Sample records for normal seminal plasma

  1. Seminal plasma proteome of electroejaculated Bos indicus bulls.

    PubMed

    Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Corbet, N J; Corbet, D H; Burns, B M; Boe-Hansen, G B; McGowan, M R

    2014-07-01

    The present study describes the seminal plasma proteome of Bos indicus bulls. Fifty-six, 24-month old Australian Brahman sires were evaluated and subjected to electroejaculation. Seminal plasma proteins were separated by 2-D SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. The percentage of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm of the bulls were 70.4 ± 2.3 and 64 ± 3.2%, respectively. A total of 108 spots were identified in the 2-D maps, corresponding to 46 proteins. Binder of sperm proteins accounted for 55.8% of all spots detected in the maps and spermadhesins comprised the second most abundant constituents. Other proteins of the Bos indicus seminal plasma include clusterin, albumin, transferrin, metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, osteopontin, epididymal secretory protein E1, apolipoprotein A-1, heat shock 70 kDa protein, glutathione peroxidase 3, cathelicidins, alpha-enolase, tripeptidyl-peptidase 1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, plasma serine protease inhibitor, beta 2-microglobulin, proteasome subunit beta type-4, actin, cathepsins, nucleobinding-1, protein S100-A9, hemoglobin subunit alpha, cadherin-1, angiogenin-1, fibrinogen alpha and beta chain, ephirin-A1, protein DJ-1, serpin A3-7, alpha-2-macroglobulin, annexin A1, complement factor B, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, seminal ribonuclease, ribonuclease-4, prostaglandin-H2 d-isomerase, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. In conclusion, this work uniquely portrays the Bos indicus seminal fluid proteome, based on samples from a large set of animals representing the Brahman cattle of the tropical Northern Australia. Based on putative biochemical attributes, seminal proteins act during sperm maturation, protection, capacitation and fertilization. PMID:24889044

  2. Ascorbic Acid in Human Seminal Plasma: Determination and Its Relationship to Sperm Quality

    PubMed Central

    Colagar, Abasalt H.; Marzony, Eisa T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the ascorbic acid (AA) levels in seminal plasma of the fertile and infertile men and to investigate its relationship with sperm count, motility and normal morphology. Semen samples were provided by fertile [smoker (n = 25), nonsmoker (n = 21)] and infertile men [smoker (n = 23), nonsmoker (n = 32)]. A simplified method of reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) procedure using UV detection was applied for the determination of seminal AA. Fertile subjects, smoker or not, demonstrated significantly higher seminal AA levels than any infertile group (p<0.01). Nonsmokers had high, but no significant, mean AA levels in their seminal plasma compared with smokers. Seminal AA in fertile and infertile (smokers or nonsmokers) males correlated significantly with the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology (p<0.01). Seminal AA decreased significantly in infertile men. Decrease of seminal plasma AA is a risk factor for low normal morphology of spermatozoa and idiopathic male infertility. Measurement of seminal AA in the seminal plasma of males with a history of subfertility or idiopathic infertility is necessary and can be helpful in fertility assessment. PMID:19794921

  3. Proteomic analysis of white and yellow seminal plasma in turkeys ().

    PubMed

    S?owi?ska, M; Koz?owski, K; Jankowski, J; Ciereszko, A

    2015-06-01

    Yellow semen syndrome (YSS) is endemic within domestic turkey populations. Yellow semen is of lower quality and, when used for insemination, results in reduced fertility and hatchability. Little is known about the etiology of YSS. The aim of this study was to compare the proteome of white and yellow seminal plasma of turkeys using 1) 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to quantify seminal plasma proteins and 2) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to identify the proteins that are differentially abundant in white and yellow seminal plasma. A total of 49 protein spots (30 upregulated and 19 downregulated) were differentially expressed in yellow seminal plasma compared with white seminal plasma. Transthyretin and serum albumin-like showed a 3-fold increase in seminal plasma from males with YSS, and the latter was validated using Western blot analysis. A 3-fold increase was observed for hemopexin-like and immunoglobulin light chain V-J-C region. Pantetheinase-like showed a 1.3-fold increase. Ovotransferrin, hepatocyte growth factor activator, cysteine-rich secretory protein 3-like, and ferritin heavy chain-like showed a significant decrease (at least a 1.3-fold decrease) in yellow semen. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the precise function of the above-mentioned proteins in YSS and to establish quality markers of turkey semen to predict the reproductive potential of individual turkeys. PMID:26115266

  4. PIXE analysis of human spermatozoa isolated from seminal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Yoshida, K.; Uda, M.

    1990-04-01

    PIXE has been applied to the multielemental and microanalysis of human spermatozoa. This is the first attempt to determine the chemical compositions of the motile spermatozoa free from contaminations of seminal plasma without loss of component elements during washing. The spermatozoa were isolated from semen by letting them swim into a kind of physiological saline, Tyrode's solution. Relative concentrations of P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Zn and Br in motile spermatozoa were determined by the use of the chlorine K X-ray peak intensity for evaluating the amount of Tyrode's solution contained in the sample targets. The concentrations of calcium and iron in spermatozoa were considerably higher than in seminal plasma. The concentrations of P, K, Zn and Br in spermatozoa were not so different from those in seminal plasma.

  5. Correlations between seminal plasma enzyme activities and semen parameters in seminal fluid of Arabian horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Dogan

    2009-01-01

    Summary The objective of this study was to investigate aspartate-amino-transferase (AST), ?-glutamyl-transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH) and acid phosphatase (AcP) activities and semen parameters (volume, pH, concentration, total sperm number (TSN), progressive motility, dead sperm, total morphological defect (TMD) and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST)) in seminal plasma of Arabian horses. Furthermore, correlations between enzyme activities and semen parameters

  6. Lipid Composition of Bovine Spermatozoa and Seminal Plasma1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Komarek; B. W. Pickett; R. N. Lanz; R. G. Jensen

    1964-01-01

    SUMMARY Total lipid content of bovine spermatozoa and seminal plasma averaged 12.0 and 1.35%, respectively. Lipids separated by thin-layer chromatography and analyzed gravimetrieally, averaged for spermatozoa (%): phospholipids 73.3, cholesterol 14.5, diglycerides 6.G triglycerides 3.1, and wax esters 2.6. Similar values for seminal plasma were: phospholipids 68.6, cholesterol 20.2, diglycerides 4.0~ triglycerides 4.0, and wax esters, 3.2. In comparison to

  7. Identification of calcium-binding proteins in fish seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Mariola A; Nynca, Joanna; Westfalewicz, B?a?ej; Karol, Halina; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2011-09-01

    Calcium ions play an important role in the activation of fish sperm movement. The mechanism of their binding in semen is still unknown. The goal of this study was the development of a method for identifying calcium-binding proteins in fish seminal plasma. Two methods of calcium-binding proteins detection were tested with the use of Quin2 and Stains-all dyes. The first method was useful for the identification of calcium-binding proteins of fish seminal plasma. It consisted of proteins separation using SDS-PAGE, transfer on PVDF membrane, incubation with CaCl?, staining with Quin2 and illumination with UV light to reveal calcium-binding protein bands. Using Quin2 allowed the detection of calcium-binding proteins with low and high molecular weight. Electrophoretic species-specific profiles of calcium-binding proteins were identified in the seminal plasma of carp, whitefish, roach, brook trout, brown trout and rainbow trout. Staining of calcium-binding proteins with Quin2 is a quick and safe method, allowing the identification of calcium-binding proteins in fish semen. PMID:21042848

  8. Trace elements in seminal plasma of men from infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Szynkowska, Ma?gorzata I.; Motak-Pochrz?st, Hanna; Pawlaczyk, Aleksandra; Sypniewski, Stanis?aw

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An analysis of lead, zinc, cadmium and other trace elements in semen of men from infertile couples was performed to determine the association between abnormal semen parameters and enviromental or occupational exposure to some trace metals. Material and methods Presence of manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and lead was measured in seminal plasma of 34 men from infertile couples using spectrometry with time-of-flight analysis. Correlations among sperm parameters and trace metals were determined using cluster analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Abnormally high concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc and cobalt were found in 23 seminal plasma of men from infertile couples. The most consistent evidence was determined for an association between high cadmium concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count, motility and morphology below reference limits (p < 0.01). A correlation of significantly increased tin level and reduced sperm count in semen of men with limited fertility potential was observed (p = 0.04). Conclusions In our study we observed a correlation of tin level with sperm count in semen of men with limited fertility potential. PMID:26170853

  9. Seminal plasma oxytocin and oxidative stress levels in infertile men with varicocele.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, T; Rashed, L A; Osman, I; Marawan, M

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess seminal plasma oxytocin (OT) and oxidative stress (OS) levels in infertile men with varicocele (Vx). A total of 131 men were divided into fertile men (n = 20), fertile men with Vx (n = 17), infertile men without Vx (n = 40) and infertile men with Vx (n = 54). OT, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were estimated in seminal plasma. Mean levels of seminal OT, MDA were significantly decreased, and the mean level of GPx was significantly increased in fertile men with/without Vx compared with infertile men with/without Vx. Mean levels of OT, MDA were increased, and mean level of GPx was significantly decreased in Vx grade III cases compared with Vx grades I, II cases and in bilateral Vx cases compared with unilateral Vx. There was significant negative correlation between seminal OT with sperm count, sperm motility, seminal GPx and significant positive correlation with sperm abnormal forms, seminal MDA. It is concluded that seminal OT is significantly decreased in fertile men with/without Vx compared with infertile men with/without Vx. Seminal OT demonstrated significant negative correlation with sperm count, sperm motility, seminal GPx and significant positive correlation with sperm abnormal forms, seminal MDA. Seminal OT is associated with Vx grade and its bilaterality. PMID:24635706

  10. Seminal Plasma Prostate-Specific Antigen Level in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yavuz Narin; Kenan Karademir

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated the role of the seminal plasma PSA level in the prediction of the response to ?-blocker treatment in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Materials and Methods: 18 male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms were enrolled in the study. After their blood was sampled for PSA, ejaculates of all the subjects were obtained. Serum and seminal plasma

  11. Domestic Cat Model for Predicting Human Nucleoside Analogue Pharmacokinetics in Blood and Seminal Plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HOLLY L. JORDAN; ARLENE S. PEREIRA; MYRON S. COHEN; ANGELA D. M. KASHUBA

    2001-01-01

    To establish whether a feline model can predict nucleoside analogue behavior in human semen, zidovudine (ZDV) and lamivudine (3TC) pharmacokinetic parameters (PKs) were determined in the blood and seminal plasma of healthy cats. Our results show considerable similarity in ZDV and 3TC PKs between cats and humans. As in humans, ZDV and 3TC tend to accumulate in feline seminal plasma.

  12. Partial purification of relaxin from human seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Weiss, G; Goldsmith, L T; Schoenfeld, C; D'Eletto, R

    1986-04-01

    Human seminal plasma contains approximately 50 ng/ml of relaxin (specific activity = 1.3 ng/mg protein). During preliminary purification, semen plasma was delipidated, rehydrated, and loaded onto small octadecyl silica columns that were eluted with a TEAF/acetonitrile gradient system. Results were monitored by radioimmunoassay. The resultant partially purified human relaxin demonstrated biologic activity in the rat uterine segment bioassay. Nine liters of semen plasma was delipidated, rehydrated in TEAF, and subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography by a step gradient followed by a linear gradient. The active eluate was further purified by ion exchange chromatography. Pooled recovery fractions provided a total of 45.8 micrograms of relaxin. An aliquot flash evaporated and desalted by gel filtration chromatography provided 1.85 micrograms of relaxin in 25.2 mg protein, specific activity 73.4. This material is being used as immunogen in the production of antihuman relaxin antibodies by monoclonal technique. Our procedure represents the first and only successful partial purification of human relaxin to yield sufficient quantity and purity for antibody production. PMID:3963064

  13. EVIDENCE FAVORING SPERM SELECTION OVER SPERM COMPETITION IN THE INTERACTION BETWEEN HUMAN SEMINAL PLASMA AND SPERM MOTILITY IN VITRO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jaffe; M. I. Camejo; T. E. Carrillo; M. Weffer; M. G. Muñoz

    2006-01-01

    & The effect on sperm motility of sperm-sperm and sperm-seminal plasma interactions was stud- ied among homologous and heterologous sperm. There were no significant interactions between sperm in vitro, but it was found that seminal plasmas of different donors have different effects on sperm motility, and different sperm react differently to the same seminal plasma. Sperm showed higher motility in

  14. The immunomodulating effect of seminal plasma on T cells.

    PubMed

    Meuleman, T; Snaterse, G; van Beelen, E; Anholts, J D H; Pilgram, G S K; van der Westerlaken, L A J; Eikmans, M; Claas, F H J

    2015-08-01

    Seminal plasma (SP) contains immunomodulatory factors that may contribute to the formation of a tolerogenic environment at the embryo implantation site. The main focus of this study was to investigate the influence of SP on female T cells in the presence and absence of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in an in vitro model. Female PBMCs and T cells were incubated with SP from seminal fluid samples of known and variable sperm quality. The immediate effect of SP on the mRNA expression of CD25, IL-10, IFN-?, and Foxp3 was measured. Furthermore, proliferative responses, cytokine production, and CD25 expression were determined. Exposure to SP leads to increased mRNA expression of CD25, IL-10, and Foxp3 in T cells. Induction of mRNA for IL-10 and CD25 was dependent on the presence of APCs. Both PBMCs and T cells exposed to SP showed a proliferative response and produced several cytokines. The proliferative effects of SP on T cells observed were independent of sperm quality parameters, cytokines or soluble HLA molecules in SP. Furthermore, the presence of SP induced a higher expression of CD25 on the membrane of CD4+ T cells. SP has a direct immunomodulatory effect on T cells, as reflected in a proliferative response and upregulation of Foxp3. The presence of APCs is needed to induce IL-10 and CD25 upregulation in T cells exposed to SP. In conclusion, SP has both a direct and an indirect effect mediated through APCs on T cells. PMID:25799173

  15. Seminal plasma aids the survival and cervical transit of epididymal ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Rickard, J P; Pini, T; Soleilhavoup, C; Cognie, J; Bathgate, R; Lynch, G W; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C; Druart, X; de Graaf, S P

    2014-11-01

    Seminal plasma purportedly plays a critical role in reproduction, but epididymal spermatozoa are capable of fertilisation following deposition in the uterus, calling into question the biological requirement of this substance. Through a combination of direct observation of spermatozoa in utero using probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy, in vivo assessment of sperm fertility and in vitro analysis of various sperm functional parameters, this study investigated the role of seminal plasma in spermatozoa transit through the cervix of the ewe. Following deposition in the cervical os, epididymal spermatozoa previously exposed to seminal plasma displayed an enhanced ability to traverse the cervix as evidenced by both significantly higher pregnancy rates and numbers of spermatozoa observed at the utero-tubal junction when compared with epididymal spermatozoa not previously exposed to seminal plasma. The beneficial effect of seminal plasma on sperm transport was clearly localised to transit through the cervix as pregnancy rates of spermatozoa deposited directly into the uterus were unaffected by exposure to seminal plasma. This phenomenon was not explained by changes to sperm motion characteristics, as seminal plasma had no effect on the motility, kinematic parameters or mitochondrial membrane potential of spermatozoa. Rather, in vitro testing revealed that seminal plasma improved the ability of epididymal spermatozoa to penetrate cervical mucus recovered from ewes in oestrus. These results demonstrate that the survival and transport of ram spermatozoa through the cervix of the ewe is not linked to their motility or velocity but rather the presence of some cervical penetration trait conferred by exposure to seminal plasma. PMID:25118301

  16. Comparative analysis of the seminal plasma proteomes of oligoasthenozoospermic and normozoospermic men.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Elisa; Ura, Blendi; Giolo, Elena; Luppi, Stefania; Martinelli, Monica; Garcia, Rodolfo C; Ricci, Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    A comparative proteomic study of oligoasthenozoospermic and normozoospermic seminal plasmas was conducted to establish differences in protein expression. Oligoasthenozoospermia (when semen presents with a low concentration and reduced motility of spermatozoa) is common in male infertility. Two-dimensional protein maps from seminal plasma samples from 10 men with normozoospermia and 10 men with idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermia were obtained by isoelectric focusing followed by sodium dodecyl-sulphate polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Map images were analysed using dedicated software involving normalization, spot-to-spot volume comparison and statistical treatment of the results to establish the significance of differences between normal and oligoasthenozoospermic samples. Six out of 1028 spots showed over 1.5-fold relative intensity differences (P < 0.05, analysis of variance). Four proteins were identified by nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry of their tryptic peptides and database searches. Two proteins were more than three-fold under-expressed in oligoasthenozoospermia, namely epididymal secretory protein E1 and galectin-3-binding protein; the other (lipocalin-1 and a prolactin-inducible protein form) were over-expressed. The identity and differential expression of epididymal secretory protein E1 was verified by Western-blotting. The statistically significant differential expression of these four proteins in oligoasthenozoospermia compared with normozoospermia provides a molecular basis for further investigations into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermia. PMID:25779018

  17. Removal of seminal plasma enhances membrane stability on fresh and cooled stallion spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Barrier-Battut, I; Bonnet, C; Giraudo, A; Dubois, C; Caillaud, M; Vidament, M

    2013-02-01

    Fertility is reduced after semen cooling for a considerable number of stallions. The main hypotheses include alterations in plasma membrane following cooling and deleterious influence of seminal plasma. However, interindividual variability is controversial. We hypothesized that the removal of seminal plasma could enhance motility in some 'poor cooler' stallions, but could also affect, negatively or positively, membrane quality in some stallions. This study examined the effect of centrifugation, followed or not by removal of seminal plasma, on parameters indicating semen quality after 48 h at 4 °C: motility, plasma membrane integrity as evaluated by hypo-osmotic swelling test, acrosome integrity and response to a pharmacological induction of acrosome reaction using ionophore A23187. Sixty-six ejaculates from 14 stallions were used, including stallions showing high or low sperm motility after cooled storage. Centrifugation without removal of seminal plasma did not affect sperm parameters. Removal of seminal plasma did not affect motility, but significantly stabilized sperm membranes, as demonstrated by a higher response to the osmotic challenge, and a reduced reactivity of the acrosome. Moreover, for the same semen sample, the response to an induction of acrosome reaction was significantly higher when the induction was performed in the presence of seminal plasma, compared with the induction in the absence of seminal plasma. This was observed both for fresh and cooled semen. When the induction of acrosome reaction with ionophore A23187 is used to evaluate sperm quality, care must therefore be taken to standardize the proportion of seminal plasma between samples. For the 10 stallions serving at least 25 mares, the only variable significantly correlated with fertility was motility. The influence of membrane stabilization regarding fertility requires further investigations. PMID:22524671

  18. Effect of Seminal Plasma on Equine Sperm Quality: Preparation and Storage Techniques 

    E-print Network

    Whigham, Alison R

    2013-09-03

    This study had four experimental aims. We investigated whether fresh (unfrozen) or snap-frozen homologous seminal plasma yielded similar sperm quality in cool-stored semen. We compared sperm quality following exposure ...

  19. Addition of seminal plasma to post-thawing equine semen: what is the effect on sperm cell viability?

    PubMed

    de Andrade, A F C; Zaffalon, F G; Celeghini, E C C; Nascimento, J; Tarragó, O F B; Martins, S M M K; Alonso, M A; Arruda, R P

    2011-08-01

    Effect of seminal plasma addition after thawing on viability or cryocapacitation is not definitively established. This experiment was performed to verify the effect of adding seminal plasma, autologous or homologous (from an animal with good semen freezability). Five ejaculates from each of four stallions with proven fertility were collected and cryopreserved. The semen was subsequently thawed and divided into the following three treatment groups: no seminal plasma addition after semen thawing (NOSP); the addition of homologous seminal plasma after semen thawing (HSP) and the addition of autologous seminal plasma after semen thawing (ASP). The addition of 20% of seminal plasma led to an increase in the cell population that simultaneously show plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity (p < 0.05). The addition of seminal plasma did not alter the total motility, the amount of cells with mitochondrial membrane potential or the sperm velocities (average path velocity, straight-line velocity and curvilinear velocity). However, the beat/cross-frequency, straightness and linearity were reduced in ASP and HSP groups (p < 0.05). Unexpectedly, the addition of homologous seminal plasma reduced the proportion of cells with progressive motility (p < 0.05) and the addition of autologous seminal plasma reduced the amplitude of the lateral head displacement (p < 0.05). Based on the increase in the cell populations that had the plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity simultaneously identified in this study, we proposed that the addition of seminal plasma (autologous or homologous) into post-thawed semen before insemination could increase semen fertility. PMID:21121969

  20. Fatty acid analysis of blood serum, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa of normozoospermic vs. Asthernozoospermic males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Conquer; James B. Martin; Ian Tummon; Lynn Watson; Francis Tekpetey

    1999-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22?6n?3) is found in extremely high levels in human ejaculate with the majority occurring in the\\u000a spermatozoa. However, the relative concentration of DHA and other fatty acids, in blood serum, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa\\u000a of asthenozoospermic vs. normozoospermic individuals is not known. We analyzed the phospholipid fatty acid composition of\\u000a blood serum, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa of

  1. Characterization of seminal plasma proteins stabilizing the sperm viability in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Lahnsteiner, F

    2007-01-01

    In seminal plasma of the rainbow trout 12 proteins were detected by SDS-PAGE, ranging in their molecular weight from 135 to 16 kDa. Only those proteins with a molecular weight of 65, 54, 47 and 16 kDa occurred in all investigated seminal plasma samples. The 65 and the 54 kDa protein were found in highest quantities (34-45% of the total quantified protein content) followed by the 47 and the 16 kDa protein (6-7% of the total quantified protein content). The 65 and the 48 kDa protein were glycoproteins as they stained positively with Periodic-Acid-Schiff reagent (PAS) specific for carbohydrates as well as with Coomassie Blue. The 90 and 19 kDa protein were found in 82-91% of the investigated samples, all other proteins in lower frequencies of 36-73%. Seminal plasma contained no lipoprotein as staining with Sudan black B was negative. To find out which proteins positively affected the sperm viability (defined as sperm motility which could be activated) spermatozoa were incubated in sperm motility inhibiting saline solution containing different seminal plasma protein fractions. Sperm motility which could be activated after an incubation period of 48 h was highest in those fractions which shared the 54, 47, and the 16 kDa protein. When spermatozoa were incubated in untreated seminal plasma sperm viability was still higher than in the seminal plasma protein fractions indicating that other components of the seminal plasma positively affected sperm viability, too. The possible influence of seminal plasma proteins on sperm physiology is discussed. PMID:16464544

  2. Effect of heterologous seminal plasma and semen extenders on motility of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Mataveia, G A; Terblanche, S J; Nöthling, J O; Gerber, D

    2010-09-01

    Ram seminal plasma increases the fertility of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa deposited into the cervix. The aim of the current study was to compare the effect of ram seminal plasma to that of bull seminal plasma, dog prostatic fluid, protein-free TALP TrilEq (Triladyl with 0.5 mt of Equex STM paste added to each 100 mt) and heat-treated skim milk on longevity and percentages of progressively motile and aberrantly motile frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa. Three ejaculates from each of 6 rams were extended in TrilEq, pooled and frozen in straws as a single batch per ram. One hundred and eight straws (3 straws from each ram for each fluid) were thawed in random order. Once thawed, a straw was emptied into a tube with 0.85 ml of the appropriate fluid at 37 degrees C and kept at that temperature for 6 h. Motility was assessed at x200 magnification immediately (time zero) and 2, 4 and 6 h after thawing. Progressive motility decreased from each time to the next (P < 0.05) and was 39.0 % (0 h), 26.0 % (2 h), 19.6 % (4 h) and 12.6 % (6 h); SEM 1.24, n = 108 for each group. Ram seminal plasma resulted in higher progressive motility than bull seminal plasma, lower than milk, and similar to the other fluids. Ram seminal plasma resulted in lower aberrant motility than protein-free TALP and similar aberrant motility to other fluids. The effect of ram seminal plasma and dog prostatic fluid was very similar. The effect of ram seminal plasma on the fertility of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa deposited into the cervix is not due an exceptionally beneficial effect on the motility of spermatozoa. PMID:21247037

  3. The Major Bactericidal Activity of Human Seminal Plasma Is Zinc-Dependent and Derived from Fragmentation of the Semenogelins1

    PubMed Central

    Edström, Anneli M. L.; Malm, Johan; Frohm, Birgitta; Martellini, Julie A.; Giwercman, Aleksander; Mörgelin, Matthias; Cole, Alexander M.; Sørensen, Ole E.

    2008-01-01

    One of the major roles of seminal plasma is to provide antimicrobial protection for the spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract. We found that the bactericidal activity of seminal plasma was highest after resolution of the seminal clot and that this antibacterial activity subsequently became greatly diminished. The antibacterial activity was derived from peptides generated by fragmentation of the semenogelins while the semenogelin holoproteins displayed no antibacterial activity. After ejaculation the semenogelin-derived peptides were fragmented to smaller and smaller fragments over time and thereby lost antibacterial activity. This paralleled the loss of antibacterial activity of whole seminal plasma both in vitro and after sexual intercourse. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the semenogelin-derived peptides generated in seminal plasma was strictly zinc-dependent both at neutral and low pH. These data provide novel roles for the resolution of seminal clots and for the high zinc concentration in human seminal plasma. PMID:18714013

  4. Differential protein expression in seminal plasma from fertile and infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Cadavid J, Angela P.; Alvarez, Angela; Markert, Udo R.; Maya, Walter Cardona

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze human seminal plasma proteins in association with male fertility status using the proteomic mass spectrometry technology Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (SELDI-TOF-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen analysis was performed using conventional methods. Protein profiles of the seminal plasma were obtained by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry over a strong anion exchanger, ProteinChip® Q10 array. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant differences in motility and sperm count between fertile and infertile men. In addition, we observed ten seminal proteins that are significantly up-regulated in the infertile group. In conclusion, comparison of seminal plasma proteome in fertile and infertile men provides new aspects in the physiology of male fertility and might help in identifying novel markers of male infertility. PMID:25395747

  5. ?-Microseminoprotein Endows Post Coital Seminal Plasma with Potent Candidacidal Activity by a Calcium- and pH-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Edström Hägerwall, Anneli M. L.; Rydengård, Victoria; Fernlund, Per; Mörgelin, Matthias; Baumgarten, Maria; Cole, Alexander M.; Malmsten, Martin; Kragelund, Birthe B.; Sørensen, Ole E.

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune factors controlling Candida albicans are mostly unknown. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is common in women and affects approximately 70–75% of all women at least once. Despite the propensity of Candida to colonize the vagina, transmission of Candida albicans following sexual intercourse is very rare. This prompted us to investigate whether the post coital vaginal milieu contained factors active against C. albicans. By CFU assays, we found prominent candidacidal activity of post coital seminal plasma at both neutral and the acid vaginal pH. In contrast, normal seminal plasma did not display candidacidal activity prior to acidification. By antifungal gel overlay assay, one clearing zone corresponding to a protein band was found in both post coital and normal seminal plasma, which was subsequently identified as ?-microseminoprotein. At neutral pH, the fungicidal activity of ?-microseminoprotein and seminal plasma was inhibited by calcium. By NMR spectroscopy, amino acid residue E71 was shown to be critical for the calcium coordination. The acidic vaginal milieu unleashed the fungicidal activity by decreasing the inhibitory effect of calcium. The candidacidal activity of ?-microseminoprotein was mapped to a fragment of the C-terminal domain with no structural similarity to other known proteins. A homologous fragment from porcine ?-microseminoprotein demonstrated calcium-dependent fungicidal activity in a CFU assay, suggesting this may be a common feature for members of the ?-microseminoprotein family. By electron microscopy, ?-microseminoprotein was found to cause lysis of Candida. Liposome experiments demonstrated that ?-microseminoprotein was active towards ergosterol-containing liposomes that mimic fungal membranes, offering an explanation for the selectivity against fungi. These data identify ?-microseminoprotein as an important innate immune factor active against C. albicans and may help explain the low sexual transmission rate of Candida. PMID:22496651

  6. Seminal plasma proteins protect flow-sorted ram spermatozoa from freeze-thaw damage.

    PubMed

    Leahy, T; Marti, J I; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2009-01-01

    Seminal plasma improves the functional integrity of compromised ram spermatozoa but has been reported to be toxic to sorted spermatozoa. The present study attempted to clarify this paradoxical effect and improve the functional integrity of spermatozoa following sorting and cryopreservation. The in vitro function of sorted spermatozoa (motility characteristics and membrane integrity) was examined after supplementation with differing concentrations and protein fractions of seminal plasma at various stages of the sorting and freezing process. For all experiments, spermatozoa (two males, n=four ejaculates per male) were processed through a high-speed flow cytometer before cryopreservation, thawing and incubation for 6 h (37 degrees C). Supplementation of crude seminal plasma (CP), its low molecular weight fraction (LP; <10 kDa) or protein-rich fraction (SPP; >10 kDa), immediately before freezing improved the functional integrity of sorted spermatozoa compared with no supplementation (control), whereas supplementation after thawing had no effect for CP and LP. The protective effect of seminal plasma was not altered by increasing the amount of protein supplementation. No toxic effect of CP, SPP or LP was evident even when supplemented at high protein concentrations. It is concluded that seminal plasma protein, if added to ram spermatozoa after sorting and before freezing, can improve post-thaw sperm quality and consequently the efficiency of sorting. This effect is most likely related to protection of the spermatozoa during freeze-thawing. PMID:19383263

  7. [Levels of testosterone and 17-beta estradiol in the seminal plasma of bulls and boars].

    PubMed

    Kozumplík, J; Vinkler, A

    1982-12-01

    The levels of testosterone (T) and 17-beta-estradiol (E2) in seminal plasma were determined by the direct RIA method with tritium-labelled testosterone and 17-beta-estradiol. Testosterone was determined in 47 ejaculates and E2 in 132 ejaculates of seven bulls whose age ranged from 10 to 26 months, and in 60 ejaculates of two breeding boars old 20 months. The seminal plasma of bulls was found to contain 2.09 +/- 1.67 nmol/l testosterone and 2.75 +/- 1.94 nmol/l E2. Without respect to the age of the sires, the marginal values of the studied steroids showed a comparatively high fluctuation so that the average values are not very different between individual animals. No relation was found between the level of steroids and the concentration of fructose; this applies to the fertile bulls as well as to the bull suffering from epididymitis with the formation of epididymal cysts. Breeding boars had 0.338 nmol/ E2 (+/- 0.3) and 6.40 +/- 4.01 nmol/l testosterone in their seminal plasma. When the obtained values are recalculated to an average ejaculate volume, 5 ml of the seminal plasma of bulls will contain about 0.013 nmol E2 and 0.010 nmol T and 300 ml of the seminal plasma of boars will contain about 0.101 nmol E2 and 1.920 nmol T. PMID:6818748

  8. Seminal plasma leptin and spermatozoon apoptosis in patients with varicocele and leucocytospermia.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Lv, Y; Hu, K; Feng, T; Jin, Y; Wang, Y; Huang, Y; Chen, B

    2015-08-01

    Excessive apoptotic spermatozoon death is associated with male infertility. Leptin regulates apoptosis in several cell types. We prospectively investigated if seminal plasma leptin mediates spermatozoon apoptosis in 74 varicocele (VC) patients and 70 leucocytospermia patients. Spermatozoa from 40 normospermic men were used as controls. Routine semen analysis, spermatozoon apoptosis rate, seminal plasma leptin, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) levels were measured. In VC and leucocytospermia patients, seminal plasma leptin levels and spermatozoon apoptosis rates were significantly higher compared with controls. In the VC group, seminal plasma ROS levels were significantly higher compared with controls; there were no significant differences in TNF-? levels. In the leucocytospermia group, both ROS and TNF-? levels were significantly higher compared with controls. In both the VC and leucocytospermia groups, there was a significant positive correlation between the spermatozoon apoptosis rate and leptin levels and ROS and leptin levels. There was a significant correlation between leptin and TNF-? levels in the leucocytospermia group. Seminal plasma leptin levels correlate significantly with spermatozoon apoptosis rate, and leptin may be a spermatozoon pro-apoptotic factors. The generation of ROS is a possible mechanism. Leptin may induce apoptosis via TNF-? in leucocytospermia patients. PMID:25081128

  9. Exploring the Human Seminal Plasma Proteome: An Unexplored Gold Mine of Biomarker for Male Infertility and Male Reproduction Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gilany, Kambiz; Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Savadi-Shiraz, Elham; Rezadoost, Hassan; Lakpour, Niknam

    2015-01-01

    Background The human seminal fluid is a complex body fluid. It is not known how many proteins are expressed in the seminal plasma; however in analog with the blood it is possible up to 10,000 proteins are expressed in the seminal plasma. The human seminal fluid is a rich source of potential biomarkers for male infertility and reproduction disorder. Methods In this review, the ongoing list of proteins identified from the human seminal fluid was collected. To date, 4188 redundant proteins of the seminal fluid are identified using different proteomics technology, including 2-DE, SDS-PAGE-LC-MS/MS, MudPIT. However, this was reduced to a database of 2168 non-redundant protein using UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot reviewed database. Results The core concept of proteome were analyzed including pI, MW, Amino Acids, Chromosome and PTM distribution in the human seminal plasma proteome. Additionally, the biological process, molecular function and KEGG pathway were investigated using DAVID software. Finally, the biomarker identified in different male reproductive system disorder was investigated using proteomics platforms so far. Conclusion In this study, an attempt was made to update the human seminal plasma proteome database. Our finding showed that human seminal plasma studies used to date seem to have converged on a set of proteins that are repeatedly identified in many studies and that represent only a small fraction of the entire human seminal plasma proteome. PMID:25927022

  10. Autologous whole ram seminal plasma and its vesicle-free fraction improve motility characteristics and membrane status but not in vivo fertility of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    El-Hajj Ghaoui, R; Thomson, P C; Leahy, T; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2007-10-01

    Motility characteristics (assessed subjectively and with computer-assisted semen analysis) and membrane status (after staining with chlortetracycline) of washed and non-washed frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa were evaluated after incubation in buffer and buffer containing autologous whole seminal plasma or one of its two fractions: the pellet of membrane vesicles obtained by ultracentrifugation (and used at three times normal protein concentration) or the vesicle-free supernatant fraction. Whole seminal plasma and supernatant, but not membrane vesicles, improved the motility characteristics of spermatozoa after 3 and 6 h of post-thaw incubation compared with the control buffer. Resuspension and incubation with whole seminal plasma, supernatant or membrane vesicles lowered the proportion of acrosome-reacted frozen-thawed spermatozoa compared with the control buffer. Unwashed frozen-thawed semen from three rams, incubated with autologous whole seminal plasma or its fractions and inseminated using cervical or intrauterine artificial insemination, had no effect on pregnancy rates of ewes in synchronized oestrus. However, fertility was higher after laparoscopic than cervical insemination (44.9 vs 12.3%, p < 0.001). In conclusion, resuspension and incubation of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa in autologous whole seminal plasma or its vesicle-free supernatant fraction improved their motility characteristics and, with membrane vesicles, membrane status, but these benefits were not reflected in improved fertility after cervical or intrauterine insemination. PMID:17845611

  11. Effect of Seminal Plasma Protein on Postthaw Viability and Fertility of Arctic Char Spermatozoa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nabil Mansour; Gavin F. Richardson; Mary A. McNiven

    2008-01-01

    Seminal plasma protein of Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus was characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis. Twelve protein bands with molecular weights of 7.2, 12.4, 15.3, 20.0, 20.4, 22.6, 39.4, 66.3, 74.0, 92.0, 94.5, and 130.1 kilodaltons (kDa) were detected. The effect of total seminal plasma protein and protein fractions of three categories (<50, 50–100, and >100 kDa) on

  12. Resuspending ram spermatozoa in seminal plasma after cryopreservation does not improve pregnancy rate in cervically inseminated ewes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. O’Meara; A. Donovan; J. P. Hanrahan; P. Duffy; S. Fair; A. C. O. Evans; P. Lonergan

    2007-01-01

    The role of seminal plasma (SP) components on the maintenance of motility, viability and fertilising ability of frozen–thawed spermatozoa is of considerable interest. However, differences observed in constituents of SP among males could explain differences in fertility obtained in vivo. Two experiments were designed to examine the effects of seminal plasma on fertility from cervically inseminated frozen–thawed semen. The objective

  13. Relationships between seminal plasma arginase activity and spermatological parameters in rams.

    PubMed

    Gür, S; Kandemir, F M

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the correlation between seminal plasma arginase activity and spermatological parameters in rams. In this study, five fertility-proven Awassi rams were used as material. Six ejaculates were collected from each ram by an artificial vagina. Spermatological parameters (semen volume, mass activity, sperm motility and concentration and abnormal sperm rate) were immediately determined in each ejaculate. For enzyme assay, the semen samples were centrifuged and stored at -20 °C for the analysis of arginase activity. The average seminal plasma arginase activity was 0.61 ± 0.20 U (mg protein)(-1) . There was a positive correlation between arginase activity and semen volume (r = 0.412, P < 0.05), semen mass activity (r = 0.610, P < 0.01), sperm motility (r = 0.447, P < 0.05) and sperm concentration (r = 0.808, P < 0.01). However, there was a negative correlation between arginase activity and abnormal sperm rate (r = -0.424, P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study clearly suggests that there is a significant correlation between seminal plasma arginase activity and spermatological parameters. In light of these results, seminal plasma arginase activity may be a biochemical criterion for determining sperm quality besides classical semen analysis parameters in rams. PMID:21848887

  14. Origin of an 84-kDa protein with ABH blood-typing antigen activity in human seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Sato, I; Nakamura, A; Yamazaki, K; Sakata, N; Ito, K; Ito, E; Sagi, M

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the origin of an 84-kDa protein with ABH blood-typing antigen activity (p 84) and its concentration in human seminal plasma, a monoclonal antibody (mAb p 84) was produced. The protein was recognized in breast milk as well as in seminal plasma by an indirect, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using this mAb. mAb p 84 identified 84-kDa and 83-kDa forms of the protein in seminal plasma and breast milk, respectively, on immunoblotting. The mean concentration of p 84 in seminal plasma was 949 microg/ml (n = 54 subjects). There was no significant difference in the concentration of p 84 between individuals who secreted (Se) or did not secrete (non-se) the ABH antigen into their seminal plasma, nor were there any significant correlations between the concentration of p 84 and the total seminal protein concentration. An immunohistochemical study using mAb p 84 with light microscopic detection showed that p 84 was located in the cytoplasm of the inner layer of pseudostratified cuboidal epithelial cells of the seminal vesicles, but no immunoreactivity was found in the prostate. These data indicate that p 84 originates from a single tissue, the seminal vesicles, and suggest that p 84 is an ABH epitope-bearing protein that has not previously been identified but possesses some immunological properties similar to those of lactotransferrin. PMID:10452591

  15. The quantification of lipid and protein oxidation in stallion spermatozoa and seminal plasma: Seasonal distinctions and correlations with DNA strand breaks, classical seminal parameters and stallion fertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Inês Morte; Ana Margarida Rodrigues; Diana Soares; Ana Sofia Rodrigues; Sandra Gamboa; João Ramalho-Santos

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this work was to correlate oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage with classic semen parameters in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of fertile and subfertile stallions. Oxidation was measured in both lipids and proteins, using the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) assay and the DNPH carbonyl groups assay, respectively. Sperm DNA damage was

  16. Seminal plasma and serum fertility biomarkers in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Waheed, M M; Ghoneim, I M; Alhaider, A K

    2015-03-01

    Eight healthy fertile (control) and 11 infertile male dromedaries were used to investigate whether specific seminal plasma and serum fertility biomarkers could be related to their in vivo fertility. Eight fertility biomarkers and testosterone were determined in both seminal plasma and serum of all studied camels during the rutting season using commercial kits. Results revealed a significant (P < 0.01) difference in semen parameters between the control and infertile camels. There was a significant (P < 0.01) difference between the control and infertile dromedaries in seminal plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (15.04 ± 1.14 vs. 4.55 ± 0.96 nmol/min/mL, respectively) and both phospholipase A2 (sPLA2; 50.66 ± 6.28 vs. 23.56 ± 4.29 pg/mL, respectively) and testosterone concentrations (732.14 ± 57.12 vs. 396.36 ± 79.34 pg/mL, respectively). A significant (P < 0.05) difference was found between the control and infertile camels in seminal plasma concentrations of osteopontin, cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP3), and prostaglandin D synthase (lipocalcin-type). There was a significant (P < 0.01) difference between the fertile and infertile camels in serum GPx activity 67.81 ± 12.41 vs. 21.31 ± 4.63 nmol/min/mL, respectively) and both testosterone (599.57 ± 110.90 vs. 176.09 ± 24.05 pg/mL, respectively) and clusterin concentrations (137.29 ± 14.15 vs. 253.00 ± 17.14 ng/mL, respectively). A significant (P < 0.05) difference existed between the control and infertile male dromedaries in serum concentrations of sPLA2, CRISP3, malonialdehyde, and insulinlike growth factor 1. In conclusion, CRISP3, sPLA2, GPx, and testosterone are fertility-associated biomarkers in both seminal plasma and serum of dromedary camels. Seminal plasma osteopontin is positively correlated and prostaglandin D synthase (lipocalcin-type) is negatively correlated with camels' fertility. Serum malonialdehyde, insulinlike growth factor 1, and clusterin are negatively correlated with fertility of male dromedary camels. PMID:25434775

  17. The presence of uric acid, an antioxidantive substance, in fish seminal plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ciereszko; K. Dabrowski; D. Kucharczyk; S. Dobosz; K. Goryczko; J. Glogowski

    1999-01-01

    High concentrations of uric acid in seminal plasma of a range of teleost fish species are reported for the first time. Concentrations of urate amounted to 223.4; 121.9–130.0, 355.9, 735.6, 124.0, 192.7 and 148.0 µM for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), Northern pike (Esox lucius), carp koi (Cyprinus carpio), bream (Abramis brama), and tench (Tinca

  18. Role of ascorbic acid in human seminal plasma against the oxidative damage to the sperms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piyali Das; A. R. Choudhari; A. Dhawan; Ramji Singh

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the extent of oxidative stress by measuring malondialdehyde and ascorbic acid in the seminal plasma of\\u000a human subjects with different fertility potential. Semen samples from 148 subjects were evaluated (48 normozoospermics, 34\\u000a oligoasthenoteratozoospermics, 34 asthenoteratozoospermics and 32 azoospermics). malondialdehyde level was found to be significantly\\u000a higher in the abnormal groups (oligoasthenoterato and asthenoterato-zoospermics) than normozoospermics (P <

  19. Multicenter quality control for the detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in seminal plasma specimens.

    PubMed

    Bourlet, Thomas; Levy, Rachel; Laporte, Silvy; Blachier, Stéphane; Bocket, Laurence; Cassuto, Guy; Chollet, Lionel; Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Maertens, Anne; Mousnier, Fabienne; Pasquier, Christophe; Payan, Christopher; Pellegrin, Bertrand; Schvoerer, Evelyne; Zavadzki, Patricia; Chouteau, Jacques; Duverlie, Gilles; Izopet, Jacques; Lunel-Fabiani, Françoise; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Profizi, Nerina; Rouzioux, Christine; Stoll-Keller, Françoise; Thibault, Vincent; Wattré, Pierre; Pozzetto, Bruno

    2003-02-01

    The discrepant results available in the literature about the presence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in seminal plasma of men chronically infected by this agent are related, at least in part, to the molecular techniques used and particularly to the wide range of protocols dedicated to RNA extraction. In order to evaluate these protocols and to standardize the method of detection of HCV RNA in this fluid, a panel of coded specimens was tested blindly in 12 French laboratories; it included 14 seminal plasma specimens and four water controls spiked with HCV RNA ranging from 10 to 20000 IU/ml and two HCV-negative seminal plasma specimens. The extraction step was performed according to methods using either silica beads (NucliSens [Organon Teknika S.A., Fresnes, France]; RNA viral kit [Qiagen, Courtaboeuf, France]) or guanidinium thiocyanate (Amplicor HCV assay; Roche Diagnostics, Meylan, France), preceded or not by a centrifugation of the seminal plasma. For the amplification step, all the laboratories performed the same reverse transcription-PCR technique (Amplicor HCV Cobas assay). The percentage of correct results ranged from 53.3 to 100, the poorest results being obtained when no centrifugation step preceded the Amplicor extraction protocol. The rate of correct results was significantly higher in laboratories using a preliminary centrifugation of the specimen (P = 0.034 by chi-square test). By contrast, the overall number of correct results was not correlated to the initial volume of sample used for the test. These results allowed us to validate standardized techniques adapted to the performance of this test on a routine basis, especially in men infected with HCV and involved in programs of medically assisted reproduction. PMID:12574284

  20. Effects of Seminal Plasma from Cigarette Smokers on Sperm Viability and Longevity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panayiotis M. Zavos; Juan R. Correa; Spyros Antypas; Panayota N. Zarmakoupis-Zavos; Constantinos N. Zarmakoupis

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on the ability of seminal plasma (SP) to maintain sperm viability.Design: Clinical randomized study. Spermatozoa from cigarette smoking or nonsmoking subjects were reconstituted in SP from smokers and nonsmokers and in modified Ham’s F-10 medium, followed by sperm quality assessment during a 48-hour incubation period.Setting: Andrology Institute of Lexington, Lexington, Kentucky.Patient(s): Twenty

  1. Purification of a novel phospholipase A2 from bovine seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Soubeyrand, S; Khadir, A; Brindle, Y; Manjunath, P

    1997-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 are enzymes believed to play important roles in numerous physiological systems including sperm cell maturation. Relatively little work has, however, been devoted to study these enzymes in seminal plasma. We therefore undertook the purification and characterization of this enzyme from bovine seminal plasma. After a 330-fold purification, an activity corresponding to a protein of 100 kDa was identified by gel filtration. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the purified fraction revealed the presence of a 60-kDa band that comigrated with the activity during ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography as well as polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme possessed a pH optimum around pH 6.5 and was calcium-dependent. Using isoelectric focusing, its isoelectric point was determined to be 5.6 +/- 0.07. The enzymatic activity was resistant to p-bromophenacyl bromide, but was sensitive to gossypol and dithiothreitol. The enzyme was 2 orders of magnitude more active toward micelles formed with deoxycholate than with Triton X-100. Slight differences in the specificity toward head groups and/or sn-2-side chains were found in both assay systems. The enzyme was acid-labile and did not display affinity for heparin. It would therefore appear that the phospholipase A2 form isolated from bovine seminal plasma is of a novel type. PMID:8995251

  2. Rapid analysis of tadalafil in human blood plasma and seminal plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bo; Shang, Xuejun; Zhang, Qi; Li, Jing; Liu, Yinhui; Cao, Xiaomei; Xu, Qiuyu

    2013-04-15

    A selective, sensitive and rapid reversed-phased liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for quantitation of tadalafil in human blood plasma and seminal plasma. Sample preparation was extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether under alkaline conditions and tadalafil was separated by HPLC using a C18 column and an isocratic mobile phase consisting of methanol and 2 mM ammonium acetate containing 0.05% formic acid in water (52:48, v/v) running at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min for 5 min. The detection was carried out on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode via electrospray ionization (ESI) and domperidone as internal standard. Calibration curves were linear over tadalafil concentration ranges of 2-1000 ng/mL in plasma and 2-100 ng/mL in seminal plasma with the lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) of 2 ng/mL for both. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision in two matrixes at all QC samples were within the generally accepted criteria for bio-analytical method that precision (RSD) values were below 15% and accuracy (RE) was 1.44-8.32% for plasma and -3.12% to 7.71% for seminal plasma. Finally, the validated method was applicable to clinical pharmacokinetic study of tadalafil in healthy volunteers following oral administration and to further investigate the correlation of tadalafil distribution in human blood plasma and seminal plasma, and tadalafil potential influence in sperm quality. PMID:23416369

  3. Determination of semen quality of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, by sperm motility, seminal plasma parameters, and spermatozoal metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Lahnsteiner; B Berger; T Weismann; R. A Patzner

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between semen fertilization capacity and sperm motility, seminal plasma composition and sperm metabolism in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to find out biomarkers for semen quality. Variations in semen fertilization rate could be best described by three multiple regression models: Firstly, a model including the seminal plasma pH (x1), ?-d-glucuronidase activity (x2), total lipid levels

  4. Quantitative analysis of anandamide and related acylethanolamides in human seminal plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akwasi A. Amoako; Timothy H. Marczylo; Patricia M. W. Lam; Jonathon M. Willets; Amanda Derry; Janine Elson; Justin C. Konje

    2010-01-01

    The endocannabinoids anandamide, palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide have been detected in human seminal plasma and are bioactive lipids implicated in regulation of sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction. Several methods exist for endocannabinoid quantification but none have been validated for measurement in human seminal plasma. We describe sensitive, robust, reproducible solid phase and isotope-dilution UHPLC-ESI-MS\\/MS methods for the extraction and quantification

  5. Effect of seminal plasma fractions from entire and vasectomized rams on the motility characteristics, membrane status, and in vitro fertility of ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Ghaoui, Racha El-Hajj; Gillan, Lindsay; Thomson, Peter C; Evans, Gareth; Maxwell, W M Chis

    2007-01-01

    Whole seminal plasma from ram semen collected before and after vasectomy was separated into 2 fractions, supernatant and pellet of vesicles, and their protein profiles characterized by one-dimensional (1D) gel electrophoresis. The effects of autologous whole seminal plasma and these fractions on motility characteristics (assessed subjectively and by computer-assisted sperm analysis), membrane status (assessed by chlortetracycline staining patterns), and in vitro fertility (assessed by fertilization success and timing of fertilization events) of washed frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa were studied. Regardless of vasectomy, whole seminal plasma and supernatant displayed similar protein patterns. These fractions, when included in the postthaw buffer, improved the motility characteristics (59.6% +/- 6.21% and 39.6% +/- 6.21% vs 31.7% +/- 6.46% and 15.5% +/- 6.46% total motility) and membrane integrity (36.6% +/- 8.52% and 31.2% +/- 8.19% vs 30.3% +/- 11.49% and 21.6% +/- 10.28% B staining pattern [characteristic of capacitated acrosome-intact cells] for whole seminal plasma and supernatant vs control at 3 and 6 hours of postthaw incubation, respectively) of frozen-thawed spermatozoa and improved their ability to fertilize in vitro-matured oocytes compared with control buffer without seminal plasma fractions (25.3%, 47.4%, and 37.4% vs 12.3%, 20.2%, and 20.5% oocytes fertilized for spermatozoa incubated with supernatant vs control at 2, 6, and 18 hours after insemination, respectively). Vesicles were absent from semen collected after vasectomy. Pellets of vesicles collected before vasectomy had no effect on spermatozoa at their normal protein concentration but marginally improved both motility characteristics and in vitro fertility, possibly due to contamination from supernatant proteins, when their concentration in the postthaw medium was increased by threefold. It was concluded that the vesicle-free supernatant fraction of seminal plasma, but not the seminal plasma membrane vesicles, improved the function and fertility of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa when added to the postthaw medium. PMID:16928891

  6. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya; Challapalli, Srinivas; Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao; Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-07-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in ?t value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. PMID:24834825

  7. Maldi-tof fingerprinting of seminal plasma lipids in the study of human male infertility.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Mariana; Intasqui, Paula; de Lima, Camila Bruna; Montani, Daniela Antunes; Nichi, Marcílio; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Lo Turco, Edson Guimarães; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta

    2014-09-01

    This study proposed lipid fingerprinting of human seminal plasma by mass spectrometry as an analytical method to differentiate biological conditions. For this purpose, we chose infertile men as a model to study specific conditions, namely: high and low seminal plasma lipid peroxidation levels (sub-study 1.1), high and low sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation (sub-study 1.2), and intervention status: before and after subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy (study 2). Study 1 included 133 patients, of which 113 were utilized for sub-study 1.1 and 89 for sub-study 1.2. Study 2 included 17 adult men submitted to subinguinal varicocelectomy, before and 90 days after varicocelectomy. Lipids were extracted from seminal plasma and submitted to Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry in the positive ionization mode. Spectra were processed using Waters(®) MassLynx, and MetaboAnalyst online software was used for statistical analyses. For sub-studies 1.1 and 1.2, and study 2, univariate analysis revealed 8, 87 and 34 significant ions, respectively. Multivariate analysis was performed through PCA and PLS-DA. PCA generated 56, 32 and 34 components respectively for each study and these were submitted to logistic regression. A ROC curve was plotted and the area under the curve was equal to 97.4, 92.5 and 96.5%. PLS-DA generated a list of 19, 24 and 23 VIP ions for sub-studies 1.1 and 1.2, and study 2, respectively. Therefore, this study established the lipid profile and comparison of patterns altered in response to specific biological conditions. PMID:24934590

  8. Terminal Mannose Residues in Seminal Plasma Glycoproteins of Infertile Men Compared to Fertile Donors.

    PubMed

    Olejnik, Beata; Jarz?b, Anna; Kratz, Ewa M; Zimmer, Mariusz; Gamian, Andrzej; Ferens-Sieczkowska, Miros?awa

    2015-01-01

    The impact of seminal plasma components on the fertilization outcomes in humans is still under question. The increasing number of couples facing problems with conception raises the need for predictive biomarkers. Detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms accompanying fertilization remains another challenge. Carbohydrate-protein recognition may be of key importance in this complex field. In this study, we analyzed the unique glycosylation pattern of seminal plasma proteins, the display of high-mannose and hybrid-type oligosaccharides, by means of their reactivity with mannose-specific Galanthus nivalis lectin. Normozoospermic infertile subjects presented decreased amounts of lectin-reactive glycoepitopes compared to fertile donors and infertile patients with abnormal semen parameters. Glycoproteins containing unveiled mannose were isolated in affinity chromatography, and 17 glycoproteins were identified in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. The N-glycome of the isolated glycoproteins was examined in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Eleven out of 27 identified oligosaccharides expressed terminal mannose residues, responsible for lectin binding. We suggest that lowered content of high-mannose and hybrid type glycans in normozoospermic infertile patients may be associated with impaired sperm protection from preterm capacitation and should be considered in the search for new infertility markers. PMID:26147424

  9. Phospholipase A2 from bovine seminal plasma is a platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase.

    PubMed

    Soubeyrand, S; Lazure, C; Manjunath, P

    1998-01-01

    The major phospholipase A2 activity from bovine seminal plasma was recently purified [Soubeyrand, Khadir, Brindle and Manjunath (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 222-227]. We here show that the 60 kDa enzyme is in fact a platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH). Sequences of the N-terminus as well as of internal fragments showed 100% identity with the cDNA-deduced sequences of bovine plasma PAF-AH. The enzyme has kinetic properties similar to those of the human serum PAF-AH. Although capable of hydrolysing long-chained phosphatidylcholine, it displayed a highly preferential activity towards PAF. The enzyme activity towards phosphatidylcholine, but not PAF, was Ca2+-dependent. Biochemical characterization revealed that the enzyme is extensively N-glycosylated and that it exists predominantly as a dimer in solution. Western blot analysis revealed that the enzyme is highly heterogeneous in charge, with a maximal distribution at an isoelectric point of approx. 5.7. The enzyme was expressed exclusively in the seminal vesicles and the ampulla. No association of the enzyme with either epididymal or ejaculated spermatozoa could be detected. PMID:9405273

  10. Characterization of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in seminal plasma of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Sastry, K V H; Pandey, N K; Shit, N; Agrawal, R; Singh, K B; Mohan, Jag; Saxena, V K; Moudgal, R P

    2011-02-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme present in quail seminal plasma has been characterized. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequently with LDH specific staining of seminal plasma revealed a single isozyme in quail semen. Studies on substrate inhibition, pH for optimum activity and inhibitor (urea) indicated the isozyme present in the quail semen has catalytic properties like LDH-1 viz. H-type. Furthermore, unlike other mammalian species, electrophoretic and kinetic investigations did not support the existence of semen specific LDH-X isozyme in quail semen. The effect of exogenous lactate and pyruvate on sperm metabolic activity was also studied. The addition of 1 mM lactate or pyruvate to quail semen increased sperm metabolic activity. Our results suggested that both pyruvate and lactate could be used by quail spermatozoa to maintain their basic functions. Since the H-type isozyme is important for conversion of lactate to pyruvate under anaerobic conditions it was postulated that exogenous lactate being converted into pyruvate via LDH present in semen may be used by sperm mitochondria to generate ATP. During conversion of lactate to pyruvate NADH is being generated that may be useful for maintaining sperm mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:21074838

  11. The major protein of bovine seminal plasma, PDC-109, is a molecular chaperone.

    PubMed

    Sankhala, Rajeshwer Singh; Swamy, Musti J

    2010-05-11

    The major protein of bovine seminal plasma, PDC-109, binds to choline phospholipids on the sperm plasma membrane and induces the efflux of cholesterol and choline phospholipids, which is an important step in sperm capacitation. The high abundance, polydisperse nature and reversibility of thermal unfolding of PDC-109 suggest significant similarities to chaperone-like proteins such as spectrin, alpha-crystallin, and alpha-synuclein. In the present study, biochemical and biophysical approaches were employed to investigate the chaperone-like activity of PDC-109. The effect of various stress factors such as high temperature, chemical denaturant (urea), and acidic pH on target proteins such as lactate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and insulin were studied in both the presence and absence of PDC-109. The results obtained indicate that PDC-109 exhibits chaperone-like activity, as evidenced by its ability to suppress the nonspecific aggregation of target proteins and direct them into productive folding. Atomic force microscopic studies demonstrate that PDC-109 effectively prevents the fibrillation of insulin, which is of considerable significance since amyloidogenesis has been reported to be a serious problem during sperm maturation in certain species. Binding of phosphorylcholine or high ionic strength in the medium inhibited the chaperone-like activity of PDC-109, suggesting that most likely the aggregation state of the protein is important for the chaperone function. These observations show that PDC-109 functions as a molecular chaperone in vitro, suggesting that it may assist the proper folding of proteins involved in the bovine sperm capacitation pathway. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting chaperone-like activity of a seminal plasma protein. PMID:20377251

