220.0 (3.63) pg/mL]. For the eleven normal volunteers who had sufficient common (hourly) pNPY and cNPY data points, analysis of pNPY/cNPY concentration ratios and lagged cross-correlation analysis was completed. Average pNPY/cNPY concentration ratios ranged from .20 to .40 across study subjects, with a mean of .29. pNPY/cNPY cross correlation analyses, computed at varying time lags, were non-significant. An attempt was made to analyze the circadian rhythmicity of NPY secretion, but circadian components were not detectable. Using 24-h data collection, we characterized CSF/plasma NPY relationships, including presentation of evidence of weak CSF and plasma correlations, an important consideration for study design of NPY in stress or mental health. PMID:23759334

Baker, Dewleen G; Bertram, Tobias Moeller; Patel, Piyush M; Barkauskas, Donald A; Clopton, Paul; Patel, Sejal; Geracioti, Thomas D; Haji, Uzair; O'Connor, Daniel T; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Hauger, Richard L



Normal and anormal microstructure of plasma nitrided Fe-Cr alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma nitriding behavior of Fe-Cr alloys has been studied at temperatures in the range of 773–873 K in order to provide basic knowledge for microstructure design of nitrided layers and to improve the wear resistance. In the nitriding temperature of 773 K, typical microstructure of nitrided layers was observed as reported elsewhere. However, anormal microstructure of nitrided layers was observed

Novi Granito; Hideyuki Kuwahara; Tatsuhiko Aizawa



Differential expression of SLAMS and other modulatory molecules by human plasma cells during normal maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma cells (PCs) are specialized in antibody (Ab) production and they are, therefore, responsible for maintaining humoral immune responses. The human PC compartment is heterogeneous. PCs from inductive secondary lymphoid organs and from peripheral blood (PB) show less capability for prolonged survival and Ab production than bone marrow (BM) PCs, a pool consisting of fully mature cells. The HLDA9 workshop

Beatriz Rodríguez-Bayona; Ana Ramos-Amaya; José A. Brieva



The dimensions and symmetry of the seminal vesicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional anatomical description of the seminal vesicles is based on autopsy and imaging studies. Trans-peritoneal robotic-assisted\\u000a laproscopic surgery, with its three-dimensional magnified view and miniature articulated working instruments, provides an\\u000a opportunity to perform accurate dissections of the seminal vesicles even when extremely long and tortuous. We used specimens\\u000a obtained by robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RLRP) for accurate anatomic assessment

O. N. Gofrit; K. C. Zorn; J. B. Taxy; G. P. Zagaja; G. D. Steinberg; A. L. Shalhav



Evidence of free leptin in human seminal plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin is an adipose tissue-secreted hormone that actively participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Besides this\\u000a principal role, leptin has been implicated in a large variety of neuroendocrine, paracrine, and autocrine actions involved\\u000a in the regulation of reproductive function in both experimental animals and humans. Although the participation of leptin in\\u000a female reproduction is well established, any role in

Jesus P. Camiña; Mary Lage; Carmela Menendez; Maria Graña; Jesus García-Devesa; Carlos Dieguez; Felipe F. Casanueva



Investigation of Seminal Plasma Hypersensitivity Reactions (AIBS GWI 0046).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since returning from the Gulf War (GW), veterans and/or their sexual partners have been experiencing burning, pain and swelling of the urogenital tract after exposure to semen. This phenomenon, referred to as Burning Semen Syndrome' (BSS), is similar to s...

J. Bernstein



A novel extreme ultraviolet four channels normal incidence imaging system for plasma diagnostics of Z-pinch facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel EUV four channels normal incidence imaging system for plasma diagnostics of Z-pinch facility was presented in this paper, which consists of four concave mirrors and one convex mirror used for focusing an object onto four different positions with about 30 ?m resolution on the same image plane. In addition, this imaging system can work at the energies of 50 eV, 95 eV, 150 eV, and broadband of 50-100 eV by using different multilayer films deposited on the concave and convex mirrors. This instrument, combined with framing camera, can achieve the power of two-dimensional spatial and temporal resolution, as well as the ability to imaging the plasma at the specific temperature. In the paper, the four channels microscope centering at multi-energies was developed.

Wang, Xin; Mu, Baozhong; Zhu, Jingtao; Wang, Ling; Yi, Shengzhen; Li, Wenbin; Wang, Zhanshan; Qin, Yi; Xu, Zeping; Xu, Rongkun; Li, Zhenghong



A novel extreme ultraviolet four channels normal incidence imaging system for plasma diagnostics of Z-pinch facility.  


A novel EUV four channels normal incidence imaging system for plasma diagnostics of Z-pinch facility was presented in this paper, which consists of four concave mirrors and one convex mirror used for focusing an object onto four different positions with about 30 ?m resolution on the same image plane. In addition, this imaging system can work at the energies of 50 eV, 95 eV, 150 eV, and broadband of 50-100 eV by using different multilayer films deposited on the concave and convex mirrors. This instrument, combined with framing camera, can achieve the power of two-dimensional spatial and temporal resolution, as well as the ability to imaging the plasma at the specific temperature. In the paper, the four channels microscope centering at multi-energies was developed. PMID:23902074

Wang, Xin; Mu, Baozhong; Zhu, Jingtao; Wang, Ling; Yi, Shengzhen; Li, Wenbin; Wang, Zhanshan; Qin, Yi; Xu, Zeping; Xu, Rongkun; Li, Zhenghong



Electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometric analysis of intact bikunin glycosaminoglycan from normal human plasma  

PubMed Central

A mixture of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains from a plasma proteoglycan bikunin was fractionated using native, continuous-elution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the resulting fractions were analyzed by electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ESI FTMS). Molecular mass analysis of the intact GAG afforded information about the length and composition of GAG chains in the mixture. Ambiguity in the interpretation of the intact GAG mass spectra was eliminated by conducting an additional experiment in which the GAG chains of known molecular mass were treated with a GAG-degrading enzyme, chondroitinase ABC, and the digestion products were analyzed by ESI FTMS. The plasma bikunin GAG chains consisted predominantly of odd number of saccharides, although few chains consisting of even number of saccharides were also detected. Majority of the analyzed chains were tetrasulfated or pentasulfated and comprised by 29 to 41 monosaccharides.

Laremore, Tatiana N.; Leach, Franklin E.; Amster, I. Jonathan; Linhardt, Robert J.



Compact scanning soft-x-ray microscope using a laser-produced plasma source and normal-incidence multilayer mirrors.  


We have constructed a scanning soft-x-ray microscope that uses a laser-produced plasma as the soft-x-ray source and normal-incidence multilayer-coated mirrors in a Schwarzschild configuration as the focusing optics. The microscope operates at a wavelength of 14 nm, has a spatial resolution of 0.5 microm, and has a soft-x-ray photon flux through the focus of 10(4)-10(5) sec(-1) when operated with only 170 mW of average laser power. The microscope is compact; the complete system, including the laser, fits on a single optical table. PMID:19752889

Trail, J A; Byer, R L



Plasma ghrelin response following a period of acute overfeeding in normal weight men  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ghrelin, a 28 amino-acid peptide secreted primarily from the stomach has been identified as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin is suppressed in the postprandial state and has been linked to both type II diabetes and obesity.AIMS: To investigate the effects of a period of overfeeding with high-fat dietary supplements on plasma ghrelin levels in

M D Robertson; R A Henderson; G E Vist; R D E Rumsey



Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and change of cell viability induced by atmospheric pressure plasma in normal and cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on cancer cells (human lung carcinoma cells) and normal cells (embryonic kidney cells and bronchial epithelial cells) were investigated. Using a detection dye, the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found to be increased in plasma-treated cells compared to non-treated and gas flow-treated cells. A significant overproduction of ROS and a reduction in cell viability were induced by plasma exposure on cancer cells. Normal cells were observed to be less affected by the plasma-mediated ROS, and cell viability was less changed. The selective effect on cancer and normal cells provides a promising prospect of cold plasma as a cancer therapy.

Ja Kim, Sun; Min Joh, Hea; Chung, T. H.



Effect of season on seminal traits and serum hormone concentrations in captive male Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris).  


Electroejaculates and serum samples were collected throughout the year from 5 male Siberian tigers. Semen quality, seminal plasma chemistry and serum hormone concentrations were evaluated and analysed as a function of season. Semen volume, concentration, motility, viability and morphology were not influenced by season. The ability of spermatozoa to undergo capacitation and penetrate zona-free hamster eggs did not differ due to season. Season had no influence on seminal plasma concentrations of acid phosphatase, calcium, glucose, potassium and phosphorus. Serum values of thyroxine and triiodothyronine were lowest (P = 0.002 and P = 0.03, respectively) during the summer months while cortisol showed no seasonal variation. Serum testosterone concentrations were higher in fall and early winter (P less than 0.001) than at other times of the year but were not correlated with semen quality. These results demonstrate that season has no effect on the semen production and quality of captive male Siberian tigers. PMID:2231534

Byers, A P; Hunter, A G; Seal, U S; Graham, E F; Tilson, R L



Metabolism of neutral glycosphingolipids in plasma of a normal human and a patient with Fabry's disease.  


[6-2H2]Glucose was used as a tracer for a comparative study on the metabolism of the neutral glycosylceramides in plasma of a control subject and a patient with Fabry's disease. The incorporation of the tracer into the glucosyl and galactosyl moieties of the glycosphingolipids was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the tetra-0-acetyl methyl glycoside derivatives. Experiments on the precision and accuracy for measurements of [6,6-2H2]hexose in a sample demonstrated that incorporation of 0.2% or more of [6,6-2H2]glucose could be detected with a 95% confidence limit of +/-0.16%. The labeled substrate (35g) was infused into each subject with a 5-g priming dose and the remainder administered at a constant rate of 3 g/hour over a 10-hour period. During the infusion, the plasma glucose of each subject attained a concentration of about 30% [6,6-2H2]glucose which diminished rapidly after the administration of substrate was complete. A concentration of 0.8% [6,6-2H2]glucose was observed in glucosylceramide (GL-la) from plasma of both subjects between 48 and 72 hours after the infusion began. The label disappeared from this lipid at a logarithmic rate and 0.2% or less of the molecules were labeled 9 days after the experiment began. In contrast to the results with GL-la, the maximum incorporation of [6,6-2H2]hexose into lactosylceramide (galactosyl-(beta1 leads to 4)-glucosylceramide) was 2-fold higher in the Fabry patient (1.6%) than in the control (0.8%). The trihexosylceramide (galactosyl-(alpha1 leads to 4)-galactosyl-(beta1 leads to 4)-glucosylceramide, GL-3a) from plasma of the control reached a maximum of 0.4% [6,6-2H2]hexose in both the glucosyl and galactosyl moieties whereas the GL-3a from the Fabry patient was not significantly labeled. The maximal labeling of the GL-4a fraction (N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-galactosyl-galactosyl-glucosylceramide) was slightly depressed in the Fabry patient (0.4%) as compared to the control (0.7%). Turnover times for the glycosphingolipids of plasma were calculated to be from 4 to 8 days and the turnover rates were from 1 to 6 mumol/day. PMID:809441

Vance, D E; Krivit, W; Sweeley, C C



Isolation of Plasma Membrane from Porcine Spermatozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is reported for isolating plasma membrane from porcine spermatozoa. Sperm were separated from gel particles and seminal plasma and subjected to low-intensity sonication that fragmented the plasma membrane, but minimized damage to the acrosome, nucleus and mitochondria. After cytoplasmic droplets and plasma membrane-depleted sperm were removed by differential centrifugation, the plasma membrane fragments were purified by flotation through

D. D. Lunstra; E. D. Clegg; D. J. Morré



[Seminal cytokines: is quantification useful in urogenital disorders?].  


Cytokines are cellular messengers which play a key role in many biological conditions such as immune defence and reproduction. During recent years analysis of seminal cytokines has become of increasing interest in various pathologies. To evaluate the current role of seminal cytokines we performed a systematic literature search within the framework of our focus group "Male Infertility during Infection and Inflammation - MIBIE". Out of 581 manuscripts we identified 124 original articles which investigated a total of 31 different cytokines. These studies can be categorized according to the following three topics: infertility, infections and chronic prostatitis. The current analysis demonstrates that seminal cytokine profiles are not associated with either semen quality or fertility; however, cytokines might be beneficial for diagnosis and monitoring therapy in patients with urogenital infections/inflammation. Further studies are needed to clarify if a single cytokine or a combination of different cytokines is necessary to evaluate different pathologies. PMID:23429883

Pilatz, A; Hudemann, C; Wagenlehner, F; Schuppe, H-C; Diemer, T; Weidner, W; Renz, H; Bschleipfer, T



Tin speciation in the femtogram range in open ocean seawater by gas chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a shield torch at normal plasma conditions.  


A sensitive method for the determination of ultratrace organotin species in seawater is described. The merits and demerits of derivatization methods using Grignard reagent or sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt4) were evaluated in terms of derivatization efficiency, applicability to the programmed temperature vaporization (PTV) method, and procedural blanks. The sensitivity of the gas chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC/ICPMS) was improved by more than 100-fold by operating the shield torch at normal plasma conditions, compared with that obtained without using it. The absolute detection limit as tin reached subfemtogram (fg) levels. Furthermore, the detection limit in terms of relative concentration was improved 100-fold by using the PTV method, which enabled the injection of a large sample volume of as much as 100 microL without loss of analyte. When the organotin species in seawater were extracted into hexane with a preconcentration factor of 1000 after ethylation with NaBEt4 and a 100 microL aliquot of the extract was injected into the GC, the instrumental detection limit in relative concentration reached 0.01 pg/L in original seawater. Sources of contamination of organotin species during the sample preparation were examined, and a purification method of NaBEt4 was developed. Finally, the method was successfully applied to open ocean seawater samples containing organotin species at the level of 1-100 pg/L. PMID:10517144

Tao, H; Rajendran, R B; Quetel, C R; Nakazato, T; Tominaga, M; Miyazaki, A



Global gene expression profiling of multiple myeloma, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, and normal bone marrow plasma cells.  


Bone marrow plasma cells (PCs) from 74 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM), 5 with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and 31 healthy volunteers (normal PCs) were purified by CD138(+) selection. Gene expression of purified PCs and 7 MM cell lines were profiled using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays interrogating about 6800 genes. On hierarchical clustering analysis, normal and MM PCs were differentiated and 4 distinct subgroups of MM (MM1, MM2, MM3, and MM4) were identified. The expression pattern of MM1 was similar to normal PCs and MGUS, whereas MM4 was similar to MM cell lines. Clinical parameters linked to poor prognosis, abnormal karyotype (P =.002) and high serum beta(2)-microglobulin levels (P =.0005), were most prevalent in MM4. Also, genes involved in DNA metabolism and cell cycle control were overexpressed in a comparison of MM1 and MM4. In addition, using chi(2) and Wilcoxon rank sum tests, 120 novel candidate disease genes were identified that discriminate normal and malignant PCs (P <.0001); many are involved in adhesion, apoptosis, cell cycle, drug resistance, growth arrest, oncogenesis, signaling, and transcription. A total of 156 genes, including FGFR3 and CCND1, exhibited highly elevated ("spiked") expression in at least 4 of the 74 MM cases (range, 4-25 spikes). Elevated expression of these 2 genes was caused by the translocation t(4;14)(p16;q32) or t(11;14)(q13;q32). Thus, novel candidate MM disease genes have been identified using gene expression profiling and this profiling has led to the development of a gene-based classification system for MM. PMID:11861292

Zhan, Fenghuang; Hardin, Johanna; Kordsmeier, Bob; Bumm, Klaus; Zheng, Mingzhong; Tian, Erming; Sanderson, Ralph; Yang, Yang; Wilson, Carla; Zangari, Maurizio; Anaissie, Elias; Morris, Christopher; Muwalla, Firas; van Rhee, Frits; Fassas, Athanasios; Crowley, John; Tricot, Guido; Barlogie, Bart; Shaughnessy, John



Bleeding management with fibrinogen concentrate targeting a high-normal plasma fibrinogen level: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Bleeding diathesis after aortic valve operation and ascending aorta replacement (AV–AA) is managed with fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet concentrates. The aim was to compare haemostatic effects of conventional transfusion management and FIBTEM (thromboelastometry test)-guided fibrinogen concentrate administration. Methods A blood products transfusion algorithm was developed using retrospective data from 42 elective patients (Group A). Two units of platelet concentrate were transfused after cardiopulmonary bypass, followed by 4 u of FFP if bleeding persisted, if platelet count was ?100×103 µl?1 when removing the aortic clamp, and vice versa if platelet count was >100×103 µl?1. The trigger for each therapy step was ?60 g blood absorbed from the mediastinal wound area by dry swabs in 5 min. Assignment to two prospective groups was neither randomized nor blinded; Group B (n=5) was treated according to the algorithm, Group C (n=10) received fibrinogen concentrate (Haemocomplettan® P/Riastap, CSL Behring, Marburg, Germany) before the algorithm-based therapy. Results A mean of 5.7 (0.7) g fibrinogen concentrate decreased blood loss to below the transfusion trigger level in all Group C patients. Group C had reduced transfusion [mean 0.7 (range 0–4) u vs 8.5 (5.3) in Group A and 8.2 (2.3) in Group B] and reduced postoperative bleeding [366 (199) ml vs 793 (560) in Group A and 716 (219) in Group B]. Conclusions In this pilot study, FIBTEM-guided fibrinogen concentrate administration was associated with reduced transfusion requirements and 24 h postoperative bleeding in patients undergoing AV–AA.

Rahe-Meyer, N.; Pichlmaier, M.; Haverich, A.; Solomon, C.; Winterhalter, M.; Piepenbrock, S.; Tanaka, K. A.



Differential expression of SLAMS and other modulatory molecules by human plasma cells during normal maturation.  


Plasma cells (PCs) are specialized in antibody (Ab) production and they are, therefore, responsible for maintaining humoral immune responses. The human PC compartment is heterogeneous. PCs from inductive secondary lymphoid organs and from peripheral blood (PB) show less capability for prolonged survival and Ab production than bone marrow (BM) PCs, a pool consisting of fully mature cells. The HLDA9 workshop has allowed the use of labeled-monoclonal Abs (moAbs) recognizing a variety of recently identified lymphocyte modulatory surface receptors. In this study, flow cytometry analysis has been used to define the presence of these receptors on human PCs obtained from human tonsil (as an example of inductive organ), from PB and from BM. It was found that human PCs commonly expressed SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), SLAMF3 (CD229), SLAMF6 (CD352) and SLAMF7 (CD319), but not SLAMF4 (CD244). In addition, PCs distinctively showed a low level of SLAMF5 (CD84) and a very high level of SLAMF7 expression in comparison with earlier stages of B cell maturation. All PC subsets exhibited a similar pattern of expression of SLAMF receptors suggesting a stage-dependent role for these proteins. In addition, most circulating PCs clearly expressed TNFRSF14 (CD270), BTLA (CD272), B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86), and a substantial fraction of them were also positive for TNFRSF18 (CD357), FCRL1 (CD307a) and LAIR-1 (CD305). In contrast, tonsil and BM PCs only exhibited partial expression of TNFRSF14 and B7-2, a pattern of molecular expression similar to that detected on germinal center (GC) B cells. Present results indicate that human PCs exhibit a common pattern of SLAMF proteins, but differ in the rest of the receptors examined; this difference might be associated with their distinctive homing and functional requirements. PMID:20923684

Rodríguez-Bayona, Beatriz; Ramos-Amaya, Ana; Brieva, José A



Cell-Free Seminal mRNA and MicroRNA Exist in Different Forms  

PubMed Central

Background The great interest in cell-free mRNA, microRNA (miRNA) as molecular biomarkers for clinical applications, and as ‘signaling’ molecules for intercellular communication highlights the need to reveal their physical nature. Here this issue was explored in human cell-free seminal mRNA (cfs-mRNA) and miRNA (cfs-miRNA). Methodology/Principal Findings Selected male reproductive organ-specific mRNAs, miRNAs, and piRNAs were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR in all experiments. While the stability of cfs-miRNA assessed by time-course analysis (up to 24 h at room temperature) was similar with cfs-mRNA, the reductive changes between cfs-miRNA and cfs-mRNA after filtration and Triton X-100 treatment on seminal plasma were very different, implying their different physical nature. Seminal microvesicles (SMVs) were then recovered and proportions of cfs-mRNA and cfs-miRNA within SMVs were quantified. The amounts of SMVs- sequestered cfs-mRNAs almost were the same as total cfs-mRNA, and were highly variable depending on the different sizes of SMVs. But most of cfs-miRNA was independent of SMVs and existed in the supernatant. The possible form of cfs-miRNA in the supernatant was further explored by filtration and protease K digestion. It passed through the 0.10-µm pore, but was degraded dramatically after intense protease K digestion. Conclusions/Significance The predominant cfs-mRNA is contained in SMVs, while most cfs-miRNA is bound with protein complexes. Our data explained the stability of extracellular RNAs in human semen, and shed light on their origins and potential functions in male reproduction, and strategy of developing them as biomarkers of male reproductive system.

Li, Honggang; Huang, Shiyun; Guo, Cuicui; Guan, Huangtao; Xiong, Chengliang



Mated Drosophila melanogaster females require a seminal fluid protein, Acp36DE, to store sperm efficiently.  

PubMed Central

Mated females of many animal species store sperm. Sperm storage profoundly influences the number, timing, and paternity of the female's progeny. To investigate mechanisms for sperm storage in Drosophila melanogaster, we generated and analyzed mutations in Acp36DE. Acp36DE is a male seminal fluid protein whose localization in mated females suggested a role in sperm storage. We report that male-derived Acp36DE is essential for efficient sperm storage by females. Acp36DE(1) (null) mutant males produced and transferred normal amounts of sperm and seminal fluid proteins. However, mates of Acp36DE(1) males stored only 15% as many sperm and produced 10% as many adult progeny as control-mated females. Moreover, without Acp36DE, mated females failed to maintain an elevated egg-laying rate and decreased receptivity, behaviors whose persistence (but not initiation) normally depends on the presence of stored sperm. Previous studies suggested that a barrier in the oviduct confines sperm and Acp36DE to a limited area near the storage organs. We show that Acp36DE is not required for barrier formation, but both Acp36DE and the barrier are required for maximal sperm storage. Acp36DE associates tightly with sperm. Our results indicate that Acp36DE is essential for the initial storage of sperm, and that it may also influence the arrangement and retention of stored sperm.

Neubaum, D M; Wolfner, M F



Seminal vesicle-secreted proteins and their reactions during gelation and liquefaction of human semen.  

PubMed Central

The comparison of measurements of fibronectin and lactoferrin in ejaculates from vasectomized men, subjects with functional deficiency or aplasia of the seminal vesicles, and reference subjects provided evidence that both the fibronectin and the lactoferrin in human seminal fluid originate from the seminal vesicles and the ampullae. The fibronectin is incorporated in the framework of the seminal gel formed during the immediate postejaculatory phase, whereas the lactoferrin remains in solution. In the seminal gel fibronectin is linked to its predominant structural protein, a high molecular weight seminal vesicle protein (semenogelin). Both the gel-bound fibronectin and semenogelin are progressively fragmented and solubilized by the abundant prostatic kallikrein-like protease (prostate-specific antigen) during and after seminal gel liquefaction. Lactoferrin remains essentially unaffected by the seminal proteases. Images

Lilja, H; Oldbring, J; Rannevik, G; Laurell, C B



Effect of Growth Hormone-Releasing Factor on Plasma Growth Hormone, Prolactin and Somatomedin C in Hypopituitary and Short Normal Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of a single intravenous bolus of 0.5 ?g\\/kg of growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) on plasma GH, prolactin (PRL) and somatomedin C (SMC) in 12 short normal children and 24 patients with severe GH deficiency (GHD), i.e. GH < 5 ng\\/ml after insulin and glucagon tolerance tests. GRF elicited an increase in plasma GH in both short

Guy Van Vliet; Danièle Bosson; Claude Robyn; Margareta Craen; Paul Malvaux; Magda Vanderschueren-Lodeweyckx; Renée Wolter



Quantitation of virus-induced (mlr) and normal (thy.1.2) Cell surface antigens in isolated plasma membranes and the extracellular ascites fluid of mouse leukemia cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Plasma membranes were isolated by two methods from mouse leukemia cells containing mammary tumor virus-induced (MLr) and normal (Thy.l.2) antigens on their surfaces. A number of chemical components, enzymic activities, and the antigenic contents were determined in subcellular fractions and found to be specifically concen- trated in the plasma membrane fractions. The major part of the cellular MLr, in

W. J. Van Blitterswijk; P. Emmelot; J. Hilgers; D. Kamlag; C. A. Feltkamp



Seminal vesicle invasion in radical prostatectomies: Which is the most common route of invasion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction   Very few studies have been published on seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), and these have obtained conflicting results. The\\u000a aim of the present investigation was to determine the most frequent of three possible routes of seminal vesicle invasion:\\u000a (1) extraprostatic extension (EPE) into soft tissue adjacent to the seminal vesicle and then into the wall of the seminal\\u000a vesicle, (2)

Athanase Billis; Daniel A. Teixeira; Rafael F. Stelini; Maísa M. Quintal; Marbele S. Guimarães; Ubirajara Ferreira



Numerical analysis of shroud gas effects on air entrainment into thermal plasma jet in ambient atmosphere of normal pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical analysis of the influence of air entrainment into the plasma jet on the thermal plasma characteristics is performed to provide a design basis for nontransferred plasma torches operated in an ambient air of atmospheric pressure along with shroud gas injection. The assumption of steady-state, axisymmetric, local thermodynamic equilibrium, and optically thin plasma is adopted in a two-dimensional modeling

Kyoung Doo Kang; Sang Hee Hong



An unusual cause of hematospermia: Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle  

PubMed Central

Adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles is one of the rare causes of hematospermia. Primary seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose due to frequent invasion of adenocarcinomas of the surrounding organs, especially the prostate. In the present study, a case of a primary seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma will be discussed in the light of the current literature.

