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Sample records for normal seminal plasma

  1. Seminal plasma proteins and their relationship with percentage of morphologically normal sperm in 2-year-old Brahman (Bos indicus) bulls.

    PubMed

    Boe-Hansen, G B; Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Burns, B M; McGowan, M R

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to determine the relationship between seminal plasma proteins and sperm morphology in Bos indicus bulls of the Brahman breed. Fifty-six 24-month-old Australian Brahman bulls were electroejaculated and samples were examined to determine the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (PNS24) and the seminal plasma protein composition was identified and quantified by 2-D gel electrophoresis. The total integrated optical density of 152 seminal plasma protein spots (SPPs) across all gels was determined using the PDQuest software version 8.0 (Bio Rad, USA). Using a single regression mixed model with the density of individual spots as a covariate for PNS24, 17 SPPs were significantly associated with PNS24 (p<0.05). A multiple regression analyses of these SPPs, using three models; non-parametric Tree Model, Generalized Additive Model, and a step-wise selection method were conducted, and 6 SPPs could be used to predict PNS24; four SPPs had positive and two had negative association with PNS24. Together these spots explained 35% of the phenotypic variation in PNS24. Using mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF and TripleToF-MS) the SPPs with positive relationship contained mainly apolipoprotein A-I (1310), protein DJ-1 and glutathione peroxidase 3 (2308), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (6402) and apolipoprotein A-I and secretoglobin family 1D member (8008). The SPPs inversely associated with PNS24 were clusterin/seminal plasma protein A3 (1411) and epididymal secretory protein E1 (8108). This is the first comprehensive report on the association between seminal plasma protein composition in Bos indicus Brahman bulls and sperm morphology. PMID:26417650

  2. Raman spectroscopic characterization and differentiation of seminal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zufang; Chen, Xiwen; Chen, Yanping; Chen, Jinhua; Dou, Min; Feng, Shangyuan; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong

    2011-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) was applied for the analysis of seminal plasma in order to detect spectral parameters, which might be used for differentiating the normal and abnormal semen samples. Raman spectra of seminal plasma separated from normal and abnormal semen samples, showed a distinct difference in peak ratios between 1449 and 1418 cm-1 (P < 0.05). More efficient alternative method of using principal component analysis-linear discriminate analysis based on Raman spectroscopic data yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 82%. The results suggest that RS combined with the multivariate analysis method has the potential for differentiating semen samples by examination of the corresponding seminal plasma.

  3. Seminal plasma induces the expression of IL-1α in normal and neoplastic cervical cells via EP2/EGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is a chronic inflammatory disease of multifactorial etiology usually presenting in sexually active women. Exposure of neoplastic cervical epithelial cells to seminal plasma (SP) has been shown to promote the growth of cancer cells in vitro and tumors in vivo by inducing the expression of inflammatory mediators including pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-1α is a pleotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine induced in several human cancers and has been associated with virulent tumor phenotype and poorer prognosis. Here we investigated the expression of IL-1α in cervical cancer, the role of SP in the regulation of IL-1α in neoplastic cervical epithelial cells and the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation. Methods and results Real-time quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the elevated expression of IL-1α mRNA in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma tissue explants, compared with normal cervix. Using immunohistochemistry, IL-1α was localized to the neoplastically transformed squamous, columnar and glandular epithelium in all cases of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinomas explants studied. We found that SP induced the expression of IL-α in both normal and neoplastic cervical tissue explants. Employing HeLa (adenocarcinoma) cell line as a model system we identified PGE2 and EGF as possible ligands responsible for SP-mediated induction of IL-1α in these neoplastic cells. In addition, we showed that SP activates EP2/EGFR/PI3kinase-Akt signaling to induce IL-1α mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in normal cervical tissue explants the induction of IL-1α by SP is via the activation of EP2/EGFR/PI3 kinase-Akt signaling. Conclusion SP-mediated induction of IL-1α in normal and neoplastic cervical epithelial cells suggests that SP may promote cervical inflammation as well as progression of cervical cancer in sexually active women. PMID:25237386

  4. Human seminal plasma allergy in India.

    PubMed

    Shah, A; Sethi, S; Agarwal, M K

    1988-01-01

    Human seminal plasma allergy (HSPA) in women has been documented in the West. We describe here the first case of HSPA reported in India. An 18-year-old married woman presented with a 2-year history of episodic wheezing dyspnea. She had always had local postcoital symptoms since her first intercourse. Systemic symptoms developed subsequently. Despite more than 2 years of unprotected coitus, the patient had not conceived. The intradermal tests with seminal plasma antigen prepared from her husband's semen and from a healthy volunteer were markedly positive in the patient. Similar tests on her husband were negative. HSPA, especially the local forms, may be difficult to identify in our social conditions. PMID:3182586

  5. Seminal plasma proteome of electroejaculated Bos indicus bulls.

    PubMed

    Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Corbet, N J; Corbet, D H; Burns, B M; Boe-Hansen, G B; McGowan, M R

    2014-07-01

    The present study describes the seminal plasma proteome of Bos indicus bulls. Fifty-six, 24-month old Australian Brahman sires were evaluated and subjected to electroejaculation. Seminal plasma proteins were separated by 2-D SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. The percentage of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm of the bulls were 70.4 ± 2.3 and 64 ± 3.2%, respectively. A total of 108 spots were identified in the 2-D maps, corresponding to 46 proteins. Binder of sperm proteins accounted for 55.8% of all spots detected in the maps and spermadhesins comprised the second most abundant constituents. Other proteins of the Bos indicus seminal plasma include clusterin, albumin, transferrin, metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, osteopontin, epididymal secretory protein E1, apolipoprotein A-1, heat shock 70 kDa protein, glutathione peroxidase 3, cathelicidins, alpha-enolase, tripeptidyl-peptidase 1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, plasma serine protease inhibitor, beta 2-microglobulin, proteasome subunit beta type-4, actin, cathepsins, nucleobinding-1, protein S100-A9, hemoglobin subunit alpha, cadherin-1, angiogenin-1, fibrinogen alpha and beta chain, ephirin-A1, protein DJ-1, serpin A3-7, alpha-2-macroglobulin, annexin A1, complement factor B, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, seminal ribonuclease, ribonuclease-4, prostaglandin-H2 d-isomerase, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. In conclusion, this work uniquely portrays the Bos indicus seminal fluid proteome, based on samples from a large set of animals representing the Brahman cattle of the tropical Northern Australia. Based on putative biochemical attributes, seminal proteins act during sperm maturation, protection, capacitation and fertilization. PMID:24889044

  6. Human Seminal Plasma Proteome Study: A Search for Male Infertility Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Davalieva, K; Kiprijanovska, S; Noveski, P; Plaseski, T; Kocevska, B; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2012-01-01

    Seminal plasma is a potential source of biomarkers for many disorders of the male reproductive system including male infertility. Knowledge of the peptide and protein components of seminal fluid is accumulating especially with the appearance of high-throughput MS-based techniques. Of special interest in the field of male infertility biomarkers, is the identification and characterization of differentially expressed proteins in seminal plasma of men with normal and impaired spermatogenesis. However, the data obtained until now is still quite heterogeneous and with small percentage of overlap between independent studies. Extensive comparative analysis of seminal plasma proteome is still needed in order to establish a potential link between seminal plasma proteins and male infertility. PMID:24052741

  7. Components in seminal plasma regulating sperm transport and elimination.

    PubMed

    Troedsson, M H T; Desvousges, A; Alghamdi, A S; Dahms, B; Dow, C A; Hayna, J; Valesco, R; Collahan, P T; Macpherson, M L; Pozor, M; Buhi, W C

    2005-10-01

    Seminal plasma has been suggested to be involved in sperm transport, and as a modulator of sperm-induced inflammation, which is thought to be an important part of sperm elimination from the female reproductive tract. This article reports on recent experiments on the importance of seminal plasma components in sperm transport and elimination. In Experiment 1, hysteroscopic insemination in the presence (n = 3) or absence (n = 3) of 2 ng/mL PGE showed an increased portion of spermatozoa crossing the utero-tubal junction in the presence of PGE in two mares, while no difference was observed between treatments in a third mare. In Experiment 2, whole seminal plasma, heat-treated seminal plasma (90 degrees C for 45 min), and charcoal-treated seminal plasma were added to: (1) sperm samples during opsonization prior to polymorphonuclear neutrophil(s) (PMN)-phagocytosis assays (n = 5); or to (2) phagocytosis assays (n = 5). Opsonization of spermatozoa was suppressed in the presence of whole seminal plasma, compared with samples without seminal plasma (p < 0.05). Charcoal treatment did not remove the suppressive effect of seminal plasma on opsonization, but heat treatment of seminal plasma reduced its suppressive properties (p < 0.05). The addition of whole seminal plasma to opsonized spermatozoa almost completely blocked phagocytosis (p < 0.05). Charcoal treatment did not remove the suppressive effect of seminal plasma. However, heat-treated fractions of seminal plasma removed the suppressive effect of seminal plasma on phagocytosis (p < 0.05). In Experiment 3, viable and non-viable (snap-frozen/thawed) spermatozoa were subjected to in vitro assays for PMN binding and phagocytosis with the following treatments (n = 3): (1) seminal plasma (SP), (2) extender; (3) ammonium sulfate precipitated seminal plasma proteins with protease inhibitor (SPP+); or (4) ammonium sulfate precipitated seminal plasma proteins without protease inhibitor (SPP-). Treatment was observed to impact

  8. Seminal plasma components in camelids and comparisons with other species.

    PubMed

    Kershaw-Young, C M; Maxwell, W M C

    2012-08-01

    Camelid semen is characterized by a highly viscous, low-volume ejaculate with a low concentration of spermatozoa that exhibit low progressive motility. The viscous seminal plasma is currently the major impediment to the development of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in camelids. To advance ARTs such as sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination in camelids, it is necessary to identify the cause of the viscosity and gain an understanding of the role of seminal plasma components on sperm function and fertility. Numerous compounds and proteins have been identified as mediators of sperm function and predictors of fertility in other livestock species, and understanding the importance of specific proteins has progressed the success of ARTs in these species. Current knowledge on the components of camelid seminal plasma is outlined, together with the implications of these components for the development of ARTs in camelids. The cause of semen viscosity, as well as proteins that are present in camelid seminal plasma, is described for the first time. Seminal plasma components are compared with those of other species to hypothesize their role in sperm function and fertility. PMID:22827394

  9. N-Glycoproteomics of Human Seminal Plasma Glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Mayank; Joenväärä, Sakari; Tomar, Anil Kumar; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita; Renkonen, Risto

    2016-03-01

    Seminal plasma aids sperm by inhibiting premature capacitation, helping in the intracervical transport and formation of an oviductal sperm reservoir, all of which appear to be important in the fertilization process. Epitopes such as Lewis x and y are known to be present on seminal plasma glycoproteins, which can modulate the maternal immune response. It is suggested by multiple studies that seminal plasma glycoproteins play, largely undiscovered, important roles in the process of fertilization. We have devised a strategy to analyze glycopeptides from a complex, unknown mixture of protease-digested proteins. This analysis provides identification of the glycoproteins, glycosylation sites, glycan compositions, and proposed structures from the original sample. This strategy has been applied to human seminal plasma total glycoproteins. We have elucidated glycan compositions and proposed structures for 243 glycopeptides belonging to 73 N-glycosylation sites on 50 glycoproteins. The majority of the proposed glycan structures were complex type (83%) followed by high-mannose (10%) and then hybrid (7%). Most of the glycoproteins were either sialylated, fucosylated, or both. Many Lewis x/a and y/b epitopes bearing glycans were found, suggesting immune-modulating epitopes on multiple seminal plasma glycoproteins. The study also shows that large scale N-glycosylation mapping is achievable with current techniques and the depth of the analysis is roughly proportional to the prefractionation and complexity of the sample. PMID:26791533

  10. PIXE analysis of human spermatozoa isolated from seminal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Yoshida, K.; Uda, M.

    1990-04-01

    PIXE has been applied to the multielemental and microanalysis of human spermatozoa. This is the first attempt to determine the chemical compositions of the motile spermatozoa free from contaminations of seminal plasma without loss of component elements during washing. The spermatozoa were isolated from semen by letting them swim into a kind of physiological saline, Tyrode's solution. Relative concentrations of P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Zn and Br in motile spermatozoa were determined by the use of the chlorine K X-ray peak intensity for evaluating the amount of Tyrode's solution contained in the sample targets. The concentrations of calcium and iron in spermatozoa were considerably higher than in seminal plasma. The concentrations of P, K, Zn and Br in spermatozoa were not so different from those in seminal plasma.

  11. Relationship between Lipids Levels of Serum and Seminal Plasma and Semen Parameters in 631 Chinese Subfertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qi; Fan, Kai; Wang, Guo-Hong; Feng, Rui-Xiang; Liang, Yuan-Jiao; Chen, Li; Ge, Yi-Feng; Yao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Objective This prospective study was designed to investigate the relationship between lipids levels in both serum and seminal plasma and semen parameters. Methods 631 subfertile men were enrolled. Their obesity-associated markers were measured, and semen parameters were analyzed. Also, seminal plasma and serum TC, TG, HDL and LDL and serum FFA, FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2) and SHBG levels were detected. Results Seminal plasma and serum TG, TC and LDL levels were positively related to age. Serum TC, TG and LDL were positively related to obesity-associated markers (P < 0.001), while only seminal plasma TG was positively related to them (P < 0.05). For lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma, only TG level had slightly positive correlation between them (r = 0.081, P = 0.042). There was no significant correlation between serum lipids levels and semen parameters. However, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels were negatively related to one or several semen parameters, including semen volume (SV), sperm concentration (SC), total sperm count (TSC), sperm motility, progressive motility (PR) and total normal-progressively motile sperm counts (TNPMS). Moreover, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels in patients with oligospermatism, asthenospermia and teratozoospermia were higher than those with normal sperm concentration, motility or morphology. After adjusting age and serum LH, FSH, TT, E2 and SHBG levels, linear regression analysis showed that SV was still significantly correlated with seminal plasma LDL (P = 0.012), both of SC and TSC with seminal plasma HDL (P = 0.028 and 0.002), and both of PR and sperm motility with seminal plasma TC (P = 0.012 and 0.051). Conclusion The abnormal metabolism of lipids in male reproductive system may contribute to male factor infertility. PMID:26726884

  12. Lactotransferrin in Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Seminal Plasma Correlates with Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kiso, Wendy K.; Selvaraj, Vimal; Nagashima, Jennifer; Asano, Atsushi; Brown, Janine L.; Schmitt, Dennis L.; Leszyk, John; Travis, Alexander J.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.

    2013-01-01

    Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have highly variable ejaculate quality within individuals, greatly reducing the efficacy of artificial insemination and making it difficult to devise a sperm cryopreservation protocol for this endangered species. Because seminal plasma influences sperm function and physiology, including sperm motility, the objectives of this study were to characterize the chemistry and protein profiles of Asian elephant seminal plasma and to determine the relationships between seminal plasma components and semen quality. Ejaculates exhibiting good sperm motility (≥65%) expressed higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology (80.3±13.0 vs. 44.9±30.8%) and positive Spermac staining (51.9±14.5 vs. 7.5±14.4%), in addition to higher total volume (135.1±89.6 vs. 88.8±73.1 ml) and lower sperm concentration (473.0±511.2 vs. 1313.8±764.7×106 cells ml−1) compared to ejaculates exhibiting poor sperm motility (≤10%; P<0.05). Comparison of seminal plasma from ejaculates with good versus poor sperm motility revealed significant differences in concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and glucose. These observations suggest seminal plasma influences semen quality in elephants. One- and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis revealed largely similar compositional profiles of seminal plasma proteins between good and poor motility ejaculates. However, a protein of ∼80 kDa was abundant in 85% of ejaculates with good motility, and was absent in 90% of poor motility ejaculates (P<0.05). We used mass spectrometry to identify this protein as lactotransferrin, and immunoblot analysis to confirm this identification. Together, these findings lay a functional foundation for understanding the contributions of seminal plasma in the regulation of Asian elephant sperm motility, and for improving semen collection and storage in this endangered species. PMID:23976974

  13. Protein composition of seminal plasma in fractionated stallion ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Kareskoski, A M; del Alamo, M M Rivera; Güvenc, K; Reilas, T; Calvete, J J; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Andersson, M; Katila, T

    2011-02-01

    Seminal plasma (SP) contains several types of compounds derived from the epididymides and accessory glands. The aim of this study was to examine the protein composition of different ejaculate fractions. Trial I: fractionated ejaculates were collected from two normal and two subfertile stallions. Samples containing pre-sperm fluid and the first sperm-rich jets (HIGH-1), the main sperm-rich portion (HIGH-2), the jets with low sperm concentrations (LOW), and a combined whole-ejaculate (WE) sample was centrifuged, and the SP was filtered and frozen. A part of each SP sample was stored (5°C, 24 h) with spermatozoa from HIGH-2 and skim milk extender. Sperm motility was evaluated after storage in extender mixed with the stallion's own SP or SP from one of the other stallions (sperm from a normal stallion stored in SP from a subfertile stallion and vice versa). Protein composition was analysed using reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry. The area-under-the-curve (AUC) was used for quantitative comparison of proteins within fractions. Trial II: semen samples were collected from seven stallions. Fractions with the highest (HIGH) and lowest (LOW) sperm concentrations and WE samples were examined using SDS-PAGE and densitometry. No significant differences emerged between fractions in the AUC-values of the Horse Seminal Protein-1 (HSP-1) and HSP-2 peaks, or the peak containing HSP-3 and HSP-4 (HSP-3/4). Levels of HSP-1, HSP-2 and HSP-3/4 were not significantly correlated with total sperm motility, progressive sperm motility or average path velocity after storage. Significant differences between ejaculate fractions in the amount of different protein groups present in SP were not found in Trial I; but in Trial II, the proteins in the 60-70 kDa range were more abundant in LOW than in HIGH and WE, indicating that this band contained proteins derived mainly from the seminal vesicles, which produce most of the SP in LOW. PMID

  14. Impact of Seminal Chemical Elements on the Oxidative Balance in Bovine Seminal Plasma and Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Tvrdá, Eva; Lukáč, Norbert; Schneidgenová, Monika; Lukáčová, Jana; Szabó, Csaba; Goc, Zofia; Greń, Agnieszka; Massányi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Mutual relationships between selected chemical elements (Na, K, Fe, Cu, Mg, and Zn), basic motility characteristics (motility and progressive motility), and markers of the oxidative balance (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, albumin, and malondialdehyde) were investigated in bovine seminal plasma and spermatozoa. Computer assisted sperm analysis was used to assess the motility parameters; mineral concentrations were determined by the voltammetric method and flame absorption spectrophotometry; antioxidants and malondialdehyde were evaluated by UV/VIS spectrophotometry. Concentrations of chemical elements in both seminal fractions were in the following descending order: Na > K > Zn > Mg > Fe > Cu. Higher amounts of all minerals and nonenzymatic antioxidants were detected in the seminal plasma (P < 0.01; P < 0.001), while higher MDA concentration and activity of enzymatic antioxidants were recorded in the cell lysates (P < 0.01; P < 0.001). Na, Fe, Cu, Mg, and Zn were positively correlated with the motility and antioxidant parameters (P < 0.05; P < 0.01; P < 0.001). Inversely, K exhibited the positive associations with malondialdehyde (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that most chemical elements are integral components of bovine semen and are needed for the protection against oxidative stress development. PMID:26464901

  15. Impact of Seminal Chemical Elements on the Oxidative Balance in Bovine Seminal Plasma and Spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Tvrdá, Eva; Lukáč, Norbert; Schneidgenová, Monika; Lukáčová, Jana; Szabó, Csaba; Goc, Zofia; Greń, Agnieszka; Massányi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Mutual relationships between selected chemical elements (Na, K, Fe, Cu, Mg, and Zn), basic motility characteristics (motility and progressive motility), and markers of the oxidative balance (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, albumin, and malondialdehyde) were investigated in bovine seminal plasma and spermatozoa. Computer assisted sperm analysis was used to assess the motility parameters; mineral concentrations were determined by the voltammetric method and flame absorption spectrophotometry; antioxidants and malondialdehyde were evaluated by UV/VIS spectrophotometry. Concentrations of chemical elements in both seminal fractions were in the following descending order: Na > K > Zn > Mg > Fe > Cu. Higher amounts of all minerals and nonenzymatic antioxidants were detected in the seminal plasma (P < 0.01; P < 0.001), while higher MDA concentration and activity of enzymatic antioxidants were recorded in the cell lysates (P < 0.01; P < 0.001). Na, Fe, Cu, Mg, and Zn were positively correlated with the motility and antioxidant parameters (P < 0.05; P < 0.01; P < 0.001). Inversely, K exhibited the positive associations with malondialdehyde (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that most chemical elements are integral components of bovine semen and are needed for the protection against oxidative stress development. PMID:26464901

  16. Identification of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Harshan, Hiron M; Sankar, Surya; Singh, L P; Singh, Manish Kumar; Sudharani, S; Ansari, M R; Singh, S K; Majumdar, A C; Joshi, P

    2009-10-01

    The FN-2 family of seminal plasma proteins represents the major protein fraction of bovine seminal plasma. These proteins also constitute the major seminal plasma proteins fraction in horse, goat and bison seminal plasma and are present in pig, rat, mouse, hamster and human seminal plasma. BSP-A1 and BSP-A2, the predominant proteins of the FN-2 family, are collectively termed as PDC-109. Fn-2 proteins play an important role in fertilization, including sperm capacitation and formation of oviductal sperm reservoirs. Significantly, BSP proteins were also shown to have negative effects in the context of sperm storage. No conclusive evidence for the presence of buffalo seminal plasma protein(s) similar to PDC-109 exists. Studies with buffalo seminal plasma indicated that isolation and identification of PDC-109-like protein(s) from buffalo seminal plasma by conventional methods might be difficult. Thus, antibodies raised against PDC-109 isolated, and purified from cattle seminal plasma, were used for investigating the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma. Buffalo seminal plasma proteins were resolved on SDS-PAGE, blotted to nitro cellulose membranes and probed for the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) using the PDC-109 antisera raised in rabbits. A distinct immunoreactive band well below the 20-kDa regions indicated the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma. PMID:19117702

  17. Serum and seminal plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Serk; Park, Yong-Seog; Lee, Joong Shik

    2016-01-01

    Objective Growth hormone and its mediator, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), have been suggested to exert gonadotropic actions in both humans and animals. The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between serum IGF-1 concentration, seminal plasma concentration, and sperm parameter abnormalities. Methods A total of 79 men were enrolled in this study from December 2011 to July 2012 and were prospectively analyzed. Patient parameters analyzed included age, body mass index, smoking status, urological history, and fertility history. Patients were divided into four groups based on their semen parameters: normal (A, n=31), abnormal sperm motility (B, n=12), abnormal sperm morphology (C, n=20), and two or more abnormal parameters (D, n=16). Patient seminal plasma and serum IGF-1 concentrations were determined. Results Patient baseline characteristics were not significantly different between any of the groups. The serum IGF-1 levels in groups B, C, and D were significantly lower than the levels in group A; however, the seminal plasma IGF-1 levels were not significantly different between any of the groups. Conclusion Men with abnormal sperm parameters had significantly lower levels of serum IGF-1 compared with men with normal sperm parameters. Seminal plasma IGF-1 levels, however, did not differ significantly between the groups investigated here. Further investigations will be required to determine the exact mechanisms by which growth hormone and IGF-1 affect sperm quality. PMID:27358827

  18. Levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in seminal plasma and their relationship with seminal parameters

    PubMed Central

    Khosrowbeygi, Ali; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2007-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that damage to spermatozoa by reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in male infertility. The aim of the present study was to assess seminal plasma levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), free 8-Isoprostane and activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in men with asthenozoospermia, asthenoteratozoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia compared with normozoospermic males. Methods The patients consisted of 46 men with seminal parameters abnormalities. The patients were grouped into asthenozoospermic (n = 15), asthenoteratozoospermic (n = 16) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (n = 15). The control group consisted of 16 healthy males with normozoospermia. Catalase activity was measured by Aebi spectrophotometeric method. Levels of TAC and SOD were measured by commercially available colorimetric assays. Level of free 8-Isoprostane was assessed by commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method. Differences between groups were assessed using Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Coefficients of correlation were calculated using Spearman's correlation analysis. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed with statistical significance assessed at the p value < 0.05 level with 95% confidence intervals Results Levels of catalase and TAC were significantly lower in patients than the control group. No significant changes were seen in SOD activities. Levels of free 8-Isoprostane were significantly higher in patients than the control group. Furthermore, asthenozoospermic, asthenoteratozoospermic and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic groups had significantly lower values of catalase activity and TAC when compared to normozoospermic males. Levels of free 8-Isoprostane were significantly higher in all patients subgroups than the control group. Levels of catalase and TAC were positively correlated with sperm motility and morphology. Free 8-Isoprostane levels showed an inverse correlation with sperm motility and

  19. Factors involved in the biochemical etiology of human seminal plasma hyperviscosity.

    PubMed

    Mendeluk, G; González Flecha, F L; Castello, P R; Bregni, C

    2000-01-01

    Semen rheology was studied to elucidate the biochemical basis of seminal plasma hyperviscosity. Semen proved to fit in with a power law model, by presenting a pseudoplastic behavior. Apparent viscosity at 230 s(-1) and 25 degrees C (eta(a)) was 4.3 /- 0.2 cp and 5.4 +/- 0.4 cp in normal and high-consistency semen, respectively. The effect of enzymes and mucolytic agents on human seminal plasma viscosity were evaluated by incubating normal and hyperviscous semen pool aliquots with trypsin, dithiothreitol, EDTA, alpha-amylase and deoxyribonuclease I. After incubation, trypsin treatment reduced eta(a) by 36% in normal semen and by 44% in hyperviscous semen. There was a decrease in eta(a) following incubation of hyperviscous samples with dithiothreitol (33%) and alpha-amylase (44%) that was not observed in the normal consistency samples. No decrease was observed in eta(a) after EDTA or DNAse treatment of both groups. Comparison of normal and hyperviscous seminal plasmas revealed no difference in the concentration of total proteins, DNA, or in the percentage of water content. These findings indicate that the primary substances responsible for basic normal semen rheologic behavior are proteins. A comparison of rheological properties between normal and hyperviscous semen samples indicates the existence of a highly organized network in the latter group, in which disulfide bonds and oligosaccharide chains complexed to the peptide core may play a key role. PMID:10714821

  20. Simple colorimetric method for seminal plasma zinc assay.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, J; Miró, J; Riera, J

    1982-01-01

    Zinc concentration in seminal plasma is one of the best biochemical parameters with which to assess prostatic function in the study of male infertility. Nevertheless, this parameter is not determined in many laboratories because of technical difficulties. In this paper a simple colorimetric method for seminal plasma zinc assay is presented. This assay is performed with only one reagent solution making deproteinization and extraction with organic solvents unnecessary. The method is based on the reaction between 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol and zinc which yields a coloured complex, that is soluble in the reagent solution when dodecyl hydrogen sulfate sodium salt is present. The solubilized complex has an absorbance peak at 560 nm. The accuracy of this method is proved by statistical comparison with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Furthermore, the method has a good precision and is free of interference. PMID:7125243

  1. Trace elements in seminal plasma of men from infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Szynkowska, Małgorzata I.; Motak-Pochrzęst, Hanna; Pawlaczyk, Aleksandra; Sypniewski, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An analysis of lead, zinc, cadmium and other trace elements in semen of men from infertile couples was performed to determine the association between abnormal semen parameters and enviromental or occupational exposure to some trace metals. Material and methods Presence of manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and lead was measured in seminal plasma of 34 men from infertile couples using spectrometry with time-of-flight analysis. Correlations among sperm parameters and trace metals were determined using cluster analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Abnormally high concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc and cobalt were found in 23 seminal plasma of men from infertile couples. The most consistent evidence was determined for an association between high cadmium concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count, motility and morphology below reference limits (p < 0.01). A correlation of significantly increased tin level and reduced sperm count in semen of men with limited fertility potential was observed (p = 0.04). Conclusions In our study we observed a correlation of tin level with sperm count in semen of men with limited fertility potential. PMID:26170853

  2. Zinc levels in seminal plasma and their correlation with male infertility: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Long, Zhou; Wang, Liang; Liu, Qian; Sun, Bishao; Wang, Qingqing; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace mineral for the normal functioning of the male reproductive system. Current studies have investigated the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library for studies that examined the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility, as well as the effects of zinc supplementation on sperm parameters. Twenty studies were identified, including 2,600 cases and 867 controls. Our meta-analysis results indicated that the seminal plasma zinc concentrations from infertile males were significantly lower than those from normal controls (SMD (standard mean differences) [95% CI] −0.64 [−1.01, −0.28]). Zinc supplementation was found to significantly increase the semen volume, sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm morphology (SMD [95% CI]: −0.99 [−1.60, −0.38], −1.82 [−2.63, −1.01], and −0.75 [−1.37, −0.14], respectively). The present study showed that the zinc level in the seminal plasma of infertile males was significantly lower than that of normal males. Zinc supplementation could significantly increase the sperm quality of infertile males. However, further studies are needed to better elucidate the correlation between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility. PMID:26932683

  3. Zinc levels in seminal plasma and their correlation with male infertility: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Long, Zhou; Wang, Liang; Liu, Qian; Sun, Bishao; Wang, Qingqing; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace mineral for the normal functioning of the male reproductive system. Current studies have investigated the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library for studies that examined the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility, as well as the effects of zinc supplementation on sperm parameters. Twenty studies were identified, including 2,600 cases and 867 controls. Our meta-analysis results indicated that the seminal plasma zinc concentrations from infertile males were significantly lower than those from normal controls (SMD (standard mean differences) [95% CI] -0.64 [-1.01, -0.28]). Zinc supplementation was found to significantly increase the semen volume, sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm morphology (SMD [95% CI]: -0.99 [-1.60, -0.38], -1.82 [-2.63, -1.01], and -0.75 [-1.37, -0.14], respectively). The present study showed that the zinc level in the seminal plasma of infertile males was significantly lower than that of normal males. Zinc supplementation could significantly increase the sperm quality of infertile males. However, further studies are needed to better elucidate the correlation between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility. PMID:26932683

  4. Relationship between seminal plasma zinc and semen quality in a subfertile population

    PubMed Central

    Dissanayake, DMAB; Wijesinghe, PS; Ratnasooriya, WD; Wimalasena, S

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Current knowledge on the relationship between seminal zinc levels and different parameters of human semen is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and semen quality using two markers; zinc concentration (Zn-C) and total zinc per ejaculate (Zn-T). DESIGN: The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Semen parameters of 152 healthy men undergoing evaluation for subfertility were assessed. Seminal plasma zinc levels were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Zn-C, expressed as μg/mL, was multiplied by ejaculated volume to calculate Zn-T. Mann Whitney U test and Chi-square test were used to compare the zinc levels between different seminal groups when appropriate. Correlations were observed with Pearson’s correlation of coefficient. Analysis was carried out using SPSS 10.0 for windows software. RESULTS: Zn-C was low in 23 (15%) samples, while in 32 (21%) of the samples Zn-T was abnormal. The number of subnormal samples was high in the low-zinc groups compared with the normal-zinc groups, 15 vs. 8 (P > 0.05) for Zn-C and 28 vs. 4 (P < 0.001) for Zn-T. Zn-C was significantly high in the asthenozoospermics compared with the normal motile group; 138.11 μg/mL (83.92) vs. 110.69 11 μg/mL (54.59) (P < 0.05). Zn-T was significantly low in samples with hyperviscosity compared with samples with normal viscosity; 220.06 μg (144.09) vs. 336.34 μg (236.33) (P < 0.05). Conversely, Zn-T was high in samples with low viability compared with those with normal viability; 437.67 μg (283.88) vs. 305.15 μg (221.19) (P < 0.05). Weak correlations were found between Zn and some semen parameters. However, the correlation was negative between pH and Zn-C (r = –0.193, P < 0.05) as well as Zn-T (r = –0.280, P < 0.01). On the other hand, correlations were positive between Zn-T and sperm count (r = 0.211, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Count, motility, viability, pH and viscosity are affected

  5. Seminal plasma inhibits lymphocyte response to T-dependent and -independent antigens in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, I K; Erickson, K L

    1984-01-01

    The effect of seminal plasma, epididymal spermatozoa, or whole semen on antibody producing cells was examined in vitro after (i) direct culture with spleen or B cells, and (ii) cocultivation of B cells with T cells previously incubated with seminal plasma. Seminal plasma, and not epididymal spermatozoa, have an inhibitory effect on the direct hemolytic plague forming cell response. This was mediated by a direct inhibitory effect on the B cell and not through the generation of suppressor T cells as demonstrated by responses to T-independent and -dependent antigens. Thus, the mode of suppressive action of seminal plasma in vitro is probably different from that previously reported in vivo. PMID:6235181

  6. Split ejaculation study: semen parameters and calcium and magnesium in seminal plasma

    PubMed Central

    Valsa, James; Khan, Pulikkal Sahab; Sumangala, Balakrishnan; Gondalia, Meenaxi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Male infertility is on the rise. Artificial insemination is an option in many cases like oligozoospermia or oligoasthenozoospermia. Homologous insemination is helpful for some couples in whom sperm count is low. This study was aimed to understand the most suitable portion of split ejaculate for insemination and also the level of calcium and magnesium in each split. Materials and methods A total number of 31 normal and clinically healthy adults participated in this study. They were instructed to maintain abstinence for 2-5 days prior to sample collection in three splits. Each split was evaluated as if it were a whole sample, following WHO criteria. Seminal plasma was separated. Calcium and magnesium levels were measured in seminal plasma and spermatozoa of each split. Results The split ejaculate study revealed that the first portion contained a higher number of spermatozoa with better motility than the 2nd and 3rd splits. Similarly, the level of calcium and magnesium in seminal plasma and spermatozoa was greater in the first split, followed by 2nd and 3rd splits. Conclusion The presented split ejaculate study has shown the first ejaculate as superior in quality in terms of total sperm count and percentage of active motility. The first split of ejaculation is recommended for homologous artificial insemination in case of oligozoospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia. This study has also shown that a major portion of two important elements, calcium and magnesium, is contributed by the prostate gland. PMID:24578965

  7. Role of Seminal Plasma in Human Female Reproductive Failure: Immunomodulation, Inflammation, and Infections.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Deborah J; Politch, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    Human seminal plasma contains factors that can regulate the female immune system and potentially promote reproductive fitness. Adverse effects on fertility and pregnancy may occur when seminal plasma provides insufficient, excessive, or altered signals or when the female partner is incapable of receiving these signals. PMID:26178849

  8. An express immunological method for detection of human seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Lolov, S R; Yomtova, V M; Tsankov, Y; Kehayov, I R; Kyurkchiev, S D

    1992-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against human seminal plasma (HSP) were produced and during screening procedures dissociation constants of the antigen/antibody complexes were determined. Mab 1E5 was selected for further studies because of its high reactivity in an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and high affinity for its corresponding antigen. The specificity of Mab 1E5 was checked in absorption ELISA with human organ extracts and some biological secretions. It was established that the 1E5-corresponding epitope was a thermostable peptide moiety which could be detected in HSP, only. This monoclonal antibody was used for the development of an express method for detection of human semen. The assay was applied for screening of 57 cases of suspected rape. A complete correlation was found between the results obtained by the proposed test and by routine microscopic methods. The newly designed immunoassay is reliable, it is easily performed and it is less time-consuming. PMID:1618453

  9. The quantification of lipid and protein oxidation in stallion spermatozoa and seminal plasma: seasonal distinctions and correlations with DNA strand breaks, classical seminal parameters and stallion fertility.

    PubMed

    Morte, Maria Inês; Rodrigues, Ana Margarida; Soares, Diana; Rodrigues, Ana Sofia; Gamboa, Sandra; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2008-06-01

    The goal of this work was to correlate oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage with classic semen parameters in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of fertile and subfertile stallions. Oxidation was measured in both lipids and proteins, using the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) assay and the DNPH carbonyl groups assay, respectively. Sperm DNA damage was monitored using the TUNEL assay. These parameters were monitored in samples obtained during the breeding and the non-breeding seasons. In general, fertile stallions showed better classical semen parameters, and those parameters improved from the non-breeding to the breeding season, although an increase in sperm production was accompanied by a decrease in the semen quality from subfertile stallions in the breeding season. In terms of oxidation levels we found that there were clear differences whether lipids or proteins were considered. In the breeding season there seemed to be a tendency towards normalizing lipid oxidation in spermatozoa and seminal plasma, and protein oxidation in the seminal plasma, of both fertile and subfertile animals. Thus, differences monitored in the non-breeding season were no longer visible. Interestingly, a higher level of protein oxidation was found in the sperm of fertile animals in the breeding season. Considering that there were positive correlations between sperm protein oxidation and sperm motility and vitality, these results suggests that the oxidation of semen proteins may be important for sperm function. On the other hand, lipid oxidation in the seminal plasma seemed to be a general indicator for sperm damage. In the non-breeding season positive correlations between lipid and protein oxidation levels in both sperm and seminal plasma and several defects in sperm function were found, but only for subfertile animals, thus suggesting that lipid and protein oxidation may aid in the identification of subfertile stallions during the non

  10. Seminal plasma aids the survival and cervical transit of epididymal ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Rickard, J P; Pini, T; Soleilhavoup, C; Cognie, J; Bathgate, R; Lynch, G W; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C; Druart, X; de Graaf, S P

    2014-11-01

    Seminal plasma purportedly plays a critical role in reproduction, but epididymal spermatozoa are capable of fertilisation following deposition in the uterus, calling into question the biological requirement of this substance. Through a combination of direct observation of spermatozoa in utero using probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy, in vivo assessment of sperm fertility and in vitro analysis of various sperm functional parameters, this study investigated the role of seminal plasma in spermatozoa transit through the cervix of the ewe. Following deposition in the cervical os, epididymal spermatozoa previously exposed to seminal plasma displayed an enhanced ability to traverse the cervix as evidenced by both significantly higher pregnancy rates and numbers of spermatozoa observed at the utero-tubal junction when compared with epididymal spermatozoa not previously exposed to seminal plasma. The beneficial effect of seminal plasma on sperm transport was clearly localised to transit through the cervix as pregnancy rates of spermatozoa deposited directly into the uterus were unaffected by exposure to seminal plasma. This phenomenon was not explained by changes to sperm motion characteristics, as seminal plasma had no effect on the motility, kinematic parameters or mitochondrial membrane potential of spermatozoa. Rather, in vitro testing revealed that seminal plasma improved the ability of epididymal spermatozoa to penetrate cervical mucus recovered from ewes in oestrus. These results demonstrate that the survival and transport of ram spermatozoa through the cervix of the ewe is not linked to their motility or velocity but rather the presence of some cervical penetration trait conferred by exposure to seminal plasma. PMID:25118301

  11. Seminal plasma protein profiles of ejaculates obtained by internal artificial vagina and electroejaculation in Brahman bulls.