  12. Title: Effect of seminal plasma fractions from entire and vasectomised rams on the motility characteristics, membrane status and in vitro fertility of ram spermatozoa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Racha El-Hajj Ghaoui; Lindsay Gillian; Peter C. Thomson; Gareth Evans; W. M. Chis Maxwell

    Whole seminal plasma from ram semen collected before and after vasectomy was separated into 2 fractions, supernatant and pellet of vesicles, and their protein profiles characterized by one-dimensional (1D) gel electrophoresis. The effects of autologous whole seminal plasma and these fractions on motility characteristics (assessed subjectively and by computer- assisted sperm analysis), membrane status (assessed by chlortetra- cycline staining patterns),

  13. Toxic metals signature in the human seminal plasma of Pakistani population and their potential role in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Ambreen; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Bostan, Nazish; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Tahir, Faheem; Shah, Syed Tahir Abbas; Hussain, Alamdar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Huang, Qingyu; Peng, Siyuan; Shen, Heqing

    2015-06-01

    Aims of this study were to provide firsthand data on the incidence of trace metals in human seminal plasma and find possible correlations between levels of toxic metals and semen quality of Pakistani population. Human semen samples were collected from male partners of couples undergoing infertility assessment at the National Institute of Health Islamabad (Pakistan). We investigated seventy-five seminal plasma samples, which were further categorized into three groups (normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia) according to WHO guidelines. The concentration of 17 different toxic metals in human seminal plasma was determined simultaneously by using Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Out of 17 trace metals, Cd and Ni showed significant difference (p < 0.05) among three monitored groups. Ni and Cd concentrations in the seminal plasma were negatively correlated with sperm concentration (r = -0.26, -0.29) and motility (r = -0.33, -0.37), respectively. This study suggested that exposure of Ni and Cd is mainly related with the consumption of contaminated dietary items, including ghee (cooking oil), flour and other agri-products. In some semen samples, the concentrations of Sn, V, Cu, Pb, Cr and Hg exhibited high levels suggesting a recent human exposure to surrounding sources. In Pakistani human semen samples, the levels of trace metals were lower and/or comparable to that found in populations of other countries. The results show the first evidence of the effect of toxic metals on semen quality and male infertility in Pakistan. PMID:25471479

  14. The determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid in human seminal plasma using an HPLC with UV detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman Kan?ár; Petra Drábková; Radek Hampl

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been proposed as one of the potential causes for infertility in men. Ascorbic acid and uric acid play important role in protection of spermatozoa against free radicals. A method for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid in human seminal plasma using HPLC with UV detection and investigation their clinical significance as antioxidants protecting male

  15. Hepatocyte growth factor activator is a potential target proteinase for Kazal-type inhibitor in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    S?owi?ska, Mariola; Bukowska, Joanna; Hejmej, Anna; Bili?ska, Barbara; Koz?owski, Krzysztof; Jankowski, Jan; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2015-08-01

    A peculiar characteristic of turkey seminal plasma is the increased activity of serine proteinases. It is of interest if the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor controls the activity of turkey seminal plasma proteinases. Pure preparations of the Kazal-type inhibitor and anti-Kazal-type inhibitor monospecific immunoglobulin Gs were used as ligands in affinity chromatography for proteinase isolation from turkey seminal plasma. Gene expression and the immunohistochemical detection of the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor in the reproductive tract of turkey toms are described. The hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA) was identified in the binding fraction in affinity chromatography. Hepatocyte growth factor activator activity was inhibited by the Kazal-type inhibitor in a dose-dependent manner. This protease was a primary physiological target for the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor. Numerous proteoforms of HGFA were present in turkey seminal plasma, and phosphorylation was the primary posttranslational modification of HGFA. In addition to HGFA, acrosin was a target proteinase for the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor. In seminal plasma, acrosin was present only in complexes with the Kazal-type inhibitor and was not present as a free enzyme. The single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor was specific for the reproductive tract. The germ cell-specific expression of Kazal-type inhibitors in the testis indicated an important function in spermatogenesis; secretion by the epithelial cells of the epididymis and the ductus deferens indicated that the Kazal-type inhibitor was an important factor involved in the changes in sperm membranes during maturation and in the maintenance of the microenvironment in which sperm maturation occurred and sperm was stored. The role of HGFA in these processes remains to be established. PMID:25930730

  16. Timing of intermittent seminal HIV-1 RNA shedding in patients with undetectable plasma viral load under combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, Xavier; Estellat, Candice; Damond, Florence; Longuet, Pascale; Epelboin, Sylvie; Demailly, Pauline; Yazbeck, Chadi; Llabador, Marie-Astrid; Pasquet, Blandine; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Matheron, Sophie; Patrat, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    It was demonstrated that combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the HIV-1 viral load (VL) in the blood and the seminal compartment. Some studies have reported that the seminal HIV-1 VL is undetectable in individuals with an undetectable blood plasma viral load (bpVL) under cART. However, some recent studies have demonstrated that seminal HIV-1 RNA may still be detected, and potentially infectious, even in the case of an undetectable bpVL. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the detection rate of a seminal VL and whether shedding could be intermittent over a very short time. From January 2006 to December 2011, 88 HIV-1 infected men, enrolled in an Assisted Reproduction program, provided 306 semen samples, corresponding to 177 frozen sperm samples (two samples delivered at a one-hour interval (n?=?129) or one sample (n?=?48)). All enrolled men were under cART, with an undetectable bpVL for more than 6 months. HIV-1 RNA was quantified in seminal plasma using a Roche COBAS Ampliprep COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test. Seminal HIV-1 RNA was detected in 23 samples (7.5%) from 17 patients (19.3%). This detection rate was stable over years. With regards to the freezing of two samples delivered at a one-hour interval, the proportion of discordance between the first and second samples was 9.3% (12/129). Our results confirm the intermittent shedding of HIV-1 in semen. While this finding has been shown by studies examining longer time intervals, to our knowledge, this has never been demonstrated over such a short time interval. PMID:24594873

  17. Timing of Intermittent Seminal HIV-1 RNA Shedding in Patients with Undetectable Plasma Viral Load under Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ferraretto, Xavier; Estellat, Candice; Damond, Florence; Longuet, Pascale; Epelboin, Sylvie; Demailly, Pauline; Yazbeck, Chadi; Llabador, Marie-Astrid; Pasquet, Blandine; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Matheron, Sophie; Patrat, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    It was demonstrated that combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the HIV-1 viral load (VL) in the blood and the seminal compartment. Some studies have reported that the seminal HIV-1 VL is undetectable in individuals with an undetectable blood plasma viral load (bpVL) under cART. However, some recent studies have demonstrated that seminal HIV-1 RNA may still be detected, and potentially infectious, even in the case of an undetectable bpVL. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the detection rate of a seminal VL and whether shedding could be intermittent over a very short time. From January 2006 to December 2011, 88 HIV-1 infected men, enrolled in an Assisted Reproduction program, provided 306 semen samples, corresponding to 177 frozen sperm samples (two samples delivered at a one-hour interval (n?=?129) or one sample (n?=?48)). All enrolled men were under cART, with an undetectable bpVL for more than 6 months. HIV-1 RNA was quantified in seminal plasma using a Roche COBAS Ampliprep COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test. Seminal HIV-1 RNA was detected in 23 samples (7.5%) from 17 patients (19.3%). This detection rate was stable over years. With regards to the freezing of two samples delivered at a one-hour interval, the proportion of discordance between the first and second samples was 9.3% (12/129). Our results confirm the intermittent shedding of HIV-1 in semen. While this finding has been shown by studies examining longer time intervals, to our knowledge, this has never been demonstrated over such a short time interval. PMID:24594873

  18. Conserved ram seminal plasma proteins bind to the sperm membrane and repair cryopreservation damage.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, A; Hozbor, F; Sanchez, E; Fornés, M W; Alberio, R H; Cesari, A

    2011-08-01

    Whole seminal plasma (SP) enhances the function and fertility of frozen/thawed ram sperm. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether SP proteins capable of binding to molecules from the sperm plasma membrane were conserved among ram breeds, and whether these proteins were sufficient to overcome cryopreservation-induced reductions in sperm quality. Whole ram SP, obtained from rams of various breeds, improved progressive motility of frozen/thawed sperm at all times evaluated (P < 0.05); however, it did not improve total motility (15 min, P = 0.480; 30 min, P = 0.764; and 45 min, P = 0.795). To identify SP proteins responsible for this effect, a new method was developed to retain SP proteins that bound specifically to the sperm membrane by immobilization of sperm membrane proteins. These proteins specifically bound to the sperm surface, especially the acrosomal region. Lactotransferrin, epididymal secretory protein E1, Synaptosomal-associated protein 29, and RSVP-20 were identified (mass spectrometry) in this fraction. The retained SP proteins fraction repaired ultrastructural damage of frozen/thawed sperm and, with the addition of fructose, significantly improved motility of frozen/thawed sperm. We concluded that SP proteins that bound to the sperm membrane were conserved among ram breeds, and that when added to frozen/thawed semen (along with an energy source), they repaired ram sperm damage and enhanced sperm motility. PMID:21601269

  19. Relevance of seminal plasma nitric oxide levels and the efficacy of SSRI treatment on lifelong premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Kirecci, S L; Simsek, A; Yuksel, A; Gurdal, H; Gurbuz, Z G; Usanmaz, S

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relevance of seminal plasma nitric oxide (NO) levels and the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment on premature ejaculation. A total of 16 men (aged 32.18 ± 3.32) with lifelong premature ejaculation [intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) <1 min] and 11 healthy men (control group) were included in this study. The healthy men formed Group 1, and the patients were randomly categorised into two groups. Group 2 patients received 20 mg day(-1) of paroxetine, and Group 3 patients received 50 mg day(-1) of sertraline for 4 weeks. Baseline and post-treatment findings were compared among the three groups. Mean baseline seminal NO levels in men with premature ejaculation were significantly higher than in the healthy control group (32.24 ± 5.61 ?m l(-1) versus 19.71 ± 3.50 ?m l(-1) , respectively) (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the sertraline and paroxetine groups in terms of IIEF scores, IELT scores and NO levels. At the end of the first month, the mean IELT scores of the paroxetine and sertraline groups showed a significant improvement compared with the baseline values (P < 0.001). After treatment with paroxetine and sertraline, NO levels dec-reased from baseline. Our study indicates that premature ejaculation is significantly related with a higher level of seminal NO. Baseline seminal plasma NO values obtained in patients with premature ejaculation were significantly higher than in the healthy control group. After treatment with SSRIs, decreased seminal NO may retard ejaculation. Further studies are needed to confirm this suggestion and the role of NO in the pathophysiology and treatment of premature ejaculation. PMID:24354496

  20. The bovine seminal plasma protein PDC109 extracts phosphorylcholine-containing lipids from the outer membrane leaflet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Astrid Tannert; Anke Kurz; Karl-Rudolf Erlemann; Karin Müller; Andreas Herrmann; Jürgen Schiller; Edda Töpfer-Petersen; Puttaswamy Manjunath; Peter Müller

    2007-01-01

    The bovine seminal plasma protein PDC-109 modulates the maturation of bull sperm cells by removing lipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine\\u000a and cholesterol, from their cellular membrane. Here, we have characterized the process of extraction of endogenous phospholipids\\u000a and of their respective analogues. By measuring the PDC-109-mediated release of fluorescent phospholipid analogues from lipid\\u000a vesicles and from biological membranes (human erythrocytes, bovine epididymal

  1. Levels of Environmental Contaminants in Human Follicular Fluid, Serum, and Seminal Plasma of Couples Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Younglai; W. G. Foster; E. G. Hughes; K. Trim; J. F. Jarrell

    2002-01-01

    Environmental chemicals are thought to adversely affect human reproductive function, however there are no studies that have\\u000a explored the association between failed fertilization and exposure of both partners to environmental contaminants. Therefore,\\u000a we collected blood and follicular fluid from the female partner and seminal plasma from the male partner of 21 couples attending\\u000a an in vitro fertilization (IVF) program, in

  2. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of ram seminal plasma proteins and their correlation with semen characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenbin Yue; Lei Shi; Zhiming Bai; Youshe Ren; Youying Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate fertility-associated proteins in ram seminal plasma and the correlation between specific protein and semen characteristics in sheep. Thirty-eight German merino sheep clinically proven healthy were chosen and divided into three groups according to fertility. Ejaculates were collected by an artificial vagina and semen characteristics (volume, pH value, motility, viability and concentration) were recorded.

  3. Relationship between seminal plasma interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor a levels with semen parameters in fertile and infertile men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Izzet Koçak; Çigdem Yenisey; Mehmet Dündar; Pinar Okyay; Mukadder Serter

    2002-01-01

    The levels of two proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor ! (TNF-!) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), were investigated in seminal plasma (SP) of proven fertile (n=24) and infertile (n=55) men to evaluate the relationship between diagnosis and semen parameters in a prospective study. Infertile men were divided into four groups as follows: (1) varicocele (n=23), (2) 3 months after varicocelectomy

  4. Influence of dietary zinc on semen traits and seminal plasma antioxidant enzymes and trace minerals of beetal bucks.

    PubMed

    Rahman, H U; Qureshi, M S; Khan, R U

    2014-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) is a potent antioxidant and plays a key role in scavenging free radicals. We hypothesized that supplementation of Zn would reduce the oxidative damage, which is linked with poor sperm quality. Sixteen bucks of similar average age (2 years) and body weight (41 kg) were randomly divided into four groups viz., 1, 2, 3 and 4 supplemented with zinc sulphate into the diet at the rate of 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/buck/day, respectively, for 3 months. At the end of the experiment, semen samples were collected and assessed. Seminal plasma was separated to find the concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and trace minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe). The results revealed that semen volume (1.85 ± 0.01 ml) and sperm motility (88.23 ± 5.77%) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in supplemented groups compared with the control specifically in group 3. SOD (10.66 ± 0.23 inhibition rate %) and GPx (23.55 ± 0.49 mU/ml) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in group 3 with no effect on AST and ALT. Among seminal plasma trace elements, no significant change (p > 0.05) was observed. From the present results, we concluded that zinc sulphate at the rate of 100 mg/buck/day improved semen traits and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in Beetal bucks. PMID:25263460

  5. Effects of multiple collections on spermatozoa quality of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus: motility, density and seminal plasma composition.

    PubMed

    Aramli, M S; Kalbassi, M R; Gharibi, M R

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of multiple collections of sperm on the endangered Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, in terms of a number of sperm functional parameters (percentage of motile spermatozoa, total time period of motility and sperm concentration) as well as on the ionic composition, protein concentration and osmolality of seminal plasma. Semen samples were collected from 12 induced male fish in three experimental groups that had been injected intramuscularly with LHRH-A2, at dosages of 5 ?g/kg body weight, at a number of time regimes: at 12 h, 17 h and 24 h after spawning induction (1); at 24, 29 and 34 h after spawning induction (2); and at 36, 41 and 46 h after spawning induction (3). The percentage of motile spermatozoa and the period of sperm motility decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after the second and third collections. The concentration of spermatozoa decreased after the third collection, but this decline was not significant. No significant effect of multiple collections on protein concentration and ionic content (with exception of the Cl(-) ion) of seminal plasma was observed. In all experimental groups, a moderate impact of sequential collection on the osmolality (p < 0.05) of seminal plasma was observed. This study provides new data on the effects of multiple collections on spermatological characteristics in the Persian sturgeon. Our results confirm that sequential stripping after the third collections has a negative effect on a number of functional parameters associated with sperm. PMID:24931708

  6. Development of Normal Reference Values for Seminal Reactive Oxygen Species and Their Correlation with Leukocytes and Semen Parameters in a Fertile Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly S. Athayde; Marcello Cocuzza; Ashok Agarwal; Natalie Krajcir; Antonio M. Lucon; Miguel Srougi; Jorge Hallak

    2007-01-01

    Although reactive oxygen species (ROSs) are clearly implicated in the pathogenesis of male infertility, few studies have attempted to define the basal levels of ROSs in fertile men. Levels of ROSs are highly influenced by the presence of leukocytes and are associated with decreased seminal parameters. The objective of our study was to determine the normal ROS reference values in

  7. Study of the effects of oral zinc supplementation on peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity in seminal plasma of Iraqi asthenospermic patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) are necessary for the biology and physiology of spermatozoa, but high levels of NO are toxic and have negative effects on sperm functions. Although several studies have considered the relationship between infertility and semen NO concentrations, no study on the effects of asthenospermia treatments such as oral zinc supplementation on concentrations of NO, which are important in fertility, has been reported. Studies have shown that oral zinc supplementation develops sperm count, motility and the physical characteristics of sperm in animals and in some groups of infertile men. The present study was conducted to study the effect of zinc supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen, along with enzymes of the NO pathway in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 60 fertile and 60 asthenozoospermic infertile men of matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate; each participant took two capsules (220 mg per capsule) per day for 3 months. Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction of the seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. The stable metabolites of NO (nitrite) in seminal plasma were measured by nitrophenol assay. Arginase activity and NO synthase activity were measured spectrophotometrically. Results Peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity, NO synthase activity and various sperm parameters were compared among fertile controls and infertile patients (before and after treatment with zinc sulfate). Peroxynitrite levels and NO synthase activity were significantly higher in the infertile patients compared to the fertile group. Conversely, arginase activity was significantly higher in the fertile group than the infertile patients. Peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity of the infertile patient were restored to normal values after treatment with zinc sulfate. Volume of semen, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc supplementation. Conclusions Treatment of asthenospermic patients with zinc supplementation leads to restored peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity to normal values and gives a statistically significant improvement of semen parameters compared with controls. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01684059 PMID:24383664

  8. Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with higher levels in the breeding season. The yearly pattern of GRD and catalase was close to that of melatonin, and GRD showed a significant seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with a higher activity during the breeding season. Linear regression analysis between the studied hormones and antioxidant enzymes showed a significant correlation between melatonin and testosterone, GRD, SOD and catalase. Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system. PMID:20540737

  9. Lysozyme activities and immunoglobulin concentrations in seminal plasma and spermatozoa of different teleost species and indications on its significance for sperm function.

    PubMed

    Lahnsteiner, F; Radner, M

    2010-07-15

    The occurrence of lysozyme and immunoglobulin (Ig) in semen of different teleost species (brown trout-Salmo trutta, perch-Perca fluviatilis, burbot-Lota lota) was studied. In all investigated species lysozyme activities (1.13-1.45 U ml(-1)) and Ig concentrations (T-Ig: 1.11-1.61 microg ml(-1), IgG [measured only in brown trout]: 1.49 microg ml(-1)) were detected in seminal plasma. Ig was also found in spermatozoa (T-Ig: 0.234-0.357 microg/g protein, IgG: 0.198 microg ml(-1)) while spermatozoal lysozyme activities were low and fluctuating (0.093-0.164 U/g protein). In Salmo trutta lysozyme activities and immunoglobulin levels were compared between semen samples with high and low sperm motility as motility is an indicator for sperm fertility. Lysozyme activities were higher in seminal plasma of samples with high motility than in those with low motility while seminal plasma and spermatozoal immunoglobulin concentrations (T-Ig, IgG) were increased in samples with low motility in comparison to samples with high motility. Seminal plasma and spermatozoal IgG concentrations and seminal plasma lysozyme activities showed significant correlations with the sperm motility rate and swimming velocity. Moreover, lysozyme improved the viability of spermatozoa in in vitro experiments. Possible physiological meanings of these results are discussed. PMID:20416943

  10. Normal modes of an expanding plasma shell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. T. Gladd; Stephen H. Brecht

    1993-01-01

    We present a cold plasma, two-fluid electromagnetic theory of the normal modes of a plasma shell expanding, at sub-Alfvenic velocities, into a magnetic field. A two-fluid approach is used in order that the specific effects of plasma and magnetic field geometry can be considered. Three main results are obtained. First, a general normal mode equation for lower-hybrid frequency range oscillations

  11. Normal modes of an expanding plasma shell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. T. Gladd; Stephen H. Brecht

    1993-01-01

    The authors present a cold plasma, two-fluid electromagnetic theory of the normal modes of a plasma shell expanding, at sub-Alfvenic velocities, into a magnetic field. A two-fluid, approach is used in order that the specific effects of plasma and magnetic field geometry can be considered. Three main results are obtained. First, a general normal mode equation for lower-hybrid frequency range

  12. Development of normal reference values for seminal reactive oxygen species and their correlation with leukocytes and semen parameters in a fertile population.

    PubMed

    Athayde, Kelly S; Cocuzza, Marcello; Agarwal, Ashok; Krajcir, Natalie; Lucon, Antonio M; Srougi, Miguel; Hallak, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Although reactive oxygen species (ROSs) are clearly implicated in the pathogenesis of male infertility, few studies have attempted to define the basal levels of ROSs in fertile men. Levels of ROSs are highly influenced by the presence of leukocytes and are associated with decreased seminal parameters. The objective of our study was to determine the normal ROS reference values in neat and washed semen of a fertile population and to correlate the leukocyte concentrations with seminal parameters. We evaluated 114 fertile men seeking vasectomy and 47 subfertile patients as a positive control. All samples were subjected to semen analysis and Endtz testing; chemiluminescence assay was used to determine ROS levels. All seminal parameters were significantly higher in the fertile men than in the subfertile patients. In nonleukocytospermic samples, ROS levels were lower in the fertile men than in the subfertile patients in neat (0.29 [0.18, 0.54] vs 0.94 [0.38, 1.51]) (P = .001) and washed semen (5.73 [1.90, 14.71] vs 23.4 [9.46, 115.55]) (P = .001). Similarly, in samples with leukocytes (Entdz, less than 1 x 10(6)/mL), ROS levels were lower in the fertile men in neat (0.75 [0.27, 1.71] vs 2.0 [0.97, 27.41]) (P = .001) and washed semen (15.85 [4.18, 62.16] vs 239.83 [33.4, 1193.75]) (P < .0001). As expected, samples with leukocytes had significantly higher ROS values in washed and neat semen. In the fertile population, ROSs were positively correlated with leukocytes and negatively correlated with sperm count and motility. In semen samples without leukocytes, the normality cutoff of ROSs was 0.55 x 10(4) counted photons per minute with 76.4% area under the curve (AUC) in the neat samples and 10.0 x 10(4) counted photons per minute with 77% AUC in the washed samples. In semen samples with leukocytes, the cutoff for ROSs in neat samples was 1.25 with 72.7% AUC and 51.5 with 81% AUC in the washed samples. We defined the cutoff levels of ROSs in a fertile population. Seminal leukocyte levels below 1 x 10(6)/mL were associated with increased ROSs. ROS levels were positively correlated with leukocytes and negatively correlated with sperm motility and concentration. Patients with normal seminal parameters and lower seminal leukocyte levels may benefit from therapeutic interventions that improve semen quality. PMID:17409462

  13. Resuspending ram spermatozoa in seminal plasma after cryopreservation does not improve pregnancy rate in cervically inseminated ewes.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, C M; Donovan, A; Hanrahan, J P; Duffy, P; Fair, S; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P

    2007-04-15

    The role of seminal plasma (SP) components on the maintenance of motility, viability and fertilising ability of frozen-thawed spermatozoa is of considerable interest. However, differences observed in constituents of SP among males could explain differences in fertility obtained in vivo. Two experiments were designed to examine the effects of seminal plasma on fertility from cervically inseminated frozen-thawed semen. The objective of Experiment 1 was to investigate if source or type of SP influences pregnancy rate. Seminal plasma was collected from rams previously classified as having either High (HSP; n=3) or Low (LSP; n=3) fertility in vivo. Artificial SP (fructose/sodium solution with 10% BSA; ASP) was made. Frozen semen from the same 6 rams was thawed and inseminated (Control) or resuspended either in HSP, LSP or ASP (20% in semen) prior to insemination of ewes (n=284, over 2 farms). The overall pregnancy rate was 28.1%. Treatments (Control, ASP, HSP and LSP) were not significantly different (P>0.3). There was no difference between HSP and LSP (P>0.5), and no effect of using ASP compared to ram SP (P>0.7), on pregnancy rate. As there was no effect of SP on pregnancy rate a repeat experiment (Experiment 2) was designed to test the effect of washing and selecting motile sperm prior to resuspending in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing SP on pregnancy rate. Frozen-thawed semen from each of 2 rams was centrifuged through a density gradient, pellets were centrifuged through a wash medium and the sperm concentration/ram was counted. Sperm cells were resuspended in: (1) control PBS, (2) PBS containing 30% HSP or (3) PBS containing 30% LSP to give 100 x 10(6) motile sperm in 0.25 mL. Control straws were thawed and inseminated directly. Ewes (n=223 over 2 farms) were inseminated 57 h post-sponge withdrawal and those not returning to oestrus were slaughtered 29-50 days post-insemination for pregnancy determination. In Experiment 2, the pregnancy rate for Control, PBS, HSP and LSP were 15.4%, 2.3%, 0% and 0%, respectively, for Farm 1 (P>0.05) and 17.8%, 11.0%, 3.9% and 12.4%, respectively, for Farm 2. Under the conditions of the current study, addition of SP from different donors of either High or Low fertility status to frozen-thawed ram semen post-thawing did not improve pregnancy rate in ewes. ASP had no effect on pregnancy rate in ewes when added to frozen-thawed semen. Washing and selection of motile sperm prior to resuspension in PBS with or without SP (30%) before insemination had a negative effect on pregnancy rate in cervically inseminated ewes. Hence, the addition of seminal plasma or some of its constituents to semen does not appear to improve pregnancy rate in cervically inseminated ewes. PMID:17336375

  14. [Bacteriospermia in Assisted Reproductive Techniques: effects of bacteria on spermatozoa and seminal plasma, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Boitrelle, F; Robin, G; Lefebvre, C; Bailly, M; Selva, J; Courcol, R; Lornage, J; Albert, M

    2012-04-01

    The presence of bacteria in semen could induce impairment of sperm morphology, alteration of sperm function and mechanical or functional obstruction of the seminal tract. The term of bacteriospermia does not signify infection. Bacteriospermia and male accessory gland infection (MAGI) have indeed to be distinguished. They may lead both to male infertility but their diagnosis and treatment options differ. This review summarizes effects of bacteria and leucocytospermia on sperm parameters and functions. Then, indications, benefits and risks of treatment of bacteriospermia and MAGI, in assisted reproductive techniques (ART) will be discussed. For bacteria commonly observed in semen, this review aims at defining some thresholds above which a treatment is required. These thresholds were established according to literature, according to French microbiology society and in function of our usual practice. This review should help practitioners of reproductive medicine to take care of bacteriospermia in semen. PMID:22386906

  15. Growth, testis size, spermatogenesis, semen parameters and seminal plasma and sperm membrane protein profile during the reproductive development of male goats supplemented with de-oiled castor cake.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C H A; Silva, A M; Silva, L M; van Tilburg, M F; Fernandes, C C L; Velho, A L M C; Moura, A A; Moreno, F B M B; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreira, R A; Lima, I M T; Rondina, D

    2015-06-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of de-oiled castor cake on reproductive traits of crossbreed goats. Fourteen males were grouped into two lots (n=7/group), as described: group without de-oiled castor cake (WCC) and group fed with de-oiled castor cake (CC). Goats received two diets containing a mixture of Bermudagrass hay and concentrates with the same energy (73% total digestive nutrients) and protein content (15% crude protein) during 150 days, corresponding to ages from 40 (puberty) to 60 weeks. Blood plasma concentrations of urea, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and testosterone were determined. We also evaluated scrotal circumference, sperm parameters, quantitative aspects of spermatogenesis and daily sperm production (DSP), as well as the proteome of seminal plasma and sperm membrane. Seminal fluid and sperm proteins were analyzed by 2D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. After 150 days of castor cake feeding, animals had no changes in the biochemical composition of blood plasma, suggesting the absence of intoxication by ingestion of ricin. There were no alterations in dry mater intake, weight gain, testis size, peripheral concentrations of testosterone, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. Sertoli and germ cell populations in the testis and DSP were not affected either. However, there were significant variations in the expression of five seminal plasma proteins and four sperm membrane proteins. In conclusion, the replacement of soybean meal by castor cake (with ricin concentrations of 50mg/kg) did not interfere with the growth and core reproductive development of male goats. However, the diet with ricin altered the expression of certain seminal plasma and sperm membrane proteins, which play roles in sperm function and fertilization. Lower expression of these proteins may impair the ricin-fed animals to perform as high-fertility sires. PMID:25883025

  16. Development and validation of LC-MS/MS method for quantification of bisphenol A and estrogens in human plasma and seminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Vitku, Jana; Chlupacova, Tereza; Sosvorova, Lucie; Hampl, Richard; Hill, Martin; Heracek, Jiri; Bicikova, Marie; Starka, Luboslav

    2015-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely known endocrine disruptor with estrogenic, antiestrogenic or antiandrogenic properties. BPA could interfere with estrogen metabolism as well with receptor-mediated estrogen actions. Both environmental BPA and estrogens may be traced in body fluids, of which, besides the blood plasma, the seminal fluid is of particular interest regarding their possible interactions in the testis. The method for simultaneously determining BPA and estrogens is then needed, taking into account that their concentrations in these body fluid may differ. Here the method was developed and validated for measurements of BPA, estrone (E1), estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3) in blood plasma and seminal plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Due to the phenolic moiety of all compounds, dansyl chloride derivatization could be used. The analytical criteria of the method with respect to expected concentration of the analytes were satisfactory. The lower limits of quantifications (LLOQ) amounted to 43.5, 4.0, 12.7, 6.7pg/mL for plasma BPA, E1, E2 and E3, and 28.9, 4.9, 4.5, 3.4pg/mL for seminal BPA, E1, E2 and E3, respectively. The concentrations of individual steroids differed between body fluids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method that enabled the measurement of estrogens and BPA together in one run. The concentrations of E1, E2 and for the first time also of E3 in seminal plasma in normospermic men are reported. PMID:26048824

  17. Effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on sperm parameters, seminal plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress in men.

    PubMed

    Rao, Meng; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Yang, Jing; Hu, Shi-Fu; Lei, Hui; Xia, Wei; Zhu, Chang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this experimental prospective study, we aimed to analyze the effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on the male reproductive organs, from the perspective of sperm parameters, semen plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress, to evaluate whether different frequencies of heat exposure cause different degrees of damage to spermatogenesis. Two groups of volunteers (10 per group) received testicular warming in a 43°C water bath 10 times, for 30 min each time: group 1: 10 consecutive days; group 2: once every 3 days. Sperm parameters, epididymis and accessory sex gland function, semen plasma oxidative stress and serum sex hormones were tested before treatment and in the 16-week recovery period after treatment. At last, we found an obvious reversible decrease in sperm concentration (P = 0.005 for Group 1 and P= 0.008 for Group 2 when the minimums were compared with baseline levels, the same below), motility (P = 0.009 and 0.021, respectively), the hypoosmotic swelling test score (P = 0.007 and 0.008, respectively), total acrosin activity (P = 0.018 and 0.009, respectively), and an increase in the seminal plasma malondialdehyde concentration (P = 0.005 and 0.017, respectively). The decrease of sperm concentration was greater for Group 2 than for Group 1 (P = 0.031). We concluded that transient scrotal hyperthermia seriously, but reversibly, negatively affected the spermatogenesis, oxidative stress may be involved in this process. In addition, intermittent heat exposure more seriously suppresses the spermatogenesis compared to consecutive heat exposure. This may be indicative for clinical infertility etiology analysis and the design of contraceptive methods based on heat stress. PMID:25652627

  18. Assay of total glutathione and glutathione disulphide in seminal plasma of male partners of couples presenting for a fertility evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kan?ár, R; Hájková, N

    2014-12-01

    A method is described here for the determination of total glutathione (TGSH) and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) in the seminal plasma of the male partners of couples requesting a fertility evaluation. A suitable sample preparation procedure prior to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis is discussed. After adequate sample preparation, the samples were derivatised with ortho-phthaldialdehyde to form a stable, highly fluorescent tricyclic derivative. Reversed-phase column chromatography was used for the separation, and the effluent was monitored with a fluorescence detector at an excitation wavelength of 350 nm and an emission wavelength of 420 nm. The analytical performance of this method was satisfactory. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%. The recoveries were as follows: 94.1% (CV 2.3%) for TGSH and 93.2% (CV 4.0%) for GSSG. No significant differences were found in either TGSH or GSSG concentration between the smokers and nonsmokers (2.07 ± 1.28 ?m versus 1.56 ± 1.20 ?m, P = 0.431 and 95 ± 56 nm versus 112 ± 138 nm, P = 0.825). PMID:24124871

  19. The association of the presence of seminal plasma and its components with sperm longevity in fractionated stallion ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Kareskoski, M; Sankari, S; Johannisson, A; Kindahl, H; Andersson, M; Katila, T

    2011-12-01

    Semen jets in the stallion's ejaculate differ in both the biochemical composition of seminal plasma (SP) and in sperm concentration, forming sperm-rich fractions (HIGH) and sperm-poor fractions (LOW). This study examined (i) the association of the levels of selected components of SP [alkaline phosphatase (AP), acid phosphatase (ACP), Na(+), Cl(-), K(+), Ca, Mg and prostaglandin E(2)] with semen quality, sperm longevity and fertility; (ii) the effects of the presence of SP on sperm survival during cooled storage; (iii) the differences in the composition of SP between sperm-rich and sperm-poor ejaculatory fractions; (iv) the differences between these fractions in the effects of SP on sperm longevity. The levels of AP, ACP and Na(+) were higher in HIGH compared with LOW, whereas higher concentrations of Ca, K(+) and Mg were found in LOW than in HIGH. None of the measured components were correlated to the first cycle pregnancy rate. The presence of SP during cooled storage caused DNA degradation, but total and progressive sperm motility was not affected. Sperm-rich fractions stored with low levels of SP maintained higher level of DNA integrity compared with sperm-rich fractions in higher levels of SP, or sperm-poor fractions irrespective of the proportion of SP. The concentration of K(+) in LOW may give some indication on the maintenance of total sperm motility during cooled storage. PMID:21535237

  20. The effects of opiate consumption on serum reproductive hormone levels, sperm parameters, seminal plasma antioxidant capacity and sperm DNA integrity.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Asgari, Seyyed Alaeddin; Farshi, Alireza; Ghaedi, Gholamhossein; Kolahi, Ali Asghar; Iravani, Shahrokh; Khoshdel, Ali Reza

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of opiate consumption on semen quality, sperm function, seminal plasma antioxidant capacity, and sperm DNA integrity. A total of 142 opiate addict men (group 1) were enrolled in the study and 146 healthy age matched male volunteers (group 2) served as controls. Two semen analyses were performed in all participants. Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) was used to identify sperm DNA integrity. The mean±SD sperm concentration in opiate users and in control subjects was 22.2±4.4 and 66.3±8.3 million per ml, respectively (P=0.002). A significant increase in the amount of fragmented DNA was found in opiate consumers compared with that in controls (36.4±3.8% vs. 27.1±2.4%, P=0.004). Significantly decreased levels of catalase-like and superoxide dismutase-like (SOD) activity were observed in group 1 compared with group 2. Opiate consumption has significant adverse effects on semen quality. In cases of unexplained infertility in men, opium consumption should be considered as a possible factor. PMID:23207164

  1. Isolation and identification of fetuin-B-like protein from rainbow trout seminal plasma and its localization in the reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Nynca, Joanna; S?owi?ska, Mariola; Dietrich, Mariola A; Bili?ska, Barbara; Kotula-Balak, Ma?gorzata; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Seminal plasma of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmonidae) contains an inhibitory system consisting of three fractions (I-III) characterized by different electrophoretic migration rates. Using a two-step isolation procedure we purified (20- and 43-fold to homogeneity) and characterized the two subforms of inhibitor I (Ia and Ib). On the basis of the homology alignment of the amino acid sequences, inhibitor I was classified to the family of cysteine proteinase inhibitors - fetuins. The molecular masses were determined to be 61,146.5Da and 63,096.0Da, and the isoelectric points were estimated to be 6.04 and 6.22 for inhibitor Ia and Ib. Both inhibitors were glycoproteins with a carbohydrate content about 13% for inhibitor Ia and 19% for inhibitor Ib. The equilibrium association constant of inhibitor Ib with cod trypsin was determined to be 7.1×10(8)M(-1). Except for the cod trypsin inhibition, the inhibitor Ib effectively inhibited papain belonging to the cysteine proteainases. Comparative studies of the distribution of inhibitor I and the previously described inhibitor II were performed. The presence of inhibitor I in the seminal plasma was a common feature of several Salmoniformes, which was contrary to inhibitor II detected in seminal plasma of other fish families. Inhibitors I and II showed different expression patterns in the testes and spermatic duct of the rainbow trout. PMID:20959146

  2. Suppression of natural killer cell activity by human seminal plasma in vitro: identification of 19-OH-PGE as the suppressor factor.

    PubMed

    Tarter, T H; Cunningham-Rundles, S; Koide, S S

    1986-04-15

    Human seminal plasma (SP) was found to contain a potent suppressor of human natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activity against the K562 erythroleukemia target in vitro. Pooled and filter-sterilized SP reduced the NK cell activity of normal blood donors in a concentration-dependent manner; strong reduction of target cell lysis was observed at a final dilution of 1/400. Possible toxic effects of SP on NK cells were ruled out, because donor leukocytes incubated in a final SP dilution of 1/100 remained greater than 99 percent viable as determined by trypan blue exclusion. SP did not affect the lysability of the tumor targets, but suppressed the cytotoxic activity of the effector leukocytes, an effect that was reversed after washing the leukocytes free of the SP. The suppressive action of SP was retained after heating to 95 degrees C for 10 min, but was removed after adsorption with activated charcoal (Norit-A). Lipids extracted from SP were tested for suppression of NK cell cytotoxic activity, and the active principle was identified with the acidic lipid fraction. Components of the acidic lipid fraction of a single freshly obtained SP sample were separated by high pressure liquid chromatography, and suppression of NK cell cytotoxic activity was found to be associated with the predominant prostaglandins (PG) in this fraction, 19-OH-PGE1 and 19-OH-PGE2. Suppression of cellular immune functions by SP has been described; however, the identity of the suppressor factor (or factors) is unknown. The 19-OH-PGE are present in high concentration in primate semen, and may minimize immunologic sensitization to sperm in females after insemination. In addition, these compounds may suppress NK cell antitumor and antiviral activities in the vagina, as well as in their tissues of origin. PMID:3754269

  3. Restoration of seminal plasma to stallion spermatozoa selected by colloid centrifugation increases sperm progressive motility but is detrimental to chromatin integrity.

    PubMed

    Morrell, J M; Pihl, J; Dalin, A-M; Johannisson, A

    2012-07-15

    There is controversy about whether the presence of some seminal plasma (SP) in an equine insemination dose is necessary for promoting fertility. A new technique for improving stallion sperm quality, single layer centrifugation (SLC) using a species-specific colloid, Androcoll-E, selects a sperm subpopulation that is highly motile with normal morphology, intact membranes and good chromatin integrity from the rest of the ejaculate and removes SP. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of restoring homologous SP (5% and 10%) on the progressive motility, velocity, and chromatin integrity of SLC-selected stallion spermatozoa in 44 semen samples over time. Sperm progressive motility (P<0.01) and the proportion with class A velocity (>50 ?m/sec) were increased in samples where SP was restored, whereas the proportion with class B velocity (10 to 50 ?m/sec) was decreased compared with SLC samples. However, after 24 h cold storage of treated samples, progressive motility was not different for the SP-treated groups compared with SLC, whereas chromatin damage DNA fragmentation index (%DFI) was higher. In contrast, adding SP to untreated 24 h-stored SLC samples did not affect progressive motility although it did increase the proportion of spermatozoa with class A velocity. There was individual variation between stallions whether 5% or 10% SP produced a greater increase in progressive motility. In conclusion, 5% to 10% SP can be added back to SLC-selected samples if considered necessary to optimize fertility. However, it should be added immediately before insemination rather than before storage of the sperm dose, to benefit from the transient increase in sperm progressive motility and avoid increased chromatin damage. PMID:22494676

  4. Heat-shock protein 70 expression in the seminal plasma of patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guo, H; Xu, Y-M; Ye, Z-Q; Yu, J-H; Fu, Q; Sa, Y-L; Hu, X-Y; Song, L-J

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value and potentially protective capacity of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) in chronic bacterial prostatitis and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). In this study, seminal plasma levels of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin 1? (IL-1?)) and HSP70 were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 80 men: 15 healthy controls, 16 men with chronic bacterial prostatitis, 23 men with CP/CPPS IIIA and 26 with CP/CPPS IIIB. The HSP70 levels in chronic bacterial prostatitis and CP/CPPS patients were correlated with chronic prostatitis symptom index (CPSI). Significantly increased levels of cytokines (TNF-? and IL-1?) and HSP70 were observed in seminal plasmas from patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis compared with CP/CPPS patients and controls. However, only IL-1? was significantly elevated compared with CP/CPPS IIIB and controls in patients with CP/CPPS IIIA. HSP70 levels in CP/CPPS patients were significantly lower than that in controls. HSP70 concentration in seminal plasma was negatively correlated with CPSI in chronic bacterial prostatitis. The results indicated that HSP70 and IL-1? appear to be the most reliable and predictive surrogate markers to diagnose chronic bacterial prostatitis and CP/CPPS, respectively. HSP70 has an important protective role in the regulation of cell functions in chronic bacterial prostatitis. CP/CPPS would probably be detrimental to the ability of T cells and consequently suppress the expression of HSP70. PMID:20585345

  5. The percentage of spermatozoa lost during the centrifugation of brown bear (Ursus arctos) ejaculates is associated with some spermatozoa quality and seminal plasma characteristics.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M; Nicolas, M; Borragán, S; Lopez-Urueña, E; Anel-López, L; Martinez-Pastor, F; Tamayo-Canul, J; Anel, L; de Paz, P

    2012-11-01

    Cryopreservation of brown bear (Ursus arctos) semen requires centrifugation to increase concentration and/or remove urine contamination. However, a percentage of the spermatozoa are lost in the process. This percentage varies considerably between males and ejaculates, and we have studied the effect of sperm quality and seminal plasma characteristics on the spermatozoa recovery rate after centrifugation. One hundred and thirty one sperm samples obtained from fifteen brown bear males by electroejaculation under general anaesthesia were used. The ejaculates were centrifuged 600 × g for 6 min. Motility was assessed by CASA, and acrosomal status (PNA-FITC) and viability (SYBR-14/propidium iodide) were determined by flow cytometry. Seminal plasma characteristics (albumin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, cholesterol, creatine, glucose, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), lactate, lipase, magnesium, phosphate and total protein) were determined by a biochemical and gas analysis. Total motility (r = 0.26; P=0.005) and cell viability (r = 0.20; P = 0.033) were positively correlated with the percentage of recovered spermatozoa. Sperm recovery was correlated with the concentration of several components of seminal plasma: negatively with glucose concentration (r = -0.47; P = 0.005) and positively with the enzymes GOT (r = 0.36; P = 0.040) and lactate dehydrogenase (r = 0.36; P = 0.041). After sorting the data into classes according to sperm recovery (Low: 0-39, Medium: 40-69, High: 70-100), we observed that the samples with a lower recovery rate derived from ejaculates with lower values for TM, VAP and viability (P<0.05). Multiple regression analysis rendered two models to define the post-centrifugation spermatozoa recovery which included total motility and damaged acrosome or glucose, GOT and lactate dehydrogenase. We discuss these relationships and their implications in the electroejaculation procedure and the handling of the sample during centrifugation. PMID:23084761

  6. Characterization of adiponectin concentrations and molecular weight forms in serum, seminal plasma, and ovarian follicular fluid from cattle.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Johanna F L; Singh, Shiva P; Janowitz, Ulrich; Hoelker, Michael; Tesfaye, Dawit; Schellander, Karl; Sauerwein, Helga

    2015-02-01

    Adiponectin (AdipoQ), an adipocyte-derived hormone, is one of the most abundant adipokines in the blood circulation. Adiponectin has various metabolic functions, such as improving insulin sensitivity in humans and rodents. The role of AdipoQ in reproduction is not yet fully understood, but the expression of AdipoQ in reproductive tissues has been observed in various animals and humans, including chicken testis, bovine ovary, and human placenta. The objective of this study was to characterize AdipoQ in the bovine body fluids related to reproduction. Therefore, we evaluated the seminal plasma (SP) from breeding bulls (n = 29) and follicular fluid (FF) from heifers (n = 14), and we also collected blood samples from these animals. In addition, blood samples from other bulls (n = 30) and heifers (n = 14) were assayed for AdipoQ. The concentrations were assessed using a bovine-specific ELISA, and the molecular weight (MW) pattern of the AdipoQ protein was estimated by the Western blot analysis. The SP AdipoQ concentrations were approximately 180-fold lower compared with that in the serum concentrations. Furthermore, the AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP were positively correlated. The MW patterns of AdipoQ in the serum and SP were different such that the high MW form of AdipoQ was more abundant in the SP than serum. The AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP also increased with age: old bulls (>6 years) had higher AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP than bulls aged 24 months or lesser (P < 0.05). In the FF, the AdipoQ concentrations were 1.6-fold lower than those in the corresponding serum samples, and the concentrations in the serum and FF were not correlated (P > 0.1). In the FF, only the middle MW forms of AdipoQ were detectable by Western blotting. The MW pattern in the serum did not differ between the sexes. Our data provide both the AdipoQ concentration and the MW patterns for bovine body fluids related to reproduction. PMID:25468552

  7. Reactive oxygen species, total antioxidant concentration of seminal plasma and their effect on sperm parameters and outcome of IVF\\/ICSI patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Hammadeh; S. Al Hasani; P. Rosenbaum; W. Schmidt; C. Fischer Hammadeh

    2008-01-01

    Objective  The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total antioxident\\u000a (TAS) in seminal plasma of IVF (in vitro fertilization) and ICSI patients, to establish their effect on sperm quality (count,\\u000a vitality, HOS, morphology, maturity, DNA strand breaks) and assess the fertilization potential of spermatozoa and IVF\\/ICSI\\u000a outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  IVF\\/ICSI patients (n = 48)

  8. Pregnancy outcome in dairy and beef cattle after artificial insemination and treatment with seminal plasma or transforming growth factor beta-1.

    PubMed

    Odhiambo, J F; Poole, D H; Hughes, L; Dejarnette, J M; Inskeep, E K; Dailey, R A

    2009-09-01

    Reduced capability of the uterus to support pregnancy in the absence of its interaction with secretions from male accessory glands has been demonstrated in rodents and to some extent in pigs. However, in cattle, the role of postmating inflammatory response on pregnancy success has not been studied. The current study examined the influence of uterine presensitization with seminal antigens at breeding on pregnancy outcome in cows. Lactating beef (n=1090) and dairy (n=800) cows received 0.5 mL seminal plasma (SP), 40 ng recombinant human transforming growth factor-beta1 (rhTGF-beta1), or 0.5 mL bovine serum albumin (BSA), or were left untreated before or at insemination. Semen was deposited into the anterior cervix using a second insemination gun. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 35 to 40 d postinsemination by transrectal ultrasonography or from records of calves born the subsequent calving season. Pregnancy rates in beef cows did not differ among treatments but differed among trials (69.8%, 52.5% vs. 40.3%; P<0.05). In trials where average pregnancy rates were below 50%, treatments with TGF-beta1 but not SP tended (P<0.07) to increase pregnancy rates in beef cows. In dairy cows, SP and TGF-beta1 improved pregnancy outcome by 10 percentage points, but these increments did not achieve statistical significance. In conclusion, this study did not find any conclusive evidence for the effect of TGF-beta1 or seminal plasma on pregnancy outcome in lactating dairy or beef cows but realized marginal improvements when pregnancy rates were below 50% (compromised fertility). PMID:19501392

  9. Influence of seminal plasma on leucocyte migration and amount of COX-2 protein in the jenny endometrium after insemination with frozen-thawed semen.

    PubMed

    Vilés, K; Rabanal, R; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Miró, J

    2013-12-01

    After mating, seminal plasma has an immuno-modulatory effect on the endometrium in some mammals. In jennies, achieving conception via artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed semen is generally much more difficult than in mares. The endometrial inflammatory response is hypothesized to be a contributing factor to the lesser fertility. Following a cross-over experimental design, the uterine inflammatory response of six jennies was evaluated at 6h after AI with frozen-thawed semen (deposited in the uterine body) in the presence or absence of autologous seminal plasma (+SP or -SP). The endometrial cytology and histology of the animals were examined by uterine lavage, uterine swabbing and biopsy. The amount of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein in endometrial cells was also evaluated. As a control (C), the same examinations were made before any AI procedure (i.e., when the jennies were in oestrus). Large numbers of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) were observed in the -SP and +SP cytology and biopsy samples; more than in the C samples. The -SP samples also had intense COX-2 labelling; less labelling was detected in the +SP and C samples (no significant difference between these latter two types). Thus, while the presence of SP does not change the post-AI number of PMNs with regard to that detected in its absence, it does reduce COX-2 protein. Further research into the complex mix of molecules in SP and its effects during AI might help increase the pregnancy rates achieved in jennies. PMID:24280633

  10. Maternal tract factors contribute to paternal seminal fluid impact on metabolic phenotype in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bromfield, John J.; Schjenken, John E.; Chin, Peck Y.; Care, Alison S.; Jasper, Melinda J.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Paternal characteristics and exposures influence physiology and disease risks in progeny, but the mechanisms are mostly unknown. Seminal fluid, which affects female reproductive tract gene expression as well as sperm survival and integrity, provides one potential pathway. We evaluated in mice the consequences for offspring of ablating the plasma fraction of seminal fluid by surgical excision of the seminal vesicle gland. Conception was substantially impaired and, when pregnancy did occur, placental hypertrophy was evident in late gestation. After birth, the growth trajectory and metabolic parameters of progeny were altered, most profoundly in males, which exhibited obesity, distorted metabolic hormones, reduced glucose tolerance, and hypertension. Altered offspring phenotype was partly attributable to sperm damage and partly to an effect of seminal fluid deficiency on the female tract, because increased adiposity was also evident in adult male progeny when normal two-cell embryos were transferred to females mated with seminal vesicle-excised males. Moreover, embryos developed in female tracts not exposed to seminal plasma were abnormal from the early cleavage stages, but culture in vitro partly alleviated this. Absence of seminal plasma was accompanied by down-regulation of the embryotrophic factors Lif, Csf2, Il6, and Egf and up-regulation of the apoptosis-inducing factor Trail in the oviduct. These findings show that paternal seminal fluid composition affects the growth and health of male offspring, and reveal that its impact on the periconception environment involves not only sperm protection but also indirect effects on preimplantation embryos via oviduct expression of embryotrophic cytokines. PMID:24469827

  11. Seminal Plasma Accelerates Semen-derived Enhancer of Viral Infection (SEVI) Fibril Formation by the Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP248–286) Peptide*

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Joanna S.; DiMaio, John T. M.; Doran, Todd M.; Brown, Caitlin; Nilsson, Bradley L.; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils contained in semen, known as SEVI, or semen-derived enhancer of viral infection, have been shown to increase the infectivity of HIV dramatically. However, previous work with these fibrils has suggested that extensive time and nonphysiologic levels of agitation are necessary to induce amyloid formation from the precursor peptide (a proteolytic cleavage product of prostatic acid phosphatase, PAP248–286). Here, we show that fibril formation by PAP248–286 is accelerated dramatically in the presence of seminal plasma (SP) and that agitation is not required for fibrillization in this setting. Analysis of the effects of specific SP components on fibril formation by PAP248–286 revealed that this effect is primarily due to the anionic buffer components of SP (notably inorganic phosphate and sodium bicarbonate). Divalent cations present in SP had little effect on the kinetics of fibril formation, but physiologic levels of Zn2+ strongly protected SEVI fibrils from degradation by seminal proteases. Taken together, these data suggest that in the in vivo environment, PAP248–286 is likely to form fibrils efficiently, thus providing an explanation for the presence of SEVI in human semen. PMID:22354963

  12. Seminal immunoreactive relaxin in domestic animals and its relationship to sperm motility as a possible index for predicting the fertilizing ability of sires.

    PubMed

    Kohsaka, T; Hamano, K; Sasada, H; Watanabe, S; Ogine, T; Suzuki, E; Nishida, S; Takahara, H; Sato, E

    2003-04-01

    Although immunoassayable relaxin has been detected in human and boar seminal plasma, there is no evidence suggesting the existence of immunoreactive relaxin in the seminal plasma of other domestic animals. The first objective of this study was to determine whether immunoreactive relaxin was present in the seminal plasma of bulls, rams and he-goats. In addition, the correlation of immunoreactive relaxin with sperm motility as an index for predicting the fertilizing ability of bull sires was investigated. Semen with normal sperm motility was collected from bulls, rams and he-goats, and the relaxin immunoreactivity of the semen samples was measured using a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) for porcine relaxin that we developed. The presence of relaxin immunoreactivity was demonstrated in seminal plasma from bulls, rams and he-goats. The level of immunoreactive relaxin in seminal plasma was the highest in bulls followed by humans, rams, boars and he-goats in that order, when relaxin levels in boar and human semen having normal sperm motility were also assayed under the same conditions. When the correlation between the seminal plasma level of immunoreactive relaxin and sperm motility was examined in bull semen samples as an index for predicting fertilizing ability, it was found that the relaxin level was significantly correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa showing the most intensive motility (r = 0.64, p < 0.05). These results indicate that immunoreactive relaxin is widely found in the seminal plasma of domestic animals and that measuring the relaxin concentration of seminal plasma may be useful to identify subfertile sires or predict the fertility potential of individual sires. PMID:12641830

  13. Seminal plasma induces global transcriptomic changes associated with cell migration, proliferation and viability in endometrial epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joseph C.; Johnson, Brittni A.; Erikson, David W.; Piltonen, Terhi T.; Barragan, Fatima; Chu, Simon; Kohgadai, Nargis; Irwin, Juan C.; Greene, Warner C.; Giudice, Linda C.; Roan, Nadia R.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How does seminal plasma (SP) affect the transcriptome of human primary endometrial epithelial cells (eEC) and stromal fibroblasts (eSF)? SUMMARY ANSWER Exposure of eEC and eSF to SP in vitro increases expression of genes and secreted proteins associated with cellular migration, proliferation, viability and inhibition of cell death. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Studies in both humans and animals suggest that SP can access and induce physiological changes in the upper female reproductive tract (FRT), which may participate in promoting reproductive success. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This is a cross sectional study involving control samples versus treatment. SP (pooled from twenty donors) was first tested for dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects on eEC and eSF (n = 4). As exposure of eEC or eSF to 1% SP for 6 h proved to be non-toxic, a second set of eEC/eSF samples (n = 4) was treated under these conditions for transcriptome, protein and functional analysis. With a third set of samples (n = 3), we further compared the transcriptional response of the cells to SP versus fresh semen. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS eEC and eSF were isolated from endometrial biopsies from women of reproductive age undergoing benign gynecologic procedures and maintained in vitro. RNA was isolated and processed for microarray studies to analyze global transcriptomic changes. Secreted factors in conditioned media from SP-treated cells were analyzed by Luminex and for the ability to stimulate migration of CD14+ monocytes and CD4+ T cells. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Pathway identifications were determined using the Z-scoring system in Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (Z scores ?|1.5|). SP induced transcriptomic changes (P < 0.05) associated with promoting leukocyte and endothelial cell recruitment, and proliferation of eEC and eSF. Cell viability pathways were induced, while those associated with cell death were suppressed (P < 0.05). SP and fresh semen induced similar sets of pathways, suggesting that SP can model the signaling effects of semen in the endometrium. SP also induced secretion of pro-inflammatory and pro-chemotactic cytokines, as well as pro-angiogenic and proliferative growth factors (P < 0.05) in both eEC and eSF. Finally, functional assays revealed that conditioned media from SP-treated eEC and eSF significantly increased (P < 0.05) chemotaxis of CD14+ monocytes and CD4+ T cells. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION This study is limited to in vitro analyses of the effects of SP on endometrial cells. In addition, the measured response to SP was conducted in the absence of the ovarian hormones estradiol and progesterone, as well as epithelial-stromal paracrine signaling. While this study focused on establishing the baseline cellular response of endometrial cells to SP, future work should assess how hormone signaling in the presence of appropriate paracrine interactions affects SP-induced genes in these cells. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The results of this study support previous findings that SP and semen contain bioactive factors capable of eliciting chemotactic responses in the uterus, which can lead to recruitment of leukocytes to the endometrium. Future directions will explore if similar changes in gene expression do indeed occur after coitus in vivo, and how the signaling cascades initiated by SP in the endometrium can affect reproductive success, female reproductive health and susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases. The gene list provided by the transcriptome analysis reported here should prove a valuable resource for understanding the response of the upper FRT to SP exposure. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This project was supported by NIH AI083050-04 (W.C.G./L.C.G.); NIH U54HD 055764 (L.C.G.); NIH 1F32HD074423-02 (J.C.C.); DOD W81XWH-11-1-0562 (W.C.G.); NIH 5K12-DK083021-04, NIH 1K99AI104262-01A1, The UCSF Hellman Award (N.R.R.). The authors have nothing to disclose. PMID:24626806

  14. Effect of dietary energy on seminal plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), serum IGF-I and testosterone levels, semen quality and fertility in adult rams.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, S; Sivasubramani, T; Raghavendra, B S; Raju, P; Rao, S B N; Dineshkumar, D; Ravindra, J P

    2012-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to modulate seminal plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) by dietary energy and assess the relationship among testosterone and IGF-I levels, semen quality and fertility in adult rams. Twenty-four 1-yr old adult Nellore rams were equally divided into three groups (n = 8) and fed with three different concentrate mixtures formulated using conventional ingredients and finger millet (Eleucine corocana) straw to ensure rams received with similar amount of crude protein with three levels of energy. Rams in low-energy group were offered diets with 20% less energy than the control energy group (optimum energy, 100%, recommended energy level), whereas rams in high energy group were offered diets with 20% more energy than the optimum energy group. Semen was collected from rams 60 days after start of the experimental feeding. The percentages of progressive forward motility, functional membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential of the spermatozoa were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in control and high energy groups as compared to low-energy group. Feeding of low-energy diet significantly (P < 0.05) decreased spermatozoa VSL, VCL and VAP when compared to control and high energy fed groups. The number of spermatozoa binding/oocyte was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in control (11.23 ± 0.20) and high energy (10.57 ± 0.19) groups as compared to the low energy (6.14 ± 0.01) group. The serum and seminal plasma IGF-I levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in control and high energy fed groups as compared to the low-energy group. The serum testosterone and cholesterol levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the control group as compared to the low-energy group. The seminal plasma fructose levels in optimum energy fed animals were significantly (P < 0.05) higher as compared to other two groups. The seminal plasma IGF-I level had positive correlation with progressive forward motility (r = 0.7) and other velocity (linearity, r = 0.7; straightness, r = 0.7) parameters. The study suggested that the modulation of seminal plasma IGF-I levels by dietary energy is possible and the optimum level of seminal plasma IGF-I is necessary and sufficient to influence semen quality. PMID:22626778

  15. The effects of urethritis on seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA loads in homosexual men not receiving antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sadiq, S; Taylor, S; Copas, A; Bennett, J; Kaye, S; Drake, S; Kirk, S; Pillay, D; Weller, I

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effects of urethritis and its treatment on semen plasma HIV-1 RNA load in HIV-1 infected men not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), in a developed world setting. Methods: Prospective case-control study. HIV-1 infected homosexual men, not receiving ART for at least 3 months, with (cases) and without (controls) symptomatic urethritis, were recruited. Blood and semen were collected for HIV-1 RNA quantification at presentation, before antibiotic therapy, and at 1 and 2 weeks. Results: 20 cases (13 gonococcal urethritis and/or chlamydial urethritis (GU/CU) and seven non-specific urethritis (NSU)) and 35 controls were recruited. Baseline characteristics and blood plasma viral load were similar in cases and controls. Mean log semen plasma viral loads were higher among those with GU/CU compared with controls (4.27 log versus 3.55 log respectively; p = 0.01) but not in those with NSU (3.48 log; p = 0.82). Following antibiotics, semen plasma viral loads fell by a mean of 0.25 log (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.47) in those with GU/CU. Semen plasma viral loads did not fall in those with NSU. Conclusions: In this study of 55 homosexual men not on ART, semen plasma viral loads were approximately fivefold higher in those with GU/CU, but not NSU, compared with controls. Treatment of GU/CU resulted in reduction in semen plasma viral loads. Although absolute effects were considerably lower when compared to patients from a similar study from sub-Saharan Africa, our data demonstrate the potential for sexually transmitted infections to enhance HIV infectivity of men not receiving ART in the developed world. PMID:15800087

  16. A DEXTRAN SWIM-UP PROCEDURE FOR SEPARATION OF HIGHLY MOTILE AND VIABLE RAM SPERMATOZOA FROM SEMINAL PLASMA

    E-print Network

    Zaragoza, Universidad de

    a selection of highly motile and viable ram spermatozoa free of semen plasma. Semen collected from 3 rams overELSEVIER A DEXTRAN SWIM-UP PROCEDURE FOR SEPARATION OF HIGHLY MOTILE AND VIABLE RAM SPERMATOZOA individual motility, membrane integrity and resistance to a hypoosmotic swelling test (HOS). Semen samples

  17. Ovulation-inducing factor (OIF/NGF) from seminal plasma origin enhances Corpus Luteum function in llamas regardless the preovulatory follicle diameter.

