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Lipid profiles of sperm and seminal plasma from boars having normal or low sperm motility.  


Sperm plasma membrane lipids have an important role to play in determining membrane fluidity and sperm motility. The objective of the present study was to determine whether there are differences in the lipid and fatty acid (FA) composition of boar sperm and seminal plasma in the ejaculates of boars having different sperm motilities. Semen was collected from two groups of boars having normal (> 60%; n = 53) or low (< 60%; n = 53) motility sperm and the semen was evaluated for motility, morphology and vitality. The semen was then centrifuged to separate the sperm from the seminal plasma and both were kept at -20 °C until analyzed for lipid content and FA profile by gas chromatography. Total antioxidant status (TAS) of seminal plasma was determined using a commercial kit. There were differences (P ? 0.05) in sperm total lipids, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids (SFA), phospholipids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA between boars with normal and low motility sperm. Total lipids, cholesterol, phospholipids, PUFA, DHA and n-3 PUFA were positively correlated with sperm motility, viability, normal morphology and normal plasma membrane. In contrast, SFA and the ratio of n-6: n-3 PUFA were negatively correlated (P ? 0.05) with sperm motility, viability, normal morphology and normal plasma membranes. The TAS of seminal plasma from boars having normal motility sperm was higher (P ? 0.05) than that of boars having low motility sperm and TAS was positively correlated (P = 0.0001) with sperm motility, viability, normal morphology and normal plasma membranes. In summary, differences in sperm motility were related to n-3 PUFA content in the sperm plasma membrane and extracellular antioxidants in seminal plasma which protect sperm plasma membranes from lipid peroxidation during periods of oxidative stress. PMID:21167582

Am-in, N; Kirkwood, R N; Techakumphu, M; Tantasuparuk, W



Antimicrobial activity of bovine seminal plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine seminal plasma (BSP) had marked antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several mycoplasma species were also sensitive to bpvine genital secretions. The activity spectrum differs significantly from that of other antimicrobial factors found in normal tissues such as egg white lysozyme, polylysine, salmine sulphate, spermidine phosphate, and human seminal plasma. Inhibitory activity of BSP

L. M. Schollum; B. D. W. Jarvis; D. F. Bacon



Seminal plasma induces the expression of IL-1? in normal and neoplastic cervical cells via EP2/EGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer is a chronic inflammatory disease of multifactorial etiology usually presenting in sexually active women. Exposure of neoplastic cervical epithelial cells to seminal plasma (SP) has been shown to promote the growth of cancer cells in vitro and tumors in vivo by inducing the expression of inflammatory mediators including pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-1? is a pleotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine induced in several human cancers and has been associated with virulent tumor phenotype and poorer prognosis. Here we investigated the expression of IL-1? in cervical cancer, the role of SP in the regulation of IL-1? in neoplastic cervical epithelial cells and the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation. Methods and results Real-time quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the elevated expression of IL-1? mRNA in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma tissue explants, compared with normal cervix. Using immunohistochemistry, IL-1? was localized to the neoplastically transformed squamous, columnar and glandular epithelium in all cases of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinomas explants studied. We found that SP induced the expression of IL-? in both normal and neoplastic cervical tissue explants. Employing HeLa (adenocarcinoma) cell line as a model system we identified PGE2 and EGF as possible ligands responsible for SP-mediated induction of IL-1? in these neoplastic cells. In addition, we showed that SP activates EP2/EGFR/PI3kinase-Akt signaling to induce IL-1? mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in normal cervical tissue explants the induction of IL-1? by SP is via the activation of EP2/EGFR/PI3 kinase-Akt signaling. Conclusion SP-mediated induction of IL-1? in normal and neoplastic cervical epithelial cells suggests that SP may promote cervical inflammation as well as progression of cervical cancer in sexually active women. PMID:25237386



Identification of fatty acids in canine seminal plasma.  


Seminal plasma contains various biochemical components associated with sperm function. However, there is limited information regarding the fatty acid composition of seminal plasma and their effect on sperm. The aim of this study was to identify the fatty acid content in canine seminal plasma using gas chromatography. Twelve ejaculates were studied, the seminal plasma was obtained by centrifugation and then the lipids were extracted, methylated and analysed by chromatography. The total lipids in the seminal plasma were 2.5 ± 0.3%, corresponding to 85% saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 15% unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). The greatest proportions of SFA were palmitic acid (30.4%), stearic acid (23.4%) and myristic acid (5.3%) and of UFA oleic acid (9.0%). Therefore, the protocols and techniques used enabled the identification of 18 different fatty acids in canine seminal plasma, which constitutes a good method to evaluate and quantify the fatty acid profile in this species. PMID:23398451

Díaz, R; Inostroza, K; Risopatrón, J; Sanchez, R; Sepúlveda, N



The effect of seminal plasma on alpaca sperm function.  