    PubMed

    Rego, J P A; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; McGowan, M R; Boe-Hansen, G B

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate if differences exist in the seminal plasma protein profile from mature Brahman bulls using two methods of semen collection: internal artificial vagina (IAV) and electroejaculation (EEJ). Semen was collected four times from three bulls on the same day and parameters were assessed immediately post-collection. Seminal plasma proteins were evaluated by 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. Semen volume was greater (P < 0.05) for EEJ (4.6 ± 0.35 mL) than for IAV (1.86 ± 0.24 mL) but sperm concentration was greater in IAV (1505 ± 189 × 10(6) sperm/mL) than in EEJ samples (344 ± 87 × 10(6) sperm/mL). Sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm were not different between treatments. Total concentration of seminal plasma proteins was greater for samples collected by IAV as compared to EEJ (19.3 ± 0.9 compared with 13.0 ± 1.8 mg/mL, P < 0.05; respectively). Based on 2-D gels, 22 spots had a greater volume (P < 0.05) in gels derived from IAV samples, corresponding to 21 proteins identified as transferrin, albumin, epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase, among others. Thirty-three spots, corresponding to 26 proteins, had a greater volume (P < 0.05) in gels derived from EEJ samples. These proteins were identified as spermadhesin-1, Bovine Sperm Protin 1, 3 and 5 isoforms, angiogenin-1, alpha-1B-glycoprotein, clusterin, nucleobindin-1, cathepsins, spermadhesin Z13, annexins, among others. Thus, proteins in greater amounts in samples obtained by IAV and EEJ were mainly of epididymal origin and accessory sex glands, respectively. PMID:26282524

  12. Seminal plasma applied post-thawing affects boar sperm physiology: a flow cytometry study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gago, Rocío; Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe

    2013-09-01

    Cryopreservation induces extensive biophysical and biochemical changes in the sperm. In the present study, we used flow cytometry to assess the capacitation-like status of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa and its relationship with intracellular calcium, assessment of membrane fluidity, modification of thiol groups in plasma membrane proteins, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, viability, acrosomal status, and mitochondrial activity. This experiment was performed to verify the effect of adding seminal plasma on post-thaw sperm functions. To determine these effects after cryopreservation, frozen-thawed semen from seven boars was examined after supplementation with different concentrations of pooled seminal plasma (0%, 10%, and 50%) at various times of incubation from 0 to 4 hours. Incubation caused a decrease in membrane integrity and an increase in acrosomal damage, with small changes in other parameters (P > 0.05). Although 10% seminal plasma showed few differences with 0% (ROS increase at 4 hours, P < 0.05), 50% seminal plasma caused important changes. Membrane fluidity increased considerably from the beginning of the experiment, and ROS and free thiols in the cell surface increased by 2 hours of incubation. By the end of the experiment, viability decreased and acrosomal damage increased in the 50% seminal plasma samples. The addition of 50% of seminal plasma seems to modify the physiology of thawed boar spermatozoa, possibly through membrane changes and ROS increase. Although some effects were detrimental, the stimulatory effect of 50% seminal plasma could favor the performance of post-thawed boar semen, as showed in the field (García JC, Domínguez JC, Peña FJ, Alegre B, Gonzalez R, Castro MJ, Habing GG, Kirkwood RN. Thawing boar semen in the presence of seminal plasma: effects on sperm quality and fertility. Anim Reprod Sci 2010;119:160-5). PMID:23756043

  13. Addition of seminal plasma to post-thawing equine semen: what is the effect on sperm cell viability?

    PubMed

    de Andrade, A F C; Zaffalon, F G; Celeghini, E C C; Nascimento, J; Tarragó, O F B; Martins, S M M K; Alonso, M A; Arruda, R P

    2011-08-01

    Effect of seminal plasma addition after thawing on viability or cryocapacitation is not definitively established. This experiment was performed to verify the effect of adding seminal plasma, autologous or homologous (from an animal with good semen freezability). Five ejaculates from each of four stallions with proven fertility were collected and cryopreserved. The semen was subsequently thawed and divided into the following three treatment groups: no seminal plasma addition after semen thawing (NOSP); the addition of homologous seminal plasma after semen thawing (HSP) and the addition of autologous seminal plasma after semen thawing (ASP). The addition of 20% of seminal plasma led to an increase in the cell population that simultaneously show plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity (p < 0.05). The addition of seminal plasma did not alter the total motility, the amount of cells with mitochondrial membrane potential or the sperm velocities (average path velocity, straight-line velocity and curvilinear velocity). However, the beat/cross-frequency, straightness and linearity were reduced in ASP and HSP groups (p < 0.05). Unexpectedly, the addition of homologous seminal plasma reduced the proportion of cells with progressive motility (p < 0.05) and the addition of autologous seminal plasma reduced the amplitude of the lateral head displacement (p < 0.05). Based on the increase in the cell populations that had the plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity simultaneously identified in this study, we proposed that the addition of seminal plasma (autologous or homologous) into post-thawed semen before insemination could increase semen fertility. PMID:21121969

  14. Electroejaculation increases low molecular weight proteins in seminal plasma modifying sperm quality in Corriedale rams.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, A; Manes, J; Cesari, A; Alberio, R; Hozbor, F

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of seminal collection method (artificial vagina or electroejaculation) on the protein composition of seminal plasma and sperm quality parameters in Corriedale rams. To address this question, we assessed the effect of seminal collection method on motility, plasma membrane integrity and functionality, mitochondrial functionality and the decondensation state of nuclear chromatin in sperm cells. Volume, pH, osmolarity, protein concentration, total protein content and protein profile using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and 2-D polyacrylamide electrophoresis of seminal plasma collected with artificial vagina and electroejaculation were also analysed. The main findings from this study were that ejaculates obtained with electroejaculation had (i) a higher number of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane and functional mitochondria and (ii) a higher proportion of seminal plasma, total protein content and relative abundance of low molecular weight proteins than ejaculates obtained with artificial vagina. Five of these proteins were identified by mass spectrometry: binder of sperm 5 precursor; RSVP14; RSVP22; epididymal secretory protein E1 and clusterin. One protein spot with molecular weight of approximately 31 kDa and isoelectric point of 4.8 was only found in the seminal plasma from electroejaculation. PMID:24494601

  15. Glycosaminoglycans in the accessory sex glands, testes and seminal plasma of alpaca and ram.

    PubMed

    Kershaw-Young, Claire M; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2012-01-01

    The viscous nature of alpaca semen limits its use in cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies. The cause and source of this viscosity is unknown although it has been postulated, but never proven, that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) secreted by the bulbourethral gland are responsible. The present study investigated the concentration and composition of GAGs in alpaca seminal plasma, testes, bulbourethral gland and prostate gland and compared them to those in the ram to determine the relationship between seminal plasma GAGs and viscosity and to identify the source of seminal plasma GAGs. Alpaca seminal plasma contained more GAGs than ram (P<0.001) and the predominant GAG, keratan sulfate, was correlated with viscosity (P=0.05, R(2)=0.2635). The alpaca bulbourethral gland contained most GAGs compared with prostate or testis (P<0.001). In the ram, the prostate contained most GAGs. These findings suggest that GAGs, particularly keratan sulfate, may be the cause of seminal plasma viscosity in alpacas, and that the seminal plasma GAGs originate from the bulbourethral gland. PMID:22281083

  16. Differential protein expression in seminal plasma from fertile and infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Cadavid J, Angela P.; Alvarez, Angela; Markert, Udo R.; Maya, Walter Cardona

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze human seminal plasma proteins in association with male fertility status using the proteomic mass spectrometry technology Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (SELDI-TOF-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen analysis was performed using conventional methods. Protein profiles of the seminal plasma were obtained by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry over a strong anion exchanger, ProteinChip® Q10 array. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant differences in motility and sperm count between fertile and infertile men. In addition, we observed ten seminal proteins that are significantly up-regulated in the infertile group. In conclusion, comparison of seminal plasma proteome in fertile and infertile men provides new aspects in the physiology of male fertility and might help in identifying novel markers of male infertility. PMID:25395747

  17. Seminal plasma affects sperm sex sorting in boars.

    PubMed

    Alkmin, Diego V; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Tarantini, Tatiana; Del Olmo, David; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted in boar semen samples to evaluate how both holding time (24h) and the presence of seminal plasma (SP) before sorting affect sperm sortability and the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to tolerate liquid storage. Whole ejaculate samples were divided into three aliquots immediately after collection: one was diluted (1:1, v/v) in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS; 50% SP); the SP of the other two aliquots was removed and the sperm pellets were diluted with BTS + 10% of their own SP (10% SP) or BTS alone (0% SP). The three aliquots of each ejaculate were divided into two portions, one that was processed immediately for sorting and a second that was sorted after 24h storage at 15-17°C. In the first experiment, the ability to exhibit well-defined X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm peaks (split) in the cytometry histogram and the subsequent sorting efficiency were assessed (20 ejaculates). In contrast with holding time, the SP proportion influenced the parameters examined, as evidenced by the higher number of ejaculates exhibiting split and better sorting efficiency (P<0.05) in semen samples with 0-10% SP compared with those with 50% SP. In a second experiment, the quality (viability, total and progressive motility) and functionality (plasma membrane fluidity and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species) of sex-sorted spermatozoa were evaluated after 0, 72 and 120h storage at 15-17°C (10 ejaculates). Holding time and SP proportion did not influence the quality or functionality of stored sex-sorted spermatozoa. In conclusion, a holding time as long as 24h before sorting did not negatively affect sex sorting efficiency or the ability of sorted boar spermatozoa to tolerate long-term liquid storage. A high proportion of SP (50%) in the semen samples before sorting reduced the number of ejaculates to be sorted and negatively influenced the sorting efficiency, but did not affect the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to tolerate liquid

  18. Ovulation-inducing factor: a protein component of llama seminal plasma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previously, we documented the presence of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma of llamas and alpacas. The purpose of the study was to define the biochemical characteristics of the molecule(s) in seminal plasma responsible for inducing ovulation. Methods In Experiment 1, llama seminal plasma was centrifuged using filtration devices with nominal molecular mass cut-offs of 30, 10 and 5 kDa. Female llamas (n = 9 per group) were treated i.m. with whole seminal plasma (positive control), phosphate-buffered saline (negative control), or the fraction of seminal plasma equal or higher than 30 kDa, 10 to 30 kDa, 5 to 10 kDa, or < 5 kDa. In Experiment 2, female llamas (n = 7 per group) were given an i.m. dose of seminal plasma treated previously by: 1) enzymatic digestion with proteinase-K, 2) incubation with charcoal-dextran, 3) heating to 65°C, or 4) untreated (control). In Experiment 3, female llamas (n = 10 per group) were given an i.m. dose of pronase-treated or non-treated (control) seminal plasma. In all experiments, llamas were examined by transrectal ultrasonography to detect ovulation and CL formation. Ovulation rate was compared among groups by Fisher's exact test and follicle and CL diameters were compared among groups by analyses of variance or student's t-tests. Results In Experiment 1, all llamas in the equal or higher than 30 kDa and positive control groups ovulated (9/9 in each), but none ovulated in the other groups (P < 0.001). In Experiment 2, ovulations were detected in all llamas in each treatment group; i.e., respective treatments of seminal plasma failed to inactivate the ovulation-inducing factor. In Experiment 3, ovulations were detected in 0/10 llamas given pronase-treated seminal plasma and in 9/10 controls (P < 0.01). Conclusions We conclude that ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in llama seminal plasma is a protein molecule that is resistant to heat and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K, and has a molecular mass of

  19. Inclusion of seminal plasma in sperm cryopreservation of Iberian pig.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Fernández, José; Gómez-Izquierdo, Emilio; Tomás, Cristina; González-Bulnes, Antonio; Sánchez-Sánchez, Raúl; de Mercado, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the inclusion of seminal plasma (SP) in the freezing extender, trying to preserve as much as possible of SP with spermatozoa from Iberian pigs, thus improving the conservation of animal genetic resources of this breed. Experiment 1, evaluated the effect of substituting water with SP as diluent in the freezing media in different proportions (0%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%), over pre-freezing (at 10°C and 5°C) and post-thawing sperm quality. The results showed that over 50% of SP in the extender, significantly decreased sperm quality in comparison to the control sample (0% SP) and the samples with 10% and 25% of SP (P<0.05). No significant differences were found between the control sample and the samples with 10% and 25% SP (P>0.05), but treatment with 25% did not show significant differences between the time of incubation at 37°C after thawing (P>0.05), showing greater sperm quality resistance over time. Experiment 2, evaluated the effect of prolonged incubation period, until 480min (simulating the lifespan of sperm in the female genital tract), of sperm samples with 0%, 10% and 25% of SP. Treatment with 25% of SP maintained better sperm quality over time, compared to control sample. Significant differences were observed especially in the parameters of motility analysis (TMS, total motile spermatozoa; PMS: progressive motility spermatozoa. P<0.05). In Experiment 3, the effect of the presence of SP was evaluated during the thawing process. Although some differences were observed between treatments, these differences were not as clear as the previous experiments. In conclusion, replacement of 25% of the water by SP as diluent in the freezing extender could be considered the maximum percentage of inclusion, without harmful effects to the sperm. In addition, this proportion of SP maintained Iberian sperm quality for longer time when it was present during the freezing and thawing process. PMID:22266249

  20. Influence of boar breeds or hybrid genetic composition on semen quality and seminal plasma biochemical variables.

    PubMed

    Žaja, Ivona Žura; Samardžija, Marko; Vince, Silvijo; Majić-Balić, Ivanka; Vilić, Marinko; Đuričić, Dražen; Milinković-Tur, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme concentrations of seminal plasma are important for spermatozoa metabolism and function in boars. The need has arisen for introducing a biochemical evaluation of semen, along with the usual standard semen analyses. There are no data on the influence of boar breeds on the seminal plasma biochemical variables investigated in this study. Therefore, the objective was to determine the influence of breed and hybrid genetic composition of boars on semen quality and seminal plasma biochemical variables. Semen samples of 27 boars (Swedish Landrace, German Landrace, Large White, Pietrain and Pig Improvement Company hybrid-PIC-hybrid), aged between 1.5 and 3 years, were collected. After evaluation of semen quality, the seminal plasma was separated from the spermatozoa by centrifugation of semen. The seminal plasma was subjected to spectrophotometric analysis to determine alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and to atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis to measure the concentration of calcium and magnesium. Conventional semen quality variables differed depending on breed and PIC-hybrid genetic composition, though these differences were typically insignificant. In the seminal plasma, significant differences were determined in enzyme activity (ALP, GGT, CK and LDH) and in calcium concentration among boars of different breeds. There are, therefore, differences in semen quality and significant differences in the seminal plasma biochemical variables among boars of different breeds and PIC-hybrid genetic composition. The data and differences in semen variables detected in the present study provide knowledge for enhancing evaluation and monitoring of boar reproductive potential, semen quality and explain the potential causes of boar infertility. PMID:26692346

  1. Substrate specificity of proteolytic activity in the testes fluid and seminal plasma of the common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Cejko, B I; Słowińska, M; Judycka, S; Kowalski, R K

    2016-05-01

    Substrate specificity in the seminal plasma and testes fluids of the common carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using gelatin, casein, albumin and haemoglobin. Proteolytic profiles of the testes and seminal plasma were compared. Different ranges of pH (5·5-9·5) and temperature (4-37° C) were used during incubations of seminal plasma proteinases. Differences in proteolytic activity between testes and seminal plasma may reflect specific functions of the testes and sperm ducts in semen production. Seminal plasma metalloproteinases were characterized by higher substrate specificity than were serine proteinases. Zymography optimization for seminal plasma indicated that pH 7·5 and 22° C were the optimal conditions for gel incubations. PMID:27001550

  2. A factor in human seminal plasma which affects carnitine accumulation in bovine epididymal sperm.

    PubMed

    Carter, A L; Cho, S H; Bishop, E R; Boldt, J

    1988-05-01

    This study was initiated to determine whether factors are present in human sperm-free seminal plasma (HSP) that regulate the uptake and release of carnitine from sperm. Bovine caput epididymal sperm cells accumulated more carnitine than caudal sperm cells. A significant reduction in carnitine uptake by caput sperm was observed in the presence of HSP from normal subjects, but not from three subjects with reduced motility. A factor has been isolated from HSP that inhibits carnitine uptake by caput sperm and has the following properties: it is nondialyzable, stable to freeze-thawing, soluble in 60% ammonium sulfate, and has an approximate molecular weight of 158 kd. These data are consistent with the existence of a relatively high molecular weight protein in HSP responsible for the preservation of carnitine concentrations in sperm. PMID:3360180

  3. Systematic characterization of seminal plasma piRNAs as molecular biomarkers for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yeting; Wang, Cheng; Fu, Zheng; Liang, Hongwei; Zhang, Suyang; Lu, Meiling; Sun, Wu; Ye, Chao; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke; Shi, Liang; Zhang, Chunni; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Although piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis, little is known about piRNAs in the seminal plasma of infertile males. In this study, we systematically investigated the profiles of seminal plasma piRNAs in infertile males to identify piRNAs that are altered during infertility and evaluate their diagnostic value. Seminal plasma samples were obtained from 211 infertile patients (asthenozoospermia and azoospermia) and 91 fertile controls. High-throughput sequencing technology was employed to screen piRNA profiles in seminal plasma samples pooled from healthy controls and infertile patients. The results identified 61 markedly altered piRNAs in infertile patient groups compared with control group. Next, a quantitative RT-PCR assay was conducted in the training and validation sets to measure and confirm the concentrations of altered piRNAs. The results identified a panel of 5 piRNAs that were significantly decreased in seminal plasma of infertile patients compared with healthy controls. ROC curve analysis and risk score analysis revealed that the diagnostic potential of these 5 piRNAs to distinguish asthenozoospermic and azoospermic individuals from healthy controls was high. In summary, this study identifies a panel of piRNAs that can accurately distinguish fertile from infertile males. This finding may provide pathophysiological clues about the development of infertility. PMID:27068805

  4. Systematic characterization of seminal plasma piRNAs as molecular biomarkers for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yeting; Wang, Cheng; Fu, Zheng; Liang, Hongwei; Zhang, Suyang; Lu, Meiling; Sun, Wu; Ye, Chao; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke; Shi, Liang; Zhang, Chunni; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Although piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis, little is known about piRNAs in the seminal plasma of infertile males. In this study, we systematically investigated the profiles of seminal plasma piRNAs in infertile males to identify piRNAs that are altered during infertility and evaluate their diagnostic value. Seminal plasma samples were obtained from 211 infertile patients (asthenozoospermia and azoospermia) and 91 fertile controls. High-throughput sequencing technology was employed to screen piRNA profiles in seminal plasma samples pooled from healthy controls and infertile patients. The results identified 61 markedly altered piRNAs in infertile patient groups compared with control group. Next, a quantitative RT-PCR assay was conducted in the training and validation sets to measure and confirm the concentrations of altered piRNAs. The results identified a panel of 5 piRNAs that were significantly decreased in seminal plasma of infertile patients compared with healthy controls. ROC curve analysis and risk score analysis revealed that the diagnostic potential of these 5 piRNAs to distinguish asthenozoospermic and azoospermic individuals from healthy controls was high. In summary, this study identifies a panel of piRNAs that can accurately distinguish fertile from infertile males. This finding may provide pathophysiological clues about the development of infertility. PMID:27068805

  5. Association between seminal plasma zinc level and asthenozoospermia: a meta-analysis study.

    PubMed

    Taravati, A; Tohidi, F

    2016-08-01

    Zinc is proposed to have an important role in the morphology, viability and motility of spermatozoa. There are inconsistent reports on the association between seminal plasma zinc concentration and male infertility. For this purpose, papers reporting the level of seminal zinc among asthenozoospermic groups were selected and used for further analysis. This meta-analysis of previous published studies was performed to obtain more precise information on the association between seminal plasma zinc and asthenozoospermia. Relevant studies for inclusion were identified after preliminary investigation of research papers published on electronic databases up to February 2015. Eight reports and 475 subjects were finally included in the meta-analysis. In the overall analysis, a statistically significant reduction in seminal plasma zinc concentrations was observed in asthenozoospermic infertile men. Random-effects method was used to evaluate the summary effect size due to the presence of significant heterogeneity. The effect of zinc on asthenozoospermia was significant (Hedge's G effect size = -0.506, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): -0.998 to -0.014, P = 0.044). Taken together, despite of significant statistical heterogeneity between studies, our findings were indicative of significant association between zinc concentration and asthenozoospermia. In conclusion, the meta-analysis suggests that seminal plasma zinc concentration is negatively associated with male infertility. PMID:26541500

  6. Oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot seminal plasma and their effects on sperm quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Mingming; Ding, Fuhong; Meng, Zhen; Lei, Jilin

    2015-08-01

    In this research, the concentration and activity of oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot semen, and their effects on sperm quality were studied. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), uric acid, vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) were more abundant in seminal plasma than in spermatozoa. The variation for each of them was specific. In seminal plasma, the activity of SOD and GR increased from November 15, November 30 to December 15, and then decreased on December 30. The concentrations of both VC and uric acid decreased during the first 3 sampling times and increased on December 30. The oxidants in seminal plasma accumulated to the highest on December 30. Lactic acid (LA) and ATP levels decreased to the lowest on December 30. The correlation analysis showed that GR had the significant positive relevance to sperm motility and VSL/VCL, while ·OH had negative relevance to them.

  7. Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in the seminal plasma and human semen parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, S.; Makino, T.; Iizuka, R.

    1985-04-01

    A luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH)-like substance has been detected in human seminal plasma by a radioimmunoassay (RIA) with a highly specific anti-LH-RH antiserum. The seminal samples - not only the plasma itself but also the sample extracted by an acid/alcohol method - showed satisfactory displacement curves in our RIA system. The relationship between fertility and the LH-RH values in the seminal plasma was studied by comparing the peptide levels with sperm concentration and motility. By these two parameters, 103 samples were divided into four groups. In the low-concentration groups (oligozoospermic patients), the hormonal concentrations differed significantly between those specimens demonstrating good and poor motility. These data suggest that this immunoreactive LH-RH may play a role in human spermatogenesis.

  8. TRIS(DICHLOROPROPYL)PHOSHATE, A MUTAGENIC FLAME RETARDANT: FREQUENT OCCURRENCE IN HUMAN SEMINAL PLASMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Negative-chemical-ionization mass spectral screening of extracts of human seminal plasma has revealed a presence of a Cl7 ion cluster at a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 463 in a significant number of the samples examined (34 out of 123). Experiments with different gases used to g...

  9. Determination of fatty acid profile in ram spermatozoa and seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Díaz, R; Torres, M A; Bravo, S; Sanchez, R; Sepúlveda, N

    2016-08-01

    Fatty acids are important in male reproductive function because they are associated with membrane fluidity, acrosome reaction, sperm motility and viability, but limited information exists about the fatty acid profile of ram semen. Our aim was to determine the fatty acid composition in ram spermatozoa and seminal plasma. Sixty ejaculates were obtained from three ram (20 ejaculates/ram) using artificial vagina. Ram spermatozoa (RS) and seminal plasma (SP) were separated using centrifugation, and the fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. Total lipids obtained in ram spermatozoa were 1.8% and 1.6% in seminal plasma. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) was proportionally major in SP (66.6%) that RS (49.9%). The highest proportions of SFA corresponded to C4:0 (RS = 16.3% and SP = 28.8%) and C16:0 (RS = 16.3% and PS = 20%). The most important unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) was docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 44.9% in RS and 31.5% in SP. The profile of fatty acid and their proportions showed differences between spermatozoa and seminal plasma. PMID:26707342

  10. Characterization, expression and antibacterial properties of apolipoproteins A from carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Mariola A; Adamek, Mikołaj; Bilińska, Barbara; Hejmej, Anna; Steinhagen, Dieter; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Apolipoproteins A are multifunctional proteins that, in addition to contributing to lipid metabolism and transport, are associated with the innate immune system in fish. Using a three step isolation procedure consisting of affinity chromatography on Blue-Sepharose, delipidation and reverse phase HPLC we isolated apolipoproteins from carp seminal plasma and identified them as ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa. Moreover, we provided the full-length cDNA sequence of ApoA-I encoding 257 amino acids including a 18 amino acid signal peptide and a 4 amino acid propeptide. Apolipoproteins corresponded to the most abundant proteins in carp seminal plasma. Both ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa were represented by several proteoforms that differ both in molecular mass and isoelectric point. The proteoforms of ApoA-I characteristic for seminal plasma were distinguished from those of blood. Carp seminal plasma ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa showed a high immunologic similarity to their counterparts in carp blood and seminal plasma of other Cyprinid species. The mRNA expression analysis and immunohistochemical study suggest synthesis and secretion of ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa in the fish reproductive tract and suggest a role in spermatogenesis and the stabilization of sperm membrane. Moreover, ApoA-I displayed bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and bacteriostatic activity against Aeromonas hydrophila which suggests that ApoA-I is associated with innate immune system of the fish reproductive tract. PMID:25251775

  11. Characterization of alkaline phosphatase activity in seminal plasma and in fresh and frozen-thawed stallion spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Diego; Giaretta, Elisa; Spinaci, Marcella; Rizzato, Giovanni; Isani, Gloria; Mislei, Beatrice; Mari, Gaetano; Tamanini, Carlo; Galeati, Giovanna

    2016-01-15

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) has been studied in several situations to elucidate its role in reproductive biology of the male from different mammalian species; at present, its role in horse sperm physiology is not clear. The aim of the present work was to measure AP activity in seminal plasma and sperm extracts from freshly ejaculated as well as in frozen-thawed stallion spermatozoa and to verify whether relationship exists between AP activity and sperm quality parameters. Our data on 40 freshly ejaculated samples from 10 different stallions demonstrate that the main source of AP activity is seminal plasma, whereas sperm extracts contribution is very low. In addition, we found that AP activity at physiological pH (7.0) is significantly lower than that observed at pH 8.0, including the optimal AP pH (pH 10.0). Alkaline phosphatase did not exert any effect on sperm-oocyte interaction assessed by heterologous oocyte binding assay. Additionally, we observed a thermal stability of seminal plasma AP, concluding that it is similar to that of bone isoforms. Positive correlations were found between seminal plasma AP activity and sperm concentration, whereas a negative correlation was present between both spermatozoa extracts and seminal plasma AP activity and seminal plasma protein content. A significant decrease in sperm extract AP activity was found in frozen-thawed samples compared with freshly ejaculated ones (n = 21), concomitantly with the decrease in sperm quality parameters. The positive correlation between seminal plasma AP activity measured at pH 10 and viability of frozen-thawed spermatozoa suggests that seminal plasma AP activity could be used as an additional predictive parameter for stallion sperm freezability. In conclusion, we provide some insights into AP activity in both seminal plasma and sperm extracts and describe a decrease in AP after freezing and thawing. PMID:26433714

  12. Extensive dataset of boar seminal plasma proteome displaying putative reproductive functions of identified proteins.

    PubMed

    Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Barranco, Isabel; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Martinez, Emilio A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2016-09-01

    A complete proteomic profile of seminal plasma (SP) remains challenging, particularly in porcine. The data reports on the analysis of boar SP-proteins by using a combination of SEC, 1-D SDS PAGE and NanoLC-ESI-MS/MS from 33 pooled SP-samples (11 boars, 3 ejaculates/boar). A complete dataset of the 536 SP-proteins identified and validated with confidence ≥95% (Unused Score >1.3) and a false discovery rate (FDR) ≤1%, is provided. In addition, the relative abundance of 432 of them is also shown. Gene ontology annotation of the complete SP-proteome complemented by an extensive description of the putative reproductive role of SP-proteins, providing a valuable source for a better understanding of SP role in the reproductive success. This data article refers to the article entitled "Characterization of the porcine seminal plasma proteome comparing ejaculate portions" (Perez-Patiño et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27583342

  13. The identification of proteomic markers of sperm freezing resilience in ram seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Rickard, J P; Leahy, T; Soleilhavoup, C; Tsikis, G; Labas, V; Harichaux, G; Lynch, G W; Druart, X; de Graaf, S P

    2015-08-01

    The source and composition of seminal plasma has previously been shown to alter the ability of spermatozoa to survive cryopreservation. In the present study, the ionic and proteomic composition of seminal plasma from rams with high (HSP; n = 3) or low (LSP; n = 3) freezing resilient spermatozoa was assessed. 75 proteins were identified to be more abundant in HSP and 48 proteins were identified to be more abundant in LSP. Individual seminal plasma proteomes were established for each of the six rams examined. For each ram, correlations were conducted between previously recorded freezing resilience [1] and individual spectral counts in order to identify markers of freezing resilience. 26S proteasome complex, acylamino acid releasing enzyme, alpha mannosidase class 2C, heat shock protein 90, tripeptidyl-peptidase 2, TCP-1 complex, sorbitol dehydrogenase and transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase were found to be positively correlated (r(2) > 0.7) with freezing resilience. Cystatin, zinc-2-alpha glycoprotein, angiogenin-2-like protein, cartilage acidic protein-1, cathepsin B and ribonuclease 4 isoform 1 were found to be negatively correlated (r(2) > 0.7) with freezing resilience. Several negative markers were found to originate from the accessory sex glands, whereas many positive markers originated from spermatozoa and were part of or associated with the 26S proteasome or CCT complex. PMID:26025878

  14. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya; Challapalli, Srinivas; Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao; Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-07-15

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in αt value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. - Highlights: • Seminal plasma antioxidants were measured in men occupationally exposed to radiation. • Sperm chromatin integrity was significantly affected in the exposed group. • Glutathione and total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in exposed group. • Sperm DNA damage in exposed subjects

  15. Isolation and characterization of an ovoinhibitor, a multidomain Kazal-like inhibitor from Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Słowińska, Mariola; Liszewska, Ewa; Nynca, Joanna; Bukowska, Joanna; Hejmej, Anna; Bilińska, Barbara; Szubstarski, Jarosław; Kozłowski, Krzysztof; Jankowski, Jan; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Turkey seminal plasma contains three serine proteinase inhibitors. Two of them, with low molecular masses (6 kDa), were identified as single-domain Kazal-type inhibitors responsible for regulating acrosin activity. Our experimental objective was to isolate and characterize the inhibitor with the high molecular weight from turkey seminal plasma. The inhibitor was purified using hydrophobic interaction and affinity chromatography. Pure preparations of the inhibitor were used for identification by mass spectrometry, for determination of physicochemical properties (molecular weight, pI, and content and composition of the carbohydrate component), for kinetic studies, and for antibacterial tests. Gene expression and immunohistochemical detection of the inhibitor were analyzed in the testis, epididymis, and ductus deferens. The inhibitor with a high molecular weight from turkey seminal plasma was identified as an ovoinhibitor, which was found in avian semen for the first time. The turkey seminal plasma ovoinhibitor was a six-tandem homologous Kazal-type domain serine proteinase inhibitor that targeted multiple proteases, including subtilisin, trypsin, and elastase, but not acrosin. Our results suggested that hepatocyte growth factor activator was a potential target proteinase for the ovoinhibitor in turkey seminal plasma. The presence of the ovoinhibitor within the turkey reproductive tract suggested that its role was to maintain a microenvironment for sperm in the epididymis and ductus deferens. The turkey seminal plasma ovoinhibitor appeared to play a significant role in an antibacterial semen defense against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25253733

  16. The effect of glycosaminoglycan enzymes and proteases on the viscosity of alpaca seminal plasma and sperm function.

    PubMed

    Kershaw-Young, C M; Stuart, C; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2013-05-01

    In order to advance the development of cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies in camelids it is necessary to eliminate the viscous component of the seminal plasma without impairing sperm function. It has been postulated that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or proteoglycans are responsible for this viscosity. This study investigated the effect of the GAG enzymes hyaluronidase, chondroitinase ABC and keratanase and the proteases papain and proteinase K on seminal plasma viscosity and sperm function in order to aid identification of the cause of seminal plasma viscosity and propose methods for the reduction of viscosity. Sperm motility, DNA integrity, acrosome integrity and viability were assessed during 2h incubation. All enzymes reduced seminal plasma viscosity compared to control (P<0.001) although papain was most effective, completely eliminating viscosity within 30 min of treatment. Sperm motility and DNA integrity was not affected by enzyme treatment. The proportion of viable, acrosome intact sperm was reduced in all enzyme treated samples except those treated with papain (P<0.001). These findings suggest that proteins, not GAGs are the main cause of alpaca seminal plasma viscosity. Papain treatment of alpaca semen may be a suitable technique for reduction of seminal plasma viscosity prior to sperm cryopreservation. PMID:23537479

  17. [Separation and properties of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase from human seminal plasma].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Uchijima, Y; Kobayashi, N; Saitoh, H

    1989-11-01

    N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase from human seminal plasma has been separated by the cellulose acetate electrophoresis into two components, isoenzyme I and II. The two isoenzymes are readily separated on a DEAE-Sephadex column. Isoenzyme I which has adsorbed to the column, is eluted at 0.1 M NaCl, whereas isoenzyme II has passed through the column. The following enzyme properties have been obtained: 1) Both isoenzymes show the same Km values (0.27 X 10(-3) M) towards sodio-m-cresol-sufonphtaleinyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide . 2) Both isoenzymes show the same pH optima of 5.4. 3) Optimal temperature for isoenzyme I is 50 degrees C, while that for isoenzyme II is 65 degrees C. Isoenzyme II is heat stable, while isoenzyme I is easily denatured by heat. These characteristics of isoenzyme I and II coincide with previous reports of NAG A and B from the spleen and the kidney, respectively. The activity ratio of isoenzyme I and II has been studied for the reproductive tissues. The % ratio of isoenzyme I and II in the epididymal head is 62 and 38, that in the epididymal tail is 42 and 58, and 38:62 in the seminal vesicle, 35:65 in the prostatic gland and 27:73 in the seminal plasma. PMID:2593437

  18. Proteomic profile of seminal plasma in adolescents and adults with treated and untreated varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Mariana; Intasqui, Paula; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele, the most important treatable cause of male infertility, is present in 15% of adult males, 35% of men with primary infertility, and 80% of men with secondary infertility. On the other hand, 80% of these men will not present infertility. Therefore, there is a need to differentiate a varicocele that is exerting a deleterious effect that is treatable from a “silent” varicocele. Despite the growing evidence of the cellular effects of varicocele, its underlying molecular mechanisms are still eluding. Proteomics has become a promising area to determine the reproductive biology of semen as well as to improve diagnosis of male infertility. This review aims to discuss the state-of-art in seminal plasma proteomics in patients with varicocele to discuss the challenges in undertaking these studies, as well as the future outlook derived from the growing body of evidence on the seminal proteome. PMID:26643563

  19. Brief Report: Seminal Plasma Anti-HIV Antibodies Trigger Antibody-dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity: Implications for HIV Transmission.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Matthew S; Madhavi, Vijaya; Ana-Sosa-Batiz, Fernanda; Center, Rob J; Wilson, Kim M; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Kent, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence from HIV vaccine trials in humans and non-human primates suggests that nonneutralizing antibody functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), are an important component of vaccine-mediated protection. Whether anti-HIV ADCC antibodies are present in seminal fluid, however, is not known. We assessed whether anti-HIV antibodies within seminal plasma mediate ADCC and activate natural killer (NK) cells. Using matched blood and seminal plasma samples, we detected anti-HIV IgG within samples from all 11 HIV-infected donors. Furthermore, anti-HIV antibodies within the seminal plasma triggered detectable ADCC in 9 of 11 donors and activated NK cells in 6 of 11 donors. The ability of seminal plasma-derived IgG to activate NK cells in an anti-HIV antibody-dependent manner was enhanced when IgG were enriched and other seminal plasma components were removed. These observations have relevance for understanding natural immunity to HIV infection and provide assistance with HIV vaccine design. PMID:26761269

  20. Effects of seminal plasma and the presence of a conceptus on regulation of lymphocyte-cytokine network in porcine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Beenu Moza; Kitewska, Anna; Wasielak, Marta; Bodek, Gabriel; Bogacki, Marek

    2014-03-01

    Infusion of seminal plasma in the uterus is known to elicit an instant inflammatory response in the porcine uterus, but whether or not it prepares a uterine immunological response to the presence of conceptuses is not well understood. Seminal plasma induced long-term modulatory effects and conceptus-induced immune changes in leukocyte populations were measured by flow cytometry and mRNAs for various cytokines by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR in porcine endometrium collected on Days 6 and 13 from cycling and pregnant animals or from animals given seminal plasma infusions. Seminal plasma infusion induced long-term modulatory effects, resulting in significantly more endometrial FoxP3-positive T-regulatory and T-helper cells 6 days after infusion as compared to cycling and pregnant animals. The number of T-cytotoxic and T-null cells did not change between the studied groups. The early molecular effects of seminal plasma were not observed at 13-days post-infusion, although animals on Day 13 of pregnancy did show significantly more T-cells (of any type investigated). Seminal plasma also showed a delayed effect on cytokine expression, specifically exhibiting a significant increase in interleukin 10 (IL10) and a decrease in granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) gene expression on Day 13 as compared to Day 6 of cycling or pregnant gilts. The results indicate a delayed regulatory effect of seminal plasma on immune responses in the porcine uterus, which are similar to immune changes generated by implanting conceptuses. PMID:24382630

  1. Effects of vasectomy on seminal plasma alkaline phosphatase in male alpacas (Vicugña pacos).

    PubMed

    Pearson, L K; Campbell, A J; Sandoval, S; Tibary, A

    2013-12-01

    Azoospermia is a common finding in male alpacas which present for infertility. The challenge is to differentiate azoospermia of testicular origin from non-testicular origin. In several species, alkaline phosphatase (AP) concentrations in seminal plasma have been used as a diagnostic marker of contributions of the testis and epididymis to the ejaculate. The purpose of this study was to determine whether AP assay could differentiate testicular from non-testicular azoospermia in male alpacas. An experimental model of bilateral outflow obstruction (pre-scrotal vasectomy) was used in 22 male alpacas, aged 2-9 years. No reproductive history was available. Animals were submitted for electroejaculation (EE) under general anaesthesia and vasectomy performed. Five weeks later, animals were submitted for EE. Vasectomy was not successful in one animal, which was removed from analysis. AP levels were compared in seminal plasma in the pre- and post-vasectomy samples. The mean ± SEM concentration of AP in pre-vasectomy seminal plasma was 504.29 ± 166.45 U/l (range 10-2910); the post-vasectomy levels were 252.48 ± 81.77 U/l (range 0-1640; p = 0.06). In 71.4% of animals, AP levels decreased, varying from 18% to 100% reduction. Results of this study suggest that AP is not produced exclusively by the testis and epididymis in alpacas and that AP assay is not a valid diagnostic test for determination of origin of azoospermia; the gold standard for diagnosis of origin of azoospermia remains testicular biopsy. PMID:23790090

  2. Characterization of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in seminal plasma of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Sastry, K V H; Pandey, N K; Shit, N; Agrawal, R; Singh, K B; Mohan, Jag; Saxena, V K; Moudgal, R P

    2011-02-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme present in quail seminal plasma has been characterized. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequently with LDH specific staining of seminal plasma revealed a single isozyme in quail semen. Studies on substrate inhibition, pH for optimum activity and inhibitor (urea) indicated the isozyme present in the quail semen has catalytic properties like LDH-1 viz. H-type. Furthermore, unlike other mammalian species, electrophoretic and kinetic investigations did not support the existence of semen specific LDH-X isozyme in quail semen. The effect of exogenous lactate and pyruvate on sperm metabolic activity was also studied. The addition of 1 mM lactate or pyruvate to quail semen increased sperm metabolic activity. Our results suggested that both pyruvate and lactate could be used by quail spermatozoa to maintain their basic functions. Since the H-type isozyme is important for conversion of lactate to pyruvate under anaerobic conditions it was postulated that exogenous lactate being converted into pyruvate via LDH present in semen may be used by sperm mitochondria to generate ATP. During conversion of lactate to pyruvate NADH is being generated that may be useful for maintaining sperm mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:21074838

  3. Biochemical and mass spectrometric characterization of soluble ecto-5'-nucleotidase from bull seminal plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Fini, Carlo; Talamo, Fabio; Cherri, Silvia; Coli, Marcello; Floridi, Ardesio; Ferrara, Lino; Scaloni, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (ecto-5'-NT) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane-bound protein that is ubiquitous in mammalian tissues. It is a target for a number of therapeutic drugs since increased levels of the enzyme correlate with various disease states. In this investigation, we describe the properties of a soluble ecto-5'-NT derived from bull seminal plasma. The protein was highly heterogeneous as demonstrated by chromatofocusing and two-dimensional PAGE. Sequencing analyses revealed a truncated polypeptide lacking the glycosylphospatidylinositol attachment site, suggesting that it is produced post-translationally by cleavage at Gln(547) and/or Phe(548). Heterogeneity was largely due to differential glycosylation, especially in the oligosaccharides linked to Asn(403). Significant differences in substrate specificity were observed between isoforms and, on the basis of molecular-modelling studies, were interpreted in terms of variable glycosylation causing steric hindrance of the substrate-binding site. Thus the soluble forms of ecto-5'-NT found in bull seminal plasma are unique both biochemically and structurally, and have a putative role in signalling interactions with spermatozoa following ejaculation and capacitation in the female reproductive tract. PMID:12608891

  4. Metabolomics Analysis of Seminal Plasma in Infertile Males with Kidney-Yang Deficiency: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang; Hu, Chao; Dai, Jican; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important treatment for male infertility, and its application to therapy is dependent on differentiation of TCM syndromes. This study aims to investigate the changes in metabolites and metabolic pathways in infertile males with Kidney-Yang Deficiency syndrome (KYDS) via metabolomics approaches. Seminal plasma samples were collected from 18 infertile males with KYDS and 18 fertile males. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to characterize metabolomics profiles. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA), and pathway analysis were used for pattern recognition and metabolite identification. PCA and PLS-DA results differentiated the two groups of patients. Forty-one discriminating metabolites (18 in positive mode and 23 in negative mode) were identified. Seven metabolites were related to five potential metabolic pathways associated with biosynthesis and metabolism of aromatic amino acids, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and sphingolipid metabolism. The changes in metabolic pathways may play an important role in the origin of KYDS-associated male infertility. Metabolomics analysis of seminal plasma may be used to differentiate TCM syndromes of infertile males, but further research must be conducted. PMID:25945117

  5. Terminal Mannose Residues in Seminal Plasma Glycoproteins of Infertile Men Compared to Fertile Donors

    PubMed Central

    Olejnik, Beata; Jarząb, Anna; Kratz, Ewa M.; Zimmer, Mariusz; Gamian, Andrzej; Ferens-Sieczkowska, Mirosława

    2015-01-01

    The impact of seminal plasma components on the fertilization outcomes in humans is still under question. The increasing number of couples facing problems with conception raises the need for predictive biomarkers. Detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms accompanying fertilization remains another challenge. Carbohydrate–protein recognition may be of key importance in this complex field. In this study, we analyzed the unique glycosylation pattern of seminal plasma proteins, the display of high-mannose and hybrid-type oligosaccharides, by means of their reactivity with mannose-specific Galanthus nivalis lectin. Normozoospermic infertile subjects presented decreased amounts of lectin-reactive glycoepitopes compared to fertile donors and infertile patients with abnormal semen parameters. Glycoproteins containing unveiled mannose were isolated in affinity chromatography, and 17 glycoproteins were identified in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. The N-glycome of the isolated glycoproteins was examined in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Eleven out of 27 identified oligosaccharides expressed terminal mannose residues, responsible for lectin binding. We suggest that lowered content of high-mannose and hybrid type glycans in normozoospermic infertile patients may be associated with impaired sperm protection from preterm capacitation and should be considered in the search for new infertility markers. PMID:26147424

  6. Lead level in seminal plasma may affect semen quality for men without occupational exposure to lead

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infertility affects approximately 10–15% of reproductive-age couples. Poor semen quality contributes to about 25% of infertile cases. Resulting from the direct effect on testicular function or hormonal alterations, heavy metals exposure has been related to impaired semen quality. The objective of this study was to assess the level of lead in the seminal plasma in men without occupational exposure to lead, and to determine the relationship between semen quality and lead concentration in the semen. Methods This is a prospective and nonrandomized clinical study conducted in University infertility clinic and academic research laboratory. Three hundred and forty-one male partners of infertile couples undergoing infertility evaluation and management were recruited to the study. Semen samples collected for the analyses of semen quality were also used for the measurement of lead concentrations. Semen samples were evaluated according to the WHO standards. Results All subjects were married and from infertile couples without occupational exposure to lead. There is a significant inverse correlation between the lead concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count. A higher semen lead concentration was correlated with lower sperm count, but not with semen volume, sperm motility or sperm morphology as assessed by simple linear regression. Conclusions We found that semen lead concentration was significantly higher among the patients with lower sperm count. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a high level of lead accumulation in semen may reduce the sperm count contributing to infertility of men without occupational exposure to lead. PMID:23137356

  7. The Analysis of Sialylation, N-Glycan Branching, and Expression of O-Glycans in Seminal Plasma of Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Ewa M.; Kałuża, Anna; Zimmer, Mariusz; Ferens-Sieczkowska, Mirosława

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrates are known to mediate some events involved in successful fertilization. Although some studies on the glycosylation of seminal plasma proteins are available, the total glycan profile was rarely analyzed as a feature influencing fertilization potential. In this work we aimed to compare some glycosylation traits in seminal plasma glycoproteins of fertile and infertile men. The following findings emerge from our studies: (1) in human seminal plasma the presence and alterations of O-linked glycans were observed; (2) the expression of SNA-reactive sialic acid significantly differs between asthenozoospermia and both normozoospermic (fertile and infertile) groups; (3) the expression of PHA-L-reactive highly branched N-glycans was significantly lower in oligozoospermic patients than in both normozoospermic groups. Indication of the appropriate lectins that would enable the possibly precise determination of the glycan profile seems to be a good supplement to mass spectrum analysis. Extension of the lectin panel is useful for the further research. PMID:25892842

  8. Quantitative analysis of anandamide and related acylethanolamides in human seminal plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Amoako, Akwasi A; Marczylo, Timothy H; Lam, Patricia M W; Willets, Jonathon M; Derry, Amanda; Elson, Janine; Konje, Justin C

    2010-12-01

    The endocannabinoids anandamide, palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide have been detected in human seminal plasma and are bioactive lipids implicated in regulation of sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction. Several methods exist for endocannabinoid quantification but none have been validated for measurement in human seminal plasma. We describe sensitive, robust, reproducible solid phase and isotope-dilution UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS methods for the extraction and quantification of anandamide, palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide in human seminal plasma. Precision and accuracy were evaluated using pooled seminal plasma over a 4 day period. For all analytes, the inter- and intraday precision (CV%) was between 6.6-17.7% and 6.3-12.5%, respectively. Analyses were linear over the range 0.237-19nM for anandamide and oleoylethanolamide and 0.9-76nM for PEA. Limits of detection (signal-to-noise >3) were 50, 100 and 100fmol/mL and limits of quantification (signal-to-noise >10) were 100, 200 and 200fmol/mL, respectively for anandamide, palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide. Anandamide and oleoylethanolamide were stable at -80°C for up to 4 weeks, but palmitoylethanolamide declined significantly. We assessed seminal plasma from 40 human donors with normozoospermia and found mean (inter-quartile range) concentrations of 0.21nM (0.09-0.27), 1.785nM (0.48-2.32) and 15.54nM (7.05-16.31) for anandamide, oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide, respectively. Consequently, this UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method represents a rapid, reliable and reproducible technique for the analysis of these endocannabinoids in fresh seminal plasma. PMID:21056015

  9. The relationship of seminal transforming growth factor-β1 and interleukin-18 with reproductive success in women exposed to seminal plasma during IVF/ICSI treatment.