Eken, Alper; Izol, Volkan; Aridogan, I. Atilla; Erdogan, Seyda; Ac?kal?n, Arbil; Tansug, Zuhtu



Effects of Soy-derived diets on plasma and liver lipids, glucose tolerance, and longevity in normal, long-lived and short-lived mice.  


We examined the effects of diets based on a low isoflavone or a high isoflavone soy protein isolates in normal, growth-hormone receptor knockout and Ames dwarf, and Prop 1 (df) mice that are hypoinsulinemic, insulin-sensitive, and exceptionally long-lived, as well as in growth hormone transgenic mice that are hyperinsulinemic, insulin-resistant, dyslipidemic, and short-lived. Soybean diets tended to normalize plasma cholesterol levels in dwarf and transgenic mice, while low isoflavone diet reduced plasma triglycerides in most of the examined genotypes. The effects of low isoflavone and high isoflavone diets on the levels of free and esterified cholesterol in the liver were strongly genotype-dependent. Fasting blood glucose levels were reduced and glucose tolerance improved by both low isoflavone and high isoflavone diets in growth hormone-transgenic mice and in their normal siblings. Glucose tolerance was also improved by high-isoflavone diet in growth hormone receptor knockout mice. Lifespan was increased by low isoflavone diet in normal mice from two of the examined stocks. High isoflavone diet increased lifespan in normal animals from one line, but reduced lifespan of normal mice from a different line. We conclude that dietary soy protein intake can improve plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, reduce fasting glucose, enhance capacity for glucose tolerance, and prolong life, but all of these effects are strongly genotype-dependent. PMID:15326565

Bartke, A; Peluso, M R; Moretz, N; Wright, C; Bonkowski, M; Winters, T A; Shanahan, M F; Kopchick, J J; Banz, W J



Albendazole sulphoxide concentrations in plasma of endemic normals from a lymphatic filariasis endemic region using liquid chromatography.  


A simple and sensitive reversed-phase isocratic HPLC method for the determination of albendazole and its metabolites has been developed. The mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-water-perchloric acid (70%) (30:110:0.06 (v/v/v)) was pumped at a flow rate of 0.80 ml/min on a 5 microm, reverse phase, Discovery RPamide C16 column with UV detection at 290 nm. The calibration graphs were linear in the range of 0.05- 1 microg/ml for albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide and albendazole sulphone. The limit of quantification was 50 ng/ml for albendazole, 25 ng/ml for albendazole sulphoxide and 30 ng/ml for albendazole sulphone. The within-day and day-to-day coefficient of variation averaged 4.98 and 6.95% for albendazole, 3.83 and 6.83% for albendazole sulphoxide and 3.44 and 5.51% for albendazole sulphone, respectively. The mean extraction recoveries of albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide and albendazole sulphone were 79.25, 93.03 and 88.78%, respectively. The method was applied to determine the plasma levels of albendazole sulphoxide in endemic normals administered with albendazole during pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:14670741

Sarin, Reema; Dash, A P; Dua, V K



Evaluation of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) membrane test assays for the forensic identification of seminal fluid.  


Prostate specific antigen (PSA, also known as p30), a glycoprotein produced by the prostatic gland and secreted into seminal plasma, is a marker used for demonstrating the presence of seminal fluid. Methods for the detection of PSA include Ouchterlony double diffusion, crossover electrophoresis, rocket immuno-electrophoresis, radial immunodiffusion, and ELISA. The extremely sensitive ELISA technique can detect PSA in concentrations as low as approximately 4 ng/mL. However, all these techniques are cumbersome and time consuming to perform in forensic laboratories, especially when only a few samples per week are processed. Various membrane tests are currently used in clinical settings to screen a patient's serum for the presence of PSA at levels greater than 4 ng/mL. In this study we evaluated three immunochromatographic PSA membrane tests by analyzing semen stains stored at room temperature for up to 30 years, post-coital vaginal swabs taken at different time after intercourse, semen-free vaginal swabs, and various female and male body fluids, including urine. The data demonstrate that PSA membrane test assays offer the same sensitivity as ELISA-based tests and provide a rapid approach for the forensic identification of seminal fluid. Furthermore, when the supernatant from a DNA extraction is used for the assay, there is essentially no DNA consumption for determining the presence of PSA in a forensic sample. PMID:10486959

Hochmeister, M N; Budowle, B; Rudin, O; Gehrig, C; Borer, U; Thali, M; Dirnhofer, R



Fat partitioning and biochemical characteristics of fatty tissues in relation to plasma metabolites and hormones in normal and double-muscled young growing bulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma metabolites and hormones, and the biochemical characteristics of four fatty tissues (FT) were studied in two groups of six normal (N) or six double-muscled (DM) Belgian Blue young growing bulls fed the same net energy amount at the same live weight and slaughtered at 10 months of age. Average daily gain and feed efficiency did not significantly differ between

Jean-François Hocquette; Pierre Bas; Dominique Bauchart; Michel Vermorel; Yves Geay



Vergleichende autoradiographische in vitro-untersuchungen zur zellproliferation normaler und psoriatischer epidermis bei inkubation in autologem plasma und in eagles basal medium mit 10% fetalem Kälberserum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In normal human epidermis and in psoriasis we examined the cytokinetics under in vitro-conditions. We found a continuity of DNA-synthesis during the first 2 hrs of incubations. There were no significant differences between the data obtained by incubation in autologous plasma or in Eagles Basal Medium with 10% fetal calf serum.

H. Pullmann; H. Schumacher



Usefulness of lyophilized calibration plasmas for International Normalized Ratio determination with the bovine combined thromboplastin (Thrombotest): results of a collaborative study.  


The logical solution to account for the influence of coagulometers on the International Sensitivity Index (ISI) is local calibration with freeze-dried plasmas. However, because of their unpredictable behavior these plasmas must be validated before large-scale implementation. We report on a collaborative exercise designed to evaluate the suitability of a set of such plasmas used with Thrombotest in combination with a coagulometer provided by the manufacturer to be used with that reagent. This was a two-step study. First, one lot of reagent was calibrated against the international standard OBT/79 in two expert laboratories. The calibrated lot was then used as an intermediate standard to calibrate two additional lots of the same reagent in four field laboratories where the ISI was determined for both plasma and native blood. The International Normalized Ratio (INR) for the patient plasmas tested in each laboratory were calculated using two algorithms: the World Health Organization-recommended ISI mode (gold standard), and the simplified calibration plasma mode. In the latter, the INR was derived from the local calibration curve constructed by plotting the certified INR versus local coagulation times obtained with calibration plasmas. The between-algorithm INR differences indicate that this set of calibration plasmas may be employed for local INR calibration of the investigated reagent/instrument combination, especially when plasma is used for INR determination where the average INR (range) difference is 5% (3-13%) or 2% (3-8%) according to whether the INRs to calibration plasmas were assigned by the manufacturer or by the two expert laboratories. A slight but measurable difference of the INR may be predicted [9% (6-20%) or 6% (8-15%)] if this set of calibration plasmas is used for local calibration when native blood is employed for INR determination. Whether this bias is of practical significance is to be determined. PMID:15741805

Chantarangkul, Veena; Frontoni, Rita; Gresele, Paolo; Oca, Gaetana; Paniccia, Rita; Pellegrini, Lucio; Tripodi, Armando



A comparison of high performance gel permeation chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the analysis of plasma from normal subjects and cancer patients  

SciTech Connect

High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) was evaluated as an alternative to the more expensive Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy technique for cancer detection using human plasma. These two techniques show a biphasic relationship which can be explained on the basis of the relative amounts of the lipoprotein levels present in the plasma and a good correlation with total triglyceride concentrations obtained from standard blood tests. The major difference in the GPC elution profiles (254 nm) of plasma from normal individuals and that from cancer patients occurred in the peak eluting at the void volume. This peak has a retention time consistent with very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and is elevated in most cancer patients and in normal patients with triglyceride levels greater than 200 mg/ml. The use of these techniques as a screening test for cancer in an asymptomatic population needs further evaluation.

Chmurny, G.N.; Mellini, M.L.; Halverson, D.; Issaq, H.J.; Muschik, G.M.; Urba, W.J.; McGregor, G.N.; Hilton, B.D.; Caporaso, N.; Smith, I.C.P.



Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects  

SciTech Connect

SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values.

Itoh, S.; Tanaka, K.; Kumagae, M.; Takeda, F.; Morio, K.; Kogure, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Watabe, T.; Miyabe, S.



Comparative in vitro study of the pro-apolipoprotein A-I to apolipoprotein A-I converting activity between normal and Tangier plasma.  

PubMed Central

We examined the ability of the plasma of a 52-yr-old male Tangier patient to effect the conversion of radiolabeled pro-apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), isolated from hepatoma cell culture media, into mature apo A-I. The conversion was assessed by amino-terminal sequence analysis, isoform patterns with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and a rapid assay based on the different solubilities of intact pro-apo A-I and its hexapeptide prosegment in 10% trichloroacetic acid. We found that the converting activity of Tangier plasma was comparable to that exhibited by control normolipidemic plasma and that in both cases pro-apo A-I was correctly processed at the Gln-Asp bond. After ultracentrifugal fractionation of Tangier plasma at d = 1.21 g/ml, the pro-apo A-I-to-mature apo A-I converting activity was mainly recovered in the middle fraction of d = 1.225 g/ml and was at least 10-fold more effective than the top and bottom fractions. In contrast, in normal plasma the activity was only present in the top and bottom fractions. It has been previously established that in Tangier plasma the pro-apo A-I/apo A-I ratio is significantly higher than normal (1 vs. 0.02). Our studies suggest that this abnormal ratio is not the result of a reduced converting enzyme activity and may relate to differences in turnover rates between Tangier and normal plasma apolipoproteins. Images

Edelstein, C; Gordon, J I; Vergani, C A; Catapano, A L; Pietrini, V; Scanu, A M



Can voluntary nutritional gifts in seminal flow evolve?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In many species that have internal fertilization, seminal,flow includes various elements ,and materials in addition to the fertilizing sperm. The roles of these compo- nents are unknown. One hypothesis is that they are nutri- tional gifts to the female as a paternal investment. We made game,theoretical models ,from the point of view ,of sperm competition,among ,males and examined ,this

T. Kura K. Yoda


Can voluntary nutritional gifts in seminal flow evolve?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many species that have internal fertilization, seminal flow includes various elements and materials in addition to the\\u000a fertilizing sperm. The roles of these components are unknown. One hypothesis is that they are nutritional gifts to the female\\u000a as a paternal investment. We made game theoretical models from the point of view of sperm competition among males and examined\\u000a this

T. Kura; K. Yoda



p-Chlorophenylalanine-induced proliferation of the seminal vesicle epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraperitoneal injection of p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) methylester (100 mg\\/kg body weight) results in an activation of the lysosomal system of the secretory cells in the rat seminal vesicle and an elevation of the activities of lysosomal enzymes within 15 min following the injection. Large autophagic vacuoles are formed, sequestering rough endoplasmic reticulum and part of the Golgi apparatus within 2 h.

G. Aumtiller; K. Giers; U. Giers; A. Völkl; J. Seitz



Does Cigarette Smoking Affect Seminal Fluid Parameters? A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal fluid parameters, namely; volume, sperm concentration, and motility, as well as morphology, leukocyte infiltration, among males complaining of infertility. Methods Between August 2010 and July 2011, seminal fluid analysis was done for 1438 males who are partners of couples who visited the infertility clinic at Prince Rashid Ben Al Hassan Hospital (PRH) for infertility. The men who fit the inclusion criteria (n=960) were classified into two groups: group a (non-smokers; n=564) and group B (smokers; n=396), which represents 41.25% of the study group. Seminal fluid was collected using masturbation after 3-5 days of abstinence then analyzed for volume, sperm count, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. In order to analyze whether the number of cigarettes smoked per day has an effect on the spermatogram; the smoking men were divided into two subgroups: the heavy smokers (n=266) and non-heavy smokers (n=130). Results A total of 960 adult males were enrolled. Their age ranged between 21 and 76 years, 564 were non-smokers with mean age of 36. 45±6.27 (Mean±SD). Three-hundred-and-ninety-six were smokers with a mean age of 34.35±4.25 (Mean±SD). There was a significant effect of smoking on the motility of sperms and the ratios of abnormality (p<0.005). Concentration appeared not to be affected by smoking. Furthermore, the group of heavy smokers were found to have lower sperm concentrations and a higher percentage of abnormal sperms compared to the non-heavy smokers. Conclusion Cigarette smoking has a deleterious effect on some of the seminal fluid parameters (motility, morphology and leukocyte count) which in turn may result in male subfertility.

Meri, Zakarya Bani; Irshid, Ibrahim Bani; Migdadi, Mohammad; Irshid, Ayat Bani; Mhanna, Somia A.



Cytotoxicity of Bovine Seminal Ribonuclease:  Monomer versus Dimer †  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) is a homologue of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A). Unlike RNase A, BS-RNase has notable toxicity for human tumor cells. Wild-type BS-RNase is a homodimer linked by two intermolecular disulfide bonds. This quaternary structure endows BS- RNase with resistance to inhibition by the cytosolic ribonuclease inhibitor protein (RI), which binds tightly to RNase A and monomeric

J. Eugene Lee; Ronald T. Raines



Relationship between inflammatory cytology of canine seminal fluid and significant aerobic bacterial, anaerobic bacterial or mycoplasma cultures of canine seminal fluid: 95 cases (1987–2000)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seminal fluid was collected by manual ejaculation from 95 dogs. Quantitative aerobic bacterial, qualitative anaerobic bacterial and mycoplasma cultures were performed on the seminal fluid, and their association with presence of inflammatory cells present in the pellet formed after centrifugation of the fluid was investigated. There was a clinically meaningful aerobic bacterial growth in 28.4%, anaerobic bacterial growth in 13.7%,

Margaret V. Root Kustritz; Shirley D. Johnston; Patricia N. Olson; Cindy J. Lindeman



The soluble form of Alzheimer's amyloid beta protein is complexed to high density lipoprotein 3 and very high density lipoprotein in normal human plasma.  


The amyloid fibrils of Alzheimer's neuritic plaques and cerebral blood vessels are mainly composed of aggregated forms of a 39 to 44 amino acids peptide, named amyloid beta (A beta). A similar although soluble form of A beta (sA beta) has been identified in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and cell culture supernatants, indicating that it is produced under physiologic conditions. We report here that sA beta in normal human plasma is associated with lipoprotein particles, in particular to the HDL3 and VHDL fractions where it is complexed to ApoJ and, to a lesser extent, to ApoAI. This was assessed by immunoprecipitation experiments of purified plasma lipoproteins and lipoprotein-depleted plasma and confirmed by means of amino acid sequence analysis. Moreover, biotinylated synthetic peptide A beta 1-40 was traced in normal human plasma in in vitro experiments. As in the case of sA beta, biotinylated A beta 1-40 was specifically recovered in the HDL3 and VHDL fractions. This data together with the previous demonstration that A beta 1-40 is taken up into the brain via a specific mechanism and possibly as an A beta 1-40-ApoJ complex indicate a role for HDL3- and VHDL-containing ApoJ in the transport of the peptide in circulation and suggest their involvement in the delivery of sA beta across the blood-brain barrier. PMID:7802646

Koudinov, A; Matsubara, E; Frangione, B; Ghiso, J



Plasma immunoreactive proopiomelanocortin peptides and cortisol in normal dogs and dogs with Cushing's syndrome: diurnal rhythm and responses to various stimuli.  


We have studied the diurnal rhythm of pars distalis and pars intermedia-type immunoreactive (IR)-POMC peptides and cortisol in 3 normal dogs and 1 dog with Cushing's syndrome and have documented the responses to a variety of agents in 42 dogs with Cushing's disease, 2 of which were known or presumed to have pars intermedia tumors and another of which had both pars distalis and pars intermedia adenomas, and in 20 dogs with adrenocortical adenomas causing Cushing's syndrome. The normal dogs did not have a diurnal plasma POMC peptide rhythm; the dog with Cushing's disease appeared to have a similar number of secretory episodes of increased amplitude. Plasma POMC peptides and cortisol in animals with Cushing's disease did not suppress normally with low dose dexamethasone. Five animals with Cushing's disease did suppress with high dose dexamethasone, the dog with dual adenomas suppressed only partially, and 1 dog with a pars intermedia adenoma did not suppress at all. The response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia was similar in normal dogs and 4 dogs with Cushing's disease, but 3 animals with adrenal tumors did not respond. The response to metyrapone was normal in 6 dogs with Cushing's disease and, surprisingly, in 1 with adrenal tumor. Arginine vasopressin stimulated POMC peptide secretion in normal and 6 Cushing's dogs, as well as alpha MSH, a pars intermedia-type POMC peptide, in a dog presumed to have a pars intermedia tumor. Ovine CRF stimulated pars distalis-type POMC peptide secretion in normal dogs and 17 dogs with Cushing's disease, but not in 15 dogs with adrenal tumor; IR-alpha MSH was unaffected. TRH appeared to stimulate IR-ACTH in normal animals, but not in those with Cushing's disease. Dopamine had no apparent effect in 2 normal and 1 Cushing's dogs. Initial plasma disappearance t1/2 values of IR-ACTH and lipotropin were 22-27 min. In summary, responses in normal and Cushing's dogs were generally what would be predicted from previous human and animal studies, but some of those in animals with pars intermedia tumors and even in normal dogs were different from what had been anticipated. Canine Cushing's syndrome provides an interesting model for an uncommon human disorder. PMID:3126032

Orth, D N; Peterson, M E; Drucker, W D



Toward a self-consistent model of the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse with an overdense plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following a recent work by Sanz et al. [Phys. Rev. E 85, 046411 (2012)], we elaborate upon a one-dimensional model describing the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse and an overdense plasma. The analytical solutions of the reflected laser field, the electrostatic field, and the plasma surface oscillation are obtained within the cold-fluid approximation. The high-order harmonic spectrum is calculated from the exact solution of the plasma surface oscillations. In agreement with particle-in-cell simulations, two regimes of harmonic generation are predicted: for moderately relativistic laser intensities, or high plasma densities, the harmonic spectrum is determined by the discontinuity in the derivative of the reflected field when the electron plasma boundary oscillates across the fixed ion boundary. For higher intensities, the electron plasma boundary is confined inside the ion region and oscillates at relativistic velocities, giving rise to a train of reflected attosecond pulses. In both cases, the harmonic spectrum obeys an asymptotic ?-4 scaling. The acceleration of electrons and the related laser absorption efficiency are computed by a test particle method. The model self-consistently reproduces the transition between the ``anomalous skin effect'' and the ``J × B'' heating predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. Analytical estimates of the different scalings are presented.

Debayle, A.; Sanz, J.; Gremillet, L.; Mima, K.



Effect of dietary cholesterol and degree of fat unsaturation on plasma lipid levels, lipoprotein composition, and fecal steroid excretion in normal young adult men13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of four test diets differing in the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fats (P\\/S. 1.8 vs 0.28) and two cholesterol levels (1,000 vs 300 mg\\/day) for each level of the P\\/S ratio was determined on plasma lipid levels, lipoprotein compositions and concentrations, and fecal steroid excretion in a controlled diet study with 11 normal young men using a crossover

Suk Y Oh; Philip A Monaco


Seminal vesicle abscess following prostate biopsy requiring transgluteal percutaneous drainage.  


Transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy (TRUSB) of the prostate directly contaminates the prostate with rectal flora. Patients commonly receive fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics to prevent infection. Infectious complications following TRUSB are increasing. The most common offending organism is Escherichia coli (E. coli), with isolates of this bacteria showing growing resistance to FQs. We present to our knowledge the first reported case of seminal vesicle abscess formation after TRUSB. The abscess was initially not seen on computed tomography and eventually treated with percutaneous drainage by a transgluteal approach. We review literature on infectious complications following TRUSB with implications for future antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:23783054

Bayne, Christopher E; Davis, William A; Rothstein, Christopher P; Engel, Jason D



Exhaustive exercise-induced tissue hypoxia does not change endothelin and big endothelin plasma levels in normal volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic hypoxia has been shown to increase plasma endothelin levels. The current study was undertaken to examine the effect of exercise-induced tissue hypoxia on plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and its precursor big endothelin-1 (Big-ET-1). After approval by the local ethical committee an incremental dynamic exercise test was performed in 12 physically trained volunteers (aged 20 to 40 years), using

Tomas Lenz; Markus Nadansky; Jan Gossmann; Gerhard Oremek; Helmut Geiger



Lipoprotein Subfraction Changes in Normal Pregnancy: Threshold Effect of Plasma Triglyceride on Appearance of Small, Dense Low Density Lipoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed longitudinal examination of plasma lipoprotein sub- fraction concentrations and compositions in pregnancy was per- formed with the objective of discovering the pattern of change in lipoprotein subfractions. Plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein1 (VLDL1), very low density lipoprotein2 (VLDL2), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and its subfractions (LDL-I, LDL-II, LDL-III), and high density li-



Prebeta-migrating high density lipoprotein: quantitation in normal and hyperlipidemic plasma by solid phase radioimmunoassay following electrophoretic transfer  

SciTech Connect

A quantitative solid phase immunoassay has been developed for the determination of the mass of electrophoretically separated prebeta apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in human plasma. Conditions have been identified for the quantitative transfer and immunoblotting of the apolipoprotein in the absence of organic solvents or detergents. In normolipidemic plasma, the prebeta-migrating fraction of apoA-I represented 4.2 +/- 1.8% of total apoA-I (61 +/- 26 micrograms of apoA-I per ml of plasma). Significantly higher levels were found in hypercholesterolemia of genetic origin, in primary and secondary hypertriglyceridemia, and in congenital lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency. In all cases prebeta-migrating apoA-I consisted in large part of low molecular weight lipoprotein species, compared to the size of the major, alpha-migrating apoA-I fraction.

Ishida, B.Y.; Frolich, J.; Fielding, C.J.



Preferential induction of apoptotic cell death in melanoma cells as compared with normal keratinocytes using a non-thermal plasma torch.  


Selective induction of apoptosis in melanoma cells is optimal for therapeutic development. To achieve this goal, a non-thermal helium plasma torch was modified for use on cultured cells in a temperature-controlled environment. Melanoma cells were targeted with this torch (1) in parallel cultures with keratinocytes, (2) in co-culture with keratinocytes and (3) in a soft agar matrix. Melanoma cells displayed high sensitivity to reactive oxygen species generated by the torch and showed a 6-fold increase in cell death compared with keratinocytes. The extent of cell death was compared between melanoma cells and normal human keratinocytes in both short-term (5 min) co-culture experiments and longer assessments of apoptotic cell death (18-24 h). Following a 10 sec plasma exposure there was a 4.9-fold increase in the cell death of melanoma vs. keratinocytes as measured after 24 h at the target site of the plasma beam. When the treatment time was increased to 30 sec, a 98% cell death was reported for melanoma cells, which was 6-fold greater than the extent of cell death in keratinocytes. Our observations further indicate that this preferential cell death is largely due to apoptosis.. In addition, we report that this non-thermal plasma torch kills melanoma cells growing in soft agar, suggesting that the plasma torch is capable of inducing melanoma cell death in 3D settings. We demonstrate that the presence of gap junctions may increase the area of cell death, likely due to the "bystander effect" of passing apoptotic signals between cells. Our findings provide a basis for further development of this non-invasive plasma torch as a potential treatment for melanoma. PMID:22895073

Zucker, Shoshanna N; Zirnheld, Jennifer; Bagati, Archis; DiSanto, Thomas M; Des Soye, Benjamin; Wawrzyniak, Joseph A; Etemadi, Kasra; Nikiforov, Mikhail; Berezney, Ronald



Culture of Normal Human Blood Cells in a Diffusion Chamber System II. Lymphocyte and Plasma Cell Kinetics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Normal human blood leukocytes were cultured in Millipore diffusion chambers implanted into the peritoneal cavities of irradiated mice. The evaluation of survival and proliferation kinetics of cells in lymphyocytic series suggested that the lymphoid cells ...