In order to advance the development of assisted reproductive technologies in alpacas and other Camelids, the objective of this study was to explore the role of seminal plasma concentration on motility and functional integrity of alpaca sperm. Sixteen male alpacas > 3 y of age were used. In Experiment 1, epididymal sperm were incubated for 0 to 6 h in 0, 10, 25, 50, or 100% seminal plasma and motility was assessed. In Experiment 2, epididymal sperm were incubated in 0, 10, or 100% seminal plasma for 3 h and motility, acrosome integrity and DNA integrity were assessed. In Experiment 3, ejaculated sperm were incubated in 10, 25, 50, or 100% seminal plasma for 0 to 6 h and motility assessed. In Experiment 4, ejaculated sperm were incubated in 10 or 100% seminal plasma for 3 h and motility, acrosome integrity, DNA integrity, and viability were assessed. Epididymal and ejaculated sperm maintained motility longer when incubated in the presence of 10% seminal plasma compared to 0, 25, 50, or 100% seminal plasma (P < 0.001). The mean ± SEM percentage of epididymal sperm with intact acrosomes was less (P < 0.001) in samples incubated in 0% seminal plasma (39.4 ± 3.73) compared to 10% (75.3 ± 1.20) or 100% (77.4 ± 0.90) within 1 h after incubation. However, DNA integrity of ejaculated and epididymal sperm was not significantly affected by seminal plasma concentration. The mean viability of ejaculated sperm was reduced in the presence of 100 (12.7 ± 2.33) compared to 10% (36.2 ± 4.68) seminal plasma (P < 0.001) within 1 h of incubation. We concluded that alpaca semen should be diluted to a final concentration of 10% seminal plasma to prolong motility, preserve acrosome integrity, and maintain viability of sperm. PMID:21820722

Kershaw-Young, C M; Maxwell, W M C



Affinity liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis of seminal plasma proteins.  


Interactions of boar, bull, and human seminal plasma proteins with heparin and phosphorylcholine were studied by affinity LC using heparin immobilized to a Toyopearl support. A step gradient elution from 0.15 to 1.50 M NaCl was employed to elute the seminal plasma proteins. Relative amounts of the heparin-binding fraction of seminal plasma proteins (H+) in seminal plasma of three species were determined. Further on, the fraction of seminal plasma proteins interacting with phosphorylcholine-binding proteins (P+) was evaluated. P+ proteins were not found in human seminal plasma and their highest amount was present in bull seminal plasma. A CE method was developed for separation of seminal plasma proteins. Various capillaries and separation conditions were tested; the best resolution was obtained in a bare-silica capillary, with a micellar system consisting of a 0.02 M borate buffer and 0.05 M SDS pH 10.0. The optimized conditions were applied to the identification of the components in boar plasma. PMID:16830725

Varilová, Tereza; Seménková, Hana; Horák, Pavel; Madera, Milan; Pacáková, Vera; Tichá, Marie; Stulík, Karel



Components in seminal plasma regulating sperm transport and elimination.  


Seminal plasma has been suggested to be involved in sperm transport, and as a modulator of sperm-induced inflammation, which is thought to be an important part of sperm elimination from the female reproductive tract. This article reports on recent experiments on the importance of seminal plasma components in sperm transport and elimination. In Experiment 1, hysteroscopic insemination in the presence (n = 3) or absence (n = 3) of 2 ng/mL PGE showed an increased portion of spermatozoa crossing the utero-tubal junction in the presence of PGE in two mares, while no difference was observed between treatments in a third mare. In Experiment 2, whole seminal plasma, heat-treated seminal plasma (90 degrees C for 45 min), and charcoal-treated seminal plasma were added to: (1) sperm samples during opsonization prior to polymorphonuclear neutrophil(s) (PMN)-phagocytosis assays (n = 5); or to (2) phagocytosis assays (n = 5). Opsonization of spermatozoa was suppressed in the presence of whole seminal plasma, compared with samples without seminal plasma (p < 0.05). Charcoal treatment did not remove the suppressive effect of seminal plasma on opsonization, but heat treatment of seminal plasma reduced its suppressive properties (p < 0.05). The addition of whole seminal plasma to opsonized spermatozoa almost completely blocked phagocytosis (p < 0.05). Charcoal treatment did not remove the suppressive effect of seminal plasma. However, heat-treated fractions of seminal plasma removed the suppressive effect of seminal plasma on phagocytosis (p < 0.05). In Experiment 3, viable and non-viable (snap-frozen/thawed) spermatozoa were subjected to in vitro assays for PMN binding and phagocytosis with the following treatments (n = 3): (1) seminal plasma (SP), (2) extender; (3) ammonium sulfate precipitated seminal plasma proteins with protease inhibitor (SPP+); or (4) ammonium sulfate precipitated seminal plasma proteins without protease inhibitor (SPP-). Treatment was observed to impact binding and phagocytosis of viable and non-viable spermatozoa (p < 0.05). SP and SPP+ suppressed PMN-binding and phagocytosis of viable sperm. This effect was also seen, but to a lesser degree, in SPP- treated samples. Non-viable spermatozoa showed less PMN-binding and phagocytosis than live sperm in the absence of SP. The addition of SP promoted PMN-binding and phagocytosis of non-viable spermatozoa. SPP- treated samples also restored PMN-binding of non-viable spermatozoa. The addition of protease inhibitors removed this effect. In Experiment 4, seminal plasma proteins were fractionated based on MW by Sephacryl S200 HR columns (range 5000-250,000 kDa). Fractionated proteins were submitted to sperm-PMN binding assays. A protein fraction <35 kDa suppressed PMN-binding to live and snap-frozen spermatozoa. A greater MW protein fraction appeared to promote binding between PMNs and snap-frozen spermatozoa. While the addition of protease inhibitors was necessary to maintain the protective effect of seminal plasma proteins on viable spermatozoa, the promotive effect of seminal plasma on non-viable spermatozoa appeared to require some protease activity. It was concluded from these experiments that components of seminal plasma play active roles in transportation and survival of viable spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract and in the elimination of non-viable spermatozoa from the uterus. PMID:16102920