    PubMed

    Silva, M; Ulloa-Leal, C; Norambuena, C; Fernández, A; Adams, G P; Ratto, M H

    2014-08-01

    Ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) is a protein present in llama seminal plasma that has recently been identified as ?-Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and it induces not only a high rate of ovulation but also appears to have luteotrophic properties in this species. A 2-by-2 experimental design was used to determine the effect of treatments (OIF/NGF vs GnRH) and categories of preovulatory follicle diameter (7-10 vs >10mm) on ovulation rate, CL diameter and function in llamas. Llamas (n=32 llamas per group) were randomly assigned to receive an intramuscular dose of: (a) 1mg purified OIF/NGF in the presence of a follicle of 7-10mm in diameter; (b) 50 ?g of GnRH in the presence of a follicle of 7-10mm in diameter; (c) 1mg purified OIF/NGF in the presence of a follicle >10mm in diameter; (d) 50 ?g of GnRH in the presence of a follicle >10mm in diameter. Llamas were examined by ultrasonography every 12h from treatment to Day 2 (Day 0=treatment) to detect ovulation, and again on Day 8 to determine CL diameter. Ovulation rates did not differ among groups. There was an effect of preovulatory follicle size on Corpus Luteum diameter at Day 8 (P<0.001), however plasma progesterone concentration (n=15/per group) was higher (P<0.05) in the OIF/NGF - than that of the GnRH - treated group by the same day. We conclude that OIF/NGF treatment enhances CL function regardless preovulatory follicle size at the time of treatment. PMID:24950997

  18. Penetration of ofloxacin into prostatic fluid, ejaculate and seminal fluid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. G. Naber; D. Weigel; M. Kinzig; F. Sörgel

    1993-01-01

    Summary The penetration of ofloxacin into prostatic fluid, ejaculate and seminal fluid was measured by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method after intravenous infusion (60 min) of 400 mg in six healthy male volunteers. The median concentration of ofloxacin in prostatic fluid was about one-third and that in ejaculate and seminal fluid about twice that in corresponding plasma. The results

  19. Electromagnetic fluctuations and normal modes of a drifting relativistic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ruyer, C.; Gremillet, L.; Bénisti, D. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)] [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Bonnaud, G. [CEA, Saclay, INSTN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [CEA, Saclay, INSTN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-11-15

    We present an exact calculation of the power spectrum of the electromagnetic fluctuations in a relativistic equilibrium plasma described by Maxwell-Jüttner distribution functions. We consider the cases of wave vectors parallel or normal to the plasma mean velocity. The relative contributions of the subluminal and supraluminal fluctuations are evaluated. Analytical expressions of the spatial fluctuation spectra are derived in each case. These theoretical results are compared to particle-in-cell simulations, showing a good reproduction of the subluminal fluctuation spectra.

  20. Maturation of spermatozoa from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sex-reversed females using artificial seminal plasma or glucose-methanol extender.

    PubMed

    Ciereszko, Andrzej; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Nynca, Joanna; Dobosz, Stefan; Krom, Janusz

    2015-04-15

    Masculinized females (sex-reversed females) produce only homogametic spermatozoa (X) for fertilization which is desired for the production of all-female rainbow trout populations. The milt of sex-reversed females is of low quality and must be matured through extension in maturation solutions. The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of glucose-methanol (GM) extender with artificial seminal plasma (ASP) extender for the maturation of milt of sex-reversed female rainbow trout. Milt suspensions were incubated at 4 °C for either 15 minutes (GM extender) or 120 minutes (ASP extender). Incubation of milt diluted in either the GM or ASP extender caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the percentage of sperm motility to 76.1 ± 10.9% and 74.7 ± 18.6% for GM and ASP, respectively, but no differences between both the extenders were found. Incubation also increased the average path velocity, straight line velocity, and linearity values of spermatozoa diluted with the GM extender; at the same time, none of the other parameters changed for ASP suspensions. Sperm diluted with ASP was characterized by higher curvilinear velocity and lateral head displacement values. Percentage of eyed embryos produced by fertilization using milt diluted in the GM extender amounted to 63.6 ± 16.4% and 67.2 ± 11.9% for sperm-to-egg ratio of 300,000:1 or 600,000:1, respectively and was lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of ASP extender (79.5 ± 5.8% and 80.3 ± 4.7% for sperm-to-egg ratio of 300,000:1 or 600,000:1, respectively). The results of our study clearly report that the mechanism of sperm maturation by the GM extender differs from that based on ASP. PMID:25638350

  1. Enhancement of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection by seminal plasma and semen amyloids implicates a new target for the prevention of HSV infection.

    PubMed

    Torres, Lilith; Ortiz, Tatiana; Tang, Qiyi

    2015-04-01

    Human herpesviruses cause different infectious diseases, resulting in world-wide health problems. Sexual transmission is a major route for the spread of both herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and -2. Semen plays an important role in carrying the viral particle that invades the vaginal or rectal mucosa and, thereby, initiates viral replication. Previously, we demonstrated that the amyloid fibrils semenogelin (SEM) and semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI), and seminal plasma (SP) augment cytomegalovirus infection (Tang et al., J. Virol 2013). Whether SEM or SEVI amyloids or SP could also enhance other herpesvirus infections has not been examined. In this study, we found that the two amyloids as well as SP strongly enhance both HSV-1 and -2 infections in cell culture. Along with SP, SEM and SEVI amyloids enhanced viral entry and increased infection rates by more than 10-fold, as assessed by flow cytometry assay and fluorescence microscopy. Viral replication was increased by about 50- to 100-fold. Moreover, viral growth curve assays showed that SEM and SEVI amyloids, as well as SP, sped up the kinetics of HSV replication such that the virus reached its replicative peak more quickly. The interactions of SEM, SEVI, and SP with HSVs are direct. Furthermore, we discovered that the enhancing effects of SP, SEM, and SEVI can be significantly reduced by heparin, a sulfated polysaccharide with an anionic charge. It is probable that heparin abrogates said enhancing effects by interfering with the interaction of the viral particle and the amyloids, which interaction results in the binding of the viral particles and both SEM and SEVI. PMID:25903833

  2. Lipid analysis of human spermatozoa and seminal plasma by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy — effects of freezing and thawing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Schiller; Jürgen Arnhold; Hans-Jürgen Glander; Klaus Arnold

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, the applicability of proton NMR spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to the analysis of the lipid composition of human spermatozoa and seminal fluids as well as changes after cryopreservation of human spermatozoa was investigated. Whereas NMR spectra primarily indicated a high content of double bonds within the spermatozoa but

  3. Relationship of seminal reactive nitrogen and oxygen species and total antioxidant capacity with sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile couples with normal and abnormal sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, F; Valojerdi, M R; Amanlou, M; Karimian, L; Abolhassani, F

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the amount of superoxide anion, peroxynitrite as oxidative stress (OS) markers and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) with sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile men with abnormal semen parameters. Semen samples were obtained from 102 infertile couples and divided into groups with normal and abnormal semen parameters according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Peroxynitrite and superoxide anions were detected using spectrofluorometric assays combined with 2,7 dicholorofluorescein (DCF)-DA and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa -1, 3-diazole (NBD-CL). Colorimetric assay was used for evaluation of TAC, while DNA fragmentation was studied by using sperm chromatin dispersion test. Superoxide anion, peroxynitrite and DNA fragmentation were significantly higher in infertile couples with abnormal semen parameters as compared to infertile couples with normal semen (P < 0.01). TAC was significantly lower in infertile men with abnormal semen parameters (P < 0.01). There was also a significant positive correlation between OS markers with sperm DNA fragmentation (r = 0.59, P < 0.01 and r = 0.67, P < 0.01, respectively). We have found that imbalance between superoxide anion and peroxynitrite with antioxidant capacity in infertile men with abnormal sperm parameters is associated with higher sperm DNA fragmentation. PMID:23126684

  4. Wave normal and Poynting flux directions of magnetospheric plasma waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledocq, Michael Joseph

    1998-11-01

    Wave normal and Poynting vector measurements from the Plasma Wave Instrument on the Polar spacecraft are used to locate the source region of magnetospheric whistler mode chorus and to confirm the quasi-electrostatic theory for the propagation of auroral hiss. The wave normal vector, which determines the direction of wave propagation, is calculated from the imaginary part of the wave magnetic field cross-spectral matrix, and the Poynting vector, which determines the direction of energy flow of a wave, is calculated directly using electric and magnetic field waveform measurements. Almost without exception, chorus is observed to propagate away from the magnetic equator, indicating that the source of these emissions is very close to the magnetic equator. No evidence of chorus reflected from the ionosphere or high- altitude magnetosphere has been observed. The absence of a reflected component indicates that chorus is absorbed, probably by Landau damping, before the wave can return to the magnetic equator. Generation mechanisms that require multiple passes through the source region cannot explain chorus generation. Auroral hiss usually has an extremely weak, and often non-detectable, magnetic component. When the magnetic component is detectable, auroral hiss is found to be propagating with wave normal angles near the resonance cone. The Poynting vector for this quasi- electrostatic mode of propagation is at a large angle to the wave normal, in good agreement with theory. Measured magnetic to electric field ratios also agree well with the magnetic to electric field ratios calculated from the measured wave normal angle using whistler mode theory. These comparisons show that the auroral hiss propagates in a mode that has wave normal angles very close to the resonance cone.

  5. Proteomic analysis of seminal fluid from men exhibiting oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Seminal plasma serves as a natural reservoir of antioxidants. It helps to remove excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and consequently, reduce oxidative stress. Proteomic profiling of seminal plasma proteins is important to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress and sperm dysfunction in infertile men. Methods This prospective study consisted of 52 subjects: 32 infertile men and 20 healthy donors. Once semen and oxidative stress parameters were assessed (ROS, antioxidant concentration and DNA damage), the subjects were categorized into ROS positive (ROS+) or ROS negative (ROS-). Seminal plasma from each group was pooled and subjected to proteomics analysis. In-solution digestion and protein identification with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), followed by bioinformatics analyses was used to identify and characterize potential biomarker proteins. Results A total of 14 proteins were identified in this analysis with 7 of these common and unique proteins were identified in both the ROS+ and ROS- groups through MASCOT and SEQUEST analyses, respectively. Prolactin-induced protein was found to be more abundantly present in men with increased levels of ROS. Gene ontology annotations showed extracellular distribution of proteins with a major role in antioxidative activity and regulatory processes. Conclusions We have identified proteins that help protect against oxidative stress and are uniquely present in the seminal plasma of the ROS- men. Men exhibiting high levels of ROS in their seminal ejaculate are likely to exhibit proteins that are either downregulated or oxidatively modified, and these could potentially contribute to male infertility. PMID:24004880

  6. Immunophenotype of Normal and Myelomatous Plasma-Cell Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Robillard, Nelly; Wuillème, Soraya; Moreau, Philippe; Béné, Marie C.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cells (PCs) are essentially characterized by the co-expression of CD138 and CD38, which allows their identification in flow cytometry in bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood, or cell suspensions from tissues. These terminally differentiated B-cells may lose the expression of surface CD19 and that of CD20 while retaining CD27. When malignant, they can gain a number of other markers such as CD28, CD33, CD56, or CD117 and lose CD27. Moreover, since each PC is only able to produce a single type of immunoglobulins (Igs), they display isotypic restriction and clonal malignant PCs can be further characterized by their homogeneous expression of either kappa or lambda light chains. In multiple myeloma (MM), such PC clones produce the Ig identified in plasma as an abnormal peak. In the BM where they essentially accumulate, these PCs may however display various immunophenotypes. The latter were explored in a two-way approach. Firstly, the various subsets delineated by the selective or common expression of CD19 together with combined CD56/CD28 were explored in normal and MM BM. Then, other aberrant markers’ expression was investigated, i.e., CD20, CD27, CD33, CD56, CD117. These data were compared to literature information. They underline the vast heterogeneity of MM PCs possibly accounting for the various answers to therapy of MM patients. PMID:24744760

  7. Correlation between seminal lead and cadmium and seminal parameters in idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermic males

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Emad A.; Sayed, Sohair K.; Ghandour, Nagwa M; Mahran, Ali M.; Saleh, Medhat A.; Amin, Magdy M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The exact causes of the decline in semen quality are not yet known, environmental factors have been considered to play an important role. Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) are two of the well-known reproductive toxicants to which humans are exposed occupationally and environmentally and can lead to negative effects on the testicular functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate lead and cadmium levels in seminal plasma of men with idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermia in comparison to fertile healthy controls and to correlate these levels with conventional semen parameters, sperm hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) percentage, sperm DNA fragmentation percentage, and semen reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Material and Methods Thirty infertile male patients with idiopathic oligo and/or asthenozoospermia and thirty healthy fertile men, which was the control group, were included in the study. Lead and cadmium levels in seminal plasma, semen parameters, sperm HOS, sperm DNA fragmentation percentage and semen ROS assay were measured in all subjects. Results There was a significant increase in seminal lead and cadmium levels among infertile males in comparison to controls. There were significant negative correlations between seminal lead and cadmium levels on one hand and certain semen parameters especially progressive sperm motility and vitality (HOS). Importantly, significant positive correlations were noted between seminal lead and cadmium levels on one hand and sperm DNA fragmentation percentage and semen ROS level in infertile men and controls on the other hand. Conclusions Thus, men with idiopathic male infertility had higher levels of lead and cadmium in their semen which correlated with impairment of sperm motility and vitality percentages and more importantly with higher sperm DNA fragmentation% and semen ROS level. PMID:24579002

  8. Investigation of a new approach for performing bilateral seminal vesiculectomies in bulls

    E-print Network

    Hooper, Richard Neil

    1991-01-01

    ; 3) hematogenous spread of infection from other areas of the body; 4) congenital malformations of the seminal vesicles, ampullae, or seminal colliculis allowing reflux of urine or spermatozoa into the vesicular glands; and 5) asynchrony of neuro... of these two structures. ' Yet, Galloway was unsuccessful in experimentally creating seminal vesiculitis by injecting pure c lt rc of~Aetio rtty~ci loth hlllcororth oc'to chico 'tyof normal bulls. " Congenital Abnormalities: Blom reported that 10 of 25 (40...

  9. Effect of diet on plasma acid-base composition in normal humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ira Kurtz; Terry Maher; Henry N Hulter; Morris Schambelan; Anthony Sebastian

    1983-01-01

    Effect of diet on plasma acid-base composition in normal humans. Steady-state plasma and urine acid-base composition was assessed in 19 studies of 16 normal subjects who ingested constant amounts of one of three diets that resulted in different rates of endogenous noncarbonic acid production (EAP) within the normal range. Renal net acid excretion (NAE) was used to quantify EAP since

  10. Effect of different seasons on concentration of plasma luteinizing hormone and seminal quality vis-à-vis freezability of buffalo bulls ( Bubalus bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahga, C. S.; Khokar, B. S.

    1991-12-01

    Seasonal variations in semen quality, freezability and plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were studied between summer and spring. Semen volume, density and initial sperm motility did not differ significantly between different seasons. Plasma LH decreased between summer and spring but the differences were, however, not significant. Pre-freezing motility did not differ significantly but post-freezing motility varied significantly ( P<0.01) between seasons. Post-freezing motility was lowest during summer and highest during winter. It can be concluded that summer spermatozoa may be fragile and cannot withstand freezing stress. To increase reproductive efficiency in buffalo during summer, semen should be frozen during winter and spring and used during hot weather conditions. Seasonal variations in plasma LH levels were insignificant.

  11. NORMAL FASTING PLASMA GLUCOSE LEVELS IN SOME BIRDS OF PREY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. O'DONNELL; R GARBETTand A. MORZENTI

    Blood samples taken from five great horned ow!s (Bubo virginianus), eight red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicencis), four marsh hawks (Circus cyaneus), two prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), five golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and five white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) that had been fasted for 24 h were used to determine plasma bevels of glucose by the glucose oxidase method. The mean plasma

  12. Proteins of human semen. I. Two-dimensional mapping of human seminal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.J.; Tollaksen, S.L.; Anderson, N.G.

    1981-08-01

    The proteins in human seminal plasma were mapped by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (ISO-DALT and BASO-DALT systems). When analyzed under dissociating conditions, samples from normal fertile males revealed a pattern of over 200 proteins, ranging in mass from 10,000 to 100,000 daltons. Comparison of the mapped proteins from these males and those who had undergone vasectomy allowed us to identify one series of glycoproteins as missing from the semen from vasectomized individuals. Glycoproteins isolated by affinity chromatography with use of concanavalin A were also mapped. Some of the protein spots were identified either by coelectrophoresis with purified proteins or by the electrophoretic transfer of proteins to nitrocellulose sheets and subsequent detection by immunological procedures. The proteins identified include a number of serum proteins as well as prostatic acid phosphatase and creatine kinase. Proteolytic events shown to occur during the liquefaction of semen that occurs early after collection indicate the importance of carefully controlled collection and preparation methods for clinical evaluation of seminal plasma. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibit this proteolysis.

  13. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels in some birds of prey.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, J A; Garbett, R; Morzenti, A

    1978-10-01

    Blood samples taken from five great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), eight red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), four marsh hawks (Circus cyaneus), two prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), five golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and five white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) that had been fasted for 24 h were used to determine plasma levels of glucose by the glucose oxidase method. The mean plasma glucose levels were: great horned owls 374.6 mg/100 ml, red-tailed hawks 346.5 mg/00 ml, marsh hawks 369.3 mg/100 ml, prairie falcons 414.5 mg/100 ml, golden eagles 368.4 mg/100 ml, and white Leghorn chickens 218.2 mg/100 ml. The plasma glucose levels obtained for the raptorial birds in this study were considerably higher than those found for the chickens. These values are discussed in relation to the carnivorous food habits of raptors. PMID:739587

  14. Pervasive Adaptive Evolution in Primate Seminal Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathaniel L Clark; Willie J Swanson

    2005-01-01

    Seminal fluid proteins show striking effects on reproduction, involving manipulation of female behavior and physiology, mechanisms of sperm competition, and pathogen defense. Strong adaptive pressures are expected for such manifestations of sexual selection and host defense, but the extent of positive selection in seminal fluid proteins from divergent taxa is unknown. We identified adaptive evolution in primate seminal proteins using

  15. The Seminal Literature of Anthrax Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald N. Kostoff; Stephen A. Morse; Serkan Oncu

    2007-01-01

    A chronically weak area in research papers, reports, and reviews is the complete identification of seminal background documents that formed the building blocks for these papers. A method for systematically determining these seminal references is presented. Citation-Assisted Background (CAB) is based on the assumption that seminal documents tend to be highly cited. Application of CAB to the field of Anthrax

  16. Microarray-based understanding of normal and malignant plasma cells

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, John; Hose, Dirk; Rème, Thierry; Tarte, Karin; Moreaux, Jérôme; Mahtouk, Karéne; Jourdan, Michel; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Rossi, Jean-François; Cremer, Friedrich W.; Klein, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Plasma cells develop from B-lymphocytes following stimulation by antigen and express a genetic program aimed at the synthesis of immunoglobulins. This program includes the induction of genes coding for transcription factors such as PRDM1 and XBP1, cell-surface molecules such as CD138/syndecan-1 and for the unfolded protein response (UPR). We review how the microarray technology has recently contributed to the understanding of the biology of this rare but essential cell population and its transformation into pre-malignant and malignant plasma cells. PMID:16623766

  17. A redefinition of normal acid-base equilibrium in man: Carbon dioxide tension as a key determinant of normal plasma bicarbonate concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolaos E Madias; Horacio J Adrogué; Gary L Horowitz; Jordan J Cohen; William B Schwartz

    1979-01-01

    A redefinition of normal acid-base equilibrium in man: Carbon dioxide tension as a key determinant of normal plasma bicarbonate concentration. It has been shown recently that normal acid-base equilibrium in the dog is characterized by a strong positive correlation between plasma bicarbonate concentration and Pco2. The present study was undertaken to examine the possibility that a similar relationship between normal

  18. Plasma Endothelin1 Release in Normal and Varicose Saphenous Veins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Antonio Mangiafico; Lorenzo Salvatore Malatino; Maurizio Santonocito; Rosario Sebastiano Spada; Francesco Antonio Benedetto

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in normal and varicose saphenous veins at baseline and after venous stasis test. Ten patients (eight women and two men, mean age 43 ±4) with primarily varicose great saphenous veins and ten controls (eight women and two men, mean age 42 ±6) were recruited. After 30 minutes

  19. Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) in different reproductive states.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E

    1986-04-01

    Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of castrated tree sparrows from each of three reproductive states was evaluated by measuring the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of replacement or plasma testosterone. Birds were exposed to exogenous testosterone for 38 days. Replacement doses less than 0.17 mumol or plasma concentrations less than about 0.7 nmol/l did not induce seminal-sac growth in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days, in photosensitive castrated birds transferred from short to long days, or in photorefractory castrated birds retained on long days. Higher replacement doses or plasma concentrations, however, stimulated log dose-dependent growth of the seminal sacs in castrated birds from all three reproductive states. The change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of the dose of replacement testosterone was less (P = 0.0495) in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days than in photosensitive castrated birds transferred to long days. A more critical test of sensitivity (i.e. the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of mean plasma testosterone concentration) indicated, however, that sensitivity of the seminal sacs to testosterone is independent of reproductive state. That result, when considered in the context of the plasma testosterone profile of intact males during a simulated reproductive cycle, argues that the seminal sacs of sexually quiescent (photosensitive or photorefractory) tree sparrows are small not because of their insensitivity to androgens, but because of a deficiency of circulating androgens. PMID:3701240

  20. Ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy of blood plasma in the discrimination of cancer from normal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhuri, S.; Aruna, Prakasa R.; Summiya Bibi, M. I.; Gowri, V. S.; Koteeswaran, D.; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    1997-05-01

    Native fluorescence spectroscopy of biomolecules has emerged as an intrinsic parameter in the characterization of the physiological state and the discrimination of pathological from normal conditions of cells and tissues. The key fluorescing biomolecules inc ells and tissues ar tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine, collagen, elastin, NADH, flavin and porphyrin. Extensive studies were made on tissues of various origin to discriminate the malignancy from normal. The differences in the fluorescence emission spectra have been shown to separate benign and malignant tissues. In the present work, a pilot study was carried out on the characterization of blood plasma of both normal and cancerous subjects. The blood plasma was separated by centrifuging the blood and it was diluted in PBS by adjusting the O.D. to 0.5 at 280 nm. This diluted sample as excited in the UV region between 250-340 nm. Among the various excitation wavelengths, emission spectrum at 300 nm excitation has considerable difference between blood plasma of normal subjects and cancer patients. To quantify these differences and to verify if there is any diagnostic potential exists, the ratio of fluorescence intensities at 340 and 440 nm was calculated. It is found that the ratio value of normal blood plasma is less than 11 and for tumor, it is greater than 11. Besides, it is found that the ratio value of blood plasma from patients with cancer varies from 11 to 28, depending upon the stage of malignancy.

  1. MHD surface waves in high- and low-beta plasmas. I - Normal-mode solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Suess, S. T.

    1989-01-01

    Since the first paper by Barston (1964) on electrostatic oscillations in inhomogeneous cold plasmas, it has been commonly accepted that all finite layers with a continuous profile in pressure, density and magnetic field cannot support normal surface waves but instead the waves always decay through phase mixing (also called resonant absorption). The problem is reanalyzed by studying a compressible current sheet of a general structure with rotation of the magnetic field included. All inhomogeneous layers considered in the high-beta plasma limit do not support normal modes. However, in the limit of a low-beta plasma there are some cases when normal-mode solutions are recovered. The latter means that the process of resonant absorption is not common for all inhomogeneous layers.

  2. The seminal literature of anthrax research.

    PubMed

    Kostoff, Ronald N; Morse, Stephen A; Oncu, Serkan

    2007-01-01

    A chronically weak area in research papers, reports, and reviews is the complete identification of seminal background documents that formed the building blocks for these papers. A method for systematically determining these seminal references is presented. Citation-Assisted Background (CAB) is based on the assumption that seminal documents tend to be highly cited. Application of CAB to the field of Anthrax research is presented. While CAB is a highly systematic approach for identifying seminal references, it is not a substitute for the judgment of the researchers, and serves as a supplement. PMID:17653986

  3. Pervasive Adaptive Evolution in Primate Seminal Proteins

    E-print Network

    Dean, Matthew D.

    proteins from divergent taxa is unknown. We identified adaptive evolution in primate seminal proteins using semenogelin proteins [2,8­10]. However, the extent of selection in primates remains unknown, and it hasPervasive Adaptive Evolution in Primate Seminal Proteins Nathaniel L. Clark* , Willie J. Swanson

  4. Normalization

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-05-09

    This PowerPoint lecture, by Jason Park of San Jose State University Department of Computer Science, offers students a quick introduction to database normalization, the "process of removing redundant data from your tables in to improve storage efficiency, data integrity, and scalability." Here, visitors will find information about database normalization history and applications. With information on the normal forms, field pioneer Edgar F. Codd, and problematic tables, this presentation will be helpful in any database programming and design classroom.

  5. Plasma carotenoids in normal men after a single ingestion of vegetables or purified beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Brown, E D; Micozzi, M S; Craft, N E; Bieri, J G; Beecher, G; Edwards, B K; Rose, A; Taylor, P R; Smith, J C

    1989-06-01

    Changes in seven plasma carotenoids were measured in 30 men for 11 d after ingesting a single dose of pure beta-carotene or a high carotenoid vegetable. A controlled, low-carotenoid diet was fed in a crossover design. Maximum plasma concentrations of beta-carotene occurred 24-48 h after dosing with beta-carotene (12 or 30 mg) or carrots (270 g). A large intake of broccoli (600 g) or tomato juice (180 g) did not change any plasma carotenoids. We concluded that 1) normal subjects vary widely, three to fourfold, in efficiency of carotenoid absorption; 2) peak plasma response to beta-carotene in a capsule occurs at 24-48 h; 3) a large single intake of carrots produces a small increase in plasma beta-carotene but single intakes of broccoli or tomato juice do not change plasma carotenoids; and 4) plasma response to pure beta-carotene is greater than the response to a similar amount of beta-carotene in carrots. PMID:2729164

  6. Plasma antibodies to Abeta40 and Abeta42 in patients with Alzheimer's disease and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wuhua; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Matsubara, Etsuro; Deguchi, Kentaro; Murakami, Tetsuro; Harigaya, Yasuo; Ikeda, Masaki; Amari, Masakuni; Kuwano, Ryozo; Abe, Koji; Shoji, Mikio

    2008-07-11

    Antibodies to amyloid beta protein (Abeta) are present naturally or after Abeta vaccine therapy in human plasma. To clarify their clinical role, we examined plasma samples from 113 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 205 normal controls using the tissue amyloid plaque immunoreactivity (TAPIR) assay. A high positive rate of TAPIR was revealed in AD (45.1%) and age-matched controls (41.2%), however, no significance was observed. No significant difference was observed in the MMS score or disease duration between TAPIR-positive and negative samples. TAPIR-positive plasma reacted with the Abeta40 monomer and dimer, and the Abeta42 monomer weakly, but not with the Abeta42 dimer. TAPIR was even detected in samples from young normal subjects and young Tg2576 transgenic mice. Although the Abeta40 level and Abeta40/42 ratio increased, and Abeta42 was significantly decreased in plasma from AD groups when compared to controls, no significant correlations were revealed between plasma Abeta levels and TAPIR grading. Thus an immune response to Abeta40 and immune tolerance to Abeta42 occurred naturally in humans without a close relationship to the Abeta burden in the brain. Clarification of the mechanism of the immune response to Abeta42 is necessary for realization of an immunotherapy for AD. PMID:18534566

  7. Plasma protein associations with hippocampal atrophy across the cognitive spectrum from normal aging to Alzheimer s disease

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    Plasma protein associations with hippocampal atrophy across the cognitive spectrum from normal aging to Alzheimer s disease Methods: We analyzed the imaging and plasma protein biomarker data from EDTA plasma samples were collected and analyzed with a 190 analyte multiplex immunoassay panel based

  8. The One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP) as a classical normal glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Gadri, R.B.; Sherman, D.M.; Chen, Z.; Karakaya, F.; Roth, J.R.

    1999-07-01

    The One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP) operating in air and other gases, has been recently developed at the UTK Plasma Sciences Laboratory and is proprietary to the University of Tennessee. The plasma is driven at low RF frequency, on the order of a few kilohertz, and is formed in a relatively large gap (several mm in air), between plane parallel insulated metal electrodes. For the proper values of gap distance, RF driving frequency, and rms voltage, the OAUGDP operates uniformly, without producing filamentary microdischarges, and its physical characteristics are, in spite of the high pressure, surprisingly analogous to those observed in a normal DC glow discharge. Numerical simulations and experimental time-resolved photographs show that al the features of the classical normal glow discharge are present between the instantaneous cathode and anode: the cathode dark space, a linear electric field in the cathode region obeying Aston's law, the negative glow, the Faraday dark space, and the positive column. The glow discharge nature of the OAUGDP is significant because normal glow discharges operate very efficiently as plasma sources at or near the Stoletow point where the energy cost of generating an ion-electron pair in air is only 81 eV. In other atmospheric plasmas, such as arcs, this energy cost can be at least 10 KeV per ion-electron pair. The authors have developed a variety of configurations for the electrodes which permits both large and small processing volumes and allows a large range of applications to be accommodated. The electrical and physical characteristics of the OAUGDP will be presented.

  9. Salivary cortisol measurement in normal-weight, obese and anorexic women: comparison with plasma cortisol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pietro Putignano; Antonella Dubini; Paola Toja; Cecilia Invitti; Simona Bonfanti; Gabriella Redaelli; Daniela Zappulli; Francesco Cavagnini

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare salivary, plasma and urinary free cortisol (UFC) measurements in patients with anorexia nervosa, in whom an overdrive of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is well established but information on salivary cortisol is lacking, in viscerally obese patients in whom subtle abnormalities of cortisol secretion and metabolism are postulated, and in normal-weight healthy women. Participants and experimental design: Measurement

  10. Alzheimer's amyloid ? interaction with normal human plasma high density lipoprotein: association with apolipoprotein and lipids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexei R Koudinov; Temirbolat T Berezov; Asok Kumar; Natalia V Koudinova

    1998-01-01

    We report studies of the interaction of Alzheimer's amyloid beta protein (A?) with normal human plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL), aiming to clarify to which lipoprotein (LP) structural constituent (apolipoprotein or lipid) soluble A? is primarily bound. Purified HDLs were incubated with biotinylated A?1–40 followed by LP repurification by size exclusion (SE) HPLC. SDS–PAGE, immunoblot and N-terminal sequence analysis of

  11. Normal-mode approach to the linear oscillations of a nonuniform plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sestero; L. Saitta

    1970-01-01

    Summary  The normal-mode approach is applied to the investigation of small perturbations around the equilibrium, for the case of an\\u000a electron plasma trapped in a one-dimensional potential well. The problem is reduced to studying a linear homogeneous Fredholm\\u000a integral equation of the 2nd kind, with kernel depending on a parameter. The parameter is essentially the frequency (real\\u000a or complex) of the

  12. Forearm mineral content in normal men: relationship to weight, height and plasma testosterone concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    McElduff, A.; Wilkinson, M.; Ward, P.; Posen, S.

    1988-01-01

    We measured forearm bone mineral content by single photon absorptiometry together with height, weight and the plasma concentrations of testosterone, free testosterone and sex steroid binding globulin in 66 normal Caucasian males aged 29-46 years. Multiple regression analysis suggests that bone mineral content in either the dominant or the nondominant arm is correlated with weight and sex steroid binding globulin (p less than 0.05 for both parameters). The partial negative correlation of bone mineral content (corrected for weight and sex steroid binding globulin) with plasma testosterone failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.07). The parsimonious regression equation which best explained the bone mineral content measurements in the nondominant forearm in these men was bone mineral content = 29.1-0.374 (plasma testosterone) + 0.383 (weight) + 0.220 (sex steroid binding globulin) with an R2 value of 29.7%. A similar equation was generated for the dominant arm.

  13. Plasma cortisol levels in normal volunteers receiving either betamethasone valerate or desoximetasone by topical application.

    PubMed

    Bromley, P A; Müller, F O; Malan, J; Torres, J; Vanderbeke, O

    1978-08-01

    Desoximetasone (Topisolon; Hoechst), a new topical steroid, and betamethasone 17-valerate were compared with respect to their effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function as evidenced by plasma cortisol concentrations. Three grams of each test preparation were applied daily for 21 days to intact skin of the ventral aspects of alternate forearms of 15 normal volunteers. Five received betamethasone 17-valerate 0.1%, 5 desoximetasone 0.05%, and 5 desoximetasone 0.25%. Plasma cortisol levels were determined before and after the initial applications on days 1, 3, 10, 17, 22, 24 and 28. These values were compared with the mean control values by analysis of covariance. There was no significant difference in plasma cortisol levels. The value of performing similar studies on larger skin areas and with larger doses is discussed. PMID:362568

  14. Correlation of Serum Lipid P rofile with Histological and Seminal Parameters of Testis in The Goat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: The lipid composition of a mammal’s spermatozoa and seminal plasma vary in both structure and function. Evidence exists to suggest that dietary supplementation with the appropriate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) affects spermatogenesis, semen quality and sperm motility. Therefore, this study has been conducted to evaluate the correlations between serum lipid profile and histological, anatomical and seminal parameters of testes in clinically healthy goats. Materials and Methods: In this analytic, cross-sectional study, we chose a total of ten mature Iranian male goats that comprised a homogenous group through simple random sampling. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein; the sera were separated and subsequently used for measurement of serum lipids, lipoproteins and testosterone levels. In addition, we collected semen from the animals and evaluated the seminal characteristics. We also performed histological and anatomical assessments of the testes. Results: The findings demonstrated that serum levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) had a significant positive correlation with interstitial testicular tissue area (r=0.73; p<0.001), seminiferous tubule area (r=0.61; p<0.01), the number of Leydig cells (r=0.53; p<0.05), the diameter of the Leydig cell nuclei (r=0.54; p<0.05), scrotal circumference (r=0.83; p<0.001), testis weight (r=0.72; p<0.001), the number of live, normal sperm (r=0.94 ; p<0.001) and serum testosterone levels (r=0.88; p<0.001). Significant but negative correlations were found between serum triglyceride concentration and seminiferous tubule area (r=-0.53; p<0.05), the diameter of the Leydig cell nuclei (r=-0.55; p<0.05), testis weight (r =-0.64; p<0.01), total sperm number (r=-0.82; p<0.001), number of live, normal sperm (r=-0.55; p<0.05) and serum testosterone levels (r=-0.79; p<0.001). In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) concentration and the percent of live sperm (r=-0.67; p<0.01), and serum testosterone levels (r=-0.65; p<0.01). Conclusion: The present results indicated that among serum lipids only the levels of HDL-c positively correlated with testicular parameters. High serum triglyceride levels exerted direct adverse effects at the testicular level, which was mainly observed in the seminiferous tubules (STs), characterization of Leydig cells and semen quality. PMID:24520474

  15. Power source effects of soft plasma jet and the differential response of skin cancer and normal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Nathaniel; Dobrynin, Danil; Fridman, Alexander; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-10-01

    The effects of pulsed power direct current energy sources were compared using an indirect discharge plasma jet applied to treat cancerous and normal skin cells. Two power supplies with different voltage and current profiles were compared and optimized through the measurement of physical parameters and evaluated through the treatment of skin cells using an atmospheric pressure nitrogen gas plasma jet. Plasma density and temperature, power output, gas output temperature, and reactive species production were measured. Cell morphology, viability, and ROS generation were investigated using staining. A differential response has been shown between the normal and cancerous cell lines. The cancer cells viability reduced while normal cells did not over the same treatment time.

  16. Initial plasma disappearance and tissue uptake of 131I-albumin in normal rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Bent-Hansen, L. (Department of Medicine B, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1991-05-01

    The simultaneous plasma disappearance curves of 131I-albumin and 125I-fibrinogen were recorded in normal rabbits for 1 hr. Using fibrinogen as a plasma reference, the disappearance curves of albumin were shown to contain two separate phases of efflux: one fast from zero to 10 min. comprising 8% of the total tracer; and one slow appearing in the interval of 10 to 60 min. containing another 9% of the tracer. Total albumin escape was analyzed to yield an initial slope of 0.024 {plus minus} 0.004 min-1, corresponding to a wholebody unidirectional albumin clearance (Cl(0)) of 0.090 {plus minus} 0.009 ml(min{asterisk}100 g)-1. The distribution of efflux was assessed by biopsy uptakes using the same tracers in spleen, kidney, heart, lung, liver, intestine, skin, muscle, and brain. The disappearance curve generally reflects a biphasic pattern of uptake in peripheral tissue, predominantly by muscle and lung. The rapid phase has contributions from the fast near equilibration of liver, and intestine and skin are significant codeterminants of the slow phase. Due to their low body masses highly perfused organs such as kidney, spleen, and heart have little influence on the plasma disappearance. In accordance, the Cl(0) determined for the wholebody was higher than initial clearances found in skin (0.053 ml(min{asterisk}100 g)-1) and muscle (0.054 ml(min{asterisk}100 g)-1), but much lower than those found in the highly perfused organs. The initial (unidirectional) rates of peripheral albumin transfer demonstrated, ranged from 10 to 30 times higher than estimates of lymphatic return, suggesting that transcapillary albumin exchange is mediated by high-rate bidirectional diffusion. The rapid decrease of net albumin exchange rates suggests a second, highly significant barrier located within the interstitial matrix, which restricts plasma escape and reduces plasma to lymph albumin transport.

  17. Plasma Adiponectin Levels in High Risk African-Americans with Normal Glucose Tolerance, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, and Type 2 Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwame Osei; Trudy Gaillard; Dara Schuster

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We studied plasma adiponectin, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion before and after oral glucose challenge in normal glucose tolerant, impaired glucose tolerant, and type 2 diabetic first degree relatives of African-American patients with type 2 diabetes.Research Methods and Procedures: We studied 19 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 8 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 14 with type 2

  18. Modeling the effect of anisotropic pressure on tokamak plasmas normal modes and continuum using fluid approaches

    E-print Network

    Qu, Zhisong; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Extending the ideal MHD stability code MISHKA, a new code, MISHKA-A, is developed to study the impact of pressure anisotropy on plasma stability. Based on full anisotropic equilibrium and geometry, the code can provide normal mode analysis with three fluid closure models: the single adiabatic model (SA), the double adiabatic model (CGL) and the incompressible model. A study on the plasma continuous spectrum shows that in low beta, large aspect ratio plasma, the main impact of anisotropy lies in the modification of the BAE gap and the sound frequency, if the q profile is conserved. The SA model preserves the BAE gap structure as ideal MHD, while in CGL the lowest frequency branch does not touch zero frequency at the resonant flux surface where $m+nq=0$, inducing a gap at very low frequency. Also, the BAE gap frequency with bi-Maxwellian distribution in both model becomes higher if $p_\\perp > p_\\parallel$ with a q profile dependency. As a benchmark of the code, we study the m/n=1/1 internal kink mode. Numerical...

  19. Heterologous Ovum Penetration Test and Seminal Parameters in Fertile and Infertile Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. JEAN WICKINGS; CARL-WILHELM FREISCHEM; KLAUS LANGER; EBERHARD NIESCHLAG

    Sperm penetration rates in the heterologous ovum pen- etration test were correlated with results of routine semen analysis in 30 fertile and 50 infertile men. There was no difference in penetration rates when comparing infertile men with normal and abnormal seminal pa- rameters, nor was any difference seen between fertile (15-83%) and infertile men (8-83%). Of the 22 infertile men

  20. Congenital cyst of the seminal vesicle.

    PubMed

    Lucon, A M; Nahas, W C; Wroclawski, E R; Borrelli, M; de Goes, P M; de Goes, G M

    1983-01-01

    A case of congenital cyst of the seminal vesicle in association with an ectopic ureter is presented. The clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects are discussed with special emphasis on the role played by ultrasound and computerized tomography in the evaluation of pelvic pain and painful ejaculation. PMID:6653627

  1. Effects of positive acceleration /+Gz/ on renal function and plasma renin in normal man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Shubrooks, S. J., Jr.; Fishman, L. M.; Duncan, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of positive radial centrifugation (+Gz) on plasma resin activity (PRA) and renal function were assessed in 15 normal male subjects under carefully controlled conditions of Na, K, and water intake. Twenty minutes of +2.0 Gz resulted in significant decreases in the mean rate of sodium excretion and creatine clearance and in a doubling of PRA in seven sodium-depleted subjects (10 meq Na intake). In eight sodium-replete subjects (200 mq Na intake), 30 min of +2.0 Gz was also associated with a decrease in the mean rate of sodium excretion. As a consequence of a concurrent decrease in creatine clearance, the fractional excretion of sodium during centrifugation did not differ from control, suggesting that the changes in Na excretion were mediated primarily by renal hemodynamic factors, although enhanced renal tubular sodium reabsorption may also have played a role.

  2. Normal and abnormal evolution of argon metastable density in high-density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; You, S. J.

    2015-05-01

    A controversial problem on the evolution of Ar metastable density as a function of electron density (increasing trend versus decreasing trend) was resolved by discovering the anomalous evolution of the argon metastable density with increasing electron density (discharge power), including both trends of the metastable density [Daltrini et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Later, by virtue of an adequate physical explanation based on a simple global model, both evolutions of the metastable density were comprehensively understood as part of the abnormal evolution occurring at low- and high-density regimes, respectively, and thus the physics behind the metastable evolution has seemed to be clearly disclosed. In this study, however, a remarkable result for the metastable density behavior with increasing electron density was observed: even in the same electron density regime, there are both normal and abnormal evolutions of metastable-state density with electron density depending on the measurement position: The metastable density increases with increasing electron density at a position far from the inductively coupled plasma antenna but decreases at a position close to the antenna. The effect of electron temperature, which is spatially nonuniform in the plasma, on the electron population and depopulation processes of Argon metastable atoms with increasing electron density is a clue to understanding the results. The calculated results of the global model, including multistep ionization for the argon metastable state and measured electron temperature, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  3. Gene expression of anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins in malignant and normal plasma cells

    PubMed Central

    Jourdan, Michel; Rème, Thierry; Goldschmidt, Harmut; Fiol, Geneviève; Pantesco, Véronique; De Vos, John; Rossi, Jean-François; Hose, Dirk; Klein, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Summary Survival of malignant plasma cells is a key event in disease occurrence, progression and chemoresistance. Using DNA-microarrays, we analysed the expression of genes coding for 58 proteins linked with extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, caspases and inhibitor of apoptosis proteins. We considered 6 memory B cells (MBC), 7 plasmablasts (PPC), 7 bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC) and purified myeloma cells (MMC) from 92 newly-diagnosed patients. 40 out of the 58 probe sets make it possible to separate MBC, PPC and BMPC in 3 homogeneous clusters, characterized by an elevated expression of TNFRSF10A, TNFRSF10B, BCL2A1, CASP8, CASP9 and PMAIP1 genes for MBC, of FAS, FADD, AIFM1, BIRC5, CASP2, CASP3 and CASP6 for PPC and of BCL2, MCL1, BID, BIRC3 and XIAP for BMPC. Thus, B cell differentiation is associated in change of expression of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes. Regarding MMC, the major finding is TNFSF10 upregulation in MMC that might be counteracted by a high osteoprotegerin production by BM stromal cells and a decreased expression of FAS, APAF1 and BNIP3 compared to normal BMPC. Out of the 40 genes, CASP2 and BIRC5 expression in MMC had adverse prognosis in 2 independent series of previously-untreated patients. PMID:19183193

  4. Proliferative activity of benign human prostate, prostatic adenocarcinoma and seminal vesicle evaluated by thymidine labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.; Sufrin, G.; Martin, S.A.

    1982-12-01

    The thymidine labeling index (TLI) was measured in vitro in the epithelium and stroma of benign prostate glands and seminal vesicles and in the epithelium of prostatic adenocarcinomas. The mean epithelial TLI of normal peripheral (posterior) prostatic zone was 0.12 per cent, and that of the normal central (deep) zone was 0.11 per cent. Mean normal stromal TLI's were 0.08 per cent and 0.06 per cent, respectively. The mean TLI of epithelium in nodular hyperplasia was 0.31 per cent, which differs significantly from normal epithelium, and the mean stromal TLI was also increased. The mean TLI of prostatic adenocarcinomas was 0.90 per cent (range 0.14 to 3.90 per cent) which was significantly higher than for either normal epithelium or epithelium of nodular hyperplasia. Trends of increasing TLI with increasing histologic grades and increasing nuclear size and numbers of nucleoli were not significant. The data support participation of both epithelial and stromal proliferation in nodular hyperplasia, and indicate a low basal proliferative rate in normal prostatic glands. The low TLI's of prostatic adenocarcinomas relative to other malignancies are consistent with their frequently slowly progressive course. The very low proliferative rate of seminal vesicular epithelium may account for the rarity of seminal vesicular carcinomas.

  5. Proliferative activity of benign human prostate, prostatic adenocarcinoma and seminal vesicle evaluated by thymidine labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.; Sufrin, G.; Martin, S.A.

    1982-12-01

    The thymidine labeling index (TLI) was measured in vitro in the epithelium and stroma of benign prostate glands and seminal vesicles and in the epithelium of prostatic adenocarcinomas. The mean epithelial TLI of normal peripheral (posterior) prostatic zone was 0.12 percent, and that of the normal central (deep) zone was 0.11 percent. Mean normal stromal TLI's were 0.08 percent and 0.06 percent, respectively. The mean TLI of epithelium in nodular hyperplasia was 0.31 percent, which differs significantly from normal epithelium (p less than 0.05), and the mean stromal TLI was also increased (0.16 percent, p less than 0.1). The mean TLI of prostatic adenocarcinomas was 0.90 percent (range 0.14 to 3.90 percent) which was significantly higher than for either normal epithelium (p less than 0.001) or epithelium of nodular hyperplasia (p less than 0.05). Trends of increasing TLI with increasing histologic grades and increasing nuclear size and numbers of nucleoli were not significant. The data support participation of both epithelial and stromal proliferation in nodular hyperplasia, and indicate a low basal proliferative rate in normal prostatic glands. The low TLI's of prostatic adenocarcinomas relative to other malignancies are consistent with their frequently slowly progressive course. The very low proliferative rate of seminal vesicular epithelium (mean TLI 0.02 percent) may account for the rarity of seminal vesicular carcinomas.

  6. Tactic-specific differences in seminal fluid influence sperm performance

    PubMed Central

    Locatello, Lisa; Poli, Federica; Rasotto, Maria B.

    2013-01-01

    Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that of rivals. As a consequence males may be expected to allocate their investment in both sperm and seminal fluid in relation to the potential level of competition. Grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) is an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics, where sperm competition risk varies according to the tactic adopted. Here, we experimentally manipulated grass goby ejaculates by separately combining sperm and seminal fluid from territorial and sneaker males. While sperm of sneaker and territorial males did not differ in their performance when they interacted with their own seminal fluid only, sperm of sneakers increased their velocity and fertilization rate in the presence of territorial males' seminal fluid. By contrast, sneaker males' seminal fluid had a detrimental effect on the performance of territorial males' sperm. Sperm velocity was unaffected by the seminal fluid of males employing the same tactic, suggesting that seminal fluid's effect on rival-tactic sperm is not based on a self/non-self recognition mechanism. Our findings show that cross interactions of sperm and seminal fluid may influence the fertilization success of competing ejaculates with males investing in both sperm and seminal fluid in response to sperm competition risk. PMID:23363633

  7. Purification and Characterization of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein1 Phosphoform Found in Normal Plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MELISSA WESTWOOD; J MARTIN GIBSON; ANNE WHITE

    2010-01-01

    Our previous work has shown that, in the normal circulation, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) is present as asinglehighlyphosphorylatedspecies.Inthisstudy,wehavepurified this previously uncharacterized isoform of IGFBP-1 to determine its ligand-binding affinity and the potential significance of highly phos- phorylated IGFBP-1. Immunoaffinity chromatography was used to isolate IGFBP-1 from normal human plasma and from human hep- atoma (Hep G2) cell medium as

  8. TRY-5 is a sperm-activating protease in Caenorhabditis elegans seminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joseph R; Stanfield, Gillian M

    2011-11-01

    Seminal fluid proteins have been shown to play important roles in male reproductive success, but the mechanisms for this regulation remain largely unknown. In Caenorhabditis elegans, sperm differentiate from immature spermatids into mature, motile spermatozoa during a process termed sperm activation. For C. elegans males, sperm activation occurs during insemination of the hermaphrodite and is thought to be mediated by seminal fluid, but the molecular nature of this activity has not been previously identified. Here we show that TRY-5 is a seminal fluid protease that is required in C. elegans for male-mediated sperm activation. We observed that TRY-5::GFP is expressed in the male somatic gonad and is transferred along with sperm to hermaphrodites during mating. In the absence of TRY-5, male seminal fluid loses its potency to transactivate hermaphrodite sperm. However, TRY-5 is not required for either hermaphrodite or male fertility, suggesting that hermaphrodite sperm are normally activated by a distinct hermaphrodite-specific activator to which male sperm are also competent to respond. Within males, TRY-5::GFP localization within the seminal vesicle is antagonized by the protease inhibitor SWM-1. Together, these data suggest that TRY-5 functions as an extracellular activator of C. elegans sperm. The presence of TRY-5 within the seminal fluid couples the timing of sperm activation to that of transfer of sperm into the hermaphrodite uterus, where motility must be rapidly acquired. Our results provide insight into how C. elegans has adopted sex-specific regulation of sperm motility to accommodate its male-hermaphrodite mode of reproduction. PMID:22125495

  9. TRY-5 Is a Sperm-Activating Protease in Caenorhabditis elegans Seminal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joseph R.; Stanfield, Gillian M.

    2011-01-01

    Seminal fluid proteins have been shown to play important roles in male reproductive success, but the mechanisms for this regulation remain largely unknown. In Caenorhabditis elegans, sperm differentiate from immature spermatids into mature, motile spermatozoa during a process termed sperm activation. For C. elegans males, sperm activation occurs during insemination of the hermaphrodite and is thought to be mediated by seminal fluid, but the molecular nature of this activity has not been previously identified. Here we show that TRY-5 is a seminal fluid protease that is required in C. elegans for male-mediated sperm activation. We observed that TRY-5::GFP is expressed in the male somatic gonad and is transferred along with sperm to hermaphrodites during mating. In the absence of TRY-5, male seminal fluid loses its potency to transactivate hermaphrodite sperm. However, TRY-5 is not required for either hermaphrodite or male fertility, suggesting that hermaphrodite sperm are normally activated by a distinct hermaphrodite-specific activator to which male sperm are also competent to respond. Within males, TRY-5::GFP localization within the seminal vesicle is antagonized by the protease inhibitor SWM-1. Together, these data suggest that TRY-5 functions as an extracellular activator of C. elegans sperm. The presence of TRY-5 within the seminal fluid couples the timing of sperm activation to that of transfer of sperm into the hermaphrodite uterus, where motility must be rapidly acquired. Our results provide insight into how C. elegans has adopted sex-specific regulation of sperm motility to accommodate its male-hermaphrodite mode of reproduction. PMID:22125495

  10. Ultrastructure of spermatozoa in the seminal receptacle of the liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus (Rivolta, 1884).

    PubMed

    Zhukova, Mariya V; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A; Kiseleva, Elena

    2014-03-01

    The spermatozoon ultrastructure in the seminal receptacle of the liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus (Digenea, Opisthorchiidae), the agent of human opisthorchiasis endemic to Russia and Eastern Europe, was examined. The bean-shaped seminal receptacle of O. felineus has a wall consisting of epithelial and muscle layers. Mature spermatozoa are located in the interior of the seminal receptacle, whereas vacuoles containing degenerating spermatozoa are detectable at the periphery. The mature spermatozoon of O. felineus has two axonemes of a 9 + "1" pattern, a nucleus, two mitochondria, a lamellar body, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules and an external ornamentation of the plasma membrane in the anterior area of the sperm. The lamellar body is likely to be the third mitochondrion of a small size. The cytoplasm of the spermatozoon is filled with numerous electron-dense granules of storage polysaccharides. Additionally, the ultrastructural characteristics of the seminal receptacle and spermatozoa of O. felineus were compared to available published data on other trematode species. The functional roles of the observed structures of this spermatozoon are discussed. PMID:24452915

  11. Intercorrelations among plasma high density lipoprotein, obesity and triglycerides in a normal population

    SciTech Connect

    Albrink, M.J. (West Virgina Unov., Morgantown); Krauss, R.M.; Lindgren, F.T.; von der Groeben, J.; Pan, S.; Wood, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    The interrelationships among fatness measures, plasma triglycerides and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were examined in 131 normal adult subjects: 38 men aged 27 to 46, 50 men aged 47 to 66, 29 women aged 27 to 46 and 24 women aged 47 to 66. None of the women were taking estrogens or oral contraceptive medication. The HDL concentration was subdivided into HDL/sub 2b/, HDL/sub 2a/ and HDL by a computerized fitting of the total schileren pattern to reference schlieren patterns. Anthropometric measures employed included skinfolds at 3 sites, 2 weight/height indices and 2 girth measurements. A high correlation was found among the various fatness measures. These measures were negatively correlated with total HDL, reflecting the negative correlation between fatness measures and HDL/sub 2/ (as the sum of HDL/sub 2a/ and /sub 2b/). Fatness measures showed no relationship to HDL/sub 3/. There was also an inverse correlation between triglyceride concentration and HDL/sub 2/. No particular fatness measure was better than any other for demonstrating the inverse correlation with HDL but multiple correlations using all of the measures of obesity improved the correlations. Partial correlations controlling for fatness did not reduce any of the significnt correlations between triglycerides and HDL/sub 2/ to insignificance. The weak correlation between fatness and triglycerides was reduced to insigifnicance when controlled for HDL/sub 2/.