G. Chikkappa A. L. Carsten A. D. Chanana E. P. Cronkite



Calculation Procedure, Optimization and Cost Factors of Normal-Conductive, Cryogenic and Superconducting Magnets for Experimental Plasma Physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of calculations and optimizing methods are presented for normally conductive, cryogenic, and superconducting magnets in linear (cylindrical) and toroidal devices. Relevant cost factors and functions are given as a basis for the comparison of cost...

B. Oswald



The effect of indomethacin on the circulatory and plasma noradrenaline responses to cold pressor testing in normal subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostaglandins may alter neuronal noradrenaline release or vascular responsiveness to sympathoexcitation. The purpose of this study was to determine if indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, influences the sympathetic and circulatory adjustments to a commonly utilized laboratory stressor in the clinical assessment of autonomic function, the cold pressor test. Venous plasma noradrenaline levels (n = 8), mean arterial pressure and heart

Kevin P. Davy; Jay H. Williams; William G. Herbert



Congenital dilation of seminal vesicle with agenesis of ipsilateral kidney: Symptoms and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-specific lower urinary tract symptoms appearing between 18 and 41 years of age, the period of maximal sexual and reproductive activity may be due to the presence of congenital seminal vesicle cyst. We present a case of young man with LUTS, congenital seminal vesicle cyst and ipsilateral renal agenesis.

V. Protogerou; M. Chorti; A. Kostakopoulos



Ultrastructural organization of seminal receptacle and sperm storage in Porcellio laevis latreille (crustacea: Isopoda oniscidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seminal receptacle of Porcellio laevis is a specialized region of the genital tract placed at the confluence of the oviduct with the ovary. In virgin sexually mature females the seminal receptacle wall consists of a monolayered epithelium lying on a thin basal lamina and delimiting a narrow and anfractuous lumen. The cells are joined by cell junctions only in

G. Longo; R. Musmeci; R. Privitera; L. Sottile



Searching for candidate speciation genes using a proteomic approach: seminal proteins in field crickets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many animals, male seminal proteins influence gamete interactions and fertilization ability and are probably involvedin barriers togene flowbetween diverging lineages. Here weuse a proteomic approach to identify seminal proteins that are transferred to females during copulation and that may be involved in fertilization barriers between two hybridizing field crickets (Gryllus firmus and Gryllus pennsylvanicus). Analyses of patterns of divergence

Jose A. Andrés; Luana S. Maroja; Richard G. Harrison



Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the seminal vesicles presenting with Lambert Eaton syndrome: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Primary tumors of seminal vesicles are rare and only a few cases have been reported. Diagnosis is difficult due to the absence of early clinical signs. Prognosis is generally poor. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 70-year-old Caucasian man with a seminal vesicle mass and concomitant lymph node metastasis detected by computed tomography and body positron

Benedikt Kreiner; Stefan Denzinger; Roman Ganzer; Hans-Martin Fritsche; Maximilian Burger; Wolf F Wieland; Wolfgang Otto



Teaching normal birth, normally.  


Teaching normal-birth Lamaze classes normally involves considering the qualities that make birth normal and structuring classes to embrace those qualities. In this column, teaching strategies are suggested for classes that unfold naturally, free from unnecessary interventions. PMID:19436595

Hotelling, Barbara A



Teaching Normal Birth, Normally  

PubMed Central

Teaching normal-birth Lamaze classes normally involves considering the qualities that make birth normal and structuring classes to embrace those qualities. In this column, teaching strategies are suggested for classes that unfold naturally, free from unnecessary interventions.

Hotelling, Barbara A



A seminal fluid protease activates sperm motility in C. elegans males  

PubMed Central

Seminal fluid factors have been shown to play a significant role in fertility in many animals. However, little is known about the contributions of seminal fluid to male fertility in C. elegans. In this commentary, we summarize our recent finding of a seminal fluid sperm activator, the serine protease TRY-5. TRY-5 is required for males to activate sperm, yet surprisingly it is not required for male fertility, likely due to redundancy with an activator present in hermaphrodites. TRY-5 is transferred to hermaphrodites during mating in a series of distinct release events just prior to transfer of sperm. Thus, we propose a model in which TRY-5 cleaves sperm cell surface proteins to trigger sperm maturation. We discuss other possible roles for seminal fluid factors in C. elegans and prospects for using TRY-5 as a marker for studies of male mating behavior and seminal fluid secretion.

Smith, Joseph R.; Stanfield, Gillian M.



Human growth hormone association and binding study in vitro: high performance size exclusion chromatography and radioimmunoassay-measured levels in plasma of normal and acromegalic subjects.  


Human growth hormone (hGH), like other protein hormones, consists of several molecular forms both in the pituitary and in plasma. In recent years carrier proteins have been detected and studied for growth hormone, using different experimental approaches. In the present study we have attempted to investigate whether hGH could be separated and identified in molecular or aggregated forms using high performance size exclusion chromatography and a small plasma sample, without particular treatment, in order to investigate specific hGH-binding proteins in normal as well as in acromegalic subjects. Results showed that it was possible to observe binding or/and the formation of a complex between free hormone and other molecules that could be specific binding proteins. Equilibrium was reached in a few minutes (7-10 min) and was reversible, as observed with labelled hormone using low and high concentrations of hGH in the incubation medium. At 37 degrees C the associated form at equilibrium was 30% of the total (measured as percent of total radioactivity with labelled hormone) in a plasma medium in which the original growth hormone was absent. Acromegalic plasma demonstrated that the percent of the associated form (namely the 80-kDa form) was less than that in normal humans. This may be due to the fact that capacity binding and competition between labelled and non-labelled growth hormone were favorable to the non-labelled form, if only for the high concentrations in this type of pathology. Therefore our results seem to be in agreement with the hypothesis that acromegalic subjects do not lack this aggregation capacity. PMID:2078923

De Palo, E; Gatti, R; Sicolo, N; De Palo, C



Male Mating Rate Is Constrained by Seminal Fluid Availability in Bedbugs, Cimex lectularius  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection, differences in reproductive success between individuals, continues beyond acquiring a mating partner and affects ejaculate size and composition (sperm competition). Sperm and seminal fluid have very different roles in sperm competition but both components encompass production costs for the male. Theoretical models predict that males should spend ejaculate components prudently and differently for sperm and seminal fluid but empirical evidence for independent variation of sperm number and seminal fluid volume is scarce. It is also largely unknown how sperm and seminal fluid variation affect future mating rate. In bedbugs we developed a protocol to examine the role of seminal fluids in ejaculate allocation and its effect on future male mating rate. Using age-related changes in sperm and seminal fluid volume we estimated the lowest capacity at which mating activity started. We then showed that sexually active males allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid volume per mating and predicted that males would be depleted of seminal fluid but not of sperm. We tested (and confirmed) this prediction empirically. Finally, the slightly faster replenishment of seminal fluid compared to sperm did not outweigh the faster decrease during mating. Our results suggest that male mating rate can be constrained by the availability of seminal fluids. Our protocol might be applicable to a range of other organisms. We discuss the idea that economic considerations in sexual conflict research might benefit from distinguishing between costs and benefits that are ejaculate dose-dependent and those that are frequency-dependent on the mating rate per se.

Reinhardt, Klaus; Naylor, Richard; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.



Effects of Angiotensin Receptor Blockers on Ambulatory Plasma Renin Activity in Healthy, Normal Subjects During Unrestricted Sodium Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Plasma renin activity (PRA), measured under controlled conditions, is a marker of the degree and persistence of renin-angiotensin system blockade.Methods: Two similarly designed five-way crossover studies evaluated angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockade-induced changes in PRA in quietly seated, ambulatory volunteers who were ingesting uncontrolled diets. At weekly intervals, PRA was measured during the 24 h after administration

Michael R. Jones; Jean E. Sealey; John H. Laragh



l Carnitine effects on chemical composition of plasma lipoproteins of rabbits fed with normal and high cholesterol diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

l-Carnitine plays an important role in the mitochondrial uptake of long-chain fatty acids in mammals. It has recently been\\u000a shown that this compound has a marked hypo-cholesterolemic effect when used in conjunction with lipid-rich diets. The aim\\u000a of this study was to investigate the effects of l-carnitine on the fatty acid composition of plasma lipoproteins in rabbits fed with different

Maritza Diaz; Flor Lopez; Frank Hernandez; Julio A. Urbina



Selection on the Drosophila seminal fluid protein Acp62F  

PubMed Central

Sperm competition and sexual conflict are thought to underlie the rapid evolution of reproductive proteins in many taxa. While comparative data are generally consistent with these hypotheses, few manipulative tests have been conducted and those that have provided contradictory results in some cases. Here, we use both comparative and experimental techniques to investigate the evolution of the Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid protein Acp62F, a protease inhibitor for which extensive functional tests have yielded ambiguous results. Using between-species sequence comparisons, we show that Acp62F has been subject to recurrent positive selection. In addition, we experimentally evolved populations polymorphic for an Acp62F null allele over eight generations, manipulating the opportunities for natural and sexual selection. We found that the Acp62F null allele increased in frequency in the presence of natural selection, with no effect of sexual selection.

Wong, Alex; Rundle, Howard



The seminal symphony: how to compose an ejaculate.  


Ejaculates are fundamental to fitness in sexually reproducing animals: males gain all their direct fitness via the ejaculate and females require ejaculates to reproduce. Both sperm and non-sperm components of the ejaculate (including parasperm, seminal proteins, water, and macromolecules) play vital roles in postcopulatory sexual selection and conflict, processes that can potentially drive rapid evolutionary change and reproductive isolation. Here, we assess the increasing evidence that considering ejaculate composition as a whole (and potential trade-offs among ejaculate components) has important consequences for predictions about male reproductive investment and female responses to ejaculates. We review current theory and empirical work, and detail how social and environmental effects on ejaculate composition have potentially far-reaching fitness consequences for both sexes. PMID:23582755

Perry, Jennifer C; Sirot, Laura; Wigby, Stuart



Reduced plasma levels of asymmetric di-methylarginine (ADMA) in patients with alcohol dependence normalize during withdrawal.  


Asymmetric di-methylarginine, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, is increasingly recognized as vascular risk factor. Elevated ADMA levels have been described not only in 'typical' vascular diseases like congestive heart failure, artherosclerosis and diabetes but also for major depression and Alzheimer's disease. As homocysteine increases ADMA levels and elevated homocysteine serum levels are present in patients with alcohol dependence, the aim of the present study was to examine plasma ADMA levels in patients with alcohol dependence during withdrawal. ADMA and homocysteine levels were measured in the plasma from 42 patients drawn at baseline, on day 1, day 3 and day 7-10 of inpatient detoxification treatment. Measurements were compared against 32 healthy controls. We found significantly lower levels of ADMA in patients at baseline and on day 1 and 3, while no differences were present at the end of treatment. Plasma ADMA levels significantly increased during withdrawal. We found no association between homocysteine and ADMA levels. Our finding of reduced ADMA levels in actively drinking alcohol dependent patients is in apparent contrast to other findings regarding cardiovascular risk factors in alcoholism. However an influence of alcohol on arginine metabolism may help explain the so called 'French paradox'. PMID:22507687

Frieling, Helge; Leitmeier, Viktoria; Haschemi-Nassab, Mani; Kornhuber, Johannes; Rhein, Mathias; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas



Is there "Metabolic" DNA in the Mouse Seminal Vesicle?  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to answer the question: Is H3-thymidine uptake by nuclei of the mouse seminal vesicle evidence for DNA synthesis and mitosis, or does it signify some "metabolic" function of DNA unrelated to chromosome duplication? Mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of H3-thymidine. Six hours later Feulgen squashes of the seminal vesicle epithelium were made and covered with autoradiographic stripping film. The silver grains above labeled nuclei were counted, and the Feulgen dye contents of these same nuclei were determined photometrically after removal of the grains from the emulsion. Unlabeled nuclei were also measured. The dye contents of non-radioactive nuclei form a unimodal distribution, indicating that polyploidy is absent from this tissue. The radioactive nuclei fall into two groups. In the first, the average dye content is the same as that of the cold nuclei (2C). In the second, the values range from 2C to 4C. In the 2C to 4C group the grain count is proportional to the dye content, showing that incorporation is correlated with synthesis. The radioactive 2C nuclei arose by mitosis during the course of the experiment. This is shown by the following facts: (1) They frequently occur in pairs. (2) They average smaller than unlabeled 2C nuclei. (3) Their average grain count is approximately half that of the 4C nuclei. (4) Labeled division figures are found. (5) A mitotic rate estimated from the number of labeled 2C nuclei accords reasonably well with one based on the number of observed mitoses. Since the incorporation of thymidine accompanies DNA synthesis and precedes mitosis, there is no reason to postulate a special "metabolic" DNA in this tissue.

Gall, Joseph G.; Johnson, William W.



Effect of egg cholesterol and dietary fats on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and apoproteins of normal women consuming natural diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine normal women, 22 to 37 years old, consumed controlled quantities of natural foods to test their responses to dietary cholesterol and saturated fat. All diets contained, as per- centage of calories, 14% protein, 31% fat, and 55% carbo- hydrate. The main sources of polyunsaturated and saturated fats were corn oil and lard, respectively, and egg yolk was used for

Eleni E. Zanni; Vassilis I. Zannis; Conrad B. Blum; Peter N. Herbert; Jan L. Breslow


Selenium, zinc and copper plasma levels in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, in normal pregnancies and in healthy individuals, in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Low blood Se levels have been previously shown in normal pregnancies (third trimester) and significantly lower levels in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), in Finland and in Chile, suggesting that a low or marginal dietary availability of Se may contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a temporal

Humberto Reyes; María E. Báez; Manuel C. González; Ismael Hernández; Joaquín Palma; José Ribalta; Lorena Sandoval; Rodrigo Zapata



Modified High-Sucrose Diet-Induced Abdominally Obese and Normal-Weight Rats Developed High Plasma Free Fatty Acid and Insulin Resistance  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Metabolically obese but normal-weight (MONW) individuals have metabolic features of overt obesity, and abdominal adiposity is common in them. Animal models of MONW individuals are lacking. We aimed to develop an abdominally obese and normal-weight (AONW) rat model. Methods and Results. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow or a modified high-sucrose (HS) diet for 20 weeks. The HS diet induced increased visceral adipose tissue without increased body weight, reduced glucose disposal rates, and increased hepatic glucose output during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, increased plasma glucose during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, and increased plasma free fatty acids. Hepatic lipidosis and hepatocyte mitochondria swelling were found in HS rats through light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; similar impairments were not observed in muscle. RT-PCR showed that mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1? increased in muscle of HS rats, while expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A, glucose transporter type 4, and insulin receptor substrate-1 did not change significantly. Conclusion. AONW rats developed metabolic disorders seen in MONW individuals. Steatosis, mitochondrial morphologic changes, and insulin resistance were more serious in liver than in muscle. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial function changed in less impaired muscle.

Cao, Li; Liu, Xuehui; Cao, Hongyi; Lv, Qingguo; Tong, Nanwei



Maternal concentrations and fetal-maternal concentration differences of plasma amino acids in normal and intrauterine growth-restricted pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to determine whether maternal amino acid concentration changes during gestation in pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction as in normal pregnancies and to verify whether these changes are related to changes in fetal-maternal differences. STUDY DESIGN: Amino acid concentrations were measured in 5 nonpregnant women, in 11 second-trimester and 10 third-trimester pregnant women with appropriate-for-gestational-age fetuses, and

Irene Cetin; Stefania Ronzoni; Anna Maria Marconi; Giuseppe Perugino; Carlo Corbetta; Frederick C. Battaglia; Giorgio Pardi



Transgelin: An androgen-dependent protein identified in the seminal vesicles of three Saharan rodents.  


During the breeding season, a major androgen-dependent protein with an apparent molecular weight of 21 kDa was isolated and purified from the seminal vesicles of three Saharan rodents (MLVSP21 from Meriones libycus, MSVSP21 from Meriones shawi, and MCVSP21 from Meriones crassus). The 21-kDa protein was isolated and purified from soluble seminal vesicle proteins of homogenate by one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Using polyclonal antibodies directed against POSVP21 (Psammomys obesus seminal vesicles protein of 21 kDa), a major androgen-dependent secretory protein from sand rat seminal vesicles, identified previously as transgelin, we showed an immunological homology with POSVP21 by immunoblotting. These three major androgen-dependent proteins with a same apparent molecular weight of 21 kDa designated as MLVSP21 (Meriones libycus seminal vesicles protein of 21 kDa), MSVSP21 (Meriones shawi seminal vesicles protein of 21 kDa), and MCVSP21 (Meriones crassus seminal vesicles protein of 21 kDa) were localized by immunohistochemistry and identified by applying a proteomic approach. Our results indicated that the isolated proteins MLSVP21, MSSVP21, and MCSVP21 seem to correspond to the same protein: the transgelin. So that transgelin can be used as a specific marker of these rodent physiological reproduction mechanisms. PMID:23906482

Kaci-Ouchfoun, Naïma; Izemrane, Djamila; Boudrissa, Abdelkrim; Gernigon, Thérèse; Khammar, Farida; Exbrayat, Jean Marie



Seminal fluid proteins differ in abundance between genetic lineages of honeybees.  


Seminal fluid is transferred to the females' reproductive tract as part of the ejaculate and contains highly complex molecular machinery that is of central importance for male and female reproductive success. Interspecific studies suggest rapid evolutionary changes in the sequences of some seminal fluid proteins and also highlight the importance of specific seminal fluid proteins for sperm function and paternity success. Much less work has been conducted to study if variation in the steady-state abundance of seminal fluid proteins occurs within a species, which could provide a foundation for future selection to act upon. Here we used a unique breeding program of the honeybee Apis mellifera to provide evidence for quantified differences in seminal fluid protein abundances between three genetic lineages that have been bred for ~20 generations. We found the same subset of seminal fluid proteins to be present in all lines, but protein abundance or protein modification state varied significantly for 16% of the protein spots investigated. Protein spots with changed abundances were identified using mass spectrometry, with the abundance of a number documented from other species to be correlated with male fertility, reproductive success or immune-competence. We conclude that significant alterations in the abundance or modification state of specific proteins in seminal fluid can be linked to different genotypes in honeybees. PMID:22981951

Baer, Boris; Zareie, Reza; Paynter, Ellen; Poland, Veronica; Millar, A Harvey



Tenofovir Plasma Concentrations According to Companion Drugs: a Cross-Sectional Study of HIV-Positive Patients with Normal Renal Function  

PubMed Central

As the risk of tenofovir-associated renal toxicity has been found to be proportional to the drug plasma concentration, our aim was to measure the determinants of tenofovir plasma exposure in HIV-positive patients with normal renal function. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in HIV-positive patients chronically receiving tenofovir-containing highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAARTs). Patients on tenofovir-containing antiretroviral regimens, presenting 22 to 26 h after drug intake, having estimated glomerular filtration rates above 60 ml/min, reporting high adherence to antiretroviral medications (above 95% of the doses), and signing a written informed consent were included. Plasma tenofovir concentrations were measured through a validated high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC/LC-MS) method. The tenofovir trough concentrations in 195 patients (median, 50 ng/ml, and interquartile range, 35 to 77 ng/ml) were significantly associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate, body mass index, and third-drug class (protease-containing versus protease-sparing regimens) (with the highest exposure in unboosted-atazanavir recipients). The results of multivariate analysis showed that the third-drug class and the weight/creatinine ratio were independent predictors of tenofovir trough concentrations. This cross-sectional study shows that tenofovir trough concentrations are predicted by the weight/creatinine ratio and by the coadministered antiretrovirals, with protease inhibitors (whether boosted or unboosted) being associated with the highest plasma exposure. These data, previously available in healthy subjects or for some drugs only, could be useful for designing strategies to manage tenofovir-associated toxicity, since this toxicity has been reported to be dose dependent.

Gonzalez de Requena, D.; Simiele, M.; D'Avolio, A.; Tettoni, M. C.; Salassa, B.; Orofino, G.; Bramato, C.; Libanore, V.; Motta, I.; Bigliano, P.; Orsucci, E.; Di Perri, G.; Bonora, S.



Tenofovir plasma concentrations according to companion drugs: a cross-sectional study of HIV-positive patients with normal renal function.  


As the risk of tenofovir-associated renal toxicity has been found to be proportional to the drug plasma concentration, our aim was to measure the determinants of tenofovir plasma exposure in HIV-positive patients with normal renal function. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in HIV-positive patients chronically receiving tenofovir-containing highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAARTs). Patients on tenofovir-containing antiretroviral regimens, presenting 22 to 26 h after drug intake, having estimated glomerular filtration rates above 60 ml/min, reporting high adherence to antiretroviral medications (above 95% of the doses), and signing a written informed consent were included. Plasma tenofovir concentrations were measured through a validated high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC/LC-MS) method. The tenofovir trough concentrations in 195 patients (median, 50 ng/ml, and interquartile range, 35 to 77 ng/ml) were significantly associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate, body mass index, and third-drug class (protease-containing versus protease-sparing regimens) (with the highest exposure in unboosted-atazanavir recipients). The results of multivariate analysis showed that the third-drug class and the weight/creatinine ratio were independent predictors of tenofovir trough concentrations. This cross-sectional study shows that tenofovir trough concentrations are predicted by the weight/creatinine ratio and by the coadministered antiretrovirals, with protease inhibitors (whether boosted or unboosted) being associated with the highest plasma exposure. These data, previously available in healthy subjects or for some drugs only, could be useful for designing strategies to manage tenofovir-associated toxicity, since this toxicity has been reported to be dose dependent. PMID:23380733

Calcagno, A; Gonzalez de Requena, D; Simiele, M; D'Avolio, A; Tettoni, M C; Salassa, B; Orofino, G; Bramato, C; Libanore, V; Motta, I; Bigliano, P; Orsucci, E; Di Perri, G; Bonora, S



A Drosophila seminal fluid protein, Acp26Aa, stimulates egg laying in females for 1 day after mating.  

PubMed Central

Mating triggers behavioral and physiological changes in the Drosophila melanogaster female, including an elevation of egg laying. Seminal fluid molecules from the male accessory gland are responsible for initial behavioral changes, but persistence of these changes requires stored sperm. Using genetic analysis, we have identified a seminal fluid protein that is responsible for an initial elevation of egg laying. This molecule, Acp26Aa, has structural features of a prohormone and contains a region with amino acid similarity to the egg-laying hormone of Aplysia. Acp26Aa is transferred to the female during mating, where it undergoes processing. Here we report the generation and analysis of mutants, including a null, in Acp26Aa. Females mated to male flies that lack Acp26Aa lay fewer eggs than do mates of normal males. This effect is apparent only on the first day after mating. The null mutation has no other detectable physiological or behavioral effects on the male or the mated female. Images Fig. 1

Herndon, L A; Wolfner, M F



Nuclear envelope of the seminal-vesicle epithelium.  