Troedsson, M H T; Desvousges, A; Alghamdi, A S; Dahms, B; Dow, C A; Hayna, J; Valesco, R; Collahan, P T; Macpherson, M L; Pozor, M; Buhi, W C



Influence of seminal plasma on fresh and post-thaw parameters of stallion epididymal spermatozoa.  


Fresh and post-thaw parameters (motility, morphology and viability) of stallion epididymal spermatozoa that have been and have not been exposed to seminal plasma were evaluated, and directly compared to fresh and post-thaw parameters of ejaculated spermatozoa. Six sperm categories of each stallion (n=4) were evaluated for motility, morphology and viability. These categories were fresh ejaculated spermatozoa (Fr-E), fresh epididymal spermatozoa that had been exposed to seminal plasma (Fr-SP+), fresh epididymal spermatozoa that had never been exposed to seminal plasma (Fr-SP-), frozen-thawed ejaculated spermatozoa (Cr-E), frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa that had been exposed to seminal plasma prior to freezing (Cr-SP+) and frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa that had never been exposed to seminal plasma (Cr-SP-). Results show that seminal plasma stimulates initial motility of fresh epididymal stallion spermatozoa while this difference in progressive motility is no longer present post-thaw; and that progressive motility of fresh or frozen-thawed ejaculated stallion spermatozoa is not always a good indicator for post-thaw progressive motility of epididymal spermatozoa. This study shows that seminal plasma has a positive influence on the incidence of overall sperm defects, midpiece reflexes and distal cytoplasmic droplets in frozen-thawed stallion epididymal spermatozoa while the occurance of midpiece reflexes is likely to be linked to distal cytoplasmic droplets. Furthermore, seminal plasma does not have an influence on viability of fresh and frozen-thawed morphologically normal epididymal spermatozoa. We recommend the retrograde flushing technique using seminal plasma as flushing medium to harvest and freeze stallion epididymal spermatozoa. PMID:21256684

Heise, A; Thompson, P N; Gerber, D



Seminal plasma and its effect on ruminant spermatozoa during processing.  


Seminal plasma can both inhibit and stimulate sperm function, making its use as a supportive medium somewhat contradictory. These effects are directed by the multifunctional action of numerous inorganic and organic components, but it is the direct association of seminal plasma proteins with the sperm membrane that is thought to exert the most significant response. In vitro handling of spermatozoa in preparation for artificial insemination may involve washing, dilution, cooling, freezing, re-warming and sex-sorting. These processes can alter proteins of the sperm surface and reduce seminal plasma in the sperm environment. This, among other factors, may destabilize the sperm membrane and reduce the fertilizable lifespan of spermatozoa. Such handling-induced damage may be prevented or reversed through supplementation of seminal plasma, but the effectiveness of this technique differs with species, and the source and subsequent treatment of both spermatozoa and seminal plasma. Seminal plasma appears to act as a protective medium during in vitro processing of ram spermatozoa, but this does not appear to be the case for bull spermatozoa. The reasons for this divergent effect will be discussed with particular emphasis on the influence of the major proteins of ruminant seminal plasma, known as BSP proteins. The biochemical and biophysical properties of these proteins are well documented, and this information has provided greater insight into the signalling pathways of capacitation and the protective action of extender components. PMID:22827372

Leahy, T; de Graaf, S P



Effect of seminal plasma on the cryopreservation of equine spermatozoa.  