  12. Plasma membrane cholesterol: a possible barrier to intracellular oxygen in normal and mutant CHO cells defective in cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nadeem; Shen, Jiangang; Chang, Ta Yuan; Chang, Catherine C; Fung, Peter C W; Grinberg, Oleg; Demidenko, Eugene; Swartz, Harold

    2003-01-14

    The effect of the cholesterol content of the plasma membrane on the intracellular concentration of oxygen in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and their mutants was investigated by EPR oximetry. Total and free cholesterol content was significantly higher in 25 RA CHO cells as compared to wild-type and M 19 CHO cells, with most of the free cholesterol in normal and mutant CHO cells located in the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane cholesterol content also was altered by various biochemical means, and the effect on the oxygen gradient was studied. Comparing the three cell lines, the gradient was larger with increased content of cholesterol in the plasma cell membrane. This result also is supported by an additional increase in the oxygen gradients with the incorporation of additional cholesterol in the plasma membrane and a decrease in the oxygen gradient when the cholesterol was depleted from the plasma membrane. The results indicate that the concentration of cholesterol in the plasma membrane can be an important factor for the magnitude of the oxygen gradient observed across the cell membrane. PMID:12515536

  13. The one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma (OAUGDP) as a classical normal glow discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Gadri; D. M. Sherman; Zhiyu Chen; F. Karakaya; J. R. Roth

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. The one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma (OAUGDP) operating in air and other gases, has been recently developed at the UTK Plasma Sciences Laboratory and is proprietary to the University of Tennessee. The plasma is driven at low RF frequency, on the order of a few kilohertz, and is formed in a relatively large

  14. Age-related change in plasma concentration of 7B2(a novel pituitary polypeptide) in normal humans

    SciTech Connect

    Natori, S.; Iguchi, H.; Nawata, H.; Kato, K.; Ibayashi, H.; Chretian, M.

    1987-08-24

    Using a specific radioimmunoassay, the authors measured concentrations of plasma 7B2(a novel pituitary polypeptide) immunoreactivity(7B2-IR) in normal human subjects, patients with chronic renal failure and those with liver cirrhosis. Mean(+/-SEM) values of plasma 7B2-IR in normal healthy men and women were 55.8 +/- 1.2 pg/ml (n=266) and 56.1 +/- 0.9 pg/ml (n = 408), respectively. The elevation of plasma 7B2-IR showed a relationship with age of the subjects, in both men(r=0.39, t = 6.86, p < 0.001) and women (r=0.35, t=7.44, p < 0.001). Plasma 7B2-IR concentrations were elevated in patients with chronic renal failure (536 +/- 45 pg/ml, Mean +/- SEM, n = 10) as well as those in liver cirrhosis (95 +/- 10 pg/ml, Mean +/- SEM, n = 15) compared to values in normal subjects, suggesting that 7B2 is mainly eliminated through the kidney and is partly metabolized in the liver. 10 references, 4 figures.

  15. Insect Seminal Fluid Proteins: Identification and Function

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Frank W.; Sirot, Laura K.; LaFlamme, Brooke A.; Rubinstein, C. Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2014-01-01

    Seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) produced in reproductive tract tissues of male insects and transferred to females during mating induce numerous physiological and behavioral post-mating changes in females. These changes include decreasing receptivity to re-mating, affecting sperm storage parameters, increasing egg production, modulating sperm competition, feeding behaviors, and mating plug formation. In addition, SFPs also have anti-microbial functions and induce expression of anti-microbial peptides in at least some insects. Here, we review recent identification of insect SFPs and discuss the multiple roles these proteins play in the post-mating processes of female insects. PMID:20868282

  16. Endogenous lithium and boron red cell-plasma ratios: normal subjects versus bipolar patients not on lithium therapy.

    PubMed

    Clarke, W Brian; Guscott, Richard; Downing, R Gregory; Lindstrom, Richard M

    2004-02-01

    This study was undertaken to compare endogenous lithium concentrations in human blood and its components from normal donors versus bipolar patients. The patients were not on lithium therapy at the time that the blood samples were donated and had not received any lithium therapy for at least 2 yr. Blood components were separated by centrifugation. The analytical method for lithium as developed in this laboratory consists of thermal-neutron activation of freeze-dried samples. 3H is produced via the reaction 6Li + n = 3H + 4He, and high-sensitivity rare gas mass spectrometry is used to measure 3He formed from beta-decay of 3H. Boron measurements are made concurrently using 4He from the reaction 10B + n = 4He + 7Li. Seven normal donors and seven patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder participated in this study. Measurements of lithium and boron were made in whole blood, plasma, and red cells. Red cell-plasma ratios R(Li) and R(B) were calculated after corrections were made for trapped plasma in the red cells. The results show that bipolar patients may have higher concentrations of lithium in blood, plasma, and red cells (p = 0.08, 0.02, and 0.02, respectively) and may have higher R(Li) values than normal donors (p = 0.01). No evidence was found for bipolar-normal differences in these four parameters for boron. Although our sample size is admittedly very small, the results clearly show that the endogenous red cell ratio R(Li) and plasma or red cell lithium concentrations may become useful diagnostic indicators for bipolar illness if the analytical methods are further developed. PMID:14985621

  17. Comparison between the effects of inhaled isoprenaline and fenoterol on plasma cyclic AMP and heart rate in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Fairfax, A J; Rehahn, M; Jones, D; O'Malley, B

    1984-01-01

    The time course of changes in plasma cyclic AMP, heart rate and bronchial tone after inhalation of fenoterol or isoprenaline from a dose-metered aerosol are reported in a group of normal subjects. After isoprenaline, plasma cyclic AMP increased rapidly reaching a peak by 10 min and returned to basal levels within 60 min. A rapid, transient rise in heart rate occurred that was maximal by 5 min and returned to a basal level by 45 min. After fenoterol, the changes in cyclic AMP and heart rate were of much longer duration. The rise in plasma cyclic AMP was slower in onset and of greater magnitude than for isoprenaline, reaching a peak by 20 min and remaining above basal level for more than 6 h. The maximum increase in heart rate after fenoterol was less than that observed with isoprenaline but an elevated rate persisted for 4 h after inhalation of fenoterol. Fenoterol is known to have a longer duration of action as a bronchodilator in comparison with isoprenaline. The prolonged rise in plasma cyclic AMP in normal subjects given inhaled fenoterol may reflect this long duration of action. The concomitant rise in heart rate, however, suggests that the duration of plasma cyclic AMP response may in part be due to the systemic effect of the fraction of inhaled fenoterol known to be absorbed via the buccal and intestinal routes. PMID:6322828

  18. Coefficient of Friction Measured from Nano- to Macro-Normal Loads on Plasma Sprayed Nanostructured Cermet Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, A. K.; Celis, J.-P.; Vardavoulias, M.; Matteazzi, P.

    2014-02-01

    Alumina dispersed FeCuAl-based nanostructured cermet coatings were deposited from nanostructured powders by atmospheric plasma spraying on low carbon steel substrates. Nanostructuring was retained in the deposited coatings which exhibit up to four distinctive phases as revealed by electron microscopy. In this study, the friction behavior of the distinctive phases at nano-normal load scale was investigated alongside their contribution to the overall friction behavior at macro-normal load scale. Friction behavior at nano-normal load scale was investigated by lateral force microscopy, whereas conventional tribometers were used for investigations at micro and macro-normal loads. It appeared that, the friction measured at nano-normal loads on individual phases is dictated by both composition and hardness of the corresponding phases, and thus influences the overall friction behavior of the coatings at macro-normal loads. Moreover, the coefficient of friction at macro-normal loads differs from the one at nano-normal loads, and deviates from Amonton's friction law.

  19. Influence of the normalized ion flux on the constitution of alumina films deposited by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kurapov, Denis; Reiss, Jennifer; Trinh, David H.; Hultman, Lars; Schneider, Jochen M. [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Thin Films Physics Division, Linkoeping University, S-58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Alumina thin films were deposited onto tempered hot working steel substrates from an AlCl{sub 3}-O{sub 2}-Ar-H{sub 2} gas mixture by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The normalized ion flux was varied during deposition through changes in precursor content while keeping the cathode voltage and the total pressure constant. As the precursor content in the total gas mixture was increased from 0.8% to 5.8%, the deposition rate increased 12-fold, while the normalized ion flux decreased by approximately 90%. The constitution, morphology, impurity incorporation, and the elastic properties of the alumina thin films were found to depend on the normalized ion flux. These changes in structure, composition, and properties induced by normalized ion flux may be understood by considering mechanisms related to surface and bulk diffusion.

  20. Inorganic pyrophosphate in plasma in normal persons and in patients with hypophosphatasia, osteogenesis imperfecta, and other disorders of bone

    PubMed Central

    Russell, R. G. G.; Bisaz, S.; Donath, A.; Morgan, D. B.; Fleisch, H.

    1971-01-01

    An isotope dilution method, using 32P-labeled pyrophosphate, has been developed for the measurement of inorganic pyrophosphate (PP1) in human plasma. The specificity of the method was better than 90% as assessed by elution patterns during ion-exchange chromatography, by paper chromatography, and by incubation with inorganic pyrophosphatase. The 99% confidence limits for a single estimation of plasma PP1 was ±13%. There were no differences in plasma PP1 between men and women, but the values in young people (0-15 yr) were slightly higher than in older people. The mean concentration (±SE) of PP1 in the plasma of 73 men and women was 3.50 ±0.11 ?moles/liter (0.217 ±0.007 ?g P/ml) and the normal range (99% limits) was 1.19-5.65 ?moles/liter (0.074-0.350 ?g P/ml). It has been suggested that PP1 may be important in calcium metabolism because PP1 can prevent the precipitation of calcium phosphates in vitro and in vivo, and can slow the rates at which hydroxyapatite crystals grow and dissolve. Plasma PP1 was therefore measured in several disorders of bone. Normal values were found in osteogenesis imperfecta, osteopetrosis, “acute” osteoporosis, and primary hyperparathyroidism. Plasma PP1 was invariably raised in hypophosphatasia. The excess of PP1 in plasma might be the cause of the defective mineralization in hypophosphatasia and the function of alkaline phosphatase in bone may be to act as a pyrophosphatase at sites of calcium deposition. PMID:4324072

  1. Effect of folic acid and zinc sulphate on endocrine parameters and seminal antioxidant level after varicocelectomy.

    PubMed

    Nematollahi-Mahani, S N; Azizollahi, G H; Baneshi, M R; Safari, Z; Azizollahi, S

    2014-04-01

    Varicocele is among the most common problems which may lead to male infertility. Spermatogenesis is impaired as a consequence of this vascular defect, through mechanisms that are not well described. This study aimed to evaluate serum hormonal level (inhibin B, FSH and testosterone) and seminal plasma antioxidant defence levels after folic acid and zinc sulphate administration in varicocelectomised patients. Participants were randomly allocated to four experimental groups. Our randomisation schedule was as follows: zinc sulphate/folic acid, folic acid, zinc sulphate and placebo. The patients underwent varicocelectomy, before which a blood and semen sample were obtained and also three and six months after varicocelectomy for evaluation of blood hormonal level (FSH, testosterone, inhibin B) and seminal oxidative stress status (nitric oxide, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity). Patients in different groups took orally one capsule per day after dinner following varicocelectomy for 6 months. A significant rise in peripheral blood inhibin B and seminal plasma activity was detected in the zinc sulphate/folic acid group after 6 months. The present clinical trial indicates a change in the hormonal status of varicocelectomised patients following long-term administration of zinc sulphate and folic acid. PMID:23356505

  2. Normal reference ranges for biochemical substances relating to renal, hepatic, and bone function in fetal and maternal plasma throughout pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Moniz, C F; Nicolaides, K H; Bamforth, F J; Rodeck, C H

    1985-01-01

    Normal reference ranges for sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphate, total protein, albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and aspartate transaminase were determined from 344 fetal and maternal plasma samples between 15 and 38 weeks' gestation. Pure fetal blood was obtained by fetoscopy in the second trimester and in the third trimester by umbilical cord puncture at delivery. All biochemical substances were measured by continuous flow (SMAC, Technicon) except albumin, which was measured by turbidimetry (CobasBio, Roche). The resulting data were analysed on an AMDAHL 470A computer and reference ranges covering 2.5 to 97.5 percentiles were defined. Analysis of variance was performed to examine the overall effect of gestational age on the analytes measured and on the changes in the fetal compartment relative to the mothers'. A paired t test was performed to examine how these biochemical substances in fetal plasma related to maternal plasma from the same pregnancy. PMID:3988961

  3. ?-Defensin RTD-1 improves insulin action and normalizes plasma glucose and FFA levels in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Tran, Dat; Buchanan, Thomas A; Selsted, Michael E; Youn, Jang H

    2015-07-15

    Inflammation is implicated in metabolic abnormalities in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because ?-defensins have anti-inflammatory activities, we tested whether RTD-1, a ?-defensin, improves metabolic conditions in diet-induced obesity (DIO). DIO was induced by high-fat feeding in obese-prone CD rats from 4 wk of age. Starting at age 10 wk, the DIO rats were treated with saline or RTD-1 for 4 or 8 wk. DIO rats gained more weight than low-fat-fed controls. RTD-1 treatment did not alter body weight or calorie intake in DIO rats. Plasma glucose, FFA, triglyceride (TG), and insulin levels increased in DIO rats; RTD-1 normalized plasma glucose and FFA levels and showed tendencies to lower plasma insulin and TG levels. Hepatic and skeletal muscle TG contents increased in DIO rats; RTD-1 decreased muscle, but not hepatic, TG content. Insulin sensitivity, estimated using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and the glucose clamp technique, decreased in DIO rats, but this change was markedly reversed by RTD-1. RTD-1 had no significant effects on plasma cytokine/chemokine levels or IL-1? and TNF-? expression in liver or adipose tissues. RTD-1 treatment decreased hepatic expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase, suggesting that the effect of RTD-1 on plasma glucose (or insulin action) might be mediated by its effect to decrease hepatic gluconeogenesis. Thus, RTD-1 ameliorated insulin resistance and normalized plasma glucose and FFA levels in DIO rats, supporting the potential of RTD-1 as a novel therapeutic agent for insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, or type 2 diabetes. PMID:25991648

  4. The interaction of atmospheric pressure plasma jets with cancer and normal cells: generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and changes of the cell proliferation and cell cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Tae Hun; Joh, Hea Min; Kim, Sun Ja; Leem, Sun Hee

    2013-09-01

    The possibility of atmospheric pressure plasmas is emerging as a candidate in cancer therapy. The primary role is played by reactive oxygen species (ROS), UV photons, charged particles and electric fields. Among them, intracellular ROS induced by plasma are considered to be the key constituents that induce cellular changes and apoptosis. In this study, the effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on cancer cells (human lung carcinoma cells) and normal cells (embryonic kidney cells and bronchial epithelial cells) were investigated. The plasma treatment was performed under different working gases, applied voltages, gas flow rates, and with and without additive oxygen flow. Using a detection dye, we observed that plasma exposure leads to the increase of the intracellular ROS and that the intracellular ROS production can be controlled by plasma parameters. A significant ROS generation was induced by plasma exposure on cancer cells and the overproduction of ROS contributes to the reduced cell proliferation. Normal cells were observed to be less affected by the plasma-mediated ROS and cell proliferation was less changed. The plasma treatment also resulted in the alteration of the cell cycle that contributes to the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. The selective effect on cancer and normal cells provides a promising prospect of cold plasma as cancer therapy. The possibility of atmospheric pressure plasmas is emerging as a candidate in cancer therapy. The primary role is played by reactive oxygen species (ROS), UV photons, charged particles and electric fields. Among them, intracellular ROS induced by plasma are considered to be the key constituents that induce cellular changes and apoptosis. In this study, the effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on cancer cells (human lung carcinoma cells) and normal cells (embryonic kidney cells and bronchial epithelial cells) were investigated. The plasma treatment was performed under different working gases, applied voltages, gas flow rates, and with and without additive oxygen flow. Using a detection dye, we observed that plasma exposure leads to the increase of the intracellular ROS and that the intracellular ROS production can be controlled by plasma parameters. A significant ROS generation was induced by plasma exposure on cancer cells and the overproduction of ROS contributes to the reduced cell proliferation. Normal cells were observed to be less affected by the plasma-mediated ROS and cell proliferation was less changed. The plasma treatment also resulted in the alteration of the cell cycle that contributes to the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. The selective effect on cancer and normal cells provides a promising prospect of cold plasma as cancer therapy. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea under Contract No. 2012R1A1A2002591 and 2012R1A1A3010213.

  5. Seminal Publications in Electrochemistry and Electroanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Fritz; Inzelt, György; Stojek, Zbigniew

    This compilation of seminal publications in electrochemistry and electroanalysis is neither complete nor are all the listed contributions of the same importance. The authors feel that it might be of interest and very rewarding for people who use electroanalytical methods in the laboratory to go back to the roots and read some of the publications which later initiated strong developments of the science that is presented in this book. Many of the contributions to science cited here became an inherent part of textbooks and common knowledge so that the original work is usually not referred to and access to this information is difficult. The following web pages give access to much more information on the history of electrochemistry and electroanalysis:

  6. 21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...Test Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...Test Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test...

  8. Seminal vesicle production and secretion of growth hormone into seminal fluid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael K. Dyck; Dominic Gagné; Mariette Ouellet; Jean-François Sénéchal; Edith Bélanger; Dan Lacroix; Marc-André Sirard; François Pothier

    1999-01-01

    Production of foreign proteins in the tissues of transgenic animals represents an efficient and economical method of producing therapeutic and pharmaceutical proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that the mouse P12 gene promoter specific to the male accessory sex gland can be used to generate transgenic mice that express human growth hormone (hGH) in their seminal vesicle epithelium. The hGH

  9. Effect of psychological stress on fertility hormones and seminal quality in male partners of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Bhongade, M B; Prasad, S; Jiloha, R C; Ray, P C; Mohapatra, S; Koner, B C

    2015-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of psychological stress on male fertility hormones and seminal quality in male partner of infertile couples. Seventy male partners of infertile couples were evaluated for level of psychological stress using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) questionnaire, serum total testosterone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) by electrochemiluminescence assay and serum GnRH by ELISA. Seminal analysis was performed as per WHO guideline. Nineteen (27%) of them had HADS anxiety and depression score ?8 (abnormal HADS score). The persons having abnormal HADS had lower serum total testosterone, higher serum FSH and LH than those of persons having normal HADS. Serum total testosterone correlated negatively with HADS, but LH and FSH correlated positively. There was no change in GnRH with the change in stress or testosterone levels. Sperm count, motility and morphologically normal spermatozoa were lower in persons having abnormal HADS. Sperm count correlated positively with total testosterone and negatively with FSH and LH. Abnormal sperm motility and morphology were related to lower testosterone and higher LH and FSH levels. Psychological stress primarily lowers serum total testosterone level with secondary rise in serum LH and FSH levels altering seminal quality. Stress management is warranted for male infertility cases. PMID:24673246

  10. Modulation of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase expression in catfish seminal vesicles by thyroid disrupting agents and hormones.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasulu, Gunti; Pavani, Ayinampudi; Sudhakumari, Cheni-Chery; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2013-11-01

    Thyroid hormones play crucial role in several biological processes including reproduction. Disruption of normal thyroid status by environmental contaminants can cause severe impairment in reproductive functions. In our previous study, we reported down-regulation of a protein in seminal vesicular fluid of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus during experimentally induced hyperthyroidism. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis followed by search in sequence database denoted it to be lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (ptgds-b). In the present study, we cloned full-length cDNA of ptgds-b based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence. Surprisingly, Northern blot as well as RT-PCR analysis demonstrated the presence of ptgds-b transcript predominantly in seminal vesicles and developing testis. Further, ptgds-b mRNA significantly decreased in seminal vesicles following L-thyroxine overdose while there was an increased expression of ptgds-b after depletion of thyroid hormone by thiourea and withdrawal of the treatments reverted this effect. Treatment of catfish with human chorionic gonadotropin and estradiol significantly reduced ptgds-b expression. Taken together, we report ptgds-b as a thyroid hormone regulated protein in the seminal vesicles in addition to gonadotropin and estradiol. Further studies might explain the exclusive presence of ptgds-b in seminal vesicles and developing testis yet present data evaluated it as a putative biomarker for thyroid hormone disruption. PMID:23973827

  11. Antibodies to factor VIII in plasma of patients with hemophilia A and normal subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Batlle; E. Gömez; E. Rendal; J. Torea; E. Lourés; M. Couselo; P. Vila; C. Sedano; X. Tusell; M. Magallönö; M. Quintana; R. González-Boullosa; M. F. Löpez-Fernández

    1996-01-01

    Non-neutralizing factor VIII (FVIII) antibodies (FVIII-Ab) in hemophilia A may be associated with an abnormal clinical response\\u000a to FVIII concentrates. Patients with FVIII inhibitors may develop noncoagulation FVIII-Ab after the induction of immunotolerance.\\u000a Natural FVIII-Ab may be detected in the plasma of some healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence\\u000a of FVIII-Ab in the plasma

  12. Plasma homocysteine and DNA damage profiles in normal and obese subjects in the Pakistani population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shazia A. Bukhari; Muhammad I. Rajoka; Saeed A. Nagra; Zia Ur Rehman

    2010-01-01

    Dependence of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and DNA damage profiles on melanodialdehyde (MDA), oxidative stress, liver\\u000a function tests (LFT), and lipids was studied in non-obese and obese subjects in the Pakistani population. Development of obesity\\u000a is influenced by both genetic, biochemical and environmental factors. Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and DNA damage profiles play\\u000a a pivotal role in its progression. We studied

  13. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and change of cell viability induced by atmospheric pressure plasma in normal and cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ja Kim, Sun; Min Joh, Hea; Chung, T. H.

    2013-10-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on cancer cells (human lung carcinoma cells) and normal cells (embryonic kidney cells and bronchial epithelial cells) were investigated. Using a detection dye, the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found to be increased in plasma-treated cells compared to non-treated and gas flow-treated cells. A significant overproduction of ROS and a reduction in cell viability were induced by plasma exposure on cancer cells. Normal cells were observed to be less affected by the plasma-mediated ROS, and cell viability was less changed. The selective effect on cancer and normal cells provides a promising prospect of cold plasma as a cancer therapy.

  14. An IgG-Fc binding protein in seminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Witkin, S S; Richards, J M; Bongiovanni, A M; Zelikovsky, G

    1983-01-01

    Human seminal fluid, at low dilutions, prevented the binding of aggregated human IgG (AHG) to bull spermatozoa. Seminal fluids from vasectomized men were also inhibitory. Preincubation of the seminal fluid with the spermatozoa prior to washing and addition to AHG had no inhibitory effect, indicating that the fluid component was reacting directly with AHG. Human seminal fluid was fractionated by gel exclusion chromatography on Ultrogel AcA-34, and AHG inhibitory activity was found in fractions corresponding to a molecular weight of 94,000. The activity in this fraction was stable to boiling for 10 min. It was sensitive to pronase but resistant to glycosidase, phospholipase C, neuraminidase, ribonuclease, and deoxyribonuclease, indicating that it was a protein. The gel filtration fraction readily bound recrystallized Fc and AHG; IgG was bound to a lesser extent, and no reactivity was observed with F(ab')2, IgA, or IgM. Thus, the seminal fluid fraction appeared to specifically react with the Fc portion of IgG. The seminal fluid Fc-binding protein was isolated by affinity chromatography on Fc coupled to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. Scatchard analysis revealed that the binding of the seminal fluid Fc-binding protein to recrystallized Fc is reversible and had a Kd of approximately 3 x 10(-6) M. PMID:6222660

  15. Biochemistry of seminal secretions of the crab Scylla serrata with reference to sperm metabolism and storage in the female.

    PubMed

    Jeyalectumie, C; Subramoniam, T

    1991-09-01

    Biochemical studies on the male reproductive tissues and seminal secretions have been made with reference to sperm metabolism and different stages of maturity in the crab Scylla serrata. The results reveal that the seminal plasma and spermatophores are rich in protein, carbohydrate, and lipid. In general, organic components of spermatophores are considerably higher than those of seminal plasma. Enzyme studies show that the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity is very low, whereas fumarate reductase (FR) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) exhibit high activity. Electrophoretic studies on LDH show that, in addition to the occurrence of a sperm-specific fraction, LDHx, the M-type subunits are predominant in the mature spermatophores. These results from enzyme studies suggest that sperm metabolism is mainly anaerobic, utilizing the carbohydrates as substrates. The results for maturational changes reveal that the male reproductive tissues and their secretions contain lesser quantity of organic components in the immature crabs; as the maturity proceeds, there is not only concentration of organic substances but also an increase in the size of spermatophores. The concentration of biochemical constituents is highest in the proximal vas deferens (PVD), suggesting that the granular seminal plasma as well as the sperm-agglutinating substance and spermatophoric wall are secreted in this region. The spermatheca of the unmated female crabs are poor in organic constituents. After mating, their contents are enriched by organic substances derived from contributions of the seminal substances. During sperm storage in the spermatheca, only the carbohydrates decline steeply. A low activity of SDH, but a moderate level of LDH and a high level of FR activity, is recorded in the spermathecal content of mated crabs, providing further evidence for anaerobic metabolism of sperm during storage in female. A sharp fall in the stored carbohydrates constitutes further evidence in this regard. PMID:1781987

  16. A novel extreme ultraviolet four channels normal incidence imaging system for plasma diagnostics of Z-pinch facility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Mu, Baozhong; Zhu, Jingtao; Wang, Ling; Yi, Shengzhen; Li, Wenbin; Wang, Zhanshan; Qin, Yi; Xu, Zeping; Xu, Rongkun; Li, Zhenghong

    2013-07-01

    A novel EUV four channels normal incidence imaging system for plasma diagnostics of Z-pinch facility was presented in this paper, which consists of four concave mirrors and one convex mirror used for focusing an object onto four different positions with about 30 ?m resolution on the same image plane. In addition, this imaging system can work at the energies of 50 eV, 95 eV, 150 eV, and broadband of 50-100 eV by using different multilayer films deposited on the concave and convex mirrors. This instrument, combined with framing camera, can achieve the power of two-dimensional spatial and temporal resolution, as well as the ability to imaging the plasma at the specific temperature. In the paper, the four channels microscope centering at multi-energies was developed. PMID:23902074

  17. Plasma sphingolipids as potential indicators of hepatic necroinflammation in patients with chronic hepatitis C and normal alanine aminotransferase level.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Feng; Qu, Feng; Zheng, Su-Jun; Ren, Jin-Yu; Wu, Hui-Li; Liu, Mei; Liu, Hui; Ren, Feng; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Duan, Zhong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimation of hepatic necroinflammation caused by chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is crucial for prediction of prognosis and design of therapeutic strategy, which is particularly true for CHC patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Recent studies have shown that sphingolipids have a close relationship with hepatitis C virus infection. The present study aimed to identify plasma sphingolipids related to hepatic necroinflammation. We included 120 treatment-naïve CHC patients and 64/120 had normal ALT levels (<40 U/L). CHC patients who underwent liver biopsies were subjected to Scheuer scoring analysis for scope of hepatic inflammation. Plasma sphingolipids were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Our results showed 44 plasma sphingolipids were detected altogether. Of all detected sphingolipids, hexosylceramide (HexCer) (d18?1/22?0) and HexCer (d18?1/24?0) showed a significant difference among G0/G1, G2, and G3/G4 (P<0.05). For identifying hepatic necroinflammation (G?2), after adjusting other factors, the odds ratio (OR) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) reached 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.02). Furthermore, the area under the curve (AUC) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was 0.7 (P?=?0.01) and approached that of ALT (AUC?=?0.78). However, in CHC patients with normal ALT, HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was an independent factor (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03) to identify the hepatic necroinflammation (G?2). HexCer (d18?1/22?0) not only showed the largest AUC (0.78, P?=?0.001), but also exhibited the highest specificity of all indicators. These results indicate that plasma HexCer (d18?1/22?0) is a potential indicator to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation in CHC patients. For CHC with normal ALT, the ability of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation might be superior to conventional serum indicators. PMID:24736528

  18. Effects of repeated doses of pseudoephedrine on blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in normal subjects and in patients with phaeochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Gordon, R D; Ballantine, D M; Bachmann, A W

    1992-05-01

    1. Increases in blood pressure (BP) and in plasma noradrenaline concentration (NA) were observed after two doses of a non-prescription decongestant containing pseudoephedrine (PE) in two of three patients with phaeochromocytoma, before but not after removal of the tumour. The pressor response was terminated by oral phenoxybenzamine, and modified by prior exposure to this drug. 2. In eight normal subjects administration of the same two doses prevented falls in BP and in NA usually seen with prolonged recumbency, but neither BP nor NA increased. However, a pressor response was observed in a normal subject with a strong family history of hypertension. 3. Exposure to PE in non-prescription decongestants is not without risk in hypertension. PMID:1521358

  19. Benefits of normalizing plasma phenylalanine: Impact on behaviour and health. A case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Williams

    1998-01-01

    An elderly man with mental retardation who had never received dietary treatment for his phenylketonuria was placed on a phenylalanine-restricted diet. Social skills and walking gait improved and a new interest in the objects in his environment developed spontaneously. A 2-year analysis of diet, blood plasma phenylalanine levels and behavioural state indicated that small differences in phenylalanine intake impacted his

  20. Quantum Effects in Plasma Dielectric Response: Plasmons and Shielding in Normal Systems and Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horing, Norman J. M.

    A brief review of quantum plasma theory and phenomenology in solid-state plasmas is presented here, with attention to dynamic and nonlocal features of dielectric response. Focussing on the random-phase approximation, we discuss the RPA screening and dielectric functions in three, two, and one dimensions corresponding to bulk, quantum well, and quantum wire plasmas, respectively, taking care to distinguish quantum effects from classical ones mandated by the correspondence principle. In particular, we exhibit plasmon dispersion, damping, and static shielding in these various dimensionalities. We also review Landau-quantized magnetoplasma phenomenology, with emphasis on de Haas-van Alphen oscillatory features in intermediate strength magnetic fields and the quantum strong field limit in which only the lowest Landau eigenstate is populated. Graphene is an exceptionally device-friendly material, with a massless relativistic Dirac energy spectrum for electrons and holes. We exhibit its RPA dynamic, nonlocal dielectric function in detail, discussing Graphene plasmons and electromagnetic modes in the THz range, self-energy, fast particle energy loss spectroscopy, atom/van der Waals interaction, and static shielding of impurity scatterers limiting dc transport in Graphene.

  1. A plant plasma membrane Ca2+ pump is required for normal pollen tube growth and fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Schiøtt, Morten; Romanowsky, Shawn M.; Bækgaard, Lone; Jakobsen, Mia Kyed; Palmgren, Michael G.; Harper, Jeffrey F.

    2004-01-01

    Ca2+ signals are thought to play important roles in plant growth and development, including key aspects of pollen tube growth and fertilization. The dynamics of a Ca2+ signal are largely controlled by influx (through channels) and efflux (through pumps and antiporters). The Arabidopsis genome encodes 14 Ca2+ pumps, 10 of which belong to a family of autoinhibited Ca2+ ATPases (ACA) that are predicted to be activated by Ca2+/calmodulin. Here, we show that isoform ACA9 is expressed primarily in pollen and localized to the plasma membrane. Three independent T-DNA [portion of the Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid that is transferred to plant cells] gene disruptions of ACA9 were found to result in partial male sterility. Complementation was observed by using a ACA9-yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) fusion that displayed plasma membrane localization. Mutant aca9 pollen displayed a reduced growth potential and a high frequency of aborted fertilization, resulting in a >80% reduction in seed set. These findings identify a plasma membrane Ca2+ transporter as a key regulator of pollen development and fertilization in flowering plants. PMID:15197266

  2. Ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy of blood plasma in the discrimination of cancer from normal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Madhuri; P. Aruna; M. I. Summiya Bibi; V. S. Gowri; D. Koteeswaran; S. Ganesan

    1997-01-01

    Native fluorescence spectroscopy of biomolecules has emerged as an intrinsic parameter in the characterization of the physiological state and the discrimination of pathological from normal conditions of cells and tissues. The key fluorescing biomolecules inc ells and tissues ar tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine, collagen, elastin, NADH, flavin and porphyrin. Extensive studies were made on tissues of various origin to discriminate the

  3. Identification of multiple subclasses of plasma low density lipoproteins in normal humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald M. Krauss; David J. Burke

    1982-01-01

    Density gradient ultracentrifugation of low density lipoproteins (LDL) from 12 normal subjects showed multiple, distinct isopycnic bands. Each band could be assigend to one of four density intervals and the boundaries of these intervals were consistent among all the subjects. Analytic ultracentrifuge flotation (S\\/sub f\\/°) rates were assigned to the four density intervals, and there was a strong correlation between

  4. Myelomatous plasma cells display an aberrant gene expression pattern similar to that observed in normal memory B cells

    PubMed Central

    Báez, Alicia; Piruat, José I; Caballero-Velázquez, Teresa; Sánchez-Abarca, Luís I; Álvarez-Laderas, Isabel; Barbado, M Victoria; García-Guerrero, Estefanía; Millán-Uclés, África; Martín-Sánchez, Jesús; Medrano, Mayte; Pérez-Simón, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Memory B cells (MBCs) remain in a quiescent state for years, expressing pro-survival and anti-apoptotic factors while repressing cell proliferation and activation genes. During their differentiation into plasma cells (PCs), their expression pattern is reversed, with a higher expression of genes related to cell proliferation and activation, and a lower expression of pro-survival genes. To determine whether myelomatous PCs (mPCs) share characteristics with normal PCs and MBCs and to identify genes involved in the pathophysiology of multiple myeloma (MM), we compared gene expression patterns in these three cell sub-types. We observed that mPCs had features intermediate between those of MBCs and normal PCs, and identified 3455 genes differentially expressed in mPCs relative to normal PCs but with a similar expression pattern to that in MBCs. Most of these genes are involved in cell death and survival, cell growth and proliferation and protein synthesis. According to our findings, mPCs have a gene expression pattern closer to a MBC than a PC with a high expression of genes involved in cell survival. These genes should be physiologically inactivated in the transit from MBC to PC, but remain overexpressed in mPCs and thus may play a role in the pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:25628947

  5. 4D tracking of clinical seminal samples for quantitative characterization of motility parameters

    PubMed Central

    Di Caprio, Giuseppe; El Mallahi, Ahmed; Ferraro, Pietro; Dale, Roberta; Coppola, Gianfranco; Dale, Brian; Coppola, Giuseppe; Dubois, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of a digital holographic microscope, with partial spatial coherent illumination, for the automated detection and tracking of spermatozoa. This in vitro technique for the analysis of quantitative parameters is useful for assessment of semen quality. In fact, thanks to the capabilities of digital holography, the developed algorithm allows us to resolve in-focus amplitude and phase maps of the cells under study, independently of focal plane of the sample image. We have characterized cell motility on clinical samples of seminal fluid. In particular, anomalous sperm cells were characterized and the quantitative motility parameters were compared to those of normal sperm. PMID:24688806

  6. Quantitation of virus-induced (mlr) and normal (thy.1.2) Cell surface antigens in isolated plasma membranes and the extracellular ascites fluid of mouse leukemia cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Van Blitterswijk; P. Emmelot; J. Hilgers; D. Kamlag; C. A. Feltkamp

    1975-01-01

    SUMMARY Plasma membranes were isolated by two methods from mouse leukemia cells containing mammary tumor virus-induced (MLr) and normal (Thy.l.2) antigens on their surfaces. A number of chemical components, enzymic activities, and the antigenic contents were determined in subcellular fractions and found to be specifically concen- trated in the plasma membrane fractions. The major part of the cellular MLr, in

  7. Differential expression of SLAMS and other modulatory molecules by human plasma cells during normal maturation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bayona, Beatriz; Ramos-Amaya, Ana; Brieva, José A

    2011-01-30

    Plasma cells (PCs) are specialized in antibody (Ab) production and they are, therefore, responsible for maintaining humoral immune responses. The human PC compartment is heterogeneous. PCs from inductive secondary lymphoid organs and from peripheral blood (PB) show less capability for prolonged survival and Ab production than bone marrow (BM) PCs, a pool consisting of fully mature cells. The HLDA9 workshop has allowed the use of labeled-monoclonal Abs (moAbs) recognizing a variety of recently identified lymphocyte modulatory surface receptors. In this study, flow cytometry analysis has been used to define the presence of these receptors on human PCs obtained from human tonsil (as an example of inductive organ), from PB and from BM. It was found that human PCs commonly expressed SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), SLAMF3 (CD229), SLAMF6 (CD352) and SLAMF7 (CD319), but not SLAMF4 (CD244). In addition, PCs distinctively showed a low level of SLAMF5 (CD84) and a very high level of SLAMF7 expression in comparison with earlier stages of B cell maturation. All PC subsets exhibited a similar pattern of expression of SLAMF receptors suggesting a stage-dependent role for these proteins. In addition, most circulating PCs clearly expressed TNFRSF14 (CD270), BTLA (CD272), B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86), and a substantial fraction of them were also positive for TNFRSF18 (CD357), FCRL1 (CD307a) and LAIR-1 (CD305). In contrast, tonsil and BM PCs only exhibited partial expression of TNFRSF14 and B7-2, a pattern of molecular expression similar to that detected on germinal center (GC) B cells. Present results indicate that human PCs exhibit a common pattern of SLAMF proteins, but differ in the rest of the receptors examined; this difference might be associated with their distinctive homing and functional requirements. PMID:20923684

  8. Functional significance of seminal receptacle length in Drosophila melanogaster

    E-print Network

    Pitnick, Scott

    ; development time; longevity; remating; sexual conflict; sexual selection; sperm competition. Abstract Despite for longer or shorter seminal receptacles, we identify relationships between the length of this primary sperm because of developmental time costs and a correlated reduction in longevity of mated females. This latter

  9. Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, S.; Tanaka, K.; Kumagae, M.; Takeda, F.; Morio, K.; Kogure, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Watabe, T.; Miyabe, S.

    1988-01-01

    SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 ..mu..g of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values.

  10. Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenic purpura (AATP): a study of autologous megakaryocyte progenitors and the effect of patients plasma on normal marrow megakaryocyte colony formation.

    PubMed

    Podolak-Dawidziak, M

    1990-01-01

    Megakaryocyte progenitors (Colony Forming Unit-Megakaryocyte, CFU-Mk) and the effect of plasma on megakaryocyte colony formation in normal human marrow (Plasma Factor Index-Megakaryocyte, PFI-Mk) were studied in six patients with acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenic purpura (AATP) and in ten normal subjects. Assay was based on the method of Messner. In one AATP marrow culture four CFU-Mk were found, in the other two a single CFU-Mk were present, and in the remaining three samples no megakaryocyte colonies were observed. PFI-Mk in AATP patients was significantly higher than in normal subjects. No correlation was found between PFI-Mk and platelet count in either group. The results of this study indicate the presence of an intrinsic defect at the level of CFU-Mk in AATP marrow. PFI-Mk in AATP patients relate to changes in marrow megakaryocyte number rather than to peripheral blood platelet count. PMID:1697840

  11. Plasma profile of hydroxylated vitamin D metabolites: methods and results in normals for spring-winter in Southern Finland.

    PubMed

    Dabek, J T

    1980-02-01

    The spring-winter plasma concentrations of the hydroxylated metabolites of vitamin D have been measured in normal human subjects (20 male, 13 female), using high pressure liquid chromatography with UV-detection for 25-hydroxy vitamin D3/D2 (25(OH)D) and 24,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3/D2 (24,25(OH)2D) and a radioligand receptor assay for 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3/D2 (1,25-(OH)2D). The respective levels were 26.6 +/- 16 nmol . l-1, 2.24 +/- 1.3 nmol . l-1 and 114 +/- 35 pmol . l-1. These are in good agreement with levels from other centres for the same season. There was a significant negative correlation between 24,25(OH)2D and 1,25(OH)2 levels. The possible significance of this in the context of the low post-winter body burden of vitamin D is discussed. There was a positive correlation between 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)2D levels but it did not reach statistical significance. There were no statistically significant differences between the levels of the hydroxylated metabolites in men and women but the 24,25(OH)2D levels were generally lower in the women. The 1,25(OH)2D levels were similar to those measured by isotope dilution mass fragmentography on Norwegian donor blood. PMID:7377752

  12. Comparative N-Glycoproteomic and Phosphoproteomic Profiling of Human Placental Plasma Membrane between Normal and Preeclampsia Pregnancies with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuqiang; Wang, Ling; Shi, Zhonghua; Liang, Gaolin

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy, which affects 2–8% of all pregnancies and is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in pathological development of placenta in preeclampsia, we used high-resolution LC-MS/MS technologies to construct a comparative N-glycoproteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling of human placental plasma membrane in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. A total of 1027 N-glyco- and 2094 phospho- sites were detected in human placental plasma membrane, and 5 N-glyco- and 38 phospho- proteins, respectively, with differentially expression were definitively identified between control and preeclamptic placental plasma membrane. Further bioinformatics analysis indicated that these differentially expressed proteins correlate with several specific cellular processes occurring during pathological changes of preeclamptic placental plasma membrane. PMID:24260401

  13. Environmental exposure to lead induces oxidative stress and modulates the function of the antioxidant defense system and the immune system in the semen of males with normal semen profile.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Dobrakowski, Micha?; Czuba, Zenon P; Horak, Stanis?aw; Kasperczyk, S?awomir

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the associations between environmental exposure to lead and a repertoire of cytokines in seminal plasma of males with normal semen profile according to the WHO criteria. Based on the median lead concentration in seminal plasma, 65 samples were divided into two groups: low (LE) and high exposure to lead (HE). Differences in semen volume and the pH, count, motility and morphology of sperm cells were not observed between the examined groups. The total oxidant status value and the level of protein sulfhydryl groups as well as the activities of manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly higher in the HE group, whereas the total antioxidant capacity value and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase were depressed. IL-7, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-? levels were significantly higher in the HE group compared with the LE group. Environmental exposure to lead is sufficient to induce oxidative stress in seminal plasma and to modulate antioxidant defense system. PMID:25771126

  14. Toward a self-consistent model of the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse with an overdense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Debayle, A. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France) [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); ETSI Aeronáuticos. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Sanz, J. [ETSI Aeronáuticos. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)] [ETSI Aeronáuticos. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Gremillet, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)] [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Mima, K. [School for the Creation of Photonic Industries, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan)] [School for the Creation of Photonic Industries, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan)

    2013-05-15

    Following a recent work by Sanz et al. [Phys. Rev. E 85, 046411 (2012)], we elaborate upon a one-dimensional model describing the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse and an overdense plasma. The analytical solutions of the reflected laser field, the electrostatic field, and the plasma surface oscillation are obtained within the cold-fluid approximation. The high-order harmonic spectrum is calculated from the exact solution of the plasma surface oscillations. In agreement with particle-in-cell simulations, two regimes of harmonic generation are predicted: for moderately relativistic laser intensities, or high plasma densities, the harmonic spectrum is determined by the discontinuity in the derivative of the reflected field when the electron plasma boundary oscillates across the fixed ion boundary. For higher intensities, the electron plasma boundary is confined inside the ion region and oscillates at relativistic velocities, giving rise to a train of reflected attosecond pulses. In both cases, the harmonic spectrum obeys an asymptotic ?{sup ?4} scaling. The acceleration of electrons and the related laser absorption efficiency are computed by a test particle method. The model self-consistently reproduces the transition between the “anomalous skin effect” and the “J × B” heating predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. Analytical estimates of the different scalings are presented.

  15. Toward a self-consistent model of the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse with an overdense plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debayle, A.; Sanz, J.; Gremillet, L.; Mima, K.

    2013-05-01

    Following a recent work by Sanz et al. [Phys. Rev. E 85, 046411 (2012)], we elaborate upon a one-dimensional model describing the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse and an overdense plasma. The analytical solutions of the reflected laser field, the electrostatic field, and the plasma surface oscillation are obtained within the cold-fluid approximation. The high-order harmonic spectrum is calculated from the exact solution of the plasma surface oscillations. In agreement with particle-in-cell simulations, two regimes of harmonic generation are predicted: for moderately relativistic laser intensities, or high plasma densities, the harmonic spectrum is determined by the discontinuity in the derivative of the reflected field when the electron plasma boundary oscillates across the fixed ion boundary. For higher intensities, the electron plasma boundary is confined inside the ion region and oscillates at relativistic velocities, giving rise to a train of reflected attosecond pulses. In both cases, the harmonic spectrum obeys an asymptotic ?-4 scaling. The acceleration of electrons and the related laser absorption efficiency are computed by a test particle method. The model self-consistently reproduces the transition between the "anomalous skin effect" and the "J × B" heating predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. Analytical estimates of the different scalings are presented.

  16. Effect of aspartame plus monosodium L-glutamate ingestion on plasma and erythrocyte amino acid levels in normal adult subjects fed a high protein meal?4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lewis D Stegink; U Filer; George L Baker

    It has been suggested that aspartame addition to meals already containing large amounts of monosodium L-glutamate would result in an early rapid rise in plasma glutamate and! or aspartate concentrations and increase the potential for dicarboxylic amino acid-induced toxicity. Six normal adult subjects were fed hamburger and milk shake meals providing protein at 1 g\\/kg body weight in a randomized

  17. Expression of genes encoding for proteins involved in heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate chain synthesis and modification in normal and malignant plasma cells

    PubMed Central

    Bret, Caroline; Hose, Dirk; Reme, Thierry; Sprynski, Anne-Catherine; Mahtouk, Karène; Schved, Jean-François; Quittet, Philippe; Rossi, Jean-François; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Klein, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Summary Syndecan-1 is a proteoglycan concentrating heparin-binding factors on the surface of multiple myeloma cells, playing likely a major role in multiple myeloma biology. As heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate are the bioactive components of syndecan-1, we analyzed the signature of genes encoding 100 proteins involved in synthesis of these chains, i.e. from precursor uptake to post-translational modifications, using Affymetrix microarrays. Throughout the differentiation of memory B cells into plasmablasts and normal bone marrow plasma cells, we show that expression of enzymes required for heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate biosynthesis is increasing, in parallel with syndecan-1 expression. Sixteen genes were significantly different between normal and malignant plasma cells, nine of these genes -EXT2, CHSY3, CSGALNACT1, HS3ST2, HS2ST1, CHST11, CSGALNACT2, HPSE, SULF2- encoding for proteins involved in glycosaminoglycan chain synthesis or modifications. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed in two independent series of patients: B4GALT7, CSGALNACT1, HS2ST1 were associated with a good prognosis whereas EXT1 was linked to a bad prognosis. This study provides an overall picture of the major genes encoding for proteins involved in heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate synthesis and modifications that can be implicated in normal and malignant plasma cells. PMID:19298595

  18. Association of n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cell membrane and plasma with severity of normal tension glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Man; Chen, Bo; Gong, Bo; Shuai, Ping; Wu, Zheng-Zheng; Lin, Wei

    2015-01-01

    AIM To determine whether red blood cell (RBC) membrane and plasma lipids, particularly long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (AA) are significantly correlated with severity of normal tension glaucoma (NTG). METHODS This study included 35 patients with NTG and 12 healthy normal control subjects, matched for age and sex with the study group. The stage of glaucoma was determined according to the Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson classification. Lipids were extracted from RBC membranes and plasma, and fatty acid methyl esters prepared and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). RESULTS When RBC lipids were analyzed, the levels of EPA, the levels of DHA and the ratio of n3 to n6 were positively associated with the Humphrey Perimetry mean deviation (MD) score (r=0.617, P<0.001; r=0.727, P<0.001 and r=0.720, P<0.001, respectively), while the level of AA was negatively associated with the MD score (r=-0.427, P=0.001). When plasma lipids were analyzed, there was a significant positive relationship between the levels of EPA and the MD score (r=0.648, P<0.001), and the levels of AA were inversely correlated with the MD score (r=-0.638, P<0.001). CONCLUSION The levels of n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in RBC membrane and plasma lipids were associated with severity of NTG. PMID:26085994

  19. Characterization of inactive renin ("prorenin") from renin-secreting tumors of nonrenal origin. Similarity to inactive renin from kidney and normal plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Atlas, S A; Hesson, T E; Sealey, J E; Dharmgrongartama, B; Laragh, J H; Ruddy, M C; Aurell, M

    1984-01-01

    Inactive renin comprises well over half the total renin in normal human plasma. There is a direct relationship between active and inactive renin levels in normal and hypertensive populations, but the proportion of inactive renin varies inversely with the active renin level; as much as 98% of plasma renin is inactive in patients with low renin, whereas the proportion is consistently lower (usually 20-60%) in high-renin states. Two hypertensive patients with proven renin-secreting carcinomas of non-renal origin (pancreas and ovary) had high plasma active renin (119 and 138 ng/h per ml) and the highest inactive renin levels we have ever observed (5,200 and 14,300 ng/h per ml; normal range 3-50). The proportion of inactive renin (98-99%) far exceeded that found in other patients with high active renin levels. A third hypertensive patient with a probable renin-secreting ovarian carcinoma exhibited a similar pattern. Inactive renins isolated from plasma and tumors of these patients were biochemically similar to semipurified inactive renins from normal plasma or cadaver kidney. All were bound by Cibacron Blue-agarose, were not retained by pepstatin-Sepharose, and had greater apparent molecular weights (Mr) than the corresponding active forms. Plasma and tumor inactive renins from the three patients were similar in size (Mr 52,000-54,000), whereas normal plasma inactive renin had a slightly larger Mr than that from kidney (56,000 vs. 50,000). Inactive renin from each source was activated irreversibly by trypsin and reversibly by dialysis to pH 3.3 at 4 degrees C; the reversal process followed the kinetics of a first-order reaction in each instance. The trypsin-activated inactive renins were all identical to semipurified active renal renin in terms of pH optimum (pH 5.5-6.0) and kinetics with homologous angiotensinogen (Michaelis constants, 0.8-1.3 microM) and inhibition by pepstatin or by serial dilutions of renin-specific antibody. These results indicate that a markedly elevated plasma inactive renin level distinguishes patients with ectopic renin production from other high-renin hypertensive states. The co-production of inactive and active renin by extrarenal neoplasms provides strong presumptive evidence that inactive renin is a biosynthetic precursor of active renin. The unusually high proportion of inactive renin in plasma and tumor extracts from such patients is consistent with ineffective precursor processing by neoplastic tissue, suggesting that if activation of "prorenin" is involved in the normal regulation of active renin levels it more likely occurs in the tissue of origin (e.g., kidney) than in the circulation. PMID:6365974

  20. The chemical mediation of delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions: III. Purification and characterization of a precursor protein for macrophage-chemotactic factor in normal guinea pig plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, K.; Kawaguchi, T.; Okamoto, T.; Kambara, T.

    1982-01-01

    A putative precursor protein for macrophage-chemotactic factor, which was extracted fro inflammatory skin sites (MCFS-1) (Kambara et al, Am J Pathol 1977, 87:359-374), was found in normal guinea pig plasma and was purified to an apparent homogeneity upon SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a molecular weight of 160,000. This plasma protein was different from complement components of C3 and C5 in terms of molecular weight, functional activity as complements detected by hemolytic assay, and immunologic properties. Although it exhibited the common antigenicity with MCFS-1, it did not show any chemotactic activity for macrophages, However, incubation of this plasma protein at either 4 C for 5 days or 37 C for 1-2 days could generate a chemotactic factor with a molecular weight of approximately 150,000 which was similar to that of MCFS-1. This generation of chemotactic activity was completely prevented by the presence of the serine-type protease inhibitor, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. These data could be well accounted for if we assume that this plasma protein might be a precursor for the macrophage-chemotactic factor found in delayed hypersensitivity skin sites, and that a proteolytic process might be involved in the activation of this precursor. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7114165

  1. Bone morphogenic protein 6: a member of a novel class of prognostic factors expressed by normal and malignant plasma cells inhibiting proliferation and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Seckinger, Anja; Meissner, Tobias; Moreaux, Jérôme; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Fuhler, Gwenny M.; Benner, Axel; Hundemer, Michael; Rème, Thierry; Shaughnessy, John D.; Barlogie, Bart; Bertsch, Uta; Hillengass, Jens; Ho, Anthony D.; Pantesco, Véronique; Jauch, Anna; De Vos, John; Rossi, Jean-François; Möhler, Thomas; Klein, Bernard; Hose, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Pathogenesis of multiple myeloma is associated with an aberrant expression of pro-proliferative, pro-angiogenic and bone-metabolism modifying factors by malignant plasma cells. Given the frequently long time-span from diagnosis of early-stage plasma cell dyscrasias to overt myeloma and the mostly low proliferation rate of malignant plasma cells, we hypothesize these likewise to express a novel class of inhibitory factors of potential prognostic relevance. Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) represent possible candidates as they inhibit proliferation, stimulate bone formation, and have impact on the survival of cancer patients. We assessed expression of BMPs and their receptors by Affymetrix DNA-microarrays (n=779) including CD138-purified primary myeloma cell samples (n=635) of previously untreated patients. BMP6 is the only BMP expressed by malignant and normal plasma cells. Its expression is significantly lower in proliferating myeloma cells, myeloma cell lines, or plasmablasts. BMP6 significantly inhibits proliferation of myeloma cell lines, survival of primary myeloma cells, and in vitro angiogenesis. High BMP6-expression in primary myeloma cell samples delineates significantly superior overall survival for patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy independent of conventional prognostic factors (ISS-stage, beta-2-microglobulin). PMID:19718049

  2. Microbiota of the seminal fluid from healthy and infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Dongsheng; Zhou, Xia; Zhong, Xue; Settles, Matt; Herring, Jessica; Wang, Li; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J.; Xu, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore potential causes of male infertility by determining the composition and structure of commensal bacterial communities in seminal fluids. Design: Microscopy of gram stained semen samples and classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences to determine the species composition of semen bacterial communities. Setting(s): Clinical andrology laboratory and academic research laboratories. Patient(s): 19 sperm donors and 58 infertility patients. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences, clustering of seminal microbial communities, and multiple statistical tests. Result(s): High numbers of diverse kinds of bacteria were present in most samples of both sperm donors and infertility patients. The bacterial communities varied widely between subjects, but they could be clustered into six groups based on similarities in composition and the rank abundances of taxa. Overall there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients. However, multiple statistical tests showed a significant negative association between sperm quality and the presence of Anaerococcus. The results also indicated that many of the bacterial taxa identified in semen also occur in the vaginal communities of some women, especially those with bacterial vaginosis, which suggests heterosexual sex partners may share bacteria. Conclusion(s): Diverse kinds of bacteria were present in the human semen, there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients, The presence of Anaerococcus might be a biomarker for low sperm quality. PMID:23993888

  3. The sleep-improving effects of doxepin are paralleled by a normalized plasma cortisol secretion in primary insomnia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rodenbeck; S. Cohrs; W. Jordan; G. Huether; E. Rüther; G. Hajak

    2003-01-01

    RationaleIn primary care, sedating antidepressants are often used for treating insomnia, although their underlying sleep-promoting mechanisms are only incompletely understood. Since enhanced evening and nocturnal plasma cortisol levels are supposed to maintain insomniac sleep complaints, a functional link between sleep and cortisol secretion in the mode of action of antidepressants in insomnia might be suspected.ObjectivesWe therefore investigated the effects of

  4. Primary extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the seminal vesicle: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Duck; La Choi, Yoon; Kim, Hong Seok; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Jeong, Byong Chang

    2011-05-01

    A primary extraskeletal osteosarcoma (EOS) is a rare tumour. An EOS of the seminal vesicle has not been reported in the literature. We describe a case of a seminal vesicle EOS initially detected as a pre-rectal mass on a routine transrectal ultrasound in a 48-year-old man. A computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the tumour to be arising from the left seminal vesicle. A robot-assisted laparoscopic seminal vesiculectomy was performed to avoid neurovascular bundle injury. Microscopic examination of the resected specimen showed a poorly differentiated osteosarcoma originating from the seminal vesicle. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy. He is doing well without voiding or erectile dysfunction and he is tumour-free five months after surgery. PMID:21944784

  5. A seminal fluid protease activates sperm motility in C. elegans males

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joseph R.; Stanfield, Gillian M.

    2012-01-01

    Seminal fluid factors have been shown to play a significant role in fertility in many animals. However, little is known about the contributions of seminal fluid to male fertility in C. elegans. In this commentary, we summarize our recent finding of a seminal fluid sperm activator, the serine protease TRY-5. TRY-5 is required for males to activate sperm, yet surprisingly it is not required for male fertility, likely due to redundancy with an activator present in hermaphrodites. TRY-5 is transferred to hermaphrodites during mating in a series of distinct release events just prior to transfer of sperm. Thus, we propose a model in which TRY-5 cleaves sperm cell surface proteins to trigger sperm maturation. We discuss other possible roles for seminal fluid factors in C. elegans and prospects for using TRY-5 as a marker for studies of male mating behavior and seminal fluid secretion. PMID:24058840

  6. Response of plasma prorenin and active renin to chronic and acute alterations of renin secretion in normal humans. Studies using a direct immunoradiometric assay.