PubMed Central

The nuclear envelope of seminal-vesicle epithelium was isolated by a procedure involving enzymic digestion with deoxyribonuclease I, sonication in the presence of 0.34 M-sodium citrate, and centrifugation through sucrose density gradients. The mass of envelope DNA was only 0.8% of that of envelope protein, and by transmission electron microscopy the envelope was 98-99% pure. We showed that the envelope possess a protein kinase activity which is uninfluenced by cyclic nucleotides. Both lysine-rich histone and dephosphophosvitin as substrates gave a greater specific activity than did envelope protein itself. Optimum requirements with respect to Na+, Mg2+, pH and ATP were established for each substrate, and the influence of other factors on enzyme activity was investigated. Data, obtained mainly with the use of lysine-rich histone, are presented which indicate that nuclear envelope from intact and 96 h-castrated guinea pigs may have equal protein kinase activities and, in separate experiments, equal phosphoprotein phosphatase activities. Clarification of these initial observations must await identification of the natural substrates or the envelope's phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reactions. Images Fig. 1. PLATE 1

Veneziale, C M; Utz, M E; Steer, R C; Wilson, M J; Ahmed, K



21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR




Measurement of canine gastric vascular permeability to plasma proteins in the normal and protein-losing states  

SciTech Connect

An isolated segment of the greater curvature of a dog's stomach was perfused at constant flow through a single cannulated artery with donor blood containing 131I-albumin, 125I-fibrinogen, and papaverine. Perfusion pressure was 30-50 mmHg, and venous pressure was set at 15 mmHg. Venous blood was collected in 1-min samples for 60 min. Filtration of fluid and loss of labeled proteins were calculated as the difference between measured arterial inflow and venous outflow. Permeability-surface area products (PS) were calculated for the proteins, and reflection coefficients (sigma) were calculated from solute flux and filtration. Intraarterial infusion of histamine (1.6-1.9 microgram . ml-1) increased filtration and PS and decreased sigma for albumin but not fibrinogen. When protein-losing was established by topical irrigation with 10 mM dithiothreitol in neutral solution, filtration and PS increased, and sigma for albumin but not fibrinogen decreased. Irrigation of the mucosa with 10 mM salicylic acid in 100 mN HCl caused bleeding that was quantitated by addition of 51Cr-erythrocytes to perfusing blood. Filtration and PS increased, and sigma for albumin but not fibrinogen decreased. Hematocrit of blood lost remained low during extensive mucosal damage. Effects of histamine infusion were attenuated or abolished by cimetidine (4 mg . kg-1 loading, 1.4 mg . kg-1 . h-1 continuous infusion) or by pyrilamine maleate (5 mg . kg-1 bolus injection at beginning of irrigation, repeated at 40-50 min). Pyrilamine attenuated or abolished effects of topical dithiothreitol or salicylic acid. We conclude that during protein loss caused by dithiothreitol or salicylic acid, histamine released within the mucosa causes increased vascular permeability for plasma proteins.

Wood, J.G.; Davenport, H.W.



Role of the apolipoprotein A-IV polymorphism at codon 347 in affecting normal plasma lipid and apolipoprotein variation  

SciTech Connect

Apolipoprotein A-IV (APOA-IV) is a major component of several lipoprotein particles, and is therefore expected to play an important role in lipid metabolism. Sequence analysis of the APOA-IV coding region has revealed a common nucleotide substitution at codon 347 which converts the commonly present threonine residue (allele A) into serine (allele T). In this investigation, we determined the APOA-IV polymorphism at codon 347 by polymerase chain reaction-based assay in 537 normolipidemic non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), and 377 normolipidemic Hispanics from the San Luis Valley, Colorado, and examined its effect on quantitative lipid and apolipoprotein traits. The frequency of the less common allele (APOA-IV*T) was significantly lower in Hispanics than in NHWs (0.13 vs. 0.20; P<0.01), most probably due to substantial Amerindian admixture. After adjusting for concomitant variables including age, cigarette smoking, body mass index and premenopausal or postmenopausal status in women, we found significant ethnic and gender-specific effects of the APOA-IV polymorphism on plasma levels of APOA-I (P=0.01) and LP(a) (P=0.03) in NHW women only. There was a clear gene dosage effect on the two quantitative traits: APOA-I levels were lowest in the TT genotype, intermediate in the AT genotype, and highest in the AA genotype; the trend was reversed for LP(a) levels among the three genotypes. The average effect of the APOA-IV*T allele was to lower APOA-I levels by 7.8 mg/dl and to raise LP(a) levels by 2.6 mg/dl. These data suggest that the APO-IV*T allele may be associated with atherogenic apolipoprotein profile in NHW women as lower levels of APOA-I and higher levels of LP(a) are considered to be major risk factors for coronary heart disease.

Wang, G.O.; Kamboh, M.I.; Aston, C.E. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others



Agenesis of kidney associated with malformations of the seminal vesicle. Various clinical presentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ureteral seminal vesicle anomaly associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis is a rare occurrence. Cystic anomaly of the seminal\\u000a vesicle may be asymptomatic or discovered by rectal examination and cystoscopy for evaluation of bladder irritative symptoms,\\u000a perineal and testicular pain, ejaculatory disturbances and rarely infertility. The condition was diagnosed in three patients\\u000a with various clinical presentations.

J. Kaneti; L. Lissmer; Z. Smailowitz; I. Sober



Adenocarcinoma of the prostate invading the seminal vesicle: prognostic stratification based on pathologic parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To stratify the prognosis of lymph node-negative, seminal vesicle-positive tumors in men with prostate cancer after radical retropubic prostatectomy.Methods. Sixty cases were analyzed for multiple parameters and correlated with postoperative biochemical (prostate-specific antigen) progression. Variables included Gleason score, primary Gleason pattern, percentage of Gleason pattern 4, any presence of Gleason pattern 5, method of seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), margin

Jonathan I Epstein; Alan W Partin; Steven R Potter; Patrick C Walsh



Immunoelectron microscopic evidence for different compartments in the secretory vacuoles of the rat seminal vesicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Immunoelectron microscopy of the rat seminal vesicle was performed using specific antibodies to secretory proteins. Proteins were precipitated from rat seminal vesicle secretion and were separated by SDS—polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Among the great number of bands the two most prominent bands were selected and designated SVS II and IV. Their apparent molecular weights were 48 kDa and 16.5 kDa respectively.

G. Aumüller; J. Seitz



Comparative study of asparagine-linked glycans of plasma T-kininogen in normal rats and during acute inflammation.  

PubMed Central

Rat T-kininogen has been separated into two molecular variants by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A (ConA): a ConA-reactive (ConA+) and a ConA-non-reactive (ConA-) fraction, from which carbohydrate chains were quantitatively released by hydrazinolysis. On the basis of high-resolution 400 MHz 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy of the re-N-acetylated hydrazinolysates, the carbohydrate structures of the two ConA molecular variants of rat T-kininogen were established. The ConA-non-reactive species contains a single type of carbohydrate chain with the following structure: [formula: see text] The ConA-reactive fraction contains the same structure and the following additional one: [formula: see text] The relative abundance of the two molecular forms is profoundly affected during inflammation (ratio ConA+/ConA-: 44% in normal and 95% in inflamed T-kininogen), but no structural modification of the carbohydrate chains was observed. Images Fig. 2.

Baussant, T; Alonso, C; Wieruszeski, J M; Strecker, G; Montreuil, J; Alhenc-Gelas, F; Michalski, J C



Atrial natriuretic factor in normal subjects and heart failure patients. Plasma levels and renal, hormonal, and hemodynamic responses to peptide infusion.  

PubMed Central

We investigated atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in humans, measuring plasma immunoreactive (ir) ANF (in femtomoles per milliliter), and renal, hormonal, and hemodynamic responses to ANF infusion, in normal subjects (NL) and congestive heart failure patients (CHF). Plasma irANF was 11 +/- 0.9 fmol/ml in NL and 71 +/- 9.9 in CHF (P less than 0.01); the latter with twofold right ventricular increment (P less than 0.05). In NL, ANF infusion of 0.10 microgram/kg per min (40 pmol/kg per min) induced increases (P less than 0.05) of absolute (from 160 +/- 23 to 725 +/- 198 mueq/min) and fractional (1-4%) sodium excretion, urine flow rate (from 10 +/- 1.6 to 20 +/- 2.6 ml/min), osmolar (from 3.2 +/- 0.6 to 6.8 +/- 1.2 ml/min) and free water (from 6.8 +/- 1.6 to 13.6 +/- 1.6 ml/min) clearances, and filtration fraction (from 20 +/- 1 to 26 +/- 2%). Plasma renin and aldosterone decreased 33% and 40%, respectively (P less than 0.01). Systolic blood pressure fell (from 112 +/- 3 to 104 +/- 5 mmHg, P less than 0.05) in seated NL; but in supine NL, the only hemodynamic response was decreased pulmonary wedge pressure (from 11 +/- 1 to 7 +/- 1 mmHg, P less than 0.05). In CHF, ANF induced changes in aldosterone and pulmonary wedge pressure, cardiac index, and systemic vascular resistance (all P less than 0.05); however, responses of renin and renal excretion were attenuated. ANF infusion increased hematocrit and serum protein concentration by 5-7% in NL (P less than 0.05) but not in CHF. Images

Cody, R J; Atlas, S A; Laragh, J H; Kubo, S H; Covit, A B; Ryman, K S; Shaknovich, A; Pondolfino, K; Clark, M; Camargo, M J



Relationship among plasma adipokines, insulin and androgens level as well as biochemical glycemic and lipidemic markers with incidence of PCOS in women with normal BMI.  


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder in women. Omentin-1 and vaspin are secretary adipokines that are produced by the visceral adipose tissue. These levels change in obese women with PCOS. The aim of this study is to investigate whether omentin and vaspin levels change in nonobese PCOS subjects. This study is a cross-sectional case control study in which 39 women with PCOS were picked out for this study. The inclusion criteria were based on the Rotterdam 2003 diagnostic criteria. The control group consisted of 39 women with normal pelvic sonographic reports having regular menstruation and showing no signs of infertility. The fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglyceride (TG), Chol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), insulin, testosterone, omentin and vaspin were measured by the enzymatic methods. The differences within these groups were calculated by the un-paired t-test and the Mann-Whitney test. The results from this study show a significant increase in the amount of insulin, testosterone, homeostasis model assessments for insulin resistance, TG and lower HDL in the patient group. No significant differences were seen in omentin, vaspin, FPG, Cho, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, Cr and homeostasis model assessments for B cell function levels between groups. Results show that PCOS is not a determinant of decreased omentin and vaspin plasma levels and those high androgen level and insulin resistances are warning signs of PCOS. PMID:22309615

Akbarzadeh, Samad; Ghasemi, Soghra; Kalantarhormozi, Mohamadreza; Nabipour, Iraj; Abbasi, Fateme; Aminfar, Alnaz; Jaffari, Seyed Mojtaba; Motamed, Niloofar; Movahed, Ali; Mirzaei, Mostafa; Rahbar, Ali Reza



Effect of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade with propranolol on the response of plasma catecholamines and renin activity to upright tilting in normal subjects.  

PubMed Central

1 Relationship between plasma catecholamines (measured as noradrenaline and adrenaline) and plasma renin activity (PRA) were examined at rest and during passive head-up tilting for 30 min in nine normal subjects, before and after treatment with propranolol 160 mg daily for 7 days. 2 Noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) increased substantially after tilting for 15 min. There were no changes in PRA. After 30 min tilting, NA remained elevated, whereas A had returned to resting levels. A significant increase in PRA was apparent at 30 min. Pulse rate and diastolic blood pressure increased progressively during tilting. Systolic pressure did not change. 3 Treatment with propranolol reduced pulse rate and systolic blood pressure at rest and during tilting. Resting catecholamine concentrations and the response of NA to tilting were unaffected. In contrast, treatment prolonged the A response leading to significantly higher levels after 30 min tilting. Propranolol reduced PRA in six of the nine subjects and prevented the increase with tilting observed before treatment.

Vandongen, R; Davidson, L; Beilin, L J; Barden, A E



Augmented renal clearance in septic and traumatized patients with normal plasma creatinine concentrations: identifying at-risk patients.  


INTRODUCTION: Improved methods to optimize drug dosing in the critically ill are urgently needed. Traditional prescribing culture involves recognition of factors that mandate dose reduction (such as renal impairment), although optimizing drug exposure, through more frequent or augmented dosing, represents an evolving strategy. Elevated creatinine clearance (CLCR) has been associated with sub-therapeutic antibacterial concentrations in the critically ill, a concept termed augmented renal clearance (ARC). We aimed to determine the prevalence of ARC in a cohort of septic and traumatized critically ill patients, while also examining demographic, physiological and illness severity characteristics that may help identify this phenomenon. METHODS: This prospective observational study was performed in a 30-bed tertiary level, university affiliated, adult intensive care unit. Consecutive traumatized and septic critically ill patients, receiving antibacterial therapy, with a plasma creatinine concentration ?110 ?mol/L, were eligible for enrolment. Pulse contour analysis (Vigileo / Flo Trac® system, Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA), was used to provide continuous cardiac index (CI) assessment over a single six-hour dosing interval. Urinary CLCR measures were obtained concurrently. RESULTS: Seventy-one patients contributed data (sepsis n = 43, multi-trauma n = 28). Overall, 57.7% of the cohort manifested ARC, although there was a greater prevalence in trauma (85.7% versus 39.5%, P <0.001). In all patients, a weak correlation was noted between CI and CLCR (r = 0.346, P = 0.003). This was mostly driven by septic patients (r = 0.508, P = 0.001), as no correlation (r = -0.012, P = 0.951) was identified in trauma. Those manifesting ARC were younger (P <0.001), male (P = 0.012), with lower acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II (P= 0.008) and modified sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores (P = 0.013), and higher cardiac indices (P = 0.013). In multivariate analysis, age ?50 years, trauma, and a modified SOFA score ?4, were identified as significant risk factors. These had greater utility in predicting ARC, compared with CI assessment alone. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis, illness severity and age, are likely to significantly influence renal drug elimination in the critically ill, and must be regularly considered in future study design and daily prescribing practice. PMID:23448570

Udy, Andrew A; Roberts, Jason A; Shorr, Andrew F; Boots, Robert J; Lipman, Jeffrey



Prekallikrein deficiency in a kindred with kininogen deficiency and Fitzgerald trait clotting defect. Evidence that high molecular weight kininogen and prekallikrein exist as a complex in normal human plasma.  

PubMed Central

Plasma from an individual with a hereditary deficiency of kininogens is deficient in kininogen antigens; heterozygous relatives are partially deficient in plasma kininogen antigens. In addition, plasma from the proband is partially deficient in functional and antigenic properties of a plasma prekallikrein, and the relatives heterozygous for kininogen deficiency are also partially deficient in the plasma prekallikrein. It is possible that the defects are both inherited and that the inheritance of a deficiency of prekallikrein is genetically linked to the inheritance of a deficiency of kininogen. Alternatively, it is possible that the deficiency of prekallikrein may be due to its hypercatabolism which could be a consequence of a deficiency of high molecular weight kininogen that may stabilize the prekallikrein in plasma. Evidence to support this possibility is presented by the fact that prekallikrein and high molecular weight kininogen apparently exist as a complex in normal plasma, because monospecific antiserum to kininogen removed both high molecular weight kininogen and prekallikrein from plasma, and vice versa. Moreover, prekallikrein was not adsorbed from kininogen-deficient plasma by antiserum to kininogen unless high molecular weight kininogen was first added to the plasma. Low molecular weight kininogen did not participate in these reactions. Images

Donaldson, V H; Kleniewski, J; Saito, H; Sayed, J K



Quantification of Prostate and Seminal Vesicle Interfraction Variation During IMRT  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To quantify the interfraction variability in prostate and seminal vesicle (SV) positions during a course of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using an integrated computed tomography (CT)-linear accelerator system and to assess the impact of rectal and bladder volume changes. Methods and Materials: We studied 15 patients who had undergone IMRT for prostate carcinoma. Patients had one pretreatment planning CT scan followed by three in-room CT scans per week using a CT-on-rails system. The prostate, bladder, rectum, and pelvic bony anatomy were contoured in 369 CT scans. Using the planning CT scan as a reference, the volumetric and positional changes were analyzed in the subsequent CT scans. Results: For all 15 patients, the mean systematic internal prostate and SV variation was 0.1 {+-} 4.1 mm and 1.2 {+-} 7.3 mm in the anteroposterior axis, -0.5 {+-} 2.9 mm and -0.7 {+-} 4.5 mm in the superoinferior axis, and 0.2 {+-} 0.9 mm and -0.9 {+-} 1.9 mm in the lateral axis, respectively. The mean magnitude of the three-dimensional displacement vector was 4.6 {+-} 3.5 mm for the prostate and 7.6 {+-} 4.7 mm for the SVs. The rectal and bladder volume changes during treatment correlated with the anterior and superior displacement of the prostate and SVs. Conclusion: The dominant prostate and SV variations occurred in the anteroposterior and superoinferior directions. The systematic prostate and SV variation between the treatment planning CT and daily therapy as a result of the rectal and bladder volume changes emphasizes the need for daily directed target localization and/or immobilization techniques.

Frank, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail:; Dong Lei; Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); De Crevoisier, Renaud; Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, Rex; Choi, Seungtaek [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); O'Daniel, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Biostatistics and Applied Mathematics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Wang He [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kuban, Deborah A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)



Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein concentration, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol esterification and transfer rates to lighter density lipoproteins in the fasting state and after a test meal are similar in Type II diabetics and normal controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of ester formation from [3H]cholesterol and of [3H]cholesteryl ester transfer from the HDL-containing plasma fraction to lipoproteins of lighter densities (apo B-containing LP) and plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein concentration (CETP) were measured in normotriglyceridemic Type II diabetics (n = 11) and normal controls (n = 10) both in the fasting state and 4 h after a standard milk-shake

Simão A. Lottenberg; Ana Maria P. Lottenberg; Valéria S. Nunes; Ruth McPherson; Eder C. R. Quintão



Mechanisms underlying the inhibition of murine sperm capacitation by the seminal protein, SPINKL.  


SPINKL, a serine protease inhibitor kazal-type-like protein initially found in mouse seminal vesicle secretions, possesses structurally conserved six-cysteine residues of the kazal-type serine protease inhibitor family. However, it has no inhibitory activity against serine proteases. Previously, it was found to have the ability to suppress murine sperm capacitation in vitro. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the suppressive effect of SPINKL on sperm capacitation. Three in vitro capacitation-enhancing agents, including bovine serum albumin (BSA), methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD), and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP), coupled with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), were used to evaluate the influence of SPINKL on capacitation signaling. Preincubation of sperm with SPINKL suppressed BSA- and MBCD-induced sperm capacitation by blocking three upstream signals of capacitation that is the cholesterol efflux from sperm plasma membranes, extracellular calcium ion influx into sperm, and increases in intracellular cAMP. Moreover, SPINKL also inhibited downstream signal transduction of capacitation since it suppressed dbcAMP/IBMX and N(6) -phenyl cAMP (6-Phe-cAMP)-activated cAMP-dependent protein kinase-associated protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Such inhibition is probably mediated by attenuation of SRC tyrosine kinase activity. Furthermore, SPINKL could not reverse capacitation once sperm had been capacitated by capacitation-enhancing agents or capacitated in vivo in the oviduct. SPINKL bound to sperm existed in the uterus but had disappeared from sperm in the oviduct during the sperm's transit through the female reproductive tract. Therefore, SPINKL may serve as an uncapacitation factor in the uterus to prevent sperm from precocious capacitation and the subsequent acrosome reaction and thus preserve the fertilization ability of sperm. PMID:23097296

Tseng, Huan-Chin; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang; Hwu, Yuh-Ming; Lu, Chung-Hao; Lin, Ming-Huei; Li, Sheng-Hsiang



Decreased tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI)-dependent anticoagulant capacity in patients with cirrhosis who have decreased protein S but normal TFPI plasma levels.  


Protein S acts as a cofactor for tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) in the down regulation of thrombin generation, and acquired and congenital protein S deficiencies are associated with a concomitant TFPI deficiency. In contrast, in patients with liver diseases, decreased protein S, but normal or increased levels of TFPI have been reported. We compared TFPI and protein S plasma levels between 26 patients with cirrhosis and 20 healthy controls and found that TFPI levels were comparable between patients (111 ± 38%) and controls (108 ± 27%), despite reduced protein S levels (74 ± 23% in patients vs. 98 ± 10% in controls). Subsequently, we quantified the activity of the TFPI-protein S system by measuring thrombin generation in the absence and presence of neutralizing antibodies to protein S or TFPI. Ratios of peak thrombin generation in the absence and presence of these antibodies were calculated. Both the protein S and the TFPI ratios were increased in patients with cirrhosis compared to controls. Protein S ratios were (0·62 [0·08-0·93] in patients vs. 0·32 [0·20-0·54] in controls; TFPI ratios were 0·50 [0·05-0·90] in patients vs. 0·18 [0·11-0·49] in controls). Thus, although the acquired protein S deficiency in patients with cirrhosis is not associated with decreased TFPI levels, the TFPI/protein S anticoagulant system is functionally impaired. PMID:23841464

Potze, Wilma; Arshad, Freeha; Adelmeijer, Jelle; Blokzijl, Hans; van den Berg, Arie P; Meijers, Joost C M; Porte, Robert J; Lisman, Ton



Multi-element quantification of ancient/historic glasses by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using sum normalization calibration.  


Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for quantitative analysis of ancient/historic glasses is subject to calibration issues which have been addressed in this work. Since ancient/historic glasses have widely ranging matrix compositions, a complementary analysis by an alternative method is generally employed to determine at least one major element which can be used as an internal standard. We demonstrate that such a complementary analysis is unnecessary using a so-called sum normalization calibration technique (mathematically formulated) by simultaneous measurement of 54 elements and normalizing them to 100% [w/w] based on their corresponding oxide concentrations. The crux of this approach is that by assuming a random internal standard concentration of a particular major oxide, e.g. SiO2, the normalization algorithm varies the internal standard concentration until the cumulated concentrations of all 54 elemental oxides reach 100% [w/w]. The fact that 54 elements are measured simultaneously predetermines the laser ablation mode to rastering. Nine glass standards, some replicating historic compositions, were used for calibration. The linearity of the calibration graphs (forced through the origin) represented by the relative standard deviations in the slope were between 0.1 and 6.6% using SiO2 as an internal standard. This allows high-accuracy determination of elemental oxides as confirmed by good agreement between found and reported values for major and minor elemental oxides in some synthetic glasses with typical medieval composition (European Science Foundation 151 and 158). Also for trace elemental concentrations of lanthanides in a reference glass (P&H Developments Ltd. DLH7, a base glass composition with nominally 75 microg g(-1) elements added) accurate data were obtained. Interferences from polyatomic species and doubly charged species on the masses of trace elements are possible, depending on the base composition of the glass, with Ba and Sb glasses showing potential interferences on some lanthanides. We showed that they may be reduced to a great extent by using an Octopole Reaction System although the overall sensitivity decreases which may be a problem for some low-level determinations. PMID:19463554

van Elteren, Johannes T; Tennent, Norman H; Selih, Vid S



Primary yolk sac tumor of seminal vesicle: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor) is a rare malignant germ cell tumor arising in the testis or ovary. Extragonadal yolk sac tumor is even rarer and has only been described in case reports. Due to the rarity of the tumors, the appropriately optimal treatment remains unclear. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the seminal vesicle. Case A 38-year-old Asian male presented with gross hematuria and hemospermia. Transrectal ultrasound scan showed a solid mass in the left seminal vesicle and the scrotal sonography showed no abnormalities. Bilateral seminal vesicles were resected, and histopathological examination showed a typical pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST). The patient responded poorly to comprehensive treatment of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgeries, developed systemic multiple metastases, and died of cachexia one and half years after diagnosis.



[Left renal atrophy and ureteral abouchement in seminal vesicle. Laparoscopic surgical treatment].  


Renal atrophy with an ectopic drainage of the ureter is an uncommon malformation. Zinder described in 1914 a cystic dilation of the seminal vesicle in association with an ipsilateral renal agenesis. Usually, these patients present lower urinary tract symptoms with perineal discomfort and fever. The most accurate diagnosis is given by the MRI, while CT and ultrasonography are less precise. We present a case of a patient who goes into hospital because of left lumbar pain and urinary sepsis data, whose CT detects an ectopic drainage of the left uereter in the seminal vesicle. He underwent a successful laparoscopic surgical treatment. PMID:19462731

Janeiro Pais, José M; López García, Daniel; Ruibal Moldes, Manuel A; Casas Agudo, Vicente Pastor; Fernández Suárez, Paula; González Martín, Marcelino



Inhibition of Intestinal Bile Acid Transporter Slc10a2 Improves Triglyceride Metabolism and Normalizes Elevated Plasma Glucose Levels in Mice  

PubMed Central

Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2) and ob/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma TG levels were reduced in Slc10a2-deficient mice, and when challenged with a sucrose-rich diet, they displayed a reduced response in hepatic TG production as observed from the mRNA levels of several key enzymes in fatty acid synthesis. This effect was paralleled by a diminished induction of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c). Unexpectedly, the SR-diet induced intestinal fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 mRNA and normalized bile acid synthesis in Slc10a2?/? mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of Slc10a2 in diabetic ob/ob mice reduced serum glucose, insulin and TGs, as well as hepatic mRNA levels of Srebp1c and its target genes. These responses are contrary to those reported following treatment of mice with a bile acid binding resin. Moreover, when key metabolic signal transduction pathways in the liver were investigated, those of Mek1/2 - Erk1/2 and Akt were blunted after treatment of ob/ob mice with the Slc10a2 inhibitor. It is concluded that abrogation of Slc10a2 reduces hepatic Srebp1c activity and serum TGs, and in the diabetic ob/ob model it also reduces glucose and insulin levels. Hence, targeting of Slc10a2 may be a promising strategy to treat hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes.