Seminal plasma is generally removed from equine spermatozoa prior to cryopreservation. Two experiments were designed to determine if adding seminal plasma back to spermatozoa, prior to cryopreservation, would benefit the spermatozoa. Experiment 1 determined if different concentrations of seminal plasma affected post-thaw sperm motility, viability and acrosomal integrity of frozen/thawed stallion spermatozoa. Semen was washed through 15% Percoll to remove seminal plasma and spermatozoa resuspended to 350 x 10(6)sperm/mL in a clear Hepes buffered diluent containing either 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 or 80% seminal plasma for 15 min, prior to being diluted to a final concentration of 50 x 10(6)sperm/mL in a Lactose-EDTA freezing diluent and cryopreserved. Sperm motility was analyzed at 10 and 90 min after thawing, while sperm viability and acrosomal integrity were analyzed 20 min after thawing. Seminal plasma did not affect sperm motility, viability or acrosomal integrity (P>0.05). Experiment 2 tested the main affects of seminal plasma level (5 or 20%), incubation temperature (5 or 20 degrees C) and incubation time (2, 4 or 6 h) prior to cryopreservation. In this experiment, spermatozoa were incubated with 5 or 20% seminal plasma for up to 6h at either 5 or 20 degrees C prior to cryopreservation in a skim milk, egg yolk freezing extender. Samples cooled immediately to 5 degrees C, prior to freezing had higher percentages of progressively motile spermatozoa than treatments incubated at 20 degrees C (31 versus 25%, respectively; P<0.05), when analyzed 10 min after thawing. At 90 min post-thaw, total motility was higher for samples incubated at 5 degrees C (42%) compared to 20 degrees C (35%; P<0.05). In addition, samples containing 5% seminal plasma had higher percentages of total and progressively motile spermatozoa (45 and 15%) than samples exposed to 20% seminal plasma (33 and 9%; P<0.05). In conclusion, although the short-term exposure of sperm to seminal plasma had no significant effect on the motility of cryopreserved equine spermatozoa, prolonged exposure to seminal plasma, prior to cryopreservation, was deleterious. PMID:15910920

Moore, A I; Squires, E L; Graham, J K



Characterization of diamine oxidase from human seminal plasma.  


Diamine oxidase (DAO) was purified to homogeneity from human seminal plasma by consecutive chromatographic fractionation on heparin-sepharose, phenyl-sepharose, CIM-QA, and Superdex 200. Human seminal plasma DAO behaves electrophoretically similar to DAO proteins from other human tissues and has very similar enzymatic properties with histamine and aliphatic diamines being the preferred substrates as well as significant conversion of polyamines. The cellular source and functional importance of DAO in human semen remain to be determined. PMID:23371442

Schwelberger, Hubert G; Feurle, Johannes; Ahrens, Frank



Lipid composition of human seminal plasma.  


This study aims at determining the amounts of cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, and nonesterified fatty acids in man's seminal liquid and determining their possible variations linked with the ways of taking and congealing samples. It concludes the determinations of lipids in human seminal liquid are reproducible; the way of taking samples has no real influence; however, it seems best to centrifuge sperm immediately after liquefaction to avoid use of triglycerides and NEFA by the spermatozoa. PMID:2712641

Vignon, F; Koll-Back, M H; Clavert, A; Cranz, C



Evidence of free leptin in human seminal plasma.  


Leptin is an adipose tissue-secreted hormone that actively participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Besides this principal role, leptin has been implicated in a large variety of neuroendocrine, paracrine, and autocrine actions involved in the regulation of reproductive function in both experimental animals and humans. Although the participation of leptin in female reproduction is well established, any role in male reproductive function is at best tenuous. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether true leptin is present in human seminal fluid and the tissue of its production. Pooled human seminal plasma obtained from healthy donors showed by direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) the presence of radioimmunoassayable leptin. Serial dilutions of unextracted semen paralleled the RIA standard curve, also devoid of interference in the assay. To prove that this activity was true leptin, seminal plasma was subjected to size-exclusion chromatography, which showed that leptin immunoreactivity eluted with the same partition coefficient as cold leptin, 125I-leptin, and 125I-leptin preincubated with seminal plasma. The results demonstrate that true leptin was present in semen in a free form, i.e., without binding proteins. The presence of leptin charge variants in seminal plasma was assessed by anion-exchange chromatography, which showed two peaks of leptin inmunoreactivity, while 125I-leptin eluted as a single peak. Preincubation of 125I-leptin with seminal fluid converted the single peak into a double peak, indicating that components of the seminal fluid introduce a charge variation in leptin. Leptin levels in seminal plasma of 40 healthy men were 0.95+/-0.19 ng/mL while in 5 vasectomized men the levels were 0.92+/-0.25 ng/mL, suggesting that testicular tissues were not the source of seminal leptin. No correlation was observed between leptin concentrations in semen and the physical characteristics of semen samples or physical characteristics of spermatozoids, such as concentration, motility, vitality, or morphology. In conclusion it was unambiguously demonstrated that human leptin is present in seminal fluid, with at least two charge variants and no binding proteins, the most likely source being either seminal vesicles or prostate tissue. The role of seminal fluid leptin in the male reproductive function or sperm capacitation is at present unknown. PMID:12108516

Camiña, Jesus P; Lage, Mary; Menendez, Carmela; Graña, Maria; García-Devesa, Jesus; Dieguez, Carlos; Casanueva, Felipe F



Seminal plasma components stimulate interleukin-8 and interleukin-10 release.  