    PubMed Central

    Toffelmire, E B; Slater, K; Corvol, P; Menard, J; Schambelan, M

    1989-01-01

    We employed a novel immunoradiometric assay to measure plasma levels of active renin and prorenin in physiologic and pharmacologic studies designed to characterize renin biosynthesis and processing in response to both chronic and acute stimuli of renin secretion in normal human subjects. Stimulation of renin secretion with prolonged dietary sodium restriction or amiloride resulted in marked increases in the plasma levels of prorenin, active renin, and plasma renin activity (PRA); suppression of renin secretion with indomethacin resulted in parallel decreases in prorenin, active renin, and PRA. In contrast, acute stimulation with upright activity or administration of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, which increased active renin and PRA from 2- to 15-fold, had no effect on prorenin levels. Based on studies in cultured human juxtaglomerular tumor cells, it has been proposed that prorenin is secreted constitutively whereas active renin is stored in and released from secretory granules through a regulated pathway. Our studies are consistent with such a model: the parallel changes in active renin and prorenin with experimental maneuvers of long duration suggest that both the constitutive and regulated pathways are altered under these conditions. The increase in active renin levels in the absence of a change in prorenin that occurs in response to acute stimuli presumably represents the release of preformed active enzyme that is stored in secretory granules. PMID:2643635

  7. Impacts of recessed gate and fluoride-based plasma treatment approaches toward normally-off AlGaN/GaN HEMT.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jun-Woo; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2014-12-01

    We report two approaches to fabricating high performance normally-off AIGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The fabrication techniques employed were based on recessed-metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) gate and recessed fluoride-based plasma treatment. They were selectively applied to the area under the gate electrode to deplete the two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) density. We found that the recessed gate structure was effective in shifting the threshold voltage by controlling the etching depth of gate region to reduce the AIGaN layer thickness to less than 8 nm. Likewise, the CF4 plasma treatment effectively incorporated negatively charged fluorine ions into the thin AIGaN barrier so that the threshold voltage shifted to higher positive values. In addition to the increased threshold voltage, experimental results showed a maximum drain current and a maximum transconductance of 315 mA/mm and 100 mS/mm, respectively, for the recessed-MIS gate HEMT, and 340 mA/mm and 330 mS/mm, respectively, for the fluoride-based plasma treated HEMT. PMID:25971079

  8. Male Mating Rate Is Constrained by Seminal Fluid Availability in Bedbugs, Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Klaus; Naylor, Richard; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual selection, differences in reproductive success between individuals, continues beyond acquiring a mating partner and affects ejaculate size and composition (sperm competition). Sperm and seminal fluid have very different roles in sperm competition but both components encompass production costs for the male. Theoretical models predict that males should spend ejaculate components prudently and differently for sperm and seminal fluid but empirical evidence for independent variation of sperm number and seminal fluid volume is scarce. It is also largely unknown how sperm and seminal fluid variation affect future mating rate. In bedbugs we developed a protocol to examine the role of seminal fluids in ejaculate allocation and its effect on future male mating rate. Using age-related changes in sperm and seminal fluid volume we estimated the lowest capacity at which mating activity started. We then showed that sexually active males allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid volume per mating and predicted that males would be depleted of seminal fluid but not of sperm. We tested (and confirmed) this prediction empirically. Finally, the slightly faster replenishment of seminal fluid compared to sperm did not outweigh the faster decrease during mating. Our results suggest that male mating rate can be constrained by the availability of seminal fluids. Our protocol might be applicable to a range of other organisms. We discuss the idea that economic considerations in sexual conflict research might benefit from distinguishing between costs and benefits that are ejaculate dose-dependent and those that are frequency-dependent on the mating rate per se. PMID:21779378

  9. Plasma levels of adiponectin and soluble thrombomodulin in hypothyroid patients with normal thyroid function following levothyroxine replacement therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiki Nagasaki; Masaaki Inaba; Yoshikazu Hiura; Hideki Tahara; Yasuro Kumeda; Kumi Shirakawa; Naoyoshi Onoda; Tetsuro Ishikawa; Eiji Ishimura; Yoshiki Nishizawa

    2005-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with increased morbidity from cardiovascular disease, and adiponectin (ApN) is a newly-identified adipocytokine, which is expressed in human adipose cells and may have a protective effect against the development of coronary artery disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the involvement of ApN secretion in hypothyroid patients with normal thyroid function following levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement

  10. [Hexosamine content of normal and pathological human sperm].

    PubMed

    Nadermann, E; Nissen, H P; Kreysel, H W

    1983-01-01

    Glucosamine and galactosamin were determined in 96 human ejaculates. The principal hexosamine of spermatozoa was galactosamin on the other hand glucosamin was the principal aminosugar of seminal plasma. The results were compared with the fertility parameters. Our results show no definity relation between the hexosamine concentration and the andrological conditions. PMID:6666852

  11. Reduced Seminal Concentration of CD45pos Cells after Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Treatment in Selected Patients with Idiopathic Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita A.; Calogero, Aldo E.; Vicari, Enzo; Mongioi', Laura; Cannarella, Rossella; Giacone, Filippo; Iacoviello, Linda; Favilla, Vincenzo; La Vignera, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the conventional sperm parameters and the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells (pan-leukocyte marker) of infertile patients with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT). The patients were arbitrarily divided into three groups treated with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone FSH: ? (Group A = 20 patients), recombinant FSH-? (Group B = 20 patients), and highly purified human FSH (Group C = 14 patients). All treated groups achieved a similar improvement of the main sperm parameters (density, progressive motility, and morphology), but only the increase in the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology was significant compared to the baseline in all three examined groups. Moreover, all groups had a significant reduction of the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells and of the percentage of immature germ cells. Before and after the treatment, the concentration of CD45pos cells showed a positive linear correlation with the percentage of immature germ cells and a negative correlation with the percentage of spermatozoa with regular morphology. These results demonstrate that treatment with FSH is effective in patients with idiopathic OAT and that there are no significant differences between the different preparations. The novelty of this study is in the significant reduction of the concentration of CD45pos cells observed after the treatment. PMID:24550984

  12. plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. Y.; Jin, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Ye, C.; Zhuge, L. J.; Wu, X. M.

    2014-12-01

    As-deposited HfO2 films were modified by CHF3, C4F8, and mixed C4F8/O2 plasmas in a dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasma chamber driven by radio frequency generators of 60 MHz as the high frequency (HF) source and 2 MHz as the low frequency source (60/2 MHz). The influences of various surface plasma treatments under CHF3, C4F8, and C4F8/O2 were investigated in order to understand the chemical and structural changes in thin-film systems, as well as their influence on the electrical properties. Fluorine atoms were incorporated into the HfO2 films by either CHF3 or C4F8 plasma treatment; meanwhile, the C/F films were formed on the surface of the HfO2 films. The formation of C/F layers decreased the k value of the gate stacks because of its low dielectric constant. However, the addition of O2 gas in the discharge gases suppressed the formation of C/F layers. After thermal annealing, tetragonal HfO2 phase was investigated in both samples treated with CHF3 and C4F8 plasmas. However, the samples treated with O-rich plasmas showed monoclinic phase, which indicated that the addition of O plasmas could influence the Hf/O ratio of the HfO2 films. The mechanism of the t-HfO2 formation was attributed to oxygen insufficiency generated by the incorporation of F atoms. The capacitors treated with C4F8/O2 plasmas displayed the highest k value, which ascribed that the C/F layers were suppressed and the tetragonal phase of HfO2 was formed. Good electrical properties, especially on the hysteresis voltage and frequency dispersion, were obtained because the bulk traps were passivated by the incorporation of F atoms. However, the H-related traps were generated during the CHF3 plasma treatments, which caused the performance degradation. All the treated samples showed lower leakage current density than the as-deposited HfO2 films at negative bias due to the reduced trap-assisted tunneling by the incorporation of F to block the electrons transferring from metal electrode to the trap level.

  13. Plasma levels of unactivated thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) are down-regulated in young adult women: analysis of a normal Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Ishiguro, Masae; Ogawa, Norihiro; Kanesaka, Takeshi; Okada, Noriko; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Campbell, William; Okada, Hidechika

    2007-01-01

    Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is an anaphylatoxin-inactivating enzyme generated by proteolytic cleavage of its zymogen, and is the same enzyme as that first designated by our group as procarboxypeptidase R (proCPR). TAFI in plasma is presumed to influence vascular disease in its role as a fibrinolysis inhibitor. The activity of TAFI is strongly influenced by genetic polymorphism, especially at amino acids Thr/Ala-147 and Thr/Ile-325. In this study, we analyzed 202 healthy controls who were not on any medication, had no unusual medical history and whose blood data were normal. In a previous report, we established an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for non-activated TAFI (proCPR), and investigated levels of unactivated TAFI as an estimate of anti-fibrinolytic capacity. In this study, we determined normal Japanese TAFI levels for each age, sex, and genetic polymorphism of Thr/Ala-147 and Thr/Ile-325, and also showed that the TAFI level in young adult women is lower than in aged women. PMID:17579260

  14. 21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a)...

  15. Sexual behavior in the bull: assessment by seminal vesicle size and response to gonadotropin releasing hormone 

    E-print Network

    Rocha, Antonio Madureira

    1990-01-01

    SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE BULL: ASSESSMENT BY SEMINAL VESICLE SIZE AND RESPONSE TO GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE A Thesis by ANTONIO MADUREIRA ROCHA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE BULL: ASSESSMENT BY SEMINAL VESICLE SIZE AND RESPONSE TO GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE A Thesis by ANTONIO MADUREIRA ROCHA...

  16. Investigation of a new approach for performing bilateral seminal vesiculectomies in bulls 

    E-print Network

    Hooper, Richard Neil

    1991-01-01

    INVESTIGATION OF A NEW APPROACH FOR PERFORMING BILATERAL SEMINAL VESICULECTOMIES IN BULLS A Thesis by RICHARD NEIL HOOPER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Veterinary Medicine and Surgery INVESTIGATION OF A NEW APPROACH FOR PERFORMING BILATERAL SEMINAL VESICULECTOMIES IN BULLS A Thesis by RICHARD NEIL HOOPER Approved as to style and content by...

  17. Preoperative semen analysis as a predictor of seminal improvement following varicocelectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas G Matkov; Michael Zenni; Jay Sandlow; Laurence A Levine

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the predictive role of preoperative semen analysis on both seminal improvement and pregnancy rates following varicocelectomy.Design: Retrospective data analysis.Setting: Two academic medical center infertility clinics.Patient(s): One hundred ten consecutive patients who underwent varicocelectomies. Seminal improvement data were available for 84 patients, and pregnancy data were available for 58 patients.Intervention(s): Stratification of patients based on preoperative total motile

  18. Painful orgasm in an adolescent after seminal-sparing cystoprostatectomy: a puzzling symptom.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Lorenzo; Castagnetti, Marco; Rigamonti, Waifro

    2015-01-01

    An 18-year-old boy, followed up after seminal-sparing cystectomy for bladder rhabdomyosarcoma, presented complaining of recurrent episodes of left scrotal/inguinal pain arising after orgasms. Full work-up ruled out disease recurrence, but showed enlarged seminal vesicles. Ligation of the vas deferens was unsuccessful. The patient was started on ?-blockers to reduce vas contractions with improvement of symptoms. The possible pathophysiology and treatments of this symptom are discussed. PMID:24480978

  19. Diverse nitrogen sources in seminal fluid act in synergy to induce filamentous growth of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Francisco J; Ryman, Kicki; Hooijmaijers, Cornelis; Bulone, Vincent; Ljungdahl, Per O

    2015-04-01

    The pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is the leading cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). VVC represents a major quality-of-life issue for women during their reproductive years, a stage of life where the vaginal epithelium is subject to periodic hormonally induced changes associated with menstruation and concomitant exposure to serum as well as potential intermittent contact with seminal fluid. Seminal fluid potently triggers Candida albicans to switch from yeastlike to filamentous modes of growth, a developmental response tightly linked to virulence. Conversely, vaginal fluid inhibits filamentation. Here, we used artificial formulations of seminal and vaginal fluids that faithfully mimic genuine fluids to assess the contribution of individual components within these fluids to filamentation. The high levels of albumin, amino acids, and N-acetylglucosamine in seminal fluid act synergistically as potent inducers of filamentous growth, even at atmospheric levels of CO2 and reduced temperatures (30 °C). Using a simplified in vitro model that mimics the natural introduction of seminal fluid into the vulvovaginal environment, a pulse of artificial seminal fluid (ASF) was found to exert an enduring potential to overcome the inhibitory efficacy of artificial vaginal fluid (AVF) on filamentation. These findings suggest that a transient but substantial change in the nutrient levels within the vulvovaginal environment during unprotected coitus can induce resident C. albicans cells to engage developmental programs associated with virulent growth. PMID:25662979

  20. Elevated 1?h postload plasma glucose levels identify adults with normal glucose tolerance but increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Sesti, Giorgio; Hribal, Marta Letizia; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of the proposed diagnostic value of a 1-h OGTT glucose ?155mg/dL to identify individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) diagnosed by ultrasonography in a cohort of adult white individuals. Design The study group comprised 710 white individuals participating to the CATAnzaro MEtabolic RIsk factors (CATAMERI) Study, a cross-sectional study assessing cardio-metabolic risk factors in individuals carrying at least one risk factor including dysglycemia, overweight/obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia. a 75 g oral Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) was performed with 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min sampling for plasma glucose and insulin measurements. Cardio-metabolic risk factors including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were assessed in the whole cohort. Results Of the 710 participants examined, 295 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with 1-hour post-load plasma glucose <155 mg/dL (NGT 1h-low), 109 individuals had NGT 1h-high, 104 had isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and 202 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). As compared with NGT 1h-low, NGT 1h-high and IGT subjects exhibited significantly higher body mass index (BMI), triglycerides, high sensitivity C reactive protein, ALT, GGT, and hepatic insulin resistance (IR), assessed by the liver IR index, as well as lower high density lipoprotein, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels. In a logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and BMI, NGT 1h-high participants had a 1.5-fold increased risk of having NAFLD and an even increased risk was observed in subjects with IGT (1.8-fold), but not in the isolated IFG group (1.01-fold). Conclusions These data suggest that the value of a 1-hour OGTT glucose ?155 mg/dL may be helpful to identify a subset of NGT individuals at risk for NAFLD. PMID:25452862

  1. Gender and single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2R, and SCARB1 are significant predictors of plasma homocysteine normalized by RBC folate in healthy adults.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using linear regression models, we studied the main and two-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma homocysteine normalized by red blood cell...

  2. Effect of low density lipoprotein receptor deficiency on the metabolism of apolipoprotein B-100 in blood plasma. Kinetic studies in normal and Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, N; Shames, D M; Havel, R J

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 in particles containing apo E (B,E particles) or lacking apo E (B particles) were studied in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits deficient in low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, and compared with those of normal rabbits after injection of radioiodinated very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL), and LDL. In both groups results of kinetic modeling were consistent with the hypothesis that all apo B enters the plasma in VLDL, mainly as B,E particles, followed by delipidation and partial conversion to IDL and LDL, with concomitant conversion of some B,E particles to B particles. In WHHL rabbits, production of VLDL apo B was reduced by 40%, but LDL production was increased threefold. Defective removal of B,E and B particles in all three lipoprotein classes, coupled with preserved processes of delipidation, can account for the observed increases in the concentration of apo B (threefold in VLDL, fivefold in IDL, and twenty-twofold in LDL) in WHHL rabbits. PMID:3611356

  3. Sperm survival in female stalk-eyed flies depends on seminal fluid and meiotic drive.

    PubMed

    Fry, Catherine L; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2004-07-01

    Sperm competition is common in many insect species; however, the mechanisms underlying differences in sperm precedence are not well understood. In the stalk-eyed fly, Cyrtodiopsis whitei (Diptera, Diopsidae), sperm precedence is influenced by the presence of sex chromosome meiotic drive. When drive-carrying males compete with non-driving males for fertilizations within a female, the number of progeny sired by drive males is significantly fewer than predicted by sperm mixing alone. Thus, drive males apparently suffer not only a reduction in the number of viable sperm produced, but also a reduction in sperm competitive ability. In this study, we manipulated the amount and source of seminal fluid and sperm received by females by interrupting copulations before sperm, but after seminal fluid, was transferred. We find that seminal fluid from another male influences the number of progeny sired by a drive-carrying male when both males mate with the same female. Sperm viability staining reveals that sperm from drive males are incapacitated by seminal fluid from other males within the female reproductive tract. These results suggest that multiple mating by females enables seminal fluid products to interact differentially with sperm and may reduce the transmission advantage of the drive chromosome. PMID:15341165

  4. Plasma immunoreactive endothelin concentration correlates with severity of coronary artery disease in patients with stable angina pectoris and normal ventricular function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar A. Salomone; Perry M. Elliott; Ramón Calviño; David Holt; Juan Carlos Kaski

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. The present study tested the hypothesis that plasma immunoreactive endothelin concentration correlates with the severity and extent of coronary atherosclerosis.Background. Plasma endothelin-1 concentration is increased in patients with unstable coronary syndromes and advanced atherosclerosis. This finding, together with other clinicopathologic observations, suggests that endothelins may participate in the atherogenic process. However, the relation between plasma immunoreactive endothelin and coronary

  5. Critical Review: Immunomodulation by Seminal Factors and Implications for Male-to-Female HIV-1 Transmission.

    PubMed

    Keogan, Shawn; Siegert, Karl; Wigdahl, Brian; Krebs, Fred C

    2015-06-01

    The role of semen in heterosexual transmission of the HIV-1 has been marginally viewed as an inert vehicle for the delivery of virus. However, studies from the field of reproductive biology have made it clear that seminal fluid is a complex and dynamic medium containing high concentrations of factors that play key roles in modulating the local immune response in the female reproductive tract during fertilization and embryogenesis. It is therefore strongly implied that the same seminal factors responsible for guiding the immune response in reproduction also play a role in male-to-female transmission of HIV-1. To begin to understand how these factors affect male-to-female HIV-1 transmission, multiple studies have comparatively profiled the contents of seminal fluid collected from uninfected and HIV-1-infected men. This review provides an overview of these studies, as well as a discussion of the potential impact of semen on HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25642971

  6. Seminal vesicle metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma: An unusual and challenging presentation

    PubMed Central

    Foahom Kamwa, Alain D.; Mateus, Christine; Thanigasalam, Ruban; Boulay-Coletta, Isabelle; Duchatelle, Véronique; Triller, Marie; Robert, Caroline; Baumert, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a tumour, which usually involves skin melanocytes. Involvement of the male genitourinary (GU) system by melanoma is an uncommon and challenging diagnosis. We report the first case of seminal vesicle metastasis from a primary cutaneous melanoma in a 58-year-old man, with hemospermia as the only clinical sign. This case highlights the role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, as a more sensitive assessment to early detect metastatic melanoma in the GU system. The patient underwent a robot-assisted laparoscopic bilateral seminal vesiculectomy, which had good functional and oncological results and is still in complete remission at the 1-year follow-up.

  7. Setting of Methods for Analysis of Mucosal Antibodies in Seminal and Vaginal Fluids of HIV Seropositive Subjects

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Setting of Methods for Analysis of Mucosal Antibodies in Seminal and Vaginal Fluids of HIV processing of genital fluids, with the addition of antibiotics and EDTA, improved recovery of vaginal Ig Antibodies in Seminal and Vaginal Fluids of HIV Seropositive Subjects from Cambodian and Italian Cohorts. PLo

  8. Drosophila seminal fluid proteins enter the circulatory system of the mated female fly by crossing the posterior vaginal wall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Lung; Mariana F. Wolfner

    1999-01-01

    Seminal fluid proteins from males of many insect species affect the behavior and physiology of their mates. In some cases, these effects result from entry of the proteins into the female's circulatory system. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, some seminal fluid proteins enter the female's circulatory system after transfer from the male while others remain confined within the reproductive

  9. Effect of Seminal Plasma on Equine Sperm Quality: Preparation and Storage Techniques

    E-print Network

    Whigham, Alison R

    2013-09-03

    to facilitate binding with the oocyte’s zona pellucida for the initiation of the acrosome reaction [11]. Pores on the sperm head are created over the duration of the acrosome reaction to enable enzymes to pass from the sperm to the egg to facilitate further... in the horse found thus far, HSP-7 binds to the oocyte’s zona pellucida to aid in the fertilization capacity of the sperm. Although labeled and identified based on molecular weight, HSP-5 has yet to have its physiological function determined in the stallion...

  10. Seminal fluid reduces female longevity and stimulates egg production and sperm trigger oviposition in a moth.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Wang, Qiao

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that a number of factors in relation to mating may reduce female longevity and stimulate egg production and oviposition. However, it is still not clear whether these factors act on these parameters independently or in a collective way. Here we carried out a series of experiments including mating trials and seminal fluid injection to determine the factors responsible for reducing female longevity and stimulating egg production and oviposition in relation to mating in the moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Results show that seminal fluid and sperm work collectively to allow females to achieve maximum realized fecundity (number of eggs laid) in E. kuehniella but these factors play different roles in the process and their actions are independent. Seminal fluid signals females to allocate resources to ova, resulting in shorter longevity and greater egg production while eupyrene (not apyrene) sperm in the spermatheca trigger females to lay maximum number of eggs. We suggest that the receptors for seminal fluid signal may be located in the female reproductive tract and haemolymph, and those for sperm signal may be in the spermatheca. Hypotheses that females prolong their longevity by oosorption, physical injuries by males reduce female longevity, and mechanical stimulation by males triggers oviposition, are not substantiated in the present study. PMID:21172356

  11. Prediction of Capsular Perforation and Seminal Vesicle Invasion in Prostate Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Bostwick; Junqi Qian; Erik Bergstralh; Paul Dundore; Dugan James; Robert P. Myers; Joseph E. Oesterling

    1996-01-01

    PurposeCapsular perforation and seminal vesicle invasion are unfavorable, prognostic factors in prostate cancer. Accurate preoperative prediction of these factors would be clinically useful for planning treatment, especially in patients being considered for radiation therapy, nerve sparing radical prostatectomy and watchful waiting. However, current methods are imprecise at predicting the presence and extent of these factors. We determined which combination of

  12. Sulphasalazine induced seminal abnormalities in ulcerative colitis: results of mesalazine substitution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S A Riley; J Lecarpentier; V Mani; M J Goodman; B K Mandal; L A Turnberg

    1987-01-01

    Seminal abnormalities are commonly found during sulphasalazine treatment. Although these changes appear reversible after drug withdrawal this may result in colitis relapse. Animal studies suggest that 5-aminosalicylic acid, the active component of sulphasalazine, does not impair fertility. Sixteen patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis were studied. Each patient produced three samples of semen at weekly intervals. Of the 48 samples analysed

  13. [Seminal vesicle cyst and ipsilateral kidney failure. Report of 2 cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Zurkirchen, M A; Sulser, T; Schmucki, O; Hauri, D

    1996-11-01

    The seminal vesicle cyst is a congenital malformation of the male urogenital tract, which seems to be more frequent than originally presumed. It is usually combined with an ipsilateral renal agenesis and an ectopic ureter. Two relevant cases are reported and embryology, major presenting symptoms, diagnostic procedures, differential diagnosis and therapy are extensively discussed. PMID:9064889

  14. Association of Coronary Atherosclerosis with Hyper Apo Betalipoproteinemia [Increased Protein but Normal Cholesterol Levels in Human Plasma Low Density (beta) Lipoproteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan Sniderman; Stanley Shapiro; Derek Marpole; Bernard Skinner; Babie Teng; Peter O. Kwiterovich

    1980-01-01

    Most patients with coronary artery disease do not have elevated plasma or low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. To test whether the protein moiety of LDL, LDL B, might be a parameter to identify ischemic heart disease, the plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and LDL B were measured in 100 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. On the basis of coronary angiography,

  15. The Value of Prostate MRI with Endorectal Coil in Detecting Seminal Vesicle Involvement in Patients with Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ghafoori, Mahyar; Alavi, Manijeh; Shakiba, Madjid; Hoseini, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background: In prostate cancer, detection of seminal vesicle involvement is important because it influences the treatment planning and prognosis of the patients. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the value of prostate MRI with endorectal coil in the detection of seminal vesicle involvement in patients with prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: A total number of 238 biopsy-proven prostate cancer patients were examined by 1.5 Tesla MRI with a combination of pelvic and endorectal coils to detect seminal vesicle involvement. After radical prostatectomy, the MRI results were compared with pathology results. Results: Seminal vesicle involvement was detected in 67 (28.1%) patients. Pathology confirmed the involvement of seminal vesicles by prostate cancer in 63 patients. In two patients, seminal vesicle involvement was diagnosed by pathology but not detected by MRI. The sensitivity was 0.97 [95% confidence interval = 0.89-0.99], the specificity was 0.98 [95% confidence interval = 0.94-0.99], the positive predictive value was 0.94 [95% confidence interval = 0.85-0.98], and the negative predictive value was 0.99 [95% confidence interval = 0.96-0.99]. Conclusions: MRI with endorectal coil is a valuable imaging technique with suitable accuracy in detecting seminal vesicle involvement in prostate cancer. PMID:25793086

  16. Clarifying Normalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  17. Chronic growth hormone treatment in normal rats reduces post-prandial skeletal muscle plasma membrane GLUT1 content, but not glucose transport or GLUT4 expression and localization.

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, R; Cittadini, A; Chow, J C; Hirshman, M F; Smith, R J; Douglas, P S; Horton, E S

    1996-01-01

    Whether skeletal muscle glucose transport system is impaired in the basal, post-prandial state during chronic growth hormone treatment is unknown. The current study was designed to determine whether 4 weeks of human growth hormone (hGH) treatment (3.5 mg/kg per day) would impair glucose transport and/or the number of glucose transporters in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from hindlimb skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats under basal, post-prandial conditions. hGH treatment was shown to have no effect on glucose influx (Vmax or K(m)) determined under equilibrium exchange conditions in isolated plasma membrane vesicles. Plasma membrane glucose transporter number (Ro) measured by cytochalasin B binding was also unchanged by hGH treatment. Consequently, glucose transporter turnover number (Vmax/Ro), a measure of average glucose transporter intrinsic activity, was similar in hGH-treated and control rats. hGH did not change GLUT4 protein content in whole muscle or in the plasma membrane, and muscle content of GLUT4 mRNA also was unchanged. In contrast, GLUT1 protein content in the plasma membrane fraction was significantly reduced by hGH treatment. This was associated with a modest, although not significant, decrease in muscle content of GLUT1 mRNA. In conclusion, high-dose hGH treatment for 4 weeks did not alter post-prandial skeletal muscle glucose transport activity. Neither the muscle level nor the intracellular localization of GLUT4 was changed by the hormone treatment. On the contrary, the basal post-prandial level of GLUT1 in the plasma membrane was reduced by hGH. The mRNA data suggest that this reduction might result from a decrease in the synthesis of GLUT1. PMID:8645183

  18. Seasonal variations in seminal characteristics and libido in Angus and Brahman bulls 

    E-print Network

    Scott, Carlton Ray

    1980-01-01

    SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN SEMLNAL CHARACTERISTICS AND LIBIDO IN ANGUS AND BRAHMAN BULLS A Thesis by CARLTON RAY SCOTT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AR? University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Animal Science SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN SEMINAL CHARACTERISTICS AND LIBIDO IN ANGUS AND BRAHMAN BULLS A Thesis CARLTON RAY SCOTT Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member...

  19. ComparativeStudy of the PhospholipidCompositionof Plasma Membranes Isolated from Rat Primary Hepatomas Induced by 3'Methyl4- dimethylaminoazobenzeneand from Normal Growing Rat Livers1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kinya Koizumi; Keiko Tamiya-Koizumi; Tatsuzo Fujii; Jun Okuda; Kiyohide Kojima

    Plasmamembranes(PM's) were isolated from primary hep atomas induced in Wistar rats by 3'-methyl-4-dimethylamino azobenzene,from nonhepatomalregions of the samerat livers, and also from various normal rat livers, including the resting and regenerating livers of adult rats and developing livers of postnatalrats. Phospholipidanalysesof these PM preparations revealed the following differences in the hepatoma PM in comparisonwith those of the PM of normal

  20. Correlation of chlorinated pesticides concentration in semen with seminal vesicle and prostatic markers.

    PubMed

    Pant, Niraj; Mathur, N; Banerjee, A K; Srivastava, S P; Saxena, D K

    2004-12-01

    Semen samples of fertile and infertile men were analysed by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) for the presence of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene) (pp'-DDE); (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl ethane) (pp'-DDT); (1,1-dichloro-2,2 bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane) (pp'-DDD); (1,1,1-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl) ethane) (op'-DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and its isomers alpha (alpha), beta (beta), gamma (gamma), delta (delta) and aldrin. The biochemical analysis of seminal vesicle and prostatic marker was done by spectrophotometer. The concentrations of alpha-, beta-, gamma-HCH, pp'-DDE and pp'-DDD were higher in the semen of infertile than in that of fertile men. An elevation in the fructose level along with decrease in the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and acid phosphatase activity was noticed in infertile men as compared to fertile subjects. The data showed correlation between alpha-, beta-, gamma-HCH, pp'-DDE, pp'-DDD and seminal vesicle marker fructose and prostatic marker gamma-gluatamyl transpeptidase and acid phosphatase in infertile men. The study suggests that the chlorinated pesticides may influence the semen quality by affecting the seminal and prostatic functions in infertile men. PMID:15501386

  1. Overall Clinical Outcomes After Nerve and Seminal Sparing Radical Cystectomy for the Treatment of Organ Confined Bladder Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RENZO COLOMBO; ROBERTO BERTINI; ANDREA SALONIA; RICHARD NASPRO; MASSIMO GHEZZI; BRUNO MAZZOCCOLI; FEDERICO DEHO’; FRANCESCO MONTORSI; PATRIZIO RIGATTI

    2004-01-01

    PurposeWe assessed postoperative clinical outcomes such as day and nighttime urinary continence and overall sexual function in patients who underwent nerve and seminal sparing cystectomy with ileocapsuloplasty compared with patients after standard cystoprostatectomy with similar orthotopic urinary reservoir.

  2. Effects of a low fat diet with and without intermittent saturated fat and cholesterol ingestion on plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein levels in normal volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margo A. Denke; Jan L. Breslow

    Diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol are recom- mended to the American public for improving plasma lipoprotein patterns and reducing the risk of heart disease. However, since dietary intake cannot always be controlled, the effects of different degrees of dietary saturated fat lowering and occasional high saturated fat and cholesterol meals on the ex- pected lipoprotein pattern improvement of

  3. Normal Distribution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lowry, Richard, 1940-

    Generate a graphic and numerical display of the properties of the Normal Distribution. For a unit normal distribution, with M=0 and SD=�±1, enter 0 and 1 at the prompt. For a distribution with M=100 and SD=�±15, enter 100 and 15. And so forth

  4. Post-methionine load hyperhomocysteinemia in persons with normal fasting total plasma homocysteine: initial results from The NHLBI Family Heart Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew G. Bostom; Paul F. Jacques; Marie R. Nadeau; Roger R. Williams; R. Curtis Ellison; Jacob Selhub

    1995-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia, either fasting or after oral methionine loading, appears to be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). It remains unclear whether fasting total homocysteine determination alone adequately detects the full spectrum of hyperhomocysteinemic individuals. We measured fasting and 4-h post methionine loading (0.1 g L-methionine\\/kg body weight) total plasma homocysteine in 274 participants in The NHLBI Family

  5. Correlations of trace element levels within and between different normal autopsy tissues analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reem Rahil-Khazen; Bjørn Johan Bolann; Rune Johan Ulvik

    2002-01-01

    Imbalance in trace metal metabolism may lead to metal interactions that may be of patho-physiological importance. Knowledge of the relation between trace metals in normal tissues is needed to assess abnormal deviations associated with disease. In this study correlations between Cu, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn, Al, Ba, Cd, Pb and Sr within the same and between 6

  6. A LC-ESI-MS method for the simultaneous determination of madecassoside and its metabolite madecassic acid in rat plasma: comparison pharmacokinetics in normal and collagen-induced arthritic rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Leng, Dan-Dan; Gao, Fei-Fei; Jiang, Chun-Jie; Xia, Yu-Feng; Dai, Yue

    2014-12-01

    To develop a simple and highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of madecassoside and its major metabolite madecassic acid in rat plasma, and compare the pharmacokinetics of the two compounds in normal and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Glycyrrhetinic acid was used as the internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was accomplished on an Inertsil ODS-3 column, using a gradient elution with the mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water acidified with 0.1% (V/V) formic acid. Detection was achieved by ESI-MS under the negative selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. In normal and CIA rats, madecassoside (30 mg·kg(-1)) was orally administered for 21 consecutive days from the day of arthritis onset. For madecassoside, the linear range was 10-1 000 ng·mL(-1) with the square regression coefficient (r) of 0.998 9, while for madecassic acid, the linear range was 10-500 ng·mL(-1) with the square regression coefficient (r) of 0.996 1. The lower limit of quantification was 10 ng·mL(-1) for both analytes. The intra- and inter-day precision ranged from 1.78% to 13.42% for madecassoside and 2.30% to 14.90% for madecassic acid, and the accuracy was between -0.95% and 6.30% for madecassoside and between -1.48% and 5.34% for madecassic acid. The average recoveries of madecassoside, madecassic acid and IS from spiked plasma samples were > 81%. The developed method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of madecassoside and madecassic acid in rats after an oral administration of madecassoside. During initial 7 days of dosing, the cmax and AUC of madecassoside were greatly decreased and Vd/F was markedly increased in CIA rats, and no significant difference was observed on the first day of dosing. In contrast, the T1/2, cmax and AUC of madecassic acid were significantly increased, and Ke of madecassic acid was greatly decreased in CIA rats compared with normal rats. Along with repeated administration of madecassoside, the differences of pharmacokinetic parameters of both madecassoside and madecassic acid between CIA and normal rats gradually subsided. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of both madecassoside and madecassic acid in rats were significantly altered by arthritis status, and the differences of pharmacokinetic parameters between arthritis and normal rats coincide with the severity of arthritis. PMID:25556066

  7. Normal Distribution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students adjust the standard deviation and sample size of a normal distribution to see how it will affect a histogram of that distribution. This activity allows students to explore the effect of changing the sample size in an experiment and the effect of changing the standard deviation of a normal distribution. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

  8. Dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and subsequent effects on fresh, cooled, and frozen seminal characteristics of stallions

    E-print Network

    Grady, Sicilia Tatiana

    2009-05-15

    of extenders during spermatozoa preservation. Adequate functioning of the plasma membrane is essential for survival of spermatozoa until fertilization [6]. This structure is also essential for normal capacitation, binding to the oocyte?s zona pellucida... the epididymis, spermatozoa are motile cells. Motility becomes critical at the time of fertilization because it allows and facilitates passage of the spermatozoon through the zona pellucida. Motility indirectly evaluates the ability of midpiece mitochondria...

  9. Percentage change of FSH value: new variable to predict the seminal outcome after varicocelectomy.

    PubMed

    Cantoro, U; Catanzariti, F; Lacetera, V; Quaresima, L; Giovanni, M; Polito, M

    2015-05-01

    In the literature, there is no good agreement with variables to predict seminal outcome after varicocelectomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the FSH percentage change (?% FSH) as a predictor of the seminal outcome after varicocelectomy together with other known predictors. We evaluated 118 patients who underwent varicocelectomy. We assessed factors that could be predictors of the improvement of semen characteristics: LH, FSH, total and free testosterone before operation, testis volume, age, testicular pain, body mass index (BMI), ?% FSH, varicocele Doppler ultrasound grade using regression analysis. Mean sperm concentration increased from 27 ± 12 to 52 ± 15 million per ml post-operatively (P < 0.003), mean sperm motility increased from 31 ± 12 to 40 ± 13 million per ml following the operation (P < 0.02), also mean FSH value changed from 10.2 ± 8.3 to 6.7 ± 7.2 UI/L (P < 0.01). In unvaried regression analysis, ?% FSH, BMI and age were predictors of the improvement of semen characteristics. In multiple regression analysis, only ?% FSH and age were predictors. Negative correlation with age and positive correlation with ?% FSH were observed. Our findings suggest that ?% FSH (before and after varicocelectomy) and age are significant factors predicting the improvement of semen characteristics. PMID:24698207

  10. Sperm Bundles in the Seminal Vesicles of Sexually Mature Lasius Ant Males

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, William E.; Heinze, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    In many insects, sperm cells are produced in bundles with their heads being held together by a glycoprotein matrix secreted by a cyst cell. Mature sperm cells in the seminal vesicles are usually free, but in sawflies and several other insects, such structures (spermatodesmata) remain intact and sperm cells may be ejaculated as bundles. Here we report the occurrence of spermatodesmata in mature males of the ant Lasius pallitarsis. Microscopic investigations of the abdominal contents of males immediately prior to their nuptial flights showed that the anterior ends of numerous sperm cells were embedded in an oval-shaped 20 by 30 micrometer extracellular fibrous cap. Individual sperm ranged in length from 55 to 75 micrometers with an average overall length of 65 micrometers. The bulb-shaped heads of the sperm were relatively small, only about 1.5 micrometers in length and about 1.1 micrometers in diameter. The diameter of the sperm tails was approximately 1 micrometer. Observations of live preparations of the spermatodesmata showed increasingly active undulating wave-like movement of the sperm tails as the slide preparations aged. This appears to be the first case of sperm bundles being present in the seminal vesicles of mature ant males – males that are immediately poised to complete their nuptial mating flight. PMID:24671307

  11. Hepatitis B virus DNA in saliva, urine, and seminal fluid of carriers of hepatitis B e antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Karayiannis, P; Novick, D M; Lok, A S; Fowler, M J; Monjardino, J; Thomas, H C

    1985-01-01

    Concentrated samples of saliva, urine, and seminal fluid from 23 men with chronic liver disease who were positive for hepatitis B e antigen were examined for the presence of hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV-DNA) by molecular hybridisation. HBV-DNA was detected in saliva from 15 of 17 men (88%), urine from 12 of 22 men (55%), and seminal fluid from 13 of 21 men (62%). The presence of hepatitis B virus in such secretions has important epidemiological implications for heterosexual and homosexual contact. Images p1854-a PMID:3924282

  12. Structural characterization of the rat seminal vesicle secretion II protein and gene.

    PubMed

    Harris, S E; Harris, M A; Johnson, C M; Bean, M F; Dodd, J G; Matusik, R J; Carr, S A; Crabb, J W

    1990-06-15

    The gene encoding rat seminal vesicle secretion II (SVS II) protein has been cloned from a rat genomic DNA library using a cDNA probe generated from rat dorsal prostate androgen-dependent mRNA. The cloned 7.3-kilobase pair genomic fragment contains approximately 5000 base pairs (bp) of the 5'-flanking region and the entire coding region of the SVS II protein within two exons. A sequence of 4156 bp of the rat SVS II gene has been determined, including 2037 bp of the 5'-flanking region, exon 1 (95 bp), intron 1 (236 bp), exon 2 (1171 bp), and 614 bp of the 3'-flanking region. The 5'-flanking region contains three conserved elements found in other seminal vesicle secretion genes (SVS IV-VI proteins) within 250 bp of the transcription start site as well as a glucocorticoid response element at position -314 in the SVS II gene. The first exon encodes a 22-amino acid leader peptide plus the first 2 amino acids of the secreted protein. The second exon encodes the remaining amino acids in the SVS II protein sequence. The mature protein contains 392 residues and has an Mr of 43,116. Concomitant with the gene analysis, the rat SVS II protein was purified to homogeneity, and 333 residues (85%) of the amino acid sequence were determined by automated Edman degradation. The DNA-deduced sequence and that determined by direct analysis of the protein are in complete agreement. The blocked NH2-terminal amino acid was identified as pyroglutamic acid by mass spectrometry and aminopeptidase digestion. A 13-residue structure with the consensus sequence GSQLKSFGQVKSS is repeated 13 times within the SVS II protein and appears to be involved in the formation of the rat copulatory plug via a transglutaminase reaction cross-linking glutamine and lysine residues. Overall, the SVS II protein sequence exhibits little structural relatedness to any other known protein sequence; however, some similarity can be found between the 13-residue repeat and another repeating structure and apparent transglutaminase substrate in the guinea pig seminal vesicle clotting protein. PMID:2351680

  13. Inappropriately normal plasma ACTH and cortisol concentrations in the face of increased circulating interleukin-6 concentration in exercise in patients with sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Mastorakos, George; Paltoglou, George; Greene, Maria; Ilias, Ioannis; Papamichalopoulos, Antonios; Dimopoulos, Stavros; Pouliou, Eleni; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Nanas, Serafim

    2013-03-01

    Sarcoidosis is an autoimmune disease, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is blunted in autoimmunity. Exercise stimulates the HPA axis, and we hypothesized that in sarcoidosis patients responses to treadmill exercise would be reduced. Hence, we studied 44 sarcoidosis patients [27 untreated (age, mean ± SD, 42 ± 2 years, 12 males, 15 females) and 17 dexamethasone treated (age, 46 ± 4 years, 7 males, 10 females)] and 20 healthy controls (40 ± 5 years old, 9 males, 11 females). Blood samples were drawn before, at peak (exhaustion), and 15 min after treadmill exercise for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-6 measurements. At peak, plasma ACTH (pg/ml) was increased in untreated (mean ± SE, ?ACTH = 162.8 ± 29.9) and treated (?ACTH = 123.3 ± 48.1) patients and controls (?ACTH = 112.3 ± 41.7). Post-exercise, cortisol (ng/ml) was increased (p < 0.05) in untreated patients (?cortisol = 48.4 ± 14.7) and controls (?cortisol = 46.0 ± 15.9), but not significantly in treated patients (?cortisol = 1.43 ± 2.56). At baseline, serum IL-6 (pg/ml) and TNF (pg/ml) were higher in untreated (3.02 ± 0.54 and 3.89 ± 0.72) and treated (1.75 ± 0.33 and 2.16 ± 1.00) patients, respectively, than in controls (0.80 ± 0.66 and 1.58 ± 0.32). At peak exercise, IL-6 was increased in untreated (?IL-6 = 0.96 ± 0.14) and treated (?IL-6 = 0.91 ± 0.47) patients and controls (?IL-6 = 0.96 ± 0.18); IL-1? was increased only in controls. Hence, the HPA axis of untreated sarcoidosis patients and controls responded similarly to treadmill exercise. In sarcoidosis patients, increased IL-6 was associated with HPA stimulation. Cortisol concentrations were similar between patients and controls, although IL-6 concentrations were higher in patients. Thus, in the face of chronically elevated IL-6 levels in sarcoidosis, there may be dysfunctional IL-6-induced HPA responses or HPA adaptation to high IL-6 concentrations. PMID:22871212

  14. Quantification of shape variation of prostate and seminal vesicles during external beam radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Deurloo, Kirsten [Radiotherapy Department, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Steenbakkers, Roel [Radiotherapy Department, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zijp, Lambert J. [Radiotherapy Department, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bois, Josien A. de [Radiotherapy Department, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nowak, Peter [Radiotherapy Department, Erasmus MC-Dijkzigt, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rasch, Coen [Radiotherapy Department, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Herk, Marcel van [Radiotherapy Department, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: portal@nki.nl

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The prostate is known to translate and rotate under influence of rectal filling changes and many studies have addressed the magnitude of these motions. However, prostate shape variations also have been reported. For image-guided radiotherapy, it is essential to know the relative magnitude of translations, rotations, and shape variation so that the most appropriate correction strategy can be chosen. However, no quantitative analysis of shape variation has been performed. It is, therefore, the purpose of this article to develop a method to determine shape variation of complex organs and apply it to determine shape variation during external beam radiotherapy of a GTV (gross tumor volume) consisting of prostate and seminal vesicles. Methods and materials: For this study, the data of 19 patients with prostate cancer were used. Each patient received a planning computed tomography (CT) scan and 8-12 (11 on average) repeat CT scans that were made during the course of conformal radiotherapy. One observer delineated the GTV in all scans, and volume variations were measured. After matching the GTVs for each patient for translation and rotation, a coverage probability matrix was constructed and the 50% isosurface was taken to determine the average GTV surface. Perpendicular distances between the average GTV and the individual GTVs were calculated for each point of the average GTV, and their variation was expressed in terms of local standard deviation (SD). The local SDs of the shape variation of all 19 patients were mapped onto a reference case by matching and morphing of the individual average GTVs. Repeated delineation of the GTV was done for 6 patients to determine intraobserver variation. Finally, the measured shape variation was corrected for intraobserver variation to estimate the 'real' shape variation. Results: No significant variations in GTV volume were observed. The measured shape variation (including delineation variation) was largest at the tip of the vesicles (SD = 2.0 mm), smallest at the left and right side of the prostate (SD = 1.0 mm), and average elsewhere (SD = 1.5 mm). At the left, right, and cranial sides of the prostate, the intraobserver variation was of the same order of magnitude as the measured shape variation; elsewhere it was smaller. However, the accuracy of the estimated SD for intraobserver variation was about half of the accuracy of the estimated SD for the measured shape variation, giving an overall uncertainty of maximum 0.6 mm SD in the estimate of the 'real' shape variation. The 'real' shape variation was small at the left, right, and cranial side of the prostate (SD < 0.5 mm) and between 0.5 mm and 1.6 mm elsewhere. Conclusions: We developed a method to quantify shape variation of organs with a complex shape and applied it to a GTV consisting of prostate and seminal vesicles. Deformation of prostate and seminal vesicles during the course of radiotherapy is small (relative to organ motion). Therefore, it is a valid approximation in image-guided radiotherapy of prostate cancer, in first order, to correct only for setup errors and organ motion. Prostate and seminal vesicles deformation can be considered as a second-order effect.

  15. Seminal vesicle protein SVS2 is required for sperm survival in the uterus

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Natsuko; Araki, Naoya; Yoshida, Kaoru; Hibino, Taku; Ohnami, Naoko; Makino, Maako; Kanai, Seiya; Hasuwa, Hidetoshi; Yoshida, Manabu; Miyado, Kenji; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, sperm migrate through the female reproductive tract to reach the egg; however, our understanding of this journey is highly limited. To shed light on this process, we focused on defining the functions of seminal vesicle secretion 2 (SVS2). SVS2?/? male mice produced sperm but were severely subfertile, and formation of a copulatory plug to cover the female genital opening did not occur. Surprisingly, even when artificial insemination was performed with silicon as a substitute for the plug, sperm fertility in the absence of SVS2 remained severely reduced because the sperm were already dead in the uterus. Thus, our results provide evidence that the uterus induces sperm cell death and that SVS2 protects sperm from uterine attack. PMID:24591616

  16. Physical Warmth and Perceptual Focus: A Replication of IJzerman and Semin (2009)

    PubMed Central

    Schilder, Janneke D.; IJzerman, Hans; Denissen, Jaap J. A.

    2014-01-01

    With the changing of modal research practices in psychology, the grounded cognition perspective (sometimes categorized under the more popular term of “social priming”) has become heavily criticized. Specifically, LeBel and Campbell (2013) reported a failed replication of a study involving what some would call “social priming.” We sought to replicate a study from our own lab (IJzerman & Semin, 2009), to investigate the reproducibility of the reported effect that physical warmth leads to a greater focus on perceptual relations. We also improved our methods to reduce potential experimenter's bias (cf. Doyen, Klein, Pichon, & Cleeremans, 2012). We successfully replicated the finding that a simple cue of physical warmth makes people more likely to adopt a relational focus. PMID:25402343

  17. TIME-DEPENDENT EFFECTS ON GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT SEMINAL VESICLE DEVELOPMENTALLY ALTERED BY IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    TIME-DEPENDENT EFFECTS ON GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT SEMINAL VESICLE DEVELOPMENTALLY ALTERED BY IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO TCDD. V M Richardson', J T Hamm2, and L S Birnbaum1. 'USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, 'Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, ...

  18. In the 1950s, seminal electron microscopy studies led to the canonical view of mitochondria as bean-shaped

    E-print Network

    Chan, David

    In the 1950s, seminal electron microscopy studies led to the canonical view of mitochondria as bean-shaped organelles. These studies revealed the ultrastructural hallmarks of mitochondria, which include double lipid for the fact that the mitochondrial structure is highly dynamic1,2 . Mitochondria have drastically different

  19. [Normal sleep].

    PubMed

    Susi?, Veselinka

    2007-01-01

    Sleep represents organized complex behavior necessary and vital for the survival of the species. It is reversible, internally regulated and homeostatically controlled process. Sleep consists of two separate states designated as NREM and REM sleep. NREM sleep has four sleep states (1 through 4) easily defined by the PSG and EEG components. REM sleep consists of tonic and phasic components. The tonic component of REM sleep by default includes the duration while phasic component consists of clusters of rapid eye movement, muscle twitches and PGO activity. The two states of sleep differ fundamentally both from one another as well as from the state of wakefulness. NREM and REM sleep is organized in sleep cycles with a typical duration between 90 and 110 minutes. Approximately 4 to 6 cycles emerge during the night with the REM episodes being prolonged towards the morning. About 70-80% of sleep process belongs to NREM and 20-25% to REM sleep. Normal aging carries the reduction in slow high-voltage activity (delta sleep) while REM sleep is of the relatively constant duration. Overall, sleep in elderly is characterized by the increase in the number of sleep stage shifts, increase in the number of awakenings and a shift towards the superficial sleep stages. PMID:18069349

  20. Seminal levels of IL-10, IL-12, and IL-17 in men with asymptomatic chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Hamid; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Chamani, Leila; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Ahmadabadi, Behzad Nasiri; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein; Fathollahi, Mahmoud Sheikh

    2014-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis, as an obligate intracellular parasite, usually causes asymptomatic genital tract infections in both men and women with several complications. The role of C. trachomatis infection in the secretion of a number of interleukins (ILs) from epithelial cells has been established by in vitro studies performed on various cell lines. The aim of this study was to detect the seminal levels of IL-10, IL-12, and IL-17 in men with asymptomatic chlamydia infection. Our case group study included 50 semen samples being PCR-positive for C. trachomatis from 585 semen samples and the ELISA method was applied for detection of IL-10, IL-12, and IL-17. Our results demonstrated that the semen levels of IL-10 and IL-17 were significantly increased, while IL-12 was decreased in C. trachomatis-infected patients. According to these results, it may be concluded that the increased and decreased semen levels of IL-10 and IL-12, respectively, lead to impaired immune responses against C. trachomatis. Increased semen levels of IL-17 may also be associated with the pathogenesis of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:23996104

  1. Seminal vesicle interfraction displacement and margins in image guided radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To analyze interfraction motion of seminal vesicles (SV), and its motion relative to rectal and bladder filling. Methods and Materials SV and prostate were contoured on 771 daily computed tomography “on rails” scans from 24 prostate cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Random and systematic errors for SV centroid displacement were measured relative to the prostate centroid. Margins required for complete geometric coverage of SV were determined using isotropic expansion of reference contours. SV motion relative to rectum and bladder was determined. Results Systematic error for the SV was 1.9?mm left-right (LR), 2.9?mm anterior-posterior (AP) and 3.6?mm superior-inferior (SI). Random error was 1.4?mm (LR), 2.7?mm (AP) and 2.1?mm (SI). 10?mm margins covered the entire left SV and right SV on at least 90% of fractions in 50% and 33% of patients and 15?mm margins covered 88% and 79% respectively. SV AP movement correlated with movement of the most posterior point of the bladder (mean R2?=?0.46, SD?=?0.24) and rectal area (mean R2?=?0.38, SD?=?0.21). Conclusions Considerable interfraction displacement of SV was observed in this cohort of patients. Bladder and rectal parameters correlated with SV movement. PMID:22889144

  2. The influence of short-term exposure to tropical sunlight on boar seminal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egbunike, G. N.; Dede, T. I.

    1980-06-01

    The seminal characteristics of 4 Large White boars exposed to direct tropical sunlight 45 min daily for three days were compared to those of their mates that were maintained under shade in the barn. During the period of exposure, both respiratory rate and rectal temperature increased significantly by 276.84 and 5.13% respectively in the exposed over the unexposed boars, thus indicating a high degree of hyperthermia. Although libido, as judged from the reaction time, was unaffected, the ejaculation time appeared to be longer for the stressed than unstressed animals. Gel mass, semen volume and pH appeared to be stable inspite of the treatment, unlike sperm motility and concentration which deteriorated. Also, the dehydrogenase activity of the semen was inferior in the stressed animals. Sperm output per ejaculate dropped drastically only in the week following exposure from 58.22 to 28.42 billion sperm as compared to corresponding values of 54.83 and 47.87 by the unexposed boars. Similarly, the frequency of sperm abnormality was higher in the stressed boars in this period after which the animals appeared to have recovered.

  3. Keratinocyte growth factor functions in epithelial induction during seminal vesicle development.

    PubMed Central

    Alarid, E T; Rubin, J S; Young, P; Chedid, M; Ron, D; Aaronson, S A; Cunha, G R

    1994-01-01

    Development of the seminal vesicle (SV) is elicited by androgens and is dependent on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Androgenic signal transmission from the androgen-receptor-positive mesenchyme to the epithelium has been postulated to involve paracrine factors. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), a member of the fibroblast growth factor family, is produced by stromal/mesenchymal cells and acts specifically on epithelial cells. The KGF transcript was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in newborn mouse SVs and by Northern blot analysis of RNA from cultured neonatal SV mesenchymal cells. Newborn SVs placed in organ culture undergo androgen-dependent growth and differentiation. Addition of a KGF-neutralizing monoclonal antibody to this system caused striking inhibition of both SV growth and branching morphogenesis. This inhibition was due to a decline in epithelial proliferation and differentiation, as the mesenchymal layer was not affected by anti-KGF treatment. When KGF (100 ng/ml) was substituted for testosterone in the culture medium, SV growth was approximately 50% that observed with an optimal dose of testosterone (10(-7) M). All of these findings suggest that KGF is present during a time of active SV morphogenesis and functions as an important mediator of androgen-dependent development. Images PMID:8302834

  4. ‘Semen Contains Vitality and Heredity, Not Germs’: Seminal Discourse in the AIDS Era

    PubMed Central

    Hudson-Rodd, Nancy; Saggers, Sherry; Bhuiyan, Mahbubul Islam; Bhuiya, Abbas; Karim, Syed Afzalul; Rauyajin, Oratai

    2006-01-01

    Perspectives of public health generally ignore culture-bound sexual health concerns, such as semen loss, and primarily attempt to eradicate sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Like in many other countries, sexual health concerns of men in Bangladesh have also received less attention compared to STIs in the era of AIDS. This paper describes the meanings of non-STI sexual health concerns, particularly semen loss, in the masculinity framework. In a qualitative study on male sexuality, 50 men, aged 18–55 years, from diverse sociodemographic backgrounds and 10 healthcare practitioners were interviewed. Men considered semen the most powerful and vital body fluid representing their sexual performance and reproductive ability. Rather than recognizing the vulnerability to transmission of STIs, concerns about semen were grounded in the desire of men to preserve and nourish seminal vitality. Traditional practitioners supported semen loss as a major sexual health concern where male heritage configures male sexuality in a patriarchal society. Currently, operating HIV interventions in the framework of disease and death may not ensure participation of men in reproductive and sexual health programmes and is, therefore, less likely to improve the quality of sexual life of men and women. PMID:17591339

  5. Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana Casao; Igor Cebrián; Mayra Eoda Asumpção; Rosaura Pérez-Pé; José A Abecia; Fernando Forcada; José A Cebrián-Pérez; Teresa Muiño-Blanco

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was

  6. Enforcing the positive charge of N-termini enhances membrane interaction and antitumor activity of bovine seminal ribonuclease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerardino D'Errico; Carmine Ercole; Marisa Lista; Elio Pizzo; Annarita Falanga; Stefania Galdiero; Roberta Spadaccini; Delia Picone

    2011-01-01

    Binding to cell membrane, followed by translocation into the cytosol and RNA degradation, is a necessary requirement to convert a ribonuclease into a cytotoxin for malignant tumor cells. In this paper, we investigate the membrane binding attitude of bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) and its variant G38K-BS-RNase, bearing an enforced cluster of positive charges at the N-termini surface. By using a

  7. Heterogeneity in mouse seminal vesicle epithelial cells responding to androgen as evaluated by incorporation of (/sup 125/I)iododeoxyuridine

    SciTech Connect

    Terada, N.; Ogasawara, Y.; Yamane, T.; Matsumoto, K.; Kitamura, Y.

    1985-04-01

    When the uptake of 5-(/sup 125/I)iodo-2'-deoxyuridine ((/sup 125/I)IdUrd) into the seminal vesicle of castrated mice was measured 3 days after starting injections of various doses of testosterone propionate (TP), logarithmic values of (/sup 125/I)IdUrd uptake were proportional to the logarithmic doses of TP in the range of 0.04-2 micrograms/g BW. The (/sup 125/I)IdUrd uptake values correlated well with the labeling and mitotic indices of epithelial cells. Since daily injections of 0.4 microgram TP/g BW did not increase significantly the weight or DNA content or protein content of the seminal vesicle, the (/sup 125/I)IdUrd uptake is a sensitive index of androgen action. Moreover, this suggests that low doses of androgen induce division of epithelial cells without resulting in the increase in cell number. The (/sup 125/I)IdUrd radioactivity in the seminal vesicle was measured 2-15 days after the injection of (/sup 125/I)IdUrd, since the value represented the fraction of surviving cells synthesizing DNA at the time of (/sup 125/I)IdUrd injection. When injections of 4 micrograms TP/g BW were continued, the incorporated radioactivity was retained. In contrast, continuous injections of 0.2 microgram TP/g BW did not maintain the radioactivity, of which incorporation was induced by the same dose of TP. Thus, the present result suggests the presence of heterogeneity in androgen-responsive epithelial cells of the seminal vesicle.

  8. Immunocytochemical distribution of nitric oxide synthase in the human seminal vesicle: a light and electron microscopical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Ückert; Andreas Stanarius; Christian G. Stief; Gerald Wolf; Udo Jonas; Stefan Machtens

    2003-01-01

    Although nitric oxide (NO) has been proven to be one of the most important non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic mediators in the control of human reproductive tract organs, to date information on the significance of NO-mediated signal transduction in the control of human seminal vesicle (SV) function is still sparse. Recent investigations have underlined the significance of NO in the maintenance of sperm

  9. The antioxidant system of sterlet seminal fluid in testes and Wolffian ducts.

    PubMed

    Dzyuba, Viktoriya; Dzyuba, Borys; Cosson, Jacky; Boryshpolets, Sergii; Yamaner, Gunes; Kholodniy, Vitaliy; Rodina, Marek

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress is a possible source of spermatozoa function deterioration. Seminal fluid (SF) protects spermatozoa against reactive oxygen species (ROS) attack during development in testes and transit through the reproductive tract. Spermatozoa curvilinear velocity and percent of motile cells as well as changes in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) content, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity, and uric acid concentration in SF were evaluated in sterlet sperm collected from testes 24 h after hormone induction of spermiation and from Wolffian ducts at 12, 24, 36, and 60 h after hormone injection (HI). While testicular spermatozoa motility was not initiated in activating medium, Wolffian duct sperm showed low motility at 12 h, significant increase at 24 and 36 h, and decrease at 60 h. Testicular SF was characterized by the highest level of TBARS and activity of studied enzymes compared with SF from Wolffian duct sperm at 24 h post-HI. In fluid from Wolffian duct sperm, a significant increase in TBARS content was shown at 36-60 h post-HI. In contrast to testicular SF, in SF from Wolffian duct sperm, this increase was not counterbalanced by changes in the studied variables of antioxidant system. This may be the source of the observed decrease in spermatozoa motility parameters 60 h post-HI. The results may confirm a dual role of ROS in fish sperm physiology. The data with respect to decrease in sturgeon spermatozoa motility parameters at 60 h post-HI should be taken into account in artificial sturgeon propagation. PMID:25055725

  10. Hybrid Registration of Prostate and Seminal Vesicles for Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, Johan de; Herk, Marcel van; Pos, Floris J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sonke, Jan-Jakob, E-mail: j.sonke@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Fiducial markers are a good surrogate for the prostate but provide little information on the position and orientation of the seminal vesicles (SVs). Therefore, a more advanced localization method is warranted if the SVs are part of the target volume. The purpose of this study was to develop a hybrid registration technique for the localization of the prostate and SVs. Methods and Materials: Twenty prostate patients implanted with 2 or 3 elongated fiducial markers had cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans acquired at every fraction. The first step of the hybrid registration was to localize the prostate by CBCT-to-planning-CT alignment of the fiducial markers, allowing both translations and rotations. Using this marker registration as a starting point, the SVs were registered based on gray values, allowing only rotations around the lateral axis. We analyzed the differential rotation between the prostate and SVs and compared the required SV margins for 3 correction strategies. Results: The SV registration had a precision of 2.7° (1 standard deviation) and was successful for 96% of the scans. Mean (M), systematic (?), and random (?) differences between the orientation of the prostate and SV were M = ?0.4°, ? = 7.2°, and ? = 6.4°. Daily marker-based corrections required an SV margin of 11.4 mm (translations only) and 11.6 mm (translations + rotations). Rotation corrections of the SVs reduced the required margin to 8.2 mm. Conclusions: We found substantial differences between the orientation of the prostate and SVs. The hybrid registration technique can accurately detect these rotations during treatment. Rotation correction of the SVs allows for margin reduction for the SVs.