Snaith, Michael; Lindmark, Helena; Lundberg, Johanna; Ostlund-Lindqvist, Ann-Margret; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats



Rates of thermonuclear reactions in dense plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of plasma screening of thermonuclear reactions has attracted considerable scientific interest ever since Salpeter’s\\u000a seminal paper, but it is still faced with controversial statements and without any definite conclusion. It is of relevant\\u000a importance to thermonuclear reactions in dense astrophysical plasmas, for which charge screening can substantially affect\\u000a the reaction rates. Whereas Salpeter and a number of subsequent

V. N. Tsytovich; M. Bornatici



No increase in sperm DNA damage and seminal oxidative stress in patients with idiopathic infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common cause of male infertility is idiopathic. Standard investigations reveal no abnormality in such cases. The aim of the study was to investigate the levels of sperm DNA damage and seminal oxidative stress and their relationships with idiopathic infertility. The study included 30 normozoospermic infertile men seeking infertility treatment and 20 fertile donors. Semen analysis was performed according

Fatma Ferda Verit; Ayhan Verit; Abdurrahim Kocyigit; Halil Ciftci; Hakim Celik; Mete Koksal



Seminal fluid from sea urchin (Lytechinus variegatus) contains complex sulfated polysaccharides linked to protein.  


The eggs of sea urchins are covered by a jelly coat, which contains high concentrations of sulfated polysaccharides. These carbohydrates show species-specificity in inducing the sperm acrosome reaction. Several studies about the egg jelly of sea urchins have been published, but there is no information about the composition of the seminal fluid of these echinoderms. Here we report for the first time the occurrence of complex sulfated polysaccharides in the seminal fluid of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. These polysaccharides occur as three fractions that differ mostly in their carbohydrate/protein ratios. The native molecular masses of the polymers are very high (> or = 200 kDa) but, after digestion with papain the size decreases to approximately 8 kDa. All fractions have a similar carbohydrate composition, containing mostly galactose, glucosamine and mannose. The heterogeneous sulfated polysaccharides differ from vertebrate glycosaminoglycans and also from all previously described polysaccharides from invertebrates. The physiological role of the sulfated carbohydrates from seminal fluid is not yet determined. However, by analogy with the effects proposed for some glycoproteins found in vertebrate seminal fluid, it may be possible that the sulfated polysaccharides from invertebrate are also involved in fertilization process. PMID:19446650

Cinelli, Leonardo P; Vilela-Silva, Ana-Cristina E S; Mourão, Paulo A S



Puberty installation and adrenergic response of seminal vesicle from rats exposed prenatally to hydrocortisone.  


We investigated the effects of hydrocortisone during the prenatal period and its repercussion on puberty installation and adrenergic response of seminal vesicle in adult rats. The efficacy of the hydrocortisone treatment in reducing adrenal wet weight immediately after delivery in both the treated mothers and respective pups at birth may indicate impairment of the hypothalamus--pituitary--adrenal axis. This parameter was unchanged in the adult phase of these descendants, suggesting recuperation of this axis. In addition, the treatment with hydrocortisone delayed the age of puberty installation, probably by absence of both physiologic production and liberation of luteinizing hormone and testosterone. Despite the significant reduction in testosterone level as well as of wet weights of both vas deferens and testis in the adult phase, no difference was observed in the sensitivity of the seminal vesicle to the studied sympathetic agonist. However, the observed reduction in contractile response of the seminal vesicle may be a consequence of contractile-system damage in this organ. It is possible that this alteration may cause a reduction in the amount of vesicular secretion so important in the process of ejaculation. In conclusion, these results suggest that administration of hydrocortisone in late prenatal life did not influence the hypothalamus--pituitary--adrenal axis in adult life, although it altered the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, and reduced testosterone production starting at puberty, as a consequence of an incomplete masculinization of the hypothalamus plus a reduction in the contractile response of the seminal vesicle. PMID:15893772

Pereira, Oduvaldo Câmara Marques; Piffer, Renata Carolina



Do parameters of seminal quality correlate with the results of on-farm inseminations in rabbits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine if different sperm characteristics correlate with the in vivo fertility of rabbit sperm. A total of 2765 heterospermic inseminations were performed in commercial rabbitries using 50-pooled samples of fresh semen. Sperm motility and morphological evaluations were performed on each of the heterospermic pooled samples to asses the seminal quality, and the percentage of kindling

Raquel Lavara; Eva Mocé; Felipe Lavara; María Pilar Viudes de Castro; José Salvador Vicente



Immunosuppressive effect of bovine seminal ribonuclease on a model of corneal transplantation in rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

• Background: Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS RNase) was determined to have a specific suppressive effect on the proliferation of T lymphocytes in vitro. Its immunosuppressive effect was proven in skin grafting in mice as well. • Methods: The immunosuppressive effect of BS RNase was evaluated in tissue cultures and on a model of corneal transplantation in rabbits. The penetration of

Martin Filipec; Zdenka Hašková; Kate?ina Havrlíková; Erik Letko; Vladimír Holá?; Josef Matoušek; Ivan Kalousek



Financial markets with asymmetric information: An expository review of seminal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to make an expository review of the seminal models of the rational expectations equilibrium models in the finance literature. The staggering explosion of the complex research in this area of the finance literature has come to existence when the perfect market assumption of homogeneous information is relaxed and prices play the role of aggregating

Kavous Ardalan



Immature rat seminal vesicles show histomorphological and ultrastructural alterations following treatment with kisspeptin-10  

PubMed Central

Background Degenerative effects of critical regulators of reproduction, the kisspeptin peptides, on cellular aspects of sexually immature male gonads are known but similar information on accessory sex glands remain elusive. Methods Prepubertal laboratory rats were injected kisspeptin-10 at three different dosage concentrations (10 pg, 1 ng and 1 microgram) for a period of continuous 12 days at the rate of two doses per day. Control rats were maintained in parallel. The day following the end of the experimental period, seminal vesicles were removed and processed for light and electron microscopic examination using the standard methods. DNA damage was estimated by DNA ladder assay and DNA fragmentation assay. Results The results demonstrated cellular degeneration. Epithelial cell height of seminal vesicles decreased significantly at all doses (P < 0.05). Marked decrease in epithelial folds was readily noticeable, while the lumen was dilated. Ultrastructural changes were characterized by dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, heterochromatization of nuclei, invagination of nuclear membranes and a decreased number of secretory granules. Percent DNA damage to the seminal vesicle was 19.54 +/- 1.98, 38.06 +/- 2.09 and 58.18 +/- 2.59 at 10 pg, 1 ng and 1 microgram doses respectively. Conclusion The study reveals that continuous administration of kisspeptin does not lead to an early maturation but instead severe degeneration of sexually immature seminal vesicles.



Seminal ejaculation following positively reinforcing electrical stimulation of the rat hypothalamus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 10 Ss, self-stimulation of ventromedial fibers of medial forebrain bundle regularly elicited seminal discharge without inducing penile erection or other sign of sex drive. This result also followed externally programed intracranial stimulation (ICS), but was blocked by light anesthesia. The ejaculatory mechanism is thus anatomically and functionally separable from other sex mechanisms, but self-stimulation at some current strengths was

L. J. Herberg



Seminal fluid and the generation of regulatory T cells for embryo implantation.  


T regulatory (Treg) cells are essential mediators of the maternal immune adaptation necessary for embryo implantation. In mice, insufficient Treg cell activity results in implantation failure, or constrains placental function and fetal growth. In women, Treg cell deficiency is linked with unexplained infertility, miscarriage, and pre-eclampsia. To devise strategies to improve Treg cell function, it is essential to define the origin of the Treg cells in gestational tissues, and the regulators that control their functional competence and recruitment. Male seminal fluid is a potent source of the Treg cell-inducing agents TGF? and prostaglandin E, and coitus is one key factor involved in expanding the pool of inducible Treg cells that react with paternal alloantigens shared by conceptus tissues. In mice, coitus initiates a sequence of events whereby female dendritic cells cross-present seminal fluid antigens and activate T cells, which in turn circulate via the blood to be sequestered into the endometrium. Similar events may occur in the human genital tract, where seminal fluid induces immune cell changes that appear competent to prime Treg cells. Improved understanding of how seminal fluid influences Treg cells in women should ultimately assist in the development of new therapies for immune-mediated pathologies of pregnancy. PMID:23480148

Robertson, Sarah A; Prins, Jelmer R; Sharkey, David J; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M



Increased seminal plasma lead levels adversely affect the fertility potential of sperm in IVF  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lead remains in high levels in the environment and is known to reduce fertility in animal models, but a direct link between lead exposures and human infertility has not yet been established. METHODS: In a pro- spective, double-blind study of the metal ion levels and sperm function, semen was obtained from partners of 140 consecutive women undergoing their first

Susan Benoff; Grace M. Centola; Colleen Millan; Barbara Napolitano; Joel L. Marmar; Ian R. Hurley


The importance of seminal plasma on the fertility of subsequent artificial inseminations in swine1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yorkshire × Landrace sows and gilts were used in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effect of uterine inflammation induced by either killed spermatozoa (KS) or bacterial lipopoly- saccharide (LPS) on the fertility of a subsequent, opti- mally timed AI. Estrus was detected with a mature boar twice daily. Twelve hours after the first detection

K. J. Rozeboom; M. H. T. Troedsson; H. H. Hodson; G. C. Shurson; B. G. Crabo



Urethral Obstruction by Seminal Coagulum is Associated with Medetomidine-Ketamine Anesthesia in Male Mice on C57BL/6J and Mixed Genetic Backgrounds  

PubMed Central

Male and female mice were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection with a mixture delivering 0.5 mg/kg medetomidine and 50 mg/kg ketamine to achieve immobilization for whole-body radiographs and bone densitometry, as part of a phenotypic screen for bone and mineral disorders in mice carrying genetic modifications induced through mutagenesis with N?-ethyl-N?-nitrosourea. Morbidity and mortality occurred in 19 of 628 (3%) of male mice 24 to 72 h after a seemingly uneventful recovery from anesthesia. No morbidity or mortality occurred in 1564 female mice that were similar in age to the affected male mice and that underwent the same procedure. Of the 7 male mice that underwent postmortem examinations, 5 had urinary bladders grossly distended with urine and 1 had ascites. In addition, the pelvic or penile urethra in 5 of the examined male mice was obstructed with seminal coagulum associated with varying degrees of erosion of the urothelial lining and inflammation of the urethra. In 2 of these animals, from which plasma samples were recovered, azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperkalemia were present. The predilection for delayed morbidity and mortality in males after anesthesia suggests that anesthesia with 0.5 mg/kg medetomidine and 50 mg/kg ketamine is a potential risk factor for obstructive uropathy due to release of seminal coagulum. This adverse effect did not recur when we altered our anesthesia protocol to 10 mg/kg xylazine and 100 mg/kg ketamine.

Wells, Sara; Trower, Chris; Hough, Tertius A; Stewart, Michelle; Cheeseman, Michael T



A Comparison of High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the Analysis of Plasma from Normal Subjects and Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) was evaluated as an alternative to the more expensive Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectros-copy technique presented by Fossel and co-workers (1) for cancer detection using human plasma. These two techniques show a biphasic relationship which can be explained on the basis of the relative amounts of the lipoprotein levels present in the plasma and

Gwendoln N. Chmurny; Michael L. Mellini; Douglas Halverson; Haleem J. Issaq; Gary M. Muschik; Walter J. Urba; George N. McGregor; Brucke D. Hilton; Neil Caporaso; Ian C. P. Smith; Thérèse Kroft; John J. Saunders



Seminal, ultrasound and psychobiological parameters correlate with metabolic syndrome in male members of infertile couples.  


Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a diagnostic category which identifies subjects at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, erectile dysfunction (ED) and male hypogonadism. However, MetS impact on male infertility has been poorly studied. We systematically evaluated possible associations between MetS and clinical characteristics in men with couple infertility. Out of 367 consecutive subjects, 351 men without genetic abnormalities were studied. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation&American Heart Association/National Heart,Lung, and Blood Institute classification. All men underwent physical, hormonal, seminal and scrotal ultrasound evaluation. Erectile and ejaculatory functions were assessed by International Index of Erectile Function-15 erectile function domain (IIEF-15-EFD) and Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), respectively, while psychological symptoms by Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire. Out of 351 patients, 27 (7.7%) fulfilled MetS criteria. Among ultrasound features, in an age-adjusted logistic model, only testis inhomogeneity was significantly associated with increasing MetS factors (HR = 1.36 [1.09-1.70]; p < 0.01). In an age-adjusted model, MetS was associated with a stepwise decline in total testosterone (TT) (B = -1.25 ± 0.33; p < 0.0001), without a concomitant rise in gonadotropins. At univariate analysis, progressive motility and normal morphology were negatively related to the number of MetS components (both p < 0.0001), but when age and TT were introduced in a multivariate model, only sperm morphology retained a significant association (B = -1.418 ± 0.42; p = 0.001). The risk of ED (IIEF-15-EFD score <26) increased as a function of the number of MetS factors, even after adjusting for age and TT (HR = 1.45[1.08-1.95]; p < 0.02). No association between PEDT score and MetS was observed. Finally, after adjusting for age and TT, somatization and depressive symptoms were associated with increasing MetS components (B = 0.66 ± 0.03, p < 0.05; B = 0.69 ± 0.03, p < 0.02; respectively). In conclusion, in men with couple infertility, MetS is associated with hypogonadism, poor sperm morphology, testis ultrasound inhomogeneity, ED, somatization and depression. Recognizing MetS could help patients to improve not only fertility but also sexual and overall health. PMID:23315971

Lotti, F; Corona, G; Degli Innocenti, S; Filimberti, E; Scognamiglio, V; Vignozzi, L; Forti, G; Maggi, M



Enantioselective and highly sensitive determination of carvedilol in human plasma and whole blood after administration of the racemate using normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.  


A highly sensitive HPLC method for enantioselective determination of carvedilol in human whole blood and plasma was developed. Carvedilol and S-carazolol as an internal standard extracted from whole blood or plasma were separated using an enantioselective separation column (Chiralpak AD column; 2.0 diameter x 250 mm) without any chiral derivatizations. The mobile phase was hexane:isopropanol:diethylamine (78:22:1, v/v). The excitation and emission wavelengths were set at 284 and 343 nm, respectively. The limits of quantification for the S(-)- and R(+)-carvedilol enantiomers in plasma and blood were both 0.5 ng/ml. Intra- and inter-day variations were less than 5.9%. As an application of the assay, concentrations of carvedilol enantiomer in plasma and blood samples from 15 patients treated with carvedilol for congestive heart failure were determined. PMID:16784906

Saito, Masako; Kawana, Junichi; Ohno, Tetsuro; Kaneko, Masahiro; Mihara, Kiyoshi; Hanada, Kazuhiko; Sugita, Risa; Okada, Natsuki; Oosato, Sachiko; Nagayama, Masatoshi; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Ogata, Hiroyasu



Oral Glucose Tolerance and Related Factors in a Normal Population Sample--I. Blood Sugar, Plasma Insulin, Glyceride, and Cholesterol Measurements and the Effects of Age and Sex  

PubMed Central

Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed on 220 people, a representative sample of the employees of a large pharmaceutical company. Blood sugar and plasma immunoreactive insulin levels were measured on each sample of venous blood obtained before and at half-hourly intervals for two hours after 50 g. of glucose by mouth; plasma cholesterol and glycerides were measured on the fasting sample only. Women had higher mean insulin levels throughout the test, though their mean blood sugar levels were higher only at 90 and 120 minutes. In both sexes there were positive correlations between age and the levels of blood sugar, plasma cholesterol, and plasma glycerides. Though the levels of glucose rose with age, those of insulin did not.

Boyns, D. R.; Crossley, J. N.; Abrams, M. E.; Jarrett, R. J.; Keen, H.



Enantioselective and highly sensitive determination of carvedilol in human plasma and whole blood after administration of the racemate using normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly sensitive HPLC method for enantioselective determination of carvedilol in human whole blood and plasma was developed. Carvedilol and S-carazolol as an internal standard extracted from whole blood or plasma were separated using an enantioselective separation column (Chiralpak AD column; 2.0Ø×250mm) without any chiral derivatizations. The mobile phase was hexane:isopropanol:diethylamine (78:22:1, v\\/v). The excitation and emission wavelengths were set

Masako Saito; Junichi Kawana; Tetsuro Ohno; Masahiro Kaneko; Kiyoshi Mihara; Kazuhiko Hanada; Risa Sugita; Natsuki Okada; Sachiko Oosato; Masatoshi Nagayama; Tetsuya Sumiyoshi; Hiroyasu Ogata



Influence of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on lipolysis and on plasma post-heparin lipoprotein lipase activity in normal man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indomethacin 50 mg i.v. or p.o. and diclofenac sodium 50 mg p.o produced a prompt and significant increase in plasma free fatty acid concentration. In 10 subjects who took indomethacin 150 mg\\/d p.o. for 3 days, plasma post-heparin lipoprotein lipase activity was also significantly increased. The same effect occurred in 9 subjects treated for 3 days with diclofenac sodium 50

D. Bonfiglioli; D. Sommariva; L. Zanaboni; P. Scarpellini; A. Bott; U. Raggi; A. Fasoli



Multiparameter analyses of normal and malignant human plasma cells: CD38 ++ , CD56 + , CD54 + , cIg + is the common phenotype of myeloma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma cells obtained from bone marrow samples of 45 patients with MM, eight patients with MGUS, eight patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia (WM), one patient with immunocytoma, and 12 controls were characterized by immunophenotyping, estimation of DNA content, and labeling index, as well as by morphological analysis. Plasma cells from 37\\/45 myeloma and 5\\/8 MGUS patients expressed CD38 and CD56 (N-CAM)

R. Leo; M. Boeker; D. Peest; R. Hein; R. Bartl; J. E. Gessner; J. Seibach; G. Wacker; H. Deicher



Normal Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In Chaps. 2 and 5 we occasionally referred to a normal distribution either informally (bell-shaped distributions\\/histograms)\\u000a or formally, as in Sect. 5.5.3, where the normal density and its moments were briefly introduced. This chapter is devoted\\u000a to the normal distribution due to its importance in statistics. What makes the normal distribution so important? The normal\\u000a distribution is the proper statistical

Brani Vidakovic


Proteomic analysis of Drosophila mojavensis male accessory glands suggests novel classes of seminal fluid proteins.  


Fruit-flies of the genus Drosophila are characterized by overwhelming variation in fertilization traits such as copulatory plug formation, sperm storage organ use, and nutritional ejaculatory donation. Despite extensive research on the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster, little is known about the molecular underpinnings of these interspecific differences. This study employs a proteomic approach to pin-point candidate seminal fluid proteins in Drosophila mojavensis, a cactophilic fruit-fly that exhibits divergent reproductive biology when compared to D. melanogaster. We identify several classes of candidate seminal fluid proteins not previously documented in the D. melanogaster male ejaculate, including metabolic enzymes, nutrient transport proteins, and clotting factors. Conversely, we also define 29 SFPs that are conserved despite >40 million years of Drosophila evolution. We discuss our results in terms of universal processes in insect reproduction, as well as the specialized reproductive biology of D. mojavensis. PMID:19328853

Kelleher, Erin S; Watts, Thomas D; LaFlamme, Brooke A; Haynes, Paul A; Markow, Therese A



A Role for Acp29AB, a Predicted Seminal Fluid Lectin, in Female Sperm Storage in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Females of many animal species store sperm for taxon-specific periods of time, ranging from a few hours to years. Female sperm storage has important reproductive and evolutionary consequences, yet relatively little is known of its molecular basis. Here, we report the isolation of a loss-of-function mutation of the Drosophila melanogaster Acp29AB gene, which encodes a seminal fluid protein that is transferred from males to females during mating. Using this mutant, we show that Acp29AB is required for the normal maintenance of sperm in storage. Consistent with this role, Acp29AB localizes to female sperm storage organs following mating, although it does not appear to associate tightly with sperm. Acp29AB is a predicted lectin, suggesting that sugar–protein interactions may be important for D. melanogaster sperm storage, much as they are in many mammals. Previous association studies have found an effect of Acp29AB genotype on a male's sperm competitive ability; our findings suggest that effects on sperm storage may underlie these differences in sperm competition. Moreover, Acp29AB's effects on sperm storage and sperm competition may explain previously documented evidence for positive selection on the Acp29AB locus.

Wong, Alex; Albright, Shannon N.; Giebel, Jonathan D.; Ram, K. Ravi; Ji, Shuqing; Fiumera, Anthony C.; Wolfner, Mariana F.



Seminal factor VII and factor VIIa: supporting evidence for the presence of an active tissue factor-dependent coagulation pathway in human semen.  


Human semen spontaneously coagulates into a semisolid mass and then wholly liquefies in a process that may have some similarity to that of normal blood. This well described phenomenon is referred to as coagulation and liquefaction of semen. Besides other active components of the haemostatic system, semen contains a significant amount of functional tissue factor (TF). However, TF needs factor (F)VII in order to exert it actions. In this study, we assessed human semen for the presence of FVII and FVIIa, and related their levels to conventional fertility parameters. Using a functional, one stage, clotting assay based upon the prolongation of the prothrombin clotting time, using the ACL 300R analyser and an Imubind FVIIa ELISA assay, FVII and FVIIa levels were measured in 97 semen specimens obtained from sub-fertile (sperm counts <20 x 10(6)/mL), normally fertile (sperm counts >or=20 x 10(6) but <60 x 10(6)/mL), fertile sperm donors (sperm counts >or=60 x 10(6)/mL), vasectomized subjects and in a pooled normal semen parameters group (categorization into groups was based on the World Health Organization guidelines on fertility criteria). In addition, conventional semen parameters were analysed on all semen samples. Both FVII and FVIIa were quantifiable in human semen. The mean levels of FVII and FVIIa were 4.4 IU/dL and 12 ng/mL respectively. Despite the observed variations of FVIIa levels in the studied groups they did not meet statistical significance when the groups were tested against each other. However, seminal FVIIa levels showed a significant positive association with semen liquefaction time, sperm motility and semen volume. The anti-sperm antibodies and sperm-agglutination groups were also associated with raised seminal FVIIa levels. We observed no significant relationship between FVIIa levels and total sperm concentration, sperm count per mL (sperm density), sperm progression and days of sexual abstinence. This study demonstrates that human semen contains appreciable amounts of FVII and FVIIa. It is possible to quantify these using commercially available assays. There also appears to be a direct correlation between the levels of these factors and certain seminal parameters. This finding reinforces the concept of an active clotting system in human semen, by establishing the missing link in the activation of a TF-dependent pathway. PMID:17459125

Lwaleed, Bashir A; Goyal, Anuj; Delves, George; Gossai, Sunil; Greenfield, Robert S; Cooper, Alan J



HPLC method development for determination of doxycycline in human seminal fluid.  


The present paper reports the development and validation of an analytical method for doxycycline quantification in human seminal fluid by HPLC with UV detection. The separation of doxycycline was achieved at 40°C on a reversed-phase C18 column using isocratic elution. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile (A) and water buffered at pH 2.5 with a concentrated orthophosphoric acid (B) in the volume ratio of 20:80 (v/v), respectively. The detection was performed at 350nm. As an internal standard (IS), tetracycline was used. The proposed method involves the extraction of doxycycline from seminal fluid based on acidic precipitation of the proteins using perchloric acid. The method showed good intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD<7.0%), good accuracy (recovery for doxycycline>80%), and high correlation coefficient (r=0.998) for standards subjected to the entire procedure. The detection and quantification limits were 0.087?g/ml and 0.264?g/ml. The developed method was used to analyze doxycycline in the seminal fluids obtained from male subjects who were treated with doxycycline-hyclate. The mean doxycycline concentrations of 0.89±0.07?g/ml and 0.45±0.26?g/ml were detected in seminal fluid after 6h and 12h, respectively. This is the first study reporting extraction and HPLC determination of doxycycline in this complex sample and can be very useful in support of clinical and pharmacokinetic studies on this antibiotic. PMID:24095871

Sunari?, Slavica M; Deni?, Marko S; Bojani?, Zoran Ž; Bojani?, Vladmila V



Microflora of the seminal fluid of healthy men and men suffering from chronic prostatitis syndrome.  