    PubMed

    Nikolaeva, Marina A; Babayan, Alina A; Stepanova, Elena O; Smolnikova, Veronika Y; Kalinina, Elena A; Fernández, Nelson; Krechetova, Lubov V; Vanko, Ludmila V; Sukhikh, Gennady T

    2016-09-01

    It has been proposed that the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 present in seminal plasma (SP) triggers a female immune response favorable for implantation. We hypothesize that seminal interleukin (IL)-18, a cytokine that can potentially cause implantation failure, interferes with the beneficial effect of TGF-β1. This study aims to determine whether the levels of seminal TGF-β1 and IL-18 are associated with reproductive outcomes in patients exposed to SP during in vitro fertilization (IVF) or IVF with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A prospective study, which included 71 couples undergoing IVF/ICSI was carried out. Female patients were exposed to their partners' SP via timed intercourse before the day of ovum pick-up (OPU) and also subjected to intravaginal SP application just after OPU. Quantitative measurements of total TGF-β1 (active plus latent) as well as IL-18 were determined by FlowCytomix™ technology in the SP to be used for intravaginal applications. Comparison of SP cytokine profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant groups revealed that pregnancy was correlated with a lower concentration of IL-18 (P=0.018) and lower content per ejaculate for both of IL-18 (P=0.0003) and TGF-β1 (P=0.047). The ratio of TGF-β1-to-IL-18 concentration was significantly higher in the pregnant than in the non-pregnant group (P=0.026). This study supports the notion that two key cytokines TGF-β1 and IL-18, both present in SP are associated with reproductive outcomes in female patients exposed to SP during IVF/ICSI treatment. PMID:27423966

  10. Differences in seminal plasma and spermatozoa antioxidative systems and seminal plasma lipid and protein levels among boar breeds and hybrid genetic traits.

    PubMed

    Žura Žaja, Ivona; Samardžija, Marko; Vince, Silvijo; Vilić, Marinko; Majić-Balić, Ivanka; Đuričić, Dražen; Milinković-Tur, Suzana

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of breed and hybrid genetic traits of boars on lipid and protein concentrations and antioxidative system variables in seminal plasma (SP) and spermatozoa and their correlations with semen quality variables. Semen samples from 27 boars: Swedish Landraces (SL), German Landraces (GL), Large Whites (LW), Pietrains (P) and Pig Improvement Company hybrids (PIC-hybrid), aged from 1.5 to 3 years old, were collected. SP was spectrophotometrically analyzed to determine total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), total protein (TP), albumin, and zinc concentrations. The antioxidative system in SP and spermatozoa was established spectrophotometrically by determining total antioxidative status (TAS), total superoxide dismutase (TSOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) parameters, as well as copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity in spermatozoa. The hybrid boars had higher (P<0.05) SP concentrations of: TC, LDL-C and TAG than P and GL; HDL-C than P, GL and SL; and TP than P and LW. PIC-hybrid had lower values (P<0.05) in spermatozoa of: TAS and CuZnSOD than SL; TSOD and GSH-Px than SL and P; and MnSOD than SL and LW. Differences in SP and spermatozoa antioxidative system variables and the significant differences in SP protein and lipid variables exist among boars of different breeds and hybrid. Novel data and observed differences in semen variables among boar breeds and hybrids and their correlations with semen quality parameters in this study could contribute to better assessment of boar semen quality. PMID:27072624

  11. Protein C inhibitor in human body fluids. Seminal plasma is rich in inhibitor antigen deriving from cells throughout the male reproductive system.

    PubMed Central

    Laurell, M; Christensson, A; Abrahamsson, P A; Stenflo, J; Lilja, H

    1992-01-01

    An assay was developed for the measurement of human protein C inhibitor antigen (PCI) in blood plasma and other biological fluids. Both native PCI, modified inhibitor, and complexes of inhibitor with activated protein C or plasma kallikrein could be measured with the assay. Inhibitor antigen concentrations were found to be very high in seminal plasma (greater than 200 mg/liter), more than 40 times the concentration of PCI found in blood plasma. The inhibitor in seminal plasma was unable to form complexes with activated protein C. Gel filtration and immunoblotting findings indicated that the inhibitor in seminal plasma is present in a high molecular mass complex or cleaved to its modified form. As PCI antigen was absent from seminal plasma of patients with dysfunctional seminal vesicles, the seminal vesicle glands would appear to be the major source of seminal plasma PCI, a conclusion supported by immunohistochemical demonstration of the presence of PCI epitopes in the secretory epithelium of the seminal vesicles. Specific PCI immunoreactivity was also shown to be present in the testes, the epididymis glands, and the prostate, suggesting the inhibitor to have a complex or multiple function in the male reproductive system. Conclusive evidence of a local synthesis of PCI in the four male sex glands was provided by Northern blot analysis of RNA from these organs. Images PMID:1372913

  12. Quantification of HIV RNA and Human Herpesvirus DNA in Seminal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Meneses, Milenka V.; Massanella, Marta; Ignacio, Caroline C.; Gianella, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Multiple viruses can co-infect the genital tract, modifying the immunologic and virologic milieu and possibly playing a role in viral transmission and pathogenesis. The aim of our studies has been to understand the complex relationships between HIV-1 RNA, and multiple human herpesviruses known to frequently replicate in the genital tract of HIV-infected men (i.e. cytomegalovirus [CMV], Epstein Bar virus [EBV], herpes simplex virus [HSV] types 1 and 2, and human herpesviruses [HHV] 6, 7 and 8) (Gianella et al., 2013a; Gianella et al., 2013b; Gianella et al., 2013c; Gianella et al., 2014). This protocol was designed to collect and process male genital secretion (GS), and to isolate and further quantify HIV RNA and DNA of seven HHV from seminal plasma using quantitative real time PCR technology. PMID:27376109

  13. Effect of seminal plasma on post-thaw quality and functionality of corriedale ram sperm obtained by electroejaculation and artificial vagina.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, A; Manes, J; Ríos, G; Aller, J; Cesari, A; Alberio, R; Hozbor, F

    2015-06-01

    We have already shown that seminal collection method affects seminal plasma composition and sperm quality in Corriedale rams. In this study, we evaluated the effect of seminal plasma collected by electroejaculation or artificial vagina on sperm resistance to cryodamage. Seminal plasma of five rams of the Corriedale breed collected by artificial vagina or electroejaculation was added before freezing to sperm cells collected by the two methods, and post-thaw quality parameters were evaluated. We found that seminal plasma has no effect on sperm resistance to cryodamage. However, we observed significantly higher percentages of sperm with intact and functional plasma membrane, intact acrosome and greater fertilizing potential after thawing in samples obtained by electroejaculation. This study demonstrates that sperm collected by electroejaculation are more resistant to damage caused by cryopreservation than those collected by artificial vagina. PMID:25684063

  14. The effect of semen extender, seminal plasma and raw semen on uterine and ovarian blood flow in mares.

    PubMed

    Bollwein, Heinrich; Sowade, Cornelia; Stolla, R

    2003-09-01

    Transrectal color Doppler sonography was used to evaluate the effect of intrauterine infusion of skim milk semen extender, seminal plasma and raw semen on the endometrium and blood flow in the uterine and ovarian arteries in mares. Six Trotter mares (mean age: 12 years) were examined during estrus in three cycles. Each mare received an intrauterine infusion of 20 ml of skim milk semen extender, seminal plasma or raw semen during estrus in one of three cycles. Blood flow measurements in both uterine and ovarian arteries and the determination of intrauterine fluid via sonography were performed before each infusion and 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after infusion. Forty-eight hours later, the intrauterine infusion and measurements were repeated using the same time intervals. Changes in blood flow were detected using transrectal color Doppler sonography and were evaluated using the mean time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMV) of the blood flow. Cytological and bacteriological examination of uterine swabs performed 48 h after the second infusion revealed less inflammation and bacterial growth in mares infused with skim milk semen extender than in those infused with seminal plasma or raw semen. There was an increase in intrauterine fluid as early as 1 h after infusion of any of the substances. The infusion of skim milk semen extender had no effect on uterine blood flow. Within 1 h after infusion of seminal plasma or raw semen, there was an increase in the TAMV values of both uterine arteries (P<0.05). In contrast, ovarian blood flow increased only in the artery ipsilateral to the preovulatory follicle and only after the infusion of raw semen (P<0.05). In conclusion, the changes in uterine perfusion observed after intrauterine infusion may be associated with endometrial inflammation and vasodilatory components in the seminal plasma, whereas the changes seen in ovarian blood flow are possibly attributable to the interaction between sperm and oviduct. PMID:12832011

  15. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of equine seminal plasma proteins and their relation with semen freezability.

    PubMed

    Jobim, M I M; Trein, C; Zirkler, H; Gregory, R M; Sieme, H; Mattos, R C

    2011-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate protein profiles of equine seminal plasma using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and to determine whether any of these proteins were related to semen freezability. Seminal plasma was collected from 10 stallions, of high and low semen freezability, housed at the State Stud of Lower Saxony, and routinely used in AI programs. Twenty-five protein spots were identified from the two-dimensional gel (12%), seven of which were present in all samples (all proteins were identified by MALDI-MS). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has been used to generate ion images of samples in one or more mass-to-charge (m/z) values, providing the capability of mapping specific molecules to two-dimensional coordinates of the original sample. Of the 25 proteins identified, two spots had greater relative content (P < 0.05) in seminal plasma samples collected from stallions with high semen freezability: spot 5 (80-85 kDa, isoelectric point [pI] 7.54), identified as CRISP-3; and spot 45 (18.2 kDa, pI 5.0-5.2), identified as HSP-2. Conversely, protein content was greater (P < 0.05) in seminal plasma samples from stallions with low semen freezability: spot 7 (75.4 kDa, pI 6.9-7.4), identified as lactoferrin; spot 15 (26.7 kDa, pI 5.51), identified as kallikrein; spot 25 (25 kDa, pI 7.54), identified as CRISP-3; and spot 35 (13.9 kDa, pI 3.8-4.2), identified as HSP-1. In conclusion, there were differences in the seminal plasma protein profile from stallions with high and low semen freezability. Furthermore, CRISP-3 and HSP-2 were potential seminal plasma markers of high semen freezability. PMID:21601917

  16. Bioactivity of ovulation inducing factor (or nerve growth factor) in bovine seminal plasma and its effects on ovarian function in cattle.

    PubMed

    Tribulo, P; Bogle, O; Mapletoft, R J; Adams, G P

    2015-06-01

    To understand the role of ovulation-inducing factor (or nerve growth factor) (OIF [NGF]) in bovine seminal plasma, we (1) used an in vivo llama bioassay to test the hypothesis that bovine seminal plasma induces ovulation and CL development in llamas similar to that of llama seminal plasma when the dose of seminal plasma is adjusted to ovulation-inducing factor content (experiment 1) and (2) determined the effect of bovine seminal plasma on the interval to ovulation and luteal development in heifers (experiment 2). Within species, seminal plasma was pooled (n = 160 bulls, n = 4 llamas), and the volume of seminal plasma used for treatment was adjusted to a total dose of 250 μg of ovulation-inducing factor. In experiment 1, mature female llamas were assigned randomly to four groups and treated intramuscularly with either 10 mL of PBS (negative control, n = 5), 50-μg GnRH (positive control, n = 5), 6-mL of llama seminal plasma (n = 6), or 12 mL of bull seminal plasma (n = 6). Ovulation and CL development were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. In experiment 2, beef heifers were given a luteolytic dose of prostaglandin followed by 25-mg porcine LH (pLH) 12 hours later to induce ovulation. Heifers were assigned randomly to three groups and given 12 mL bovine seminal plasma intramuscularly 12 hours after pLH treatment (n = 10), within 4 hours after ovulation (n = 9), or no treatment (control, n = 10). Ovulation was monitored by ultrasonography every 4 hours, and the CL development was monitored daily until the next ovulation. In experiment 1, ovulation was detected in 0/5, 4/5, 4/6, 4/6 llamas in the PBS, GnRH, llama seminal plasma, and bovine seminal plasma groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Luteal development was not different among groups. In experiment 2, the interval to ovulation was more synchronous (range: 4 vs. 22 hours; P < 0.0001) in heifers treated with seminal plasma before ovulation compared with the other groups. Luteal development was not different

  17. Sequestration of bovine seminal plasma proteins by different assemblies of phosphatidylcholine: A new technical approach.

    PubMed

    Le Guillou, J; Ropers, M-H; Gaillard, C; David-Briand, E; van Leeuwen-Ibarrola, J; Desherces, S; Schmitt, E; Bencharif, D; Amirat-Briand, L; Anton, M; Tainturier, D

    2016-04-01

    Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins, the main proteins from bovine seminal plasma, are known to partially intercalate into the outer leaflet of the spermatozoa membrane and bind to choline-containing lipids being present therein. This insertion generates a negative effect on semen quality after cryopreservation by inducing an early-stage capacitation of spermatozoa. The assumption of surface properties exhibited by BSP proteins was checked by tensiometry measurements: BSP proteins are highly surface active. This suggests that BSP proteins can reach the interface covered by phospholipids not only by interactions between one and each other but also due to their own surface activity. The insertion of BSP proteins into the lipid domains outer leaflet of spermatozoa was reproduced on a biomimetic system such as Langmuir monolayers. The insertion of BSP proteins can be performed in the compressible fluid domains which contain choline-bearing lipids. Monolayer films were used as well to study the complexation of BSP proteins by two phospholipid assemblies: low density lipoprotein (LDLs) from egg yolk or liposomes produced from egg phospholipids. Irrespective of the phospholipid structure (lipoprotein or liposome), BSP was hindered to alter the structure of the membrane. Only the overall ratio BSP proteins:phosphatidylcholine was important. The difference between the two sequestering agents lies on their surface properties: LDL have a strong tendency to merge with the outer layer whereas liposomes mainly remain in the bulk on the same time scale. PMID:26628332

  18. Proteomics of boar seminal plasma - current studies and possibility of their application in biotechnology of animal reproduction.

    PubMed

    Strzeżek, Jerzy; Wysocki, Paweł; Kordan, Władysław; Kuklińska, Magdalena; Mogielnicka, Marzena; Soliwoda, Daniel; Fraser, Leyland

    2005-11-01

    Proteomics is critical to identify the properties and functions of proteins involved in the mechanism regulating the male reproductive tract function. This approach is important in male fertility assessment and clinical diagnosis of the physiological state of individual reproductive organs. Proteomics also provides a tool to understand the interactions of seminal plasma proteins with spermatozoa, which could provide a useful model for studying ligand-cell interaction occurring at the sperm cell surface. This review covers a selection of advances in the realm of functional proteomics of boar seminal plasma proteins and is focused on some fundamental proteomic technologies. Also, this review explores key themes in proteomics and their application in animal reproductive techniques. PMID:16372045

  19. Lipidomics of equine sperm and seminal plasma: Identification of amphiphilic (O-acyl)-ω-hydroxy-fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Wood, Paul L; Scoggin, Kirsten; Ball, Barry A; Troedsson, Mats H; Squires, Edward L

    2016-09-15

    Using a nontargeted lipidomics analysis of equine sperm and seminal plasma, we were able to characterize a diverse array of individual lipids including ethanolamine and choline ether lipids and seminolipids essential to membrane raft function. We also detected, for the first time in sperm, the presence of (O-acyl)-ω-hydroxy-fatty acids (OAHFA) with up to 52 carbon chain lengths, which were localized to the head and not the tail of sperm. The only previous identification of OAHFAs has been in meibomian glands and their sebaceous secretions. The identities of these lipid amphiphiles were validated both by high-resolution mass spectrometry and by tandem mass spectrometry (<1 ppm mass error), which identified the fatty acid (FA) and hydroxy-FA components of individual OAHFAs. The amphiphilic and surfactant properties of these unique lipids could provide an interface between the complex lipid layers of the acrosome and the aqueous environment of the suspending seminal plasma. The potential roles of OAHFAs in orientation of critical proteins in the acrosomal membrane also remain to be explored with these new findings. Another unique finding of our lipidomics study was that phosphatidylethanolamines with mono- or di-unsaturated FA substitutions are present in seminal plasma but not in sperm suggesting a potential role of these glycerophospholipids in sperm capacitation and protecting sperm cells in the female reproductive tract. In summary, we have identified for the first time, the presence of OAHFAs in sperm and several phosphatidylethanolamines in seminal plasma, suggesting that these complex lipids may play critical roles in sperm function. PMID:27180330

  20. Prothrombotic effects of prostasomes isolated from prostatic cancer cell lines and seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Babiker, Adil A; Ekdahl, Kristina Nilsson; Nilsson, Bo; Ronquist, Gunnar

    2007-02-01

    Thromboembolism is well recognized as a major complication of cancer. Many tumor cells overexpress tissue factor (TF), which activates blood coagulation in cancer patients. Inflammatory cells expressing TF are also contributors to this activation. In prostate cancer, we believe that prostasomes may also be involved in the initiation of blood coagulation. Prostasomes are submicron secretory granules derived from the prostate gland. They are surrounded by membrane and their extracellular appearance and membrane architecture are complex. Seminal prostasomes are believed to be necessary for successful fertilization and act as protectors of the spermatozoa in the lower and upper female genital tract. Cells from prostate cancer and its metastases are able to produce and export prostasomes to the extracellular environment. These prostasomes may differ quantitatively rather than qualitatively from their normal counterparts with regard to protein composition and function. A majority of human prostate cancers have been found to overexpress TF, and we have demonstrated by various methods that prostasomes derived from prostate cancer cells express considerably higher levels of TF compared with prostasomes of nonmalignant cell origin. The mechanism related to thromboembolic disease generated by prostasomes in prostatic cancer patients may be the early release of prostasomes from prostate cancer cells into the blood circulation, where they will evoke their blood-clotting effects. PMID:17253194

  1. Seminal plasma induces inflammation in the uterus through the γδ T/IL-17 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhi-Hui; Li, Zhong-Yin; Li, Dan-Dan; Fang, Wen-Ning; Liu, Hai-Yan; Yang, Dan-Dan; Meng, Chao-Yang; Yang, Ying; Peng, Jing-Pian

    2016-01-01

    After insemination, a large number of leukocytes migrate into the uterus, which is accompanied by intense inflammation. However, the details of how seminal plasma interacts with the uterus are still not very clear. Here, we present that neutrophils migrate and accumulate around the uterine epithelium following insemination, which is accompanied by an increase in interleukin (IL) 17A levels. Additionally, we find that γδ T cells are the major source of IL-17A, and the seminal plasma could induce the γδ T cells to secret IL-17A. Blocking IL-17A could reduce the number of neutrophils in the uterus and prevent them from migrating to the epithelium by decreasing the chemokines CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL5. Blocking IL-17A did not affect the Th1/Th2 balance but actually diminished the inflammation in the uterus by reducing the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α. In summary, we found a new mechanism by which seminal plasma could influence the inflammation in the uterus through the γδ T/IL-17 pathway to regulate the expression of various chemokines and cytokines. PMID:27109934

  2. Seminal plasma induces inflammation in the uterus through the γδ T/IL-17 pathway.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhi-Hui; Li, Zhong-Yin; Li, Dan-Dan; Fang, Wen-Ning; Liu, Hai-Yan; Yang, Dan-Dan; Meng, Chao-Yang; Yang, Ying; Peng, Jing-Pian

    2016-01-01

    After insemination, a large number of leukocytes migrate into the uterus, which is accompanied by intense inflammation. However, the details of how seminal plasma interacts with the uterus are still not very clear. Here, we present that neutrophils migrate and accumulate around the uterine epithelium following insemination, which is accompanied by an increase in interleukin (IL) 17A levels. Additionally, we find that γδ T cells are the major source of IL-17A, and the seminal plasma could induce the γδ T cells to secret IL-17A. Blocking IL-17A could reduce the number of neutrophils in the uterus and prevent them from migrating to the epithelium by decreasing the chemokines CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL5. Blocking IL-17A did not affect the Th1/Th2 balance but actually diminished the inflammation in the uterus by reducing the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α. In summary, we found a new mechanism by which seminal plasma could influence the inflammation in the uterus through the γδ T/IL-17 pathway to regulate the expression of various chemokines and cytokines. PMID:27109934

  3. Seminal plasma proteins inhibit in vitro- and cooling-induced capacitation in boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Vadnais, Melissa L; Roberts, Kenneth P

    2010-01-01

    Dilute boar seminal plasma (SP) has been shown to inhibit in vitro capacitation and cooling-induced capacitation-like changes in boar spermatozoa, as assessed by the ability of the spermatozoa to undergo an ionophore-induced acrosome reaction. We hypothesised that the protein component of SP is responsible for this effect. To test this hypothesis, varying concentrations of total SP protein or SP proteins fractionated by heparin binding were assayed for their ability to inhibit in vitro capacitation, as well as cooling- and cryopreservation-induced capacitation-like changes. In vitro capacitation and cooling-induced capacitation-like changes were prevented by 10% whole SP, as well as by total proteins extracted from SP at concentrations greater than 500 microg mL(-1). No amount of SP protein was able to prevent cryopreservation-induced capacitation-like changes. Total SP proteins were fractionated based on their heparin-binding properties and the heparin-binding fraction was shown to possess capacitation inhibitory activity at concentrations as low as 250 microg mL(-1). The proteins in the heparin-binding fraction were subjected to mass spectrometry and identified. The predominant proteins were three members of the spermadhesin families, namely AQN-3, AQN-1 and AWN, and SP protein pB1. We conclude that one or more of these heparin-binding SP proteins is able to inhibit in vitro capacitation and cooling-induced capacitation-like changes, but not cryopreservation-induced capacitation-like changes, in boar spermatozoa. PMID:20591323

  4. Comparative effects of autologous and homologous seminal plasma on the viability of largely extended boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Caballero, I; Vazquez, J M; Centurión, F; Rodríguez-Martinez, H; Parrilla, I; Roca, J; Cuello, C; Martinez, E A

    2004-10-01

    Sperm handling, associated to artificial reproduction technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or the use of flow cytometry for cell analysis or sorting imposes volumetric extension of the sperm suspension and decreases sperm viability, presumably because of the removal of seminal plasma (SP) components. This study evaluated whether a 10% v/v of autologous SP (retrieved from the same donor boar) or homologous SP (e.g. from any of the four fertile boars included, other than the one providing the spermatozoa) would differently affect the viability of boar spermatozoa subjected to large extension in a simple saline medium [phosphate-buffered saline and 0.1% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), PBSm] to a concentration of 0.3 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml and incubated for 2 h at 30 degrees C. Sperm viability was monitored as membrane integrity [using the fluorophore carboxyfluorescein diacetate (C-FDA) and propidium iodide (PI)], mitochondrial function (using the fluorophore R-123) and motility characteristics [using Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA)]. Substraction of the SP and extension followed by incubation in PBSm significantly (p < 0.05) decreased sperm viability, which could be restored by addition of autologous SP. Furthermore, exposure of the extended spermatozoa to homologous SP (from any other individual boar) significantly (p < 0.05) varied with the source of the sire; some boars exerting beneficial effects (even surpassing the effects of the autologous SP; p < 0.05) while at least one boar negatively (p < 0.05) influencing the viability of the incubated spermatozoa. It is concluded that SP should be present when incubating highly extended spermatozoa. As a result of the obvious differences among boars, it would be advantageous to examine the ability of SP to maintain sperm viability prior to the use of SP pools during sperm handling in vitro. PMID:15367272

  5. Seminal plasma protein concentrations vary with feed efficiency and fertility-related measures in young beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Montanholi, Y R; Fontoura, A B P; Diel de Amorim, M; Foster, R A; Chenier, T; Miller, S P

    2016-06-01

    Fertility-associated proteins (FAP) found in seminal plasma indicate sexual maturity, which appears to be influenced by feed efficiency in cattle. This study characterized FAP via proteomics and verified associations of these proteins with feed efficiency, body composition and fertility-related measures in yearling beef bulls. Assessments including testicular ultrasonography, infrared thermography, seminal quality, seminal plasma proteomics, carcass composition, and reproductive organ biometry were obtained. From a population of 31 bulls, the seven most and least feed efficient (efficient, inefficient) bulls were used for categorical comparisons. Correlations between FAP, productive performance and fertility-related measures were determined. These traits were also correlated with orthogonal factors summarized from the FAP. Efficient bulls had increased epididymal sperm-binding protein-1 and decreased concentration of protein-C inhibitor compared to inefficient bulls. Correlations between FAP with age, body size, body composition, reproductive organ biometry, scrotal temperature, and seminiferous tubule maturity are reported. Acrosin and cathepsin D increased with development of the testes and osteopontin increased with greater numbers of mature seminiferous tubules. Phosphoglycerate kinase-2 was higher in animals with a higher scrotum temperature and a higher prevalence of sperm morphology defects. The principal factor indicated that FAP variability concentrations were positively correlated with age, reproductive organ biometry, body size and composition. Our results indicate that FAP changes with body size and sexual development, and demonstrates differences in the proteomics of bulls with diverging feed efficiency. This is related to the delay in the sexual maturity of efficient young bulls. PMID:27288339

  6. Therapeutic effects of vitamin E supplementation in 4 dogs with poor semen quality and low superoxide dismutase activity in seminal plasma

    PubMed Central

    KAWAKAMI, Eiichi; KOBAYASHI, Masanori; HORI, Tatsuya; KANEDA, Takeharu

    2015-01-01

    Four dogs with poor semen quality, low seminal plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and low blood plasma testosterone (T) levels were orally administered one vitamin E tablet containing 50 mg α-tocopheryl acetate per dog daily for 4 weeks. The mean values of semen quality were temporarily improved after the start of vitamin E treatment and the values of 4, and 5 weeks after that were significantly different from those before the treatment (P<0.05–0.001). The mean blood plasma T and seminal plasma SOD activity values slightly increased in the 4 dogs after the treatment. The results of the present study indicate that poor semen quality in dogs with low seminal plasma SOD can be improved by vitamin E treatment. PMID:26234739

  7. Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with higher levels in the breeding season. The yearly pattern of GRD and catalase was close to that of melatonin, and GRD showed a significant seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with a higher activity during the breeding season. Linear regression analysis between the studied hormones and antioxidant enzymes showed a significant correlation between melatonin and testosterone, GRD, SOD and catalase. Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system. PMID:20540737

  8. Immunoaffinity chromatographic isolation of prostate-specific antigen from seminal plasma for capillary electrophoresis analysis of its isoforms.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Medina, Raul; Farina-Gomez, Noemi; Diez-Masa, Jose Carlos; de Frutos, Mercedes

    2014-04-11

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration in serum has been the biomarker employed for prostate cancer diagnosis in the last two decades. However, new more specific biomarkers allowing a better differentiation of cancer from non-malignant prostate diseases are necessary. Glycosylation of PSA gives rise to different forms of the protein which can be separated into several isoforms by analytical techniques, such as CE. Because PSA glycosylation is influenced by pathological conditions, the CE pattern of PSA isoforms could be different in prostate cancer than in non-malignant prostate diseases. To study this CE pattern of PSA, prior purification of the protein from the biological fluid is mandatory. In this study an immunoaffinity chromatography method which allows PSA purification without altering the CE pattern is developed. An in-house prepared column produced with commercial anti-PSA antibodies is employed. The use of 1 M propionic acid as elution agent provides higher than 40% recovery of high purity PSA. CE analysis of PSA immunopurified from seminal plasma of a healthy individual shows the same 8 peaks as the commercially available PSA standard. Sample preparation only requires dilution with phosphate buffered saline prior to immunoaffinity purification. High repeatability for the sample preparation step was achieved (RSD% for percentage of corrected peak area in the range 0.6-5.3 for CE analysis of three independently purified seminal plasma aliquots compared to range 0.8-4.9 for a given aliquot analyzed three times by CE). IAC of five microliters seminal plasma provided enough PSA to achieve signal/noise ratio larger than 5 for the smallest CE isoforms. PMID:24745737

  9. The determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid in human seminal plasma using an HPLC with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Kanďár, Roman; Drábková, Petra; Hampl, Radek

    2011-09-15

    Oxidative stress has been proposed as one of the potential causes for infertility in men. Ascorbic acid and uric acid play important role in protection of spermatozoa against free radicals. A method for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid in human seminal plasma using HPLC with UV detection and investigation their clinical significance as antioxidants protecting male germ cells against oxidative damage are described. Semen samples were obtained from consecutive male partners of couples presenting for a fertility evaluation. After liquefaction, the samples were centrifuged and the supernatants were diluted with dithiothreitol solution and after a filtration injected onto an analytical column. For the separation, a reverse-phase column MAG 1, 250 mm × 4.6 mm, Labiospher PSI 100 C18, 5 μm, was used. The mixture of ethanol and 25 mmol/L sodium dihydrogenphosphate (2.5:97.5, v/v), pH 4.70 was used as a mobile phase. Analytical performance of this method is satisfactory for both ascorbic acid and uric acid: the intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%. Quantitative recoveries from spiked seminal plasma were between 92.1 and 102.1%. We have found no significant differences in both ascorbic acid and uric acid concentration between the smokers and non-smokers (351.0 ± 237.9 μmol/L and 323.7 ± 99.5 μmol/L vs. 444.8 ± 245.5 μmol/L and 316.6 ± 108.9 μmol/L, p>0.05). This assay is a simple and reproducible HPLC method for the simultaneous measurement of ascorbic acid and uric acid in human seminal plasma. PMID:21871848

  10. Study of the effects of oral zinc supplementation on peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity in seminal plasma of Iraqi asthenospermic patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) are necessary for the biology and physiology of spermatozoa, but high levels of NO are toxic and have negative effects on sperm functions. Although several studies have considered the relationship between infertility and semen NO concentrations, no study on the effects of asthenospermia treatments such as oral zinc supplementation on concentrations of NO, which are important in fertility, has been reported. Studies have shown that oral zinc supplementation develops sperm count, motility and the physical characteristics of sperm in animals and in some groups of infertile men. The present study was conducted to study the effect of zinc supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen, along with enzymes of the NO pathway in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 60 fertile and 60 asthenozoospermic infertile men of matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate; each participant took two capsules (220 mg per capsule) per day for 3 months. Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction of the seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. The stable metabolites of NO (nitrite) in seminal plasma were measured by nitrophenol assay. Arginase activity and NO synthase activity were measured spectrophotometrically. Results Peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity, NO synthase activity and various sperm parameters were compared among fertile controls and infertile patients (before and after treatment with zinc sulfate). Peroxynitrite levels and NO synthase activity were significantly higher in the infertile patients compared to the fertile group. Conversely, arginase activity was significantly higher in the fertile group than the infertile patients. Peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity of the infertile patient were restored to

  11. Perfluorinated organic compounds in human blood serum and seminal plasma: a study of urban and rural tea worker populations in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Guruge, Keerthi S; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Wijeratna, Sumedha; Mohotti, Keerthi M; Seneviratne, Harsha R; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Yamanaka, Noriko; Miyazaki, Shigeru

    2005-04-01

    Concentrations and accumulation of 13 fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) in human sera and seminal plasma were measured in an Asian developing country, Sri Lanka. Six of the FOCs, PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonate), PFHS (perfluorohexanesulfonate), PFUnA (perfluoroundecanoic acid), PFDA (perfluorodecanoic acid), PFNA (perfluorononanoic acid) and PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), were detected in all of the sera samples. Measurable quantities of two main perfluorosulfonates, PFOS and PFHS, were found in all seminal plasma samples. The detection frequency of the predominant perfluoroalkylcarboxylate, PFOA, in seminal plasma was >70%. Accumulation of PFOS in sera was significantly positively correlated with PFOA, PFHS and PFNA. Positive linear regressions were also found between PFNA and PFUnA and PFNA and PFDA suggesting that these compounds may have a similar origin of exposure and accumulation. Significantly positive associations were observed for partitioning of both PFOS and PFNA between sera and seminal plasma. The accumulation of FOCs was not significantly different in sera from Colombo (urban population) and Talawakele (rural conventional tea workers). However, the Haldummulla population (rural organic tea workers) had relatively lower exposure to FOCs compared to the other two groups, urban and rural conventional tea workers. Concentrations of FOCs in Sri Lanka were similar to those reported for industrialized countries suggesting that human exposure to such chemicals is widespread even in developing countries. The novel finding of FOCs in human seminal plasma implies that further studies are needed to determine whether long-term exposure in humans can result in reproductive impairments. PMID:15798805

  12. Emtricitabine Seminal Plasma and Blood Plasma Population Pharmacokinetics in HIV-Infected Men in the EVARIST ANRS-EP 49 Study

    PubMed Central

    Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Illamola, Silvia M.; Bouazza, Naïm; Foissac, Frantz; De Sousa Mendes, Maïlys; Lui, Gabrielle; Chenevier-Gobeaux, Camille; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Rouzioux, Christine; Assoumou, Lambert; Viard, Jean-Paul; Hirt, Déborah; Urien, Saïk; Ghosn, Jade

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to describe blood plasma (BP) and seminal plasma (SP) pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine (FTC) in HIV-1-infected men, assess its penetration in the male genital tract, and evaluate its impact on seminal plasma HIV load (spVL) detection. Men from the EVARIST ANRS EP49 study receiving combined antiretroviral therapy with FTC and with suppressed BP viral load were included in the study. A total of 236 and 209 FTC BP and SP concentrations, respectively, were available. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed with Monolix 4.1.4. The impact of FTC seminal exposure on spVL detection was explored by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and mixed-effects logistic regressions. FTC BP pharmacokinetics was described by a two-compartment model. The addition of an effect compartment with different input and output constants best described FTC SP pharmacokinetics. No covariates were found to explain the variability in SP. FTC exposures (area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h [AUC0–24]) were higher in SP than in BP (median AUC0–24, 38.04 and 12.95 mg · liter−1 · h, respectively). The median (range) SP-to-BP AUC0–24 ratio was 2.91 (0.84 to 10.08). Less than 1% of FTC AUC0–24 ratios were lower than 1. The impact of FTC SP AUC0–24 or FTC SP-to-BP AUC0–24 ratio on spVL detection was not significant (P = 0.943 or 0.893, respectively). This is the first population model describing FTC pharmacokinetics simultaneously in both BP and SP. FTC distributes well in the male genital tract with higher FTC concentrations in SP than in BP. FTC seminal plasma exposures were considered efficient in the majority of men. PMID:26282407

  13. Seminal Plasma Induces Ovulation in Llamas in the Absence of a Copulatory Stimulus: Role of Nerve Growth Factor as an Ovulation-Inducing Factor.