  11. Transitions Within a Vertically Confined Plasma Crystal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ke Qiao; Truell Hyde

    2004-01-01

    Dusty plasmas consist of an ionized gas containing small (usually negatively charged) particles. Dusty plasmas are of interest in both astrophysics and space physics as well as in research in plasma processing and nanofabrication. In this work, the formation of plasma crystals confined in an external one-dimensional parabolic potential well is simulated for a normal experimental environment employing a computer

  12. Seminal insulin-like growth factor-I may be involved in the pathophysiology of infertility among patients with clinical varicocele.

    PubMed

    Naderi, GholamHossein; Mohseni Rad, Hamed; Tabassomi, Firouzeh; Latif, AmirHossein

    2014-10-24

    Varicocele, the most common cause of male infertility, is defined as abnormal dilation of the pampiniform plexus. Although different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of infertility caused by varicocele, it is still open to debate. Previous studies have demonstrated the effect of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on semen quality in animals and humans, but there are no studies on the probable role of seminal IGF-I in the pathophysiology of infertility among patients with clinical varicocele. We therefore aimed to examine the seminal IGF-I concentration in 49 patients with varicocele and primary infertility before and after varicocelectomy and compare the results with those of 50 healthy fertile men (in the control group). Mean seminal IGF-I level of patients before varicocelectomy (93.7 ± 67.2 ng/mL) was significantly different (P < 0.001) from that following varicocelectomy (58 ± 35.1 ng/mL) and from that of the controls (57.6 ± 22.1 ng/mL). However, mean seminal IGF-I levels of patients after varicocelectomy and the controls were not significantly different. Seminal IGF-I level was not correlated with grade and side of varicocele, and semen quality. We conclude that locally secreted IGF-I in the semen may be involved in the pathophysiology of infertility in patients with varicocele or semen. PMID:25343526

  13. Symptomatic and urodynamic responses in patients with reduced or no seminal emission during silodosin treatment for LUTS and BPH

    PubMed Central

    Roehrborn, C G; Kaplan, S A; Lepor, H; Volinn, W

    2011-01-01

    Data from phase 3 studies (NCT00224107, NCT00224120) of silodosin for treatment of BPH symptoms were analyzed to examine the relationship between treatment efficacy and occurrence of abnormal ejaculation. Men aged ?50 years with International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS) ?13 and peak urinary flow rates (Qmax) of 4–15?ml?s?1 received placebo or silodosin 8?mg once daily for 12 weeks. Silodosin-treated patients were stratified by absence or presence of ‘retrograde ejaculation' (RE). Groups were compared using analysis of covariance (for change from baseline) and responder analyses. Of the 466 patients receiving silodosin, 131 (28%) reported RE and 335 (72%) did not; 4 of the 457 patients receiving placebo (0.9%) reported RE. Most RE events in silodosin-treated patients (110/134; 82%) were reported as ‘orgasm with absence of seminal emission.' Silodosin-treated patients with (+) and without (?) RE showed significant improvement in IPSS, Qmax and quality of life versus placebo (P<0.02). RE+ patients versus RE? patients experienced numerically greater improvement, but differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). For RE+ patients, the odds of achieving improvement of ?3 points in IPSS and ?3?ml?s?1 in Qmax by study end were 1.75 times those for RE? patients (P=0.0127). Absence of seminal emission may predict superior treatment efficacy of silodosin in individual patients. PMID:21135869

  14. Normal mode approach to modelling of feedback stabilization of the resistive wall mode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Chu; M. S. Chance; A. H. Glasser; M. Okabayashi

    2003-01-01

    Feedback stabilization of the resistive wall mode (RWM) of a plasma in a general feedback configuration is formulated in terms of the normal modes of the plasma-resistive wall system. The growth\\/damping rates and the eigenfunctions of the normal modes are determined by an extended energy principle for the plasma during its open (feedback) loop operation. A set of equations are

  15. Normal modes and continuous spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Balmforth, N.J.; Morrison, P.J.

    1994-12-01

    The authors consider stability problems arising in fluids, plasmas and stellar systems that contain singularities resulting from wave-mean flow or wave-particle resonances. Such resonances lead to singularities in the differential equations determining the normal modes at the so-called critical points or layers. The locations of the singularities are determined by the eigenvalue of the problem, and as a result, the spectrum of eigenvalues forms a continuum. They outline a method to construct the singular eigenfunctions comprising the continuum for a variety of problems.

  16. A hypothesis about the origin of sperm storage in the Eubrachyura, the effects of seminal receptacle structure on mating strategies and the evolution of crab diversity: How did a race to be first become a race to be last?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin L. McLay; Laura S. López Greco

    2011-01-01

    The origins and evolution of sperm storage in Brachyura are enigmatic: sperm is either stored in seminal receptacles, accessible via the vulvae on the sixth thoracic sternite, or in spermathecae at the border between the seventh and eighth sternites. Crabs with spermathecae are collectively referred to as “podotremes” while crabs with seminal receptacles belong to the Eubrachyura. The position of

  17. Infusion of pH 2.0 d -chiro-inositol glycan insulin putative mediator normalizes plasma glucose in streptozotocin diabetic rats at a dose equivalent to insulin without inducing hypoglycaemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Fonteles; L. C. Huang; J. Larner

    1996-01-01

    Summary  We compared the effects of infusing a chemically defined chiro-inositol glycan putative insulin mediator with an equivalent dose of insulin in low-dose (45 mg\\/kg) streptozotocin diabetic rats. Insulin decreased plasma glucose levels from 17.32±0.17 to 3.96±0.064 mmol\\/l (pp

  18. Growth and development of seminal and crown root systems in N-limited barley, and their contributions to nitrate acquisition during vegetative and generative growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mattsson; T. Lundborg; C.-M. Larsson

    1993-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cvs Golf and Laevigatum) was grown under nitrogen limitation, controlled by the relative rate of nitrate-N addition (RA), in solution culture. The seminal and crown root systems were kept apart, but in contact with the same nutrient solution throughout culturing. Growth, nitrate uptake, and in vitro nitrate reductase (NR) activity in the different root parts were

  19. Seminal vesicles and urinary bladder as sites of aromatization of androgens in men, evidenced by a CYP19A1-driven luciferase reporter mouse and human tissue specimens.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Leena; Rantakari, Pia; Sjögren, Klara; Salminen, Anu; Lauren, Eve; Kallio, Jenny; Damdimopoulou, Pauliina; Boström, Minna; Boström, Peter J; Pakarinen, Pirjo; Zhang, FuPing; Kujala, Paula; Ohlsson, Claes; Mäkelä, Sari; Poutanen, Matti

    2013-04-01

    The human CYP19A1 gene is expressed in various tissues by the use of tissue-specific promoters, whereas the rodent cyp19a1 gene is expressed mainly in the gonads and brain. We generated a transgenic mouse model containing a >100-kb 5' region of human CYP19A1 gene connected to a luciferase reporter gene. The luciferase activity in mouse tissues mimicked the CYP19A1 gene expression pattern in humans. Interestingly, the reporter gene activity was 16 and 160 times higher in the urinary bladder and seminal vesicles, respectively, as compared with the activity in the testis. Accordingly, CYP19A1 gene and P450arom protein expression was detected in those human tissues. Moreover, the data revealed that the expression of CYP19A1 gene is driven by promoters PII, I.4, and I.3 in the seminal vesicles, and by promoters PII and I.4 in the urinary bladder. Furthermore, the reporter gene expression in the seminal vesicles was androgen dependent: Castration decreased the expression ?20 times, and testosterone treatment restored it to the level of an intact mouse. This reporter mouse model facilitates studies of tissue-specific regulation of the human CYP19A1 gene, and our data provide evidence for seminal vesicles as important sites for estrogen production in males. PMID:23239821

  20. Normal Abdominal CT

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shaffer, Kitt

    Set of normal abdominal CT images with various important anatomic structures outlined, for cine viewing to gain a 3D view of the structure and its relationship to adjacent organs.Annotated: trueDisease diagnosis: Normal

  1. Normal Chest CT

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shaffer, Kitt

    Set of normal chest CT images with various important anatomic structures outlined, for cine viewing to gain a 3D view of the structure and its relationship to adjacent organs.Annotated: trueDisease diagnosis: Normal

  2. Normal, Not Paracompact Spaces

    E-print Network

    Fleissner, William G.

    1982-07-01

    BULLETIN (New Series) OF THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY Volume 7, Number 1, July 1982 NORMAL, NOT PARACOMPACT SPACES BY WILLIAM G. FLEISSNER1 ABSTRACT. We describe some recently constructed counterexamples in general topology, including a... normal, nonmetrizable Moore space, a normal para-Lindelof, not paracompact space, and a normal, screenable, not paracompact space. The period 1948—1952, when the notions of paracompactness and metrizabil- ity were investigated in terms of discrete...

  3. On Normal Stratified Pseudomanifolds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Padilla; Facultad De Ciencias

    2002-01-01

    A stratified pseudomanifold is normal if its links are connected. A normalization of a stratified pseudomanifold $X$ is a normal stratified pseudomanifold $Y$ together with a finite-to-one projection $n:Y\\\\to X$ satisfying a local condition related to the fibers. The map n preserves the intersection homology. Following Borel any pl-stratified pseudomanifod has a normalization in the above sense. In this parper:

  4. Antibodies to the FVIII light chain that neutralize FVIII procoagulant activity are present in plasma of nonresponder patients with severe hemophilia A and in normal polyclonal human IgG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre Moreau; Sebastien Lacroix-Desmazes; Natalie Stieltjes; Evgueni Saenko; Srini V. Kaveri; Roseline D'Oiron; Yvette Sultan; Dorothea Scandella; Michel D. Kazatchkine

    We have analyzed the properties of anti- factor VIII (FVIII) immunoglobulin (Ig) G recovered by affinity chromatography on FVIII-Sepharose from the IgG fraction of the plasma of healthy individuals and nonresponder patients with hemophilia A. Affinity-purified anti-FVIII antibodies were found to neutralize FVIII activity and to bind to FVIII with an affinity similar to that of anti-FVIII IgG that had

  5. Dusty plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir E Fortov; Aleksei G Khrapak; Sergei A Khrapak; Vladimir I Molotkov; Oleg F Petrov

    2004-01-01

    The properties of dusty plasmas — low-temperature plasmas containing charged macroparticles — are considered. The most important elementary processes in dusty plasmas and the forces acting on dust particles are investigated. The results of experimental and theoretical investigations of different states of strongly nonideal dusty plasmas — crystal-like, liquid-like, gas-like — are summarized. Waves and oscillations in dusty plasmas, as

  6. Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, M.; Kong, M. G.; Morfill, G.; Stolz, W.

    2012-05-01

    Foreword R. Satava and R. J. Barker; Part I. Introduction to Non-equilibrium Plasma, Cell Biology, and Contamination: 1. Introduction M. Laroussi; 2. Fundamentals of non-equilibrium plasmas M. Kushner and M. Kong; 3. Non-equilibrium plasma sources M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 4. Basic cell biology L. Greene and G. Shama; 5. Contamination G. Shama and B. Ahlfeld; Part II. Plasma Biology and Plasma Medicine: 6. Common healthcare challenges G. Isbary and W. Stolz; 7. Plasma decontamination of surfaces M. Kong and M. Laroussi; 8. Plasma decontamination of gases and liquids A. Fridman; 9. Plasma-cell interaction: prokaryotes M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 10. Plasma-cell interaction: eukaryotes G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 11. Plasma based wound healing G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 12. Plasma ablation, surgery, and dental applications K. Stalder, J. Woloszko, S. Kalghatgi, G. McCombs, M. Darby and M. Laroussi; Index.

  7. Discrimination of normal and abnormal prothrombin and protein C in plasma using a calcium ion-inhibited monoclonal antibody to a common epitope on several vitamin K-dependent proteins.

    PubMed

    Church, W R; Bhushan, F H; Mann, K G; Bovill, E G

    1989-11-15

    Vitamin K deficiency or administration of vitamin K antagonists results in the biosynthesis of abnormal des-gamma-carboxy forms of the vitamin K-dependent proteins. Monoclonal antibody H-11 binds several vitamin K-dependent proteins at a determinant that includes the first two residues of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid. Antibody H-11 binds fully carboxylated prothrombin and protein C in the presence of EDTA but binding is inhibited by the divalent metal ions, calcium, magnesium, and manganese. By contrast, des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin and protein C bind antibody H-11 the same in the presence of EDTA or calcium ion. Antibody H-11 thus appears to bind a conserved antigenic site containing gamma-carboxyglutamic acid that in the presence of divalent metal ion undergoes a conformational transition. This ability of antibody H-11 to bind des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin and protein C in the presence of calcium ion allowed the development of an immunoassay for these proteins in plasma. Prothrombin and protein C from stably anticoagulated individuals receiving warfarin were characterized by their ability to bind antibody H-11 in the presence of calcium ion. Binding of prothrombin and protein C to antibody H-11 in the presence of calcium correlated temporally with warfarin administration. The inability of calcium ion to inhibit binding of antibody H-11 to abnormal prothrombin and protein C in plasma suggests that the circulating forms of both proteins following warfarin administration cannot undergo the metal ion-dependent conformational transition that includes sequence residues 1 through 12. PMID:2804372

  8. Structures and phase transitions of a vertically confined plasma crystal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Qiao; T. W. Hyde

    2004-01-01

    Dusty plasmas consist of an ionized gas containing small (usually negatively charged) particles. Dusty plasmas are of interest in both astrophysics and space physics as well as in research in plasma processing and nanofabrication. In this work, the formation of plasma crystals confined in an external one-dimensional parabolic potential well is simulated for a normal experimental environment employing a computer

  9. Normalized medical information visualization.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Somolinos, Roberto; Castro, Antonio; Velázquez, Iker; Moreno, Oscar; García-Pacheco, José L; Pascual, Mario; Salvador, Carlos H

    2015-01-01

    A new mark-up programming language is introduced in order to facilitate and improve the visualization of ISO/EN 13606 dual model-based normalized medical information. This is the first time that visualization of normalized medical information is addressed and the programming language is intended to be used by medical non-IT professionals. PMID:25991133

  10. On the occurrence of a gregarine parasite (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida) from the seminal vesicles of earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta) of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sutapa; Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Mitra, Amlan Kumar

    2012-04-01

    In a survey of the endoparasitic acephaline gregarines in the Satkhira district of Bangladesh, seminal vesicles of earthworm, Metaphire posthuma were found to be infested with a new species of the genus Enterocystis Tsvetcov 1926, Enterocystis elongatum sp. nov. The new species is elongated and measures 55.3-87.8 (67.7 ± 10.3) ?m in length and 33.2-37.8 (35.7 ± 1.6) ?m in width. Nucleus ovoid and measures 4.4-8.8 (6.6 ± 2.2) ?m in length and 4.4-6.6 (5.3 ± 1.1) ?m in width. Gametocyst with two unequal sized gametocytes and measures 88.4-101.7 ?m (97.9 ± 4.8) ?m in length and 77.6-95.0 (86.9 ± 7.7) ?m in width. Oocysts ellipsoidal and measure 13.7-19.9 (16.7 ± 2.6) ?m in length and 6.6-8.8 (7.6 ± 1.1) ?m in width. Prominent association or syzygy is present in life cycle. PMID:23542711

  11. [Fertilizing capacity of the ejaculate of nutria (Myocastor coypus) after the removal of the seminal vesicles as evaluated by the penetration test and natural mating].

    PubMed

    Jakubicka, I; Barta, M; Babusík, P

    1989-07-01

    The fertility of male coypu sperm following seminal vesicle extirpation was investigated using the penetration test into the egg of Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Ejaculates were obtained from five males by means of electro-ejaculation under halothane narcosis. The results of the zona-free hamster eggs (ZFHE) penetration test showed that the ejaculates of all the surgically treated coypu males were fertile and that ZFHE value fluctuated from 54 to 76.6%. The results obtained in experiments with natural mating revealed that the extirpation of male coypu seminal vesicles did not affect their fertility. In total 47 foetuses were found post mortem in ten coypu females covered by surgically treated males, which on average represented 4.7 foetuses per female. PMID:2678717

  12. [Therapeutic plasmas].

    PubMed

    Schneider, T

    2012-11-01

    Three different therapeutic plasmas preparations are currently available in France and are issued by EFS to the hospitals: quarantine fresh frozen plasma, amotosalen-inactivated plasma and solvent/detergent-treated plasma. All these products insure a microbiological safety, an immunologic compatibility and a hemostatic potential for the patients. These plasmas are in accordance with the Guidelines established by the French Authorities (ANSM). PMID:22999855

  13. Plasma universe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Space Science Institute

    2005-01-01

    This single-page reading underlines how abundant plasmas are in the universe. The reading, which is the final page in a tutorial about the plasma phase of matter, points out that understanding plasma is central to understanding what happens in the universe. Through space technologies, researchers have been able to study plasmas in areas like those shown in the images that illustrate this reading. One of the images shows plasma loops on the Sun. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  14. Valproate plasma protein binding in the uremic condition.

    PubMed

    Brewster, D; Muir, N C

    1980-01-01

    The protein binding of sodium [carboxy-14C] valproate has been studied in normal and uremic plasma using the method of equilibrium dialysis. Protein binding was dependent on concentration in both cases but there was a marked reduction in binding capacity in patients with renal dysfunction. Treatment of normal plasma with urea or creatinine to reproduce concentrations observed in uremia induced small decreases in binding. Diffusion dialysis of uremic plasma partially restored the degree of binding. Pretreatment of uremic plasma with activated charcoal at pH 3 raised binding capacity to that of normal plasma. PMID:6985855

  15. Normal Boolean functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascale Charpin

    2004-01-01

    Dobbertin (Construction of bent functions and balanced Boolean functions with high nonlinearity, in: Fast Software Encryption, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1008, Springer, Berlin, 1994, pp. 61–74) introduced the normality of bent functions. His work strengthened the interest for the study of the restrictions of Boolean functions on k-dimensional flats providing the concept of k-normality. Using recent results on

  16. Cosmic plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is given to experimental and theoretical approaches to plasma physics, plasma phenomena in laboratory and space, field and particle aspects of plasmas, the present state of the classical theory, boundary conditions and circuit dependence, and cosmology. Electric currents in space plasmas are considered, taking into account dualism in physics, particle-related phenomena in plasma physics, magnetic field lines, filaments, local plasma properties and the circuit, electric double layers, field-aligned currents as 'cables', an expanding circuit, different types of plasma regions, the cellular structure of space, and the fine structure of active plasma regions. Other topics discussed are related to circuits, the theory of cosmic plasmas, the origin of the solar system, the coexistence of matter and antimatter, annihilation as a source of energy, the Hubble expansion in a Euclidean space, and a model for the evolution of the Metagalaxy.

  17. Radioimmunoassay of corticotropin from plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gutkowska, J.; Julesz, J.; St-Louis, J.; Genest, J.

    1982-11-01

    We describe a specific and highly sensitive radioimmunoassay for corticotropin (ACTH) in human plasma. As little as 1.9 pg of circulating ACTH can be detected per milliliter (0.44 pmol/L). ACTH is first extracted from plasma samples by adsorption onto pretreated Vycor glass powder, eluted from the adsorbent by acetone, and then lyophilized. For purification of /sup 125/I-labeled ACTH, a small octadecasilyl silica column is used. The mean (and SD) concentration of ACTH in plasma from 18 ostensibly normal subjects was 10.3 (4.3) pmol/L. After overnight suppression with dexamethasone in seven of these normal subjects, their ACTH values fell to 2.62 (1.3) pmol/L (p less than 0.0005). This assay will permit clinical evaluation of ACTH plasma concentrations in clinical investigation and of the effects of drug administration on circulating ACTH.

  18. Radioimmunoassay of corticotropin from plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gutkowska, J.; Julesz, J.; St. Louis, J.; Genest, J.

    1982-01-01

    We describe a specific and highly sensitive radioimmunoassay for corticotropin (ACTH) in human plasma. As little as 1.9 pg of circulating ACTH can be detected per milliliter (0.44 pmol/L). ACTH is first extracted from plasma samples by adsorption onto pretreated Vycor glass powder, eluted from the adsorbant by acetone, and then lyophilized. For purification of /sup 125/I-labeled ACTH, a small octadecasilyl silica column is used. The mean (and SD) concentration of ACTH in plasma from 18 ostensibly normal subjects was 10.3 (4.3) pmol/L. After overnight suppression with dexamethasone in seven of these normal subjects, their ACTH values fell to 2.62 (1.3) pmol/L (p<0.0005). This assay will permit clinical evaluation of ACTH plasma concentrations in clinical investigation and of the effects of drug administration on circulating ACTH.

  19. Normal intraoperative spinal sonography.

    PubMed

    Quencer, R M; Montalvo, B M

    1984-12-01

    The normal intraoperative sonographic features of the spinal canal, spinal cord, conus medullaris, and cauda equina are described and illustrated. Important observations concerning the normal spinal cord include its highly reflective dorsal and ventral surfaces, its uniform hypoechogenicity, and the presence of a central echo. Other easily identified structures within the spinal canal include the dura-arachnoid layer, subarachnoid space, denticulate ligament, dorsal arachnoid septations, and the roots of the cauda equina. In addition the sonographic appearance of commonly encountered iatrogenically introduced material including Gelfoam, Pantopaque, cottonoid pledgets, suture material, Harrington rods, and freeze-dried dura is also demonstrated. These normal images can serve as a baseline for the interpretation of various pathologic conditions of the spinal canal and its contents as seen with intraoperative spinal sonography. PMID:6388284

  20. Dusty plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Jones; D. Winske; R. Keinigs; D. Lemons

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced

  1. On normal numbers Veronica Becher

    E-print Network

    Becher, Verónica

    American Symposium on Mathematical Logic July 2014 Ver´onica Becher On normal numbers 0 / 22 #12;Normal normal. Problem (Borel 1909) Give one example. Conjecture (Borel 1950) Irrational algebraic numbers independence there is between normality to different bases? We gave a logical analysis of normality

  2. Linear systems and normality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Kotulski; K. Sobczyk

    1981-01-01

    This paper is concerned with responses of linear systems to non-Gaussian random excitation and with the measurement of the departure of the responses from Gaussian behavior. First, we show the classical Rosenblatt result and its nonapplicability to the most popular practical systems described by differential equations of first and second order. Then, using a simple measure of departure from normality

  3. Document Length Normalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singhal, Amit; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated document retrieval relevance based on document length in an experimental text collection. Topics include term weighting and document ranking, retrieval strategies such as the vector-space cosine match, and a modified technique called the pivoted cosine normalization. (LRW)

  4. Bivariate Normal Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kyle Siegrist

    This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates the bivariate normal distribution. The means are set at 0, but the standard deviations and the correlation can be varied. Simulated points from the distribution are shown as dots in a scatterplot.

  5. Normal Estimate Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kyle Siegrist

    This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates a random sample from a normal distribution, and computes standard point estimates of the distribution mean and standard deviation. The bias and mean square error are also computed.

  6. Time [year] -normalized

    E-print Network

    Seehafer, Norbert

    Time [year] -normalized Southern Oscillation Index 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 -4 -2 0 2 4 and increases during the La Niña phase. The ENSO is mostly characterized by an index called Southern Oscillation-precipi- tation (red colour intensity of varved lake sediments EP160) and Southern Oscillation Index we have found

  7. Normal Psychosexual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    1971-01-01

    Normal sexual development is reviewed with respect to physical maturation, sexual interests, sex drive", psychosexual competence and maturity, gender role, object choice, children's concepts of sexual differences, sex role preference and standards, and psychosexual stages. Biologic, psychoanalytic and psychosocial theories are briefly considered.…

  8. Normal Birth: Two Stories

    PubMed Central

    Scaer, Roberta M.

    2002-01-01

    The author shares two stories: one of a normal birth that took place in a hospital with a nurse-midwife in attendance and another of a home birth unexpectedly shared by many colleagues. Both are told with the goal to inform, inspire, and educate. PMID:17273292

  9. Is My Penis Normal?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español ... Guy's Guide to Body Image Is My Penis Normal? KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual ...

  10. Amazing plasmas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Space Science Institute

    2005-01-01

    A space weather site offers this tutorial about the state of matter called plasma. Animations, two games, and numerous enlargeable graphics are included in the tutorial. It presents information about what plasma is and where it is naturally found. The tutorial explains that understanding plasma and how it interacts with electric and magnetic fields is central to understanding much about our universe. In addition, one section of the tutorial discusses experimental fusion reactors in which man-made plasmas are used on earth. Plasma is the main type of matter in the universe, but it rarely occurs naturally on Earth because of the world's relatively cool temperatures. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  11. Human prothrombin metabolism in normal man and in hypocoagulable subjects

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, S. S.; Martinfz, J.

    1969-01-01

    The metabolism of human prothrombin labeled with radioactive iodine was studied in seven normal subjects and four hemophilic patients. Results in the normal subjects were: plasma volume, 37.6±3.8 ml/kg; plasma prothrombin concentration, 303±40 U/ml (0.153±0.02 mg/ml); prothrombin half-life, 2.81±0.51 days; total plasma prothrombin pool, 5.72±0.62 mg/kg, representing 64.1±9.1% of total body prothrombin; fractional catabolic rate, 42.5±12.4% of the plasma pool per day; prothrombin synthesis rate, 2.43±0.76 mg/kg per day. Results in the hemophilic patients did not differ significantly from normal. Circulating products of prothrombin activation could not be demonstrated in normal individuals or hemophilic subjects. The data suggest that continuous physiologic activation of the blood coagulation mechanism plays only a small part, if any, in the normal catabolism of prothrombin. Images PMID:5794251

  12. Dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

    1996-05-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities.

  13. Theory of Space Dusty Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendis, A.

    2012-12-01

    Ionized gases, contaminated with fine (nanometer to micrometer-sized) charged dust, loosely referred to a dusty plasmas, occur in a wide variety of cosmic and laboratory environments. In this topical review I will discuss the underlying theory of such plasmas, with emphasis on the space environment. Central to the discussion is the electrostatic charging of the dust grains by the various currents that they experience in the plasma and radiative environment in which they are immersed. This charging could lead to both physical and dynamical consequences for the dust as well as for the plasma. Among the physical effects for the dust are electrostatic disruption and electrostatic levitation from charged surfaces. The dynamics of the charged dust is affected by the Lorentz force they experience, since space plasmas are generally magnetized. The physical effects for plasma result from the fact that the dust can act both as a sink and as a source of electrons in different space environments. The dynamical effects on the plasma arise from the fact that the charged dust can alter the phase velocity of normal wave modes (e.g., the Ion acoustic mode) by changing the charge equilibrium in the plasma. Additionally the charged dust can also participate in the wave dynamics, leading, for example, to the very low frequency, novel, "dust-acoustic" wave that has been observed in the laboratory. Finally the possibility that charged dust in a space plasma, may indirectly influence the propagation of electromagnetic radiation through it, will also be, briefly, discussed.

  14. Detection of oxidative dna damage in human sperm and the association with cigarette smoking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han-Ming Shen; Sin-Eng Chia; Zhu-Yao Ni; Ai-Li New; Bee-Lan Lee; Choon-Nam Ong

    1997-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate oxidative DNA damage in human sperm and the association with cigarette smoking. The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in sperm DNA, cotinine concentration in seminal plasma, and conventional seminal parameters such as semen volume, sperm density, viability, motility, and normal morphology were determined in 60 healthy subjects. It was found that the sperm DNA of

  15. Effects of atipamezole and medetomidine administration on seminal variables and functions of erection and ejaculation of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) after electroejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alpha adrenergic drugs are usually used in the treatment of erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction in humans. The influence of such drugs on the seminal characteristics of wild animals has not been verified; whereas their impact on the seminal characteristics and erectile and ejaculatory functions of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) has already been determined. This study aimed at investigating and comparing the effects of medetomidine and atipamezole on the seminal variables of collared peccaries undergoing electroejaculation as well as at determining whether these drugs affected the erectile and ejaculatory functions of this species. Results A statistically significant difference in sperm concentration was observed between AP (100.0?±?26.0 × 106 sperm/ml) and MP (220.2?±?49.8 × 106 sperm/ml); however, both these treatments did not differ from P treatment (180.0?±?50.7 × 106 sperm/ml). No statistically significant difference was observed among all treatments with regard to erectile function. With regard to ejaculation time, no significant difference was observed between the MP and AP treatments; however, when compared with the P treatment, AP exhibited a significantly higher difference. Conclusions When collared peccaries were anesthetized with propofol, neither medetomidine nor atipamezole significantly affected the characteristics of the semen or the erectile function, despite the fact that the AP treatment increased ejaculation time. Therefore, the data indicate that using propofol alone is an effective anesthetic protocol for collecting semen in collared peccaries. Other non-injectable anesthetic drugs, such as inhaled anesthetics, may be used in future research to collect semen from peccaries. PMID:25103781

  16. Effect of pentoxifylline on semen parameters, reproductive hormones, and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in men with idiopathic infertility: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Reza Safarinejad

    2011-01-01

    Objective  To determine the safety and efficacy of oral pentoxifylline (PTX) administration in improving semen parameters in infertile\\u000a men with idiopathic OAT.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  The study included 254 infertile men who underwent double-blind therapy with 400 mg PTX (Apotex Inc., Toronto, Canada) twice\\u000a daily (group 1, n = 127), or similar regimen of placebo (group 2, n = 127). The study consisted of a 4-week screening

  17. Detection and Characterization of Hepatitis C Virus RNA in Seminal Plasma and Spermatozoon Fractions of Semen from Patients Attempting Medically Assisted Conception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Bourlet; Rachel Levy; Anne Maertens; Jean-Claude Tardy; Florence Grattard; Helene Cordonier; Jean-Louis Laurent; Jean-Francois Guerin; Bruno Pozzetto

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the risk of transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) via semen in assisted reproduction techniques, semen samples from 32 men chronically infected with HCV attending a center for assisted procreation were tested for HCV RNA by a reverse transcription-PCR protocol by using a modified version of the Cobas AMPLICOR HCV assay (version 2.0; Roche Diagnostics). The sensitivity of

  18. Detection and Characterization of Hepatitis C Virus RNA in Seminal Plasma and Spermatozoon Fractions of Semen from Patients Attempting Medically Assisted Conception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Bourlet; Rachel Levy; Anne Maertens; Jean-Claude Tardy; Florence Grattard; Helene Cordonier; Jean-Louis Laurent; Jean-Francois Guerin; Bruno Pozzetto

    To investigate the risk of transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) via semen in assisted reproduction techniques, semen samples from 32 men chronically infected with HCV attending a center for assisted procreation were tested for HCV RNA by a reverse transcription-PCR protocol by using a modified version of the Cobas AMPLICOR HCV assay (version 2.0; Roche Diagnostics). The sensitivity of

  19. Comparison of Methods for Assessing Viability of Equine Spermatozoa and Effects of Seminal Plasma on Viability and Motion Characteristics of Equine Spermatozoa 

    E-print Network

    Foster, Mary L.

    2010-07-14

    to purchase and use, and it requires an experienced technician to operate it. The growing practice of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in the equine industry has increased the need for an accurate but cost-effective means of determining sperm membrane...

  20. Investigation of the structure of anti?human seminal plasma protein single?chain antibody and its association with linker peptide length.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xin; Zhai, Jun; Song, Dongkui; Qu, Qingshan; Li, Ming; Xing, Li; Miao, Shuzhai

    2015-09-01

    To enhance the activity of seminoprotein single?chain variable fragment (??Sm?ScFv) antibodies, modulation of the length of the linker peptide, which connects the variable region of the heavy chain (VH) and the light chain (VL) of single?chain antibodies, was performed in the present study. Homologous modeling of single VH and VL were performed, respectively. Subsequently, modeling of the whole ScFv sequence, which was previously modified with added linkers of different lengths was also performed, and the (Gly4Ser)n peptide chain structure was used as the linker. The similarities between VH and VL prior to and following the addition of the linker were compared by applying the algorithm of protein similarity, based on spherical coordinates layering. In addition, changes in the fore and aft distance, and diffusion radius were calculated using a MATLAB tool, based on which changes in structural stability were analyzed. Finally, the single?chain antibody was assessed in a nude mouse model. When n=3 or n=6, the similarity between the original distance and VH and VL were the highest, and the fore and aft distance and diffusion radius were relatively close. In addition, the nude mouse model indicated that, when n=3 or n=6, the inhibitory rate of the single?chain antibody against tumor cells was significantly higher, compared with the other linker peptides of different lengths. The effect of structural changes of the linker peptides in the single?chain antibodies on the whole antibody molecule was examined at different levels using a combination of mathematical modeling, bioinformatics methods and biological experiments. The findings of the present study may provide a foundation for further investigation into the preparation of single?chain antibodies. PMID:26099852

  1. ProHNPs are specific markers of normal myelopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Emmertsen, F; Glenthøj, A; Sønderskov, J; Kampmann, P; Sengeløv, H; Borregaard, N

    2014-01-01

    Pro human neutrophil peptides (proHNP)s are proforms of ?-defensins produced by precursors of human neutrophils. They are secreted to bone marrow plasma in large amounts by myelocytes. We hypothesized that the plasma concentration of proHNPs might serve as a specific marker of myelopoietic activity, heralding the onset of normal myelopoiesis before reappearance of neutrophils, in the setting of bone marrow regeneration. To investigate this, plasma levels of proHNPs were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in blood samples collected from patients undergoing allogeneic (n=11) or autologous (n=16) stem cell transplantations (SCTs) and patients receiving chemotherapy for acute leukemia (n=14). To compare proHNPs with previously suggested myeloid markers, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lysozyme and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were also assayed. In all but one patient, chemotherapy led to the complete disappearance of ProHNPs from plasma. It reappeared in plasma on average 6.3 days before reappearance of neutrophils in the allogeneic setting, whereas this was reduced to an average of 2.8 days in the autologous SCT patients who received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (n=19) had significantly lower levels of plasma proHNPs than healthy controls, indicating that proHNPs are not produced by leukemic blasts. We conclude that plasma concentration of proHNPs is a clinically useful marker of normal myelopoiesis. PMID:24658371

  2. Plasma dopamine- ? -hydroxylase in childhood psychosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Belmaker; Jocelyn Hattab; Richard P. Ebstein

    1978-01-01

    A previous report suggested that plasma dopamine-ß-hydroxylase (DBH) is elevated in childhood autism. We measured plasma DBH in 15 children with functional psychosis and in 10 psychotic children with known organic etiology. DBH activity was significantly elevated in the children with functional psychoses and showed a significant correlation with age that is not reported for this age range in normals.

  3. Die physiologische Variabilität der Plasma-Katecholamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Pluto; P. Bürger; H. Weicker

    1986-01-01

    Summary In an earlier publication, we described a modified procedure for the determination of plasma catecholamine levels using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), followed by amperometry. In this paper, we present our results on the variability of normal catecholamine values in plasma for noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and dopamine (DA). In 122 women and men at rest, the range for NA

  4. Normal-reflection image

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L. (Lian-Jie); Fehler, Michael C.

    2003-01-01

    Common-angle wave-equation migration using the double-square-root is generally less accurate than the common-shot migration because the wavefield continuation equation for thc former involves additional approximations compared to that for the latter. We present a common-angle wave-equation migration that has the same accuracy as common-shot wave-equation migration. An image obtained from common-angle migration is a four- to five-dimensional output volume for 3D cases. We propose a normal-reflection imaging condition for common-angle migration to produce a 3D output volume for 3D migration. The image is closely related to the normal-reflection coefficients at interfaces. This imaging condition will allow amplitude-preserving migration to generate an image with clear physical meaning.

  5. [Maternal fetal choriocarcinoma after normal delivery].

    PubMed

    Malbranche-Aupècle, M H; Chaboche, C; Théodore, C

    1993-01-01

    Materno-fetal choriocarcinoma discovered after a normal delivery is very rare. The risks for choriocarcinoma after a pregnancy at term is estimated at 1 in 100,000. All the same the ease with which the diagnosis is made by levels of plasma beta-hCG makes it possible to think of this possibility after delivery when there is maternal pathology which cannot be diagnosed or a fetal tumour that cannot be labelled. The transmission of this illness from mother to fetus evokes discussion about the tolerance of an allograft. PMID:8308208

  6. Normal Fault Visualization

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jimm Myers

    This module demonstrates the motion on an active normal fault. Faulting offsets three horizontal strata. At the end of the faulting event, surface topography has been generated. The upper rock layer is eroded by clicking on the 'begin erosion' button. The operator can manipulate the faulting motion, stopping and reversing motion on the fault at any point along the transit of faulting. The action of erosion is also interactive. One possible activity is an investigation of the control of different faulting styles on regional landscape form. This visual lends itself to an investigation of fault motion, and a comparison of types of faults. The interactive normal faulting visual could be compared to other interactive visuals depicting thrust faults, reverse faults, and strike slip faults (interactive animations of these fault types can be found by clicking on 'Media Types' at top red bar, then 'Animations', then 'Faults'). By comparing the interactive images of different types of faulting with maps of terrains dominated by different faulting styles, students are aided in conceptualizing how certain faulting styles produce distinctive landforms on the earth's surface (e.g., ridge and valley topography [thrust faulting dominant] versus basin-and-range topography [normal faulting dominant]). Jimm Myers, geology professor at the University of Wyoming, originated the concept of The Magma Foundry, a website dedicated to improving Earth science education across the grade levels. The Magma Foundry designs and creates modular, stand-alone media components that can be utilized in a variety of pedagogical functions in courses and labs.

  7. Anatomical Global Spatial Normalization

    PubMed Central

    Cykowski, Matthew D.; McKay, David Reese; Kochunov, Peter V.; Fox, Peter T.; Rogers, William; Toga, Arthur W.; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Mazziotta, John

    2010-01-01

    Anatomical global spatial normalization (aGSN) is presented as a method to scale high-resolution brain images to control for variability in brain size without altering the mean size of other brain structures. Two types of mean preserving scaling methods were investigated, “shape preserving” and “shape standardizing”. aGSN was tested by examining 56 brain structures from an adult brain atlas of 40 individuals (LPBA40) before and after normalization, with detailed analyses of cerebral hemispheres, all gyri collectively, cerebellum, brainstem, and left and right caudate, putamen, and hippocampus. Mean sizes of brain structures as measured by volume, distance, and area were preserved and variance reduced for both types of scale factors. An interesting finding was that scale factors derived from each of the ten brain structures were also mean preserving. However, variance was best reduced using whole brain hemispheres as the reference structure, and this reduction was related to its high average correlation with other brain structures. The fractional reduction in variance of structure volumes was directly related to ?2, the square of the reference-to-structure correlation coefficient. The average reduction in variance in volumes by aGSN with whole brain hemispheres as the reference structure was approximately 32%. An analytical method was provided to directly convert between conventional and aGSN scale factors to support adaptation of aGSN to popular spatial normalization software packages. PMID:20582489

  8. Earth plasmas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Space Science Institute

    2005-01-01

    Fusion is the focus of this section of a tutorial about plasma, one of the four states of matter. This section deals with plasmas on Earth. There is little naturally-occurring plasma here because of the Earth's relatively cool (by universe standards) temperature, but human-made plasma is produced for industry and research purposes. The section explores the use of plasmas in experimental fusion reactors, pointing out three categories of significant unresolved issues that stand in the way of fusion becoming a viable energy source. The use of electromagnets to confine plasmas is discussed. Enlargeable images of fusion reactors are provided, and an explanation of the difference between fission and fusion is supplemented by animations of the two reaction types. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  9. Radioimmunoassay of ACTH in plasma

    PubMed Central

    Berson, Solomon A.; Yalow, Rosalyn S.

    1968-01-01

    Techniques are described in detail for a radioimmunoassay of plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) that is capable of detecting hormone in unextracted normal human plasma at 1:5 dilution under the conditions described. The sensitivity of the assay is at the level of 1 ??g/ml (equivalent to 0.014 mU/100 ml). In normal subjects ACTH concentrations averaged 22 ??g/ml (equivalent to 0.308 mU/100 ml) plasma at 8-10 a.m. In a smaller group the concentrations averaged 9.6 ??g/ml (equivalent to 0.134 mU/100 ml) at 10-11 p.m. Although a circadian rhythm in normal subjects was not always well marked throughout the daytime hours, plasma ACTH usually fell to its lowest value in the late evening. In hospital patients who were not acutely ill, concentrations were infrequently above 100 ??g/ml in the morning and usually fell to significantly lower levels in the late evening. Severely ill hospital patients occasionally exhibited a.m. concentrations above 200 ??g/ml. In a group of subjects showing frequent spiking of plasma 17-OHCS concentrations throughout the day parallel spiking of plasma ACTH as well was generally observed. Metyrapone produced marked increases in plasma ACTH within 24 hr in all cases and generally within 3-6 hr except when started late in the day. Dexamethasone brought about a persistent reduction in plasma ACTH in a patient under continued treatment with metyrapone. Hypoglycemia, electroshock, surgery under general anesthesia, histalog and vasopressin administration were usually followed by significant increases in plasma ACTH concentration. Prior administration of dexamethasone blocked the response to hypoglycemia. Marked elevations in plasma ACTH were observed in patients with adrenal insufficiency off steroid therapy, in Cushing's disease after adrenalectomy even in the presence of persistent hypercortisolemia, and in some untreated patients with Cushing's disease. Umbilical cord blood contained higher plasma ACTH concentrations than maternal blood at delivery in seven of eight cases. After suppression of ACTH secretion by dexamethasone or cortisol. ACTH disappeared from plasma with half-times ranging from 22 min to 30 min in three cases studied. Images PMID:4302180

  10. Electromagnetic Scattering from an Inhomogeneous, Collisionless Plasma Cylinder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph L. Neuringer; James J. Stekert

    1968-01-01

    An analytical investigation is presented of the coherent electromagnetic scattering at normal incidence from a quiescent, infinitely long, radially inhomogeneous, collisionless plasma cylinder. The inhomogeneity is characterized by an index of refraction n = [1 ? (??r)]½ such as would result from a line plasma source issuing plasma at a constant flow rate. Exact scattering solutions are obtained for both

  11. The significance of plasma phytanic acid levels in adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T C Britton; F B Gibberd; M E Clemens; J D Billimoria; M C Sidey

    1989-01-01

    The presence of phytanic acid in tissues and plasma has been considered diagnostic of heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis (Refsum's disease), but recently slightly raised plasma phytanic acid levels have been reported in other conditions. Forty two normal people were found to have a phytanic acid level of 0-33 mumol\\/l. Fourteen patients with heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis had a plasma phytanic acid level

  12. Rat seminal vesicle FAD-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase. Biochemical characterization and molecular cloning of a member of the new sulfhydryl oxidase/quiescin Q6 gene family.

    PubMed

    Benayoun, B; Esnard-Fève, A; Castella, S; Courty, Y; Esnard, F

    2001-04-27

    Rat FAD-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase was purified; partial sequencing indicated that it was homologous to human quiescin Q6. A cDNA (GenBank accession no. AF285078) was cloned from rat seminal vesicles, and active recombinant sulfhydryl oxidase was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary epithelial cells. This 2472-nucleotide cDNA has an open reading frame of 1710 base pairs, encoding a protein of 570 amino acids including a 32-amino acid leader sequence and two potential sites for N-glycosylation. One of them is used and the 64,000 M(r) purified protein was transformed to 61,000 by the action of endoglycosidase F. Northern blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that there were small amounts of sulfhydryl oxidase in the rat testis, prostate, lung, heart, kidney, spleen, and liver, and that the gene was highly expressed in seminal vesicles and epididymis. Rat sulfhydryl oxidase cDNA corresponds to the human cell growth inhibiting factor cDNA, which could be a differently spliced form of quiescin Q6. Comparing sulfhydryl oxidase sequences with those of human quiescin Q6 and mammalian and Caenorhabditis elegans quiescin Q6-related genes established the existence of a new family of FAD-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase/quiescin Q6-related genes containing protein-disulfide isomerase-type thioredoxin and yeast ERV1 domains. PMID:11278790

  13. Soluble MD2 activity in plasma from patients with severe sepsis and septic shock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Stern-Voeffray; Bruno Daubeuf; Michael A. Matthay; Greg Elson; Irene Dunn-Siegrist

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we show that plasma from patients with severe sepsis and septic shock but not normal plasma supports lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation of epi- thelial cells expressing Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Recombinant soluble myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2) comple- mented normal plasma and allowed LPS activation of epithelial cells to levels mea- sured with \\

  14. Response Variability to Sedative Effects of Diazepam in Normal Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Henrik Jensen; Hans Christian Hansen; Niels Erik Drenck

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-two normal subjects received 35 mg rectal diazepam. Plasma levels and sedative effects were measured up to twelve hours after medication. The tests applied were the Trieger dot test (DOT), perceptual speed test (PST), digit symbol substitution test (DSST), continous simple reaction time and subjective assessment of sedation (SAS). Psychomotor performance under influence of the drug was interpolated at the

  15. United States Climate Normals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ross, Douglas P.

    2002-01-01

    The National Climate Data Center has recently released weather data from the last thirty years, which is used by forecasters to compare day-to-day normal conditions. The daily and monthly reports are available for download in ASCII or PDF formats and include data on such things as average daily temperatures and precipitation from nearly 8,000 weather stations in the United States, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the U.S. Pacific Islands. Everyone from researchers to those users interested in weather in their hometown will find the information provided valuable.

  16. The normal integral

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, W.J.

    1990-09-26

    ANORM is a reliable, portable Fortran function program, written in the style of the SPECFUN package for computing the normal probability distribution to full machine precision on most contemporary computers. The main computation evaluates near-minimax approximations that are theoretically accurate to at least 18 significant decimal digitals. Special care has been taken in implementation to minimize error contamination in the crucial computations of the exponential and to provide full accuracy in the computation with large negative arguments. ANORM returns 0.0 for arguments smaller than the machine-dependent constant XLOW and returns 1.0 for arguments greater than the machine-dependent constant XUPPR.

  17. Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generator.

    PubMed

    Dudnikov, V; Johnson, R P; Murray, S; Pennisi, T; Piller, C; Santana, M; Stockli, M; Welton, R

    2012-02-01

    A prototype RF H(-) surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA?kW. Control experiments with H(-) beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing. PMID:22380221

  18. Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generatora)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnikov, V.; Johnson, R. P.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.

    2012-02-01

    A prototype RF H- surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA/kW. Control experiments with H- beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing.

  19. Plasma valve

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady (Mount Sinai, NY); Sharma, Sushil (Hinsdale, IL); Noonan, John (Naperville, IL); Rotela, Elbio (Clarendon Hills, IL); Khounsary, Ali (Hinsdale, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A plasma valve includes a confinement channel and primary anode and cathode disposed therein. An ignition cathode is disposed adjacent the primary cathode. Power supplies are joined to the cathodes and anode for rapidly igniting and maintaining a plasma in the channel for preventing leakage of atmospheric pressure through the channel.

  20. Plasma accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui (Los Alamos, NM); Barnes, Cris W. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

  1. Normal Untreated Jurkat Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. The objective of the research was to define a way to differentiate between effects due to microgravity and those due to possible stress from non-optimal spaceflight conditions. These Jurkat cells, a human acute T-cell leukemia was obtained to evaluate three types of potential experimental stressors: a) Temperature elevation; b) Serum starvation; and c) Centrifugal force. The data from previous spaceflight experiments showed that actin filaments and cell shape are significantly different for the control. These normal cells serve as the baseline for future spaceflight experiments.

  2. A "normal" invasive coronary angiogram may not be normal.

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, Bjarne L; Hansson, Nicolaj C; Christiansen, Evald H; Kaltoft, Anne; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Lassen, Jens F; Mæng, Michael; Jensen, Jesper M

    2015-01-01

    In clinical practice, a normal or near-normal invasive coronary angiogram is considered to be reliable evidence for the absence of hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease. We present 2 patients with near-normal coronary angiograms who had noninvasive evidence of vessel-specific ischemia confirmed by invasive measurement of fractional flow reserve. PMID:26088376

  3. Plasma universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-01-01

    Traditionally the views on the cosmic environent have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasmas. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If a model of the universe is based on the plasma phenomena mentioned it is found that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasmas. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasmas are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model it is applied to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4 to 5 billions of years ago with an accuracy of better than 1%.

  4. Dusty plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northrop, T. G.

    1992-01-01

    Dust grains immersed in plasma become charged. The charge is determined by the plasma characteristics, by secondary and photoemission from the grain, by grain velocity, and at any given instant by the past time history of the charging currents. This charge affects the Coulomb drag on a grain moving through the plasma. It affects the motion of the grain in an electromagnetic field of a planetary magnetosphere, and it is involved in the formation of the spokes in Saturn's rings and in the erosion of the rings by micrometeorites. And finally, it affects the coagulation rate of dust into larger bodies.

  5. Introduction to Normal Multiresolution Approximation

    E-print Network

    Runborg, Olof

    Introduction to Normal Multiresolution Approximation Olof Runborg Department of Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, KTH, S--100 44 Stockholm, Sweden olofr@nada.kth.se Summary. A multiresolution analysis general schemes. Key words: subdivision, wavelet, normal mesh, normal multiresolution 1 Introduction

  6. Normal Extensions of Bent Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Carlet; Hans Dobbertin; Gregor Leander

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the notion of normal extension is introduced for bent functions, i.e., maximally nonlinear Boolean functions. We apply this concept to characterize when the direct sum of bent functions is normal, and we prove that the direct sum of a normal bent function and a nonnormal bent function is always nonnormal.

  7. Normality, Therapy, and Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Giubilini, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    According to human enhancement advocates, it is morally permissible (and sometimes obligatory) to use biomedical means to modulate or select certain biological traits in order to increase people's welfare, even when there is no pathology to be treated or prevented. Some authors have recently proposed to extend the use of biomedical means to modulate lust, attraction, and attachment. I focus on some conceptual implications of this proposal, particularly with regard to bioconservatives' understanding of the notions of therapy and enhancement I first explain what makes the proposal of medicalizing love interesting and unique, compared to the other forms of bioenhancement usually advocated. I then discuss how the medicalization of love bears on the more general debate on human enhancement, particularly with regard to the key notion of "normality" that is commonly used to define the therapy-enhancement distinction. This analysis suggests that the medicalization of love, in virtue of its peculiarity, requires bioconservatives to reconsider their way of understanding and applying the notions of "therapy" and "enhancement." More in particular, I show that, because a non-arbitrary and value-free notion of "therapy" cannot be applied to the case of love, bioconservatives have the burden of either providing some new criterion that could be used for drawing a line between permissible and impermissible medicalization, or demonstrating that under no circumstances-including the cases in which love is already acknowledged to require medical intervention-can love fall within the domain of medicine. PMID:26059959

  8. [Normal pressure hydrocephalus].

    PubMed

    Espinosa, J

    1991-09-01

    We studied the clinical records of 18 patients (11 female and 7 male), from 42-83 years old (average 66.1) who were operated for Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. The etiology was idiopathic in 9 (50%), post-subarachnoid hemorrhage in 6 patients (33.3%), post-cerebral trauma in 2 (11.1%) and post-meningitis in 1. The patients were divided in 4 categories according to their symptoms, as follows: Group A: 9 patients (50%) with dementia, ataxia and incontinence. Group B: 1 patient (5.6%) with dementia-ataxia. Group C: 4 patients (22.2%) with ataxia and incontinence. Group D: 4 patients (22.2%) with ataxia only. 6 patients had a ventriculo peritoneal shunt, and 12 had a ventriculo-atrial shunt placed. All received a Hakim valve of low, medium or high pressure, according to the pre-op ventricular pressure. According to Stein and Langfitt scale for recovery 12 patients (66%) improved and 6 (33.3%) did not change. None was worse. There were no complications. PMID:1767037

  9. Maternal–fetal HLA sharing and preeclampsia: Variation in effects by seminal fluid exposure in a case–control study of nulliparous women in Iowa

    PubMed Central

    Triche, Elizabeth W.; Harland, Karisa K.; Field, Elizabeth H.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Saftlas, Audrey F.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas histocompatibility is critical for transplantation, HLA histoincompatibility is associated with successful pregnancy. Literature on HLA sharing and preeclampsia has been inconsistent; most studies focused on maternal–paternal rather than maternal–fetal sharing. This study examines whether maternal–fetal histocompatibility is associated with preeclampsia, and whether effects vary by semen exposure history. This case–control study of nulliparous women was designed to examine associations among HLA sharing, semen exposure, and preeclampsia. 258 preeclampsia cases and 182 normotensive controls met the eligibility criteria. HLA typing for mother and baby was performed for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1. We further restricted our study sample to 224 mother–baby pairs who had complete HLA typing for all five genes. Seminal fluid exposure indexes incorporated information on type of practice, frequency, contraceptive use (for vaginal exposure) and ingestion practices (for oral exposure). Multivariate models were adjusted for BMI and education. HLA-A matching, Class I matching, and combined Class I and II matching were associated with increased odds of preeclampsia. Among women with low semen exposure, effects of Class I matching were amplified (HLA-A matching, OR=6.27, 95%CI=1.04, 37.97; Class I matching, OR=4.49 per one-match increase, 95%CI=1.89, 14.50). With moderate to high semen exposure, Class II matching effects predominated (HLA-DQB1, OR=3.22, 95%CI=1.04, 9.99; Class II, OR=1.76 per one-match increase, 95%CI=1.05, 2.98; and total matches, OR=1.45 per one-match increase, 95%CI=1.02, 2.06). We found consistent evidence that maternal–fetal HLA sharing was associated with preeclampsia in a pattern influenced by prior vaginal exposure to paternal seminal fluid. PMID:23998333

  10. Maternal-fetal HLA sharing and preeclampsia: variation in effects by seminal fluid exposure in a case-control study of nulliparous women in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Triche, Elizabeth W; Harland, Karisa K; Field, Elizabeth H; Rubenstein, Linda M; Saftlas, Audrey F

    2014-03-01

    Whereas histocompatibility is critical for transplantation, HLA histoincompatibility is associated with successful pregnancy. Literature on HLA sharing and preeclampsia has been inconsistent; most studies focused on maternal-paternal rather than maternal-fetal sharing. This study examines whether maternal-fetal histocompatibility is associated with preeclampsia, and whether effects vary by semen exposure history. This case-control study of nulliparous women was designed to examine associations among HLA sharing, semen exposure, and preeclampsia. 258 preeclampsia cases and 182 normotensive controls met the eligibility criteria. HLA typing for mother and baby was performed for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1. We further restricted our study sample to 224 mother-baby pairs who had complete HLA typing for all five genes. Seminal fluid exposure indexes incorporated information on type of practice, frequency, contraceptive use (for vaginal exposure) and ingestion practices (for oral exposure). Multivariate models were adjusted for BMI and education. HLA-A matching, Class I matching, and combined Class I and II matching were associated with increased odds of preeclampsia. Among women with low semen exposure, effects of Class I matching were amplified (HLA-A matching, OR=6.27, 95%CI=1.04, 37.97; Class I matching, OR=4.49 per one-match increase, 95%CI=1.89, 14.50). With moderate to high semen exposure, Class II matching effects predominated (HLA-DQB1, OR=3.22, 95%CI=1.04, 9.99; Class II, OR=1.76 per one-match increase, 95%CI=1.05, 2.98; and total matches, OR=1.45 per one-match increase, 95%CI=1.02, 2.06). We found consistent evidence that maternal-fetal HLA sharing was associated with preeclampsia in a pattern influenced by prior vaginal exposure to paternal seminal fluid. PMID:23998333

  11. Characterization of a membrane-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme isoform in crayfish testis and evidence for its release into the seminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Simunic, Juraj; Soyez, Daniel; Kamech, Nédia

    2009-09-01

    In the present study, an isoform of angiotensin-converting enzyme was characterized from the testis of a decapod crustacean, the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus. Angiotensin-converting enzyme cDNA, obtained by 3'- to 5' RACE of testis RNAs, codes for a predicted one-domain protein similar to the mammalian germinal isoform of angiotensin-converting enzyme. All amino acid residues involved in enzyme activity are highly conserved, and a potential C-terminus transmembrane anchor may be predicted from the sequence. Comparison of this testicular isoform with angiotensin-converting enzyme from other crustaceans, namely Carcinus maenas, Homarus americanus (both reconstituted for this study from expressed-sequence tag data) and Daphnia pulex, suggests that membrane-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme occurs widely in crustaceans, conversely to other invertebrate groups where angiotensin-converting enzyme is predominantly a soluble protein. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry performed on testis sections show that angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA is mainly localized in spermatogonias, whereas protein is present in spermatozoids. By contrast, in vas deferens, immunoreactivity is detected in the seminal fluid rather than in germ cells. Accordingly, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity assays of testis and vas deferens extracts demonstrate that the enzyme is present in the membrane fraction in testis, but in the soluble fraction in vas deferens. Taken together, the results obtained in the present study suggest that, during the migration of spermatozoids from testis to vas deferens, the enzyme is cleaved from the membrane of the germ cells and released into the seminal fluid. To our knowledge, this present study is the first to report such a maturation process for angiotensin-converting enzyme outside of mammals. PMID:19656189

  12. Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.