Human seminal plasma has potent anti-inflammatory properties which are thought to confer a survival advantage to the spermatozoa within the hostile female genital tract. In contrast, a profound pro-inflammatory leukocytosis has been observed post-coitus in animals and humans. Whether components of seminal plasma are involved in initiating this leukocytic reaction is not known. This study investigated the effect of human seminal plasma, a seminal plasma fraction and its principal constituent prostaglandins, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 19-hydroxy PGE, on the release of the pro-inflammatory neutrophil chemotactic factor interleukin-8 (IL-8) and the anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI). The tissues studied were non-pregnant cervical explants, peripheral blood and the monocyte cell line U937. Seminal plasma fraction (SPF) significantly (P < 0.05) stimulated release of IL-8 and inhibited release of SLPI from non-pregnant cervical explants. SPF, PGE2 and 19-hydroxy PGE significantly (P< 0.005) stimulated IL-8 release from peripheral blood and U937 cells. 19-hydroxy PGE was significantly (P< 0.005) more effective than PGE2 in stimulating IL-8 release. Seminal plasma, SPF and PGE2 significantly (P < 0.05) stimulated IL-10 release from U937 cells. 19-hydroxy PGE stimulated IL-10 release from U937 cells but this failed to reach significance. Release of IL-10 by cervical explants and SLPI by peripheral blood and U937 cells were below the detection limit of the assays employed. We suggest that the anti- and pro-inflammatory immune responses which seminal plasma induces might act in combination initially to promote sperm survival and then to facilitate their removal from the female genital tract. PMID:10333355

Denison, F C; Grant, V E; Calder, A A; Kelly, R W



Proteomic analysis of N-glycosylation of human seminal plasma.  


Seminal plasma is a mixture of secretions from several male accessory glands. The seminal plasma contains many secreted proteins which are important for sperm function and male fertility. In the present study, we employed N-linked glycosylated peptide enrichment, combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and establish the first large scale N-linked glycoproteome of human seminal plasma. Combined with the results of five biological replicates, a total of 720 N-glycosylated sites on 372 proteins were identified. Analysis of variations among five individuals revealed similar compositions of N-glycosylated proteins in seminal plasma. The N-linked glycoproteome could help us understanding the biological functions of human seminal plasma. The dataset could also be a resource for further screening of biomarkers for male diseases including cancer and infertility at the level of N-glycosylation. For example, N-glycosylated prostate-specific antigen is known to be an efficient biomarker that can distinguish benign prostate hyperplasia from prostate cancer. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000959. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25476145

Yang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Fuangjuan; Yan, Yuan; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Yueshuai; Sun, Guohai; Zhou, Zuomin; Zhang, Wei; Guo, Xuejiang; Sha, Jiahao



Seminal plasma reduces the effectiveness of topical polyanionic microbicides.  


The objective of this study was to test the activity of microbicides against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) introduced in seminal plasma. We found that seminal plasma interfered with the activity of PRO 2000 and of cellulose sulfate, increasing by 100-fold the concentration of drug required to inhibit 90% of viral plaque formation. Seminal plasma competitively inhibited binding of the microbicides to the HSV-2 envelope. Most of the interference was found in a high molecular-weight fraction; tandem mass spectrometry identified the proteins as fibronectin-1 and lactoferrin. In a murine model, the interference translated in vivo into a loss in protection. We found that 2% PRO 2000 gel protected 100% of mice challenged intravaginally with HSV-2 introduced in PBS, whereas only 55% of mice were protected if virus was introduced in seminal plasma (P=.0007, log rank test). If these findings are reflective of what occurs in humans, modifications to microbicides to ensure that they retain activity in the presence of seminal plasma are indicated. PMID:17922405

Patel, Sarju; Hazrati, Ehsan; Cheshenko, Natalia; Galen, Benjamin; Yang, Heyi; Guzman, Esmeralda; Wang, Rong; Herold, Betsy C; Keller, Marla J



Seminal plasma components in camelids and comparisons with other species.  