    PubMed

    Berland, Marco A; Ulloa-Leal, Cesar; Barría, Miguel; Wright, Hollis; Dissen, Gregory A; Silva, Mauricio E; Ojeda, Sergio R; Ratto, Marcelo H

    2016-08-01

    Llamas are considered to be reflex ovulators. However, semen from these animals is reported to be rich in ovulation-inducing factor(s), one of which has been identified as nerve growth factor (NGF). These findings suggest that ovulation in llamas may be elicited by chemical signals contained in semen instead of being mediated by neural signals. The present study examines this notion. Llamas displaying a preovulatory follicle were assigned to four groups: group 1 received an intrauterine infusion (IUI) of PBS; group 2 received an IUI of seminal plasma; group 3 was mated to a male whose urethra had been surgically diverted (urethrostomized male); and group 4 was mated to an intact male. Ovulation (detected by ultrasonography) occurred only in llamas mated to an intact male or given an IUI of seminal plasma and was preceded by a surge in plasma LH levels initiated within an hour after coitus or IUI. In both ovulatory groups, circulating β-NGF levels increased within 15 minutes after treatment, reaching values that were greater and more sustained in llamas mated with an intact male. These results demonstrate that llamas can be induced to ovulate by seminal plasma in the absence of copulation and that copulation alone cannot elicit ovulation in the absence of seminal plasma. In addition, our results implicate β-NGF as an important mediator of seminal plasma-induced ovulation in llamas because ovulation does not occur if β-NGF levels do not increase in the bloodstream, a change that occurs promptly after copulation with an intact male or IUI of seminal plasma. PMID:27355492

  14. Cadmium Concentrations in Blood and Seminal Plasma: Correlations with Sperm Number and Motility in Three Male Populations (Infertility Patients, Artificial Insemination Donors, and Unselected Volunteers)

    PubMed Central

    Benoff, Susan; Hauser, Russ; Marmar, Joel L; Hurley, Ian R; Napolitano, Barbara; Centola, Grace M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate a possible common environmental exposure that may partially explain the observed decrease in human semen quality, we correlated seminal plasma and blood cadmium levels with sperm concentration and sperm motility. We studied three separate human populations: group 1, infertility patients (Long Island, NY, USA); group 2, artificial insemination donors (AID) (Rochester, NY, USA); and group 3, general population volunteers (Rochester, NY, USA). Information about confounding factors was collected by questionnaire. Seminal plasma cadmium did not correlate with blood cadmium (Spearman correlation, n = 91, r = −0.092, P = 0.386, NS). Both blood and seminal plasma cadmium were significantly higher among infertility patients than the other subjects studied (for example, median seminal plasma cadmium was 0.282 μg/L in infertility patients versus 0.091 μg/L in AID and 0.092 μg/L in general population volunteers; Kruskal–Wallis test, P < 0.001). The percentage of motile sperm and sperm concentration correlated inversely with seminal plasma cadmium among the infertility patients (r = −0.201, P < 0.036 and r = −0.189, P < 0.05, respectively), but not in the other two groups. Age (among infertility patients) was the only positive confounder correlating with seminal plasma cadmium. To validate our human findings in an animal model, we chronically exposed adolescent male Wistar rats to low-moderate cadmium in drinking water. Though otherwise healthy, the rats exhibited decreases in epididymal sperm count and sperm motility associated with cadmium dose and time of exposure. Our human and rat study results are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental cadmium exposures may contribute significantly to reduced human male sperm concentration and sperm motility. PMID:19593409

  15. Can Microfiltered Seminal Plasma Preserve the Morphofunctional Characteristics of Porcine Spermatozoa in the Absence of Antibiotics? A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Barone, F; Ventrella, D; Zannoni, A; Forni, M; Bacci, M L

    2016-08-01

    Artificial insemination is extensively performed in pig farms in Europe, the United States and Canada. Antibiotics are typically added to the inseminating dose to limit bacterial growth during liquid phase storage at 16°C, as bacterial contamination is unavoidable. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) take action to control and reduce antibiotic use in animals as more bacteria are becoming resistant to antimicrobials. To avoid the use of antibiotics, we prepared inseminating doses using microfiltered seminal plasma (SP). Microfiltration is a common technology used to reduce bacterial contamination but may retain seminal substances, influencing sperm quality during storage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the morphofunctional parameters of spermatozoa during storage at 16°C in doses prepared with or without microfiltered SP, with or without the addition of antibiotics, in a Latin square design. Artificial insemination doses with microfiltered SP and without antibiotic addition preserved spermatozoa viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, acrosome integrity and objective motility, with absolute values equal or even better than those observed in conventional doses. In conclusion, although the results could be considered preliminary due to the small sample size, this study suggests that microfiltration of SP can be a simple method, feasible on farms, to replace antibiotic use in extended doses stored in the liquid phase at 16°C for up to 7 days. PMID:27174664

  16. Resuspending ram spermatozoa in seminal plasma after cryopreservation does not improve pregnancy rate in cervically inseminated ewes.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, C M; Donovan, A; Hanrahan, J P; Duffy, P; Fair, S; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P

    2007-04-15

    The role of seminal plasma (SP) components on the maintenance of motility, viability and fertilising ability of frozen-thawed spermatozoa is of considerable interest. However, differences observed in constituents of SP among males could explain differences in fertility obtained in vivo. Two experiments were designed to examine the effects of seminal plasma on fertility from cervically inseminated frozen-thawed semen. The objective of Experiment 1 was to investigate if source or type of SP influences pregnancy rate. Seminal plasma was collected from rams previously classified as having either High (HSP; n=3) or Low (LSP; n=3) fertility in vivo. Artificial SP (fructose/sodium solution with 10% BSA; ASP) was made. Frozen semen from the same 6 rams was thawed and inseminated (Control) or resuspended either in HSP, LSP or ASP (20% in semen) prior to insemination of ewes (n=284, over 2 farms). The overall pregnancy rate was 28.1%. Treatments (Control, ASP, HSP and LSP) were not significantly different (P>0.3). There was no difference between HSP and LSP (P>0.5), and no effect of using ASP compared to ram SP (P>0.7), on pregnancy rate. As there was no effect of SP on pregnancy rate a repeat experiment (Experiment 2) was designed to test the effect of washing and selecting motile sperm prior to resuspending in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing SP on pregnancy rate. Frozen-thawed semen from each of 2 rams was centrifuged through a density gradient, pellets were centrifuged through a wash medium and the sperm concentration/ram was counted. Sperm cells were resuspended in: (1) control PBS, (2) PBS containing 30% HSP or (3) PBS containing 30% LSP to give 100 x 10(6) motile sperm in 0.25 mL. Control straws were thawed and inseminated directly. Ewes (n=223 over 2 farms) were inseminated 57 h post-sponge withdrawal and those not returning to oestrus were slaughtered 29-50 days post-insemination for pregnancy determination. In Experiment 2, the pregnancy rate for Control

  17. Seminal Plasma Heparin Binding Proteins Improve Semen Quality by Reducing Oxidative Stress during Cryopreservation of Cattle Bull Semen

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Maulikkumar; Gandotra, Vinod K.; Cheema, Ranjna S.; Bansal, Amrit K.; Kumar, Ajeet

    2016-01-01

    Heparin binding proteins (HBPs) are produced by accessory glands. These are secreted into the seminal fluid, bind to the spermatozoa at the time of ejaculation, favour capacitation, acrosome reaction, and alter the immune system response toward the sperm. The present study was conducted with an objective to assess the effect of purified seminal plasma-HBPs (SP-HBPs) on cross bred cattle bull sperm attributes during two phases of cryopreservation: Pre freezing and freezing-thawing. SP-HBPs were purified from pooled seminal plasma by heparin affinity chromatography. Three doses of SP-HBPs i.e. 10, 20, 40 μg/mL semen were standardized to find out the optimum dose and 20 μg/mL was found to be an optimum dose. Semen as such and treated with SP-HBPs was diluted with sodium citrate-egg yolk diluter and cryopreserved as per the standard protocol. Sperm parameters i.e. motility, viability, Hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST), acrosome damage, in vitro capacitation and lipid peroxidation were evaluated in SP-HBP treated and untreated (control) semen at both phases of cryopreservation. A considerable variation in percent sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity (HOST), acrosome damage, acrosome reaction and lipid peroxidation was observed at both phases among the bulls irrespective of the treatment. Incubation of neat semen with 20 μg/mL SP-HBP before processing for cryopreservation enhanced the average motility, viability, membrane integrity by 7.2%, 1.5%, 7.9%, and 5.6%, 6.6%, 7.4% in pre-frozen and frozen-thawed semen in comparison to control. There was also an average increase of 4.1%/3.9% in in vitro capacitation and acrosome reaction in SP-HBPs-treated frozen-thawed semen as compared to control. However, binding of SP-HBPs to the sperm declined acrosome damage and lipid peroxidation by 1.3%/4.1% and 22.1/32.7 μM/109 spermatozoa in SP-HBP treated pre-frozen/frozen-thawed semen as compared to control, respectively. Significant (p<0.05) effects were observed only in

  18. To Evaluate the Efficacy of Combination Antioxidant Therapy on Oxidative Stress Parameters in Seminal Plasma in the Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Alpana; Radhakrishnan, Gita; Banerjee, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infertility is defined as inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected intercourse and it affects 7% of male population and 8–10% of couples. According to estimates WHO, 13-19 million couples in India are infertile. Oxidative stress is the causative factor in 25% of infertile males. Aim To study the efficacy of antioxidant therapy on oxidative stress parameters in seminal plasma of infertile male. Materials and Methods Forty patients of male infertility were enrolled in study after two abnormal semen analyses reports at 2-3 weeks interval, of oligozoospermia and/or asthenozoospermia, as per WHO guide line 1999. First semen sample was collected at a time of enrollment of study and second semen sample was collected three months after combined antioxidant therapy. Semen samples from the infertile male (the second confirmatory sample of oligoasthenozoospermia) were taken and after liquefaction semen sample were utilized for various analyses, 0.5 ml of sample for standard semen analysis, 1.2 ml sample for separation of seminal plasma to evaluate Oxidative stress (OS) parameters like Malondialdehyde (MDA), Protein Carbonyl (PC) and antioxidant capacity by Glutathione (GSH). We followed the patient for three months after completion of the treatment. Results Semen parameters – Out of 40 patients recruited in the study group 7 patients had only oligospermia (1 to 20 million/ml) and 31 patients had oligoasthenozoospermia (motility range 0-50%) and 2 patients had oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. There was no patient with asthenospermia alone as abnormal semen parameters. After the three months treatment with combined antioxidants the semen parameters like count (mean SD = -1.70±1.44) and motility (mean +SD= -9.56±9.05) were significantly increased (p-value=0.000). Oxidative Stress Assessment – The level of MDA which is a marker of oxidative stress was significantly lower after the three months therapy of antioxidants (p-value=0.002) whereas another

  19. Seminal plasma arising from the whole boar sperm-rich fraction increases the stability of sperm membrane after thawing.

    PubMed

    Torres, M A; Ravagnani, G M; Leal, D F; Martins, S M M K; Muro, B B D; Meirelles, F V; Papa, F O; Dell'aqua, J A; Alvarenga, M A; Moretti, A S; De Andrade, A F C

    2016-05-01

    Boar spermatozoa arising from the sperm-rich ejaculate fraction are reported to have a more stable plasma membrane and are more resistant to cold shock and premature acrosome reaction than spermatozoa from the whole ejaculate. Furthermore, seminal plasma (SP) can increase the cryotolerance of boar spermatozoa, and in other domestic species, it has the ability to reverse cryopreservation damage. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of boar SP arising from the whole sperm-rich ejaculate fraction (SP-SRF) on the integrity, stability, and peroxidation of sperm membranes after thawing. Each ejaculate ( = 24) was divided among 4 treatments: control (CT), centrifuged and suspended in autologous SP-SRF (CS), centrifuged with withdrawn SP-SRF (CW), and post-thawed SP arising from the whole sperm-rich fraction addition to CW (CWSP). After thawing, all treatments were incubated for 5, 60, and 120 min and were analyzed for membrane integrity, fluidity, and peroxidation by flow cytometer. The absence of SP-SRF increased the lipid disorder ( < 0.05) but had no effect on lipid peroxidation ( > 0.05) or membrane integrity ( > 0.05). However, the increase in lipid disorder by withdrawal of SP-SRF was reversed by SP-SRF addition ( < 0.05) to the post-thawing medium, whereas plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity ( > 0.05) and lipid peroxidation ( > 0.05) were unchanged. In conclusion, despite the centrifugation effects, the addition of SP arising from the whole sperm-rich fraction to post-thawed boar semen decreased sperm lipid disorder without an influence of the sperm membrane integrity and peroxidation. PMID:27285688

  20. Effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on sperm parameters, seminal plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress in men.

    PubMed

    Rao, Meng; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Yang, Jing; Hu, Shi-Fu; Lei, Hui; Xia, Wei; Zhu, Chang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this experimental prospective study, we aimed to analyze the effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on the male reproductive organs, from the perspective of sperm parameters, semen plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress, to evaluate whether different frequencies of heat exposure cause different degrees of damage to spermatogenesis. Two groups of volunteers (10 per group) received testicular warming in a 43°C water bath 10 times, for 30 min each time: group 1: 10 consecutive days; group 2: once every 3 days. Sperm parameters, epididymis and accessory sex gland function, semen plasma oxidative stress and serum sex hormones were tested before treatment and in the 16-week recovery period after treatment. At last, we found an obvious reversible decrease in sperm concentration (P = 0.005 for Group 1 and P= 0.008 for Group 2 when the minimums were compared with baseline levels, the same below), motility (P = 0.009 and 0.021, respectively), the hypoosmotic swelling test score (P = 0.007 and 0.008, respectively), total acrosin activity (P = 0.018 and 0.009, respectively), and an increase in the seminal plasma malondialdehyde concentration (P = 0.005 and 0.017, respectively). The decrease of sperm concentration was greater for Group 2 than for Group 1 (P = 0.031). We concluded that transient scrotal hyperthermia seriously, but reversibly, negatively affected the spermatogenesis, oxidative stress may be involved in this process. In addition, intermittent heat exposure more seriously suppresses the spermatogenesis compared to consecutive heat exposure. This may be indicative for clinical infertility etiology analysis and the design of contraceptive methods based on heat stress. PMID:25652627

  1. The influence of oxidative damage on viscosity of seminal fluid in infertile men.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Birsen; Onaran, Ilhan; Kiziler, Ali Riza; Alici, Bulent; Akyolcu, Mehmet Can

    2008-01-01

    Increased oxidative damage has been suggested to play an important role in the viscosity changes of blood. However, changes in levels of oxidative damage products in semen and their relationship to seminal fluid viscosity are unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate whether oxidative damage was associated with seminal plasma viscosity in infertile subjects. The levels of malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyls were measured in sperm and seminal plasma from 102 individuals, including 60 infertile patients. Seminal fluid viscosity and semen viscosity were studied by use of capillary viscometer and glass pipettes, respectively. Significantly higher levels of oxidative stress and damage markers were found in subfertile subjects compared with the control subjects. The seminal fluid viscosities of patients were found to be significantly higher, although all of the control and patient subjects had normal viscoelasticity when semen samples were assessed according to World Health Organization guidelines. From Pearson correlation analysis, there were significant positive correlations between seminal fluid viscosity and seminal malondialdehyde and carbonyl levels in infertile males (r = .676, P < .01; r = .276, P < .05, respectively). Our results suggest that increased oxidative damage might be a factor for hyperviscosity of seminal plasma in infertile males. PMID:17673435

  2. Decreased melatonin levels and increased levels of advanced oxidation protein products in the seminal plasma are related to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Ewa Maria; Piwowar, Agnieszka; Zeman, Michal; Stebelová, Katarína; Thalhammer, Theresia

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin, an indolamine secreted by the pineal gland, is known as a powerful free-radical scavenger and wide-spectrum antioxidant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to correlate markers of oxidative protein damage (advanced oxidation protein products, AOPPs) and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) with melatonin levels in the seminal plasma of men with azoospermia (n=37), theratozoospermia (n=29) and fertile controls (normozoospermia, n=37). Melatonin concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. The levels of AOPP as well as TAC efficiency (determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP) were estimated by spectrophotometric methods. The concentration of melatonin and AOPP significantly differed in azoospermic (P<0.0001) and theratozoospermic (P<0.0001) patients versus fertile men, and correlated negatively (r=-0.33, P=0.0016). The TAC levels were significantly higher in azoospermia than in theratozoospermia (P=0.0022) and the control group (P=0.00016). In azoospermia, the AOPP concentration was also significantly higher than that observed in theratozoospermia (P=0.00029). Decreased levels of melatonin together with elevated AOPP altered the oxidative-antioxidative balance in the ejaculate, thereby reducing fertility. Therefore, melatonin and AOPP levels may serve as additional diagnostic markers of semen quality and male reproductive potential. PMID:25218686

  3. A follow-up expanded study of the correlation of sperm velocity in seminal plasma and offspring gender.

    PubMed

    Maligaya, M L R; Chan, C A; Jacobson, J D; Patton, W C; Corselli, J; Chan, P J

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary study reported finding higher sperm velocity in seminal plasma in males of partners that conceived female offsprings. The null hypothesis was that sperm velocity was not related to the offspring gender. The objectives were: (a) to expand the previous study, and (b) to correlate offspring gender results with motility parameters determined through the computer-aided sperm analyzer (CASA) system. In combined fresh and frozen cycles (N = 187), sperm from cases with all female offsprings displayed higher curvilinear (48 +/- 1.0 mu/sec versus male 46 +/- 1.0, P < 0.05) and average path velocities (36 +/- 0.7 mu/sec versus male 34 +/- 0.7, P < 0.01). A criteria of less than 30 mu/sec or over 41 mu/sec average path velocity predicted 73 or 72% of the male or female offspring cases, respectively. A curvilinear velocity of less than 49 mu/sec or over 55 mu/sec predicted 58 or 59 % of the male or female offspring cases, respectively. Semen viscosity reflected in sperm velocity was linked to predominantly male or female sperm populations. Paracrine signals from the gender-skewed sperm precursor populations controlling viscosity merit further exploration. PMID:16338868

  4. Failure of the addition of fresh seminal plasma to cryopreserved-thawed sperm to improve semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Check, D J; Check, M L; Bollendorf, A; Check, J H

    1993-01-01

    Previous data has shown that subnormal motility in some semen specimens can be improved by the addition of fresh human seminal plasma (HSP). However, if the HSP was first frozen the motility-enhancing factor was lost. We hypothesized that some of the reduction in sperm motility of cryopreserved-thawed sperm may be related to damage of the "motility-enhancing factor" of HSP. This study evaluated whether the addition of fresh HSP could improve the motility of frozen-thawed sperm. Each frozen-thawed specimen was evaluated for motile density and hypoosmotic swelling and then divided into two aliquots. Equal volumes of HSP, human tubal fluid (HTF), and control media were added and the semen parameters were reevaluated. The mean scores for motile density and percent motility did not change compared with baseline thawed volumes with either HSP or HTF additives. There were some isolated cases that did improve with either HSP (21%) or HTF (14%). Future studies are needed to determine whether this improvement is coincidental or consistent, and to determine whether at least some individuals can benefit from the addition of fresh HSP to frozen-thawed sperm. PMID:8215691

  5. Aminopeptidase activity in seminal plasma and effect of dilution rate on rabbit reproductive performance after insemination with an extender supplemented with buserelin acetate.

    PubMed

    Viudes-de-Castro, M P; Mocé, E; Lavara, R; Marco-Jiménez, F; Vicente, J S

    2014-06-01

    Ovulation induction in artificially inseminated rabbits by adding GnRH synthetic analogues in the seminal doses is a welfare-orientated method to induce ovulation in rabbits and could have some advantages in field practice. This study was conducted to determine the effect of male genotype on the aminopeptidase activity in rabbit seminal plasma and the effects of dilution rate of semen on availability and reproductive performance when buserelin acetate is added to the seminal dose. To study the aminopeptidase activity, 12 mature bucks belonging to a paternal line and 12 from a maternal line were used. The bucks from the paternal line were used to study the effect of dilution rate on the availability of buserelin acetate after 2 hours of dilution and on the reproductive performance of the doses after artificial insemination of 389 commercial crossbreed does. Aminopeptidase activity in seminal plasma is dependent on the male genotype. The paternal line resulted 27% more aminopeptidase activity than the maternal line (P < 0.05). On the other hand, semen diluted 1:20 exhibited a marked increase in the availability of buserelin acetate and the fertility in this group was significantly higher than females from dilution rate 1:5 group, which showed similar results to that of the negative control group (does inseminated with semen diluted 1:20 in non-GnRH-supplemented extender). We conclude that the bioavailability of buserelin acetate when added to the seminal dose appears to be determined by the activity of the existing aminopeptidases and is consequently affected by the dilution rate used to prepare the artificial insemination doses. PMID:24629591

  6. Boar sperm cryosurvival is better after exposure to seminal plasma from selected fractions than to those from entire ejaculate.

    PubMed

    Alkmin, Diego V; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Barranco, Isabel; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2014-10-01

    Boar bulk ejaculates are now being collected instead of usual sperm-rich fractions (SRF) for artificial insemination purpose. The present study evaluated the influence of holding boar sperm samples before freezing surrounded in their own seminal plasma (SP), from either fractions/portions or the entire ejaculate, on post-thawing sperm quality and functionality. Ejaculates collected as bulk (BE) or as separate (first 10 mL of SRF [P1] and rest of SRF [P2]) from 10 boars were held 24h at 15-17°C and then frozen. Some bulk ejaculate samples were frozen immediately after collections as Control. In addition, epididymal sperm samples from the same 10 boars were collected post-mortem and extended in SP from P1 (EP1), P2 (EP2) and post SRF (EP3), and also held 24h before freezing for a better understanding of the influence of SP on boar sperm cryopreservation. The sperm quality (motility, evaluated by CASA, and viability, evaluated by flow cytometry) and functionality (flow cytometry assessment of plasma membrane fluidity, mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species [ROS] in viable sperm) were evaluated at 30, 150 and 300 min post-thaw. Post-thawing sperm quality and functionality of P1 and P2 were similar but higher (p < 0.01) than BE samples. Control samples showed higher (p < 0.01) post-thaw sperm quality and functionality than BE samples. Post-thawing sperm quality and functionality of EP1 and EP2 were similar but higher (p < 0.05) than EP3. These results showed that boar sperm from BE are more cryosensitive than those from the SRF, particularly when held 24h before freezing, which would be attributable to the cryonegative effects exerted by the SP from post SRF. PMID:25037026

  7. Effects of exposure of epididymal boar spermatozoa to seminal plasma on the binding of zona pellucida proteins during in vitro capacitation.

    PubMed

    Harkema, W; Colenbrander, B; Engel, B; Woelders, H

    2004-01-15

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether seminal plasma plays a role in the increase during in vitro capacitation of the number of boar spermatozoa with enhanced binding of zona pellucida proteins. Ejaculated spermatozoa and spermatozoa collected from the caudae epididymides of boars were incubated at 39 degrees C in a Tyrode's IVF medium. During incubation, the zona binding ability of individual spermatozoa was assessed with fluorescein-conjugated solubilized zona pellucida proteins (FITC-sZP), using a flow cytometer. Propidium iodide (PI) was included to simultaneously monitor cell viability. During incubation of ejaculated spermatozoa, a percentage of the spermatozoa expressed enhanced binding of FITC-sZP. The percentage of viable spermatozoa with enhanced binding reached a maximum of 37% (S.D.=8, averaged over five boars) after 2-3 h. In epididymal sperm, a similar maximum was observed after incubation in vitro, but a longer time of incubation was needed (6 h). Also, the rate of cell death of epididymal sperm was much lower than that of ejaculated sperm. When epididymal spermatozoa was exposed to seminal plasma in vitro, the time needed to reach a maximal percentage of viable spermatozoa with enhanced FITC-sZP binding was similar to that in ejaculated semen. However, the rate of cell death was still much lower than in ejaculated sperm. We concluded that the binding sites on the sperm surface that are involved in the increased binding of zona proteins during incubation under IVF conditions were not derived from the seminal plasma. The cellular processes leading to the increased binding capacity were accelerated by exposure of the sperm to seminal plasma. PMID:14662123

  8. LH release and ovulatory response after intramuscular, intravenous, and intrauterine administration of β-nerve growth factor of seminal plasma origin in female llamas.

    PubMed

    Silva, M; Fernández, A; Ulloa-Leal, C; Adams, G P; Berland, M A; Ratto, M H

    2015-10-15

    The objective of the study was to compare the pituitary and ovarian responses after intramuscular, intravenous, or intrauterine administration of β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) of seminal plasma origin (SP-NGF) in llamas. In experiment 1, mature female llamas with a growing follicle of 7 mm or greater were assigned randomly to four groups (n = 7/group) and given 2 mg of purified SP-NGF in a volume of 2 mL by (1) intramuscular administration, (2) intravenous administration, and (3) intrauterine infusion, or (4) intrauterine infusion of 2 mL of PBS (negative control). Because ovulations were not detected after intrauterine infusion in experiment 1, a second experiment was done to determine if a higher dose of SP-NGF given by intrauterine infusion, similar to a natural dose during copulation, will elicit an ovulatory response. In experiment 2, llamas with a growing follicle of 7 mm or greater were assigned randomly to three groups (n = 6/per group) given an intrauterine infusion of (1) 4 mL of raw seminal plasma, (2) 4 mL of PBS containing 20 mg of purified llama SP-NGF, or 3) 4 mL of PBS (negative control). In both experiments, the ovaries were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography using a B-mode scanner and power Doppler mode to detect ovulation and to monitor CL growth, regression, and vascularization. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma LH and progesterone concentrations. In experiment 1, only llamas treated by intramuscular or intravenous administration of SP-NGF ovulated (7 of 7 and 6 of 7, respectively). Plasma LH concentration did not differ between the intramuscular and intravenous SP-NGF-treated groups, nor did CL diameter, CL vascularization, or plasma progesterone concentration profiles. In experiment 2, the ovulation rate was 100% for llamas treated by intrauterine infusion of raw seminal plasma or llama SP-NFG, whereas no ovulations were detected in females treated with PBS. Plasma LH concentrations did not differ between groups

  9. The effects of honey supplementation on seminal plasma cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidants during 8 weeks of intensive cycling training.

    PubMed

    Tartibian, Bakhtyar; Maleki, Behzad Hajizadeh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of natural honey supplementation on seminal plasma cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidants during 8 weeks of intensive cycling training in male road cyclists. Thirty-nine healthy nonprofessional male road cyclists aged 18-28 years participated in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to exercise + supplement (E + S, n = 20) and exercise (E, n = 19) groups. All subjects participated in 8 weeks of intensive cycling training. Ninety minutes before each training session, subjects in the E + S group supplemented with 70 g of honey, whereas subjects in the E group received 70 g of an artificial sweetener. All subjects had an initial semen sampling at baseline (T(1)). The next 6 semen collections were collected immediately (T(2)) and 12 (T(3)) and 24 hours (T(4)) after the last training session in week 4, as well as immediately (T(5)) and 12 (T(6)) and 24 hours (T(7)) after the last training session in week 8, respectively. In the E group, 8 weeks of intensive cycling training significantly increased seminal interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (P < .008) and significantly decreased the levels of seminal superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (P < .008). Significantly less elevation in seminal IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, ROS, and MDA levels (P < .008) and significant increases in seminal SOD, catalase, and TAC concentrations were observed after the honey supplementation in the E + S group (P < .008). It may be possible that honey supplementation following long-term intensive cycling training would be effective in attenuating the probable aggravating effects of intensive cycling training on spermatogenesis and fertility capacity in road cyclists. PMID:21636735

  10. Novel Flow Cytometry Analyses of Boar Sperm Viability: Can the Addition of Whole Sperm-Rich Fraction Seminal Plasma to Frozen-Thawed Boar Sperm Affect It?

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Rommy; Boguen, Rodrigo; Martins, Simone Maria Massami Kitamura; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Leal, Diego Feitosa; Oliveira, Melissa de Lima; Muro, Bruno Bracco Donatelli; Parra, Beatriz Martins; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Papa, Frederico Ozanan; Dell’Aqua, José Antônio; Alvarenga, Marco Antônio; Moretti, Aníbal de Sant’Anna; Sepúlveda, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    Boar semen cryopreservation remains a challenge due to the extension of cold shock damage. Thus, many alternatives have emerged to improve the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Although the use of seminal plasma arising from boar sperm-rich fraction (SP-SRF) has shown good efficacy; however, the majority of actual sperm evaluation techniques include a single or dual sperm parameter analysis, which overrates the real sperm viability. Within this context, this work was performed to introduce a sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential. We then used the sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique to study the effect of SP-SRF on frozen-thawed boar sperm and further evaluated the effect of this treatment on sperm movement, tyrosine phosphorylation and fertility rate (FR). The sperm fourfold stain technique is accurate (R2 = 0.9356, p > 0.01) for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (IPIAH cells). Centrifugation pre-cryopreservation was not deleterious (p > 0.05) for any analyzed variables. Addition of SP-SRF after cryopreservation was able to improve total and progressive motility (p < 0.05) when boar semen was cryopreserved without SP-SRF; however, it was not able to decrease tyrosine phosphorylation (p > 0.05) or improve IPIAH cells (p > 0.05). FR was not (p > 0.05) statistically increased by the addition of seminal plasma, though females inseminated with frozen-thawed boar semen plus SP-SRF did perform better than those inseminated with sperm lacking seminal plasma. Thus, we conclude that sperm fourfold stain can be used to simultaneously evaluate plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential, and the addition of SP-SRF at thawed boar semen cryopreserved in absence of SP-SRF improve its total and progressive motility. PMID:27529819

  11. Distinct effects of boar seminal plasma fractions exhibiting different protein profiles on the functionality of highly diluted boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    García, E M; Calvete, J J; Sanz, L; Roca, J; Martínez, E A; Vázquez, J M

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how different protein profiles of seminal plasma (SP) fractions affect sperm functionality in vitro. Ejaculates from three boars were separated into six fractions. The fractions differed from each other in their sperm content, in their total SP protein content, and their spermadhesin PSP-I/PSP-II and heparin-binding protein (HBP) concentrations. Spermatozoa were mainly recovered in fraction 2 (sperm-rich fraction, >1800 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml), whereas the pre-sperm fraction 1 and the post-sperm fractions 4-6 contained low numbers of spermatozoa (<500 x 10(6)/ml). Except in fraction 2, the total SP protein concentration and the concentration of both, spermadhesin PSP-I/PSP-II and the HBPs increased with fraction order. Distinct time-dependent effects were observed on motility characteristics and membrane integrity of highly diluted boar spermatozoa upon incubation with a 10% dilution of the SP from each fraction. The highest sperm viability was recorded after exposure for 5 h to fraction 2, followed by fractions 1 and 3. The percentages of motile spermatozoa also differed significantly among fractions after 5 h of incubation. Spermatozoa incubated with SP of fractions 1-3 showed the highest percentage motility. We conclude that different SP fractions exert distinct effects on the functionality of highly diluted boar spermatozoa. Fractions 1-3 appear to promote sperm survival, whereas fractions 4-6 seem to be harmful for preserving the physiological functions of highly diluted boar spermatozoa. PMID:19323794

  12. High total antioxidant capacity of the porcine seminal plasma (SP-TAC) relates to sperm survival and fertility

    PubMed Central

    Barranco, Isabel; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Ceron, Jose J.; Martinez, Emilio A.; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The study attempted to clarify the role of total antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma (SP-TAC) on boar sperm survival and fertility after artificial insemination (AI). SP-TAC differed (P < 0.001) among boars (n° = 15) and, to a lesser degree, among ejaculates within male (4 ejaculates/boar). SP-TAC also differed (P < 0.001) among ejaculate fractions (43 ejaculates and 3 fractions per ejaculate), of which the sperm-peak portion of the sperm rich ejaculate fraction (SRF) had the highest SP-TAC. SP-TAC was not correlated with sperm quality (motility and viability) or functionality (intracellular ROS generation and lipid peroxidation) of liquid AI-semen samples stored at 17 °C for 72 h (90 AI-samples), but the decline in sperm quality was larger (P < 0.05) in ejaculates with low, compared with high SP-TAC (hierarchically grouped). The SP-TAC differences among ejaculate portions agree with sperm cryosurvival rates (14 ejaculates from 7 boars), showing sperm from sperm-peak portion better (P < 0.01) post-thaw quality and functionality than those from the entire ejaculate (mainly post-SRF). Boars (n° = 18) with high SP-TAC (hierarchically grouped) had higher (P < 0.05) fertility outcomes (5,546 AI-sows) than those with low SP-TAC. Measurement of SP-TAC ought to be a discriminative tool to prognosis fertility in breeding boars. PMID:26688188

  13. Effect of seminal plasma vesicular structures in canine frozen-thawed semen.

    PubMed

    Goericke-Pesch, S; Hauck, S; Failing, K; Wehrend, A

    2015-12-01

    Membrane vesicles (MVs) in the ejaculate have been identified in various species and are considered to affect membrane fluidity due to their characteristic molecular composition. Addition of MV to human frozen semen has been shown to improve post-thaw motility. Similarly, a beneficial effect has been suggested for frozen equine semen. As post-thaw canine semen quality varies widely between dogs, the aim of our study was to test for the effect of addition of canine MV on post-thaw semen quality in dogs. Semen samples from 10 male dogs were purified from MV and prepared for freezing. In experiment 1, three groups were compared: sperm frozen (1) with MV (S1); (2) without MV, but MV added immediately after thawing (S2); and (3) without MV (C). Semen analysis included computer-assisted sperm analysis of motility parameters immediately after thawing (t0), after 10 (t10) and 30 minutes (t30), % living sperm, % membrane intact, % morphologically normal sperm (all t0 and t30). Computer-assisted sperm analysis motility distance and velocity parameters (all P < 0.05) and % living sperm (P < 0.001) were significantly affected by treatment with a temporary increase of distance and velocity parameters at t0 to t10, but a significant decrease of the aforementioned parameters at t30 in samples with MV. In experiment 2, different MV protein concentrations added after thawing were compared: 0.05 mg, 0.1 mg, and 0.2 mg/mL. Computer-assisted sperm motility analysis was performed at t0, t10, and t30. No differences between MV concentrations were identified, only a significant interaction between effect of treatment and time for progressive motility (P < 0.01). Our study identified a short-term beneficial effect of canine MV on post-thaw distance and velocity parameters, whereas at t30 progressive motility, motility parameters and % living sperm were reduced in samples with MV compared to C. The results point to species-specific differences regarding the MV effect on frozen

  14. Zinc Levels in Seminal Fluid in Infertile Males and its Relation with Serum Free Testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Ajay Rajeshwar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The role of zinc is critical to reproduction potential. Seminal zinc is thought to be derived almost exclusively from prostatic secretions. Sperm motility is significantly influenced by zinc. Zinc deficiency has been linked with male sterility and subfertility. Aim To assess the influence of seminal plasma zinc on seminogram characteristics and whether endogenous testosterone affects the seminal levels of zinc. Materials and Methods The semen samples were obtained from 150 male partners of infertile couples who attended the Reproductive Biology Unit of the Department of Physiology, within the age 21-50 years and semen samples were analysed for the routine seminogram parameters. All the subjects were classified into two main groups, A- the subjects with normal ejaculates (n=62) and B- the subjects with abnormal ejaculates, who were further sub divided into the following groups: i) Asthenoteratozoospermics (n=43); ii) Oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (n=24); and iii) Azoospermics (n=21). The seminal plasma zinc was measured spectrophotometrically. The sample for serum free testosterone was sent to Thyrocare laboratory. Results The seminal plasma zinc was found to be significantly lower in the abnormal ejaculates than in the normal ejaculates. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the seminal plasma zinc and serum free testosterone (p<0.05, r=0.449). Statistically significant correlation was also found between seminal plasma zinc and all the seminogram parameters such as the sperm concentration, sperm motility and sperm morphology (p<0.05, r= 0.86, 0.87 and 0.86 respectively). Conclusion Low seminal plasma zinc might be a significant causative factor in impairing sperm functions and its dependence on endogenous free testosterone, is observed from a positive correlation between the two. PMID:27437207

  15. Characterization of adiponectin concentrations and molecular weight forms in serum, seminal plasma, and ovarian follicular fluid from cattle.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Johanna F L; Singh, Shiva P; Janowitz, Ulrich; Hoelker, Michael; Tesfaye, Dawit; Schellander, Karl; Sauerwein, Helga

    2015-02-01

    Adiponectin (AdipoQ), an adipocyte-derived hormone, is one of the most abundant adipokines in the blood circulation. Adiponectin has various metabolic functions, such as improving insulin sensitivity in humans and rodents. The role of AdipoQ in reproduction is not yet fully understood, but the expression of AdipoQ in reproductive tissues has been observed in various animals and humans, including chicken testis, bovine ovary, and human placenta. The objective of this study was to characterize AdipoQ in the bovine body fluids related to reproduction. Therefore, we evaluated the seminal plasma (SP) from breeding bulls (n = 29) and follicular fluid (FF) from heifers (n = 14), and we also collected blood samples from these animals. In addition, blood samples from other bulls (n = 30) and heifers (n = 14) were assayed for AdipoQ. The concentrations were assessed using a bovine-specific ELISA, and the molecular weight (MW) pattern of the AdipoQ protein was estimated by the Western blot analysis. The SP AdipoQ concentrations were approximately 180-fold lower compared with that in the serum concentrations. Furthermore, the AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP were positively correlated. The MW patterns of AdipoQ in the serum and SP were different such that the high MW form of AdipoQ was more abundant in the SP than serum. The AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP also increased with age: old bulls (>6 years) had higher AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP than bulls aged 24 months or lesser (P < 0.05). In the FF, the AdipoQ concentrations were 1.6-fold lower than those in the corresponding serum samples, and the concentrations in the serum and FF were not correlated (P > 0.1). In the FF, only the middle MW forms of AdipoQ were detectable by Western blotting. The MW pattern in the serum did not differ between the sexes. Our data provide both the AdipoQ concentration and the MW patterns for bovine body fluids related to reproduction. PMID:25468552

  16. The percentage of spermatozoa lost during the centrifugation of brown bear (Ursus arctos) ejaculates is associated with some spermatozoa quality and seminal plasma characteristics.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M; Nicolas, M; Borragán, S; Lopez-Urueña, E; Anel-López, L; Martinez-Pastor, F; Tamayo-Canul, J; Anel, L; de Paz, P

    2012-11-01

    Cryopreservation of brown bear (Ursus arctos) semen requires centrifugation to increase concentration and/or remove urine contamination. However, a percentage of the spermatozoa are lost in the process. This percentage varies considerably between males and ejaculates, and we have studied the effect of sperm quality and seminal plasma characteristics on the spermatozoa recovery rate after centrifugation. One hundred and thirty one sperm samples obtained from fifteen brown bear males by electroejaculation under general anaesthesia were used. The ejaculates were centrifuged 600 × g for 6 min. Motility was assessed by CASA, and acrosomal status (PNA-FITC) and viability (SYBR-14/propidium iodide) were determined by flow cytometry. Seminal plasma characteristics (albumin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, cholesterol, creatine, glucose, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), lactate, lipase, magnesium, phosphate and total protein) were determined by a biochemical and gas analysis. Total motility (r = 0.26; P=0.005) and cell viability (r = 0.20; P = 0.033) were positively correlated with the percentage of recovered spermatozoa. Sperm recovery was correlated with the concentration of several components of seminal plasma: negatively with glucose concentration (r = -0.47; P = 0.005) and positively with the enzymes GOT (r = 0.36; P = 0.040) and lactate dehydrogenase (r = 0.36; P = 0.041). After sorting the data into classes according to sperm recovery (Low: 0-39, Medium: 40-69, High: 70-100), we observed that the samples with a lower recovery rate derived from ejaculates with lower values for TM, VAP and viability (P<0.05). Multiple regression analysis rendered two models to define the post-centrifugation spermatozoa recovery which included total motility and damaged acrosome or glucose, GOT and lactate dehydrogenase. We discuss these relationships and their implications in the electroejaculation procedure and the handling of the sample during centrifugation. PMID:23084761

  17. Differential abundances of four forms of Binder of SPerm 1 in the seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Marcos Jorge; Martins, Leonardo Franco; Senra, Renato Lima; Santos, Thaís Ferreira Dos; Okano, Denise Silva; Pereira, Paulo Roberto Gomes; Faria-Campos, Alessandra; Campos, Sérgio Vale Aguiar; Guimarães, José Domingos; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The Binder of SPerm 1 (BSP1) protein is involved in the fertilization and semen cryopreservation processes and is described to be both beneficial and detrimental to sperm. Previously, the relationship of BSP1 with freezability events has not been completely understood. The objective of this work was to determine the differential abundance of the forms of the BSP1 protein in cryopreserved seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability using proteomics. A wide cohort of adult bulls with high genetic value from an artificial insemination center was used as donors of high quality, fresh semen. Nine bulls presenting different patterns of semen freezability were selected. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed differential abundance in a group of seven protein spots in the frozen/thawed seminal plasma from the bulls, ranging from 15 to 17 kDa, with pI values from 4.6 to 5.8. Four of these spots were confirmed to be BSP1 using mass spectrometry, proteomics, biochemical, and computational analysis (Tukey's test at P < 0.05). The protein spot weighing 15.52 ± 0.53 kDa with a pI value of 5.78 ± 0.12 is highlighted by its high abundance in bulls with low semen freezability and its absence in bulls presenting high semen freezability. This is the first report showing that more than two forms of BSP1 are found in the seminal plasma of Nelore adult bulls and not all animals have a similar abundance of each BSP1 form. Different BSP1 forms may be involved in different events of fertilization and the cryopreservation process. PMID:27118515

  18. Seminal Plasma Characteristics and Expression of ATP-binding Cassette Transporter A1 (ABCA1) in Canine Spermatozoa from Ejaculates with Good and Bad Freezability.

    PubMed

    Schäfer-Somi, S; Palme, N

    2016-04-01

    The composition of seminal plasma and the localization of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in spermatozoa from good and bad freezers were compared to frozen-thawed spermatozoa from the same dog. Ejaculates were obtained from 31 stud dogs, and the sperm-rich fraction (SRF) was kept for analysis. One aliquot was used for the analysis of concentration, progressive motility (P; CASA), viability (V; CASA) and leucocyte count, and the analysis was performed by flow cytometry (FITC-PNA/PI), SCSA and HOST. In seminal plasma, concentration of albumin, cholesterol, calcium, inorganic phosphate, sodium, potassium, zinc and copper was measured. Semen smears were prepared and evaluated for the expression of ABCA1. The remainder of each ejaculate was frozen. After thawing, the quality assessment was repeated and further smears were prepared. According to post-thaw semen quality, dogs were assigned to good freezers (n = 20) or bad freezers (n = 11), the latter were defined as < 50% progressive motility and/or > 40% morphologically abnormal sperm and/or < 50% viability. Bad freezers were older than good freezers (5.3 vs 3.4 years, p < 0.05). In bad freezers, the percentage of sperm with ABCA1 signal in the acrosome was lower (26.3% vs 35.7%, p < 0.01) and the percentage of sperm with complete loss of ABCA1 signal higher (46.7% vs 30%, p < 0.01); the percentage of dead spermatozoa was higher (36.1% vs 25.5%, p < 0.05), and the concentration of cholesterol and sodium in seminal plasma was lower than in good freezers (p < 0.05). We conclude that in thawed bad freezer sperm, an increase in acrosome damages coincided with an increased loss of cholesterol transporters and cell death, and a lower cholesterol concentration in seminal plasma. Follow-up studies revealed whether a relation exists between these findings. PMID:26848092

  19. Pregnancy outcome in dairy and beef cattle after artificial insemination and treatment with seminal plasma or transforming growth factor beta-1.

    PubMed

    Odhiambo, J F; Poole, D H; Hughes, L; Dejarnette, J M; Inskeep, E K; Dailey, R A

    2009-09-01

    Reduced capability of the uterus to support pregnancy in the absence of its interaction with secretions from male accessory glands has been demonstrated in rodents and to some extent in pigs. However, in cattle, the role of postmating inflammatory response on pregnancy success has not been studied. The current study examined the influence of uterine presensitization with seminal antigens at breeding on pregnancy outcome in cows. Lactating beef (n=1090) and dairy (n=800) cows received 0.5 mL seminal plasma (SP), 40 ng recombinant human transforming growth factor-beta1 (rhTGF-beta1), or 0.5 mL bovine serum albumin (BSA), or were left untreated before or at insemination. Semen was deposited into the anterior cervix using a second insemination gun. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 35 to 40 d postinsemination by transrectal ultrasonography or from records of calves born the subsequent calving season. Pregnancy rates in beef cows did not differ among treatments but differed among trials (69.8%, 52.5% vs. 40.3%; P<0.05). In trials where average pregnancy rates were below 50%, treatments with TGF-beta1 but not SP tended (P<0.07) to increase pregnancy rates in beef cows. In dairy cows, SP and TGF-beta1 improved pregnancy outcome by 10 percentage points, but these increments did not achieve statistical significance. In conclusion, this study did not find any conclusive evidence for the effect of TGF-beta1 or seminal plasma on pregnancy outcome in lactating dairy or beef cows but realized marginal improvements when pregnancy rates were below 50% (compromised fertility). PMID:19501392

  20. Electrostatic normal modes in nonneutral plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Book, David L.

    1995-04-01

    A fluid description is employed to derive the dispersion relation for modes near the cyclotron frequency Ω in a nonuniform cylindrical nonneutral plasma of radius R with finite temperature confined by a uniform magnetic field B=B0ez. In contrast to the theory of Gould and LaPointe, the model includes the diamagnetic drift but omits finite-Larmor-radius effects. The eigenfrequencies for high-frequency electrostatic modes with wavevectors satisfying k ṡ B=0 (Bernstein modes) are found in the form ω=-Ω+Δω. Solutions are obtained and compared with experiment and the theory of Gould and LaPointe. The present theory predicts that at a given temperature modes with m≳1 propagate only when the density is less than a critical value that increases with m, and that Δω normalized by the diocotron frequency depends only on the ratio of the Debye length to the plasma radius and hence is independent of B and the particle mass.

  1. Electrostatic normal modes in nonneutral plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Book, David L.

    1995-04-15

    A fluid description is employed to derive the dispersion relation for modes near the cyclotron frequency {omega} in a nonuniform cylindrical nonneutral plasma of radius R with finite temperature confined by a uniform magnetic field B=B0ez. In contrast to the theory of Gould and LaPointe, the model includes the diamagnetic drift but omits finite-Larmor-radius effects. The eigenfrequencies for high-frequency electrostatic modes with wavevectors satisfying k {center_dot} B=0 (Bernstein modes) are found in the form {omega}=-{omega}+{delta}{omega}. Solutions are obtained and compared with experiment and the theory of Gould and LaPointe. The present theory predicts that at a given temperature modes with m > or approx.1 propagate only when the density is less than a critical value that increases with m, and that {delta}{omega} normalized by the diocotron frequency depends only on the ratio of the Debye length to the plasma radius and hence is independent of B and the particle mass.