    PubMed

    Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2014-10-01

    Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands. PMID:25160003

  13. Hopf bifurcation and plasma instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, J.D.

    1983-11-01

    Center manifold theory and the theory of normal forms are applied to examples of Hopf bifurcation in two models of plasma dynamics. A finite dimensional model of a 3-wave system with quadratic nonlinearities provides a simple example of both supercritical and subcritical Hopf bifurcation. In the second model, the electrostatic instabilities of a collisional plasma correspond to Hopf bifurcations. In this problem, the Vlasov-Poisson equations with a Krook collision term describe the electron dynamics in a weakly ionized gas. The one mode in instability is analyzed in detail; near criticality it always saturates in a small amplitude nonlinear oscillation.

  14. Antibody Penetration into a Spherical Prevascular Tumor Nodule Embedded in Normal Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rupak K. Banerjee; Cynthia Sung; Peter M. Bungay; Robert L. Dedrick; William W. van Osdol

    2002-01-01

    A finite-element (FE) method is used to numerically solve a pharmacokinetic model that describes the uptake of systemically administered antibody (mAb) in a prevascular spherical tumor nodule embedded in normal tissue. The model incorporates plasma kinetics, transcapillary transport, lymphatic clearance, interstitial diffusion in both the normal tissue and tumor, and binding reactions. We use results from the FE analysis to

  15. Normal Tissue TNM Toxicity Taxonomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Rubin

    Philosophically, the TNM Cancer Classification is based on the premise that all malignant tumors have a similar life cycle.\\u000a Cancers originate in a normal tissue, then spread regionally into lymph nodes and then to systematic distant sites hematogenously.\\u000a In a parallel fashion, the conceptual design of a normal tissue TNM classification is based on a similarity of normal tissue\\u000a injury

  16. Plasmoid formation in current sheet with finite normal magnetic component.

    PubMed

    Zhu, P; Raeder, J

    2013-06-01

    Current sheet configurations in natural and laboratory plasmas are often accompanied by a finite normal magnetic component that is known to stabilize the two-dimensional resistive tearing instability in the high Lundquist number regime. Recent magnetohydrodynamic simulations indicate that the nonlinear development of ballooning instability is able to induce the formation of X lines and plasmoids in a generalized Harris sheet with a finite normal magnetic component in the high Lundquist number regime where the linear two-dimensional resistive tearing mode is stable. PMID:25167506

  17. On the normal-mode frequency spectrum of kinetic magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, J. J.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an explicit proof that, in the kinetic magnetohydrodynamics framework, the squared frequencies of normal-mode perturbations about a static equilibrium are real. This proof is based on a quadratic form for the square-integrable normal-mode eigenfunctions and does not rely on demonstrating operator self-adjointness. The analysis is consistent with the quasineutrality condition without involving any subsidiary constraint to enforce it, and does not require the assumption that all particle orbits be periodic. It applies to Maxwellian equilibria, spatially bounded by either a rigid conducting wall or by a plasma-vacuum interface where the density goes continuously to zero.

  18. Plasma Physics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rack, Philip D.

    This is a PDF version of lecture slides by Dr. Philip D. Rack (Assistant Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville) that discuss information from the silicon's crystal structure to how to make doped semiconductors and the mechanics. Although the slides were written by Dr. Rack when he taught at the Rochester Institute of Technology, they are currently hosted by him at the University of Tennessee. Slide topics include plasma properties, DC glow discharge, ionization, plasma species, magnetrons, collisions, and chemical reactions. Numerous mathematical formulas are also presented.

  19. Plasma bile acid elevation following CCI4 induced liver damage in dogs, sheep, calves and ponies.

    PubMed

    Anwer, M S; Engelking, L R; Gronwall, R; Klentz, R D

    1976-03-01

    Plasma bile acid concentration was determined in normal dogs,sheep, calves and ponies for three days before and six days after liver damage, induced by carbon tetrachloride. In all species, a significant increase in plasma bile acid concentration was associated with a concomitant significant increase in plasma sorbitol dehydrogenase and transferase activity. Plasma bilirubin also significantly increased in all animals except the dogs. Results suggested that plasma bile acid levels could be used to test liver function in domestic animals. PMID:1265349

  20. Plasma and fibroblasts of Tangier diesease patients are disturbed in transferrring phospholipids onto apolipoprotein AI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold von Eckardstein; Ali Chirazi; S. Schuler-Luttmann; Michael Walter; John J. P. Kastelein; Jürgen Geisel; José T. Real; Roberto Miccoli; Giorgio Noseda; G. Hobbel; Gerd Assmann

    1998-01-01

    Plasmas of patients with Tangier disease (TD) lack lipid-rich a -HDL which, in normal plasma, constitutes the majority of high density lipoprotein (HDL). Residual amounts of apolipoprotein (apo)A-I in TD plasma occur as lipid-poor or even lipid-free pre b -HDL. By contrast to nor- mal plasma, TD plasma does not convert pre b -HDL into a - HDL. Moreover, fibroblasts

  1. Characterization of a dc atmospheric pressure normal glow discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Staack; Bakhtier Farouk; Alexander Gutsol; Alexander Fridman

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure dc glow discharges were generated between a thin cylindrical anode and a flat cathode. Voltage-current characteristics, visualization of the discharge and estimations of the current density indicate that the discharge is operating in the normal glow regime. Emission spectroscopy and gas temperature measurements using the 2nd positive band of N2 indicate that the discharge forms a non-equilibirum plasma.

  2. Computer Generation from Modified Normal

    E-print Network

    Masci, Frank

    of Computing]: Probability and Statistics-- random number generatmn; statistical software General TermsComputer Generation from Modified Normal J. H. AHRENS University of Kiel, West Germany and U of mean # _> 10 are generated by truncating suitable normal deviates and applying a correction with low

  3. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs.

  4. Evaluating Assumptions of Multivariate Normality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Carrie A.

    Multivariate techniques have been implemented with greater and greater frequency. In order to use multivariate techniques researchers must understand the fundamental assumptions. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate one of the assumptions of multivariate analysis, normality. Overall, normal distributions are unimodal and symmetrical, and they…

  5. Neural Bases of Talker Normalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick C. M. Wong; Howard C. Nusbaum; Steven L. Small

    2004-01-01

    To recognize phonemes across variation in talkers, listeners can use information about vocal characteristics, a process referred to as talker normalization. The present study investigates the cortical mechanisms underlying talker normalization using fMRI. Listeners recognized target words presented in either a spoken list produced by a single talker or a mix of different talkers. It was found that both conditions

  6. Normal Approximation to Poisson Distribution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dinov, Ivo

    This applet, created by Ivo Dinov of the University of California, Los Angeles, demonstrates the normal approximation to the Poisson distribution. Users can set the rate, lambda, and the number of trials, n, and observe how the shape of the distribution changes. The Poisson distribution is shown in blue, and the Normal distribution is shown in red.

  7. Statistical Relational Databases: Normal Forms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sakti P. Ghosh

    1991-01-01

    Problems associated with defining normal forms of relational tables relevant to statistical processing are discussed. The concepts of derived identifier, class identifier, derived class-counts, count domains, compact domains, and uniform domains for statistical relational tables are introduced. The structures of the first and the second statistical-normal forms and the relational decompositions needed to achieve them are also discussed. It is

  8. Normalizing Catastrophe: An Educational Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Processes of normalizing assumptions and values have been the subjects of theoretical framing and critique for several decades now. Critique has often been tied to issues of environmental sustainability and social justice. Now, in an era of global warming, there is a rising concern that the results of normalizing of present values could be…

  9. Plasma Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2005-10-01

    The Plasma Shield is a vortex-stabilized arc that is employed to shield beams and workpiece area of interaction from atmospheric or liquid environment. A vortex-stabilized arc is established between a beam generating device (laser, ion or electron gun) and the target object. The arc, which is composed of a pure noble gas (chemically inert), engulfs the interaction region and generates an outward flow, thus, shielding it from any surrounding liquids (water) or atmospheric gases. The vortex is composed of a sacrificial gas or liquid that swirls around and stabilizes the arc. In current art, many industrial processes that involve ion and electron beams like, dry etching, micro-fabrication, machining, welding and melting are performed exclusively in vacuum, since guns, and accelerators must be kept at a reasonably high vacuum, and since chemical interactions with atmospheric gases adversely affect various processes. Various processes involving electron ion and laser beams can, with the Plasma Shield be performed in practically any environment (under water). It should allow for in situ repair of ship and nuclear reactor components, as well as in-air ion implantation of semiconductors. The plasma shield results in both thermal (since the plasma is hotter than the environment) and chemical shielding. The latter feature brings about in-vacuum process purity out of vacuum, and the thermal shielding aspect results in higher production rates. Experimental results will be presented. *Plasma Shield/Work supported by Acceleron, Inc., Connecticut Light & Power Co., US DOE funding under a NICE3 grant DE-FG41-01R110925, and Connecticut DEP.

  10. Plasma lactoferrin in patients with neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Brown, R D; Yuen, E; Rickard, K A; Vincent, P C; Young, G; Kronenberg, H

    1986-05-01

    This study examines the role of plasma lactoferrin in the assessment of neutropenia. In particular, we have studied lactoferrin as an inhibitor of granulopoiesis and as an indicator of the size of the total blood granulocyte pool (TBGP). Plasma lactoferrin concentration was determined in a heterogeneous group of 30 patients with neutropenia. Serial plasma lactoferrin levels in a patient with cyclic neutropenia correlated with the cycles of the neutrophil count. Patients with splenomegaly had a grossly elevated lactoferrin:neutrophil ratio. Most chronic idiopathic neutropenia patients had no real clinical problems and a normal plasma lactoferrin level. The results provide further evidence to support the concept that plasma lactoferrin indicates the size of the TBGP and the lactoferrin: neutrophil ratio indicates the degree of granulocyte margination. There was no evidence to suggest that lactoferrin acting as a feedback inhibitor of granulopoiesis caused neutropenia in these patients. PMID:3635417

  11. LCDProjektorenPlasmaLCDProjektorenPlasmaLCDProjektoren NEC MultiSync

    E-print Network

    Ott, Albrecht

    LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren NEC MultiSync® EA221WMe für CO² Wert Messung und Kontrolle· #12;LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD

  12. LCDProjektorenPlasmaLCDProjektorenPlasmaLCDProjektoren NEC MultiSync

    E-print Network

    Ott, Albrecht

    LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren NEC MultiSync® EA231WMi Voll (110 mm) mit 90°-Drehfunktion· #12;LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD

  13. Thrombin Generation Capacity of Methylene Blue-Treated Plasma Prepared by the Theraflex MB Plasma System

    PubMed Central

    Gravemann, Ute; Kusch, Manuela; Koenig, Herbert; Mohr, Harald; Mueller, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Methylene blue (MB) / light treatment is a well-known procedure for the inactivation of pathogens in fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Aim of the current study was to investigate the thrombin generation (TG) characteristics and quality of MB plasma prepared by the Theraflex MB Plasma System. Methods Single donor plasma units (n = 18) were MB/light-treated, with sampling before and after processing. Preparation included leukocyte depletion, addition of MB pill prior to illumination, and depletion of MB and photoproducts by filtration. Different plasma parameters and TG were measured. TG additionally was determined in solvent/detergent plasma (n = 8). Results MB/light treatment significantly affected factors V, VIII and XI, which were decreased by 9–18%. While the antigen level was not affected, fibrinogen according to Clauss was decreased by 7%, correlating with a 12% prolongation of TT and RT. The total amount of free thrombin generated, given as ‘area under the curve’ (AUC), was comparable for untreated (93 ± 18% of normal plasma) and MB/light-treated plasma (95 ± 20%). Also peak thrombin concentration was not significantly affected by treatment (94 ± 11% (untreated) vs. 96 ± 12% (treated)). The ‘time to peak’ value (TTP) was 105% of normal plasma for untreated FFP and 89% for MB-treated plasma. Conclusion For plasma treated with the Theraflex MB Plasma System no profound influence of MB/ light treatment on the characteristics of thrombin generation was detected. In concordance with data from the literature, coagulation factors V, VIII and XI were decreased due to MB/ light treatment. Decrease was less than 20%. PMID:20823993

  14. Thrombin Generation Capacity of Methylene Blue-Treated Plasma Prepared by the Theraflex MB Plasma System.

    PubMed

    Gravemann, Ute; Kusch, Manuela; Koenig, Herbert; Mohr, Harald; Mueller, Thomas H

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methylene blue (MB) / light treatment is a well-known procedure for the inactivation of pathogens in fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Aim of the current study was to investigate the thrombin generation (TG) characteristics and quality of MB plasma prepared by the Theraflex MB Plasma System. METHODS: Single donor plasma units (n = 18) were MB/light-treated, with sampling before and after processing. Preparation included leukocyte depletion, addition of MB pill prior to illumination, and depletion of MB and photoproducts by filtration. Different plasma parameters and TG were measured. TG additionally was determined in solvent/detergent plasma (n = 8). RESULTS: MB/light treatment significantly affected factors V, VIII and XI, which were decreased by 9-18%. While the antigen level was not affected, fibrinogen according to Clauss was decreased by 7%, correlating with a 12% prolongation of TT and RT. The total amount of free thrombin generated, given as 'area under the curve' (AUC), was comparable for untreated (93 +/- 18% of normal plasma) and MB/light-treated plasma (95 +/- 20%). Also peak thrombin concentration was not significantly affected by treatment (94 +/- 11% (untreated) vs. 96 +/- 12% (treated)). The 'time to peak' value (TTP) was 105% of normal plasma for untreated FFP and 89% for MB-treated plasma. CONCLUSION: For plasma treated with the Theraflex MB Plasma System no profound influence of MB/ light treatment on the characteristics of thrombin generation was detected. In concordance with data from the literature, coagulation factors V, VIII and XI were decreased due to MB/ light treatment. Decrease was less than 20%. PMID:20823993

  15. Binding of a substrate analog to a domain swapping protein: X-ray structure of the complex of bovine seminal ribonuclease with uridylyl(2',5')adenosine.

    PubMed Central

    Vitagliano, L.; Adinolfi, S.; Riccio, A.; Sica, F.; Zagari, A.; Mazzarella, L.

    1998-01-01

    Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) is a unique member of the pancreatic-like ribonuclease superfamily. The native enzyme is a mixture of two dimeric forms with distinct structural features. The most abundant form is characterized by the swapping of N-terminal fragments. In this paper, the crystal structure of the complex between the swapping dimer and uridylyl(2',5')adenosine is reported at 2.06 A resolution. The refined model has a crystallographic R-factor of 0.184 and good stereochemistry. The quality of the electron density maps enables the structure of both the inhibitor and active site residues to be unambiguously determined. The overall architecture of the active site is similar to that of RNase A. The dinucleotide adopts an extended conformation with the pyrimidine and purine base interacting with Thr45 and Asn71, respectively. Several residues (Gln11, His12, Lys41, His119, and Phe120) bind the oxygens of the phosphate group. The structural similarity of the active sites of BS-RNase and RNase A includes some specific water molecules believed to be relevant to catalytic activity. Upon binding of the dinucleotide, small but significant modifications of the tertiary and quaternary structure of the protein are observed. The ensuing correlation of these modifications with the catalytic activity of the enzyme is discussed. PMID:10082366

  16. Multi-Institutional External Validation of Seminal Vesicle Invasion Nomograms: Head-to-Head Comparison of Gallina Nomogram Versus 2007 Partin Tables

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, Kevin C. [Section of Urology, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Capitanio, Umberto; Jeldres, Claudio; Arjane, Philippe; Perrotte, Paul; Shariat, Shahrokh F. [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Lee, David I. [Department of Urology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Urology Associates of North Texas, USMD Hospital in Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Shalhav, Arieh L.; Zagaja, Gregory P.; Shikanov, Sergey A.; Gofrit, Ofer N.; Thong, Alan E. [Section of Urology, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Albala, David M.; Sun, Leon [Department of Urology, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Karakiewicz, Pierre I. [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)], E-mail: pierre.karakiewicz@umontreal.ca

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: The Partin tables represent one of the most widely used prostate cancer staging tools for seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) prediction. Recently, Gallina et al. reported a novel staging tool for the prediction of SVI that further incorporated the use of the percentage of positive biopsy cores. We performed an external validation of the Gallina et al. nomogram and the 2007 Partin tables in a large, multi-institutional North American cohort of men treated with robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: Clinical and pathologic data were prospectively gathered from 2,606 patients treated with robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy at one of four North American robotic referral centers between 2002 and 2007. Discrimination was quantified with the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve. The calibration compared the predicted and observed SVI rates throughout the entire range of predictions. Results: At robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy, SVI was recorded in 4.2% of patients. The discriminant properties of the Gallina et al. nomogram resulted in 81% accuracy compared with 78% for the 2007 Partin tables. The Gallina et al. nomogram overestimated the true rate of SVI. Conversely, the Partin tables underestimated the true rate of SVI. Conclusion: The Gallina et al. nomogram offers greater accuracy (81%) than the 2007 Partin tables (78%). However, both tools are associated with calibration limitations that need to be acknowledged and considered before their implementation into clinical practice.

  17. Normal tissue studies in radiation oncology: A systematic review of highly cited articles and citation patterns.

    PubMed

    Nieder, Carsten; Andratschke, Nicolaus H; Grosu, Anca L

    2014-09-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the cornerstones of modern multidisciplinary cancer treatment. Normal tissue tolerance is critical as radiation-induced side effects may compromise organ function and quality of life. The importance of normal tissue research is reflected by the large number of scientific articles, which have been published between 2006 and 2010. The present study identified important areas of research as well as seminal publications. The article citation rate is among the potential indicators of scientific impact. Highly cited articles, arbitrarily defined as those with ?15 citations, were identified via a systematic search of the citation database, Scopus. Up to 608 articles per year were published between 2006 and 2010, however, <10% of publications in each year accumulated ?15 citations. This figure is notably low, when compared with other oncology studies. A large variety of preclinical and clinical topics, including toxicity prediction, the dose-volume relationship and radioprotectors, accumulated ?15 citations. However, clinical prevention or mitigation studies were underrepresented. The following conclusion may be drawn from the present study; despite the improved technology that has resulted in superior dose distribution, clinical prevention or mitigation studies are critical and must receive higher priority, funding and attention. PMID:25120644

  18. Normal tissue studies in radiation oncology: A systematic review of highly cited articles and citation patterns

    PubMed Central

    NIEDER, CARSTEN; ANDRATSCHKE, NICOLAUS H.; GROSU, ANCA L.

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the cornerstones of modern multidisciplinary cancer treatment. Normal tissue tolerance is critical as radiation-induced side effects may compromise organ function and quality of life. The importance of normal tissue research is reflected by the large number of scientific articles, which have been published between 2006 and 2010. The present study identified important areas of research as well as seminal publications. The article citation rate is among the potential indicators of scientific impact. Highly cited articles, arbitrarily defined as those with ?15 citations, were identified via a systematic search of the citation database, Scopus. Up to 608 articles per year were published between 2006 and 2010, however, <10% of publications in each year accumulated ?15 citations. This figure is notably low, when compared with other oncology studies. A large variety of preclinical and clinical topics, including toxicity prediction, the dose-volume relationship and radioprotectors, accumulated ?15 citations. However, clinical prevention or mitigation studies were underrepresented. The following conclusion may be drawn from the present study; despite the improved technology that has resulted in superior dose distribution, clinical prevention or mitigation studies are critical and must receive higher priority, funding and attention. PMID:25120644

  19. Mahalanobis' Distance Beyond Normal Distributions

    E-print Network

    Ekström, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    is a vector space and its Mahalanobis distance induced by aMAHALANOBIS’ DISTANCE BEYOND NORMAL DISTRIBUTIONS has Lebesgue measure one, and consequently contains almost every point of the image of the space,

  20. Normal evaporation of binary alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    In the study of normal evaporation, it is assumed that the evaporating alloy is homogeneous, that the vapor is instantly removed, and that the alloy follows Raoult's law. The differential equation of normal evaporation relating the evaporating time to the final solute concentration is given and solved for several important special cases. Uses of the derived equations are exemplified with a Ni-Al alloy and some binary iron alloys. The accuracy of the predicted results are checked by analyses of actual experimental data on Fe-Ni and Ni-Cr alloys evaporated at 1600 C, and also on the vacuum purification of beryllium. These analyses suggest that the normal evaporation equations presented here give satisfactory results that are accurate to within an order of magnitude of the correct values, even for some highly concentrated solutions. Limited diffusion and the resultant surface solute depletion or enrichment appear important in the extension of this normal evaporation approach.

  1. Defining a molecularly normal colon.

    PubMed

    Murphy, K J; Nielson, K R; Albertine, K H

    2001-05-01

    As techniques evolve that allow molecular characterization of disease processes such as cancer, definition of "normal" at a molecular level becomes increasingly important. Increasingly large numbers of mutations are found at the genomic level, but whether all of those mutations contribute to the malignant state of a carcinoma cell is not clear. Without knowledge of what constitutes normality on the proteomic level in an organ or cell, we cannot determine what genomic changes are physiologically important. Traditionally, colon cancer is identified and classified by histological criteria. Margins of the colon are defined as "grossly uninvolved" when the histology is indistinguishable from that of normal (free from disease) colon. By using molecular pathology techniques and working backward from colon adenocarcinoma to hypoplastic polyps to presumably normal mucosa, we defined some of those protein differences. Our results may provide a molecular basis for identifying tumor formation and progression in situ.(J Histochem Cytochem 49:667-668, 2001) PMID:11304807

  2. Plasma diagnostics by Abel inversion in hyberbolic geometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Alhasi; J. A. Elliott

    1992-01-01

    Plasma confined in the UMIST linear quadrupole adopts a configuration with approximately hyperbolic symmetry. The normal diagnostic is a Langmuir probe, but they have developed an alternative method using optical emission tomography based upon an analytic Abel inversion. Plasma radiance is obtained as a function of a parameter identifying magnetic flux surfaces. The inversion algorithm has been tested using artificial

  3. Activity of phospholipase A2 in plasma increases in uremia

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, J.; Franson, R.C.; Landwehr, K.; Landwehr, D.M. (Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1990-02-01

    We measured phospholipase A2 activity in normal and uremic plasma, using (1-{sup 14}C)oleate-labeled autoclaved Escherichia coli as substrate. Hydrolysis of bacterial phospholipid by crude plasma from both groups was optimal at pH 5.5, was specific for the 2-acyl position of phospholipids, and had an absolute requirement for calcium. Activity was greatest in the presence of added Ca{sup 2+}, 5 mmol/L, but this increase was inhibited by several divalent cations (Mg{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}) and by Fe{sup 3+}. PLA2 activity was also inhibited by heparin at acid and alkaline pH, normal plasma being more sensitive than uremic plasma to this inhibition. Enzyme activity in undiluted plasma was eightfold greater in uremic than in normal plasma. Dilution of plasma by two to fourfold increased the total activity of both normal and uremic plasma. However, the relative differences in total activity between the groups remained constant (eight- to 11-fold). The cause and consequences of the increased PLA2 activity in uremia remain to be established.

  4. Nonequilibrium finite dust clusters: Connecting normal modes and wakefields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melzer, André; Schella, André; Mulsow, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic properties of finite three-dimensional dust clusters in a dusty plasma under the influence of an ion focus are studied by normal modes. The mode analysis has been extended to account for the ion focus using the point-charge model for the horizontal interaction of the dust particles. From that, an analytical model for a few-particle system is derived accounting for three distinct dynamical regimes at different focus strengths, namely, absolutely unstable and fully stable configurations as well as an unstable oscillatory regime. The techniques of normal mode analysis (NMA) and instantaneous normal modes (INM) extended by the ion focus have been applied to dust systems in the experiment and compared to the model. From this, the ion focus strength has been derived. The specific sensitivity of NMA and INM allows one to identify equilibrium configurations in this nonequilibrium environment for these finite clusters.

  5. Normalizers of Linear Lie Algebras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene M. Luks

    1974-01-01

    Let V be a finite dimensional vector space over an arbitrary field. For a Lie subalgebra L of gl(V) the “normalizer tower” of L is the sequence {Ni(L)}i=0,1,…, where N (L)=LNi+1(L)= the normalizer of Ni(L) in gl(V). The minimal n such that Nn+1(L)=Nn(L) is called the height of the tower. Bounds for the tower height are discussed for certain classes

  6. Normalized Mutual Information Feature Selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo A. Estévez; Michel Tesmer; Claudio A. Perez; Jacek M. Zurada

    2009-01-01

    A filter method of feature selection based on mu- tual information, called normalized mutual information feature selection (NMIFS), is presented. NMIFS is an enhancement over Battiti's MIFS, MIFS-U, and mRMR methods. The average normalized mutual information is proposed as a measure of re- dundancy among features. NMIFS outperformed MIFS, MIFS-U, and mRMR on several artificial and benchmark data sets without

  7. Penetration of cefazolin into normal and osteomyelitic canine cortical bone.

    PubMed Central

    Daly, R C; Fitzgerald, R H; Washington, J A

    1982-01-01

    The ability of cefazolin to cross the capillary membrane and its concentrations in the interstitial fluid spaces were studied in normal and osteomyelitic canine bone. The maximum extraction after a single capillary passage and the net extraction after 3 min, determined with triple-tracer indicator-dilution techniques, demonstrated that cefazolin readily traversed the capillaries of normal and osteomyelitic bone. These studies suggest that the altered pathophysiology of osteomyelitic tissue and the complex diffusional characteristics of cefazolin enhanced the ability of this agent to cross the endothelial cells lining the capillaries of osteomyelitic bone. Volume of distribution studies demonstrated that cefazolin was distributed in the plasma and interstitial fluid spaces of normal cortical bone. Although these spaces were increased 330 and 941% in osteomyelitic tissue, the distribution of cefazolin increased proportionally. There was a direct correlation between the calculated concentrations of cefazolin in the interstitial fluid spaces of normal and osteomyelitic cortical bone and the simultaneous serum levels in animals in which a steady-state equilibrium had been achieved. These studies suggest that a physiological barrier or concentration gradient for cefazolin does not exist in normal or osteomyelitic bone. Cefazolin can cross the capillary membranes of bone and achieve bactericidal concentrations in the interstitial fluid space of normal and osteomyelitic tissue. PMID:7137985

  8. Normality

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For all questions please contact the AACAP Communications & Marketing Coordinator, ext. 154. If you need immediate assistance, please dial 911. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

  9. Cell proliferation in normal epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, G.D.; McCullough, J.L.; Ross, P.

    1984-06-01

    A detailed examination of cell proliferation kinetics in normal human epidermis is presented. Using tritiated thymidine with autoradiographic techniques, proliferative and differentiated cell kinetics are defined and interrelated. The proliferative compartment of normal epidermis has a cell cycle duration (Tc) of 311 h derived from 3 components: the germinative labeling index (LI), the duration of DNA synthesis (ts), and the growth fraction (GF). The germinative LI is 2.7% +/- 1.2 and ts is 14 h, the latter obtained from a composite fraction of labeled mitoses curve obtained from 11 normal subjects. The GF obtained from the literature and from human skin xenografts to nude mice is estimated to be 60%. Normal-appearing epidermis from patients with psoriasis appears to have a higher proliferation rate. The mean LI is 4.2% +/- 0.9, approximately 50% greater than in normal epidermis. Absolute cell kinetic values for this tissue, however, cannot yet be calculated for lack of other information on ts and GF. A kinetic model for epidermal cell renewal in normal epidermis is described that interrelates the rate of birth/entry, transit, and/or loss of keratinocytes in the 3 epidermal compartments: proliferative, viable differentiated (stratum malpighii), and stratum corneum. Expected kinetic homeostasis in the epidermis is confirmed by the very similar ''turnover'' rates in each of the compartments that are, respectively, 1246, 1417, and 1490 cells/day/mm2 surface area. The mean epidermal turnover time of the entire tissue is 39 days. The Tc of 311 h in normal cells in 8-fold longer than the psoriatic Tc of 36 h and is necessary for understanding the hyperproliferative pathophysiologic process in psoriasis.

  10. Cold Atmosphere Plasma in Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidar, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Plasma is an ionized gas that is typically generated in high-temperature laboratory conditions. Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. Areas of potential application of cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) include dentistry, drug delivery, dermatology, cosmetics, wound healing, cellular modifications, and cancer treatment. Various diagnostic tools have been developed for characterization of CAP including intensified charge-coupled device cameras, optical emission spectroscopy and electrical measurements of the discharge propertied. Recently a new method for temporally resolved measurements of absolute values of plasma density in the plasma column of small-size atmospheric plasma jet utilizing Rayleigh microwave scattering was proposed [1,2]. In this talk we overview state of the art of CAP diagnostics and understanding of the mechanism of plasma action of biological objects. The efficacy of cold plasma in a pre-clinical model of various cancer types (long, bladder, and skin) was recently demonstrated [3]. Both in-vitro and in-vivo studies revealed that cold plasmas selectively kill cancer cells. We showed that: (a) cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in vitro without damaging normal cells. For instance a strong selective effect was observed; the resulting 60--70% of lung cancer cells were detached from the plate in the zone treated with plasma, whereas no detachment was observed in the treated zone for the normal lung cells under the same treatment conditions. (b) Significantly reduced tumor size in vivo. Cold plasma treatment led to tumor ablation with neighbouring tumors unaffected. These experiments were performed on more than 10 mice with the same outcome. We found that tumors of about 5mm in diameter were ablated after 2 min of single time plasma treatment. The two best known cold plasma effects, plasma-induced apoptosis and the decrease of cell migration velocity can have important implications in cancer treatment by localizing the affected area of the tissue and by decreasing metastasic development. In addition, cold plasma treatment has affected the cell cycle of cancer cells. In particular, cold plasma induces a 2-fold increase in cells at the G2/M-checkpoint in both papilloma and carcinoma cells at about 24 hours after treatment, while normal epithelial cells (WTK) did not show significant differences. It was shown that reactive oxygen species metabolism and oxidative stress responsive genes are deregulated. We investigated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with cold plasma treatment as a potential mechanism for the tumor ablation observed. [4pt] [1] Shashurin A., Shneider M.N., Dogariu A., Miles R.B. and Keidar M. Appl. Phys. Lett. (2010) 96, 171502.[0pt] [2] Shashurin A., Shneider M.N., Keidar M. Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 21 (2012) 034006.[0pt] [3]. M. Keidar, R. Walk, A. Shashurin, P. Srinivasan, A. Sandler, S. Dasgupta , R. Ravi, R. Guerrero-Preston, B. Trink, British Journal of Cancer, 105, 1295-1301, 2011

  11. PSpice simulation of one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma (OAUGDP) reactor systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiyu Chen

    2003-01-01

    The PSpice software has been used to simulate the electrical characteristics of a one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma (OAUGDP) reactor system. An OAUGDP reactor system normally includes a power supply, a transformer, an impedance matching network, and the plasma reactor. The principal task in simulation is to develop a comprehensive PSpice model for the plasma discharge in an OAUGDP

  12. Principles of Plasma Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Osterheld

    1998-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive treatment of plasma spectroscopy, the quantitative study of line and continuous radiation from high temperature plasmas. This highly interdisciplinary field combines elements of atomic, plasma and statistical physics, and has wide application to simulations and diagnostics of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Plasma spectroscopy is naturally intertwined with magnetic and inertial fusion energy science. Radiative processes

  13. The laser interferometer: Application to plasma diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Gerardo; J. T. Verdeyen

    1964-01-01

    A laser interferometer employing a reference arm with a spherical mirror is discussed. This interferometer is extremely promising in many fields of scientific endeavor, for instance, in plasma physics, due to its simplicity and high sensitivity. Its sensitivity is greater than that of a similar interferometer with planar mirrors because the closely spaced normal modes with nonzero transverse indexes can

  14. DIII-D Edge Plasma, Disruptions, and Radiative Processes. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Boedo, J. A.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Moyer, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    The scientific goal of the UCSD-DIII-D Collaboration during this period was to understand the coupling of the core plasma to the plasma-facing components through the plasma boundary (edge and scrape-off layer). To achieve this goal, UCSD scientists studied the transport of particles, momentum, energy, and radiation from the plasma core to the plasma-facing components under normal (e.g., L-mode, H-mode, and ELMs), and off-normal (e.g., disruptions) operating conditions.

  15. Plasma Waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Piel

    \\u000a The interest in wave propagation in plasmas has different roots. One of these was the reflection of electromagnetic waves\\u000a by the ionosphere [91]. Stimulated by Guglielmo Marconi’s (1874–1937) experiments on long-distance radio in 1901, Oliver Heaviside\\u000a (1850–1925) [92] and, independently, Arthur Edwin Kennelly (1861–1939) [93] postulated, in 1902, that the Earth’s atmosphere\\u000a at high altitude must contain an electrically conducting

  16. Normal Vulvovaginal Health in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Abigail C; Ryan, Ginny L

    2015-06-01

    As adolescence is often the first time a woman will see a gynecologist, it is important for health care providers to understand and be capable of explaining the changes that occur to a young woman during these years. Many adolescents and their caretakers who seek gynecologic care for what they consider vulvovaginal abnormalities may be misinterpreting completely normal changes; education and reassurance are the best treatment in these cases. Most medical literature on vulvovaginal health focuses on abnormalities and there is a paucity of information on what is considered "normal." This goal of this review is to describe normal anatomic and physiologic vulvovaginal changes that occur during the adolescent years, as well as to offer advice on how to educate and reassure young women during this vulnerable time. PMID:25532681

  17. How should we evaluate prediction tools? Comparison of three different tools for prediction of seminal vesicle invasion at radical prostatectomy as a test case

    PubMed Central

    Lughezzani, Giovanni; Zorn, Kevin C.; Budäus, Lars; Sun, Maxine; Lee, David I.; Shalhav, Arieh L.; Zagaya, Gregory P.; Shikanov, Sergey A.; Gofrit, Ofer N.; Thong, Alan E.; Albala, David M.; Sun, Leon; Cronin, Angel; Vickers, Andrew J.; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Statistical prediction tools are increasingly common in contemporary medicine but there is considerable disagreement about how they should be evaluated. Three tools (Partin tables, the European Society for Urological Oncology (ESUO) criteria and the Gallina nomogram) have been proposed for the prediction of seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. We aimed to determine which of these tool, if any, should be used clinically. Methods The independent validation cohort consisted of 2584 patients treated surgically for clinically localized prostate cancer between 2002 and 2007 at one of four North American tertiary-care referral centers. Traditional (area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic-curve (AUC), calibration plots, the Brier score, sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive value) and novel (risk stratification tables, the net reclassification index, decision curve analysis and predictiveness curves) statistical methods quantified the predictive abilities of the three tested models. Results Traditional statistical methods (receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plots and Brier scores), as well as two of the novel statistical methods (risk stratification tables and the net reclassification index) could not provide clear distinction between the SVI prediction tools. For example, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plots and Brier scores seemed biased against the binary decision tool (ESUO criteria) and gave discordant results for the continuous predictions of the Partin tables and the Gallina nomogram. The results of the calibration plots were discordant with those of the ROC plots. Conversely, the decision curve clearly indicated that the Partin tables represent the ideal strategy for stratifying the risk of SVI. Conclusions Based on decision curve analysis results, surgeons should consider using the Partin tables to predict SVI. Decision curve analysis provided clinically meaningful comparisons between predictive models; other statistical methods for evaluation of prediction models gave inconsistent results that were difficult to interpret. PMID:22561078

  18. Residual Seminal Vesicle Displacement in Marker-Based Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer and the Impact on Margin Design

    SciTech Connect

    Smitsmans, Monique H.P.; Bois, Josien de; Sonke, Jan-Jakob [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Catton, Charles N. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Ontario Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Toronto (Canada); Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Ontario Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Physics, Toronto (Canada); Lebesque, Joos V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Herk, Marcel van, E-mail: portal@nki.n [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to quantify residual interfraction displacement of seminal vesicles (SV) and investigate the efficacy of rotation correction on SV displacement in marker-based prostate image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). We also determined the effect of marker registration on the measured SV displacement and its impact on margin design. Methods and Materials: SV displacement was determined relative to marker registration by using 296 cone beam computed tomography scans of 13 prostate cancer patients with implanted markers. SV were individually registered in the transverse plane, based on gray-value information. The target registration error (TRE) for the SV due to marker registration inaccuracies was estimated. Correlations between prostate gland rotations and SV displacement and between individual SV displacements were determined. Results: The SV registration success rate was 99%. Displacement amounts of both SVs were comparable. Systematic and random residual SV displacements were 1.6 mm and 2.0 mm in the left-right direction, respectively, and 2.8 mm and 3.1 mm in the anteroposterior (AP) direction, respectively. Rotation correction did not reduce residual SV displacement. Prostate gland rotation around the left-right axis correlated with SV AP displacement (R{sup 2} = 42%); a correlation existed between both SVs for AP displacement (R{sup 2} = 62%); considerable correlation existed between random errors of SV displacement and TRE (R{sup 2} = 34%). Conclusions: Considerable residual SV displacement exists in marker-based IGRT. Rotation correction barely reduced SV displacement, rather, a larger SV displacement was shown relative to the prostate gland that was not captured by the marker position. Marker registration error partly explains SV displacement when correcting for rotations. Correcting for rotations, therefore, is not advisable when SV are part of the target volume. Margin design for SVs should take these uncertainties into account.

  19. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, Marcelo B. (New York, NY); Efstratiadis, Argiris (Englewood, NJ)

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  20. Negative coefficient of normal restitution.

    PubMed

    Müller, Patric; Krengel, Dominik; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2012-04-01

    This paper shows that negative coefficients of normal restitution occur inevitably when the interaction force between colliding particles is finite. We derive an explicit criterion showing that for any set of material properties there is always a collision geometry leading to negative restitution coefficients. While from a phenomenological point of view, negative coefficients of normal restitution appear rather artificial, this phenomenon is generic and implies an important overlooked limitation of the widely used hard sphere model. The criterion is explicitly applied to two paradigmatic situations: for the linear dashpot model and for viscoelastic particles. In addition, we show that for frictional particles the phenomenon is less pronounced than for smooth spheres. PMID:22680468

  1. Negative coefficient of normal restitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Patric; Krengel, Dominik; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2012-04-01

    This paper shows that negative coefficients of normal restitution occur inevitably when the interaction force between colliding particles is finite. We derive an explicit criterion showing that for any set of material properties there is always a collision geometry leading to negative restitution coefficients. While from a phenomenological point of view, negative coefficients of normal restitution appear rather artificial, this phenomenon is generic and implies an important overlooked limitation of the widely used hard sphere model. The criterion is explicitly applied to two paradigmatic situations: for the linear dashpot model and for viscoelastic particles. In addition, we show that for frictional particles the phenomenon is less pronounced than for smooth spheres.

  2. Improved plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  3. Plasma Free Metanephrines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this website will be limited. Search Help? Plasma Free Metanephrines Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Plasma Metanephrines Formal name: Fractionated Plasma Free Metanephrines (Normetanephrine ...

  4. Cubic AlGaN/GaN Hetero-Junction Field-Effect Transistors with Normally-on and Normally-off

    E-print Network

    As, Donat Josef

    layers grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on free standing 3C-SiC (001). The electrical insulation of 3C-SiC was realized by Ar+ implantation before c-AlGaN/GaN growth. HFETs with normally

  5. The Pervasive Plasma State

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Berk, Herbert L.

    This site by the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society explores plasma, a state of matter that blankets the Earth as a result of solar winds. Pictures and text are used to convey the significance and commonplace use of plasmas in society. Information provided by the site includes understanding plasmas, commercial applications, plasma in space, the future of plasma use, and more.

  6. Simultaneous normalization and algebra husks

    E-print Network

    Kollár, János

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this note is to use the concept of algebra husks to prove an analog of the flattening decomposition theorem for simultaneous normalizations. Other applications improve earlier flatness criteria. Parts of this note were contained in the first version of "Hulls and Husks" (arXiv:0805.0576).

  7. Statistical Applets: Normal Density Curve

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Duckworth, William

    Created by authors Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman and Co., this applet is designed to help students visualize the normal curve and probabilities associated with it. It accompanies "Practice of Business Statistics,"� but can be used without this text. Even though brief, this is still a nice resource for an introductory statistics course.

  8. Research summaries for normal birth.

    PubMed

    Romano, Amy M

    2008-01-01

    In this column, the author summarizes four research studies relevant to normal birth. The topics of the studies summarized include the effect of obstetrician anxiety on cesarean surgery rates, the risks of routine membrane sweeping, beneficial effects of doula care for middle-class women, and the lack of reliability of continuous electronic fetal monitoring tracings. PMID:19436531

  9. The Einstein Normal Galaxy Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbiano, G.; Trinchieri, G.; Hazelton, S.; Kim, D. W.

    An X-ray catalog and a data base for normal galaxies surveyed with the Einstin Observatory are under construction and will be made available for use by the astronomical community at large. The X-ray database contains information for all the galaxies including detections and upper limits. The data reduction method is described.

  10. Hemimegalencephaly and normal intellectual development.

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, L; Ferracuti, S; Fariello, G; Manfredi, M; Vigevano, F

    1992-01-01

    Hemimegalencephaly is a rare congenital malformation characterised by overgrowth of one hemisphere. Although it is commonly thought to be associated with neurological deficits, developmental delay, and intractable epilepsy, the clinical expression of hemimegalencephaly, can vary widely. This patient was neurologically and neuropsychologically normal apart from rare partial seizures. Images PMID:1326602

  11. Knowledge Management in Database Normalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Zhang; Bhavani Sridharan

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge Management can be effectively applied in education. Previous work has suggested that it encourages learners' self-learning motivation, enhance learning flexibility, adaptation and utilization. This paper furthers this idea by applying Knowledge Management in the area of database normalization learning. In this paper, we present an effective means to provide learners and education instructors a better learning and teaching environment.

  12. Cholesterol esterification in rabbit plasma.

    PubMed

    Stefanovich, V

    1969-11-01

    1. When [4-(14)C]cholesterol, attached to beta-globulin or dispersed with Tween 20, was incubated with fresh rabbit (New Zealand albino females) plasma, 30-47% esterification was observed. The optimum pH was 6.8. This esterification was accomplished by the transfer of fatty acids from the C-2 position of lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) to cholesterol. 2. There was no evidence that triglycerides or free fatty acids participated directly in this reaction. Lecithins with labelled palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid in the 2-position yielded 3.2, 4.8 and 6.8% of cholesteryl esters respectively. This pattern reflects that which is normally observed in the cholesteryl esters of rabbit plasma and supports the concept that plasma cholesteryl esters originate from the plasma. 3. Snake venom (containing phospholipase A), sulphoevernan [an alpha-(1-->3,1-->4)-sulphopolyglucan with 12% sulphur], thiol-blocking agents (p-chloromercuribenzoate and N-ethylmaleimide), or an atherogenic diet (stock diet supplemented with 1% cholesterol for 8 weeks) were all effective inhibitors of this cholesterol esterification. PMID:4187623

  13. Fluid involvement in normal faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibson, Richard H.

    2000-04-01

    Evidence of fluid interaction with normal faults comes from their varied role as flow barriers or conduits in hydrocarbon basins and as hosting structures for hydrothermal mineralisation, and from fault-rock assemblages in exhumed footwalls of steep active normal faults and metamorphic core complexes. These last suggest involvement of predominantly aqueous fluids over a broad depth range, with implications for fault shear resistance and the mechanics of normal fault reactivation. A general downwards progression in fault rock assemblages (high-level breccia-gouge (often clay-rich) ? cataclasites ? phyllonites ? mylonite ? mylonitic gneiss with the onset of greenschist phyllonites occurring near the base of the seismogenic crust) is inferred for normal fault zones developed in quartzo-feldspathic continental crust. Fluid inclusion studies in hydrothermal veining from some footwall assemblages suggest a transition from hydrostatic to suprahydrostatic fluid pressures over the depth range 3-5 km, with some evidence for near-lithostatic to hydrostatic pressure cycling towards the base of the seismogenic zone in the phyllonitic assemblages. Development of fault-fracture meshes through mixed-mode brittle failure in rock-masses with strong competence layering is promoted by low effective stress in the absence of thoroughgoing cohesionless faults that are favourably oriented for reactivation. Meshes may develop around normal faults in the near-surface under hydrostatic fluid pressures to depths determined by rock tensile strength, and at greater depths in overpressured portions of normal fault zones and at stress heterogeneities, especially dilational jogs. Overpressures localised within developing normal fault zones also determine the extent to which they may reutilise existing discontinuities (for example, low-angle thrust faults). Brittle failure mode plots demonstrate that reactivation of existing low-angle faults under vertical ?1 trajectories is only likely if fluid overpressures are localised within the fault zone and the surrounding rock retains significant tensile strength. Migrating pore fluids interact both statically and dynamically with normal faults. Static effects include consideration of the relative permeability of the faults with respect to the country rock, and juxtaposition effects which determine whether a fault is transmissive to flow or acts as an impermeable barrier. Strong directional permeability is expected in the subhorizontal ?2 direction parallel to intersections between minor faults, extension fractures, and stylolites. Three dynamic mechanisms tied to the seismic stress cycle may contribute to fluid redistribution: (i) cycling of mean stress coupled to shear stress, sometimes leading to postfailure expulsion of fluid from vertical fractures; (ii) suction pump action at dilational fault jogs; and, (iii) fault-valve action when a normal fault transects a seal capping either uniformly overpressured crust or overpressures localised to the immediate vicinity of the fault zone at depth. The combination of ?2 directional permeability with fluid redistribution from mean stress cycling may lead to hydraulic communication along strike, contributing to the protracted earthquake sequences that characterise normal fault systems.

  14. Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zonca, F.; Cohen, S.A.; Bennett, T.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1993-08-24

    An apparatus is described for measuring momentum flux from an intense plasma stream, comprising: refractory target means oriented normal to the flow of said plasma stream for bombardment by said plasma stream where said bombardment by said plasma stream applies a pressure to said target means, pendulum means for communicating a translational displacement of said target to a force transducer where said translational displacement of said target is transferred to said force transducer by an elongated member coupled to said target, where said member is suspended by a pendulum configuration means and where said force transducer is responsive to said translational displacement of said member, and force transducer means for outputting a signal representing pressure data corresponding to said displacement.

  15. The metabolic and hemodynamic effects of prolonged bed rest in normal subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chobanian, A. V.; Lille, R. D.; Tercyak, A.; Blevins, P.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation in six normal subjects of the effects of chronic bed rest on the interrelationships between cardiovascular hemodynamics, catecholamine metabolism, vascular reactivity, renin and aldosterone activity, and electrolyte and fluid balance. Negative sodium and potassium balances and reductions in plasma volume were observed in all subjects, but plasma renin activity and aldosterone secretory rate showed no significant change. Other findings included the observation that major decreases in sodium balance and plasma volume occurred in the early bed rest period and did not correlate closely with the degree of orthostatic intolerance.

  16. DEPARTURE FROM NORMALITY AND EIGENVALUE PERTURBATION BOUNDS

    E-print Network

    , departure from normality, sum of normal matrices AMS subject classification. 15A42, 15A18, 15A12, 65F15, 65F35 1. Introduction. The results in this paper are based on two eigenvalue bounds for normal

  17. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in quantum magnetized viscous plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshoudy, G. A., E-mail: g_hoshoudy@yahoo.com [South Valley University, Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Science (Egypt)

    2011-09-15

    Quantum effects on Rayleigh-Taylor instability of stratified viscous plasmas layer under the influence of vertical magnetic field are investigated. By linearly solving the viscous QMHD equations into normal mode, a forth-order ordinary differential equation is obtained to describe the velocity perturbation. Then the growth rate is derived for the case where a plasma with exponential density distribution is confined between two rigid planes. The results show that, the presence of vertical magnetic field beside the quantum effect will bring about more stability on the growth rate of unstable configuration for viscous plasma, which is greater than that of inviscous plasma.

  18. Characterization of the inflammatory cell populations in normal colon and colonic carcinomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara F. Banner; Louis Savas; Stephen P. Baker; Bruce A. Woda

    1993-01-01

    Summary  Little is known about the nature of the mucosa-associated immune system within the normal colon, or about the immune response\\u000a to colon carcinoma. In this study inflammatory cells (ICs) in 14 normal colons and 14 carcinomas were characterized. Overall\\u000a inflammation, lymphocytes, plasma cells, neutrophils, and eosinophils were graded in routine H & E sections. Frozen sections\\u000a were stained by an

  19. Ionization behind strong normal shock waves in argon

    SciTech Connect

    Kaniel, A.; Igra, O.; Ben-Dor, G.; Mond, M.

    1986-11-01

    The ionization of argon by strong normal shock waves is studied. The conservation equations are solved to yield the plasma behavior behind the shock wave front. Very good agreement is obtained between experimental findings and the present numerical results for the electron number density, plasma density, and degree of ionization, especially at the electron avalanche region of the relaxation zone. The high accuracy of the present numerical solutions in reproducing the electron avalanche is attributed to the use of accurate threshold collision cross sections for excitation of argon by electron collisions. To support this claim it is demonstrated that if different assumptions were used to describe the ionization process, then the computed results would be different only upstream of the electron avalanche region, i.e., it is shown that the proposed model for ionizing shock waves enables a highly accurate reproduction of the electron avalanche but is less accurate in predicting its exact location.

  20. Normal Modes of Magnetized Finite Two-Dimensional Yukawa Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marleau, Gabriel-Dominique; Kaehlert, Hanno; Bonitz, Michael

    2009-11-01

    The normal modes of a finite two-dimensional dusty plasma in an isotropic parabolic confinement, including the simultaneous effects of friction and an external magnetic field, are studied. The ground states are found from molecular dynamics simulations with simulated annealing, and the influence of screening, friction, and magnetic field on the mode frequencies is investigated in detail. The two-particle problem is solved analytically and the limiting cases of weak and strong magnetic fields are discussed.[4pt] [1] C. Henning, H. K"ahlert, P. Ludwig, A. Melzer, and M.Bonitz. J. Phys. A 42, 214023 (2009)[2] B. Farokhi, M. Shahmansouri, and P. K. Shukla. Phys.Plasmas 16, 063703 (2009)[3] L. Cândido, J.-P. Rino, N. Studart, and F. M. Peeters. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 10, 11627--11644 (1998)

  1. The plasma scalpel: a new thermal knife.

    PubMed

    Glover, J L; Bendick, P J; Link, W J; Plunkett, R J

    1982-01-01

    A new thermal knife, the plasma scalpel, capable of simultaneous division of tissue and coagulation of blood vessels, is described. A high temperature argon gas plasma (unrelated to blood plasma) is created by passing the gas through a direct current arc, ionizing the gas and elevating its temperature to 3000 degrees C. A small plasma cutting jet is formed by a nozzle at the tip of the handpiece. Liver resections and muscle transections performed in a canine model, and full thickness burn excisions in a pig skin model showed effective division of tissue and significantly less blood loss when compared to the steel scalpel. Wound healing studies of histologic comparisons and wound breaking strength were performed for steel, plasma, laser, and electrosurgical scalped incisions in the skin of mice and rats. All thermal knife wounds showed localized tissue damage at the edges of the incision, but the events of healing began at the same time. Compared to the steel scalpel, there was a three to six day delay in the onset of healing, but healing occurred in the normal fashion and all thermal knife wounds reached the same healed breaking strength as the steel scalpel wounds. Clinically, the plasma scalped has been used for 138 procedures in 96 patients. The majority of cases have been transection of muscle, hepatic resection or debridement, or soft tissue debridement. Muscle transection data for the plasma scalped compared to the electrosurgical scalpel has shown virtually no blood loss with a shorter time to hemostasis for the plasma scalpel. The plasma scalpel has proved to be an effective thermal knife, capable of simultaneous division and coagulation. Further development work and proof of its efficacy in the clinical setting are necessary to establish the plasma scalpel and adequately demonstrate its proper role in surgery. PMID:7109809

  2. Simultaneous Replacement in Normal Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annalisa Bossi; Nicoletta Cocco; Sandro Etalle

    1996-01-01

    The simultaneous replacement transformation operation ii here denned and studied w.r.t normal programs. We give applicability conditions able to ensure the correctness of the operation w.r.t. the set of logical consequences of the completed database. We consider separately the cases in which the underlying language is infinite and finite; in this latter case we also distinguish according to the kind

  3. Normal forms in Poisson geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcut, Ioan

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies normal forms for Poisson structures around symplectic leaves using several techniques: geometric, formal and analytic ones. One of the main results (Theorem 2) is a normal form theorem in Poisson geometry, which is the Poisson-geometric version of the Local Reeb Stability (from foliation theory) and of the Slice Theorem (from equivariant geometry). The result generalizes Conn's theorem from fixed points to arbitrary symplectic leaves. We present two proofs of this result: a geometric one relying heavily on the theory of Lie algebroids and Lie groupoids (similar to the new proof of Conn's theorem by Crainic and Fernandes), and an analytic one using the Nash-Moser fast convergence method (more in the spirit of Conn's original proof). The analytic approach gives much more, we prove a local rigidity result (Theorem 4) around compact Poisson submanifolds, which is the first of this kind in Poisson geometry. Theorem 4 has a surprising application to the study of smooth deformation of Poisson structures: in Theorem 5 we compute the Poisson-moduli space around the Lie-Poisson sphere (i.e. the invariant unit sphere inside the linear Poisson manifold corresponding to a compact semisimple Lie algebra). This is the first such computation of a Poisson moduli space in dimension greater or equal to 3 around a degenerate (i.e. non-symplectic) Poisson structure. Other results presented in the thesis are: a new proof to the existence of symplectic realizations (Theorem 0), a normal form theorem for symplectic foliations (Theorem 1), a formal normal form/rigidity result around Poisson submanifolds (Theorem 3), and a general construction of tame homotopy operators for Lie algebroid cohomology (the Tame Vanishing Lemma). We also revisit Conn's theorem and a theorem of Hamilton on rigidity of foliations.

  4. Physics and medical applications of cold atmospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidar, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. Varieties of novel plasma diagnostic techniques were applied in a quest to understand physics of cold plasmas. In particular it was established that the streamer head charge is about 108 electrons, the electrical field in the head vicinity is about 107 V/m, and the electron density of the streamer column is about 1019 m3. We have demonstrated the efficacy of cold plasma in a pre-clinical model of various cancer types (lung, bladder, breast, head, neck, brain and skin). Both in-vitro andin-vivo studies revealed that cold plasmas selectively kill cancer cells. We showed that: (a) cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in vitro without damaging normal cells. (b) Significantly reduced tumor size in vivo. Cold plasma treatment led to tumor ablation with neighbouring tumors unaffected. These experiments were performed on more than 10 mice with the same outcome. We found that tumors of about 5mm in diameter were ablated after 2 min of single time plasma treatment. The two best known cold plasma effects, plasma-induced apoptosis and the decrease of cell migration velocity can have important implications in cancer treatment by localizing the affected area of the tissue and by decreasing metastasic development. In addition, cold plasma treatment has affected the cell cycle of cancer cells. In particular, cold plasmainduces a 2-fold increase in cells at the G2/M-checkpoint in both papilloma and carcinoma cells at ~24 hours after treatment, while normal epithelial cells (WTK) did not show significant differences. It was shown that reactive oxygen species metabolism and oxidative stress responsive genes are deregulated. We investigated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with cold plasma treatment as a potential mechanism for the tumor ablation observed.