Camelid semen is characterized by a highly viscous, low-volume ejaculate with a low concentration of spermatozoa that exhibit low progressive motility. The viscous seminal plasma is currently the major impediment to the development of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in camelids. To advance ARTs such as sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination in camelids, it is necessary to identify the cause of the viscosity and gain an understanding of the role of seminal plasma components on sperm function and fertility. Numerous compounds and proteins have been identified as mediators of sperm function and predictors of fertility in other livestock species, and understanding the importance of specific proteins has progressed the success of ARTs in these species. Current knowledge on the components of camelid seminal plasma is outlined, together with the implications of these components for the development of ARTs in camelids. The cause of semen viscosity, as well as proteins that are present in camelid seminal plasma, is described for the first time. Seminal plasma components are compared with those of other species to hypothesize their role in sperm function and fertility. PMID:22827394

Kershaw-Young, C M; Maxwell, W M C



Lactotransferrin in Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Seminal Plasma Correlates with Semen Quality  

PubMed Central

Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have highly variable ejaculate quality within individuals, greatly reducing the efficacy of artificial insemination and making it difficult to devise a sperm cryopreservation protocol for this endangered species. Because seminal plasma influences sperm function and physiology, including sperm motility, the objectives of this study were to characterize the chemistry and protein profiles of Asian elephant seminal plasma and to determine the relationships between seminal plasma components and semen quality. Ejaculates exhibiting good sperm motility (?65%) expressed higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology (80.3±13.0 vs. 44.9±30.8%) and positive Spermac staining (51.9±14.5 vs. 7.5±14.4%), in addition to higher total volume (135.1±89.6 vs. 88.8±73.1 ml) and lower sperm concentration (473.0±511.2 vs. 1313.8±764.7×106 cells ml?1) compared to ejaculates exhibiting poor sperm motility (?10%; P<0.05). Comparison of seminal plasma from ejaculates with good versus poor sperm motility revealed significant differences in concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and glucose. These observations suggest seminal plasma influences semen quality in elephants. One- and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis revealed largely similar compositional profiles of seminal plasma proteins between good and poor motility ejaculates. However, a protein of ?80 kDa was abundant in 85% of ejaculates with good motility, and was absent in 90% of poor motility ejaculates (P<0.05). We used mass spectrometry to identify this protein as lactotransferrin, and immunoblot analysis to confirm this identification. Together, these findings lay a functional foundation for understanding the contributions of seminal plasma in the regulation of Asian elephant sperm motility, and for improving semen collection and storage in this endangered species. PMID:23976974

Kiso, Wendy K.; Selvaraj, Vimal; Nagashima, Jennifer; Asano, Atsushi; Brown, Janine L.; Schmitt, Dennis L.; Leszyk, John; Travis, Alexander J.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.



Subcompartmentalization of HIV-1 quasispecies between seminal cells and seminal plasma indicates their origin in distinct genital tissues.  


The mononuclear cells and plasma components of semen from HIV-infected subjects have been shown to contain HIV-1. However, there is very little information as to whether distinct HIV-1 population are present in these two seminal compartments or as to their tissue of origin. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of the C2-V5 region of the HIV-1 gp120 from HIV-1 RNA isolated from seminal cells and seminal plasma of five subjects indicates that the HIV-1 population derived from seminal plasma was distinct from that present in seminal cells. Such subcompartmentalization of HIV-1 between seminal cells and seminal plasma was detected as early as 3 months after seroconversion and persisted up to 38 months following seroconversion. Furthermore, comparison of HIV-1 sequences between testis and prostate tissues showed distinct HIV-1 populations in these tissue compartments. In situ real-time (Taqman) PCR analysis of prostate and testis tissues indicated that T lymphocytes were the predominant cells infected with HIV-1 in both of these tissues. Since seminal plasma is derived from prostate and most of the seminal cells originate from the rete testis and epididymis, these results are consistent with the idea that HIV-1 in seminal plasma is derived from the prostate, while HIV-1-infected cells in semen originate mostly from the rete testis and epididymis. These findings provide for the first time evidence of subcompartmentalization of HIV-1 in male genital organs and suggest that intervention strategies such as vasectomy may not prevent sexual transmission. PMID:12487815

Paranjpe, Shirish; Craigo, Jodi; Patterson, Bruce; Ding, Ming; Barroso, Paulo; Harrison, Lee; Montelaro, Ronald; Gupta, Phalguni



Functionally active complement is present in human ovarian follicular fluid and can be activated by seminal plasma.  

PubMed Central

Human ovarian preovulatory follicular fluids (FF) from 10 women were analysed for their complement contents. Functionally active complement was detected in all the fluids studied in amounts similar to those present in normal human serum. Pooled FF was challenged by seminal plasma in order to determine whether seminal plasma could activate FF complement, the pattern of such an activation and the possible consequences on the reproductive function. FF complement activation occurred during the incubation with seminal plasma with features including alternative pathway activation, factor B and C3 conversion and reduction in total haemolytic complement, as well as an inhibition by seminal plasma of the FF complement response to a new activating challenge. Possible consequences for fertilization, implantation of a fertilized ovum and local defence mechanisms against viruses and bacteria are discussed. PMID:1628423

Perricone, R; Pasetto, N; De Carolis, C; Vaquero, E; Piccione, E; Baschieri, L; Fontana, L



Microelements in seminal plasma of infertile men infected with Ureaplasma urealyticum.  