  2. Influence of seminal plasma on leucocyte migration and amount of COX-2 protein in the jenny endometrium after insemination with frozen-thawed semen.

    PubMed

    Vilés, K; Rabanal, R; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Miró, J

    2013-12-01

    After mating, seminal plasma has an immuno-modulatory effect on the endometrium in some mammals. In jennies, achieving conception via artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed semen is generally much more difficult than in mares. The endometrial inflammatory response is hypothesized to be a contributing factor to the lesser fertility. Following a cross-over experimental design, the uterine inflammatory response of six jennies was evaluated at 6h after AI with frozen-thawed semen (deposited in the uterine body) in the presence or absence of autologous seminal plasma (+SP or -SP). The endometrial cytology and histology of the animals were examined by uterine lavage, uterine swabbing and biopsy. The amount of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein in endometrial cells was also evaluated. As a control (C), the same examinations were made before any AI procedure (i.e., when the jennies were in oestrus). Large numbers of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) were observed in the -SP and +SP cytology and biopsy samples; more than in the C samples. The -SP samples also had intense COX-2 labelling; less labelling was detected in the +SP and C samples (no significant difference between these latter two types). Thus, while the presence of SP does not change the post-AI number of PMNs with regard to that detected in its absence, it does reduce COX-2 protein. Further research into the complex mix of molecules in SP and its effects during AI might help increase the pregnancy rates achieved in jennies. PMID:24280633

  3. Viscosity of human seminal fluid: role of lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Mendeluk, G R; Blanco, A M; Bregni, C

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the role of lysozyme in the phenomenon of seminal hyper-viscosity. The enzyme was determined in 142 samples of seminal plasma either leucospermic or not, with or without active macrophages classified according to their consistency (normal or high). The kinetic method with Micrococcus lysodeikticus as substrate was employed. No difference was found in enzymatic concentration expressed in nmol/L of enzymatic protein (mean +/- 2 SEM) on comparing normal and high seminal consistency groups, while differences proved highly significant in batches either leucospermic or not (n = 44, 197.2 +/- 51.3 vs. n = 98, 108.3 +/- 12.8; p < .0005). On subdividing the normal and high-consistency groups according to the count of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and the macrophagic responses, differences were also significant (p < .005 in both cases). Lysozyme concentration increases in presence of leucospermic reaction. In vitro lysozyme addition showed no significant effect on samples with high consistency. The results indicate that lysozyme plays no direct role in the phenomenon of seminal hyperviscosity, although its deficiency in cases of chronic infections may prove a factor aggravating the clinical picture. PMID:9017117

  4. On a matter of seminal importance.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Lisa A; Suarez, Susan S; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2015-02-01

    Egg and sperm have, understandably, been the "stars" of mammalian fertilization biology, particularly because artificial reproductive technologies allow for fertilization to occur outside of the female reproductive tract without other apparent contributions from either sex. Yet, recent research, including an exciting new paper, reveals unexpected and important contributions of seminal plasma to fertility. For example, seminal plasma proteins play critical roles in modulating female reproductive physiology, and a new study in mice demonstrates that effects of some of these proteins on the female can even affect the health of her progeny. Furthermore, although several actions of seminal plasma have been conserved across taxa, male accessory glands and their products are diverse - even among mammals. Taken together, these studies suggest that the actions of seminal plasma components are important to understand, and also to consider in future development of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) for humans, farm species and endangered species of mammals. PMID:25379987

  5. Seasonal changes in semen characteristics, composition of seminal plasma and frequency of acrosome reaction induced by calcium and calcium ionophore A23187 in Large White boars.

    PubMed

    Murase, Tetsuma; Imaeda, Noriaki; Yamada, Hiroto; Miyazawa, Kiyoshi

    2007-08-01

    This study attempted to explain the mechanisms regulating boar fertility by examining seasonal changes in semen characteristics, the composition of seminal plasma and responsiveness of sperm acrosomes to Ca(2+) and the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 (Ca(2+)/A23187). Sperm-rich and sperm-poor fractions were separately collected from 3 mature fertile Large White boars once a month over a one-year period. During the period of study, ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded for within the stall in which the boars were kept and the semen characteristics, composition of the seminal plasma of sperm-rich fractions, and occurrence of the acrosome reaction in response to Ca(2+) (3 mM)/A23187 (0.3 microM) were examined. The highest mean maximum and minimum ambient temperatures were recorded in August-September, whereas the lowest mean maximum and minimum ambient temperatures were recorded in December and January, respectively. There was a moderate peak in relative humidity from July to October. The lowest percentages of motile spermatozoa and of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes and highest percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology and strongest agglutination were seen in August-September. The total protein and albumin concentrations were lowest in August-September. Testosterone levels increased gradually as day length decreased after the summer solstice (June) and peaked in October-November. The percentage of acrosome reactions in response to Ca(2+)/A23187 was highest with the quickest response in August-September, as shown by the shortest time required for 50% of relative acrosome reactions. The farrowing rates were lowest in these same 2 months. These results suggest that seasonal infertility in Large White boars may be due, at least in part, to a combination of low motility, abnormal morphology including acrosomal abnormality, and early occurrence of the acrosome reaction in response to stimulus, possibly resulting from a decrease in acrosomal stabilizing

  6. Seminal plasma induces global transcriptomic changes associated with cell migration, proliferation and viability in endometrial epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joseph C.; Johnson, Brittni A.; Erikson, David W.; Piltonen, Terhi T.; Barragan, Fatima; Chu, Simon; Kohgadai, Nargis; Irwin, Juan C.; Greene, Warner C.; Giudice, Linda C.; Roan, Nadia R.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How does seminal plasma (SP) affect the transcriptome of human primary endometrial epithelial cells (eEC) and stromal fibroblasts (eSF)? SUMMARY ANSWER Exposure of eEC and eSF to SP in vitro increases expression of genes and secreted proteins associated with cellular migration, proliferation, viability and inhibition of cell death. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Studies in both humans and animals suggest that SP can access and induce physiological changes in the upper female reproductive tract (FRT), which may participate in promoting reproductive success. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This is a cross sectional study involving control samples versus treatment. SP (pooled from twenty donors) was first tested for dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects on eEC and eSF (n = 4). As exposure of eEC or eSF to 1% SP for 6 h proved to be non-toxic, a second set of eEC/eSF samples (n = 4) was treated under these conditions for transcriptome, protein and functional analysis. With a third set of samples (n = 3), we further compared the transcriptional response of the cells to SP versus fresh semen. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS eEC and eSF were isolated from endometrial biopsies from women of reproductive age undergoing benign gynecologic procedures and maintained in vitro. RNA was isolated and processed for microarray studies to analyze global transcriptomic changes. Secreted factors in conditioned media from SP-treated cells were analyzed by Luminex and for the ability to stimulate migration of CD14+ monocytes and CD4+ T cells. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Pathway identifications were determined using the Z-scoring system in Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (Z scores ≥|1.5|). SP induced transcriptomic changes (P < 0.05) associated with promoting leukocyte and endothelial cell recruitment, and proliferation of eEC and eSF. Cell viability pathways were induced, while those associated with cell death were suppressed (P < 0.05). SP and fresh semen induced

  7. Fluorescence investigations on choline phospholipid binding and chemical unfolding of HSP-1/2, a major protein of horse seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C Sudheer; Sivaramakrishna, D; Ravi, Sanjay K; Swamy, Musti J

    2016-05-01

    Seminal fibronectin type-II (Fn-II) proteins interact with choline phospholipids present on the sperm plasma membrane and play a crucial role in sperm capacitation. Crystal structure of phosphorylcholine (PrC) complex of PDC-109, the major bovine Fn-II protein, together with fluorescence spectroscopic studies has shown that tryptophan residues are crucial for its specific interaction with choline phospholipids. In the present study, the heterogeneity and microenvironment of tryptophan residues in HSP-1/2, a major protein of horse seminal plasma (which is homologous to PDC-109) were investigated in the native state, in the presence of PrC and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) with short (valeryl, C-5) and long (myristoyl, C-14) chains, and upon denaturation using fluorescence quenching, time-resolved fluorescence and red-edge excitation shift (REES) measurements. The results obtained show that the environment of tryptophan residues in HSP-1/2 is more heterogeneous as compared to that in PDC-109. Binding of choline containing ligands afforded a protection to the tryptophan residues with the shielding order being: PrC≤divalaroyl PC

  8. Seminal plasma induces prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS) 2 expression in immortalized human vaginal cells: involvement of semen prostaglandin E2 in PTGS2 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Theresa; Zalenskaya, Irina A; Sawyer, Lyn C; Chandra, Neelima; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation of the cervicovaginal mucosa is considered a risk factor for HIV infection in heterosexual transmission. In this context, seminal plasma (SP) may play an important role that is not limited to being the main carrier for the virions. It is known that SP induces an inflammatory reaction in the cervix called postcoital leukocytic reaction, which has been associated with promotion of fertility. The mechanisms by which SP triggers this reaction, however, have not been clearly established. Previously we reported the expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), also known as cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), in human vaginal cells in response to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and other proinflammatory stimuli. In this study, we demonstrate that SP induces transcriptional and translational increase of COX-2 expression in human vaginal cells and cervicovaginal tissue explants. Furthermore, SP potentiates vaginal PTGS2 expression induced by other proinflammatory stimulants, such as TLR ligands and a vaginal mucosal irritant (nonoxynol-9) in a synergistic manner. SP-induced PTGS2 expression is mediated by intracellular signaling pathways involving MAPKs and NF-κB. Using fractionation and functional analysis, seminal prostaglandin (PG)-E(2) was identified as a one of the major factors in PTGS2 induction. Given the critical role of this PG-producing enzyme in mucosal inflammatory processes, the finding that SP induces and potentiates the expression of PTGS2 in cervicovaginal cells and tissues has mechanistic implications for the role of SP in fertility-associated mucosal leukocytic reaction and its potential HIV infection-enhancing effect. PMID:23153564

  9. Quick recovery and characterization of cell-free DNA in seminal plasma of normozoospermia and azoospermia: implications for non-invasive genetic utilities.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Gang; Huang, Shi-Yun; Zhou, Hui; Liao, Ai-Hua; Xiong, Cheng-Liang

    2009-11-01

    We established a quick and reliable method for recovering cell-free seminal DNA (cfsDNA), by using the binding-washing-elution procedure on the DNA purification column. Low variations (below 15%) among the triplicate values of cfsDNA quantity verified the reproducibility of our cfsDNA recovery method. Similar cfsDNA yield and size distribution between seminal plasma acquired by filtration and centrifugation confirmed the presence of cfsDNA. To investigate the general characterization of cfsDNA, the quantitation and size distribution of cfsDNA from normozoospermic and azoospermic semen were analyzed by real-time PCR and electrophoresis, respectively. CfsDNA concentration in semen with normozoospermia (n = 11) was 1.34 +/- 0.65 microg mL(-1), whereas a higher cfsDNA concentration was observed in azoospermia (2.56 +/- 1.43 microg mL(-1), n = 9). The continuous distribution of DNA fragments ranging from approximately 1 kb to 15 kb and a spectrum of multiples of 180-bp fragments were observed in each normozoospermic and azoospermic sample. Distinct characteristic DNA ladder fragmentations in some azoospermic samples implicated that cfsDNA originate partly from apoptotic cells. CfsDNAs of 36 selected azoospermic patients with known information of Y chromosome microdeletion were subjected to the same microdeletion analysis by multiplex PCR and PCR amplification of sY114 (1450 bp). All multiplex PCR reactions with cfsDNA amplified successfully and provided the same result as leukocyte DNA. PCR amplification of sY114 gave a 1450-bp amplicon as expected. Our data suggested the potential use of cfsDNA in search of biomarker or diagnostic procedures. PMID:19823179

  10. Cryosurvival and in vitro fertilizing capacity postthaw is improved when boar spermatozoa are frozen in the presence of seminal plasma from good freezer boars.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Marta; Roca, Jordi; Calvete, Juan J; Sanz, Libia; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José A; Vázquez, Juan M; Martínez, Emilio A

    2007-01-01

    The study evaluated the protective effect of seminal plasma (SP) added to freezing extender against cryopreservation injuries to boar spermatozoa. Pooled sperm-rich fractions collected from 9 fertile boars were frozen in 0.5-mL straws after being extended in a conventional freezing extender either alone or supplemented with 5% of SPs (SP1-SP4) collected from the sperm-rich fractions (diluted 1:1, vol/vol, in Beltsville Thawing Solution extender) from 4 boars (1-4) with known sperm cryosurvival (poor, moderate, and good sperm freezers). Cryopreservation injuries were assessed in terms of postthaw sperm motility (assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis), viability (plasma membrane and acrosome integrity assessed simultaneously by flow cytometry), membrane lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA] production), and the ability of thawed spermatozoa to fertilize in vitro-matured homologous oocytes. The addition of SP from good sperm freezers (SP3 and SP4) improved (P < .01) the motility and viability of thawed spermatozoa without any influence on MDA production. Moreover, SP from good sperm freezers also increased (P < .05) the percentage of penetrated (SP3) and polyspermic oocytes (SP4) with respect to the control. Neither the total amount of SP proteins, protein profiles, nor antioxidant capacity of the different SPs were related to the various cryosurvival/fertilizing capacities of the processed spermatozoa. PMID:17460094

  11. A pH Switch Regulates the Inverse Relationship between Membranolytic and Chaperone-like Activities of HSP-1/2, a Major Protein of Horse Seminal Plasma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C Sudheer; Swamy, Musti J

    2016-07-01

    HSP-1/2, a major protein of horse seminal plasma binds to choline phospholipids present on the sperm plasma membrane and perturbs its structure by intercalating into the hydrophobic core, which results in an efflux of choline phospholipids and cholesterol, an important event in sperm capacitation. HSP-1/2 also exhibits chaperone-like activity (CLA) in vitro and protects target proteins against various kinds of stress. In the present study we show that HSP-1/2 exhibits destabilizing activity toward model supported and cell membranes. The membranolytic activity of HSP-1/2 is found to be pH dependent, with lytic activity being high at mildly acidic pH (6.0-6.5) and low at mildly basic pH (8.0-8.5). Interestingly, the CLA is also found to be pH dependent, with high activity at mildly basic pH and low activity at mildly acidic pH. Taken together the present studies demonstrate that the membranolytic and chaperone-like activities of HSP-1/2 have an inverse relationship and are regulated via a pH switch, which is reversible. The higher CLA observed at mildly basic pH could be correlated to an increase in surface hydrophobicity of the protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting regulation of two different activities of a chaperone protein by a pH switch. PMID:27292547

  12. Recovery of normal testicular temperature after scrotal heat stress in rams assessed by infrared thermography and its effects on seminal characteristics and testosterone blood serum concentration.

    PubMed

    Alves, Maíra Bianchi Rodrigues; Andrade, André Furugen Cesar de; Arruda, Rubens Paes de; Batissaco, Leonardo; Florez-Rodriguez, Shirley Andrea; Oliveira, Bruna Marcele Martins de; Torres, Mariana Andrade; Lançoni, Renata; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Prado Filho, Roberto Romano do; Vellone, Vinícius Silva; Losano, João Diego de Agostini; Franci, Celso Rodrigues; Nichi, Marcílio; Celeghini, Eneiva Carla Carvalho

    2016-08-01

    Reestablishment of testicular normal temperature after testicular heat stress is unknown and its effect varies widely. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of scrotal insulation (IN) on testicular temperature and its relation to semen quality and testosterone blood serum concentration. For this, 33 rams were used; 17 submitted to IN for 72 hours (using bags involving the testes) and 16 not submitted to IN (control group). The experiment was performed between August and December 2013 in Pirassununga, Brazil (21°56″13″ South/47°28'24″ West). Seminal characteristics, testosterone blood serum concentration, rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency, scrotal superficies mean temperature (SSMT), and eye area mean temperature (EAMT) were analyzed 7 days before IN and 21, 35, 49, 63, and 90 days afterward. Scrotal superficies mean temperature and EAMT were measured by thermography camera FLIR T620. Testosterone was evaluated by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of variance was used to determine the main effects of treatment, time, and treatment-by-time interaction using PROC MIXED of SAS software adding command REPEAT. Pearson correlation test was used to verify correlation between SSMT, EAMT, RT, and respiratory frequency. Significant difference was considered when P ≤ 0.05. At the end of IN, SSMT was higher (P < 0.05) in insulated group (32.26 ± 0.19(o)C) than in control group (30.58 ± 0.18(o)C), and the difference between rectal and testicular (deduced from SSMT) temperatures was 1.12 °C; in the other times of the evaluation this difference was between 2.91 and 4.25 °C in IN group. Scrotal superficies mean temperature was reestablished 24 hours after IN. Rectal temperature and EAMT presented correlation (r = 0.59; P < 0.0001). There was time-by-treatment interaction for total sperm (P = 0.0038) and progressive motility (P = 0.01), abnormal spermatozoa (P < 0.0001), membranes integrity (P < 0.0001), induced

  13. Hyperviscosity and hypofunction of the seminal vesicles.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Kortebani, G; Mazzolli, A B

    1993-01-01

    The study was designed to determine whether hyperviscosity of the semen sample is related to dysfunction of the male accessory glands. It was carried out on men who consecutively attended an infertility clinic between June 1989 and June 1991, and the men were grouped according to viscosity of semen samples (normal viscosity or higher viscosity). Semen samples from 229 infertility patients were studied. From these, 155 had normal viscosity and 74 showed hyperviscosity. The effect of hyperviscosity of semen samples on seminal quality and the function of the prostate was evaluated by acid phosphatase measurement, and the seminal vesicles by measurement of corrected fructose. Sperm motility (grades II-III), sperm vitality, and corrected fructose were significantly reduced in samples with high viscosity (p < .05). A high prevalence of hyperviscosity in semen samples was associated with only hypofunction of the seminal vesicles. In fact, 36.5% of subjects with hyperviscosity showed reduced levels of corrected fructose. The same association with hyperviscosity was not observed when only hypofunction of the prostate was present, or when hypofunction of both prostate and seminal vesicles was present (P:NS). Further analysis showed that high viscosity is observed mainly when corrected seminal fructose levels were below 1.5 mg/mL x 10(6) spz/mL. It would appear that hyperviscosity affects sperm motility and is associated with hypofunction of the seminal vesicles. PMID:8420506

  14. Maturation of spermatozoa from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sex-reversed females using artificial seminal plasma or glucose-methanol extender.

    PubMed

    Ciereszko, Andrzej; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Nynca, Joanna; Dobosz, Stefan; Krom, Janusz

    2015-04-15

    Masculinized females (sex-reversed females) produce only homogametic spermatozoa (X) for fertilization which is desired for the production of all-female rainbow trout populations. The milt of sex-reversed females is of low quality and must be matured through extension in maturation solutions. The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of glucose-methanol (GM) extender with artificial seminal plasma (ASP) extender for the maturation of milt of sex-reversed female rainbow trout. Milt suspensions were incubated at 4 °C for either 15 minutes (GM extender) or 120 minutes (ASP extender). Incubation of milt diluted in either the GM or ASP extender caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the percentage of sperm motility to 76.1 ± 10.9% and 74.7 ± 18.6% for GM and ASP, respectively, but no differences between both the extenders were found. Incubation also increased the average path velocity, straight line velocity, and linearity values of spermatozoa diluted with the GM extender; at the same time, none of the other parameters changed for ASP suspensions. Sperm diluted with ASP was characterized by higher curvilinear velocity and lateral head displacement values. Percentage of eyed embryos produced by fertilization using milt diluted in the GM extender amounted to 63.6 ± 16.4% and 67.2 ± 11.9% for sperm-to-egg ratio of 300,000:1 or 600,000:1, respectively and was lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of ASP extender (79.5 ± 5.8% and 80.3 ± 4.7% for sperm-to-egg ratio of 300,000:1 or 600,000:1, respectively). The results of our study clearly report that the mechanism of sperm maturation by the GM extender differs from that based on ASP. PMID:25638350

  15. Glutathione Peroxidase 5 Is Expressed by the Entire Pig Male Genital Tract and Once in the Seminal Plasma Contributes to Sperm Survival and In Vivo Fertility.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Isabel; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Vicente-Carrillo, Alejandro; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Ceron, Jose J; Martinez, Emilio A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidase-5 (GPX5) is an H2O2-scavenging enzyme identified in boar seminal plasma (SP). This study attempted to clarify its origin and role on sperm survival and fertility after artificial insemination (AI). GPX5 was expressed (Western blot and immunocytochemistry using a rabbit primary polyclonal antibody) in testes, epididymis and accessory sex glands (6 boars). SP-GPX5 concentration differed among boars (11 boars, P < 0.001), among ejaculates within boar (44 ejaculates, P < 0.001) and among portions within ejaculate (15 ejaculates). The first 10 mL of the sperm rich fraction (SRF, sperm-peak portion) had a significantly lower concentration (8.87 ± 0.78 ng/mL) than the rest of the SRF and the post-SRF (11.66 ± 0.79 and 12.37 ± 0.79 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.005). Sperm motility of liquid-stored semen AI-doses (n = 44, at 15-17°C during 72h) declined faster in AI-doses with low concentrations of SP-GPX5 compared to those with high-levels. Boars (n = 11) with high SP-GPX5 showed higher farrowing rates and litter sizes than those with low SP-GPX5 (a total of 5,275 inseminated sows). In sum, GPX5 is widely expressed in the boar genital tract and its variable presence in SP shows a positive relationship with sperm quality and fertility outcomes of liquid-stored semen AI-doses. PMID:27627110

  16. Free DNA in serum and plasma from normal adults.

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, C R

    1975-01-01

    Circulating DNA has been associated with several human disorders, including the nephritis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), in which it is thought to play an etiological role. However, it remains unclear whether its appearance in the circulation is truly pathological. Several reports, each generally based on a single assay method, have disagreed as to whether DNA may circulate in normals. Some, but not all, of this disagreement may be explained by the recently described appearance of DNA in serum, but not plasma, apparently as the result of release from leukocytes in vitro. In the present report an attempt is made to clarify this problem. Normal plasma and serum samples were examined by four assays for DNA that were newly modified to enhance their specificity and/or sensitivity. Plasma DNA was undetectable by all four methods, the most sensitive of which could detect 0.05 mug/ml of native DNA (nDNA) or 0.1 mug/ml of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Serum DNA was present in 14 of 16 samples tested in variable concentrations with an estimated mean of 1.9 mug/ml. It is concluded that the appearance of DNA in adult human plasma is a pathological event. Presumably, previous reports describing detection of DNA in normal plasma were based on the measurement of non-DNAase-sensitive interfering substance. Furthermore, it is emphasized that the use of serum in studies dependent on sensitive assays for DNA (or anti-DNA antibody) introduces an ambiguity that may be avoided by substitution of carefully collected plasma for serum. PMID:1150882

  17. Electromagnetic fluctuations and normal modes of a drifting relativistic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ruyer, C.; Gremillet, L.; Bénisti, D.; Bonnaud, G.

    2013-11-15

    We present an exact calculation of the power spectrum of the electromagnetic fluctuations in a relativistic equilibrium plasma described by Maxwell-Jüttner distribution functions. We consider the cases of wave vectors parallel or normal to the plasma mean velocity. The relative contributions of the subluminal and supraluminal fluctuations are evaluated. Analytical expressions of the spatial fluctuation spectra are derived in each case. These theoretical results are compared to particle-in-cell simulations, showing a good reproduction of the subluminal fluctuation spectra.

  18. A 31-kDa seminal plasma heparin-binding protein reduces cold shock stress during cryopreservation of cross-bred cattle bull semen.

    PubMed

    Patel, M K; Cheema, R S; Bansal, A K; Gandotra, V K

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, a 31-kDa protein, purified from cattle bull seminal plasma heparin-binding proteins (SP-HBP), was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Raw semen of six cross-bred bulls was treated with 31-kDa HBP before cryopreservation to observe its effect on motility, viability, hypo-osmotic swelling test, acrosome integrity, in vitro capacitation/acrosome reaction, and oxidative stress at pre-freeze and frozen-thawed phases of cryopreservation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of 31-kDa protein eluted and purified from SP-HBP (separated on acrylamide gels) resulted in a single band of 40 kDa. In matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight analysis, 12 peptides were identified with matching significantly (P < 0.05) to interlukin-6 of bovine with a top score of 55. Addition of 25 μg/mL of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated 31-kDa protein to raw semen and incubation at 37 °C for 20 minutes before cryopreservation resulted in its binding mainly to head region. Treatment of semen with 31-kDa HBP resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) average increase of 9.2%, 6.8%, and 11.7% and 5.5%, 6.5%, and 11.0% in motile, viable, hypo-osmotic swelling-responsive spermatozoa in six bulls at pre-freeze and frozen-thawed phases of cryopreservation, respectively. Percentage of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes nonsignificantly enhanced in the semen treated with 31-kDa HBP at both phases of cryopreservation. An average nonsignificant increase of 3.1% in in vitro capacitated and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa was obtained in semen supplemented with 31-kDa HBP. Addition of 31-kDa HBP also nonsignificantly reduced Malonadialdehyde (MDA) level by 10.7 and 19.3 μM/10(9) spermatozoa in prefrozen and frozen-thawed semen, respectively. The results obtained here indicate to conclude that treatment of cross-bred cattle bull semen with 31-kDa HBP protects the spermatozoa

  19. Effects of water immersion on plasma catecholamines in normal humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Johnson, G.; Denunzio, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in order to determine whether water immersion to the neck (NI) alters plasma catecholamines in normal humans. Eight normal subjects were studied during a seated control study (C) and during 4 hr of NI, and the levels of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) as determined by radioenzymatic assay were measured hourly. Results show that despite the induction of a marked natriuresis and diuresis indicating significant central hypervolemia, NI failed to alter plasma NE or E levels compared with those of either C or the corresponding prestudy 1.5 hr. In addition, the diuresis and natriuresis was found to vary independently of NE. These results indicate that the response of the sympathetic nervous system to acute volume alteration may differ from the reported response to chronic volume expansion.

  20. The Glycome of Normal and Malignant Plasma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hose, Dirk; Andrulis, Mindaugas; Moreaux, Jèrôme; Hielscher, Thomas; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Merling, Anette; Bertsch, Uta; Jauch, Anna; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Klein, Bernard; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    The glycome, i.e. the cellular repertoire of glycan structures, contributes to important functions such as adhesion and intercellular communication. Enzymes regulating cellular glycosylation processes are related to the pathogenesis of cancer including multiple myeloma. Here we analyze the transcriptional differences in the glycome of normal (n = 10) and two cohorts of 332 and 345 malignant plasma-cell samples, association with known multiple myeloma subentities as defined by presence of chromosomal aberrations, potential therapeutic targets, and its prognostic impact. We found i) malignant vs. normal plasma cells to show a characteristic glycome-signature. They can ii) be delineated by a lasso-based predictor from normal plasma cells based on this signature. iii) Cytogenetic aberrations lead to distinct glycan-gene expression patterns for t(11;14), t(4;14), hyperdiploidy, 1q21-gain and deletion of 13q14. iv) A 38-gene glycome-signature significantly delineates patients with adverse survival in two independent cohorts of 545 patients treated with high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation. v) As single gene, expression of the phosphatidyl-inositol-glycan protein M as part of the targetable glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchor-biosynthesis pathway is associated with adverse survival. The prognostically relevant glycome deviation in malignant cells invites novel strategies of therapy for multiple myeloma. PMID:24386263

  1. Relationship of semen hyperviscosity with IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and ROS production in seminal plasma of infertile patients with prostatitis and prostato-vesiculitis.

    PubMed

    Castiglione, R; Salemi, M; Vicari, L O; Vicari, E

    2014-12-01

    Changes in levels of oxidative damage products in semen and their relationship to seminal fluid viscosity (SFV) have recently received increasing research interest. We analysed whether SFV was associated with ROS generation, levels of cytokines TNF-alpha (TNF-α), IL-6 and IL-10 and seminal leucocyte concentration, and whether ROS production was related to the extent of infections/inflammations at one (prostatitis) or two (prostato-vesiculitis) male accessory glands. We studied 169 infertile patients, with chronic bacterial prostatitis (PR, n = 74) and/or bilateral prostato-vesiculitis (PV, n = 95), as diagnosed by the ultrasound (US) criteria. Healthy fertile men (n = 42) served as controls. In the PV patient group, SFV, semen characteristics and ROS production had median values that were significantly higher than those found in PR patients and controls, although other sperm variables had values significantly lower than those found in PR patients or controls. In PV infertile patients, ROS generation and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels were higher than those found in PR infertile patients and controls, although seminal IL-10 levels in PV and PR patients were lower than those found in the controls. In PR patients, the levels of SFV were positively related to TNF-α (r = 0.67; P < 0.01), fMLP-stimulated ROS production in the 45% Percoll fraction (r = 0.687, P < 0.01) and the 90% Percoll fraction in basal condition (r = 0.695, P < 0.01), and after fMLP-stimulation (r = 0.688, P < 0.01). Thus, our data indicated that seminal hyperviscosity is associated with increased oxidative stress in infertile men and increased pro-inflammatory interleukins in patients with male accessory gland infection, more when the infection was extended to the seminal vesicles. PMID:24329571

  2. Restoration of Normal Prothrombin Time/International Normalized Ratio With Fresh Frozen Plasma in Hypocoagulable Patients.

    PubMed

    Only, Arthur J; DeChristopher, Phillip J; Iqal, Omer; Fareed, Jawed

    2016-01-01

    Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is an effective reversal agent for hypocoagulable patients. Its proven efficacy continues to prompt its usage as both a prophylactic and a therapeutic therapy. Although published guidelines encouraging the appropriate administration of FFP exist, overutilization continues. The purpose of these ex vivo studies was to determine the effects of succeeding volumes of FFP supplementation on hypocoagulable plasma prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR). By analyzing the decline in PT/INR with varying volumes of FFP, a minimal required volume of FFP could be identified representing the optimal volume to administer while still providing therapeutic effect. A total of 497 plasma samples were screened for elevated PT/INR values and 50 samples were selected for inclusion in this experiment. The initial PTs/INRs ranged from 12.5 to 43.4 seconds/1.42 to 4.91. Subsequent declines in PT/INR values were analyzed following addition of 50, 100, and 150 µL of FFP to a fixed volume of 250 µL of plasma (26.4 ± 5.318 seconds/2.99 ± 0.603, 13.3 ± 1.077 seconds/1.51 ± 0.122, 11.2 ± 0.712 seconds/1.27 ± 0.081, and 10.3 ± 0.533 seconds/1.16 ± 0.06, respectively). A nonlinear relationship between decline in INR values and percentage of FFP supplementation was demonstrated. The greatest effect on INR was obtained after supplementation with 50 µL (49%). Doubling and tripling the volume of FFP lead to significantly lower declines in INR (16% and 8%, respectively). Analysis of variance indicated a statistical significance with subsequent volume supplementation of FFP, but marginal clinical benefits exist between the PTs/INRs obtainable with increased FFP volume administration. PMID:25294634

  3. Onset of normal and inverse homoclinic bifurcation in a double plasma system near a plasma fireball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Vramori; Sarma, Bornali; Sarma, Arun; Janaki, M. S.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    Plasma fireballs are generated due to a localized discharge and appear as a luminous glow with a sharp boundary, which suggests the presence of a localized electric field such as electrical sheath or double layer structure. The present work reports the observation of normal and inverse homoclinic bifurcation phenomena in plasma oscillations that are excited in the presence of fireball in a double plasma device. The controlling parameters for these observations are the ratio of target to source chamber (nT/nS) densities and applied electrode voltage. Homoclinic bifurcation is noticed in the plasma potential fluctuations as the system evolves from narrow to long time period oscillations and vice versa with the change of control parameter. The dynamical transition in plasma fireball is demonstrated by spectral analysis, recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), and statistical measures, viz., skewness and kurtosis. The increasing trend of normalized variance reflects that enhancing nT/nS induces irregularity in plasma dynamics. The exponential growth of the time period is strongly indicative of homoclinic bifurcation in the system. The gradual decrease of skewness and increase of kurtosis with the increase of nT/nS also reflect growing complexity in the system. The visual change of recurrence plot and gradual enhancement of RQA variables DET, Lmax, and ENT reflects the bifurcation behavior in the dynamics. The combination of RQA and spectral analysis is a clear evidence that homoclinic bifurcation occurs due to the presence of plasma fireball with different density ratios. However, inverse bifurcation takes place due to the change of fireball voltage. Some of the features observed in the experiment are consistent with a model that describes the dynamics of ionization instabilities.

  4. Proteomic analysis of seminal fluid from men exhibiting oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Seminal plasma serves as a natural reservoir of antioxidants. It helps to remove excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and consequently, reduce oxidative stress. Proteomic profiling of seminal plasma proteins is important to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress and sperm dysfunction in infertile men. Methods This prospective study consisted of 52 subjects: 32 infertile men and 20 healthy donors. Once semen and oxidative stress parameters were assessed (ROS, antioxidant concentration and DNA damage), the subjects were categorized into ROS positive (ROS+) or ROS negative (ROS-). Seminal plasma from each group was pooled and subjected to proteomics analysis. In-solution digestion and protein identification with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), followed by bioinformatics analyses was used to identify and characterize potential biomarker proteins. Results A total of 14 proteins were identified in this analysis with 7 of these common and unique proteins were identified in both the ROS+ and ROS- groups through MASCOT and SEQUEST analyses, respectively. Prolactin-induced protein was found to be more abundantly present in men with increased levels of ROS. Gene ontology annotations showed extracellular distribution of proteins with a major role in antioxidative activity and regulatory processes. Conclusions We have identified proteins that help protect against oxidative stress and are uniquely present in the seminal plasma of the ROS- men. Men exhibiting high levels of ROS in their seminal ejaculate are likely to exhibit proteins that are either downregulated or oxidatively modified, and these could potentially contribute to male infertility. PMID:24004880

  5. Correlation between seminal lead and cadmium and seminal parameters in idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermic males

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Emad A.; Sayed, Sohair K.; Ghandour, Nagwa M; Mahran, Ali M.; Saleh, Medhat A.; Amin, Magdy M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The exact causes of the decline in semen quality are not yet known, environmental factors have been considered to play an important role. Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) are two of the well-known reproductive toxicants to which humans are exposed occupationally and environmentally and can lead to negative effects on the testicular functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate lead and cadmium levels in seminal plasma of men with idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermia in comparison to fertile healthy controls and to correlate these levels with conventional semen parameters, sperm hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) percentage, sperm DNA fragmentation percentage, and semen reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Material and Methods Thirty infertile male patients with idiopathic oligo and/or asthenozoospermia and thirty healthy fertile men, which was the control group, were included in the study. Lead and cadmium levels in seminal plasma, semen parameters, sperm HOS, sperm DNA fragmentation percentage and semen ROS assay were measured in all subjects. Results There was a significant increase in seminal lead and cadmium levels among infertile males in comparison to controls. There were significant negative correlations between seminal lead and cadmium levels on one hand and certain semen parameters especially progressive sperm motility and vitality (HOS). Importantly, significant positive correlations were noted between seminal lead and cadmium levels on one hand and sperm DNA fragmentation percentage and semen ROS level in infertile men and controls on the other hand. Conclusions Thus, men with idiopathic male infertility had higher levels of lead and cadmium in their semen which correlated with impairment of sperm motility and vitality percentages and more importantly with higher sperm DNA fragmentation% and semen ROS level. PMID:24579002

  6. Effect of different seasons on concentration of plasma luteinizing hormone and seminal quality vis-à-vis freezability of buffalo bulls ( Bubalus bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahga, C. S.; Khokar, B. S.

    1991-12-01

    Seasonal variations in semen quality, freezability and plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were studied between summer and spring. Semen volume, density and initial sperm motility did not differ significantly between different seasons. Plasma LH decreased between summer and spring but the differences were, however, not significant. Pre-freezing motility did not differ significantly but post-freezing motility varied significantly ( P<0.01) between seasons. Post-freezing motility was lowest during summer and highest during winter. It can be concluded that summer spermatozoa may be fragile and cannot withstand freezing stress. To increase reproductive efficiency in buffalo during summer, semen should be frozen during winter and spring and used during hot weather conditions. Seasonal variations in plasma LH levels were insignificant.

  7. Effect of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) seminal plasma on the post-thaw quality of ram semen cryopreserved in a soybean lecithin-based or egg yolk-based extender.

    PubMed

    Ustuner, Burcu; Alcay, Selim; Toker, M Berk; Nur, Zekariya; Gokce, Elif; Sonat, Fusun Ak; Gul, Zulfiye; Duman, Muhammed; Ceniz, Cafer; Uslu, Aydın; Sagirkaya, Hakan; Soylu, M Kemal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of rainbow trout seminal plasma (RTSP) (0.1%, 1% and 10%) in extenders containing either egg yolk or lecithin for use in Awassi ram semen cryopreservation. Pooled sperm were diluted in a two-step dilution method to a final concentration of 1/5 (semen/extender) in egg yolk or lecithin extender containing no RTSP, 0.1%, 1% or 10% RTSP (v/v). Semen samples were assessed for sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity [hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) and Hoechst 33258] and defective acrosomes [FITC-conjugated Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA-FITC)] at the following five time points: after dilution with extender A; after equilibration; and post-thaw at 0h, 3h and 5h. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was examined only after thawing. Freezing and thawing procedures (dilution, equilibration and post-thaw incubation at 0h, 3h and 5h) negatively affected the motility (P<0.001) and acrosome integrity (P<0.001). Additionally, freezing and thawing negatively affected the plasma membrane integrity, as determined by the HOST and Hoechst 33258 (P<0.001). The extender group affected the motility (P<0.001) and the HOST results (P<0.001). Levels of MDA in the egg yolk extender with 1% RTSP group were significantly lower than in the lecithin control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the egg yolk extender groups that were supplemented with 10% and 1% RTSP provided greater cryoprotective effects for semen survivability during 5h incubation than the other extender groups. PMID:26685096

  8. Seminal cyclooxygenase relationship with oxidative stress in infertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men with varicocele.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, T; Rashed, L; Taymour, M

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the relation of seminal cyclooxygenase COX-1, COX-2 with oxidative stress in infertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men with varicocele (Vx). In all, 128 men were allocated into fertile men, fertile men with Vx, infertile OAT men without Vx and infertile OAT men with Vx. They were subjected to history taking, clinical examination and semen analysis. Also, seminal COX-1, COX-2, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were estimated. Mean levels of seminal COX-1, COX-2 were over-expressed, the mean level of seminal MDA was significantly increased, and the mean level of seminal GPx was significantly decreased in infertile OAT men with Vx compared with other groups. Seminal COX-1 and COX-2 were over-expressed in cases with Vx grade III compared with Vx grades I, II cases and in cases with bilateral Vx compared with unilateral Vx. There was significant negative correlation between seminal COX-1 and COX-2 with sperm concentration, sperm motility, sperm normal morphology, seminal GPx and significant positive correlation with seminal MDA. It is concluded that seminal COX-1 and COX-2 are over-expressed in infertile OAT men with Vx compared with fertile men with/without and infertile OAT men without Vx being associated with oxidative stress, Vx grade and Vx laterality. PMID:25906828

  9. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels in some birds of prey.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, J A; Garbett, R; Morzenti, A

    1978-10-01

    Blood samples taken from five great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), eight red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), four marsh hawks (Circus cyaneus), two prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), five golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and five white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) that had been fasted for 24 h were used to determine plasma levels of glucose by the glucose oxidase method. The mean plasma glucose levels were: great horned owls 374.6 mg/100 ml, red-tailed hawks 346.5 mg/00 ml, marsh hawks 369.3 mg/100 ml, prairie falcons 414.5 mg/100 ml, golden eagles 368.4 mg/100 ml, and white Leghorn chickens 218.2 mg/100 ml. The plasma glucose levels obtained for the raptorial birds in this study were considerably higher than those found for the chickens. These values are discussed in relation to the carnivorous food habits of raptors. PMID:739587

  10. Impaired seminal antioxidant capacity in human semen with hyperviscosity or oligoasthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, L; Tarantino, P; Longobardi, F; Rago, V; De Stefano, C; Carpino, A

    2001-01-01

    Antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma was evaluated in 120 semen samples subdivided into asthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic specimens with normal consistency and into asthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic specimens with hyperviscosity. Semen samples (n = 25) from normozoospermic donors were used as a control group. Scavenger antioxidant capacity of reactive oxygen species was evaluated by superoxide dismutase and catalase activity measurements, whereas the chain-breaking antioxidant efficiency was detected by total antioxidant status assessment. In semen with normal viscosity, unaltered enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity was revealed in the asthenozoospermic specimens, whereas low superoxide dismutase activity was detected in oligoasthenozoospermic samples. On the contrary, impairment of both the scavenger and chain-breaking antioxidative systems was revealed in asthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic hyperviscous ejaculates, regardless of sperm count. Catalase activity and total antioxidant status values were also reduced in the 2 subgroups of hyperviscous ejaculates compared with their respective matched controls, whereas similar superoxide dismutase activities were detected in oligoasthenozoospermic samples with normal and high consistencies. These results suggest that asthenozoospermia could be related to an antioxidant deficiency only in combined ejaculate pathologies, and that a severe impairment of the low and high molecular weight seminal antioxidative capacities could be associated with semen hyperviscosity. PMID:11545292

  11. Stimulation and suppression of aldosterone in plasma of normal man and in primary aldosteronism

    PubMed Central

    Horton, R.