  5. Normal fault earthquakes or graviquakes

    PubMed Central

    Doglioni, C.; Carminati, E.; Petricca, P.; Riguzzi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquakes are dissipation of energy throughout elastic waves. Canonically is the elastic energy accumulated during the interseismic period. However, in crustal extensional settings, gravity is the main energy source for hangingwall fault collapsing. Gravitational potential is about 100 times larger than the observed magnitude, far more than enough to explain the earthquake. Therefore, normal faults have a different mechanism of energy accumulation and dissipation (graviquakes) with respect to other tectonic settings (strike-slip and contractional), where elastic energy allows motion even against gravity. The bigger the involved volume, the larger is their magnitude. The steeper the normal fault, the larger is the vertical displacement and the larger is the seismic energy released. Normal faults activate preferentially at about 60° but they can be shallower in low friction rocks. In low static friction rocks, the fault may partly creep dissipating gravitational energy without releasing great amount of seismic energy. The maximum volume involved by graviquakes is smaller than the other tectonic settings, being the activated fault at most about three times the hypocentre depth, explaining their higher b-value and the lower magnitude of the largest recorded events. Having different phenomenology, graviquakes show peculiar precursors. PMID:26169163

  6. Normal fault earthquakes or graviquakes.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, C; Carminati, E; Petricca, P; Riguzzi, F

    2015-01-01

    Earthquakes are dissipation of energy throughout elastic waves. Canonically is the elastic energy accumulated during the interseismic period. However, in crustal extensional settings, gravity is the main energy source for hangingwall fault collapsing. Gravitational potential is about 100 times larger than the observed magnitude, far more than enough to explain the earthquake. Therefore, normal faults have a different mechanism of energy accumulation and dissipation (graviquakes) with respect to other tectonic settings (strike-slip and contractional), where elastic energy allows motion even against gravity. The bigger the involved volume, the larger is their magnitude. The steeper the normal fault, the larger is the vertical displacement and the larger is the seismic energy released. Normal faults activate preferentially at about 60° but they can be shallower in low friction rocks. In low static friction rocks, the fault may partly creep dissipating gravitational energy without releasing great amount of seismic energy. The maximum volume involved by graviquakes is smaller than the other tectonic settings, being the activated fault at most about three times the hypocentre depth, explaining their higher b-value and the lower magnitude of the largest recorded events. Having different phenomenology, graviquakes show peculiar precursors. PMID:26169163

  7. A normalized Levenshtein distance metric.

    PubMed

    Yujian, Li; Bo, Liu

    2007-06-01

    Although a number of normalized edit distances presented so far may offer good performance in some applications, none of them can be regarded as a genuine metric between strings because they do not satisfy the triangle inequality. Given two strings X and Y over a finite alphabet, this paper defines a new normalized edit distance between X and Y as a simple function of their lengths (|X| and |Y|) and the Generalized Levenshtein Distance (GLD) between them. The new distance can be easily computed through GLD with a complexity of O(|X|.|Y|) and it is a metric valued in [0, 1] under the condition that the weight function is a metric over the set of elementary edit operations with all costs of insertions/deletions having the same weight. Experiments using the AESA algorithm in handwritten digit recognition show that the new distance can generally provide similar results to some other normalized edit distances and may perform slightly better if the triangle inequality is violated in a particular data set. PMID:17431306

  8. The measurement of lysosomal phospholipase A2 activity in plasma.

    PubMed

    Abe, Akira; Kelly, Robert; Shayman, James A

    2010-08-01

    A deficiency of lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) causes macrophage-associated phospholipidosis, suggesting that the enzyme is important in the lipid catabolism. Because LPLA2 is secreted by macrophages, extracellular LPLA2 activity may potentially reflect a change in macrophage activation. In this report, the detection of LPLA2 activity in plasma was established by the measurement of the transacylase activity of LPLA2 under acidic conditions. No transacylase activity of LPLA2 was detected in normal human plasma when the plasma was incubated with liposomes consisting of 1,2-dioleoylphosphatidylcholine/sulfatide/N-acetylsphingosine (NAS) at pH 4.5. However, the transacylase activity in the plasma was detected when liposomes consisting of 1,2-dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol/NAS were used as a substrate. To establish the specificity of the assay, ceramide transacylase activity was detected in the plasma of wild-type mice. By contrast, the plasma obtained from LPLA2-knockout mice had no measurable transacylase activity under the same conditions. The enzymatic activity of recombinant LPLA2 was inhibited by treatment with methylarachidonylfluorophosphonate. The inhibitor also suppressed the transacylase activity observed in both normal human and wild-type mouse plasma, establishing that the transacylase activity observed in plasma is due to LPLA2. Plasma LPLA2 activity may be a useful bioassay marker for the identification of LPLA2-related disorders. PMID:20410020

  9. Communication through plasma sheaths

    SciTech Connect

    Korotkevich, A. O.; Newell, A. C.; Zakharov, V. E. [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, 2, Kosygin Str., Moscow, 119334 (Russian Federation); Department of Mathematics, University of Arizona, 617 N. Santa Rita Ave., Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Department of Mathematics, University of Arizona, 617 N. Santa Rita Ave., Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53, Leninsky Prosp., GSP-1 Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, 2, Kosygin Str., Moscow, 119334 (Russian Federation) and Waves and Solitons LLC, 918 W. Windsong Dr., Phoenix, Arizona 85045 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    We wish to transmit messages to and from a hypersonic vehicle around which a plasma sheath has formed. For long distance transmission, the signal carrying these messages must be necessarily low frequency, typically 2 GHz, to which the plasma sheath is opaque. The idea is to use the plasma properties to make the plasma sheath appear transparent.

  10. Progress on plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.

    1986-05-01

    Several plasma accelerator concepts are reviewed, with emphasis on the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator (PBWA) and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator (PWFA). Various accelerator physics issues regarding these schemes are discussed, and numerical examples on laboratory scale experiments are given. The efficiency of plasma accelerators is then revealed with suggestions on improvements. Sources that cause emittance growth are discussed briefly.

  11. Laser plasma diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. N. Piatnitskii

    1976-01-01

    This book discusses theoretical and experimental principles of laser techniques for plasma diagnostics. Special attention is given to interferometry and to methods based on light scattering by plasma electrons. The basic electromagnetic properties of a plasma are reviewed along with characteristics of plasma electromagnetic fluctuations and wave scattering. Fundamental principles of laser interferometry are outlined, the use of laser interferometry

  12. Principles of Plasma Diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. H. Hutchinson

    2002-01-01

    This book provides a systematic introduction to the physics of plasma diagnostics measurements. It develops from first principles the concepts needed to plan, execute and interpret plasma measurements, making it a suitable book for graduate students and professionals with little plasma physics background. The book will also be a valuable reference for seasoned plasma physicists, both experimental and theoretical, as

  13. Principles of Plasma Diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. H. Hutchinson

    2005-01-01

    This book provides a systematic introduction to the physics of plasma diagnostics measurements. It develops from first principles the concepts needed to plan, execute and interpret plasma measurements, making it a suitable book for graduate students and professionals with little plasma physics background. The book will also be a valuable reference for seasoned plasma physicists, both experimental and theoretical, as

  14. Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC): An Introduction to the Scientific Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Bentzen, Soren M., E-mail: bentzen@humonc.wisc.ed [Departments of Human Oncology, Medical Physics, Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Constine, Louis S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Eisbruch, Avi [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Jackson, Andrew [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Yorke, Ellen D. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Advances in dose-volume/outcome (or normal tissue complication probability, NTCP) modeling since the seminal Emami paper from 1991 are reviewed. There has been some progress with an increasing number of studies on large patient samples with three-dimensional dosimetry. Nevertheless, NTCP models are not ideal. Issues related to the grading of side effects, selection of appropriate statistical methods, testing of internal and external model validity, and quantification of predictive power and statistical uncertainty, all limit the usefulness of much of the published literature. Synthesis (meta-analysis) of data from multiple studies is often impossible because of suboptimal primary analysis, insufficient reporting and variations in the models and predictors analyzed. Clinical limitations to the current knowledge base include the need for more data on the effect of patient-related cofactors, interactions between dose distribution and cytotoxic or molecular targeted agents, and the effect of dose fractions and overall treatment time in relation to nonuniform dose distributions. Research priorities for the next 5-10 years are proposed.

  15. Plasmas for space propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahedo, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    Plasma thrusters are challenging the monopoly of chemical thrusters in space propulsion. The specific energy that can be deposited into a plasma beam is orders of magnitude larger than the specific chemical energy of known fuels. Plasma thrusters constitute a vast family of devices ranging from already commercial thrusters to incipient laboratory prototypes. Figures of merit in plasma propulsion are discussed. Plasma processes and conditions differ widely from one thruster to another, with the pre-eminence of magnetized, weakly collisional plasmas. Energy is imparted to the plasma via either energetic electron injection, biased electrodes or electromagnetic irradiation. Plasma acceleration can be electrothermal, electrostatic or electromagnetic. Plasma-wall interaction affects energy deposition and erosion of thruster elements, and thus is central for thruster efficiency and lifetime. Magnetic confinement and magnetic nozzles are present in several devices. Oscillations and turbulent transport are intrinsic to the performances of some thrusters. Several thrusters are selected in order to discuss these relevant plasma phenomena.

  16. Plasma Physics PART Al: INTRODUCTION TO PLASMA SCIENCE

    E-print Network

    Chen, Francis F.

    Plasma Physics PART Al: INTRODUCTION TO PLASMA SCIENCE I. What is a plasma? 1 II. Plasma fundamentals 3 1. Quasineutrality and Debye length 2. Plasma frequency and acoustic velocity 3. Larmor radius; magnetic buckets Cross section data 21 PART A3: PLASMA SOURCES I IV. Introduction to plasma sources 25 1

  17. Changes in ventricular size and plasma renin activity after cardiac surgery in children.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, B D; Oberhänsli, I; Rouge, J C; Paunier, L; Friedli, B; Vallotton, M B

    1980-09-01

    Plasma renin activity and one-dimensional echocardiographic measurements of the left atrium and left ventricle as well as function indices were studied repeatedly in 20 children with various cardiopathies (ages: 9 months to 15 years) before and after corrective surgery. Nine children had tetralogy of Fallot, four had pulmonary stenosis, four had rheumatic heart disease, two had ventricular septal defect, and one had atrial septal defect. Plasma renin activity was normal preoperatively, but increased significantly immediately after surgery, was still significantly higher on the 12th postoperative day and returned to normal six to eight weeks after surgery. Patients with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary stenosis had higher plasma renin activity values than the others. There was a positive correlation between plasma renin activity and postoperative percentage change of the left ventricular dimension. In patients with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary stenosis, this meant that plasma renin activity became normal when the preoperatively small left ventricle reached its normal dimension. This adjustment occurred slowly over a period of two months. In rheumatic heart disease and left-to-right shunt lesions, plasma renin activities became normal when the preoperatively dilated left ventricle decreased in size towards normal values; the plasma renin activities of these patients had reached normal levels by the fifth postoperative day. The renin secretion is modulated by various factors: of these, ventricular size and pulmonary venous return seem to be of importance. PMID:7000103

  18. Ballooning stability of anisotropic, rotating plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, X.-H.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    1990-01-01

    The linearized equation of motion is given in a Lagrangian representation for a rotating plasma with anisotropic pressure. A WKB theory is developed for large-n ballooning modes in an axisymmetric configuration with field-aligned and rigid toroidal flows. In the presence of field-aligned flows, it is shown that a resonance occurs which is strongly suggestive of a generalized mirror instability. In the presence of toroidal rotation, a possible stabilizing effect is identified for P(normal) greater than P(parallel). Finally, as a special case of the theory, the necessary and sufficient conditions for stability in a static, anisotropic plasma are obtained.

  19. Plasma enhanced C1 chemistry for green technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro

    2013-09-01

    Plasma catalysis is one of the innovative next generation green technologies that meet the needs for energy and materials conservation as well as environmental protection. Non-thermal plasma uniquely generates reactive species independently of reaction temperature, and these species are used to initiate chemical reactions at unexpectedly lower temperatures than normal thermochemical reactions. Non-thermal plasma thus broadens the operation window of existing chemical conversion processes, and ultimately allows modification of the process parameters to minimize energy and material consumption. We have been specifically focusing on dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) as one of the viable non-thermal plasma sources for practical fuel reforming. In the presentation, room temperature one-step conversion of methane to methanol and hydrogen using a miniaturized DBD reactor (microplasma reactor) is highlighted. The practical impact of plasma technology on existing C1-chemistry is introduced, and then unique characteristics of plasma fuel reforming such as non-equilibrium product distribution is discussed.

  20. Normal spectral emittance of Inconel 718 aeronautical alloy coated with yttria stabilized zirconia films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. González-Fernández; L. del Campo; R. B. Pérez-Sáez; M. J. Tello

    Knowledge of the radiative behaviour of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is needed to perform radiative heat transfer calculations in industrial applications. In this paper, normal spectral emittance experimental data of atmospheric plasma sprayed (PS) YSZ films layered on Inconel 718 substrates are shown. The spectral emittance was measured between 2.5 and 22?m on samples with

  1. Effects of varying doses of ?-nerve growth factor on the timing of ovulation, plasma progesterone concentration and corpus luteum size in female alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Stuart, C C; Vaughan, J L; Kershaw-Young, C M; Wilkinson, J; Bathgate, R; de Graaf, S P

    2014-06-26

    Ovulation in camelids is induced by the seminal plasma protein ovulation-inducing factor (OIF), recently identified as ?-nerve growth factor (?-NGF). The present study measured the total protein concentration in alpaca seminal plasma using a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein quantification assay and found it to be 22.2±2.0mgmL-1. To measure the effects of varying doses of ?-NGF on the incidence and timing of ovulation, corpus luteum (CL) size and plasma progesterone concentration, 24 female alpacas were synchronised and treated with either: (1) 1mL 0.9% saline (n=5); (2) 4µg buserelin (n=5); (3) 1mg ?-NGF protein (n=5); (4) 0.1mg ?-NGF (n=5); or (5) 0.01mg ?-NGF (n=4). Females were examined by transrectal ultrasonography at 1-2-h intervals between 20 and 45h after treatment or until ovulation occurred, as well as on Day 8 to observe the size of the CL, at which time blood was collected to measure plasma progesterone concentrations. Ovulation was detected in 0/5, 5/5, 5/5, 3/5 and 0/4 female alpacas treated with saline, buserelin, 1, 0.1 and 0.01mg ?-NGF, respectively. Mean ovulation interval (P=0.76), CL diameter (P=0.96) and plasma progesterone concentration (P=0.96) did not differ between treatments. Mean ovulation interval overall was 26.2±1.0h. In conclusion, buserelin and 1mg ?-NGF are equally effective at inducing ovulation in female alpacas, but at doses ?0.1mg, ?-NGF is not a reliable method for the induction of ovulation. PMID:24965784

  2. The Effect of Varicocelectomy on Sperm Parameters in Subfertile Men with Clinical Varicoceles Who Have Asthenozoospermia or Teratozoospermia with Normal Sperm Density

    PubMed Central

    Cakiroglu, Basri; Sinanoglu, Orhun; Gozukucuk, Ramazan

    2013-01-01

    Background. To compare preoperative and postoperative sperm parameters such as sperm count, motility, and morphology in patients with normal sperm concentration with teratozoospermia and asthenozoospermia. Materials and Methods. Hundred and six patients with varicocele associated with male infertility over a 5-year period were included into the study. Pre- and postvaricocelectomy seminal fluid parameters evaluation according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria was performed at 4–6-month intervals. Results. One hundred and six patients met the criteria. The mean age of patients was 24.53 ± 8.13. The mean duration of infertility was 3.6 years (range: 1.5–6.3). Only the sperm motility of patients with normospermia showed a significant improvement postoperatively. Conclusions. No significant improvement in sperm morphology may be obtained in patients with clinical varicocele and preoperative normospermia. PMID:24236235

  3. Cascaded target normal sheath acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F.; Zhang, X. M.; Wang, X. F.; Xu, J. C.; Zhao, X. Y.; Yu, Y. H.; Yi, L. Q.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, L. G.; Xu, T. J.; Xu, Z. Z. [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2013-11-15

    A cascaded target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) scheme is proposed to simultaneously increase energy and improve energy spread of a laser-produced mono-energetic proton beam. An optimum condition that uses the maximum sheath field to accelerate the center of the proton beam is theoretically found and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. An initial 10 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 21 MeV with energy spread decreased from 5% to 2% under the optimum condition during the process of the cascaded TNSA. The scheme opens a way to scale proton energy lineally with laser energy.

  4. Normal intraocular pressure in children.

    PubMed

    Pensiero, S; Da Pozzo, S; Perissutti, P; Cavallini, G M; Guerra, R

    1992-01-01

    The age-related trend values and the normal intraocular pressure (IOP) increase curve from birth through the 16th year of life were studied in 460 subjects with a noncontact tonometer (Keeler Pulsair, Keeler, Ltd, Windsor, Berks, UK). Much lower values than in adults were recorded in subjects up to the age of 3 or 4 years. This finding leads us to believe that in the treatment of infantile glaucoma IOP should be kept within the age physiologic levels, in an attempt to prevent visual field loss and optic atrophy. PMID:1588480

  5. Prominent accumulation in hemodialysis patients of solutes normally cleared by tubular secretion.

    PubMed

    Sirich, Tammy L; Funk, Benjamin A; Plummer, Natalie S; Hostetter, Thomas H; Meyer, Timothy W

    2014-03-01

    Dialytic clearance of urea is efficient, but other small solutes normally secreted by the kidney may be cleared less efficiently. This study tested whether the high concentrations of these solutes in hemodialysis patients reflect a failure of passive diffusion methods to duplicate the efficacy of clearance by tubular secretion. We compared the plasma concentrations and clearance rates of four solutes normally cleared by tubular secretion with the plasma concentrations and clearance rates of urea and creatinine in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis and normal subjects. The predialysis concentrations (relative to normal subjects) of unbound phenylacetylglutamine (122-fold), hippurate (108-fold), indoxyl sulfate (116-fold), and p-cresol sulfate (41-fold) were much greater than the concentrations of urea (5-fold) and creatinine (13-fold). The dialytic clearance rates (relative to normal subjects) of unbound phenylacetylglutamine (0.37-fold), hippurate (0.16-fold), indoxyl sulfate (0.21-fold), and p-cresol sulfate (0.39-fold) were much lower than the rates of urea (4.2-fold) and creatinine (1.3-fold). Mathematical modeling showed that prominent accumulation of the normally secreted solutes in hemodialysis patients could be accounted for by lower dialytic clearance relative to physiologic clearance combined with the intermittency of treatment. Whether or not more efficient removal of normally secreted solutes improves outcomes in dialysis patients remains to be tested. PMID:24231664

  6. Prominent Accumulation in Hemodialysis Patients of Solutes Normally Cleared by Tubular Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Benjamin A.; Plummer, Natalie S.; Hostetter, Thomas H.; Meyer, Timothy W.

    2014-01-01

    Dialytic clearance of urea is efficient, but other small solutes normally secreted by the kidney may be cleared less efficiently. This study tested whether the high concentrations of these solutes in hemodialysis patients reflect a failure of passive diffusion methods to duplicate the efficacy of clearance by tubular secretion. We compared the plasma concentrations and clearance rates of four solutes normally cleared by tubular secretion with the plasma concentrations and clearance rates of urea and creatinine in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis and normal subjects. The predialysis concentrations (relative to normal subjects) of unbound phenylacetylglutamine (122-fold), hippurate (108-fold), indoxyl sulfate (116-fold), and p-cresol sulfate (41-fold) were much greater than the concentrations of urea (5-fold) and creatinine (13-fold). The dialytic clearance rates (relative to normal subjects) of unbound phenylacetylglutamine (0.37-fold), hippurate (0.16-fold), indoxyl sulfate (0.21-fold), and p-cresol sulfate (0.39-fold) were much lower than the rates of urea (4.2-fold) and creatinine (1.3-fold). Mathematical modeling showed that prominent accumulation of the normally secreted solutes in hemodialysis patients could be accounted for by lower dialytic clearance relative to physiologic clearance combined with the intermittency of treatment. Whether or not more efficient removal of normally secreted solutes improves outcomes in dialysis patients remains to be tested. PMID:24231664

  7. Radioprotection of normal tissue cells.

    PubMed

    Maier, Patrick; Wenz, Frederik; Herskind, Carsten

    2014-08-01

    Improvements of radiotherapy in combination with surgery and systemic therapy have resulted in increased survival rates of tumor patients. However, radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity is still dose limiting. Several strategies have been pursued with the goal to develop substances which may prevent or reduce damage to normal tissue. Drugs applied before radiotherapy are called radioprotectors; those given after radiotherapy to reduce long-term effects are radiomitigators. Despite more than 50 years of research, until now only two substances, amifostine and palifermin, have overcome all obstacles of clinical approval and are applied during radiotherapy of head and neck cancer or total body irradiation, respectively. However, better understanding of the cellular pathways involved in radiation response has allowed the development of several highly promising drugs functioning as scavengers of reactive oxygen species or targeting specific molecules involved in regulation of cell death pathways or cell cycle arrest. The present review describes the major targets for radioprotectors or radiomitigators currently tested in clinical trials. PMID:24638269

  8. Plasma-maser effects in dusty plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuyu Wang; Zhongyuan Li

    1996-01-01

    The plasma-maser instability of Langmuir wave in multicomponent plasma with stationary charged particles is considered. The up-conversion of the wave energy from low-frequency waves to the high-frequency wave is much enhanced owing to the deeper energy exchange between resonant waves and particles in dusty plasma. This results should be useful to interpret the anomalous high-frequency radiation phenomena in laboratory and

  9. The Galileo plasma wave investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Shaw, R. R.; Roux, A.; Gendrin, R.; Kennel, C. F.; Scarf, F. L.; Shawhan, S. D.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the Galileo plasma wave investigation is to study plasma waves and radio emissions in the magnetosphere of Jupiter. The plasma wave instrument uses an electric dipole antenna to detect electric fields, and two search coil magnetic antennas to detect magnetic fields. The frequency range covered is 5 Hz to 5.6 MHz for electric fields and 5 Hz to 160 kHz for magnetic fields. Low time-resolution survey spectrums are provided by three on-board spectrum analyzers. In the normal mode of operation the frequency resolution is about 10 percent, and the time resolution for a complete set of electric and magnetic field measurements is 37.33 s. High time-resolution spectrums are provided by a wideband receiver. The wideband receiver provides waveform measurements over bandwidths of 1, 10, and 80 kHz. Compared to previous measurements at Jupiter this instrument has several new capabilities. These new capabilities include (1) both electric and magnetic field measurements to distinguish electrostatic and electromagnetic waves, (2) direction finding measurements to determine source locations, and (3) increased bandwidth for the wideband measurements.

  10. Phase-mixing of ion plasma modes in pair-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Sourav; Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2015-05-01

    Nonlinear interaction between two electrostatic normal modes of a warm pair-ion plasma, viz., ion plasma mode (Langmuir mode) and ion acoustic mode has been analyzed by employing a perturbation technique. It is shown that a gradual loss of phase coherence in the excited Langmuir wave dynamics (phase-mixing) occurs in such a plasma, leading to wave-breaking at arbitrarily low wave amplitudes. Nonlinear results provide an approximate expression for the phase-mixing time which is found to increase with the increase of the ratio of acoustic frequency to Langmuir frequency. The results of our investigation are expected to be relevant to the laboratory produced paired fullerene-ion plasmas.

  11. Hollow cylindrical plasma filament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Alshershby, Mostafa; Hao Zuoqiang; Lin Jingquan [School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2013-01-15

    We have explored here a hollow cylindrical laser plasma multifilament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding, in which the separation between individual filaments is in the range of several millimeters and the waveguide cladding thickness is in the order of the microwave penetration depth. Such parameters give a closer representation of a realistic laser filament waveguide sustained by a long stable propagation of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. We report how the waveguide losses depend on structural parameters like normalized plasma filament spacing, filament to filament distance or pitch, normal spatial frequency, and radius of the plasma filament. We found that for typical plasma parameters, the proposed waveguide can support guided modes of microwaves in extremely high frequency even with a cladding consisting of only one ring of plasma filaments. The loss of the microwave radiation is mainly caused by tunneling through the discontinuous finite cladding, i.e., confinement loss, and is weakly dependent on the plasma absorption. In addition, the analysis indicates that the propagation loss is fairly large compared with the loss of a plasma waveguide with a continuous infinite thickness cladding, while they are comparable when using a cladding contains more than one ring. Compared to free space propagation, this waveguide still presents a superior microwave transmission to some distance in the order of the filamentation length; thus, the laser plasma filaments waveguide may be a potential channel for transporting pulsed-modulated microwaves if ensuring a long and stable propagation of fs laser pulses.

  12. Plasma glutathione peroxidase and its relationship to renal proximal tubule function.

    PubMed

    Whitin, J C; Tham, D M; Bhamre, S; Ornt, D B; Scandling, J D; Tune, B M; Salvatierra, O; Avissar, N; Cohen, H J

    1998-11-01

    Selenium-dependent extracellular glutathione peroxidase (E-GPx) is found in plasma and other extracellular fluids. Previous studies have indicated that patients with chronic renal failure on dialysis have low plasma GPx activity. In this study, dialysis patients had approximately 40% of control plasma GPx activity, while anephric individuals had lowest plasma GPx activities ranging from 2 to 22% of control. The residual plasma GPx activity in anephric individuals could be completely precipitated by anti-E-GPx antibodies, indicating that all plasma GPx activity can be attributed to E-GPx in both normal and anephric individuals. Plasma GPx activity rises rapidly following kidney transplantation, often reaching normal values within 10 days. The plasma GPx activity in some transplanted patients rises to levels higher than the normal range, followed by a return to the normal range. Since E-GPx in the kidney is primarily synthesized in the proximal tubules, we investigated whether nephrotoxic agents known to disrupt proximal tubule function also affected plasma GPx activity. The beta-lactam antibiotic cephaloglycin rapidly caused a decrease in plasma GPx activity in rabbits. In addition, the chemotherapeutic agent ifosfamide caused a decrease in plasma GPx activity in pediatric osteosarcoma patients. Fanconi syndrome associated with either ifosfamide therapy or valproic acid therapy also caused a decrease in plasma GPx activity. Thus plasma GPx activity is related to kidney function and is decreased in certain situations where nephrotoxic drugs are administered. Monitoring plasma GPx activity may have predictive value in evaluating the function of transplanted kidneys or in predicting those patients particularly at risk of nephrotoxic injury associated with certain medications. PMID:9851889

  13. Reapproaching Mahler: new perspectives on normal autism, symbiosis, splitting and libidinal object constancy from cognitive developmental theory.

    PubMed

    Gergely, G

    2000-01-01

    Margaret Mahler's seminal work on the psychological birth of the infant has generated more critical discussion than most other psychoanalytic theories of early development. But while the empirically, theoretically, and methodologically based criticisms of Mahler's theory are generally justified, her critics fail at times to consider some of the intriguing and creative insights that her theoretical formulations tried to capture. This paper attempts to reformulate these insights using the new conceptual tools that current cognitive developmental theory provides. Mahler's stage of normal autism is reconsidered in the light of contingency detection theory as an initial phase of primary preoccupation with self-generated perfectly response-contingent stimulation. Her concept of normal symbiosis is recast with the help of attachment theory's views on homeostatic regulation and the social biofeedback model of affect-reflective mirroring interactions with parents. Finally, her ideas about the development of splitting and libidinal object constancy are reconsidered according to recent theories of early representational development and mentalization. PMID:11212188

  14. Ponderomotive Acceleration of Hot Electrons in Tenuous Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    V.I. Geyko and G.M. Fraiman, I.Y. Dodin and N.J. Fisch

    2009-02-17

    The oscillation-center Hamiltonian is derived for a relativistic electron injected with an arbitrary momentum in a linearly polarized laser pulse propagating in tenuous plasma, assuming that the pulse length is smaller than the plasma wavelength. For hot electrons generated at collisions with ions under intense laser drive, multiple regimes of ponderomotive acceleration are identified and the laser dispersion is shown to affect the process at plasma densities down to 1017 cm?3. Assuming a/?g << 1, which prevents net acceleration of the cold plasma, it is also shown that the normalized energy ? of hot electrons accelerated from the initial energy ?o < , ? does not exceed ? ~ a?g, where a is the normalized laser field, and ?g is the group velocity Lorentz factor. Yet ? ~ ? is attained within a wide range of initial conditions; hence a cutoff in the hot electron distribution is predicted.

  15. Neutrino plasma coupling in dense astrophysical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, R.; Silva, L. O.; Mendonça, J. T.; Shukla, P. K.; Mori, W. B.; Serbeto, A.

    2004-12-01

    There is considerable interest in the propagation dynamics of intense neutrino beams in a background dispersive medium such as dense plasmas, particularly in the search for a mechanism to explain the dynamics of type II supernovae. Neutrino interactions with matter are usually considered as single particle interactions. All the single particle mechanisms describing the dynamical properties of neutrinos in matter are analogous with the processes involving single electron interactions with a medium such as Compton scattering, Cerenkov radiation, etc. However, it is well known that beams of electrons moving through a plasma give rise to a new class of processes known as collective interactions, such as two stream instabilities, which result in either the absorption or generation of plasma waves. Employing the relativistic kinetic equations for neutrinos interacting with dense plasmas via the weak force, we explore collective plasma streaming instabilities driven by neutrino beams. We examine the anomalous transfer between neutrinos and dense plasma via excitation of electron plasma waves. The nonlinear coupling between an intense neutrino beam and a plasma reveals the presence of two regimes, a hydrodynamic regime and a kinetic regime. The latter is responsible for Landau damping or growth of electron plasma waves. In dense fusion stellar plasmas neutrino Landau damping can play a significant role as an additional stellar plasma cooling process. Another interesting result is an asymmetry in the momentum balance imported by the neutrinos to the core of the exploding star due to symmetry breaking by the collapsed star's magnetic fields. This results in a directed velocity of the resulting neutron star or pulsar, explaining the so called 'birth' velocity.

  16. IIH with normal CSF pressures?

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Soh Youn; Kim, Seong-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in the absence of space occupying lesions. ICP is usually measured by lumbar puncture and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure above 250 mm H2O is one of the diagnostic criteria of IIH. Recently, we have encountered two patients who complained of headaches and exhibited disc swelling without an increased ICP. We prescribed acetazolamide and followed both patients frequently; because of the definite disc swelling with IIH related symptoms. Symptoms and signs resolved in both patients after they started taking acetazolamide. It is generally known that an elevated ICP, as measured by lumbar puncture, is the most important diagnostic sign of IIH. However, these cases caution even when CSF pressure is within the normal range, that suspicion should be raised when a patient has papilledema with related symptoms, since untreated papilledema may cause progressive and irreversible visual loss. PMID:24145570

  17. Simplicial regression. The normal model 1 Simplicial regression. The normal model

    E-print Network

    Filzmoser, Peter

    and on the logistic-normal distribution allow re-formulating simplicial regression with logistic-normal residuals was the logistic-normal family of distributions. It was shown that the Dirichlet family can be approximated by the logistic-normal distribution and thus approximately included in the logistic-normal family. Moreover

  18. Plasma Disruption Simulations for the Assessment of the Ignitor Plasma Chamber Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramogida, G.; Bianchi, A.; Coppi, B.

    2013-10-01

    The Ignitor Plasma Chamber is designed on the basis of available information about the electro-magnetic (EM) loads coming from relevant experiments and the increasingly accurate numerical models of the eddy and halo currents produced by disruption events. The recently achieved success in the active control of disruptions is also considered as a valuable safety factor in the present design of the plasma chamber. A set of plasma disruption simulations was carried out to verify that the Plasma Chamber can withstand structurally, with proper margins, the EM loads during off-normal events, to complete the assessment of its compliance with the ASME rules and to identify the safe limits of operation that will be targeted by the disruption mitigation system. For this purpose the worst expected plasma disruption, the Vertical Displacement Event at full plasma current, was extensively simulated varying the current decay rate, the halo current region extension and the safety factor limit when the thermal quench occurs. The Ignitor Plasma Chamber is designed on the basis of available information about the electro-magnetic (EM) loads coming from relevant experiments and the increasingly accurate numerical models of the eddy and halo currents produced by disruption events. The recently achieved success in the active control of disruptions is also considered as a valuable safety factor in the present design of the plasma chamber. A set of plasma disruption simulations was carried out to verify that the Plasma Chamber can withstand structurally, with proper margins, the EM loads during off-normal events, to complete the assessment of its compliance with the ASME rules and to identify the safe limits of operation that will be targeted by the disruption mitigation system. For this purpose the worst expected plasma disruption, the Vertical Displacement Event at full plasma current, was extensively simulated varying the current decay rate, the halo current region extension and the safety factor limit when the thermal quench occurs. Sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy and by the U.S. D.O.E.

  19. Normally-ON/OFF AlN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C. Y. [University of Florida; Lo, C. F. [University of Florida; Ren, F. [University of Florida; Pearton, S. J. [University of Florida; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Dabiran, A. M. [SVT Associates, Inc.; Cui, B. [SVT Associates, Inc.; Chow, P. P. [SVT Associates, Inc.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the novel normally-on/off AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. With simple oxygen plasma exposure, the threshold voltage can be tuned from -2.76 V to +1.13 V depending on the treatment time. The gate current was reduced and gate current-voltage curve show metal-oxide semiconductor diode-like characteris-tics after oxygen plasma exposure. The extrinsic trans-conductance of HEMTs decreased with increasing oxy-gen plasma exposure time due to the thicker Al oxide formed on the gate area. The unity current gain cut-off frequency, fT, and the maximum frequency of oscillation, fmax, were 20.4 GHz and 36.5 GHz, respectively, for a enhancement-mode HEMT with the gate dimension of 0.4 100 m2.

  20. Plasma Processing with a One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece Roth, J.

    2000-10-01

    The vast majority of all industrial plasma processing is conducted with glow discharges at pressures below 10 torr. This has limited applications to high value workpieces as a result of the large capital cost of vacuum systems and the production constraints of batch processing. It has long been recognized that glow discharges would play a much larger industrial role if they could be operated at one atmosphere. The One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP) has been developed at the University of Tennessee Plasma Sciences Laboratory. The OAUGDP is non-thermal RF plasma with the time-resolved characteristics of a classical low pressure DC normal glow discharge. An interdisciplinary team was formed to conduct exploratory investigations of the physics and applications of the OAUGDP. This team includes collaborators from the UTK Textiles and Nonwovens Development Center (TANDEC) and the Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microbiology, Food Science and Technology, and Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Science. Exploratory tests were conducted on a variety of potential plasma processing and other applications. These include the use of OAUGDP to sterilize medical and dental equipment and air filters; diesel soot removal; plasma aerodynamic effects; electrohydrodynamic (EDH) flow control of the neutral working gas; increasing the surface energy of materials; increasing the wettability and wickability of fabrics; and plasma deposition and directional etching. A general overview of these topics will be presented.

  1. LCDProjektorenPlasmaLCDProjektorenPlasmaLCDProjektoren NEC MultiSync

    E-print Network

    Ott, Albrecht

    LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren NEC MultiSync® EA241WM Voll dem Eco-Modus und dem besonderen Maßstab für CO2- Ausstoß · #12;LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD

  2. LCDProjektorenPlasmaLCDProjektorenPlasmaLCDProjektoren NEC MultiSync

    E-print Network

    Ott, Albrecht

    LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren NEC MultiSync® E222W EntryViKey· Niedriger Energieverbrauch dank Eco Mode und einzigartiger, integrierter CO2 Einspar- Anzeige · #12;LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD NEC MultiSync® E

  3. LCDProjektorenPlasmaLCDProjektorenPlasmaLCDProjektoren NEC MultiSync

    E-print Network

    Ott, Albrecht

    LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren NEC MultiSync® LCD2690WUXi² Hochinnovativer LCD-Monitor im Wide Format mit herausragenden ergonomischen und wirtschaftlichen Eigenschaften Funktionen wie CableComp, ColorComp bzw. X-light® Pro· #12;LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD·Projektoren·Plasma·LCD

  4. Plasma amino acids

    MedlinePLUS

    Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Laboratory error High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. ...

  5. Plasma angiotensin II concentrations in the early neonatal period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Miyawaki; T Okutani; R Higuchi; N Yoshikawa

    2006-01-01

    Background: There have been only a few reports on the renin-angiotensin system in low birthweight infants; in particular, plasma angiotensin II concentrations have not been studied.Aim: To investigate plasma angiotensin II concentrations in early neonatal infants including low birthweight infants.Methods: Forty six patients were studied, of whom 14 weighed not less than 2500 g (normal birth weight), 16 weighed less

  6. Electron plasma oscillations in the Venus foreshock

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, G.K.; Strangeway, R.J.; Russell, C.T. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA)

    1990-10-01

    Plasma waves are observed in the solar wind upstream of the Venus bow shock by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter. These wave signatures occur during periods when the interplanetary magnetic field through the spacecraft position intersects the bow shock, thereby placing the spacecraft in the foreshock region. The electron foreshock boundary is clearly evident in the data as a sharp onset in wave activity and a peak in intensity. Wave intensity is seen to drop rapidly with increasing penetration into the foreshock. The peak wave electric field strength at the electron foreshock boundary is found to be similar to terrestrial observations. A normalized wave spectrum was constructed using measurements of the electron plasma frequency and the spectrum was found to be centered about this value. These results, along with polarization studies showing the wave electric field to be field aligned, are consistent with the interpretation of the waves as electron plasma oscillations.

  7. Increased plasma histamine level in eosinophilic fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Falanga, V; Soter, N A; Kerdel, F A

    1989-06-01

    In a patient with eosinophilic fasciitis, a biopsy specimen obtained within 4 weeks of the onset of symptoms showed infiltration of the subcutis and fascia with mast cells, and there was up to a 19-fold increase in plasma histamine levels. The patient improved and experienced softening of the skin when treated with systemic corticosteroids and a histamine2-receptor antagonist, and her plasma histamine level returned to normal. Tissue mast cell infiltration and excessive plasma histamine levels were not present in two otherwise similar patients with eosinophilic fasciitis who were studied 7 months after disease onset. It is possible that mast cells play a pathogenic role in some patients with eosinophilic fasciitis. PMID:2730101

  8. Normal levels of anticoagulant heparan sulfate are not essential for normal hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    HajMohammadi, Sassan; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Princivalle, Marc; Christi, Patricia; Lech, Miroslav; Beeler, David; Rayburn, Helen; Schwartz, John J.; Barzegar, Samad; de Agostini, Ariane I.; Post, Mark J.; Rosenberg, Robert D.; Shworak, Nicholas W.

    2003-01-01

    Endothelial cell production of anticoagulant heparan sulfate (HSact) is controlled by the Hs3st1 gene, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase-1 (3-OST-1). In vitro, HSact dramatically enhances the neutralization of coagulation proteases by antithrombin. The in vivo role of HSact was evaluated by generating Hs3st1–/– knockout mice. Hs3st1–/– animals were devoid of 3-OST-1 enzyme activity in plasma and tissue extracts. Nulls showed dramatic reductions in tissue levels of HSact but maintained wild-type levels of tissue fibrin accumulation under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Given that vascular HSact predominantly occurs in the subendothelial matrix, mice were subjected to a carotid artery injury assay in which ferric chloride administration induces de-endothelialization and occlusive thrombosis. Hs3st1–/– and Hs3st1+/+ mice yielded indistinguishable occlusion times and comparable levels of thrombin•antithrombin complexes. Thus, Hs3st1–/– mice did not show an obvious procoagulant phenotype. Instead, Hs3st1–/– mice exhibited genetic background–specific lethality and intrauterine growth retardation, without evidence of a gross coagulopathy. Our results demonstrate that the 3-OST-1 enzyme produces the majority of tissue HSact. Surprisingly, this bulk of HSact is not essential for normal hemostasis in mice. Instead, 3-OST-1–deficient mice exhibited unanticipated phenotypes suggesting that HSact or additional 3-OST-1–derived structures may serve alternate biologic roles. PMID:12671048

  9. a numerical criterion for simultaneous normalization

    E-print Network

    2007-12-28

    reduced schemes, i.e., the normalization of the total space normalizes, fiber by fiber, .... The arguments given there for hypersurfaces apply somewhat more ... The total quotient ring of a commutative ring A will be denoted by KA, and the.

  10. Steam plasma arc cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Pauser, H.; Laimer, J.; Stori, H.

    1999-07-01

    Plasma arc cutting is a widely used method for cutting metals. The availability of small portable units using compressed air as plasma gas makes these devices suitable for the use in job shops. However, the need for compressed air means less flexibility in field applications. Possible solution strategies to overcome this disadvantage are the integration of the air supply on board or the production of plasma gas in situ. A plasma cutting device using the later concept will be presented.

  11. Plasma photonic crystal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Li; Yong Zhao; Ruizhen Cui; Haitao Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Plasma photonic crystals are presented in this paper. A plasma photonic crystal can control the propagation of electromagnetic\\u000a waves. Similar to other photonic crystals, the permittivity of a plasma photonic crystal is distributed as periodic arrays.\\u000a The properties of periodic arrays of plasma can broaden the range of frequency and enhance the efficiency of beam-wave interaction.\\u000a In special uses, the

  12. Coalition for Plasma Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created to increase public understanding of plasma science, this site presents brief papers introducing particular aspects of plasma science and its practical applications, plus an excellent Teachers Guide to Plasma Science Resources (see "Educational Materials"), designed by teachers for teachers and students. The Guide provides annotated links to the best of online plasma-education materials, including classroom-tested materials and K-12 teaching aids. Most of the listings are accompanied by a checklist of the National Science Standards the resource fulfills.

  13. Male accessory glands of Drosophila melanogaster make a secreted angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ANCE), suggesting a role for the peptide-processing enzyme in seminal fluid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline M. Rylett; Michael J. Walker; Gareth J. Howell; Alan D. Shirras; R. Elwyn Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) expressed on the surface of endothelial cells is responsible for the last step in the synthesis of circulating angiotensin II and the inactivation of bradykinin. Mammalian ACE is also expressed in the prostate with other components of the renin-angiotensin system, and in developing spermatids, where the peptidase activity is known to be critical for normal sperm

  14. Waves in Dusty Plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rosenberg

    2005-01-01

    Summary form only given. Dusty plasmas are ionized gases containing massive charged dust grains. The presence of charged dust in a plasma can affect the behavior of waves and instabilities and also the interaction of electromagnetic (EM) waves with the plasma. We discuss some recent theoretical work in these areas. Instabilities may play important roles in various applications in both

  15. Electrodynamics of nonequilibrium plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Sitenko; H. Wilhelmsson

    1973-01-01

    Plasma physics is experiencing a period of intensive development and is at present a most of vital part of modern physics. In the field of electrodynamics of plasmas the theory of fluctuations is of great interest. The fluctuations in a plasma are usually described by their spectral functions. The fluctuation spectrum is a quantity directly observable in a scattering experiment.

  16. Plasma Treatment of Polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy M. Grace; Louis J. Gerenser

    2003-01-01

    Plasma treatment of polymers encompasses a variety of plasma technologies and polymeric materials for a wide range of applications and dates back to at least the 1960s. In this article we provide a brief review of the United States patent literature on plasma surface modification technologies and a brief review of the scientific literature on investigations of the effects of

  17. Perspectives on Plasma

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eastman, Timothy E.

    Originally conceived and launched by consultant and Senior Research Associate Dr. Timothy E. Eastman at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado, the Perspectives on Plasma Web site represents all aspects of plasma science and technology. Visitors can explore the basics of plasma, its applications, view a photo gallery, and much more.

  18. Antimatter plasmas and antihydrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Greaves; C. M. Surko

    1997-01-01

    Recent successes in confining antimatter in the form of positron and antiproton plasmas have created new scientific and technological opportunities. Plasma techniques have been the cornerstone of experimental work in this area, and this is likely to be true for the foreseeable future. Work by a number of groups on trapping antimatter plasmas is summarized, and an overview of the

  19. Plasma Shh levels reduced in pancreatic cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Daignault, Stephanie; Tessier, Art; Kelsey, Gail; Travnikar, Lisa A.; Cantu, Esperanza F.; Lee, Jamie; Plonka, Caitlyn M.; Simeone, Diane M.; Anderson, Michelle A.; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Normally, sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the pancreas during fetal development and transiently after tissue injury. Although pancreatic cancers express Shh, it is not known if the protein is secreted into the blood and whether its plasma levels change with pancreatic transformation. The goal of this study was to develop an ELISA to detect human Shh in blood, and determine the levels in subjects with and without pancreatic cancer. Methods A human Shh ELISA assay was developed, and plasma Shh levels were measured in blood samples from normal volunteers and subjects with pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. The biological activity of plasma Shh was tested using NIH-3T3 cells. Results The average levels of Shh in human blood were lower in pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer patients than in normal individuals. Hematopoietic cells did not express Shh suggesting that Shh is secreted into the bloodstream. Plasma fractions enriched for Shh did not induce Gli-1 mRNA suggesting that the protein was not biologically active. Conclusions Shh is secreted from tissues and organs into the circulation but its activity is blocked by plasma proteins. Reduced plasma levels were found in pancreatic cancer patients, but alone were not sufficient to predict pancreatic cancer. PMID:22513293

  20. SMITH NORMAL FORM AND LAPLACIANS DINO LORENZINI

    E-print Network

    Lorenzini, Dino J.

    SMITH NORMAL FORM AND LAPLACIANS DINO LORENZINI Abstract. Let M denote the Laplacian matrix of a graph G. Associated with G is a finite group (G), obtained from the Smith normal form of M, and whose /Im(M). This group can be computed in practice using the Smith normal form of M, as follows. Given any

  1. Differential inequalities and quasi-normal families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar, Roi; Grahl, Jürgen; Nevo, Shahar

    2014-06-01

    We show that a family of meromorphic functions in a domain satisfying (where and are integers with and , are real numbers) is quasi-normal. Furthermore, if all functions in are holomorphic, the order of quasi-normality of is at most . The proof relies on the Zalcman rescaling method and previous results on differential inequalities constituting normality.

  2. Annealing and the normalized N-cut

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomás Gedeon; Albert E. Parker; Collette Campion; Zane Aldworth

    2008-01-01

    We describe an annealing procedure that computes the normalized N -cut of a weighted graph G. The first phase transition computes the solution of the approximate normalized 2-cut problem, while the low temperature solution computes the normalized N -cut. The intermediate solutions provide a sequence of refinements of the 2-cut that can be used to split the data to K

  3. Culture of normal and leukemic cells in diffusion chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Cronkite, E.P.; Carsten, A.L.; Chikkappa, G.; Laissue, J.A.; Oehl, S.

    1973-01-01

    Normal murine, caprine, and human bone marrow and peripheral blood cells can be grown in diffusion chambers. The irradiated host provides a stimulus to erythrocytic and granulocytic growth over what is seen in the DC's implanted in the nonirradiated host. The stimulus is most likely humoral and affects erythropoiesis, granulopoiesis, and megakaryocytopoiesis. It is suggested but not proved that the stimulus for erythropoiesis is an increased level of plasma erythropoietin. It is tempting to suggest that CSF and thrombopoietin are responsible for the stimulation of the other cell lines. Growth of normal human cells in irradiated mice shows a marked reduction of the transit time from the myelocyte to the segmented neutrophils. Growth does not follow steady conditions in terms of rates and transit times. Since all cells produced are retained in the DC's after the time they would normally be extruded into the blood, a nonsteady state system exists. Senescent death of non-proliferating cells occurs. Human leukemic and multiple myeloma cells grow in DC's as do blood cells from patients with myelofibrosis and myeloid metaplasia. Data are insufficient to characterize aberrations in growth. Pilot studies show that human eosinophils will grow, proliferate and mature. (auth)

  4. Zero gravity and cardiovascular homeostasis. The relationship between endogenous hyperprolactinemia and plasma aldosterone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, E.; Re, R. N.; Kourides, I. A.; Weihl, A. C.; Maloof, F.

    1978-01-01

    Prolactin, thyrotropin and aldosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay and plasma renin activity by the radioimmunoassay of angiotensin I in normal women before and after the intravenous injection of 200 micrograms of thyrotropin releasing hormone. Prolactin increased at 15 minutes following thyrotropin releasing hormone. Plasma renin activity was not different from control levels during the first hour following the administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone, nor did the plasma aldosterone concentration differ significantly from the control levels during this period. However, with upright posture, an increase in aldosterone and in plasma renin activity was noted, demonstrating a normal capacity to secrete aldosterone. Similarly, no change in aldosterone was seen in 9 patients with primary hypothyroidism given thyrotropin releasing hormone, despite the fact that the increase in prolactin was greater than normal. These data demonstrate that acutely or chronically elevated serum prolactin levels do not result in increased plasma aldosterone levels in humans.

  5. Reversible plasma switching in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yunseok; Vrejoiu, Ionela; Hesse, Dietrich; Alexe, Marin

    2010-05-01

    Reversible plasma switching in epitaxial multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films was directly observed and analyzed using piezoresponse force microscopy. The polarization could be reversibly switched using oxygen plasma and a subsequent thermal annealing treatment in vacuum, respectively. The domain wall velocity during plasma switching, estimated to about 10-8 m/s, is much slower compared to the normal electrical switching, however a large area of square centimeter scale could be stably switched. The results demonstrate that reversible plasma switching can be achieved by oxygen plasma treatment and it can be a useful tool for an electrode-less control of ferroelectric switching on large area.

  6. Reversible plasma switching in epitaxial BiFeO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yunseok; Vrejoiu, Ionela; Hesse, Dietrich; Alexe, Marin [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2010-05-17

    Reversible plasma switching in epitaxial multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} thin films was directly observed and analyzed using piezoresponse force microscopy. The polarization could be reversibly switched using oxygen plasma and a subsequent thermal annealing treatment in vacuum, respectively. The domain wall velocity during plasma switching, estimated to about 10{sup -8} m/s, is much slower compared to the normal electrical switching, however a large area of square centimeter scale could be stably switched. The results demonstrate that reversible plasma switching can be achieved by oxygen plasma treatment and it can be a useful tool for an electrode-less control of ferroelectric switching on large area.

  7. Cubic AlGaN/GaN Hetero-field effect transitors with normally on and normally off , E. Tschumak1

    E-print Network

    As, Donat Josef

    Non-polar cubic AlGaN/GaN HFETs were grown by plasma assisted MBE on 3C-SiC substrates. Both normallyGaN/GaN hetero structures, freestanding Ar+ implanted 3C- SiC was used. Previous to the Ar+ implantation, the carrier concentration in the 3C-SiC substrate of n=2×1018 cm-3 was measured by Hall effect. A three energy

  8. Photodetachment of the hydrogen negative ion in weakly coupled plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Sabyasachi; Ho, Y. K.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of weakly coupled plasmas on photodetachment cross sections of the hydrogen negative ion is investigated by using the asymptotic from of the bound state wave function and a plane wave form for the final-state wave function. The Debye model is used to represent the plasma effects. The required normalization constant is determined from highly accurate, completely nonadiabatic wave functions for the three-particle systems. Photodetachment cross sections for the plasma-embedded H- ion are calculated for different Debye lengths (D =1.0.

  9. Action of intense electromagnetic wave on a nonuniform plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovin, V.; Kivshik, A.; Egorov, A.; Fainberg, Y.; Bolotin, L.

    1981-03-01

    It is shown experimentally that when an intense electromagnetic wave is incident normally (kparalleln) on the boundary of a supercritical (..omega../sub p/>..omega..) plasma the pump wave is effectively transformed into a surface wave having the same frequency. It is found that with increasing power the coefficient of reflection of the electromagnetic wave from the supercritical plasma decreases. The results of the experiment are discussed allowing for the influence of the plasma density variation and of the RF-pressure forces on the conversion efficiency.

  10. Plasma & RF Fundamentals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. One third of modern semiconductor process steps and a variety of other applications employ plasma technology. RF energy is commonly used to generate and maintain a plasma which accelerates chemical processes or provides other desired outcomes such as light emission. This module is the first in a series that builds a knowledge foundation for understanding plasma technology and RF energy. Concepts and principles covered include particle behavior under plasma conditions, changes in electromagnetic wave forms, and related variables that affect RF/plasma applications.

  11. Vincristine and vinblastine lower plasma cholesterol concentrations in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Sethi, V S; Lewis, J C; St Clair, R W

    1983-08-01

    3-4 days after a single clinical dose of vincristine or vinblastine in rhesus monkeys there was a marked decrease in plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. There was also a concomitant increase in plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. Plasma lipid levels returned to normal concentrations within 7-10 days after injection. Plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were unaltered by the drugs. Electron micrographs of the hepatocytes from monkeys treated with vincristine or vinblastine showed an accumulation of glycogen particles and proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which was accompanied by an increase in the number of lipoprotein-containing vesicles. These results indicate that vincristine and vinblastine alter plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in part by interfering with hepatic lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. These studies further suggest the possibility that other less cytotoxic alkaloids from Catharanthus species with clinically useful hypocholesterolemic activity may be discovered. PMID:6871242

  12. The significance of plasma phytanic acid levels in adults.

    PubMed

    Britton, T C; Gibberd, F B; Clemens, M E; Billimoria, J D; Sidey, M C

    1989-07-01

    The presence of phytanic acid in tissues and plasma has been considered diagnostic of heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis (Refsum's disease), but recently slightly raised plasma phytanic acid levels have been reported in other conditions. Forty two normal people were found to have a phytanic acid level of 0-33 mumol/l. Fourteen patients with heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis had a plasma phytanic acid level before treatment of 992-6400 mumol/l. Five patients with retinitis pigmentosa but not heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis had plasma levels of 38-192 mumol/l. It was concluded that some patients with retinitis pigmentosa without heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis but a raised plasma phytanic acid may represent a group of patients with a disease or diseases as yet uncharacterised apart from the retinal condition. PMID:2475586

  13. The significance of plasma phytanic acid levels in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Britton, T C; Gibberd, F B; Clemens, M E; Billimoria, J D; Sidey, M C

    1989-01-01

    The presence of phytanic acid in tissues and plasma has been considered diagnostic of heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis (Refsum's disease), but recently slightly raised plasma phytanic acid levels have been reported in other conditions. Forty two normal people were found to have a phytanic acid level of 0-33 mumol/l. Fourteen patients with heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis had a plasma phytanic acid level before treatment of 992-6400 mumol/l. Five patients with retinitis pigmentosa but not heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis had plasma levels of 38-192 mumol/l. It was concluded that some patients with retinitis pigmentosa without heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis but a raised plasma phytanic acid may represent a group of patients with a disease or diseases as yet uncharacterised apart from the retinal condition. PMID:2475586

  14. The WMAP normalization of inflationary cosmologies

    E-print Network

    Andrew R Liddle; David Parkinson; Samuel M Leach; Pia Mukherjee

    2006-07-13

    We use the three-year WMAP observations to determine the normalization of the matter power spectrum in inflationary cosmologies. In this context, the quantity of interest is not the normalization marginalized over all parameters, but rather the normalization as a function of the inflationary parameters n and r with marginalization over the remaining cosmological parameters. We compute this normalization and provide an accurate fitting function. The statistical uncertainty in the normalization is 3 percent, roughly half that achieved by COBE. We use the k-l relation for the standard cosmological model to identify the pivot scale for the WMAP normalization. We also quote the inflationary energy scale corresponding to the WMAP normalization.

  15. Anomalous normal mode oscillations in semiconductor microcavities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Semiconductor microcavities as a composite exciton-cavity system can be characterized by two normal modes. Under an impulsive excitation by a short laser pulse, optical polarizations associated with the two normal modes have a {pi} phase difference. The total induced optical polarization is then expected to exhibit a sin{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like oscillation where 2{Omega} is the normal mode splitting, reflecting a coherent energy exchange between the exciton and cavity. In this paper the authors present experimental studies of normal mode oscillations using three-pulse transient four wave mixing (FWM). The result reveals surprisingly that when the cavity is tuned far below the exciton resonance, normal mode oscillation in the polarization is cos{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like, in contrast to what is expected form the simple normal mode model. This anomalous normal mode oscillation reflects the important role of virtual excitation of electronic states in semiconductor microcavities.

  16. Industrial Plasma Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeff, Igor

    2007-11-01

    This presentation summarizes an extensive program on plasma antennas. Plasma antennas are just as effective as metal antennas. In addition, they can transmit, receive and reflect lower frequency signals while being transparent to higher frequency signals. When de-energized, they electrically disappear. Plasma noise does not appear to be a problem. New technology that has been developed include a method of operating at high plasma density at minimal power consumption, a novel technique of noise reduction, and a method of opening a plasma window in a plasma microwave barrier on a time scale of microseconds rather than the usual time scale of milliseconds due to plasma decay. We are at present testing an intelligent plasma antenna in which a plasma ``window'' in a circular plasma barrier surrounding an antenna rotates azimuthally, seeking a radio transmitter. When located, a computer locks onto the transmitter. When the transmitter is de-energized, the plasma window recommences scanning. Commercial interest is strong, with invited papers being presented for 4 years in succession at the SMi Stealth Conference in London, UK, an operating model on permanent exhibition at the Booze-Allen headquarters in Alexandria, VA, and strong interest from Lockheed-Martin. In collaboration with Ted Anderson, Haleakala R&D Corp.; Esmaeil Farshi, Fred Dyer, Jeffrey Peck, Eric Pradeep, Nanditha Pulasani, and Naresh Karnam, University of Tennessee.

  17. Plasma Amino-acids in the Nigerian Nutritional Ataxic Neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. O. Osuntokun; J. E. Durowoju; H. McFarlane; J. Wilson

    1968-01-01

    Investigation of nine patients with tropical ataxic neuropathy showed an absence or diminution of sulphur-containing amino-acids—cysteine and methionine—and a variable concentration of most other essential amino-acids. The pattern was unlike that found in kwashiorkor. The levels of serum cholesterol and total protein were normal, and the serum vitamin B12 levels were normal or high. Plasma thiocyanate concentration was high.All the

  18. Analysis of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Through Magnetoactive Plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard R. Gold

    1964-01-01

    A detailed analysis of electromagnetic wave propagation through a stratified magnetoactive plasma layer is presented. Exact solutions for the reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained for two general electron density distributions; kinked-trapezoid and exponential-homogeneous-exponential. Oblique incidence is considered with no magnetic field; a constant magnetic field applied normal to the layer is included for the case of normal incidence (ion

  19. Laminar Plasma Dynamos

    E-print Network

    Zhehui Wang; Vladimir I. Pariev; Cris W. Barnes; Daniel C. Barnes

    2002-03-07

    A new kind of dynamo utilizing flowing laboratory plasmas has been identified. Conversion of plasma kinetic energy to magnetic energy is verified numerically by kinematic dynamo simulations for magnetic Reynolds numbers above 210. As opposed to intrinsically-turbulent liquid-sodium dynamos, the proposed plasma dynamos correspond to laminar flow topology. Modest plasma parameters, 1-20 eV temperatures, 10^{19}-10^{20} m^{-3} densities in 0.3-1.0 m scale-lengths driven by velocities on the order of the Alfven Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV), self-consistently satisfy the conditions needed for the magnetic field amplication. Growth rates for the plasma dynamos are obtained numerically with different geometry and magnetic Reynolds numbers. Magnetic-field-free coaxial plasma guns can be used to sustain the plasma flow and the dynamo.

  20. Laminar Plasma Dynamos

    E-print Network

    Wang, Z; Barnes, C W; Barnes, D C; Wang, Zhehui; Pariev, Vladimir I.; Barnes, Cris W.; Barnes, Daniel C.

    2002-01-01

    A new kind of dynamo utilizing flowing laboratory plasmas has been identified. Conversion of plasma kinetic energy to magnetic energy is verified numerically by kinematic dynamo simulations for magnetic Reynolds numbers above 210. As opposed to intrinsically-turbulent liquid-sodium dynamos, the proposed plasma dynamos correspond to laminar flow topology. Modest plasma parameters, 1-20 eV temperatures, 10^{19}-10^{20} m^{-3} densities in 0.3-1.0 m scale-lengths driven by velocities on the order of the Alfven Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV), self-consistently satisfy the conditions needed for the magnetic field amplication. Growth rates for the plasma dynamos are obtained numerically with different geometry and magnetic Reynolds numbers. Magnetic-field-free coaxial plasma guns can be used to sustain the plasma flow and the dynamo.