The purpose of this study was to assess the association among male infertility, infection of Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu), and microelements in seminal fluid. Semen analysis and cultivation of Uu were carried out on 160 samples of seminal fluid. The concentrations of microelements, such as arsenic (As), molybdenum (Mo), magnesium (Mg), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in the samples were measured by an inductively coupled plasma quantometer (ICP). The ratios Cu/Zn and Cd/Zn in the poor spermatic quality group were obviously higher than those in seminal plasma of the group with normal spermatic quality (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively), whereas the concentrations of As, Mg, Mo, and Pb showed no difference in the two groups. The ratios Cu/Zn and Cd/Zn and the concentrations of As and Mg in seminal plasma infected with Uu were markedly higher than those not infected with Uu (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.05, and p<0.05, respectively), whereas the concentrations of Mo and Pb showed no statistical difference. The ratios Cu/Zn and Cd/Zn and the concentrations of As and Mg in seminal plasma of the semen with poor spermatic quality and Uu infection were obviously higher than those not infected with Uu (p<0.05), whereas the concentrations of Mo and Pb showed no statistical difference. Abnormally high ratios Cu/Zn and Cd/Zn as well as an overdose of As were found to be predisposed to Uu infection. Uu infection resulted in an increase of the ratios Cu/Zn and Cd/Zn and the concentrations of As and Mg in seminal fluid, which therefore caused spermatic quality decline. PMID:16034149

Wang, Yong; Kang, Lina; Hou, Yayi; Wu, Xiaoke; Chen, Jianxiu; Han, Xiaodong



Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration is strongly associated with altered levels of seminal plasma interferon-?, interleukin-17, and interleukin-5.  


Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (p<0.0001) was most strongly associated with seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-? (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-? and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

Hoffman, Jennifer C; Anton, Peter A; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O; Hoffman, Risa M



Identification of calcium-binding proteins in fish seminal plasma.  


Calcium ions play an important role in the activation of fish sperm movement. The mechanism of their binding in semen is still unknown. The goal of this study was the development of a method for identifying calcium-binding proteins in fish seminal plasma. Two methods of calcium-binding proteins detection were tested with the use of Quin2 and Stains-all dyes. The first method was useful for the identification of calcium-binding proteins of fish seminal plasma. It consisted of proteins separation using SDS-PAGE, transfer on PVDF membrane, incubation with CaCl?, staining with Quin2 and illumination with UV light to reveal calcium-binding protein bands. Using Quin2 allowed the detection of calcium-binding proteins with low and high molecular weight. Electrophoretic species-specific profiles of calcium-binding proteins were identified in the seminal plasma of carp, whitefish, roach, brook trout, brown trout and rainbow trout. Staining of calcium-binding proteins with Quin2 is a quick and safe method, allowing the identification of calcium-binding proteins in fish semen. PMID:21042848

Dietrich, Mariola A; Nynca, Joanna; Westfalewicz, B?a?ej; Karol, Halina; Ciereszko, Andrzej



Sperm-immobilizing monoclonal antibody to human seminal plasma antigens.  

PubMed Central

Rat spleen cells immunized to human azoospermic semen (a mixture of seminal plasma components) and mouse myeloma cells (P3/X63 Ag8U1; P3U1) (Marguilies et al., 1976) were successfully fused with polyethylene glycol (PEG 1500) and 19 of 89 fused cell cultures were found to produce sperm-immobilizing antibody. The cells that produced antibody indicating the highest sperm-immobilizing activity were distributed into wells for further recloning and 10 clones producing sperm-immobilizing antibody were established. The clone (1C4) producing the highest antibody titre was found to produce a large amount of IgG in culture supernatants and to contain a mixture of rat and mouse chromosomes. It was proved by immunodiffusion test that the monoclonal antibody was produced to the human seminal plasma antigen No. 7 which is common to human milk protein. Using this hybridoma which produced a large amount of monoclonal sperm-immobilizing antibody, a new method could be developed for purifying human seminal plasma antigen by immunoaffinity chromatography with bound antibody from the hybridoma. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6783353

Shigeta, M; Watanabe, T; Maruyama, S; Koyama, K; Isojima, S



Concentration of blood and seminal plasma elements and their relationships with semen parameters in men with spinal cord injury.  


The relationship of calcium, magnesium, zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in blood and seminal plasma on sperm parameters of spinal cord-injured (SCI) men and of normal controls was determined. The study included 93 SCI men and 145 neurologically intact men. Colorimetric and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometers were used. Seminal Zc and Cu had a relationship with sperm motility in SCI men. PMID:19143726

Salsabili, N; Mehrsai, A R; Jalaie, S



Assessment of trans, trans-muconic acid in human seminal plasma.  