    1969-01-01

    The effect of stimulating and suppressive influences on plasma aldosterone in normal man and in patients with primary aldosteronism were studied using a sensitive double-isotope derivative assay for aldosterone. In normal sitting subjects, values were 9.2±0.9 (SE) mμg/100 ml and in subjects supine for 1 hr plasma aldosterone was 5.2±0.4 (SE) mμg/100 ml. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 0.5 U/hr, produced a rise of 46.8±22 (SE) mμg which was similar to the 1-hr effect of an infusion of a synthetic ACTH (β1-24, Cortrosyn). Angiotensin II in pressor amounts also increased plasma aldosterone 21.5±2.9 (SE) without change in plasma cortisol, whereas a subpressor dose ([unk]) had minimal effect. Fludrocortisone, 1.2 mg/day for 3 days, suppressed plasma aldosterone levels to 1.8±0.7 (SE) mμg/100 ml in five normal sitting subjects (P < 0.01); however, dexamethasone, 2 mg/day for 1-2 days, did not lower aldosterone concentration in plasma. In six patients with primary aldosteronism, plasma aldosterone on a normal sodium diet was 39.1±4.4 (SE) which differed significantly from normal sitting or supine subjects (P < 0.001). In contrast to the normal subjects, neither a pressor infusion of angiotensin II for 1 hr, nor fludrocortisone, 1.2 mg/day for 3 days, impressively altered plasma aldosterone levels. This approach appears to be useful for the study of the acute physiology and control mechanisms of aldosterone production in normal and hypertensive man. PMID:4307457

  12. Proteins of human semen. I. Two-dimensional mapping of human seminal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.J.; Tollaksen, S.L.; Anderson, N.G.

    1981-08-01

    The proteins in human seminal plasma were mapped by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (ISO-DALT and BASO-DALT systems). When analyzed under dissociating conditions, samples from normal fertile males revealed a pattern of over 200 proteins, ranging in mass from 10,000 to 100,000 daltons. Comparison of the mapped proteins from these males and those who had undergone vasectomy allowed us to identify one series of glycoproteins as missing from the semen from vasectomized individuals. Glycoproteins isolated by affinity chromatography with use of concanavalin A were also mapped. Some of the protein spots were identified either by coelectrophoresis with purified proteins or by the electrophoretic transfer of proteins to nitrocellulose sheets and subsequent detection by immunological procedures. The proteins identified include a number of serum proteins as well as prostatic acid phosphatase and creatine kinase. Proteolytic events shown to occur during the liquefaction of semen that occurs early after collection indicate the importance of carefully controlled collection and preparation methods for clinical evaluation of seminal plasma. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibit this proteolysis.

  13. Proteins of human semen. I. Two-dimensional mapping of human seminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J J; Tollaksen, S L; Anderson, N G

    1981-08-01

    The proteins in human seminal plasma were mapped by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (ISO-DALT and BASO-DALT systems). When analyzed under dissociating conditions, samples from normal fertile males revealed a pattern of over 200 proteins, ranging in mass from 10 000 to 100 000 daltons. Comparison of the mapped proteins from these males and those who had undergone vasectomy allowed us to identify one series of glycoproteins as missing from the semen from vasectomized individuals. Glycoproteins isolated by affinity chromatography with use of concanavalin A were also mapped. Some of the protein spots were identified either by co-electrophoresis with purified proteins or by the electrophoretic transfer of proteins to nitrocellulose sheets and subsequent detection by immunological procedures. The proteins identified include a number of serum proteins as well as prostatic acid phosphatase and creatine kinase. Proteolytic events shown to occur during the liquefaction of semen that occurs early after collection indicate the importance of carefully controlled collection and preparation methods for clinical evaluation of seminal plasma. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibit this proteolysis. PMID:7273394

  14. Inhibition of platelet-aggregating activity in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura plasma by normal adult immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed Central

    Lian, E C; Mui, P T; Siddiqui, F A; Chiu, A Y; Chiu, L L

    1984-01-01

    Plasma from patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) caused the aggregation of autologous and homologous platelets, and effect which was inhibited by normal plasma. IgG purified from seven normal adults at a concentration of 0.7 mg/ml completely inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by plasma obtained from two TTP patients with active disease. The inhibition of platelet aggregation by human adult IgG was concentration dependent, and the inhibitory activity of human IgG was neutralized by rabbit antihuman IgG. Fab fragments inhibited the TTP plasma-induced platelet aggregation as well as intact IgG, whereas Fc fragments had no effect. Platelet aggregation caused by ADP, collagen, epinephrine, or thrombin was not affected by purified human IgG. The prior incubation of IgG with TTP plasma caused a significantly greater reduction of platelet aggregation by TTP plasma than that of IgG and platelet suspension, suggesting that the IgG inhibits TTP plasma-induced platelet aggregation through direct interaction with platelet aggregating factor in TTP plasma. IgG obtained initially from five infants and young children under the age of 4 yr did not possess any inhibitory activity. When one of the children reached 3 yr of age, his IgG inhibited the aggregation induced by one TTP plasma, but not that caused by another plasma. The IgG procured from the same boy at 4 yr of age inhibited the aggregation induced by both TTP plasmas. The IgG purified from the TTP plasma during active disease failed to inhibit the aggregation caused by the same plasma. After recovery, however, the IgG effectively inhibited aggregation. These observations suggest that platelet-aggregating factors present in the TTP plasma are heterogeneous in nature and that the IgG present in the normal adult plasma, which inhibits the TTP plasma-induced platelet aggregation, may be partially responsible for the success of plasma infusion therapy in TTP. Images PMID:6538207

  15. Effect of Monotherapy with Darunavir/Ritonavir on Viral Load in Seminal Fluid, and Quality Parameters of Semen in HIV-1-Positive Patients.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Ruz, Miguel A; Navas, Purificación; López-Zúñiga, Miguel A; Gonzalvo, María Carmen; Sampedro, Antonio; Pasquau, Juan; Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen; Javier, Rosario; Castilla, José A

    2016-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) who receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) often achieve increased survival and improved quality of life. In this respect, monotherapy with darunavir/ritonavir (mDRV/r) can be a useful treatment strategy. This prospective study analyses the effect of mDRV/r on sperm quality and viral load in a group of 28 patients who had previously been given conventional ART and who had recorded a viral load <20 copies/mL for at least six months. These patients were given mDRV/r at a dose of 800/100 mg for 48 weeks. At baseline (V0), CD4, CD8, FSH, LH and testosterone levels were measured, together with HIV-1 viral load in plasma and semen. In addition, seminal fluid quality was studied before mDRV/r treatment was prescribed. At week 48 (V1), HIV-1 viral load in plasma and semen and the quality of the seminal fluid were again measured. The results obtained indicate that at V0, 10% of the patients with ART had a positive viral load in seminal fluid (>20 copies/ml), and that at V1, after mDRV/r treatment, this figure had fallen to 3%. The quality of seminal fluid was close to normal in 57% of patients at V0 and in 62% at V1. We conclude that, similar to ART, mDRV/r maintains HIV-1 viral load in most patients, and that there is no worsening in seminal fluid quality. PMID:27442068

  16. Effect of Monotherapy with Darunavir/Ritonavir on Viral Load in Seminal Fluid, and Quality Parameters of Semen in HIV-1-Positive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Ruz, Miguel A.; Navas, Purificación; López-Zúñiga, Miguel A.; Gonzalvo, María Carmen; Sampedro, Antonio; Pasquau, Juan; Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen; Javier, Rosario; Castilla, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) who receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) often achieve increased survival and improved quality of life. In this respect, monotherapy with darunavir/ritonavir (mDRV/r) can be a useful treatment strategy. This prospective study analyses the effect of mDRV/r on sperm quality and viral load in a group of 28 patients who had previously been given conventional ART and who had recorded a viral load <20 copies/mL for at least six months. These patients were given mDRV/r at a dose of 800/100 mg for 48 weeks. At baseline (V0), CD4, CD8, FSH, LH and testosterone levels were measured, together with HIV-1 viral load in plasma and semen. In addition, seminal fluid quality was studied before mDRV/r treatment was prescribed. At week 48 (V1), HIV-1 viral load in plasma and semen and the quality of the seminal fluid were again measured. The results obtained indicate that at V0, 10% of the patients with ART had a positive viral load in seminal fluid (>20 copies/ml), and that at V1, after mDRV/r treatment, this figure had fallen to 3%. The quality of seminal fluid was close to normal in 57% of patients at V0 and in 62% at V1. We conclude that, similar to ART, mDRV/r maintains HIV-1 viral load in most patients, and that there is no worsening in seminal fluid quality. PMID:27442068

  17. Environmental exposure to lead induces oxidative stress and modulates the function of the antioxidant defense system and the immune system in the semen of males with normal semen profile

    SciTech Connect

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Dobrakowski, Michał; Czuba, Zenon P.; Horak, Stanisław; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the associations between environmental exposure to lead and a repertoire of cytokines in seminal plasma of males with normal semen profile according to the WHO criteria. Based on the median lead concentration in seminal plasma, 65 samples were divided into two groups: low (LE) and high exposure to lead (HE). Differences in semen volume and the pH, count, motility and morphology of sperm cells were not observed between the examined groups. The total oxidant status value and the level of protein sulfhydryl groups as well as the activities of manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly higher in the HE group, whereas the total antioxidant capacity value and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase were depressed. IL-7, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the HE group compared with the LE group. Environmental exposure to lead is sufficient to induce oxidative stress in seminal plasma and to modulate antioxidant defense system. - Highlights: • Lead induces oxidative stress in seminal plasma in human. • Lead modulates antioxidant defense system in seminal plasma in human. • Lead does not change a Th1/Th2 imbalance in seminal plasma in human.

  18. Seminal Fluid Signalling in the Female Reproductive Tract: Implications for Reproductive Success and Offspring Health.

    PubMed

    Schjenken, John E; Robertson, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    Carriage of sperm is not the only function of seminal fluid in mammals. Studies in mice show that at conception, seminal fluid interacts with the female reproductive tract to induce responses which influence whether or not pregnancy will occur, and to set in train effects that help shape subsequent fetal development. In particular, seminal fluid initiates female immune adaptation processes required to tolerate male transplantation antigens present in seminal fluid and inherited by the conceptus. A tolerogenic immune environment to facilitate pregnancy depends on regulatory T cells (Treg cells), which recognise male antigens and function to suppress inflammation and immune rejection responses. The female response to seminal fluid stimulates the generation of Treg cells that protect the conceptus from inflammatory damage, to support implantation and placental development. Seminal fluid also elicits molecular and cellular changes in the oviduct and endometrium that directly promote embryo development and implantation competence. The plasma fraction of seminal fluid plays a key role in this process with soluble factors, including TGFB, prostaglandin-E, and TLR4 ligands, demonstrated to contribute to the peri-conception immune environment. Recent studies show that conception in the absence of seminal plasma in mice impairs embryo development and alters fetal development to impact the phenotype of offspring, with adverse effects on adult metabolic function particularly in males. This review summarises our current understanding of the molecular responses to seminal fluid and how this contributes to the establishment of pregnancy, generation of an immune-regulatory environment and programming long-term offspring health. PMID:26178848

  19. Cold atmospheric plasma jet-generated RONS and their selective effects on normal and carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T. H.

    2016-01-01

    Cold atmospheric helium plasma jets were fabricated and utilized for plasma–cell interactions. The effect of operating parameters and jet design on the generation of specific reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) within cells and cellular response were investigated. It was found that plasma treatment induced the overproduction of RONS in various cancer cell lines selectively. The plasma under a relatively low applied voltage induced the detachment of cells, a reduction in cell viability, and apoptosis, while the plasma under higher applied voltage led to cellular necrosis in our case. To determine whether plasma-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation occurs through interfering with mitochondria-related cellular response, we examined the plasma effects on ROS generation in both parental A549 cells and A549 ρ0 cells. It was observed that cancer cells were more susceptible to plasma-induced RONS (especially nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2−) radicals) than normal cells, and consequently, plasma induced apoptotic cell responses mainly in cancer cells. PMID:26838306

  20. Seminal Fluid and Mate Choice: New Predictions.

    PubMed

    Crean, Angela J; Adler, Margo I; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2016-04-01

    Recent evidence shows that seminal fluid can affect females and offspring independently of fertilisation in species lacking conventional 'nuptial gifts'. We argue that a hypothesis from paternal investment systems - that selection can favour changing female preferences that maximise both sperm-borne and seminal fluid-borne benefits - could therefore apply much more broadly. PMID:26948861

  1. [Transvesical Removal of Seminal Vesicle Cystadenoma].

    PubMed

    Takayasu, Kenta; Harada, Jiro; Kawa, Gen; Ota, Syuichi; Sakurai, Takanori

    2015-07-01

    Primary tumors of the seminal vesicles are extremely rare. There have been 25 reports of this tumor from overseas and most cases are cystadenoma. We report a case of seminal vesicle cystadenoma in a 70-year-old man who presented with lower abdominal pain and urinary frequency. A digital rectal examination detected a projecting and hard mass in the right side of the prostate. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a 15 cm multiple cystic mass continuous with the right seminal vesicle. A transrectal needle biopsy revealed benign tissue. The tumor was resected using an open transvesical approach that enabled full exposure of the seminal vesicle without damaging the nerves and blood supply of the bladder. Pathology was consistent with a benign seminal vesicle cystadenoma. We describe the natural history, pathology,and surgical approach in this case. PMID:26278217

  2. Selenoprotein P in seminal fluid is a novel biomarker of sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Marten; Gralla, Oliver; Behrends, Thomas; Scharpf, Marcus; Endermann, Tobias; Rijntjes, Eddy; Pietschmann, Nicole; Hollenbach, Birgit; Schomburg, Lutz

    2014-01-17

    Hepatically-derived selenoprotein P (SePP) transports selenium (Se) via blood to other tissues including the testes. Male Sepp-knockout mice are infertile. SePP-mediated Se transport to Sertoli cells is needed for supporting biosynthesis of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4) in spermatozoa. GPX4 becomes a structural component of sperm midpiece during sperm maturation, and its expression correlates to semen quality. We tested whether SePP is also present in seminal plasma, potentially correlating to fertility parameters. Semen quality was assessed by sperm density, morphology and motility. SePP was measured by an immunoluminometric assay, and trace elements were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. SePP levels were considerably lower in seminal plasma as compared to serum (0.4±0.1 mg/l vs. 3.5±1.0 mg/l); Se concentrations showed a similar but less pronounced difference (48.9±20.7 μg/l vs. 106.7±17.3 μg/l). Se and Zn correlated positively in seminal fluid but not in serum. Seminal plasma SePP concentrations were independent of serum SePP concentrations, but correlated positively to sperm density and fraction of vital sperm. SePP concentrations in seminal plasma of vasectomized men were similar to controls indicating that accessory sex glands are a testes-independent source of SePP. This notion was corroborated by histochemical analyses localizing SePP in epithelial cells of seminal vesicles. We conclude that SePP is not only involved in Se transport to testes supporting GPX4 biosynthesis but it also becomes secreted into seminal plasma, likely important to protect sperm during storage, genital tract passage and final journey. PMID:24361887

  3. Keyhole and weld shapes for plasma arc welding under normal and zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keanini, R. G.; Rubinsky, B.

    1990-01-01

    A first order study of the interfacial (keyhole) shape between a penetrating argon plasma arc jet and a stationary liquid metal weld pool is presented. The interface is determined using the Young-Laplace equation by assuming that the plasma jet behaves as a one-dimensional ideal gas flow and by neglecting flow within the weld pool. The solution for the keyhole shape allows an approximate determination of the liquid-solid metal phase boundary location based on the assumption that the liquid melt is a stagnant thermal boundary layer. Parametric studies examine the effect of plasma mass flow rate, initial plasma enthalpy, liquid metal surface tension, and jet shear on weldment shape under both normal and zero gravity. Among the more important findings of this study is that keyhole and weld geometries are minimally affected by gravity, suggesting that data gathered under gravity can be used in planning in-space welding.

  4. Plasma antibodies to Abeta40 and Abeta42 in patients with Alzheimer's disease and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wuhua; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Matsubara, Etsuro; Deguchi, Kentaro; Murakami, Tetsuro; Harigaya, Yasuo; Ikeda, Masaki; Amari, Masakuni; Kuwano, Ryozo; Abe, Koji; Shoji, Mikio

    2008-07-11

    Antibodies to amyloid beta protein (Abeta) are present naturally or after Abeta vaccine therapy in human plasma. To clarify their clinical role, we examined plasma samples from 113 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 205 normal controls using the tissue amyloid plaque immunoreactivity (TAPIR) assay. A high positive rate of TAPIR was revealed in AD (45.1%) and age-matched controls (41.2%), however, no significance was observed. No significant difference was observed in the MMS score or disease duration between TAPIR-positive and negative samples. TAPIR-positive plasma reacted with the Abeta40 monomer and dimer, and the Abeta42 monomer weakly, but not with the Abeta42 dimer. TAPIR was even detected in samples from young normal subjects and young Tg2576 transgenic mice. Although the Abeta40 level and Abeta40/42 ratio increased, and Abeta42 was significantly decreased in plasma from AD groups when compared to controls, no significant correlations were revealed between plasma Abeta levels and TAPIR grading. Thus an immune response to Abeta40 and immune tolerance to Abeta42 occurred naturally in humans without a close relationship to the Abeta burden in the brain. Clarification of the mechanism of the immune response to Abeta42 is necessary for realization of an immunotherapy for AD. PMID:18534566

  5. Seminal fluid and fertility in women.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sarah A; Sharkey, David J

    2016-09-01

    Seminal fluid is often viewed as simply a vehicle to carry sperm to fertilize the oocyte, but a more complex function in influencing female reproductive physiology is now evident. Remarkably, seminal fluid contains soluble and exosome-born signaling agents that interact with the female reproductive tract to prime the immune response, with consequences for fertility and pregnancy outcome. Experiments in rodent models demonstrate a key role for seminal fluid in enabling robust embryo implantation and optimal placental development. In particular, seminal fluid promotes leukocyte recruitment and generation of regulatory T cells, which facilitate embryo implantation by suppressing inflammation, assisting uterine vascular adaptation, and sustaining tolerance of fetal antigens. There is emerging evidence of comparable effects in women, where seminal fluid provokes an adaptive immune response in the cervical tissues after contact at intercourse, and spermatozoa accessing the higher tract potentially affect the endometrium directly. These biological responses may have clinical significance, explaining why [1] intercourse in IVF ET cycles improves the likelihood of pregnancy, [2] inflammatory disorders of gestation are more common in women who conceive after limited exposure to seminal fluid of the prospective father, and [3] preeclampsia incidence is elevated after use of donor oocytes or donor sperm where prior contact with conceptus alloantigens has not occurred. It will be important to define the mechanisms through which seminal fluid interacts with female reproductive tissues, to provide knowledge that may assist in preconception planning and infertility treatment. PMID:27485480

  6. Binding patterns of bovine seminal plasma proteins A1/A2, 30 kDa and osteopontin on ejaculated sperm before and after incubation with isthmic and ampullary oviductal fluid.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carlos Eduardo A; Moura, Arlindo A; Monaco, Elisa; Killian, Gary J

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have reported empirical associations between bovine seminal plasma protein(s) (BSP) A1/A2 and 30 kDa and osteopontin (OPN) in accessory sex gland fluid and bull fertility. These BSP and OPN are believed to bind to sperm at ejaculation and to remain bound until sperm reach the oviduct. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the topographical distribution of BSP A1/A2, 30 kDa and OPN binding on: (1) bovine ejaculated sperm; (2) ejaculated sperm incubated with isthmic oviductal fluid (ODF); (3) ejaculated sperm+isthmic ODF incubated in ampullary ODF. From each of these media, aliquots of sperm for BSP and OPN were processed for immunocytochemistry and analysis by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Isthmic and ampullary ODF was collected from indwelling catheters and used as pools from three cows in the non-luteal phase of the estrous cycle. Anti-BSP A1/A2 was detected bound to the midpiece, post-equatorial and equatorial segments and acrosome of sperm after ejaculation and after incubation with isthmic and ampullary ODF. The BSP A1/A2 fluorescence was more concentrated on the midpiece and increased as acrosome-intact sperm came in contact with ODF. As compared with acrosome-intact sperm, non-intact acrosome intact sperm had 39 and 68% reductions of acrosome fluorescence and 36% and 90% increases of post-equatorial fluorescence after contact with isthmic and ampullary ODF (P<0.05). Anti-BSP 30 kDa was more intense on the midpiece than on post-equatorial, equatorial and acrosome regions of sperm after ejaculation and contact with ODF. However, equatorial fluorescence was 141% and 89% more intense and acrosome stainning was 80% and 76% less (P<0.05) in non-intact acrosome sperm than in acrosome intact cells, during all ODF incubations. Anti-OPN was identified on the acrosome of ejaculated sperm, but with less fluorescence (P<0.05) on the post-equatorial segment and midpiece. Incubation of sperm with isthmic ODF increased

  7. Effect of a combination of norethynodrel and mestranol on plasma luteinizing hormone in normal women.

    PubMed

    Abraham, G E; Klaiber, E L; Broverman, D

    1969-08-01

    Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 6 normal nulliparous women (ages 21-25) during 2 consecutive menstrual cycles. Cycle 1 served as the control, while a combination of 5 mg norethynodrel and .075 mg mestranol (Enovid) was administered daily during the second cycle. Midcycle LH peaks observed in all subjects during the control cycle were completely suppressed in the treated cycle. Basal LH levels during the treated cycle were significantly lower than during the follicular phase of control cycles. Mechanisms by which Enovid could affect plasma LH include decreased synthesis or release of LH and different sites of drug action with different dosages. PMID:5794834

  8. Nonlinear surface plasma wave induced target normal sheath acceleration of protons

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C. S.; Tripathi, V. K. Shao, Xi; Liu, T. C.

    2015-02-15

    The mode structure of a large amplitude surface plasma wave (SPW) over a vacuum–plasma interface, including relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities, is deduced. It is shown that the SPW excited by a p-polarized laser on a rippled thin foil target can have larger amplitude than the transmitted laser amplitude and cause stronger target normal sheath acceleration of protons as reported in a recent experiment. Substantial enhancement in proton number also occurs due to the larger surface area covered by the SPW.

  9. Thermal loads on tokamak plasma facing components during normal operation and disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Robert T.

    Power loadings experienced by tokamak plasma facing components during normal operation and during off-normal events are discussed. A model for power and particle flow in the tokamak boundary layer is presented and model predictions are compared to infrared measurements of component heating. The inclusion of the full three-dimensional geometry of the component and of the magnetic flux surface is very important in the modeling. Experimental measurements show that misalignment of component armor tile surfaces by only a millimeter can lead to significant localized heating. An application to the design of plasma facing components for future machines is presented. Finally, thermal loads expected during tokamak disruptions are discussed. The primary problems are surface melting and vaporization due to localized intense heating during the disruption thermal quench and volumetric heating of the component armor and structure due to localized impact of runaway electrons.

  10. Forearm mineral content in normal men: relationship to weight, height and plasma testosterone concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    McElduff, A.; Wilkinson, M.; Ward, P.; Posen, S.

    1988-01-01

    We measured forearm bone mineral content by single photon absorptiometry together with height, weight and the plasma concentrations of testosterone, free testosterone and sex steroid binding globulin in 66 normal Caucasian males aged 29-46 years. Multiple regression analysis suggests that bone mineral content in either the dominant or the nondominant arm is correlated with weight and sex steroid binding globulin (p less than 0.05 for both parameters). The partial negative correlation of bone mineral content (corrected for weight and sex steroid binding globulin) with plasma testosterone failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.07). The parsimonious regression equation which best explained the bone mineral content measurements in the nondominant forearm in these men was bone mineral content = 29.1-0.374 (plasma testosterone) + 0.383 (weight) + 0.220 (sex steroid binding globulin) with an R2 value of 29.7%. A similar equation was generated for the dominant arm.

  11. Plasma cortisol levels in normal volunteers receiving either betamethasone valerate or desoximetasone by topical application.

    PubMed

    Bromley, P A; Müller, F O; Malan, J; Torres, J; Vanderbeke, O

    1978-08-01

    Desoximetasone (Topisolon; Hoechst), a new topical steroid, and betamethasone 17-valerate were compared with respect to their effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function as evidenced by plasma cortisol concentrations. Three grams of each test preparation were applied daily for 21 days to intact skin of the ventral aspects of alternate forearms of 15 normal volunteers. Five received betamethasone 17-valerate 0.1%, 5 desoximetasone 0.05%, and 5 desoximetasone 0.25%. Plasma cortisol levels were determined before and after the initial applications on days 1, 3, 10, 17, 22, 24 and 28. These values were compared with the mean control values by analysis of covariance. There was no significant difference in plasma cortisol levels. The value of performing similar studies on larger skin areas and with larger doses is discussed. PMID:362568

  12. [Comparison of urinary and seminal N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase isoenzymes].

    PubMed

    Yasumoto, R; Asakawa, M; Yamamoto, M; Doi, Y; Kawashima, H; Umeda, M; Tanabe, S; Nishisaka, N; Kakinoki, K; Maekawa, M

    1987-11-01

    N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG) and its isoenzymes were measured in the urine and seminal plasma of healthy volunteers. Urinary NAG level was 2.62 +/- 1.30 U/L (mean +/- standard deviation), 1.99 +/- 0.77 U/g creatinine and seminal NAG level was 2370 +/- 1007 U/l. Urinary NAG level was 2.59 +/- 1.44 U/l, 1.93 +/- 0.80 U/g creatinine in males and 2.67 +/- 1.15 U/l, 2.08 +/- 0.78 U/g creatinine in females, and there was no significant sex difference. NAG isoenzymes in the urine and seminal plasma were divided into two major peaks, A and B. The A:B ratio was 78.0 +/- 6.5: 21.9 +/- 6.5 in the urine and 24.7 +/- 3.2: 75.2 +/- 3.2 in the seminal plasma, and was significantly different. Urinary NAG isoenzyme was 80.3 +/- 6.7: 19.6 +/- 6.7 in males and 74.1 +/- 4.3: 25.9 +/- 4.3 in females, and there was no significant difference between the sexes. These results indicated that urinary and seminal NAG can be differentiated by measuring the isoenzymes. Furthermore, the comparison of seminal NAG isoenzymes before and after vasectomy indicated that seminal NAG may be affected not only by the sperm but also by the prostatic fluid. PMID:3445866

  13. Ontogenetic changes in seminal fluid gene expression and the protein composition of cricket seminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W; Beveridge, Maxine; Li, Lei; Li, Lie; Tan, Yew-Foon; Millar, A Harvey

    2014-03-01

    The ejaculates of most internally fertilizing species consists of both sperm and seminal fluid proteins. Seminal fluid proteins have been studied largely in relation to their post-mating effects on female reproductive physiology, and predominantly in genomically well-characterized species. Seminal fluids can also play important roles in sperm maturation and performance. In the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus the viability of ejaculated sperm increases as males age, as does their competitive fertilization success. Here, using quantitative proteomics and quantitative real-time PCR, we document ontogenetic changes in seminal fluid protein abundance and in seminal fluid gene expression. We identified at least nine proteins that changed in abundance in the seminal fluid of crickets as they aged. Gene expression was quantified for five seminal fluid protein genes, and in four of these gene expression changed as males aged. These ontogenetic changes were associated with a general increase in the size of the male accessory glands. Several of the seminal fluid proteins that we have identified are novel, and some have BLAST matches to proteins implicated in sperm function. Our data suggest that age related changes in competitive fertilization success may be dependent on seminal fluid chemistry. PMID:24617989

  14. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Proteins Involved in the Tumorigenic Process of Seminal Vesicle Carcinoma in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Chao; Chou, Chuan-Kai; Tsou, Chih-Chiang; Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Chen, Chein-Hung; Zhuo, Yu-Xing; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    We studied the seminal vesicle secretion (SVS) of transgenic mice by using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with LTQ-FT ICR MS analysis to explore protein expression profiles. Using unique peptide numbers as a cut-off criterion, 79 proteins were identified with high confidence in the SVS proteome. Label-free quantitative analysis was performed by using the IDEAL_Q software program. Furthermore, western blot assays were performed to validate the expression of seminal vesicle proteins. Sulfhydryl oxidase 1, glia-derived nexin, SVS1, SVS3, and SVS6 showed overexpression in SVS during cancer development. With high sequence similarity to human semenogelin, SVS2 is the most abundance protein in SVS and is dramatically decreased during the tumorigenic process. Our results indicate that these protein candidates could serve as potential targets for monitoring seminal vesicle carcinoma. Moreover, this information can provide clues for investigating seminal vesicle secretion-containing seminal plasma for related human diseases. PMID:22084680

  15. DNA damage in oral cancer and normal cells induced by nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Kapaldo, James; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M. Sharon; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) have been shown to effectively induce DNA double strand breaks in SCC25 oral cancer cells. The APPJ source constructed in our laboratory operates based on dielectric barrier discharge. It consists of two copper electrodes alternatively wrapping around a fused silica tube with nitrogen as a feed gas. It is generally more challenging to ignite plasma in N2 atmosphere than in noble gases. However, N2 provides additional advantages such as lower costs compared to noble gases, thus this design can be beneficial for the future long-term clinical use. To compare the effects of plasma on cancer cells (SCC25) and normal cells (OKF), the cells from both types were treated at the same experimental condition for various treatment times. The effective area with different damage levels after the treatment was visualized as 3D maps. The delayed damage effects were also explored by varying the incubation times after the treatment. All of these studies are critical for a better understanding of the damage responses of cellular systems exposed to the plasma radiation, thus are useful for the development of the advanced plasma cancer therapy. The research described herein was supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, United States Department of Energy through Grant No. DE-FC02-04ER15533.

  16. Inactivation of factor XII active fragment in normal plasma. Predominant role of C-1-inhibitor.

    PubMed

    de Agostini, A; Lijnen, H R; Pixley, R A; Colman, R W; Schapira, M

    1984-06-01

    To define the factors responsible for the inactivation of the active fragment derived from Factor XII (Factor XIIf ) in plasma, we studied the inactivation kinetics of Factor XIIf in various purified and plasma mixtures. We also analyzed the formation of 125I-Factor XIIf -inhibitor complexes by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In purified systems, the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of Factor XIIf with C-1-inhibitor, alpha 2-antiplasmin, and antithrombin III were 18.5, 0.91, and 0.32 X 10(4) M-1 min-1, respectively. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that 1:1 stoichiometric complexes were formed between 125I-Factor XIIf and each of these three inhibitors. In contrast, kinetic and SDS-PAGE studies indicated that Factor XIIf did not react with alpha 1-antitrypsin or alpha 2-macroglobulin. The inactivation rate constant of Factor XIIf by prekallikrein-deficient plasma was 14.4 X 10(-2) min-1, a value that was essentially identical to the value predicted from the studies in purified systems (15.5 X 10(-2) min-1). This constant was reduced to 1.8 X 10(-2) min-1 when Factor XIIf was inactivated by prekallikrein-deficient plasma that had been immunodepleted (less than 5%) of C-1-inhibitor. In addition, after inactivation in normal plasma, 74% of the active 125I-Factor XIIf was found to form a complex with C-1-inhibitor, whereas 26% of the enzyme formed complexes with alpha 2-antiplasmin and antithrombin III. Furthermore, 42% of the labeled enzyme was still complexed with C-1-inhibitor when 125I-Factor XII was inactivated in hereditary angioedema plasma that contained 32% of functional C-1-inhibitor. This study quantitatively demonstrates the dominant role of C-1-inhibitor in the inactivation of Factor XIIf in the plasma milieu. PMID:6725552

  17. Seminal characteristics and cryopreservation of sperm from the squirrel monkey, Saimiri collinsi.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, K G; Leão, D L; Almeida, D V C; Santos, R R; Domingues, S F S

    2015-09-15

    The Neotropical nonhuman primate squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.) is one of the most commonly used species in research in several areas of knowledge. However, little progress has been reported in respect to techniques for preservation of their gametes. Thus, the main objectives of this study were (1) to describe testicular and seminal aspects of a new species, Saimiri collinsi, (2) to preserve semen of this species by cooling or freezing using ACP-118 (powdered coconut water), and (3) to test two glycerol (GLY) concentrations (1.5% or 3%) for semen freezing in the presence of ACP-118. The experimental group started with 14 captive males, but only 11 were suitable to collect ejaculates containing sperm. After anesthesia, both testes were evaluated: length, width, height, and testicular circumference. Semen was collected by electroejaculation and evaluated, followed by dilution, cooling, and freezing. Seminal parameters and sperm motility, vigor, plasma membrane integrity, and normal morphology were evaluated after each step; functionality was also checked in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, and normal sperm in cooled semen (n = 11) were 44.1 ± 34.0, 63.1 ± 15.6, and 73.8 ± 19.8, respectively, with vigor ranging of 2 to 3. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, normal and functional sperm in frozen semen (n = 5) were 0.6 ± 1.3 (1.5% and 3% GLY); 4.4 ± 4.9 (1.5% GLY) and 6.6 ± 7.2 (3% GLY); 86.8 ± 3.0 (1.5% GLY) and 88.8 ± 5.1 (3% GLY); 13.3 ± 11.9 (1.5% GLY) and 14.3 ± 13.5 (3% GLY), respectively, and vigor 0 for both 1.5% and 3% GLY. No significant difference between GLY concentrations was observed. We concluded that electroejaculation was efficient for semen collection of S collinsi and tested the cooling protocol that allowed to recover a satisfactory percentage (63%) of membrane intact sperm. However, the freezing protocol was not appropriate to sperm preservation. PMID:26047706

  18. Kinetic Analysis of Plasma Insulin Disappearance in Nonketotic Diabetic Patients and in Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Navalesi, Renzo; Pilo, Alessandro; Ferrannini, Eleuterio; Cecchetti, Paolo; Masoni, Antonio

    1978-01-01

    The studies so far reported on the metabolic clearance rate of insulin in human diabetes mellitus have given conflicting results, probably because they have been conducted on few patients and have used a variety of experimental techniques and data treatments. We investigated the kinetics of insulin distribution and degradation in 35 normal subjects and in 42 nonketotic, nonobese, overtly diabetic patients, of whom 26 were above 40 yr old and 16 were 40 yr old or less at diagnosis. The design of the study combined (a) the use of a tracer to perturb minimally the steady state and to avoid glucose infusion; (b) the preparation of purified [125I]-monoiodoinsulin, which has a metabolic behavior similar to that of native insulin; and (c) noncompartmental analysis of the plasma immunoprecipitable 125I-insulin disappearance curves, which were recorded for 2 h after pulse i.v. injection of the tracer. Metabolic clearance rate was found to be similar in diabetics (404±18 ml/min·m2, mean±SEM) and in normals (420±14), although the latter-onset patients had slightly, if not significantly, lower metabolic clearance rate values than the earlier-onset diabetics (385±19 and 443±36, respectively). The initial distribution volume of the hormone also did not significantly differ in diabetics and normals and was similar to plasma volume. The reentry rate into the initial distribution volume of the hormone and the total, plasma-equivalent distribution volume of insulin were both significantly raised in diabetics (251±12 ml/min·m2 and 10.3±0.5 liters/m2) in comparison with normals (195±8 and 7.5±0.3). The posthepatic delivery rate of insulin was found to be slightly raised in later-onset diabetics (194±20 mU/h·m2), but somewhat reduced in earlier-onset diabetics (133±15) in comparison with normals (172±14); these differences reflected the different basal plasma insulin concentrations in these three groups. Chronic treatment with oral hypoglycemic drugs, age, duration of

  19. Power source effects of soft plasma jet and the differential response of skin cancer and normal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Nathaniel; Dobrynin, Danil; Fridman, Alexander; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-10-01

    The effects of pulsed power direct current energy sources were compared using an indirect discharge plasma jet applied to treat cancerous and normal skin cells. Two power supplies with different voltage and current profiles were compared and optimized through the measurement of physical parameters and evaluated through the treatment of skin cells using an atmospheric pressure nitrogen gas plasma jet. Plasma density and temperature, power output, gas output temperature, and reactive species production were measured. Cell morphology, viability, and ROS generation were investigated using staining. A differential response has been shown between the normal and cancerous cell lines. The cancer cells viability reduced while normal cells did not over the same treatment time.

  20. Microdetermination of chondroitin sulfate in normal human plasma by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE).

    PubMed

    Volpi, Nicola; Maccari, Francesca

    2005-06-01

    An inexpensive, simple, sensitive and reproducible analytical method for the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of chondroitin sulfate (CS) from human blood plasma samples by using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) has been developed. After treatment with a nonspecific protease to convert proteins into small peptides, CS from 100 microl of normal human plasma was extracted by using a filter membrane (molecular mass cut-off of 3000 Da) or purification by using an anion-exchange resin. The recovered CS was converted into unsaturated disaccharides through the action of chondroitin ABC lyase, derivatized with 2-aminoacridone by reductive amination in the presence of cyanoborohydride and separated by FACE. The procedure using the purification of plasma CS on the anion-exchange resin produced a cleaner separation and a better resolution of Delta-disaccharides then using microfiltration. The linearity, sensitivity and reproducibility of the method were determined in comparison with HPLC equipped with postcolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection using 2-cyanoacetamide as a fluorogenic reagent. The detection limit was calculated to be 50 ng of CS with a linear response from 50 to 2000 ng. The recovery was found greater than 85% (from 2 to 10 microg CS) with a variation coefficient of approx. 10%. Furthermore, the results obtained from 100 microl plasma were almost identical to those obtained using 20 microl, 50 microl and 200 microl. This method was applied to the characterization of CS in 33 healthy human subjects ageing from 30 to 63 years old. PMID:15936308

  1. Factors Regulating Immunoglobulin Production by Normal and Disease-Associated Plasma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, David A.; Elsawa, Sherine F.