Chronic prostatitis syndrome (CPS) is a common urologic condition that many clinicians find difficult to diagnose and treat effectively. The information about the composition of the flora of the seminal fluid in healthy men and patients with CPS is limited. The aim of this study was to define the microbial communities present in the seminal fluid of healthy men and patients with CPS and at in vitro detection of decomplementary activity (DCA) phenotypes of isolates along with their comparison with isolates from patients with or without CPS. The bacteriological study was carried out to 48 healthy men and 60 men with CPS. Culture specimens were spread on various selective media. Bacterial DCA was tested by measuring the decrease in complement activity (CH(50)) under the influence of culture supernatants. The most common isolates in both groups were coryneforms, lactobacilli, coagulase-negative staphylococci, micrococci and streptococci. Enterobacteriaceae, enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated only from the CPS group. The organisms from seminal fluid of healthy men exerted DCA at 3.56 +/- 2.15; 2.47 +/- 1.23 and 4.36 +/- 2.2 anti-CH(50) for staphylococci, micrococci and diphtheroids respectively. The DCA of staphylococci, coryneforms, Enterobacteriaceae, enterococci and micrococci from CPS group were 12.8 +/- 2.1 (p < 0.05), 4.4 +/- 3.6 (p > 0.05), 16.8 +/- 2.1, 7.2 +/- 1.9 and 11.6 +/- 3.3 (p < 0.05) anti-CH(50) respectively. The data obtained in this study testify the microecological disorders in microbiota of seminal fluid in CPS. PMID:18328042

Ivanov, Iuri B; Kuzmin, Michael D; Gritsenko, Viktor A



Structural analysis of seminal and serum human transferrin by second derivative spectrometry and fluorescence measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denaturation of human seminal transferrin (HSmT) compared with human serum transferrin (HSrT) was followed to check structural differences between these two proteins. Second derivative UV spectroscopy indicated that treatment with 6 M guanidine hydrochloride (Gnd·HCl) induced greater structural changes in HSrT than in HSmT and, in particular; (i) the exposure value of tyrosinyl residues was almost 2.5-fold higher in native

Gabriele D'Andrea; Giovanni Maurizi; Anna M. D'Alessandro; M. Luisa Salucci; Angela Impagnatiello; M. Antonietta Saletti; Arduino Oratore



An extragastrointestinal stromal tumor originating from the seminal vesicles: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

The present study reports a case of an extragastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST) originating from the seminal vesicles. A 74-year-old male patient with a tumor in the seminal vesicles underwent a radical spermatocystectomy due to an increased defecation frequency and a huge mass in the seminal vesicles. Ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) initially diagnosed the mass as a tumor originating from the prostate. However, the mass was ultimately confirmed as an EGIST from the seminal vesicles following a laparotomy. According to the size, mitotic activity, cellularity, necrotic situation and immunohistochemical data, the tumor belonged to a low-risk group. No recurrence or metastasis has been identified during six years of follow-up observations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report this particular pathological type of EGIST.




Protease-nexin I as an androgen-dependent secretory product of the murine seminal vesicle.  

PubMed Central

A search for inhibitors of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in the male and female murine genital tracts revealed high levels of a uPA ligand in the seminal vesicle. This ligand is functionally, biochemically and immunologically indistinguishable from protease-nexin I (PN-I), a serpin ligand of thrombin and uPA previously detected only in mesenchymal cells and astrocytes. A survey of murine tissues indicates that PN-I mRNA is most abundant in seminal vesicles, where it represents 0.2-0.4% of the mRNAs. PN-I is synthesized in the epithelium of the seminal vesicle, as determined by in situ hybridization, and is secreted in the lumen of the gland. PN-I levels are much lower in immature animals, and strongly decreased upon castration. Testosterone treatment of castrated males rapidly restores PN-I mRNA levels, indicating that PN-I gene expression is under androgen control. Images

Vassalli, J D; Huarte, J; Bosco, D; Sappino, A P; Sappino, N; Velardi, A; Wohlwend, A; Ern?, H; Monard, D; Belin, D




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Six cows with a history of lupine induced crooked calf disease and 6 cows with no history of lupine induced birth defects were challenged with lupine and plasma alkaloid pharmacokinetic parameters compared. Anagyrine, the alkaloid known to cause crooked calf disease, and two other alkaloids, 5, 6-d...


Distribution of plasma cells and other cells containing immunoglobulin in the respiratory tract of normal man and class of immunoglobulin contained therein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomical distribution of plasma cells and other cells containing immunoglobulin in the respiratory tract, and the relative proportions of the immunoglobulin classes have been estimated on necropsy tissues from nine adult human subjects without respiratory disease, five non-smokers and four smokers, none of whom had cough or sputum. Cell counts on multiple sections stained by immunofluorescent methods for the

C A Soutar



A UFLC-MS/MS method with a switching ionization mode for simultaneous quantitation of polygalaxanthone III, four ginsenosides and tumulosic acid in rat plasma: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and Alzheimer's disease rats.  


A fast, sensitive and reliable ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of polygalaxanthone III (POL), ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), ginsenoside Rd (GRd), ginsenoside Re (GRe), ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1) and tumulosic acid (TUM) in rat plasma after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San, which plays an important role for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The plasma samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate-isopropanol (1:1, v/v) with salidrdoside as internal standard (IS). Good chromatographic separation was achieved using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.01% acetic acid in water. The tandem mass spectrometric detection was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode on 4000Q UFLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in a negative and positive switching ionization mode. The lower limits of quantification were 0.2-1.5?ng/ml for all the analytes. Both intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of analytes were well within acceptance criteria (±15%). The mean absolute extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rat plasma were all more than 60.0%. The validated method has been successfully applied to comparing pharmacokinetic profiles of analytes in normal and AD rat plasma. The results indicated that no significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of GRe, GRg1 and TUM were observed between the two groups, while the absorption of POL and GRd in AD group were significantly higher than those in normal group; moreover, the GRb1 absorbed more rapidly in model group. The different characters of pharmacokinetics might be caused by pharmacological effects of the analytes. PMID:23893636

Lv, Chunxiao; Li, Qing; Zhang, Yaowen; Sui, Zhenyu; He, Bosai; Xu, Huarong; Yin, Yidi; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun



Development and validation of a sensitive method for hydromorphone in human plasma by normal phase liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS–MS) was developed for the quantitation of hydromorphone (HYD), an opiate analgesic, in human plasma. A simple liquid–liquid extraction was used to extract the analyte and its deuterated internal standard (d3-HYD). Chromatographic separation of hydromorphone from its metabolite hydromorphone-3-glucuronide (H3G) was necessary because of the significant H3G fragmentation to HYD before Q1 of

Weng Naidong; Xiangyu Jiang; Kirk Newland; Roger Coe; Patrick Lin; Jean Lee



Effect of Asportarne Loading upon Plasma and Erythrocyte Amino Acid Levels in Phenylketonuric Hétérozygotes and Normal Adult Subjects1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame is a dipeptide (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanyl-methyl ester) with a sweetening power 180 to 200 times that of sucrose. Questions about aspartame safety have arisen because of concern about potential toxic effects of its constituent amino acids, aspartate and phenylalanine, par ticularly in subjects heterozygous for phenylketonuria. Plasma and red cell amino acid levels were measured in eight female subjects known to




Inhibition of Intestinal Bile Acid Transporter Slc10a2 Improves Triglyceride Metabolism and Normalizes Elevated Plasma Glucose Levels in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2) and ob\\/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma

Thomas Lundåsen; Eva-Marie Andersson; Michael Snaith; Helena Lindmark; Johanna Lundberg; Ann-Margret Östlund-Lindqvist; Bo Angelin; Mats Rudling



Effects of progesterone and human chorionic gonadotrophin administration five days postinsemination on plasma and milk concentrations of progesterone and pregnancy rates of normal and repeat breeder dairy cows.  

PubMed Central

Treatment with a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device between days 5 and 12 after estrus elevated (p less than 0.05) plasma progesterone concentrations between days 6 and 8 in comparison with controls. Treatment with injectable progesterone (200 mg) on days 5, 7, 9 and 11 postestrus did not increase plasma progesterone concentrations over controls. The administration of 1500 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) on day 5 after estrus resulted in a sustained increase (p less than 0.01) in plasma progesterone concentrations from day 8 until day 20 when measurements ceased. Pregnancy rates, as a result of artificial insemination (AI) at the pretreatment estrus, in these treatments (n = 12-14 each), were unaffected by any of the treatments and ranged from 57.1 to 75.0% at 45-60 days post-AI. In a field trial, of 36 repeat breeder cows treated with 1500 IU hCG 5.5 days after insemination, 47.2% were pregnant at 60 days, whereas 39.5% of saline-treated controls were diagnosed pregnant. Treatment with hCG significantly (p less than 0.05) increased milk progesterone concentrations over controls on days 14 and 20 after insemination.

Walton, J S; Halbert, G W; Robinson, N A; Leslie, K E



Low and moderate-fat plant sterol fortified soymilk in modulation of plasma lipids and cholesterol kinetics in subjects with normal to high cholesterol concentrations: report on two randomized crossover studies  

PubMed Central

Background Although consumption of various plant sterol (PS)-enriched beverages is effective in lowering plasma cholesterol, the lipid-lowering potential of PS in a soymilk format has not been investigated thoroughly. Therefore, to evaluate the efficacy of PS-enriched soy beverages on plasma lipids and cholesterol kinetics, we conducted two separate 28 d dietary controlled cross-over studies. In study 1, the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of a low-fat (2 g/serving) PS enriched soy beverage was examined in 33 normal cholesterolemic subjects in comparison with 1% dairy milk. In study 2, we investigated the efficacy of a moderate-fat (3.5 g/serving) PS-enriched soy beverage on plasma cholesterol concentrations and cholesterol kinetic responses in 23 hypercholesterolemic subjects compared with 1% dairy milk. Both the low and moderate-fat PS-enriched soymilk varieties provided 1.95 g PS/d. Endpoint plasma variables were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA using baseline values as covariates for plasma lipid measurements. Results In comparison with the 1% dairy milk control, the low-fat soy beverage reduced (P < 0.05) total and LDL-cholesterol by 10 and 13%, respectively. Consumption of the moderate-fat PS-enriched soy beverage reduced (P < 0.05) plasma total and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15% respectively. Fasting triglycerides were reduced by 9.4% following consumption of the moderate-fat soy beverage in comparison with the 1% dairy milk. Both low and moderate-fat PS-enriched soy varieties reduced (P < 0.05) LDL:HDL and TC:HDL ratios compared with the 1% dairy milk control. Consumption of the moderate-fat PS-enriched soymilk reduced (P < 0.05) cholesterol absorption by 27%, but did not alter cholesterol synthesis in comparison with 1% dairy milk. Conclusion We conclude that, compared to 1% dairy milk, consumption of low and moderate-fat PS-enriched soy beverages represents an effective dietary strategy to reduce circulating lipid concentrations in normal to hypercholesterolemic individuals by reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption. Trial registration ( NCT00923403 (Study 1), NCT00924391 (Study 2).

Rideout, Todd C; Chan, Yen-Ming; Harding, Scott V; Jones, Peter JH



The Bcl-2 family member Bfl-1/A1 is strongly repressed in normal and malignant plasma cells but is a potent anti-apoptotic factor for myeloma cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Terminal B-cell differentiation is a multi-step process, from short-lived plasmablasts to mature long-lived plasma cells (PC). The anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bfl-1/A1 plays a critical role in the survival of mature B cells. However, its potential involvement at later stages of B-cell development remains highly controversial. Our aim was thus to clarify the place of Bfl-1/A1 in the biology of normal human PC and in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM), the major PC dyscrasia. Using gene expression profiling and quantitative RT-PCR experiments, we found a similar down-regulation of Bfl-1/A1 in both normal immature plasmablasts and mature PC, when compared to B cells. In myeloma cells, the level of Bfl-1/A1 was low and Bfl-1/A1 was not an NF-?B-inducible gene. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Bfl-1/A1 is not involved in the prolonged survival of normal mature PC, and that Bfl-1/A1 deregulation is not a common oncogenic event in MM. However, overexpression of Bfl-1/A1 by retroviral transduction promoted autonomous survival of an IL-6 dependent myeloma cell line and rendered it less sensitive to dexamethasone. Thus, Bfl-1/A1 transduction could be an interesting tool to obtain myeloma cell lines from primary samples and to favour the in vitro generation of antibody-secreting long-lived normal PC.

Tarte, Karin; Jourdan, Michel; Veyrune, Jean Luc; Berberich, Ingolf; Fiol, Genevieve; Redal, Nicole; Shaughnessy, John; Klein, Bernard



Comparison of seminal oxidants and antioxidants in subjects with different levels of physical fitness.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the seminal 8-Isoprostane, reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in subjects with different level of physical fitness. A total of 161 semen samples were obtained from three groups of healthy males, including elite athletes (23.8 ± 5.2 years, n = 56) who had regular training (4-5 days per week), recreationally active men (24.2 ± 4.9 years, n = 52) who participated in educational or recreational physical activities for 4-5 h per week and non-active men (23.9 ± 5.0 years, n = 53) who did not participate in any exercise programmes for at least 6 months prior to the study. The results showed significantly higher levels of SOD, catalase and TAC as well as lower levels of 8-Isoprostane, ROS and MDA in recreationally active men compared with either elite athletes or non-active men (p < 0.001). Also, elite athletes revealed significantly higher seminal 8-Isoprostane, ROS and MDA as well as lower SOD, catalase and TAC levels compared with recreationally active and non-active men (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that there are differences in seminal oxidants and antioxidants of elite athletes, recreationally active and non-active men. These differences are more likely related to indices that favour decrement of oxidative stress-induced peroxidative damage in spermatozoa from recreationally active men. Hence, recreationally active men seem to have a healthier semen production. The physiological significance of this observation is worthy of further investigation. PMID:23785021

Hajizadeh Maleki, B; Tartibian, B; Eghbali, M; Asri-Rezaei, S



Normal Distribution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Generate a graphic and numerical display of the properties of the Normal Distribution. For a unit normal distribution, with M=0 and SD=ÃÂñ1, enter 0 and 1 at the prompt. For a distribution with M=100 and SD=ÃÂñ15, enter 100 and 15. And so forth

Lowry, Richard, 1940-



Normal Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet, created by Tom Malloy of the University of Utah, demonstrates probability as the area under the normal and the standard normal curves. Students can manipulate mean, standard deviation, and lower and upper bounds to find probabilities. This is a nice interactive resource allowing students a more hands on approach to statistics.

Malloy, Tom



Radiological treatment of male varicocele: technical, clinical, seminal and dosimetric aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose.  The purpose of this study was to present our experience with percutaneous treatment of male varicocele considering technical,\\u000a clinical, seminal and dosimetric aspects.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods.  At baseline and at 6 months’ follow–up, 290 male patients aged between 18 and 37 (average age 27.3 years) with left (266 cases)\\u000a or bilateral (24 cases) varicocele underwent clinical assessment, Doppler ultrasonography (US), laboratory

C. Gazzera; O. Rampado; L. Savio; C. Di Bisceglie; C. Manieri; G. Gandini



Radiotherapy Treatment Plans With RapidArc for Prostate Cancer Involving Seminal Vesicles and Lymph Nodes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Dosimetric results and treatment delivery efficiency of RapidArc plans to those of conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were compared using the Eclipse treatment planning system for high-risk prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: This study included 10 patients. The primary planning target volume (PTV{sub P}) contained prostate, seminal vesicles, and pelvic lymph nodes with a margin. The boost PTV (PTV{sub B}) contained prostate and seminal vesicles with a margin. The total prescription dose was 75.6 Gy (46.8 Gy to PTV{sub P} and an additional 28.8 Gy to PTV{sub B}; 1.8 Gy/fraction). Three plans were generated for each PTV: Multiple-field IMRT, one-arc RapidArc (1ARC), and two-arc RapidArc (2ARC). Results: In the primary IMRT with PTV{sub P}, average mean doses to bladder, rectum and small bowel were lower by 5.9%, 7.7% and 4.3%, respectively, than in the primary 1ARC and by 3.6%, 4.8% and 3.1%, respectively, than in the primary 2ARC. In the boost IMRT with PTV{sub B}, average mean doses to bladder and rectum were lower by 2.6% and 4.8% than with the boost 1ARC and were higher by 0.6% and 0.2% than with the boost 2ARC. Integral doses were 7% to 9% higher with RapidArc than with IMRT for both primary and boost plans. Treatment delivery time was reduced by 2-7 minutes using RapidArc. Conclusion: For PTVs including prostate, seminal vesicles, and lymph nodes, IMRT performed better in dose sparing for bladder, rectum, and small bowel than did RapidArc. For PTVs including prostate and seminal vesicles, RapidArc with two arcs provided plans comparable to those for IMRT. The treatment delivery is more efficient with RapidArc.

Yoo, Sua, E-mail: sua.yoo@duke.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Wu, Q. Jackie; Lee, W. Robert; Yin Fangfang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)



Normalized Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discussions of diagnostic tools that gauge students' conceptual understanding permeate the literature. Many instructors report their class' normalized gain to characterize the change in scores from pre-test to post-test. We describe a new procedure for characterizing these changes. This procedure, which we call the normalized change, c, involves the ratio of the gain to the maximum possible gain or the loss to the maximum possible loss. We also advocate reporting the average of a class' normalized changes and utilizing a particular statistical and graphical approach for comparing average c values.

Marx, Jeffrey; Cummings, Karen



Development of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke in relation to fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose levels in the normal range  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals who had normoglycemia but whose 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) concentrations did not return to the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) have been shown to have increased cardiovascular mortality. This is further investigated regarding to the first events of coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke (IS). Method Data from 9 Finnish and Swedish cohorts comprising 3743 men and 3916 women aged 25 to 90?years who had FPG??FPG (Group II) compared with those having 2hPG ? FPG (Group I). Results A total of 466 (115) CHD and 235 (106) IS events occurred in men (women) during a median follow-up of 16.4?years. Individuals in Group II were older and had greater body mass index, blood pressure, 2hPG and fasting insulin than those in Group I in both sexes. Multivariate adjusted HRs (95% confidence intervals) for incidence of CHD, IS, and composite CVD events (CHD?+?IS) in men were 1.13 (0.93-1.37), 1.40 (1.06-1.85) and 1.20 (1.01-1.42) in the Group II as compared with those in the Group I. The corresponding HRs in women were 1.33 (0.83-2.13), 0.94 (0.59-1.51) and 1.11 (0.79-1.54), respectively. Conclusion Within normoglycemic range individuals whose 2hPG did not return to their FPG levels during an OGTT had increased risk of CHD and IS.



Ion transport in seminal and adventitious roots of cereals during O2 deficiency.  


O(2) deficiency during soil waterlogging inhibits respiration in roots, resulting in severe energy deficits. Decreased root-to-shoot ratio and suboptimal functioning of the roots, result in nutrient deficiencies in the shoots. In N(2)-flushed nutrient solutions, wheat seminal roots cease growth, while newly formed adventitious roots develop aerenchyma, and grow, albeit to a restricted length. When reliant on an internal O(2) supply from the shoot, nutrient uptake by adventitious roots was inhibited less than in seminal roots. Epidermal and cortical cells are likely to receive sufficient O(2) for oxidative phosphorylation and ion transport. By contrast, stelar hypoxia-anoxia can develop so that H(+)-ATPases in the xylem parenchyma would be inhibited; the diminished H(+) gradients and depolarized membranes inhibit secondary energy-dependent ion transport and channel conductances. Thus, the presence of two transport steps, one in the epidermis and cortex to accumulate ions from the solution and another in the stele to load ions into the xylem, is important for understanding the inhibitory effects of root zone hypoxia on nutrient acquisition and xylem transport, as well as the regulation of delivery to the shoots of unwanted ions, such as Na(+). Improvement of waterlogging tolerance in wheat will require an increased capacity for root growth, and more efficient root functioning, when in anaerobic media. PMID:20847100

Colmer, Timothy David; Greenway, Hank



Structure of the seminal pathway in the European chub, Leuciscus cephalus (Cyprinidae); Teleostei.  


The testicular efferent duct system of Leuciscus cephalus (Cyprinidae), is described for three phases of testicular development. Testicular main ducts were analyzed by means of conventional histology and transmission electron microscopy. Additional techniques were applied for lectin histochemistry to determine secretory activity, as well as immunohistochemistry for cell proliferation activity and for muscle actin to demonstrate the distribution and amount of contractile cells. The contribution of the main ducts' epithelia and of degenerating spermatocytes to seminal fluid composition was confirmed, with the former being a source of carbohydrates and the latter that of phospholipids. The apical glycocalyx of epithelial cells, which is important in cell recognition and potentially involved in sperm storage, was marked by RCA I, LCA, and WGA lectin. Higher numbers of proliferating epithelial cells were ascertained during spawning phase compared to pre- and postspawning phases. In the ducts' stroma, a large number of cells expressed muscle actin and tropomyosin, indicating the ducts' contractile potential for the transport of seminal fluid towards release. Adjacent to these contractile cells, numerous nerves were found, indicating neuronal control of sperm fluid flow. PMID:15688444

Walter, Ingrid; Tschulenk, Waltraud; Schabuss, Michael; Miller, Ingrid; Grillitsch, Britta



Selective and asymmetric action of trypsin on the dimeric forms of seminal RNase.  

PubMed Central

Dimeric seminal RNase (BS-RNase) is an equilibrium mixture of conformationally different quaternary structures, one characterized by the interchange between subunits of their N-terminal ends (the MXM form); the other with no interchange (the M=M form). Controlled tryptic digestion of each isolated quaternary form generates, as limit digest products, folded and enzymatically active molecules, very resistant to further tryptic degradation. Electrospray mass spectrometric analyses and N-terminal sequence determinations indicate that trypsin can discriminate between the conformationally different quaternary structures of seminal RNase, and exerts a differential and asymmetric action on the two dimeric forms, depending on the original quaternary conformation of each form. The two digestion products from the MXM and the M=M dimeric forms have different structures, which are reminiscent of the original quaternary conformation of the dimers: one with interchange, the other with no interchange, of the N-terminal ends. The surprising resistance of these tryptic products to further tryptic action is explained by the persistence in each digestion product of the original intersubunit interface.

De Lorenzo, C.; Dal Piaz, F.; Piccoli, R.; Di Maro, A.; Pucci, P.; D'Alessio, G.



Immunological characterization and activity of transglutaminases in human normal and malignant prostate and in prostate cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using biochemical assays, we compared enzyme activities with the immunoreactivity of antibodies against rat seminal transglutaminase (TGase), human erythrocyte TGase and guinea pig liver TGase in human normal prostate, primary prostatic carcinomas and prostatic carcinoma cell lines. Glandular cells of the epithelium were only exceptionally positive with the antibody against (rat) secretory TGase. Using the antibodies against tissue-type TGase, most

B. Friedrichs; H. Riedmiller; H.-W. Goebel; U. Rausch; G. Aumüller



Heterosis-associated proteome analyses of maize (Zea mays L.) seminal roots by quantitative label-free LC-MS.  


Heterosis is the superior performance of heterozygous F1-hybrid plants compared to their homozygous genetically distinct parents. Seminal roots are embryonic roots that play an important role during early maize (Zea mays L.) seedling development. In the present study the most abundant soluble proteins of 2-4cm seminal roots of the reciprocal maize F1-hybrids B73×Mo17 and Mo17×B73 and their parental inbred lines B73 and Mo17 were quantified by label-free LC-MS/MS. In total, 1918 proteins were detected by this shot-gun approach. Among those, 970 were represented by at least two peptides and were further analyzed. Eighty-five proteins displayed non-additive accumulation in at least one hybrid. The functional category protein metabolism was the most abundant class of non-additive proteins represented by 27 proteins. Within this category 16 of 17 non-additively accumulated ribosomal proteins showed high or above high parent expression in seminal roots. These results imply that an increased protein synthesis rate in hybrids might be related to the early manifestation of hybrid vigor in seminal roots. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In the present study a shot-gun proteomics approach allowed for the identification of 1917 proteins and analysis of 970 seminal root proteins of maize that were represented by at least 2 peptides. The comparison of proteome complexity of reciprocal hybrids and their parental inbred lines indicates an increased protein synthesis rate in hybrids that may contribute to the early manifestation of heterosis in seminal roots. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Plant Proteomics. PMID:23607940

Marcon, Caroline; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Malik, Waqas Ahmed; Ungrue, Denise; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Hochholdinger, Frank



Normal Modes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play with a 1D or 2D system of coupled mass-spring oscillators. Vary the number of masses, set the initial conditions, and watch the system evolve. See the spectrum of normal modes for arbitrary motion. See longitudinal or transverse modes in the 1D system.