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins are molecules produced by activated B cells and plasma cells in response to exposure to antigens. Upon antigen exposure, these molecules are secreted allowing the immune system to recognize and effectively respond to a myriad of pathogens. Immunoglobulin or antibody secreting cells are the mature form of B lymphocytes, which during their development undergo gene rearrangements and selection in the bone marrow ultimately leading to the generation of B cells, each expressing a single antigen-specific receptor/immunoglobulin molecule. Each individual immunoglobulin molecule has an affinity for a unique motif, or epitope, found on a given antigen. When presented with an antigen, activated B cells differentiate into either plasma cells (which secrete large amounts of antibody that is specific for the inducing antigen), or memory B cells (which are long-lived and elicit a stronger and faster response if the host is re-exposed to the same antigen). The secreted form of immunoglobulin, when bound to an antigen, serves as an effector molecule that directs other cells of the immune system to facilitate the neutralization of soluble antigen or the eradication of the antigen-expressing pathogen. This review will focus on the regulation of secreted immunoglobulin by long-lived normal or disease-associated plasma cells. Specifically, the focus will be on signaling and transcriptional events that regulate the development and homeostasis of long-lived immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells. PMID:25615546

  2. Seminal fluid and immune adaptation for pregnancy--comparative biology in mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Schjenken, J E; Robertson, S A

    2014-09-01

    Seminal fluid delivered to the female reproductive tract at coitus not only promotes the survival and fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa, but also contains potent signalling agents that influence female reproductive physiology to improve the chances of conception and reproductive success. Male to female seminal fluid signalling occurs in rodents, domestic and livestock animals, and all other mammals examined to date. Seminal plasma is instrumental in eliciting the female response, by provision of cytokines and prostaglandins synthesized in the male accessory glands. These agents bind to receptors on target cells in the cervix and uterus, activating changes in gene expression leading to functional adaptations in the female tissues. Sperm also interact with female tract cells, although the molecular basis of this interaction is not yet defined. The consequences are increased sperm survival and fertilization rates, conditioning of the female immune response to tolerate semen and the conceptus, and molecular and cellular changes in the endometrium that facilitate embryo development and implantation. Studies in porcine, equine, bovine, ovine and canine species all show evidence of male-female signalling function for seminal fluid. There are variations between species that relate to their different reproductive strategies and behaviours, particularly the site of seminal fluid deposition and female reproductive tract anatomy. Although the details of the molecular mechanisms require more study, the available data are consistent with both the sperm and plasma fractions of seminal fluid acting in a synergistic fashion to activate inflammation-like responses and downstream female tract changes in each of these species. Insight into the biological function and molecular basis of seminal fluid signalling in the female will inform new interventions and management practices to support optimal reproductive outcomes in domestic, livestock and endangered animal species. PMID

  3. Paternal antigen-specific proliferating regulatory T cells are increased in uterine-draining lymph nodes just before implantation and in pregnant uterus just after implantation by seminal plasma-priming in allogeneic mouse pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shima, Tomoko; Inada, Kumiko; Nakashima, Akitoshi; Ushijima, Akemi; Ito, Mika; Yoshino, Osamu; Saito, Shigeru

    2015-04-01

    Paternal antigen-specific regulatory T (PA-specific Treg) cells play an important role in feto-maternal tolerance. To detect the PA-specific Tregs, female BALB/c mice were mated with male DBA/2 mice. Mls Ia antigen on DBA/2 mice is recognized by the T-cell receptor Vβ6; thus, CD4(+)Foxp3(+)Vβ6(+) cells are recognized as PA-specific Treg cells. CD4(+)CD25(+)Vβ6(+) cells effectively suppressed the allo-reactive proliferation of lymphocytes compared with that of CD4(+)CD25(+)Vβ6(-) cells. Vβ6(+) PA-specific Treg cells expressed CCR4 and CCR5 on their surface. The frequency of Ki67(+) PA-specific Treg cells among Treg cells was significantly increased in draining lymph nodes on day 3.5 post-coitus (pc; 6.8±1.1%, p<0.05) and day 5.5 pc (7.2±1.1%, p<0.05) in allogeneic pregnant mice compared with that in nonpregnant mice (2.7±0.2%). The frequency of Ki67(+) PA-specific Treg cells in the uterus increased significantly after day 5.5 pc in allogeneic pregnant mice compared with that in nonpregnant mice (8.8±2.8% vs. 1.2±1.3%, p<0.05). However, Ki67(-)PA-specific Tregs did not change during pregnancy. To analyze the role of seminal fluid or sperm in Treg expansion, female BALB/c mice were mated with vasectomized DBA/2 male mice (VAS) or seminal vesicle-excised DBA/2 male mice (SVX). The frequency of Ki67(+) PA-specific Treg cells did not increase in draining lymph nodes or uterus in BALB/c×DBA/2 (SVX) allogeneic mating mice. These findings suggest that the priming by seminal fluid is important for the induction of proliferating PA-specific Tregs in uterine-draining lymph nodes just before implantation and pregnant uterus after implantation, resulting in successful implantation and the maintenance of allogeneic pregnancy. PMID:25817463

  4. Plasma and urine diketopiperazine concentrations in normal adults ingesting large quantities of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Cho, E S; Coon, J D; Stegink, L D

    1987-07-01

    In aqueous solution, aspartame can cyclicize to form its corresponding diketopiperazine (3-carboxymethyl-6-benzyl-2,5-diketopiperazine; DKP) and methanol. We measured plasma and urinary concentrations of DKP in samples obtained from six normal adult subjects ingesting 2.2 mg DKP/kg body weight. The DKP was administered as part of a dose of 200 mg aspartame/kg body weight. DKP concentrations in plasma were below the detection limit (less than 1 microgram/ml) of the high-pressure liquid chromatographic method at each time interval after ingestion at which they were measured. Mean (+/- SD) total urinary DKP excreted during the first 24-hr period after dosing was 6.68 +/- 1.30 mg (4.83 +/- 0.23% of the ingested DKP dose). Approximately 44% of the total DKP excreted was excreted in the first 4 hr after dosing. PMID:3623338

  5. Seminal CD38 Enhances Human Sperm Capacitation through Its Interaction with CD31

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Ju; Park, Dae-Ryoung; Nam, Tae-Sik; Lee, Seo Ho; Kim, Uh-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Human sperm have to undergo a maturational process called capacitation in the female reproductive tract. Capacitation confers upon the sperm an ability to gain hypermotility and undergo acrosome reaction. Previous studies have suggested that seminal plasma proteins induce the capacitation of sperm in the female reproductive tract for the successful fertilization of the oocyte. However, the function of seminal plasma proteins in capacitation remains largely unclear. To the end, we found that soluble CD38 (sCD38) in seminal plasma increases the capacitation of sperm via specific interactions between sCD38 and the CD31 on the sperm. Upon the association of sCD38 with CD31, tyrosine kinase Src phosphorylates CD31, a process blocked by Src inhibitors. Shc, SHP-2, Grb2, and SOS, as well as Src kinase were found to associate with the phosphorylated CD31. The sCD38-induced phosphorylation of CD31 initiates a cascade reaction through the phosphorylation of Erk1/2, which results in the acrosome reaction, and sperm hypermotility. These processes were prevented by Src, Ras and MEK inhibitors. Taken together, these data indicate that the sCD38 present in seminal plasma plays a critical role in the capacitation of sperm. PMID:26407101

  6. Sperm motility inversely correlates with seminal leptin levels in idiopathic asthenozoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jianhua; Zhao, Yang; Huang, Weiying; Hu, Wei; Gu, Jianjun; Chen, Chuhong; Zhou, Juan; Peng, Yubing; Gong, Min; Wang, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Asthenozoospermia is one kind cause of male infertility. Nevertheless, no specific etiology can be identified by routine tests in some cases. Recently, it has been shown that leptin plays a critical role in male fertility. However, the link between leptin and sperm motility is yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to explore association between seminal and serum leptin levels and sperm motility in idiopathic asthenozoospermia. Methods: Our study included 79 asthenozoospermic men and 77 normozoospermic men. Semen was assessed by volume, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. Serum gonadotropic and sex hormones were determined by a chemiluminescent assay. The leptin levels in serum and seminal plasma were detected with ELISA. Results: The mean seminal leptin level in asthenozoospermic group was significantly higher than that in control group, but there was no significant difference in the serum leptin levels between these two groups. The serum leptin had no significant correlation with sperm motility. The seminal leptin had significantly negative correlation with sperm progressive motility and serum total testosterone. Conclusions: The findings indicate a pathophysiological relevance of seminal leptin in sperm motility. PMID:25419396

  7. Wave Normal and Poynting Vector Calculations using the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hospodarsky, G. B.; Averkamp, T. F.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Dougherty, M.; Inan, Umran; Wood, Troy

    2001-01-01

    Wave normal and Poynting vector measurements from the Cassini radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWS) are used to examine the propagation characteristics of various plasma waves during the Earth flyby on August 18, 1999. Using the five-channel waveform receiver (WFR), the wave normal vector is determined using the Means method for a lightning-induced whistler, equatorial chorus, and a series of low-frequency emissions observed while Cassini was in the magnetosheath. The Poynting vector for these emissions is also calculated from the five components measured by the WFR. The propagation characteristics of the lightning-induced whistler were found to be consistent with the whistler wave mode of propagation, with propagation antiparallel to the magnetic field (southward) at Cassini. The sferic associated with this whistler was observed by both Cassini and the Stanford VLF group at the Palmer Station in Antarctica. Analysis of the arrival direction of the sferic at the Palmer Station suggests that the lightning stroke is in the same sector as Cassini. Chorus was observed very close (within a few degrees) to the magnetic equator during the flyby. The chorus was found to propagate primarily away from the magnetic equator and was observed to change direction as Cassini crossed the magnetic equator. This suggests that the source region of the chorus is very near the magnetic equator. The low-frequency emission in the magnetosheath has many of the characteristics of lion roars. The average value of the angle between the wave normal vector and the local magnetic field was found to be 16 degrees, and the emissions ranged in frequency from 0. 19 to 0.75 f(sub ce), where f(sub ce) is the electron cyclotron frequency. The wave normal vectors of these waves were primarily in one direction for each individual burst (either parallel or antiparallel to the local field) but varied in direction throughout the magnetosheath. This suggests that the sources of the emissions are far from

  8. Effects of positive acceleration /+Gz/ on renal function and plasma renin in normal man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Shubrooks, S. J., Jr.; Fishman, L. M.; Duncan, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of positive radial centrifugation (+Gz) on plasma resin activity (PRA) and renal function were assessed in 15 normal male subjects under carefully controlled conditions of Na, K, and water intake. Twenty minutes of +2.0 Gz resulted in significant decreases in the mean rate of sodium excretion and creatine clearance and in a doubling of PRA in seven sodium-depleted subjects (10 meq Na intake). In eight sodium-replete subjects (200 mq Na intake), 30 min of +2.0 Gz was also associated with a decrease in the mean rate of sodium excretion. As a consequence of a concurrent decrease in creatine clearance, the fractional excretion of sodium during centrifugation did not differ from control, suggesting that the changes in Na excretion were mediated primarily by renal hemodynamic factors, although enhanced renal tubular sodium reabsorption may also have played a role.

  9. Anti-amyloidogenic Activity of IgGs Contained in Normal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Angela D.; McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Acero, Luis; Weber, Alfred; Ehrlich, Hartmut; Schwarz, Hans P.; Solomon, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction We have previously shown that a subpopulation of naturally occurring human IgGs has therapeutic potential for the amyloid-associated disorders. These molecules cross-react with conformational epitopes on amyloidogenic assemblies, including amyloid beta (Aβ) protein fibrils that are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Materials and Methods Using our europium-linked immunosorbant assay, we established that ∼95% of 260 screened donor plasma samples had amyloid fibril-reactive IgGs and Aβ conformer-reactive IgGs with minimal binding to Aβ monomers. Anti-amyloidogenic reactivity was diverse and attributed to Aβ targeting multiple fibril-related binding sites and/or variations in multidentate binding. Results and Discussion There was no correlation between anti-fibril and anti-oligomer reactivity and donor age (19 to 60 years old) or gender. These findings demonstrate the inherent but diverse anti-amyloidogenic activity of natural IgGs contained in normal plasma. Conclusion Our studies provide support for investigating the clinical significance and physiological function of this novel class of antibodies. PMID:20405179

  10. Normal and abnormal evolution of argon metastable density in high-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; You, S. J.

    2015-05-15

    A controversial problem on the evolution of Ar metastable density as a function of electron density (increasing trend versus decreasing trend) was resolved by discovering the anomalous evolution of the argon metastable density with increasing electron density (discharge power), including both trends of the metastable density [Daltrini et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Later, by virtue of an adequate physical explanation based on a simple global model, both evolutions of the metastable density were comprehensively understood as part of the abnormal evolution occurring at low- and high-density regimes, respectively, and thus the physics behind the metastable evolution has seemed to be clearly disclosed. In this study, however, a remarkable result for the metastable density behavior with increasing electron density was observed: even in the same electron density regime, there are both normal and abnormal evolutions of metastable-state density with electron density depending on the measurement position: The metastable density increases with increasing electron density at a position far from the inductively coupled plasma antenna but decreases at a position close to the antenna. The effect of electron temperature, which is spatially nonuniform in the plasma, on the electron population and depopulation processes of Argon metastable atoms with increasing electron density is a clue to understanding the results. The calculated results of the global model, including multistep ionization for the argon metastable state and measured electron temperature, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Seminal Corynebacterium strains in infertile men with and without leucocytospermia.

    PubMed

    Mashaly, M; Masallat, D T; Elkholy, A A; Abdel-Hamid, I A; Mostafa, T

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to identify seminal Corynebacterium strains in infertile men with and without leucocytospermia. Semen samples from 60 infertile men were allocated into two equal groups: semen samples with leucocytospermia and semen samples without leucocytospermia. Semen culture for Corynebacterium species was carried out on Columbia agar medium confirmed by Gram-stained film and biochemical tests followed by analytical profile index biotyping and antibiotic susceptibility. Bacterial isolates were detected in 20/60 semen cultures (33.3%) as Corynebacteria, Staphylococci, Alpha haemolytic streptococci and E. coli. In all, 12/60 (20%) had Corynebacterium positive semen culture, whereas C. seminal was the major isolated species followed by C. amycolatum, C. jekium and C. urealyticum. There was nonsignificant difference between patients with/without Corynebacterium positive culture regarding sperm concentration and normal sperm morphology; however, in positive cultures sperm motility was significantly lower compared with negative cultures. Antimicrobial sensitivity among Corynebacteria strains was highest for vancomycin, rifampicin then imipenem, ampicillin + sulbactam, ciprofloxacin. It is concluded that positive semen cultures for different Corynebacteria species were demonstrated in infertile men, whereas Corynebacterium seminale was the most common isolated species. Vancomycin, rifampicin then imipenem and ampicillin + sulbactam are recommended as sensitive antibiotics. PMID:26228802

  12. Plasma thromboxane and prostacyclin: comparison during normal pregnancy and pregnancy complicated by hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ogino, M; Abe, Y; Jimbo, T; Okahara, T

    1986-04-01

    Plasma levels of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha), stable metabolites of two prostanoids with opposing biological effects, TXA2 and prostacyclin, were measured by radioimmunoassay in normal pregnancy (controls) and pregnancy complicated by hypertension (PIH) from 32 to 36 (Period 1; P1) and from 36 to 40 (Period 2; P2) weeks of gestation. The plasma concentration of each compound in the control subjects was 265.6 +/- 58.4 (TXB2), 132.4 +/- 16.5 (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) for P1 (n = 10) and 142.6 +/- 11.8 (TXB2), 68.5 +/- 5.2 (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) for P2 (n = 10) respectively (pg/ml, mean +/- s.e). In the patients with PIH, TXB2 concentrations increased moderately for P1 (419.2 +/- 21.2; n = 7) and significantly (p less than 0.005) for P2 (452.8 +/- 31.0; n = 7) respectively (pg/ml, mean +/- s.e), while the plasma levels of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha revealed a slight to moderate decrease both for P1 (84.5 +/- 4.0; n = 7) and P2 (59.7 +/- 8.1; n = 7) respectively (pg/ml, mean +/- s.e). The physiological balance of TXB2 to 6-keto-PGF1 alpha was significantly greater (p less than 0.005) in the patients with PIH, where the TXB2/6-keto-PGF1 alpha ratio was 5.2 +/- 0.7 for P1 and 9.4 +/- 2.3 for P2 respectively (mean +/- s.e) compared with that of the controls, where it was 2.4 +/- 0.4 for P1 and 2.0 +/- 0.2 for P2 respectively (mean +/- s.e).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3530728

  13. Plasma metabolomic profiles enhance precision medicine for volunteers of normal health

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lining; Milburn, Michael V.; Ryals, John A.; Lonergan, Shaun C.; Mitchell, Matthew W.; Wulff, Jacob E.; Alexander, Danny C.; Evans, Anne M.; Bridgewater, Brandi; Miller, Luke; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; Caskey, C. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Precision medicine, taking account of human individuality in genes, environment, and lifestyle for early disease diagnosis and individualized therapy, has shown great promise to transform medical care. Nontargeted metabolomics, with the ability to detect broad classes of biochemicals, can provide a comprehensive functional phenotype integrating clinical phenotypes with genetic and nongenetic factors. To test the application of metabolomics in individual diagnosis, we conducted a metabolomics analysis on plasma samples collected from 80 volunteers of normal health with complete medical records and three-generation pedigrees. Using a broad-spectrum metabolomics platform consisting of liquid chromatography and GC coupled with MS, we profiled nearly 600 metabolites covering 72 biochemical pathways in all major branches of biosynthesis, catabolism, gut microbiome activities, and xenobiotics. Statistical analysis revealed a considerable range of variation and potential metabolic abnormalities across the individuals in this cohort. Examination of the convergence of metabolomics profiles with whole-exon sequences (WESs) provided an effective approach to assess and interpret clinical significance of genetic mutations, as shown in a number of cases, including fructose intolerance, xanthinuria, and carnitine deficiency. Metabolic abnormalities consistent with early indications of diabetes, liver dysfunction, and disruption of gut microbiome homeostasis were identified in several volunteers. Additionally, diverse metabolic responses to medications among the volunteers may assist to identify therapeutic effects and sensitivity to toxicity. The results of this study demonstrate that metabolomics could be an effective approach to complement next generation sequencing (NGS) for disease risk analysis, disease monitoring, and drug management in our goal toward precision care. PMID:26283345

  14. Plasma metabolomic profiles enhance precision medicine for volunteers of normal health.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lining; Milburn, Michael V; Ryals, John A; Lonergan, Shaun C; Mitchell, Matthew W; Wulff, Jacob E; Alexander, Danny C; Evans, Anne M; Bridgewater, Brandi; Miller, Luke; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L; Caskey, C Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Precision medicine, taking account of human individuality in genes, environment, and lifestyle for early disease diagnosis and individualized therapy, has shown great promise to transform medical care. Nontargeted metabolomics, with the ability to detect broad classes of biochemicals, can provide a comprehensive functional phenotype integrating clinical phenotypes with genetic and nongenetic factors. To test the application of metabolomics in individual diagnosis, we conducted a metabolomics analysis on plasma samples collected from 80 volunteers of normal health with complete medical records and three-generation pedigrees. Using a broad-spectrum metabolomics platform consisting of liquid chromatography and GC coupled with MS, we profiled nearly 600 metabolites covering 72 biochemical pathways in all major branches of biosynthesis, catabolism, gut microbiome activities, and xenobiotics. Statistical analysis revealed a considerable range of variation and potential metabolic abnormalities across the individuals in this cohort. Examination of the convergence of metabolomics profiles with whole-exon sequences (WESs) provided an effective approach to assess and interpret clinical significance of genetic mutations, as shown in a number of cases, including fructose intolerance, xanthinuria, and carnitine deficiency. Metabolic abnormalities consistent with early indications of diabetes, liver dysfunction, and disruption of gut microbiome homeostasis were identified in several volunteers. Additionally, diverse metabolic responses to medications among the volunteers may assist to identify therapeutic effects and sensitivity to toxicity. The results of this study demonstrate that metabolomics could be an effective approach to complement next generation sequencing (NGS) for disease risk analysis, disease monitoring, and drug management in our goal toward precision care. PMID:26283345

  15. Intercorrelations among plasma high density lipoprotein, obesity and triglycerides in a normal population

    SciTech Connect

    Albrink, M.J.; Krauss, R.M.; Lindgren, F.T.; von der Groeben, J.; Pan, S.; Wood, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    The interrelationships among fatness measures, plasma triglycerides and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were examined in 131 normal adult subjects: 38 men aged 27 to 46, 50 men aged 47 to 66, 29 women aged 27 to 46 and 24 women aged 47 to 66. None of the women were taking estrogens or oral contraceptive medication. The HDL concentration was subdivided into HDL/sub 2b/, HDL/sub 2a/ and HDL by a computerized fitting of the total schileren pattern to reference schlieren patterns. Anthropometric measures employed included skinfolds at 3 sites, 2 weight/height indices and 2 girth measurements. A high correlation was found among the various fatness measures. These measures were negatively correlated with total HDL, reflecting the negative correlation between fatness measures and HDL/sub 2/ (as the sum of HDL/sub 2a/ and /sub 2b/). Fatness measures showed no relationship to HDL/sub 3/. There was also an inverse correlation between triglyceride concentration and HDL/sub 2/. No particular fatness measure was better than any other for demonstrating the inverse correlation with HDL but multiple correlations using all of the measures of obesity improved the correlations. Partial correlations controlling for fatness did not reduce any of the significnt correlations between triglycerides and HDL/sub 2/ to insignificance. The weak correlation between fatness and triglycerides was reduced to insigifnicance when controlled for HDL/sub 2/.

  16. Does seminal fluid viscosity influence sperm chromatin integrity?

    PubMed

    Gopalkrishnan, K; Padwal, V; Balaiah, D

    2000-01-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to investigate whether viscosity alters sperm chromatin integrity. Semen samples were obtained from 269 men attending the infertility clinic. The viscosity was measured quantitatively by needle and syringe method and the viscosity ratio was calculated against distilled water. The chromatin integrity was evaluated by in vitro decondensation test using 1% SDS and 6 mM EDTA. According to the viscosity ratios the samples were divided into 2 groups: I, normal (ratio < 9, n = 239): and II, abnormal (ratio > 9, n = 30) viscosity. Chromatin integrity was significantly lower in the group with higher viscosity. Significant decrease in sperm count and motility were seen in group II as compared to group I. Thus, hyperviscosity of seminal fluid alters the sperm chromatin integrity. PMID:11028927

  17. TRY-5 Is a Sperm-Activating Protease in Caenorhabditis elegans Seminal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joseph R.; Stanfield, Gillian M.

    2011-01-01

    Seminal fluid proteins have been shown to play important roles in male reproductive success, but the mechanisms for this regulation remain largely unknown. In Caenorhabditis elegans, sperm differentiate from immature spermatids into mature, motile spermatozoa during a process termed sperm activation. For C. elegans males, sperm activation occurs during insemination of the hermaphrodite and is thought to be mediated by seminal fluid, but the molecular nature of this activity has not been previously identified. Here we show that TRY-5 is a seminal fluid protease that is required in C. elegans for male-mediated sperm activation. We observed that TRY-5::GFP is expressed in the male somatic gonad and is transferred along with sperm to hermaphrodites during mating. In the absence of TRY-5, male seminal fluid loses its potency to transactivate hermaphrodite sperm. However, TRY-5 is not required for either hermaphrodite or male fertility, suggesting that hermaphrodite sperm are normally activated by a distinct hermaphrodite-specific activator to which male sperm are also competent to respond. Within males, TRY-5::GFP localization within the seminal vesicle is antagonized by the protease inhibitor SWM-1. Together, these data suggest that TRY-5 functions as an extracellular activator of C. elegans sperm. The presence of TRY-5 within the seminal fluid couples the timing of sperm activation to that of transfer of sperm into the hermaphrodite uterus, where motility must be rapidly acquired. Our results provide insight into how C. elegans has adopted sex-specific regulation of sperm motility to accommodate its male-hermaphrodite mode of reproduction. PMID:22125495

  18. Higher Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels, within the Normal Range, are Associated with Decreased Processing Speed in High Functioning Young Elderly.

    PubMed

    Raizes, Meytal; Elkana, Odelia; Franko, Motty; Ravona Springer, Ramit; Segev, Shlomo; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2015-01-01

    We explored the association of plasma glucose levels within the normal range with processing speed in high functioning young elderly, free of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A sample of 41 participants (mean age = 64.7, SD = 10; glucose 94.5 mg/dL, SD = 9.3), were examined with a computerized cognitive battery. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that higher plasma glucose levels, albeit within the normal range (<110 mg/dL), were associated with longer reaction times (p <  0.01). These findings suggest that even in the subclinical range and in the absence of T2DM, monitoring plasma glucose levels may have an impact on cognitive function. PMID:26484908

  19. Anaplastic plasmacytomas: relationships to normal memory B cells and plasma cell neoplasms of immunodeficient and autoimmune mice.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chen-Feng; Shin, Dong-Mi; Li, Zhaoyang; Wang, Hongsheng; Feng, Jianxum; Hartley, Janet W; Fredrickson, Torgny N; Kovalchuk, Alexander L; Morse, Herbert C

    2010-05-01

    Anaplastic plasmacytomas (APCTs) from NFS.V(+) congenic mice and pristane-induced plasmacytic PCTs from BALB/c mice were previously shown to be histologically and molecularly distinct subsets of plasma cell neoplasms (PCNs). Here we extended these comparisons, contrasting primary APCTs and PCTs by gene expression profiling in relation to the expression profiles of normal naïve, germinal centre, and memory B cells and plasma cells. We also sequenced immunoglobulin genes from APCT and APCT-derived cell lines and defined surface phenotypes and chromosomal features of the cell lines by flow cytometry and by spectral karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The results indicate that APCTs share many features with normal memory cells and the plasma cell-related neoplasms (PLs) of FASL-deficient mice, suggesting that APCTs and PLs are related and that both derive from memory B cells. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:20217872

  20. Analysis of glass and glass melts during the vitrification process of fly and bottom ashes by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy. Part I: Normalization and plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panne, U.; Haisch, C.; Clara, M.; Niessner, R.

    1998-12-01

    For laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS) analysis of the main components (Si, Al, and Ca) in glasses utilized for vitrification of ashes from waste incineration, a normalization procedure for line ratios is presented. Even in homogeneous glass samples, considerable pulse-to-pulse variations of the plasma electronic excitation temperature and electron density were observed because of changes in the material-laser interaction. A normalization procedure is outlined using Saha-Boltzmann equilibrium relationships to include the electronic excitation temperature and density in the calibration model. As a result of the normalization, the variation of the line ratios is reduced and linear calibrations for LIPS intensity ratios versus concentration ratios are achieved. For samples with high aluminum concentrations, the analysis was hampered by self-reversal effects.

  1. Insect Seminal Fluid Proteins: Identification and Function

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Frank W.; Sirot, Laura K.; LaFlamme, Brooke A.; Rubinstein, C. Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2014-01-01

    Seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) produced in reproductive tract tissues of male insects and transferred to females during mating induce numerous physiological and behavioral post-mating changes in females. These changes include decreasing receptivity to re-mating, affecting sperm storage parameters, increasing egg production, modulating sperm competition, feeding behaviors, and mating plug formation. In addition, SFPs also have anti-microbial functions and induce expression of anti-microbial peptides in at least some insects. Here, we review recent identification of insect SFPs and discuss the multiple roles these proteins play in the post-mating processes of female insects. PMID:20868282

  2. The influence of potassium administration and of potassium deprivation on plasma renin in normal and hypertensive subjects

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Hans R.; Baer, Leslie; Sealey, Jean E.; Ledingham, John G. G.; Laragh, John H.

    1970-01-01

    The effect of potassium administration and of dietary potassium deprivation on plasma renin activity and aldosterone excretion has been studied in 10 normal subjects and in 12 hypertensive patients maintained on a constant dietary regimen. Potassium administration reduced plasma renin activity in 18 of 28 studies of both normal and hypertensive subjects. Suppression of renin often occurred despite sodium diuresis induced by potassium administration. The renin suppression was related to induced changes in plasma potassium concentration and urinary potassium excretion. The failure of suppression of plasma renin in 10 studies could be accounted for by the smaller amounts of potassium administered to these subjects, together with a possibly overriding influence of an induced sodium diuresis. In six studies potassium deprivation invariably increased plasma renin activity even though a tendency for sodium retention often accompanied this procedure. The data indicate that both the suppression of plasma renin activity induced by potassium administration and the stimulation of renin activity which follows potassium depletion occur independently of associated changes in either aldosterone secretion or in sodium balance. However, the results do suggest that in various situations, the influence of potassium on plasma renin activity may be either amplified or preempted by changes in sodium balance. These interactions between potassium and plasma renin could be mediated by an ill-defined extrarenal pathway. But the findings are more consistent with an intrarenal action of potassium ions to modify renin release. Potassium might modify renin secretion directly by acting on the juxtaglomerular cells or by a change in its tubular reabsorption or secretion. The effects of potassium ions on renin secretion might also be mediated indirectly via an induced change in tubular sodium transport. PMID:4319970

  3. Age-related change in plasma concentration of 7B2(a novel pituitary polypeptide) in normal humans

    SciTech Connect

    Natori, S.; Iguchi, H.; Nawata, H.; Kato, K.; Ibayashi, H.; Chretian, M.

    1987-08-24

    Using a specific radioimmunoassay, the authors measured concentrations of plasma 7B2(a novel pituitary polypeptide) immunoreactivity(7B2-IR) in normal human subjects, patients with chronic renal failure and those with liver cirrhosis. Mean(+/-SEM) values of plasma 7B2-IR in normal healthy men and women were 55.8 +/- 1.2 pg/ml (n=266) and 56.1 +/- 0.9 pg/ml (n = 408), respectively. The elevation of plasma 7B2-IR showed a relationship with age of the subjects, in both men(r=0.39, t = 6.86, p < 0.001) and women (r=0.35, t=7.44, p < 0.001). Plasma 7B2-IR concentrations were elevated in patients with chronic renal failure (536 +/- 45 pg/ml, Mean +/- SEM, n = 10) as well as those in liver cirrhosis (95 +/- 10 pg/ml, Mean +/- SEM, n = 15) compared to values in normal subjects, suggesting that 7B2 is mainly eliminated through the kidney and is partly metabolized in the liver. 10 references, 4 figures.

  4. Selective binding of IgG4 and other negatively charged plasma proteins in normal and diabetic human kidneys.

    PubMed Central

    Melvin, T.; Kim, Y.; Michael, A. F.

    1984-01-01

    Renal tissue from 9 patients with diabetes mellitus (4 with mild and 5 with end-stage disease) and 3 with antiglomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis, as well as 5 normal human kidneys, were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy for the presence of plasma proteins of varying isoelectric point (pI). In normal and diabetic kidneys, IgG deposition in basement membranes was restricted to IgG4 (pI 5.5-6.0), the subclass present in lowest concentration in human plasma. IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 (pI 7.0-9.5) were not detected. In contrast, in anti-GBM nephritis, all four subclasses were present in a linear pattern in GBM. Other plasma proteins of low isoelectric point were detected in basement membranes: albumin (pI 4.9), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (pI 2.7), amyloid P (pI 3.9-4.8), and alpha-1-antitrypsin (pI 4.5). These studies are consistent with the hypothesis that circulating anionic plasma proteins are electrostatically bound in vivo to positively charged moieties in normal and especially diabetic basement membranes. Images Figure 1 PMID:6375393

  5. Coefficient of Friction Measured from Nano- to Macro-Normal Loads on Plasma Sprayed Nanostructured Cermet Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, A. K.; Celis, J.-P.; Vardavoulias, M.; Matteazzi, P.

    2014-02-01

    Alumina dispersed FeCuAl-based nanostructured cermet coatings were deposited from nanostructured powders by atmospheric plasma spraying on low carbon steel substrates. Nanostructuring was retained in the deposited coatings which exhibit up to four distinctive phases as revealed by electron microscopy. In this study, the friction behavior of the distinctive phases at nano-normal load scale was investigated alongside their contribution to the overall friction behavior at macro-normal load scale. Friction behavior at nano-normal load scale was investigated by lateral force microscopy, whereas conventional tribometers were used for investigations at micro and macro-normal loads. It appeared that, the friction measured at nano-normal loads on individual phases is dictated by both composition and hardness of the corresponding phases, and thus influences the overall friction behavior of the coatings at macro-normal loads. Moreover, the coefficient of friction at macro-normal loads differs from the one at nano-normal loads, and deviates from Amonton's friction law.

  6. Influence of the normalized ion flux on the constitution of alumina films deposited by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kurapov, Denis; Reiss, Jennifer; Trinh, David H.; Hultman, Lars; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2007-07-15

    Alumina thin films were deposited onto tempered hot working steel substrates from an AlCl{sub 3}-O{sub 2}-Ar-H{sub 2} gas mixture by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The normalized ion flux was varied during deposition through changes in precursor content while keeping the cathode voltage and the total pressure constant. As the precursor content in the total gas mixture was increased from 0.8% to 5.8%, the deposition rate increased 12-fold, while the normalized ion flux decreased by approximately 90%. The constitution, morphology, impurity incorporation, and the elastic properties of the alumina thin films were found to depend on the normalized ion flux. These changes in structure, composition, and properties induced by normalized ion flux may be understood by considering mechanisms related to surface and bulk diffusion.

  7. An antigenic study of human plasma cells in normal tissue and in myeloma: identification of a novel plasma cell associated antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, P D; Walker, L; Hardie, D; Richardson, P; Khan, M; Johnson, G D; Ling, N R

    1986-01-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody named BU11 which detects an antigen strongly expressed on human plasma cells is described. The antibody stains plasma cells in tonsil sections, fresh and cultured plasmacytoid cells from the bone marrow of patients with multiple myeloma and cells of the plasmacytoid cell line RPMI 8226 used as the immunogen. In vitro studies of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulated peripheral blood B cells and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) stimulated tonsil B cells show that the antigen is present mainly on cells coexpressing the OKT10 antigen and containing cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (cIg). The BU11 antigen is expressed weakly on some normal B cells and is not present on T cells, monocytes or granulocytes. The antigen is of molecular weight 58kD under reducing conditions and is biochemically distinct from previously described plasma cell antigens. Images Fig. 4 PMID:3024883

  8. Higher Plasma ApoE Levels are Associated with Low-Normal Thyroid Function: Studies in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Subjects.

    PubMed

    van Tienhoven-Wind, L J N; Dallinga-Thie, G M; Dullaart, R P F

    2016-07-01

    Low-normal thyroid function within the euthyroid range may confer higher plasma triglycerides, but relationships with plasma apolipoprotein (apo) E, which plays an important role in the metabolism of triglyceride-rich apoB-containing lipoproteins, are unknown. We determined relationships of plasma apoE with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (free T4) in euthyroid subjects with and without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). TSH, free T4, lipids, and apoE were measured in fasting plasma from 72 T2DM subjects and 82 nondiabetic subjects. The APOE genotype was also determined. Free T4 was slightly higher in T2DM (p=0.030), but TSH levels were not different vs. nondiabetic subjects. The APOE genotype distribution was not different between the groups. None of the participants had the ε2/ε2 genotype. Plasma triglycerides were higher in T2DM (p=0.037). ApoB and apoE levels were not different between the groups. In all subjects combined, multivariable analysis showed that plasma triglycerides (p=0.039), non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol (p=0.030), and apoE levels (p=0.002) were each independently and positively associated with TSH after adjustment for age, sex, T2DM and the presence of the APOE ε3 allele. Furthermore, the associations of TSH with apoE remained present after adjustment for either triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol, or apoB (p=0.005 to 0.023). The presence of T2DM did not modify the relationships of TSH with these (apo) lipoprotein variables (p=0.11 to 0.36). In conclusion, low-normal thyroid function, as indicated by higher TSH levels within the euthyroid range, may influence the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by affecting apoE regulation. PMID:26916531

  9. Seminal Publications in Electrochemistry and Electroanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Fritz; Inzelt, György; Stojek, Zbigniew

    This compilation of seminal publications in electrochemistry and electroanalysis is neither complete nor are all the listed contributions of the same importance. The authors feel that it might be of interest and very rewarding for people who use electroanalytical methods in the laboratory to go back to the roots and read some of the publications which later initiated strong developments of the science that is presented in this book. Many of the contributions to science cited here became an inherent part of textbooks and common knowledge so that the original work is usually not referred to and access to this information is difficult. The following web pages give access to much more information on the history of electrochemistry and electroanalysis:

  10. Schwannoma, a rare tumor of the seminal vesicle

    PubMed Central

    Carrasquinho, Eduardo; Ferreira, Marco; Afonso, Ana; Ferrito, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We present a rare case of a schwannoma of the seminal vesicle that occurred in a 43-year-old male with symptoms of the lower urinary tract. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging documented a solid mass in the patient's left seminal vesicle. A transvesical approach with a transtrigonal midline incision was successfully performed. The microscopic aspect was compatible with schwannoma. PMID:24578861

  11. Unusual presentation of seminal vesiculitis in an infertile man.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Rocha, Fernando Tadeu

    2007-12-01

    Seminal vesiculitis is generally not investigated in infertile men, since it is uncommon and often nonspecific in signs and symptoms. In this article, the author reports an unusual presentation of seminal vesiculitis, incidentally diagnosed in a man referred for semen analysis to investigate infertility. Analyses of physical properties of the ejaculate (coagulation, liquefaction, volume, viscosity and pH) and of biochemical markers of the prostate (total calcium and zinc) and seminal vesicle (fructose and inorganic phosphorus) detected a dysfunction of the seminal vesicles that was subsequently diagnosed as vesiculitis using transrectal ultrasound. After treatment with a single 500-mg dose of oral ciprofloxacin, the patient was referred again for semen analysis. The analysis showed considerable improvement of the seminal vesicle function. The clinical significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:18163927

  12. Human sperm and other seminal constituents in male infertile patients from arsenic and cadmium rich areas of Southern Assam.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mahuya; Deb, Ishita; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Kar, Kushal Kumar

    2013-08-01

    In the present study the occurrence of two heavy metals, arsenic and cadmium, have been reported in the drinking water and seminal plasma of infertile male patients as compared to a control group. The study originated from a survey of geogenic groundwater contamination with the heavy metals arsenic and cadmium in Southern Assam, India as an increase in the incidence of male infertility was being reported from these areas. According to WHO protocol, patients with sperm concentration < 20 x 10(6)/ml were selected as cases (oligozoospermic and azoospermic), and those with > 20 x 10(6)/ml, without any extreme pathological disorders and having fathered a child within 1-2 years of marriage were the control (normozoospermic) group. The study reports an inverse relationship between total sperm count and heavy metal content in drinking water as well as seminal plasma of the subjects. Moreover, a high correlation between altered semenological parameters and lower expression of accessory sex gland markers like fructose, acid phosphatase, and neutral α-glucosidase in the seminal plasma of patients is reported. The study also highlights significant differences of the sperm function parameters like hypo-osmotic swelling, acrosome reaction, and nuclear chromatin decondensation in the patient group as compared to controls. These findings are significant as they address a likely association between heavy metal stress and altered sperm function as well as seminal enzyme inhibition. PMID:23651453

  13. Plasma mineral profiles and hormonal activities of normal cycling and repeat breeding crossbred cows: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Barui, Abhijit; Batabyal, Subhasis; Ghosh, Sarbaswarup; Saha, Debjani; Chattopadhyay, Saibal

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to compare the associated role of micro minerals and hormones in repeat breeding animals with the normal crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 10 normal cycling and 10 repeat breeding crossbred cows of Ramakrishna Mission Ashram, Narendrapur to study the plasma mineral profile and hormonal activities. Results: Zn was found to be highly significant (p<0.01) between the two groups. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and progesterone showed significant (p<0.05) difference in repeat breeding animal from the normal cyclic animal, whereas no significant differences were observed in Ca, P, Cu, Se, Co, luteinizing hormone and estradiol level. Conclusion: It may conclude that repeat breeding condition of crossbred cows in farm condition is mainly due to the low level of progesterone, FSH and zinc. PMID:27046994

  14. Normal and neoplastic plasma cell membrane phenotype: studies with new monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Tazzari, P L; Gobbi, M; Dinota, A; Bontadini, A; Grassi, G; Cerato, C; Cavo, M; Pileri, S; Caligaris-Cappio, F; Tura, S

    1987-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (MoAb), named 8A, 8F6 and 62B1, reacting with plasma cell-associated antigens, were characterized. 8A was found to be positive throughout the B cell lineage maturation steps from the immature B-committed CD10+ cell to the plasma cells. 8F6 and 62B1 reactivity is restricted to more mature cells and related lymphoid malignancies. In particular 62B1 appears to be limited to hairy cells and plasma cells. The results show that it is possible to obtain reagents reacting with plasma cells by immunizing mice with cells derived from human multiple myelomas. Furthermore, the obtained results suggest that it is possible to elicit antibodies against antigens which are present throughout all the differentiation steps of the B cell lineage. These new MoAb could help in elucidating the phenotype of the plasma cells and the relationships of multiple myelomas with other B cell proliferative disorders. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3319299

  15. Increased levels of plasma amyloid-beta are related to cortical thinning and cognitive decline in cognitively normal elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Llado-Saz, Sandra; Atienza, Mercedes; Cantero, Jose L

    2015-10-01

    Plasma levels of circulating amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides are of particular interest in Alzheimer' disease, but little is known about cognitive and cortical correlates of peripheral Aβ levels in normal aging. Here, we compared cognitive functioning, vascular risk factors, and patterns of cortical thickness between cognitively intact elderly subjects with low (N = 60) and high (N = 60) plasma Aβ levels (cutoffs: 225 pg/mL and 23 pg/mL for Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42, respectively). Overall, subjects with high Aβ levels showed lower cognitive performance and thinner cortex than those with low Aβ levels. More specifically, subjects with high Aβ1-40 showed bilateral thinning of the prefrontal cortex, poorer objective memory, slower processing speed, and lower nonverbal reasoning skills, whereas subjects with high Aβ1-42 had thinner temporal lobe, poorer everyday memory, and increased levels of homocysteine. Overall, these results suggest that high plasma Aβ levels in normal elderly subjects are associated with subclinical markers of vulnerable aging, which may be helpful at predicting different trajectories of aging in cognitively intact older adults. PMID:26182906

  16. Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Normalized Plasma Pressure on RMP ELM Suppression in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, D. M.; Moyer, R.A.; Evans, T. E.; Mordijck, S.; Osborne, T. H.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Snyder, P. B.; Unterberg, Ezekial A

    2010-01-01

    The effect of normalized plasma pressure as characterized by normalized pressure parameter (beta(N)) on the suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs) using resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is studied in low-collisionality (nu* <= 0.2) H-mode plasmas with low-triangularity ( = 0.25) and ITER similar shapes ( = 0.51). Experimental results have suggested that ELM suppression by RMPs requires a minimum threshold in plasma pressure as characterized by beta(N). The variations in the vacuum field topology with beta(N) due to safety factor profile and island overlap changes caused by variation of the Shafranov shift and pedestal bootstrap current are examined numerically with the field line integration code TRIP3D. The results show very small differences in the vacuum field structure in terms of the Chirikov (magnetic island overlap) parameter, Poincare sections and field line loss fractions. These differences do not appear to explain the observed threshold in beta(N) for ELM suppression. Linear peeling-ballooning stability analysis with the ELITE code suggests that the ELMs which persist during the RMPs when beta(N) is below the observed threshold are not type I ELMs, because the pedestal conditions are deep within the stable regime for peeling-ballooning modes. These ELMs have similarities to type III ELMs or low density ELMs.

  17. Male seminal fluid proteins are essential for sperm storage in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Tram, U; Wolfner, M F

    1999-01-01

    The seminal fluid that is transferred along with sperm during mating acts in many ways to maximize a male's reproductive success. Here, we use transgenic Drosophila melanogaster males deficient in the seminal fluid proteins derived from the accessory gland (Acps) to investigate the role of these proteins in the fate of sperm transferred to females during mating. Competitive PCR assays were used to show that while Acps contribute to the efficiency of sperm transfer, they are not essential for the transfer of sperm to the female. In contrast, we found that Acps are essential for storage of sperm by females. Direct counts of stored sperm showed that 10% of normal levels are stored by females whose mates transfer little or no Acps along with sperm. PMID:10511561

  18. Effect of acute hyperglycemia on potassium (86Rb+) permeability and plasma lipid peroxidation in subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Güven, M; Onaran, I; Ulutin, T; Sultuybek, G; Hatemi, H

    2001-04-01

    Hyperglycemia is likely to be one of the important determinants of ion transport as it is known to induce oxidative stress and may thus enhance non-specific permeability of membranes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an acute increase in glycemia on 86Rb+ (a marker for K+) influx and lipid peroxidation. We evaluated the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-induced modification on 86Rb+ influx and plasma lipid peroxidation in 20 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). After 2-hour glucose loading, the levels of passive 86Rb+ influx and plasma lipid peroxidation were significantly increased, whereas the active influx of 86Rb+ was unchanged. The total and passive influx of 86Rb+ into erythrocytes was significantly correlated with the level of plasma lipid peroxidation. This study demonstrates that acute hyperglycemia induces an increase in the passive influx of 86Rb+ in subjects with NGT, suggesting that acute hyperglycemia may produce an oxidative stress in plasma. These changes may be among the earliest changes occurring in response to hyperglycemia. PMID:11383909

  19. Effect of acute hyperglycemia on potassium (86Rb+) permeability and plasma lipid peroxidation in subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Güven, M; Onaran, I; Ulutin, T; Sultuybek, G; Hatemi, H

    2001-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is likely to be one of the important determinants of ion transport as it is known to induce oxidative stress and may thus enhance non-specific permeability of membranes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an acute increase in glycemia on 86Rb+ (a marker for K+) influx and lipid peroxidation. We evaluated the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-induced modification on 86Rb+ influx and plasma lipid peroxidation in 20 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). After 2-hour glucose loading, the levels of passive 86Rb+ influx and plasma lipid peroxidation were significantly increased, whereas the active influx of 86Rb+ was unchanged. The total and passive influx of 86Rb+ into erythrocytes was significantly correlated with the level of plasma lipid peroxidation. This study demonstrates that acute hyperglycemia induces an increase in the passive influx of 86Rb+ in subjects with NGT, suggesting that acute hyperglycemia may produce an oxidative stress in plasma. These changes may be among the earliest changes occurring in response to hyperglycemia. PMID:11508792

  20. Investigation of complexity dynamics of inverse and normal homoclinic bifurcation in a glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Debajyoti Kumar Shaw, Pankaj; Janaki, M. S.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.; Ghosh, Sabuj; Mitra, Vramori Michael Wharton, Alpha

    2014-03-15

    Order-chaos-order was observed in the relaxation oscillations of a glow discharge plasma with variation in the discharge voltage. The first transition exhibits an inverse homoclinic bifurcation followed by a homoclinic bifurcation in the second transition. For the two regimes of observations, a detailed analysis of correlation dimension, Lyapunov exponent, and Renyi entropy was carried out to explore the complex dynamics of the system.