Simulations, Phet I.; Dubson, Michael; Olson, Jon; Paul, Ariel; Loeblein, Trish



Normal Distribution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Change the standard deviation of an automatically generated normal distribution to create a new histogram. Observe how well the histogram fits the curve, and how areas under the curve correspond to the number of trials. Parameters: standard deviation, number of trials, class intervals.


A UFLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantitation of spinosin, mangiferin and ferulic acid in rat plasma: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and insomnic rats.  


Suan-Zao-Ren (SZR) decoction, consisting of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Poria, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, is a Traditional Chinese Medicine prescription, clinically used for the treatment of insomnia. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and reliable UFLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantitation of spinosin, mangiferin and ferulic acid, the main active ingredients in SZR decoction, and to compare the pharmacokinetics of these active ingredients in normal and insomnic rats orally administrated with the prescription. Analytes and IS were separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODS column (75 mm × 3.0 mm, 2.2 µm particles) using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The detection of the analytes was performed on 4000Q UFLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in the negative ion and multiple reaction-monitoring mode. The lower limits of quantification were 1, 6 and 1 ng/mL for spinosin, mangiferin and ferulic acid, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of analytes were well within acceptance criteria (15%). The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rats plasma were all more than 85.0%. The validated method has been successfully applied to comparing pharmacokinetic profiles of analytes in rat plasma. The results indicated that no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters of ferulic acid was observed between two groups, while absorptions of spinosin and mangiferin in insomnic group were significantly lower than those in normal group. PMID:23019165

He, Bosai; Li, Qing; Jia, Ying; Zhao, Longshan; Xiao, Feng; Lv, Chunxiao; Xu, Huarong; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun




EPA Science Inventory

TIME-DEPENDENT EFFECTS ON GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT SEMINAL VESICLE DEVELOPMENTALLY ALTERED BY IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO TCDD. V M Richardson', J T Hamm2, and L S Birnbaum1. 'USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, 'Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, ...


Rate of molecular evolution of the seminal protein gene SEMG2 correlates with levels of female promiscuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

in mammals, particularly primates, showed that, owing to greater sperm competition, polyandrous taxa generally have physiological traits that make them better adapted for fertilization than monandrous species, including bigger testes, larger seminal vesicles, higher sperm counts, richer mitochondrial loading in sperm and more prominent semen coagulation2,5-8. Here, we show that the degree of polyandry can also impact the dynamics of

Steve Dorus; Patrick D Evans; Gerald J Wyckoff; Sun Shim Choi; Bruce T Lahn



Sperm and seminal fluid proteomes of the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus: identification of novel proteins transferred to females at mating.  


Reproductive proteins are amongst the most evolutionarily divergent proteins known, and research on genetically well-characterized species suggests that postcopulatory sexual selection might be important in their evolution; however, we lack the taxonomic breadth of information on reproductive proteins that is required to determine the general importance of sexual selection for their evolution. We used transcriptome sequencing and proteomics to characterize the sperm and seminal fluid proteins of a cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, that has been widely used in the study of postcopulatory sexual selection. We identified 57 proteins from the sperm of these crickets. Many of these had predicted function in glycolysis and metabolism, or were structural, and had sequence similarity to sperm proteins found across taxa ranging from flies to humans. We identified 21 seminal fluid proteins, some of which resemble those found to be involved in postmating changes to female reproduction in other species. Some 27% of sperm proteins and 48% of seminal fluid proteins were of unknown function. The characterization of seminal fluid proteins in this species will allow us to explore their adaptive significance, and to contribute comparative data that will facilitate a general appreciation of the evolution of reproductive proteins within and among animal taxa. PMID:23211034

Simmons, L W; Tan, Y-F; Millar, A H



Seminal leukocyte concentration and related specific reactive oxygen species production in patients with male accessory gland infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether differences occur in seminal concentrations of white blood corpuscles (sWBC) and whether WBC production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is related to the infiltration of one or more male sexual glands. We studied 70 infertile patients affected by bacterial male accessory gland infections (MAGI) who were divided clinically and, by ultrasound

E. Vicari



The Applicability of a Seminal Professional Development Theory to Creative Arts Therapies Students.  


The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to test the extent to which a seminal theory of the professional development of counsellors and therapists is applicable to the particular experiences of creative arts therapies graduate students who learn how to use the arts in psychotherapy. Nevertheless, readers may consider the results of the present study transferable to other healthcare disciplines. Questionnaires for each developmental phase were used for data collection, and analysis included data quantification, assessment of inter-rater agreement and theory derivation procedure. Results indicate that creative arts therapies students were concerned about translating theory into practice, learning how experienced therapists concretely function in practice, and reducing cognitive dissonance upon realization that their pre-training lay conceptions of helping were no longer valid. Stress and anxiety drove students to adopt easily mastered techniques that were implemented creatively in practicum. The results confirm that students who were older and had undergraduate human-service education and/or considerable life experience were less concerned about their suitability to the profession, were more acquainted with a professional working style and searched for their individual way of becoming therapists. Finally, recommendations for future research are suggested, and implications for practice are offered. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message The study tested the applicability of a seminal theory of the professional development of counsellors and therapists to creative arts therapies students.Students were concerned about reducing cognitive dissonance upon realization that their pre-training lay conceptions of helping were no longer valid.Stress and anxiety drove students to adopt easily mastered techniques that were implemented creatively in practicum.Older students, with previous human-service education or considerable life experience, were more certain about their suitability to the profession. PMID:23733240

Orkibi, Hod



Single-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy can provide dose distributions equivalent to fixed-beam intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostatic irradiation with seminal vesicle and/or lymph node involvement  

PubMed Central

Objectives Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is becoming an increasingly utilised modality for treating a variety of anatomical sites. However, the efficacy of single-arc VMAT to treat prostate cancer suspicious for extraprostatic extension was heretofore unknown. In this work, we report our institutional experience with single-arc VMAT and fixed-beam intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer patients treated for seminal vesicle and/or lymph node involvement. Methods Single-arc VMAT and 7- or 9-field IMRT treatment plans were compared for 10 prostate cancer patients treated for seminal vesicle involvement and/or lymph node involvement. All treatment plans were constructed using the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system (v.9.0, Fitchburg, WI) and delivered on an Elekta Infinity radiotherapy accelerator (Crawley, UK). Resulting plans were compared using metrics that characterised dosimetry and delivery efficiency. Results No statistically significant differences in target coverage, target homogeneity or normal tissue doses were noted between the plans (p>0.05). For prostate patients treated for seminal vesicle involvement, VMAT plans were delivered in 1.4±0.1 min (vs 9.5±2.4 min for fixed-beam IMRT) (p<0.01) and required approximately 20% fewer monitor units (p=0.01). For prostate patients treated for lymph node involvement, VMAT plans were delivered in 1.4±0.1 min (vs 11.7±1.3 min for fixed-beam IMRT) (p<0.01) and required approximately 45% fewer monitor units (p<0.01). Conclusion Single-arc VMAT plans were dosimetrically equivalent to fixed-beam IMRT plans with significantly improved delivery efficiency.

Fontenot, J D; King, M L; Johnson, S A; Wood, C G; Price, M J; Lo, K K



Validated LC-MS method for simultaneous quantitation of catalpol and harpagide in rat plasma: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and diabetic rats after oral administration of Zeng-Ye-Decoction.  


A simple and efficient liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of catalpol and harpagide in normal and diabetic rat plasma. Protein precipitation extraction with acetonitrile was carried out using salidroside as the internal standard (IS). The LC separation was performed on an Elite C18 column (150?×?4.6?mm, 5?µm) with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water within a runtime of 12.0?min. The analytes were detected without endogenous interference in the selected ion monitoring mode with positive electrospray ionization. Calibration curves offered satisfactory linearity (r?>?0.99) at linear range of 0.05-50.0?µg/mL for catalpol and 0.025-5.0?µg/mL for harpagide with the lower limits of quantitation of 0.05 and 0.025?µg/mL, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD) were <9.4%, and accuracy (RE) was in the -6.6 to 4.9% range. The extraction efficiencies of catalpol, harpagide and IS were all >76.5% and the matrix effects of the analytes ranged from 86.5 to 106.0%. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of catalpol and harpagide after oral administration of Zeng-Ye-Decoction to normal and diabetic rats, respectively. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23754598

Feng, Yukun; Liu, Zhenzhen; Peng, Ying; Zhang, Lunhui; Ju, Ping; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui



Dimensions of human ejaculated spermatozoa in Papanicolaou-stained seminal and swim-up smears obtained from the Integrated Semen Analysis System (ISAS(®)).  


Objective measurements are required for computer-aided sperm morphometric analysis (CASMA) machines to distinguish normal from abnormal sperm heads. The morphometric characteristics of spermatozoa in 72 samples of semen and of spermatozoa from 72 other semen samples after swim-up were quantified by the semi-automated Integrated Sperm Analysis System (ISAS) computer-aided system, which measured the sperm head parameters length (L), width (W), area (A), perimeter (P), acrosomal area (Ac), and the derived values L/W and P/A. For each man a homogeneous population of distributions characterized seminal spermatozoa (7 942 cells: median values L 4.4 ?m, W 2.8 ?m, A 9.8 ?m(2), P 12.5 ?m, Ac 47.5%, L/W 1.57, P/A 1.27), and there was no significant difference in within- and among-individual variation. Different men could have spermatozoa of significantly different dimensions. Head dimensions for swim-up spermatozoa from different men (4 812 cells) were similar to those in semen, differing only by 2%-5%. The values of L, W and L/W fell within the limits given by the World Health Organization (WHO). Although these samples were not biologically matched, linear mixed-effects statistical analyses permitted valid comparison of the groups. A subpopulation of 404 spermatozoa considered to fit the stringent criteria of WHO 'normal' seminal spermatozoa from both semen and swim-up were characterized by median values (and 95% confidence intervals) of L, 4.3 ?m (3.8-4.9), W, 2.9 ?m (2.6-3.3), A, 10.2 ?m(2) (8.5-12.2), P, 12.4 ?m (11.3-13.9), Ac, 49% (36-60), L/W, 1.49 (1.32-1.67) and P/A, 1.22 (1.11-1.35). These median values fall within the 95th centile confidence limits given by WHO, but the confidence intervals for L and W were larger. Although these differences in head dimensions among men and after swim-up could be detected by CASMA, the small differences make it unlikely that technicians would be able to distinguish them. The values could be used as default sperm head values for the CASMA machine used here. PMID:20852650

Bellastella, Giuseppe; Cooper, Trevor G; Battaglia, Marina; Ströse, Anda; Torres, Inma; Hellenkemper, Barbara; Soler, Carles; Sinisi, Antonio A



Gender and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2, CETP, and SCARB1 Are Significant Predictors of Plasma Homocysteine Normalized by RBC Folate in Healthy Adults123  

PubMed Central

Using linear regression models, we studied the main and 2-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine (Hcy)/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma Hcy normalized by RBC folate measurements (nHcy) in 373 healthy Caucasian adults (50% women). Variable selection was conducted by stepwise Akaike information criterion or least angle regression and both methods led to the same final model. Significant predictors (where P values were adjusted for false discovery rate) included type of blood sample [whole blood (WB) vs. plasma-depleted WB; P < 0.001] used for folate analysis, gender (P < 0.001), and SNP in genes SPTLC1 (rs11790991; P = 0.040), CRBP2 (rs2118981; P < 0.001), BHMT (rs3733890; P = 0.019), and CETP (rs5882; P = 0.017). Significant 2-way interaction effects included gender × MTHFR (rs1801131; P = 0.012), gender × CRBP2 (rs2118981; P = 0.011), and gender × SCARB1 (rs83882; P = 0.003). The relation of nHcy concentrations with the significant SNP (SPTLC1, BHMT, CETP, CRBP2, MTHFR, and SCARB1) is of interest, especially because we surveyed the main and interaction effects in healthy adults, but it is an important area for future study. As discussed, understanding Hcy and genetic regulation is important, because Hcy may be related to inflammation, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus. We conclude that gender and SNP significantly affect nHcy.

Clifford, Andrew J.; Chen, Kehui; McWade, Laura; Rincon, Gonzalo; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Holstege, Dirk M.; Owens, Janel E.; Liu, Bitao; Muller, Hans-Georg; Medrano, Juan F.; Fadel, James G.; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Baer, David J.; Novotny, Janet A.



Ovulation induction in rabbit does submitted to artificial insemination by adding buserelin to the seminal dose.  


This study was aimed at determining if a GnRH analogue, buserelin, could be used for ovulation induction in rabbit does submitted to artificial insemination (AI) by intravaginal administration, by adding the hormone to the seminal dose. In a first experiment, 39 secondiparous experimental does (Hyplus strain PS19, Grimaud Frères, France, of about 30 weeks of age) were divided into 3 groups of 13 does each, which at the moment of AI received the following treatments, respectively: (1) control: an intramuscular injection of buserelin (0.8 microg/doe), (2) 8 microg/doe of buserelin added to the insemination dose, and (3) 16 microg/doe of buserelin added to the insemination dose. The experiment was done using 3 consecutive cycles at 42 day-intervals (n = 39). Four does from each of the 3 groups had blood taken at the fourth cycle for LH determination at 0, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min relative to AI. Kindling rates were 82% (28/34), 56% (29/36) and 85% (33/39), respectively for treatments 1, 2 and 3. In the does of groups 2 and 3, LH peaks were detected 60 min after AI, whereas in the does from group 1, the LH peak was detected 90 min after AI. Prolificacy was not different for the 3 treatments (average litter sizes ranged from 10.4 to 10.8). In a second experiment, 3 buserelin concentrations (8, 12 and 16 microg/doe) were used intravaginally and compared with the control treatment (0.8 microg/doe, via intramuscular). This experiment was done using 100 nulliparous rabbit does (Hyplus strain PS19, Grimaud Frères, France, of about 19 weeks of age) (4 groups of 25 does each) located on a commercial farm, to test if the previous results would be confirmed under field conditions. Kindling rates were no different (P < 0.05) for the 4 treatment groups [91.7% (22/24), 79.2% (19/24), 87.0% (20/23) and 87.5% (21/24) respectively for the control, 8, 12 and 16 microg of intravaginal buserelin], however, prolificacy was higher when using the maximal dose of intravaginal buserelin (11.7 vs. 9.4 for the control group). It was concluded that buserelin can be used for ovulation induction in rabbit does when included in the seminal dose, with similar AI results as those obtained when the hormone is administered intramuscularly. PMID:15189012

Quintela, Luis A; Peña, Ana I; Vega, Maria Dolores; Gullón, Julian; Prieto, Maria Carmen; Barrio, Mónica; Becerra, Juan J; Maseda, Francisco; Herradón, Pedro G


[Normal sleep].  


Sleep represents organized complex behavior necessary and vital for the survival of the species. It is reversible, internally regulated and homeostatically controlled process. Sleep consists of two separate states designated as NREM and REM sleep. NREM sleep has four sleep states (1 through 4) easily defined by the PSG and EEG components. REM sleep consists of tonic and phasic components. The tonic component of REM sleep by default includes the duration while phasic component consists of clusters of rapid eye movement, muscle twitches and PGO activity. The two states of sleep differ fundamentally both from one another as well as from the state of wakefulness. NREM and REM sleep is organized in sleep cycles with a typical duration between 90 and 110 minutes. Approximately 4 to 6 cycles emerge during the night with the REM episodes being prolonged towards the morning. About 70-80% of sleep process belongs to NREM and 20-25% to REM sleep. Normal aging carries the reduction in slow high-voltage activity (delta sleep) while REM sleep is of the relatively constant duration. Overall, sleep in elderly is characterized by the increase in the number of sleep stage shifts, increase in the number of awakenings and a shift towards the superficial sleep stages. PMID:18069349

Susi?, Veselinka



A calorimetric approach to the study of the interactions of cytidine-3'-phosphate with bovine seminal ribonuclease.  


A calorimetric study at 25 degrees C is reported on the interaction between allosteric bovine seminal ribonuclease and cytidine-3'-phosphate. The results are compared with those obtained under identical experimental conditions for the interaction of pancreatic ribonuclease A and the same nucleotide. The analysis of the data provides evidence that the binding sites of seminal ribonuclease for cytidine-3'-phosphate are not equivalent, in agreement with previous equilibrium dialysis studies. A model with two sites with different affinities toward the nucleotide, the site with higher affinity resembling the binding site of pancreatic ribonuclease, is proposed. The values calculated for the thermodynamic parameters provide an insight of the forces involved in the interaction of the two enzymes with the nucleotide. PMID:2752098

Ambrosino, R; Barone, G; Castronuovo, G; Cultrera, O; Di Donato, A; Elia, V



Control of impurities in toroidal plasma devices  


A method and apparatus for plasma impurity control in closed flux plasma systems such as Tokamak reactors is disclosed. Local axisymmetrical injection of hydrogen gas is employed to reverse the normally inward flow of impurities into the plasma.

Ohkawa, Tihiro (La Jolla, CA)



Studies of the bulbo-urethral (Cowper's)-gland mucin and seminal gel of the boar  

PubMed Central

1. Moving-boundary electrophoresis of the mucin from the Cowper's gland of the boar revealed a sharp single peak at pH values from 1.1 to 9.0 and an isoelectric point of 1.1. 2. Neuraminidase treatment of the mucin, which removed at least 96% of the sialic acid groups, decreased the electrophoretic mobility at pH4 from ?7.4×10?5 (for the mucin) to ?0.64×10?5cm2V?1s?1. 3. Ultracentrifugal sedimentation values of s20,w showed a marked dependence on concentration. A hyperfine peak, similar to that given by ovine submaxillary secretion, persisted throughout the run at higher concentrations. Ultracentrifugal studies further showed a very low value for the diffusion coefficient (D20,w ?1.57×10?8cm2/s). 4. Calculation of the approximate molecular weight from comparable s20,w and D20,w values gave a provisional value of 6.5×106. 5. Two proteins present in the boar vesicular secretion known as protein A and protein H (the haemagglutinating protein) were shown to promote the swelling of the mucin to form the characteristic rigid elastic gel of boar semen. It is suggested that protein A molecules particularly (mol.wt. 2.8×104) cross-link with the long molecules of the mucin to form the seminal gel. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.

Boursnell, J. C.; Hartree, E. F.; Briggs, P. A.



'Semen Contains Vitality and Heredity, Not Germs': Seminal Discourse in the AIDS Era  

PubMed Central

Perspectives of public health generally ignore culture-bound sexual health concerns, such as semen loss, and primarily attempt to eradicate sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Like in many other countries, sexual health concerns of men in Bangladesh have also received less attention compared to STIs in the era of AIDS. This paper describes the meanings of non-STI sexual health concerns, particularly semen loss, in the masculinity framework. In a qualitative study on male sexuality, 50 men, aged 18–55 years, from diverse sociodemographic backgrounds and 10 healthcare practitioners were interviewed. Men considered semen the most powerful and vital body fluid representing their sexual performance and reproductive ability. Rather than recognizing the vulnerability to transmission of STIs, concerns about semen were grounded in the desire of men to preserve and nourish seminal vitality. Traditional practitioners supported semen loss as a major sexual health concern where male heritage configures male sexuality in a patriarchal society. Currently, operating HIV interventions in the framework of disease and death may not ensure participation of men in reproductive and sexual health programmes and is, therefore, less likely to improve the quality of sexual life of men and women.

Hudson-Rodd, Nancy; Saggers, Sherry; Bhuiyan, Mahbubul Islam; Bhuiya, Abbas; Karim, Syed Afzalul; Rauyajin, Oratai



Comparison of Before and After Varicocelectomy Levels of Nitric Oxide in Seminal Fluid of Infertile Men  

PubMed Central

Background Since nitric oxide (NO) has an oxidant activity, lower levels following a varicocelectomy may result in better functioning sperm, improved semen quality and consequently higher fertility rates. However, this procedure should be examined in more detail. Objectives Accordingly, this study was performed to compare the before and after varicocelectomy levels of NO in the seminal fluid of infertile men. Patients and Methods In this before and after comparative study, 20 consecutive patients attending a training hospital in Tehran, Iran were recruited. All of these men had primary or secondary infertility accompanied with a varicocele. A semen sample was collected from the men in two phases, first before their varicocelectomy and two months after their operation. Results NO levels differed significantly across the study and the mean (± standard deviation) levels of NO in the patients were 30.59 ± 10.35 µM/L and 21.48 ± 32.14 µM/L in the before and after phases of the study, respectively (P = 0.009). Conclusions According to the results obtained in this study, it may be concluded that in future, levels of NO should be taken into consideration together with other parameters for the evaluation of patients who are affected by varicoceles, to determine probable therapeutic responses.

Keyhan, Hossein; Dadvar, Alireza; Ansari, Mohammad; Rafiee, Kheirollah



Effects of various nitric oxide donating agents on the contractility and cyclic nucleotide turnover of human seminal vesicles in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To evaluate the effects of the nitric oxide (NO)-donating drugs sodium nitroprusside, S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO), S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteineetylester (SNACET), and linsidomine (SIN-1), as well as the adenylyl cyclase-stimulating agent forskolin, on electrically induced contractions and on tissue levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) of isolated human seminal vesicle strip preparations. The significance of the l-arginine-NO-cGMP pathway in

Olaf Heuer; Stefan Ückert; Stefan A Machtens; Christian G Stief; Dimitrios Tsikas; Jürgen C Frölich; Udo Jonas



Detection of seminal fluid proteins in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The global increase of the human parasite, the common bed bug Cimex lectularius, calls for specific pest control target sites. The bed bug is also a model species for sexual conflict theory which suggests seminal fluids may be highly diverse. The species has a highly unusual sperm biology and seminal proteins may have unique functions. 1-D PAGE gels showed 40 to 50% band sharing between C. lectularius and another cimicid species, Afrocimex constrictus. However, adult, sexually rested C. lectularius males were found to store 5 to 7?g of seminal protein and with only 60?g of protein we obtained informative 2-D PAGE gels. These showed 79% shared protein spots between two laboratory populations, and more than half of the shared protein spots were detected in the mated female. Further analysis using liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry revealed that 26.5% of the proteins had matches among arthropods in data bases and 14.5% matched Drosophila proteins. These included ubiquitous proteins but also those more closely associated with reproduction such as moj 29, ubiquitin, the stress-related elongation factor EF-1alpha, a protein disulfide isomerase and an antioxidant, Peroxiredoxin 6.




Detection of seminal fluid proteins in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.  


The global increase of the human parasite, the common bed bug Cimex lectularius, calls for specific pest control target sites. The bed bug is also a model species for sexual conflict theory which suggests that seminal fluids may be highly diverse. The species has a highly unusual sperm biology and seminal proteins may have unique functions. One-dimensional PAGE gels showed 40-50% band sharing between C. lectularius and another cimicid species, Afrocimex constrictus. However, adult, sexually rested C. lectularius males were found to store 5-7 microg of seminal protein and with only 60 microg of protein we obtained informative 2-D PAGE gels. These showed 79% shared protein spots between 2 laboratory populations, and more than half of the shared protein spots were detected in the mated female. Further analysis using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry revealed that 26.5% of the proteins had matches among arthropods in databases and 14.5% matched Drosophila proteins. These included ubiquitous proteins but also those more closely associated with reproduction such as moj 29, ubiquitin, the stress-related elongation factor EF-1 alpha, a protein disulfide isomerase and an antioxidant, Peroxiredoxin 6. PMID:19091156

Reinhardt, K; Wong, C H; Georgiou, A S



PhysioChemical Characteristics of Seminal Plasma and Development of Media and Methods for the Cryopreservation of European eel Sperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high sperm density, together with the short spermatozoa swimming time, makes European eel sperm manipulation and assessment for quality difficult. Two diluting media (K15 and K30) previously designed for Japanese eel sperm were tested. After 24 h, European eel sperm showed significant reduction in the percentage of motile spermatozoa after activation and different motility parameters (VAP, angular velocity; VCL, curvilinear

J. F. Asturiano; L. Pérez; D. L. Garzón; F. Marco-Jiménez; D. S. Peñaranda; J. S. Vicente; M. Jover



Morphometric evaluation of the turnover of autophagic vacuoles after treatment with Triton X-100 and vinblastine in murine pancreatic acinar and seminal vesicle epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Large numbers of autophagic vacuoles were found in murine pancreatic acinar and seminal vesicle epithelial cells following\\u000a the administration of Triton X-100 or vinblastine for 4 h. The autophagic vacuoles disappeared rapidly from the cells after\\u000a the administration of cycloheximide to animals pretreated with Triton X-100. The decay in seminal vesicle cells appeared to\\u000a follow firstorder kinetics with an estimated

János Kovács; Elizabeth Fellinger; Anna P. Kárpáti; Attila L. Kovács; Lajos László; Gábor Réz



Donkey jack (Equus asinus) semen cryopreservation: studies of seminal parameters, post breeding inflammatory response, and fertility in donkey jennies.  


The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate motility parameters of donkey jack (jack; Equus asinus) semen cryopreserved in INRA-96 (INRA; IMV Technologies, France, 2% egg-yolk enriched) using either glycerol (GLY) or ethylene glycol (EG) as a cryoprotector; (2) to compare in vitro the postthaw re-extension with homologous seminal plasma (SPL) or INRA; (3) to compare fertility in donkey jennies (jennies; Equus asinus) timed artificially inseminated with jack semen cryopreserved using GLY or EG, re-extended with INRA; (4) to compare fertility in jennies timed artificially inseminated with jack semen cryopreserved using GLY re-extended with SPL, INRA, or not re-extended (NN); and (5) to describe some preliminary results of the inflammatory uterine response postbreeding. Semen from two jacks was collected and frozen in an INRA-2% egg yolk extender added of either 2.2% GLY or 1.4% EG. Postthaw motility was evaluated by a computer-assisted motility analyzer. Uterine inflammatory response and fertility were evaluated after artificial insemination (AI) of 13 jennies with frozen-thawed semen, either further extended with INRA (Group GLY-INRA, 13 cycles, and EG-INRA, 8 cycles), or with SPL (Group GLY-SPL, 13 cycles), or not re-extended (GLY-NN, 5 cycles). In each cycle, jennies were bred twice with 500 × 10(6) sperm cells (250 × 10(6) from each jack), at fixed times after induction of ovulation, and uterus was flushed at 6 and 10 h after first and second breeding, respectively. Cells in the recovered fluid were counted and distinguished as polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) or other cell types. Total and progressive motility did not differ between cryoprotectants, but were higher when semen samples were re-extended in INRA, compared with SPL (P < 0.05). Pregnancy was diagnosed by transrectal palpation and ultrasonography examinations at 14 and 16 days postovulation. In 7/13 (53.8%) jennies and 12/39 (30.4%) cycles postbreeding intrauterine fluid accumulation was observed, with no differences between treatments (P < 0.05). Polymorphonuclear neutrophil numbers and concentrations were higher in the first flushing compared with the second, and PMN concentration was higher in GLY-SPL than in GLY-INRA (P < 0.05). Pregnancy rates in GLY-SPL, GLY-INRA, EG-INRA, and GLY-NN were 8/13, 3/13, 2/8, and 1/5, respectively. There was no significant difference either between the two cryoprotectants re-extended in INRA, or between re-extension groups. There was however a trend for GLY-SPL to improve pregnancy rates compared with GLY-INRA (P = 0.055). These results indicate that it is possible to obtain similar postthaw sperm motility and pregnancy rates using GLY or EG as a cryoprotectant for donkey semen, and that in the conditions of this study the re-extension in SPL of thawed semen before AI showed a trend toward the improvement of fertility and increased PMN concentration in uterine flushings. PMID:22979965

Rota, A; Panzani, D; Sabatini, C; Camillo, F



Polyamine levels in testes and seminal vesicles from adult golden hamsters during gonadal regression-recrudescence.  


The exposure of golden hamsters to short days results in early regression of the reproductive organs and subsequent spontaneous recrudescence characterized by active cellular regeneration and differentiation. Thus, adult male hamsters were subjected to short photoperiod (SP, 6L:18D) for 9, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 22 weeks or maintained under long photoperiod (LP, 14L:10D) for 22 weeks, to assess photoperiodic-related changes in testicular and seminal vesicle (SV) levels of polyamines (PA) that are involved in cell growth and differentiation. During the regression phase, the weights of the organs and the circulating levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol were significantly diminished and, thereafter, during the recrudescence phase, they recovered total or partially their control values. In both tissues, the exposure to SP for 14-16 weeks resulted in an increase of PA concentrations, followed by a return to control levels in the recrudescence period. At the time of maximal tissue involution, the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity (key regulatory enzyme of PA biosynthesis) showed a significant increase in testis, preceding the sharp peak of PA concentration. However, a marked decrease in ODC activity was detected in SV. The concentration of N-acetyl PA in SV showed an increment at 16 weeks of SP, while no modifications were detected in testicular concentration. When PA, N-acetyl PA, and ODC activity were expressed per testis and per SV, values fell significantly during the involution period, but in the recrudescence phase levels were recovered concomitantly with the restoration of the organ weight and function. In conclusion, the photoperiodic-related changes in PA and their N-acetyl derivatives might play a crucial role in regrowth and differentiation of the male sexual organs during the spontaneous recrudescence phase. Additionally, organ-specific regulation of the PA biosynthesis pathway could also take place. PMID:9016399

Frungieri, M B; Gonzalez-Calvar, S I; Calandra, R S


Structural analysis of seminal and serum human transferrin by second derivative spectrometry and fluorescence measurements.  


Denaturation of human seminal transferrin (HSmT) compared with human serum transferrin (HSrT) was followed to check structural differences between these two proteins. Second derivative UV spectroscopy indicated that treatment with 6 M guanidine hydrochloride (Gnd.HCl) induced greater structural changes in HSrT than in HSmT and, in particular; (i) the exposure value of tyrosinyl residues was almost 2.5-fold higher in native HSmT than in native HSrT; and (ii) a much more pronounced movement of tryptophanyl residues toward a higher polar environment could be noticed in HSrT after incubation with denaturing agent. Fluorescence measurements showed that: (i) a shift of the maximum emission wavelength of HSmT occurred (maximum emission was centered at 333 nm instead of 323 nm as for HSrT; excitation = 280 nm); (ii) the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence intensity of HSmT increased after 36 hr in the range of 1.5-4.0 M of denaturant, whereas an opposite behavior was found for HSrT in the range 0.0-2.0 M; and (iii) the wavelength maximum of fluorescence emission changed in a biphasic manner for HSrT and, conversely, under the same experimental conditions, HSmT gave a linear and parallel increase of fluorescence emission after 1 and 36 hr. We can conclude that this different behavior of HSmT with respect to HSrT might be due mainly to the fact that both the number and the exposure of tyrosinyl and tryptophanyl residues are different. Lately, these effects are discussed in relationship with the fact that HSmT contains less than half disulphide bridges than HSrT. PMID:1388665

D'Andrea, G; Maurizi, G; D'Alessandro, A M; Salucci, M L; Impagnatiello, A; Saletti, M A; Oratore, A



Process of aerenchyma formation and reactive oxygen species induced by waterlogging in wheat seminal roots.  


The development and regulation of aerenchyma in waterlogged conditions were studied in the seminal roots of wheat. Evans blue staining and the first cell death position indicated that the cortical cell death began at the root mid-cortex cells in flooding conditions. Continuous waterlogging treatment caused the spread of cell death from the mid-cortex to the neighboring cells and well-developed aerenchyma was formed after 72 h. Meanwhile, the formation of radial oxygen loss barrier was observed in the exodermis owing to the induction of Casparian bands and lignin deposition. Analysis of aerenchyma along the wheat root revealed that aerenchyma formed at 10 mm from the root tip, significantly increased toward the center of the roots, and decreased toward the basal region of the root. In situ detection of radial oxygen species (ROS) showed that ROS accumulation started in the mid-cortex cells, where cell death began indicating that cell death was probably accompanied by ROS production. Further waterlogging treatments resulted in the accumulation of ROS in the cortical cells, which were the zone for aerenchyma development. Accumulation and distribution of H2O2 at the subcellular level were revealed by ultracytochemical localization, which further verified the involvement of ROS in the cortical cell death process (i.e., aerenchyma formation). Furthermore, gene expression analysis indicated that ROS production might be the result of up-regulation of genes encoding for ROS-producing enzymes and the down-regulation of genes encoding for ROS-detoxifying enzymes. These results suggest that aerenchyma development in wheat roots starts in the mid-cortex cells and its formation is regulated by ROS. PMID:23975011

Xu, Q T; Yang, L; Zhou, Z Q; Mei, F Z; Qu, L H; Zhou, G S



The protein conformation and a zinc-binding domain of an autoantigen from mouse seminal vesicle.  

PubMed Central

The protein conformation of a mouse seminal vesicle autoantigen was studied by circular dichroism spectroscopy. At pH 7.4, the spectrum in the UV region appears as one negative band at 217 nm and one positive band at 200 nm. This together with the predicted secondary structures indicates no helices but a mixture of beta form, beta turn, and unordered form in the protein molecule. The conformation is stable even at pH 10.5 or 3.0. The spectrum in the near-UV region consists of fine structures that are disturbed in acidic or alkaline solution. The environments around Trp2 and Trp82 of this protein were studied by intrinsic fluorescence and solute quenching. They give an emission peak at 345 nm, and about 87% of them are accessible to quenching by acrylamide. Correlating the quenching effect of CsCl and Kl on the protein fluorescence to the charged groups along the polypeptide chain suggests the difference in the "local charge" around the two tryptophan residues. The presence of ZnCl2 in the protein solution effects no change in the circular dichroism but perturbs the fluorescence due to Trp82. Analysis of the fluorescence data suggests a Zn(2+)-binding site on the protein, which cannot coordinate with both Ca2+ and Mg2+. The association constant for the complex formation is 1.35 x 10(5) +/- 0.04 x 10(5) M-1 at pH 7.4.

Huang, Y H; Luo, C W; Yu, L C; Chu, S T; Chen, Y H



Quantitation of Seminal Factor IX and Factor IXa in Fertile, Nonfertile, and Vasectomy Subjects: A Step Closer Toward Identifying a Functional Clotting System in Human Semen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coagulation factor (F) IX is a zymogen of the plasma serine proteases, one that plays an essential role in the regulation of normal blood coagulation. Congenital defects of FIX synthesis or function cause hemophilia B (originally called hemophilia C). Factor IX is activated by Tissue Factor (TF):FVII\\/FVIIa complex and FXIa. Subsequent to its activation, FIXa combines with FVIIIa on the



Plasma androgens in autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma levels of testosterone and the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) were measured in male autistic subjects (31 prepubertal, 8 postpubertal), mentally retarded\\/cognitively impaired subjects (MR, 12 prepubertal), and normal control subjects (NC, 10 prepubertal, 11 postpubertal). Mean levels of plasma testosterone were similar in the postpubertal autistic (4.54+1.12 ng\\/ml) and postpubertal NC (5.02±1.87 ng\\/ml) groups. Plasma DHEA-S levels in

Sylvie Tordjman; George M. Anderson; P. Anne McBride; Margaret E. Hertzig; Margaret E. Snow; Laura M. Hall; Pierre Ferrari; Donald J. Cohen



Localization of the transglutaminase cross-linking site in SVS III, a novel glycoprotein secreted from mouse seminal vesicle.  


The nucleotide sequence of MpSv-1, a novel androgen-regulated gene exclusively expressed in mouse seminal vesicle, was analyzed to establish a 5'-flanking region of 2123 bp, three exons of 95, 765, and 330 bp, and two introns of 222 and 811 bp. The transcription unit is organized with the first exon encoding a signal peptide, and the second a secreted protein, whereas the third encompasses a 3'-non-translated nucleotide that shares common features of rapid evolving substrates of transglutaminase gene family. The protein sequence deduced from this gene contains 265 amino acid residues in which the central part, residues 116-145, is a region composed of five short tandem repeats, consisting of four amino acid residues, QXK(S/T), where X is an aliphatic amino acid residue. Among the mouse seminal vesicle secretory proteins that could be resolved by SDS-PAGE into seven major components, SVS I-VII, the antiserum against residues 77-109 of the MpSv-1-translated protein only reacted with SVS III. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectral analysis from a trypsin digest of SVS III supported this protein as derived from MpSv-1. SVS III was immunolocalized to the epithelium of both the primary and secondary folds of the seminal vesicle and the copulatory plug. All of mouse SVS I-III were proven to be substrates of transglutaminase and could be cross-linked readily after the enzyme reaction. The transglutaminase cross-linking site of SVS III was identified to be the tandem repeats of QXK(S/T) in the central part of this protein molecule. PMID:11723121

Lin, Han-Jia; Luo, Ching-Wei; Chen, Yee-Hsiung



Lipid and phospholipid fatty acid composition of plasma, red blood cells, and platelets and how they are affected by dietary lipids: a study of normal subjects from Italy, Finland, and the USA1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot study was conducted of males 40-45 years old from rural areas of three countries to study the long-term efects of dietary fats on the lipids of plasma, red blood cells (RBCs), and platelets. Differences were observed in cholesterol and phospholipid levels of plasma. Total phospholipids of RBCs and platelets were similar in all three countries. The pattern of

Rita M Dougherty; Anna Ferro-Luzzi; James M Jacono


Semiclassical gravitoelectromagnetic inflation in a Lorentz gauge: Seminal inflaton fluctuations and electromagnetic fields from a 5D vacuum state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a semiclassical approach to Gravitoelectromagnetic Inflation (GEMI), we study the origin and evolution of seminal inflaton and electromagnetic fields in the early inflationary universe from a 5D vacuum state. The difference with other previous works is that in this one we use a Lorentz gauge. Our formalism is naturally not conformal invariant on the effective 4D de Sitter metric, which make possible the super adiabatic amplification of magnetic field modes during the early inflationary epoch of the universe on cosmological scales.

Membiela, Federico Agustín; Bellini, Mauricio



BOOK REVIEW: Principles of Plasma Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book gives a comprehensive treatment of plasma spectroscopy, the quantitative study of line and continuous radiation from high temperature plasmas. This highly interdisciplinary field combines elements of atomic, plasma and statistical physics, and has wide application to simulations and diagnostics of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Plasma spectroscopy is naturally intertwined with magnetic and inertial fusion energy science. Radiative processes in plasmas are important in the design of fusion facilities, and can be used to diagnose and control conditions in fusion plasmas. In turn, fusion scientists and facilities have played a central role in developing plasma spectroscopy theory and applications. The book covers radiation from plasmas, spectral line broadening, atomic processes in plasmas and level kinetic models, radiative transfer and applications to spectroscopic plasma diagnostics. It is successful both as an introductory text and as a source book of theoretical and experimental research. The book presents a broad development of the theoretical foundations of these topics, and discusses the seminal papers and critical experiments. There is a strong emphasis on applications of plasma spectroscopy, primarily to plasma diagnostics and calculations of radiative cooling rates. Extensive references (current through the end of 1995) point readers to original material and detailed discussions of advanced topics. Of course, a single text cannot treat all aspects of plasma spectroscopy in depth. The strongest and most detailed section of the book is a long chapter on spectral line broadening. For me, the most significant omission is lack of a discussion of laser assisted transitions which can occur in plasmas produced by high intensity lasers. The book was intentionally written to be accessible to young researchers and graduate students. The level is roughly that of a graduate text. It assumes some familiarity with quantum mechanics and statistical thermodynamics, but develops most of the advanced concepts. Plasma spectroscopy is widely used by non-specialists, and the level and organization of the book are suited to use by researchers developing applications of plasma spectroscopic techniques. Finally, the specialist will profit from the comprehensive overview and excellent bibliography presented. The author is highly qualified to write a general book on the spectroscopy of plasmas. Professor Griem has worked in the field of plasma spectroscopy for more than four decades. He is the author of Plasma Spectroscopy (1964, McGraw-Hill), the first general, quantitative book on the subject of radiation from plasmas, as well as Spectral Line Broadening by Plasmas (1974, Academic Press). Both of these monographs were tremendously influential books. In addition to his long career at the University of Maryland, Professor Griem has worked extensively with numerous research groups in the United States of America and Europe. The depth and breadth of his experience is reflected in the book. The present book is largely new, rather than an update of the 1964 monograph. The two books have a similar organization, especially in the chapters introducing the classical and quantum theories of radiation. The later chapters of the two books diverge strongly as the present text incorporates a vast amount of modern material. The nomenclature and formalism have been updated, and I find this book more accessible than Professor Griem's earlier texts. The other significant changes are that the present book omits the problems at the end of the chapters, many of the tables of numerical results, and the chapters on plasma sources and detectors. While the tables of atomic and line shape results contained in the original book were extremely useful, they have been updated and extended in more recent works. I enthusiastically recommend this book to all scientists interested in the spectroscopy of hot plasmas. Early in his career, Professor Griem wrote the seminal book on plasma spectroscopy. It is gratifying that as a senior scientist he has writte

Osterheld, A. L.



Symptomatic and urodynamic responses in patients with reduced or no seminal emission during silodosin treatment for LUTS and BPH.  


Data from phase 3 studies (NCT00224107, NCT00224120) of silodosin for treatment of BPH symptoms were analyzed to examine the relationship between treatment efficacy and occurrence of abnormal ejaculation. Men aged ?50 years with International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS) ?13 and peak urinary flow rates (Qmax) of 4-15 ml s(-1) received placebo or silodosin 8 mg once daily for 12 weeks. Silodosin-treated patients were stratified by absence or presence of 'retrograde ejaculation' (RE). Groups were compared using analysis of covariance (for change from baseline) and responder analyses. Of the 466 patients receiving silodosin, 131 (28%) reported RE and 335 (72%) did not; 4 of the 457 patients receiving placebo (0.9%) reported RE. Most RE events in silodosin-treated patients (110/134; 82%) were reported as 'orgasm with absence of seminal emission.' Silodosin-treated patients with (+) and without (-) RE showed significant improvement in IPSS, Qmax and quality of life versus placebo (P<0.02). RE+ patients versus RE- patients experienced numerically greater improvement, but differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). For RE+ patients, the odds of achieving improvement of ?3 points in IPSS and ?3 ml s(-1) in Qmax by study end were 1.75 times those for RE- patients (P=0.0127). Absence of seminal emission may predict superior treatment efficacy of silodosin in individual patients. PMID:21135869

Roehrborn, C G; Kaplan, S A; Lepor, H; Volinn, W



Symptomatic and urodynamic responses in patients with reduced or no seminal emission during silodosin treatment for LUTS and BPH  

PubMed Central

Data from phase 3 studies (NCT00224107, NCT00224120) of silodosin for treatment of BPH symptoms were analyzed to examine the relationship between treatment efficacy and occurrence of abnormal ejaculation. Men aged ?50 years with International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS) ?13 and peak urinary flow rates (Qmax) of 4–15?ml?s?1 received placebo or silodosin 8?mg once daily for 12 weeks. Silodosin-treated patients were stratified by absence or presence of ‘retrograde ejaculation' (RE). Groups were compared using analysis of covariance (for change from baseline) and responder analyses. Of the 466 patients receiving silodosin, 131 (28%) reported RE and 335 (72%) did not; 4 of the 457 patients receiving placebo (0.9%) reported RE. Most RE events in silodosin-treated patients (110/134; 82%) were reported as ‘orgasm with absence of seminal emission.' Silodosin-treated patients with (+) and without (?) RE showed significant improvement in IPSS, Qmax and quality of life versus placebo (P<0.02). RE+ patients versus RE? patients experienced numerically greater improvement, but differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). For RE+ patients, the odds of achieving improvement of ?3 points in IPSS and ?3?ml?s?1 in Qmax by study end were 1.75 times those for RE? patients (P=0.0127). Absence of seminal emission may predict superior treatment efficacy of silodosin in individual patients.

Roehrborn, C G; Kaplan, S A; Lepor, H; Volinn, W




Microsoft Academic Search

-1 body weight intravenously to a group of eight healthy rabbits and compared these results to values in same eight rabbits with EEIF. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ofloxacin in normal and febrile rabbits were determined by using two compartment open kinetic model. Peak plasma level (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-?) in normal and febrile rabbits did not




Comparison of plasma a and -y tocopherol levels following chronic oral administration of either all- rac-a-tocopheryl acetate or RRR-a-tocopheryl acetate in normal adult male subjects13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin E was administered orally (400 IU twice a day) to adult male humans for 28 days as either dl-a-tocopheryl acetate (all-rac-a-tocopheryl acetate) or d-a-tocopheryl acetate (RRR- a-tocopheryl acetate). Plasma a-tocopherol rose rapidly and fell at the same rate following cessation of supplementation with both forms of vitamin E. No significant differences in plasma a- or -y- tocopherol levels were

Herman Baker; Garry J Handelman; Lawrence J Machlin; Hemmige N Bhagavan; Edward A Dratz; Oscar Frank


Normal Functioning Family  


... Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Normal Functioning Family Family Life Listen Normal Functioning Family Article Body Is there any way to tell if my family is functioning normally? Many parents ask themselves this ...


Cadmium in the blood and seminal fluid of nonoccupationally exposed adult male subjects with regard to smoking habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood cadmium (B-Cd) and seminal fluid cadmium (Sf-Cd) were measured in 120 adult male subjects not occupationally exposed\\u000a to cadmium (Cd), comprising 42 nonsmokers (including nine former smokers) and 78 smokers. The respective median and range\\u000a values were: 0.46 (0.19–1.49)??g\\/l of B-Cd and 0.54 (0.17–1.67)??g\\/l of Sf-Cd in nonsmokers, and 4.33 (0.49–13.33)??g\\/l of\\u000a B-Cd and 0.85 (0.29–3.56)??g\\/l of Sf-Cd in

Sponmenka Telišman; Jasna Jurasovi?; Alica Pizent; Petar Cvitkovi?



Menotropin (hMG) and idiopathic oligoastenoteratozoospermia (OAT): effects on seminal fluid parameters and on results in ICSI cycles.  


Many studies on gonadotropin treatment in idiopathic OAT have produced inconsistent (75 IU FSH + 75 IU LH) at the dosage of 3 ampoules a week for 90 days in 18 patients with idopathic OAT and testicular volume 12-15 ml. At the end of the cycle seminal fluid parameters and testicular volume were reassessed, comparing them with a homogenous control group including 13 subjects awaiting ICSI, who were not given any kind of pharmacological treatment. Treatment produced a statistically significant improvement in spermatozoa concentration (p = 0.016) and reduction in atypical forms (p = 0.040). We assessed also the impact on oocyte fertilization and pregnancy rates after the use of assisted reproduction techniques in a more restricted group of 8 patients, who had already undergone ICSI cycles before pharmacological therapy. Treatment with menotropin (hMG) appears to improve embryo quality. PMID:15906784

Beretta, Giovanni; Fino, Egidio; Sibilio, Luigi; Dilena, Michelangelo



Phosphocreatine, an Intracellular High-Energy Compound, is Found in the Extracellular Fluid of the Seminal Vesicles in Mice and Rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High levels of phosphocreatine, a compound known to serve as an intracellular energy reserve, were found in the fluid contained in seminal vesicle glands. The concentrations of phosphocreatine in the extracellular fluid in the mouse and rat were found to be 5.6 ± 1.6 and 2.2 ± 0.8 ? mol/g, respectively, which are higher than the intracellular levels reported for smooth muscles. The creatine concentrations in the seminal vesicular fluid from these two species were 22.8 ± 3.1 and 13.0 ± 5.3 ? mol/g, respectively. These creatine levels are approximately 100 and 65 times higher than the creatine levels in mammalian blood. Smaller amounts of ATP (phosphocreatine/ATP ratio of 20-40) and traces of ADP were also found. Comparison of the pattern of distribution of macromolecules (proteins and DNA) with the distribution of phosphocreatine between the cells and the fluid of the seminal vesicle indicates that cell lysis did not account for the phosphocreatine in the seminal vesicle fluid. Rather, the available evidence strongly suggests that this high-energy compound is actively secreted. We found that in the testes, the sperm are exposed to the highest known creatine concentration in any mammalian tissue studied. Based on these results and other recent reports, we propose that the extracellular phosphocreatine, ATP, and creatine are involved in sperm metabolism.

Lee, H. J.; Fillers, W. S.; Iyengar, M. R.



Laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection, laparoscopically assisted seminal vesicle mobilization, and total perineal prostatectomy versus radical retropubic prostatectomy for prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe outcomes of patients with prostate cancer who were candidates for radical prostatectomy were compared with patients who underwent either: (1) radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP); or (2) laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection, laparoscopically assisted seminal vesicle mobilization, and total perineal prostatectomy (LN-SV-TPP).

Joel M. H. Teichman; Pratap K. Reddy; John C. Hulbert