  1. The interaction of atmospheric pressure plasma jets with cancer and normal cells: generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and changes of the cell proliferation and cell cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Tae Hun; Joh, Hea Min; Kim, Sun Ja; Leem, Sun Hee

    2013-09-01

    The possibility of atmospheric pressure plasmas is emerging as a candidate in cancer therapy. The primary role is played by reactive oxygen species (ROS), UV photons, charged particles and electric fields. Among them, intracellular ROS induced by plasma are considered to be the key constituents that induce cellular changes and apoptosis. In this study, the effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on cancer cells (human lung carcinoma cells) and normal cells (embryonic kidney cells and bronchial epithelial cells) were investigated. The plasma treatment was performed under different working gases, applied voltages, gas flow rates, and with and without additive oxygen flow. Using a detection dye, we observed that plasma exposure leads to the increase of the intracellular ROS and that the intracellular ROS production can be controlled by plasma parameters. A significant ROS generation was induced by plasma exposure on cancer cells and the overproduction of ROS contributes to the reduced cell proliferation. Normal cells were observed to be less affected by the plasma-mediated ROS and cell proliferation was less changed. The plasma treatment also resulted in the alteration of the cell cycle that contributes to the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. The selective effect on cancer and normal cells provides a promising prospect of cold plasma as cancer therapy. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea under Contract No. 2012R1A1A2002591 and 2012R1A1A3010213.

  2. Response to fifty grams oral glucose challenge test and pattern of preceding fasting plasma glucose in normal pregnant Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Godwin Olufemi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy has profound implications for the baby and mother and thus active screening for this is desirable. Method: Fifty grams oral glucose challenge test was administered after obtaining consent to 222 women in good health with singleton pregnancies without diabetes mellitus at 24 to 28 weeks gestation after an overnight fast. Venous blood sample was obtained before and 1 hour after the glucose load. A diagnostic 3-hour 100 g oral glucose tolerance test was subsequently performed in all. Results: Two hundred and ten women had a normal response to oral glucose tolerance test i.e. venous plasma glucose below these cut-off levels: fasting 95 mg/dl (5.3 mmol/l), 1 hour 180 mg/dl (10.0 mmol/l), 2 hours 155 mg/dl (8.6 mmol/l) and 3 hours 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l), while 12 were found to have gestational diabetes mellitus and were subsequently excluded from the study. They were appropriately managed. The mean maternal age was 30.9 ± 4.1 years (range 19 to 45 years) and the mean parity was 1.2 ± 1.1 (range 0 to 5). The mean fasting plasma glucose was 74.5 ± 11.5 mg/dl (range 42 to 117 mg/dl), while the mean plasma glucose 1 hour after 50 g glucose challenge test was 115.3 ± 19.1 mg/dl (range 56 to 180 mg/dl). Conclusions: The mean fasting plasma glucose in normal pregnant Nigerians was 74.5 ± 11.5 mg/dl (range 42 to 117 mg/dl). There is a need to re-appraise and possibly review downwards the World Health Organization fasting plasma glucose diagnostic criteria in pregnant Nigerians for better detection of gestational diabetes mellitus. Pregnant women with venous plasma glucose greater than 153.5 mg/dl (8.5 mmol/l) 1 hour after 50 g glucose challenge test are strongly recommended for diagnostic test of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  3. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and change of cell viability induced by atmospheric pressure plasma in normal and cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ja Kim, Sun; Min Joh, Hea; Chung, T. H.

    2013-10-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on cancer cells (human lung carcinoma cells) and normal cells (embryonic kidney cells and bronchial epithelial cells) were investigated. Using a detection dye, the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found to be increased in plasma-treated cells compared to non-treated and gas flow-treated cells. A significant overproduction of ROS and a reduction in cell viability were induced by plasma exposure on cancer cells. Normal cells were observed to be less affected by the plasma-mediated ROS, and cell viability was less changed. The selective effect on cancer and normal cells provides a promising prospect of cold plasma as a cancer therapy.

  4. [Surface properties and size of very low and low density lipoproteins in human plasma in normal states and in hypercholesterolemia].

    PubMed

    Voziian, P A; Kholodova, Iu D; Smirnova, I P; Chobot'ko, G M

    1988-01-01

    Dimensions and density of surface charge of very low (VLDL) and low density lipoproteins (LDL) from hyman blood plasma under conditions of normal state and hypercholesterolemia were evaluated by means of radiation-free energy transition between fluorescent probes and potentiometric titration. Radia of VLDL constituted 13.9 +/- 0.6 nm and 20.7 +/- 1.2 nm and those of LDL--10.0 +/- 0.5 nm and 12 +/- 0.4 nm, respectively, in normal state and under the pathological conditions, while the density of surface charge of VLDL was equal to 0.5 X X 10(-2)K/m2 and 0.3.10(-2)K/m2; those of LDL--0.2.10(-2)K/m2 and 0.05.10(-2)K/m2, respectively. These alterations appear to facilitate the unspecific interaction between atherogenic lipoproteins and vascular cells in hypercholesterolemia. PMID:3369119

  5. Congenital Seminal Vesicle Cyst Associated with Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hun Soo; Rim, Joung Sik

    2009-01-01

    Purpose A seminal vesicle cyst in combination with ipsilateral renal agenesis is rarely encountered. We present cases of this disease entity with symptoms, which were treated with a laparoscopic approach as a minimally invasive surgical treatment. Materials and Methods We experienced 4 patients with seminal vesicle cysts and ipsilateral renal agenesis. The mean age was 45.8 years. Chief complaints were perineal pain and hematospermia. Seminal vesicle cysts and remnant ureters were excised by laparoscopic surgery with transperitoneal approaches. Results The mean operative time was 133.8 minutes. The mean hospital stay was 6.8 days. There were no operative complications or transfusions. Conclusion In our report, patients of congenital seminal vesicle cyst associated with renal agenesis are presented. Laparoscopy is considered a minimal invasive management of these combined anomalies, providing a good image and an easy approach. PMID:19718406

  6. Seminal vesicle agenesis: An uncommon cause of azoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Bouzouita, Abderrazak; Kerkeni, Walid; Abouda, Hassine; Khrouf, Mohamed; Elloumi, Hanene; Mnif, Najla; Messaoud, Taieb; Zhioua, Amel; Zhioua, Fethi; Chebil, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Seminal vesicle malformations are a rare cause of obstructive azoospermia, often associated with other internal genitalia and upper urinary tract birth defects. We report 5 new cases of seminal vesicle agenesis in men presenting with hypospermia and azoospermia. Imaging showed seminal vesicle unilateral agenesis in all patients. The remaining seminal vesicle was hypoplastic in 3 cases, dilated in 1 case and with abnormally thick content in another case. Vas deferens agenesis was observed unilaterally in 2 patients and bilaterally in 2 other patients. No renal malformations were detected. Genetic study showed in all cases a 46 XY karyotype without any microdeletions. A single heterozygous cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene mutation was diagnosed in 1 man, but not found in his partner. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection using sperm from a testicular biopsy was performed in 3 couples, without success. PMID:24839497

  7. Origin and significance of acetylcholine and choline in plasma and serum from normal and paretic cows.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, S

    1991-12-01

    Before the onset of bovine paresis a stage of hyperactivity and hypersensitivity was observed in clinical as well as in immunologically provoked cases. By gas chromatographic analysis of choline (Ch) in plasma and serum from four immunologically provoked cows this stage was verified to be an initial immuno-cholinergic hyperactivation. In the first hour after antigen challenge with 0.5 mg nematode AChE there was a very sharp rise in Ch mainly from agonist-stimulated and phospholipase mediated phosphatidylcholine (PC) breakdown. A secondary massive influx of Ca into cells was mirrored in a 1 mmol/l depression of serum-Ca values during the first hours. The hyperagonism mediated Ca-translocation brought water into cells, resulting in reduced plasma volume. The generally supposed mechanism of secondary, Ca-mediated cell damage and cell death was initiated and sometimes resulted in "Downers" with persisting paralysis. All acetylcholine (ACh)-stimulated parts from CNS to the periphery are irregularly involved explaining the very varied clinical appearance of bovine paresis, and the influence on for instance the autonomous nerve system, adrenals and pancreas. In the experimental group, ACh in plasma showed a sharp fall within the first hour, while there were fairly constant values of serum-ACh in the first four hours, possibly indicating some antibody protection. When paresis was established between 15-28 hours after challenge the general anergetic state was characterised by low ACh-levels. Also in a larger field group ACh-levels were significantly depressed in paretic compared to healthy cows. The unexpected finding in this group was considerably higher levels of ACh and especially Ch in serum compared to plasma. The origin of ACh and Ch had to be blood cells. Preliminary gas chromatographic analysis has confirmed ACh-synthesis by leucocytes and an integrated immuno-cholinergic system of great importance can be anticipated. The general feature of bovine paresis is updated

  8. Imbalance in Seminal Fluid MIF Indicates Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Aljabari, Bayan; Calogero, Aldo E; Perdichizzi, Anna; Vicari, Enzo; Karaki, Raja; Lahloub, Tarek; Zatari, Rashed; El-Abed, Khaleel; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Miller, Edmund J; Pavlov, Valentin A; Al-Abed, Yousef

    2007-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a ubiquitous cytokine that functions in reproduction and plays an important role in sperm maturation and motility. Here we reveal a correlation between MIF levels in human seminal fluid and fertility status. We identify an abnormal biphasic profile of MIF in the seminal fluid of patients with impaired sperm parameters. Our findings may be of interest for the development of a diagnostic method for fertility status. PMID:17592555

  9. Metabolomics of Human Amniotic Fluid and Maternal Plasma during Normal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Deja, Stanislaw; Hirnle, Lidia; Zabek, Adam; Mlynarz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic profiles of amniotic fluid and maternal blood are sources of valuable information about fetus development and can be potentially useful in diagnosis of pregnancy disorders. In this study, we applied 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling to track metabolic changes occurring in amniotic fluid (AF) and plasma (PL) of healthy mothers over the course of pregnancy. AF and PL samples were collected in the 2nd (T2) and 3rd (T3) trimester, prolonged pregnancy (PP) until time of delivery (TD). A multivariate data analysis of both biofluids reviled a metabolic switch-like transition between 2nd and 3rd trimester, which was followed by metabolic stabilization throughout the rest of pregnancy probably reflecting the stabilization of fetal maturation and development. The differences were further tested using univariate statistics at α = 0.001. In plasma the progression from T2 to T3 was related to increasing levels of glycerol, choline and ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) while pyruvate concentration was significantly decreased. In amniotic fluid, T2 to T3 transition was associated with decreasing levels of glucose, carnitine, amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine, alanine, methionine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine) and increasing levels of creatinine, succinate, pyruvate, choline, N,N-dimethylglycine and urocanate. Lactate to pyruvate ratio was decreased in AF and conversely increased in PL. The results of our study, show that metabolomics profiling can be used to better understand physiological changes of the complex interdependencies of the mother, the placenta and the fetus during pregnancy. In the future, these results might be a useful reference point for analysis of complicated pregnancies. PMID:27070784

  10. Metabolomics of Human Amniotic Fluid and Maternal Plasma during Normal Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Orczyk-Pawilowicz, Magdalena; Jawien, Ewa; Deja, Stanislaw; Hirnle, Lidia; Zabek, Adam; Mlynarz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic profiles of amniotic fluid and maternal blood are sources of valuable information about fetus development and can be potentially useful in diagnosis of pregnancy disorders. In this study, we applied 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling to track metabolic changes occurring in amniotic fluid (AF) and plasma (PL) of healthy mothers over the course of pregnancy. AF and PL samples were collected in the 2nd (T2) and 3rd (T3) trimester, prolonged pregnancy (PP) until time of delivery (TD). A multivariate data analysis of both biofluids reviled a metabolic switch-like transition between 2nd and 3rd trimester, which was followed by metabolic stabilization throughout the rest of pregnancy probably reflecting the stabilization of fetal maturation and development. The differences were further tested using univariate statistics at α = 0.001. In plasma the progression from T2 to T3 was related to increasing levels of glycerol, choline and ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) while pyruvate concentration was significantly decreased. In amniotic fluid, T2 to T3 transition was associated with decreasing levels of glucose, carnitine, amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine, alanine, methionine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine) and increasing levels of creatinine, succinate, pyruvate, choline, N,N-dimethylglycine and urocanate. Lactate to pyruvate ratio was decreased in AF and conversely increased in PL. The results of our study, show that metabolomics profiling can be used to better understand physiological changes of the complex interdependencies of the mother, the placenta and the fetus during pregnancy. In the future, these results might be a useful reference point for analysis of complicated pregnancies. PMID:27070784

  11. Analgesic and thermic effects, and cerebrospinal fluid and plasma pharmacokinetics, of intracerebroventricularly administered morphine in normal and sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, H N; Villar, V M; Cortijo, J; Morcillo, E J

    1998-02-01

    The relationship between asthma and opioids has barely been investigated. This study examines whether active sensitization of rats changes the analgesic and thermic effects of intracerebroventricular morphine or the pharmacokinetics of the drug. Morphine (5, 10 and 20 microg) was given intracerebroventricularly to sensitized (active immunization to ovalbumin and Al(OH)3 then airway challenge with ovalbumin after 12 days) and normal (i.e. non-sensitized) male Sprague-Dawley rats. The tail-flick latencies and changes in colon temperature were determined before morphine injection and at 30 min intervals for a period of 300 min afterwards. Results were expressed as the area under the time-response curve. The analgesic and hyperthermic response to morphine for sensitized rats was less than that obtained for normal rats. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples were collected periodically for a period of 240 min and morphine levels were determined by a highly sensitive radioimmunoassay. The pharmacokinetic parameters half-life, terminal elimination rate constant and the mean residence time were determined in both cerebrospinal fluid and plasma by non-compartmental analysis. The area under the cerebrospinal fluid concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity was higher for sensitized rats than for normal rats for all three doses of morphine but these differences did not correspond with similar changes in pharmacological responses. In conclusion, the attenuated analgesic and thermic responses to intracerebroventricular morphine in the sensitized rats might be a result of pharmacodynamic alterations rather than to pharmacokinetic changes. PMID:9530988

  12. Aspartame ingestion with and without carbohydrate in phenylketonuric and normal subjects: effect on plasma concentrations of amino acids, glucose, and insulin.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Novak, L C; Stegink, L D; Brummel, M C; Persoon, T J; Filer, L J; Bell, E F; Ziegler, E E; Krause, W L

    1990-04-01

    Seven subjects homozygous for phenylketonuria (PKU) and seven normal subjects were administered four beverage regimens after an overnight fast: unsweetened beverage, beverage providing carbohydrate (CHO), beverage providing aspartame (APM), and beverage providing APM plus CHO. The APM dose (200 mg) was the amount provided in 12 oz of diet beverage; the CHO was partially hydrolyzed starch (60 g). Plasma amino acid concentrations were determined after dosing and the molar plasma phenylalanine (Phe) to large neutral amino acid (LNAA) ratio calculated. APM administration without CHO did not increase plasma Phe concentrations over baseline values in either normal or PKU subjects (5.48 +/- 0.85 and 150 +/- 23.0 mumols/dL, respectively). Similarly, the Phe/LNAA did not increase significantly. Ingestion of beverage providing APM and CHO did not significantly increase plasma Phe concentrations over baseline values in either normal or PKU subjects. However, ingestion of beverage providing CHO (with or without APM) significantly decreased plasma levels of valine, isoleucine, and leucine 1.5 to 4 hours after dosing in both normal and PKU subjects, thereby increasing the Phe/LNAA ratio significantly. These data indicate that changes noted in Phe/LNAA values after ingestion of beverage providing APM plus CHO were due to CHO. The plasma insulin response to beverage providing CHO (with or without APM) was significantly higher in PKU subjects than in normals. PMID:2182973

  13. Changes in Levels of Seminal Nitric Oxide Synthase, Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor, Sperm DNA Integrity and Caspase-3 in Fertile Men after Scrotal Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhi-Da; Wang, Lei-Guang; Qiu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background This study observes changes in levels of seminal nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), sperm DNA integrity, chromatin condensation and Caspase-3in adult healthy men after scrotal heat stress (SHS). Methods Exposure of the scrotum of 25 healthy male volunteers locally at 40–43°C SHS belt warming 40 min each day for successive 2 d per week. The course of SHS was continuously 3 months. Routine semen analysis, hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test, Aniline blue (AB) staining, HOS/AB and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated d UDP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) were carried out before, during and after SHS. Seminal NO and NOS contents were determined by nitrate reduction method. The activated Caspase-3 levels of spermatozoa and MIF in seminal plasma were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Statistical significance between mean values was determined using statistical ANOVA tests. Results The mean parameters of sperm concentration, motile and progressive motile sperm and normal morphological sperm were significantly decreased in groups during SHS 1, 2 and 3 months compared with those in groups of pre-SHS (P<0.001). Statistically significant differences of sperm DNA fragmentation, normal sperm membrane, and Caspase-3 activity as well as the level of NO, NOS and MIF in semen were observed between the groups before SHS and after SHS 3 months and the groups during SHS 1, 2 and 3 months (P<0.001). After three months of the SHS, various parameters recovered to the level before SHS. WBC in semen showed a positively significant correlation with the levels of NO, NOS, MIF and Caspase-3 activity. The percentage of abnormal sperm by using the test of HOS showed a positively significant correlation with that of HOS/AB. Conclusions The continuously constant SHS can impact the semen quality and sperm DNA and chromatin, which may be contributed to the high level of NO, NOS, MIF and Caspase

  14. Interactions of normal and mutant vesicular stomatitis virus matrix proteins with the plasma membrane and nucleocapsids.

    PubMed Central

    Chong, L D; Rose, J K

    1994-01-01

    We demonstrated recently that a fraction of the matrix (M) protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) binds tightly to cellular membranes in vivo when expressed in the absence of other VSV proteins. This membrane-associated M protein was functional in binding purified VSV nucleocapsids in vitro. Here we show that the membrane-associated M protein is largely associated with a membrane fraction having the density of plasma membranes, indicating membrane specificity in the binding. In addition, we analyzed truncated forms of M protein to identify regions responsible for membrane association and nucleocapsid binding. Truncated M protein lacking the amino-terminal basic domain still associated with cellular membranes, although not as tightly as wild-type M protein, and could not bind nucleocapsids. In contrast, deletion of the carboxy-terminal 14 amino acids did not disrupt stable membrane association or nucleocapsid interaction. These results suggest that the amino terminus of M protein either interacts directly with membranes and nucleocapsids or stabilizes a conformation that is required for M protein to mediate both of these interactions. Images PMID:8254754

  15. Predicting hydrogen isotope inventory in plasma-facing components during normal and abnormal operations in fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Alice; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen isotope behavior and inventory in plasma-facing components (PFCs) of fusion devices are key concerns for safe, reliable, and economical operation. To accurately estimate hydrogen isotope retention and recovery in tungsten (the current leading candidate as a PFC), we have developed a model that was recently benchmarked against isotope depth profile and retention level in a tungsten target under various conditions and compared with both experimental data and simulation results. In this research, we have extended the model to include details of transient events. Therefore, one can use this model to estimate hydrogen isotope retention behavior in tungsten and potential other PFC candidates during normal operational pulse, effects of edge-localized modes (ELMs), and a possible cleaning processes scenario.

  16. Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Seminal Vesicle Cystadenoma Excision

    PubMed Central

    Mourmouris, Panagiotis; Tufek, İlter; Saglican, Yesim; Obek, Can; Kural, Ali Riza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cystadenoma is an extremely rare benign tumor of the seminal vesicle. Diagnosis of these tumors and differential diagnosis from malignant ones may be challenging since most of the time symptoms do not occur. Management of these tumors remains debatable due to the limited data in the literature. We present the first robot-assisted laparoscopic excision of a cystadenoma of the seminal vesicle. Case Presentation: A 48-year-old man presented with diminished ejaculate volume and a 3.5 cm right seminal vesicle mass, which increased its size at 6 cm after the 3-month period. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy revealed no malignancy. Robot-assisted laparoscopic excision of the tumor was performed. Port placement was the same as robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Operative time and estimated blood loss were 240 minutes and 200 mL, respectively. Patient was discharged on postoperative day 3 without any complications. Final histopathologic examination revealed cystadenoma of the seminal vesicle. Conclusion: Surgical intervention may be considered when a cystadenoma of the seminal vesicle is diagnosed and symptoms or tumor growth occurs. Robot-assisted laparoscopic excision is an alternative in the management of these rare tumors.

  17. 4D tracking of clinical seminal samples for quantitative characterization of motility parameters

    PubMed Central

    Di Caprio, Giuseppe; El Mallahi, Ahmed; Ferraro, Pietro; Dale, Roberta; Coppola, Gianfranco; Dale, Brian; Coppola, Giuseppe; Dubois, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of a digital holographic microscope, with partial spatial coherent illumination, for the automated detection and tracking of spermatozoa. This in vitro technique for the analysis of quantitative parameters is useful for assessment of semen quality. In fact, thanks to the capabilities of digital holography, the developed algorithm allows us to resolve in-focus amplitude and phase maps of the cells under study, independently of focal plane of the sample image. We have characterized cell motility on clinical samples of seminal fluid. In particular, anomalous sperm cells were characterized and the quantitative motility parameters were compared to those of normal sperm. PMID:24688806

  18. The distribution of PAX-2 immunoreactivity in the prostate gland, seminal vesicle, and ejaculatory duct: comparison with prostatic adenocarcinoma and discussion of prostatic zonal embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Quick, Charles M; Gokden, Neriman; Sangoi, Ankur R; Brooks, James D; McKenney, Jesse K

    2010-08-01

    PAX-2 is a homeogene strongly expressed during development of the genitourinary tract, including the kidney and both wolffian- and müllerian-derived tissues. Expression of PAX-2 by immunohistochemistry has been studied mainly in renal epithelial neoplasms with little attention to the lower male genitourinary tract. We studied PAX-2 expression in epithelium of normal seminal vesicle, normal ejaculatory duct, normal prostatic secretory epithelium, and prostatic adenocarcinoma to define its immunoreactivity pattern throughout the prostate gland and to evaluate its potential diagnostic role in the discrimination of seminal vesicle/ejaculatory duct epithelium from prostatic adenocarcinoma. In addition, given that PAX-2 is highly expressed in tissues of wolffian duct embryologic origin, we also sought to confirm the divergent embryogenesis of the central zone, seminal vesicle, and ejaculatory duct from other regions of the prostate. Prostatectomy specimens from 12 patients were reviewed to identify blocks containing seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct, periurethral glands, benign prostatic glands, and prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma. A total of 35 blocks from the 12 patients were evaluated. In addition, 2 tissue microarrays representing 15 additional seminal vesicles and 45 prostatic adenocarcinomas, 7 whole sections from prostatic adenocarcinomas of the central zone, and 5 core needle biopsies of seminal vesicle were also evaluated with anti-PAX-2 antibody. In the 12 radical prostatectomy whole sections, nuclear reactivity for PAX-2 was identified in 12 (100%) of 12 of the seminal vesicle epithelium, 9 (90%) of 10 of the ejaculatory duct epithelium, 0 of 12 of the prostatic adenocarcinoma, and 0 of 6 of the high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. All 20 total additional seminal vesicles were positive for PAX-2 in the tissue microarray and biopsies; and all 52 additional prostatic adenocarcinomas were negative, including 7 of central zone origin. The staining

  19. Chondroitin sulfate in normal human plasma is modified depending on the age. Its evaluation in patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Nicola; Maccari, Francesca

    2006-08-01

    Plasma chondroitin sulfate (CS) amount and charge density were determined in 45 healthy volunteers (control group), 45 pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE)-affected patients and 19 healthy carriers by using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) and HPLC equipped with postcolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection. The mean values of CS amount were 4.9+/-1.21 for volunteers, 4.7+/-1.40 for PXE subjects and 4.4+/-1.44 for the carriers. No significant differences were found for the three human subjects groups. On the contrary, by considering the age of normal volunteers, a significant increase of plasma CS amount was measured. In fact, the volunteers aging from 17 to 40 years (mean 32.1) showed a CS concentration of 4.3+/-1.30 while the group ranging from 50 to 74 years (mean 56.9) had a value of 5.6+/-1.16 with a significant increase of +30.2%. The same significant increase in CS plasma content with increasing age was measured for PXE-affected and healthy carriers group. Extracted plasma CS was evaluated for the main two unsaturated disaccharides, non-sulfated and 4-monosulfated, and the charge density determined. The mean values were 0.54+/-0.13 for volunteers, 0.60+/-0.15 for PXE subjects and 0.50+/-0.15 for the carriers. A significant increase of +11.1% was found between the PXE patients and healthy human group but no differences were calculated between the control group and the carriers. Furthermore, besides a CS amount, the volunteers aging from 17 to 40 years (mean 32.1) showed a charge density of 0.53+/-0.14 while the group ranging from 50 to 74 years (mean 56.9) had a value of 0.58+/-0.17 with a significant increase of +9.4%. The same trend was measured for the healthy carriers group. The CS charge density of PXE-affected subjects was found to increase significantly more than healthy controls depending on the age. In fact, the PXE patients aging from 10 to 40 years (mean 29.3) showed a charge density of 0.56+/-0.14 while the group ranging

  20. Postcoital Hemorrhage of a Recurrent Seminal Vesicle Cyst Requiring Embolization☆

    PubMed Central

    Royston, Eric; Walker, Marc; Ching, Brian; Morilla, Daniel; Sterbis, Joseph; McMann, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Herein is a case of a 23-year-old man with recurrence of a seminal vesicle cyst after percutaneous drainage and laparoscopic excision complicated by hemorrhage requiring embolization. He presented to the emergency department for pain after ejaculation. Computed tomographic scan of his pelvis revealed extravasation of contrast near his cyst and pelvic fluid collection suspicious for a hematoma. The patient had steadily decreasing hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. An interventional radiologist performed an embolization of the left seminal vesicle cystic arteries. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values improved and he was discharged. Hemorrhage resolved with embolization procedure and pain dissipated over the course of follow up care. PMID:26958478

  1. Postcoital Hemorrhage of a Recurrent Seminal Vesicle Cyst Requiring Embolization.

    PubMed

    Royston, Eric; Walker, Marc; Ching, Brian; Morilla, Daniel; Sterbis, Joseph; McMann, Leah

    2014-09-01

    Herein is a case of a 23-year-old man with recurrence of a seminal vesicle cyst after percutaneous drainage and laparoscopic excision complicated by hemorrhage requiring embolization. He presented to the emergency department for pain after ejaculation. Computed tomographic scan of his pelvis revealed extravasation of contrast near his cyst and pelvic fluid collection suspicious for a hematoma. The patient had steadily decreasing hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. An interventional radiologist performed an embolization of the left seminal vesicle cystic arteries. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values improved and he was discharged. Hemorrhage resolved with embolization procedure and pain dissipated over the course of follow up care. PMID:26958478

  2. High normalized beta plasmas exceeding the ideal stability limit and projected RWM active stabilization performance using newly installed feedback sensors in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Berkery, J. W.; Bialek, J. M.; Yoon, S. W.; Jeon, Y. M.; Bak, J. G.; Ko, W. H.; Hahn, S. H.; Bae, C.; Bae, Y. S.; in, Y. K.; Kim, J.; Lee, S. G.; Kwak, J. G.; Oh, Y. K.; Park, H. K.; Choi, M. J.; Yun, G. S.

    2015-11-01

    H-mode plasma operation of KSTAR has been expanded to significantly surpass the ideal MHD no-wall beta limit by achieving normalized beta up to 4.3 while reducing plasma internal inductance to near 0.7 exceeding the computed n = 1 ideal no-wall limit by a factor of 1.6. These high normalized beta values have been achieved in discharges having BT in the range 0.9-1.1 T after the plasma reached flattop current of 0.35-0.4 MA, with the highest neutral beam heating power of 4 MW. A significant conclusion of the analysis of these plasmas is that low- n global kink/ballooning or RWMs were not detected, and therefore were not the cause of the plasma termination. Advances from the 2015 run campaign aiming to achieve prolonged pulse duration at maximum normalized beta and to subsequently investigate the MHD stability of these plasmas will be reported. As KSTAR H-mode operation can now routinely surpass the ideal no-wall stability limit, n = 1 RWM active control is planned for the device. RWM active feedback using a newly installed set of poloidal magnetic field sensors mounted on the passive stabilizer plates and designed for optimal performance is analyzed using the VALEN-3D code. The advantages of the new sensors over other device sensors for RWM active control are discussed. Supported by U.S. DOE grant DE-FG02-99ER54524.

  3. Pathway-Based Genome-Wide Association Studies for Plasma Triglycerides in Obese Females and Normal-Weight Controls

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Struan F. A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Price, R. Arlen; Li, Wei-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Pathway-based analysis as an alternative approach can provide complementary information to single-marker genome-wide association studies (GWASs), which always ignore the epistasis and does not have sufficient power to find rare variants. In this study, using genotypes from a genome-wide association study (GWAS), pathway-based association studies were carried out by a modified Gene Set Enrichment Algorithm (GSEA) method (GenGen) for triglyceride in 1028 unrelated European-American extremely obese females (BMI≥35kg/m2) and normal-weight controls (BMI<25kg/m2), and another pathway association analysis (ICSNPathway) was also used to verify the GenGen result in the same data. The GO0009110 pathway (vitamin anabolism) was among the strongest associations with triglyceride (empirical P<0.001); the result remained significant after FDR correction (P = 0.022). MMAB, an obesity-related locus, included in this pathway. The ABCG1 and BCL6 gene was found in several triglyceride-related pathways (empirical P<0.05), which were also replicated by ICSNPathway (empirical P<0.05, FDR<0.05). We also performed single-marked GWAS using PLINK for TG levels (log-transformed). Significant associations were found between ASTN2 gene SNPs and plasma triglyceride levels (rs7035794, P = 2.24×10−10). Our study suggested that vitamin anabolism pathway, BCL6 gene pathways and ASTN2 gene may contribute to the genetic variation of plasma triglyceride concentrations. PMID:26308950

  4. Seminal vesicle proteins SVS3 and SVS4 facilitate SVS2 effect on sperm capacitation.

    PubMed

    Araki, Naoya; Kawano, Natsuko; Kang, Woojin; Miyado, Kenji; Yoshida, Kaoru; Yoshida, Manabu

    2016-10-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa acquire their fertilizing ability in the female reproductive tract (sperm capacitation). On the other hand, seminal vesicle secretion, which is a major component of seminal plasma, inhibits the initiation of sperm capacitation (capacitation inhibition) and reduces the fertility of the capacitated spermatozoa (decapacitation). There are seven major proteins involved in murine seminal vesicle secretion (SVS1-7), and we have previously shown that SVS2 acts as both a capacitation inhibitor and a decapacitation factor, and is indispensable for in vivo fertilization. However, the effects of SVSs other than SVS2 on the sperm have not been elucidated. Since mouse Svs2-Svs6 genes evolved by gene duplication belong to the same gene family, it is possible that SVSs other than SVS2 also have some effects on sperm capacitation. In this study, we examined the effects of SVS3 and SVS4 on sperm capacitation. Our results showed that both SVS3 and SVS4 are able to bind to spermatozoa, but SVS3 alone showed no effects on sperm capacitation. On the other hand, SVS4 acted as a capacitation inhibitor, although it did not show decapacitation abilities. Interestingly, SVS3 showed an affinity for SVS2 and it facilitated the effects of SVS2. Interaction of SVS2 and spermatozoa is mediated by the ganglioside GM1 in the sperm membrane; however, both SVS3 and SVS4 had weaker affinities for GM1 than SVS2. Therefore, we suggest that separate processes may cause capacitation inhibition and decapacitation, and SVS3 and SVS4 act on sperm capacitation cooperatively with SVS2. PMID:27486266

  5. Effects of 17alpha-methyltestosterone on seminal vesicle development and semen release response in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Viveiros, A T; Eding, E H; Komen, J

    2001-11-01

    The effects of 17alpha-methyltestosterone on seminal vesicle development in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, were investigated in an attempt to improve semen collection from this species. Treatment of larvae with dietary 17alpha-methyltestosterone at 50 mg kg(-1) for days 12-33 or days 12-40 after hatching, or at 20 mg kg(-1) for days 12-26, 12-33, 12-40 or 12-47 after hatching inhibited the development of the seminal vesicle finger-like extensions in male catfish, but did not affect the sex ratio. The minimum effective dose and period of treatment to inhibit seminal vesicle development in all male catfish treated with 17alpha-methyltestosterone was 20 mg kg(-1) for days 12-40 after hatching. Male catfish from this treatment group developed normal testes that, in some cases, contained a few oocytes, which tended to disappear before sexual maturation. After sexual maturation, the semen release response was evaluated in males with incomplete seminal vesicles. Fluid with viable spermatozoa was obtained after two consecutive injections of carp pituitary suspension, from 10 of 19 males that had been fed 20 mg 17alpha-methyltestosterone kg(-1) for days 12-40 or days 12-47 after hatching, but from only 4 of 15 males that did not receive any dietary steroid. Intratesticular semen quality was not affected by 17alpha-methyltestosterone treatment. The results of this study demonstrate that the absence of seminal vesicle extensions induced by treatment with 17alpha-methyltestosterone facilitated the collection of semen by stripping from this species of fish. PMID:11690543

  6. Improvement of llama (Lama glama) seminal characteristics using collagenase.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, S; Carretero, M; Gambarotta, M; Neild, D; Trasorras, V; Pinto, M; Miragaya, M

    2010-03-01

    Llama semen is characterized by great structural viscosity and minimal sperm progressive motility. These characteristics, inherent to South American Camelid ejaculates, have slowed down the development of assisted reproductive techniques in these species. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of different combinations of dilutions and incubation time with H-TALP-BSA medium, with and without adding 0.1% collagenase, on the qualitative and quantitative semen characteristics, for its use in assisted fertility techniques. Ejaculates (n=8; r=3) were obtained using electroejaculation. Each ejaculate was evaluated and then split into four aliquots. Two of these were diluted 4:1 and 8:1 in 0.1% collagenase in H-TALP-BSA (treatments 1 and 3) and the other two 4:1 and 8:1 in H-TALP-BSA without collagenase (treatments 2 and 4). Treatments 1 and 2 were incubated 4 min at 37 degrees C while treatments 3 and 4 were incubated 8 min. All aliquots were centrifuged at 800 x g for 4 min immediately after incubation. Supernatants were pipetted to observe thread formation and pellets were re-diluted in H-TALP-BSA. Supernatants from samples treated with collagenase did not form a thread when pipetted, while the ones from samples that were not treated with the enzyme did. Only semen samples treated with collagenase showed progressive sperm motility, with averages over 40%. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) for the percentage of live spermatozoa and for the percentage of detached heads between raw and treated semen samples. Percentages of spermatozoa with functional membranes were significantly higher (P< or =0.05) in samples treated with collagenase than in raw semen and in samples incubated without collagenase. These results show that treating semen with 0.1% collagenase in H-TALP-BSA improves semen rheological properties while facilitates the separation of spermatozoa from seminal plasma in llama; it also promotes sperm progressive motility, while

  7. Phallic and seminal masculinity: a theoretical and clinical confusion.

    PubMed

    Figlio, Karl

    2010-02-01

    Both inside and outside psychoanalysis, the word, 'seminal', is used to praise a creative contribution to science and culture. Rarely, however, does it refer to male procreativity, to the structures and functions that subserve it or to the anxiety related to a threat to it. This situation becomes evident in the concept of castration anxiety, which typically refers, with Freud, to cutting off the penis and not to extirpating the testicles. This phallic theory has been debated, repudiated and ignored. While there is an alternative literature on non-phallic masculinity, it is scattered and rarely refers to seminal function. Freud's theory meets his requirement for a well-articulated representation of absolute loss as an experience, but this clear structure--and its repudiation--obscure the observation and theory of the internal world of the male. I propose the concepts of 'seminal masculinity' and 'seminal castration', which I ground in Melanie Klein's concept of depressive anxiety. I contrast them with phallic masculinity and phallic castration anxiety, which I ground in her concept of paranoid-schizoid anxiety. I argue that they meet Freud's requirement that castration be a potential experience and that understanding masculinity demands such a basis. PMID:20433478

  8. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone, Progesterone, Seminal Antisperm Antibody, and Fructose Levels among Jordanian Males with a History of Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghistani, Hala I.; Hamad, Abdul-Wahab R.; Abdel-Dayem, Muna; Al-Swaifi, Mohammad; Abu Zaid, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Due to the biochemical complexity of seminal fluid, we attempt to study the possible correlation between fructose, which is secreted under the effect of androgen hormone, and autoimmunity, which might play a role in varicocele associated infertility, in reducing sperm motility. Seminal fructose, antisperm antibodies (ASAs) and blood steroids hormones (testosterone and progesterone) levels were measured in 66 infertile males with varicocele and 84 without varicocele referred for fertility treatment. Seminal analysis was performed with biochemical measurements of seminal fructose and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR) for ASA. Serum levels of progesterone and testosterone were estimated using a competitive chemoluminescent enzyme immunoassay. The mean values for serum testosterone were 380.74 ± 24.331, 365.9 ± 16.55, and 367.5 ± 21.8 ng/dl, progesterone 0.325 ± 0.243, 0.341 ± 0.022, and 0.357 ± 0.0306 ng/ml, and seminal plasma fructose 359.6 ± 26.75, 315.6 ± 13.08, and 332.08 ± 24.38 mg/dl in males with varicocele, without varicocele, and fertile males, respectively. A significant high level of testosterone was observed within varicocele group (P = .001). This result showed that testosterone may play a role as an infertility determinant in subjects with varicocele. ASA was detected in 18 (26.47%) of cases with varicocele, 20 (38.46%) without varicocele, and in 16 (32.0%) fertile men. Cases with ASAs associated with low sperm motility morphology. An inverse correlation between sperm-bound antibodies and viscosity has been shown (P = .017). ASA showed some significant inverse relations with ages, durations of infertility, and viscosity (P < .05). In addition, a significant correlation was observed between ASA positive seminal plasma and testosterone concentration among infertile cases (with or without varicocele) and fertile (P < .05). Our results suggest a relationship between testicular steroid hormone levels with autoimmunity and sperm antibodies

  9. Environmental factors and not genotype influence the plasma level of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in normal individuals.

    PubMed

    Cullup, H; Middleton, P G; Duggan, G; Conn, J S; Dickinson, A M

    2004-08-01

    Cytokine production may be regulated by both genotypic (single nucleotide or tandem repeat polymorphisms) and non-genotypic factors relating to the environment and inherent biology (i.e. gender). Interleukin (IL)-1 is one of the body's most highly proinflammatory cytokines and is implicated in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases, but also in the maintenance of homeostasis in a number of tissues. The cytokine IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is the competitive inhibitor of the IL-1 agonists IL-1alpha and IL-1beta. In vivo IL-1Ra was measured in a cohort of 200 + blood donors and the effect of the IL-1 gene polymorphisms, environmental and biological factors assessed. In this study, we observed that possession of particular alleles of 5 IL-1 gene polymorphisms (IL1A-889, IL1Alpha VNTR, IL1B -511, IL1B +3953 and the IL1RN VNTR) did not correlate with higher plasma IL-1Ra levels. Environmental factors such as smoking and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ingestion were associated with higher in vivo IL-1Ra levels (P = 0.015 and 0.022, respectively), but biological factors such as gender, age and menstruation status did not have any impact upon in vivo IL-1Ra levels. Genotypic associations of IL-1 gene family polymorphisms with disease features may reflect characteristics of stressed rather than normal control circuits for cytokine production. PMID:15270852

  10. Physical analysis of ejaculate to evaluate the secretory activity of the seminal vesicles and prostate.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Rocha, Fernando Tadeu

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether analysis of the physical properties of ejaculate also has any diagnostic potential for evaluating the function of these accessory sex glands. Diverse normal and abnormal states of coagulation, liquefaction, volume, viscosity and pH were studied with regard to the levels of biochemical markers of the seminal vesicles (fructose and inorganic phosphorus) and prostate (calcium, zinc and acid phosphatase). Fructose and inorganic phosphorus were significantly decreased in samples with absent or poor coagulation (p<0.001), volume < 2.0 mL (p=0.009 and p<0.001, respectively), hypoviscosity (p=0.013 and p<0.001), hyperviscosity (p=0.006 and p<0.001) and pH < or = 7.1 (p=0.018 and p<0.001). Also, fructose and inorganic phosphorus were significantly decreased in samples with liquefaction > 120 min (p=0.003) and pH > 8.0 (p<0.001), respectively. Calcium, zinc and acid phosphatase activity were significantly increased in samples with absent or poor coagulation (p<0.001), and significantly decreased in samples with volume > 5.0 mL (p=0.007, p=0.034 and p=0.011) and pH > 8.0 (p<0.001). Also, calcium and zinc were significantly increased in hypoviscous samples (p=0.012 and p=0.003), whereas the zinc concentration was significantly lower in hyperviscous samples (p=0.026). Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, pH showed the highest predictive power to identify prostate dysfunction (83.6%) and simultaneous prostate and seminal vesicle dysfunction (98.8%). Physical analysis of ejaculate was also found to be clinically useful for evaluating the secretory activity of the seminal vesicles and prostate. Abnormal coagulation, liquefaction, volume, viscosity and pH strongly suggest gland dysfunction. PMID:16232086