Trans, trans-muconic acid (tt-MA) is one of the most important metabolites of benzene, a pollutant ubiquitously distributed in ambient air and classified in 1982 as a group I carcinogen. For its sensitivity and specificity, tt-MA excreted in urine is considered a good biological marker of benzene exposure. In this study, seminal tt-MA levels in occupationally nonexposed subjects (n = 32) have been determined. The seminal fluid of normozoospermic subjects contained an average tt-MA concentration (170 +/- 100 ng ml-1) significantly lower than that of teratozoospermic (310 +/- 180 ng ml-1; P < 0.01), oligozoospermic (400 +/- 180 ng ml-1; P < 0.001), and oligoasthenozoospermic (430 +/- 230 ng ml-1; P < 0.01) subjects. A negative correlation existed between tt-MA levels and sperm concentration (r = - 0.62; P < 0.001), percentage of normal spermatozoa (r = - 0.41; P < 0.05), and percentage of vital spermatozoa (r = - 0.89; P < 0.001). Average tt-MA levels detected in seminal plasma were higher in smokers (350 +/- 160 ng ml-1) than in nonsmokers (280 +/- 210 ng ml-1). These results show that seminal plasma tt-MA content could be an important biological indicator for evaluating the negative effects of benzene on spermatogenesis. PMID:11683706

Ducci, M; Tedeschi, D; Rossi, P; Gazzano, A; Villani, C; Voliani, S; Bertozzi, M A; Martelli, F; Menchini-Fabris, F



Seminal plasma oxytocin and oxidative stress levels in infertile men with varicocele.  


This study aimed to assess seminal plasma oxytocin (OT) and oxidative stress (OS) levels in infertile men with varicocele (Vx). A total of 131 men were divided into fertile men (n = 20), fertile men with Vx (n = 17), infertile men without Vx (n = 40) and infertile men with Vx (n = 54). OT, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were estimated in seminal plasma. Mean levels of seminal OT, MDA were significantly decreased, and the mean level of GPx was significantly increased in fertile men with/without Vx compared with infertile men with/without Vx. Mean levels of OT, MDA were increased, and mean level of GPx was significantly decreased in Vx grade III cases compared with Vx grades I, II cases and in bilateral Vx cases compared with unilateral Vx. There was significant negative correlation between seminal OT with sperm count, sperm motility, seminal GPx and significant positive correlation with sperm abnormal forms, seminal MDA. It is concluded that seminal OT is significantly decreased in fertile men with/without Vx compared with infertile men with/without Vx. Seminal OT demonstrated significant negative correlation with sperm count, sperm motility, seminal GPx and significant positive correlation with sperm abnormal forms, seminal MDA. Seminal OT is associated with Vx grade and its bilaterality. PMID:24635706

Mostafa, T; Rashed, L A; Osman, I; Marawan, M



Polymorphism and intraspecific differences among spermatozoan and seminal plasma antigens  

PubMed Central

Ram SS (supernatant fraction of spermatozoa ground with Baker's fluid) and SP (seminal plasma) were analysed by double diffusion and immunoelectrophoresis in agar using six different rabbit antisera. Immunoelectrophoretic patterns of SS from ten rams show frequencies of band subpatterns which indicate polymorphism of spermatozoan antigens. Also, bands from different rams with the same diffusion characteristics but different electrophoretic mobility and others with different antigenic determinants confirm protein polymorphism. SS and SP of three rams from Blackface, Dorset and Merino breeds were examined by agar diffusion and immunoelectrophoresis at pH 5 and 8.2. Five to six spermatozoan antigens were distinguished from 4–5 SP antigens. When similar antigens from two rams were further tested, it was possible to show some difference in electrophoretic mobility or antigenic determinant. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:4139114

Kulangara, A. C.



The quantification of lipid and protein oxidation in stallion spermatozoa and seminal plasma: seasonal distinctions and correlations with DNA strand breaks, classical seminal parameters and stallion fertility.  


The goal of this work was to correlate oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage with classic semen parameters in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of fertile and subfertile stallions. Oxidation was measured in both lipids and proteins, using the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) assay and the DNPH carbonyl groups assay, respectively. Sperm DNA damage was monitored using the TUNEL assay. These parameters were monitored in samples obtained during the breeding and the non-breeding seasons. In general, fertile stallions showed better classical semen parameters, and those parameters improved from the non-breeding to the breeding season, although an increase in sperm production was accompanied by a decrease in the semen quality from subfertile stallions in the breeding season. In terms of oxidation levels we found that there were clear differences whether lipids or proteins were considered. In the breeding season there seemed to be a tendency towards normalizing lipid oxidation in spermatozoa and seminal plasma, and protein oxidation in the seminal plasma, of both fertile and subfertile animals. Thus, differences monitored in the non-breeding season were no longer visible. Interestingly, a higher level of protein oxidation was found in the sperm of fertile animals in the breeding season. Considering that there were positive correlations between sperm protein oxidation and sperm motility and vitality, these results suggests that the oxidation of semen proteins may be important for sperm function. On the other hand, lipid oxidation in the seminal plasma seemed to be a general indicator for sperm damage. In the non-breeding season positive correlations between lipid and protein oxidation levels in both sperm and seminal plasma and several defects in sperm function were found, but only for subfertile animals, thus suggesting that lipid and protein oxidation may aid in the identification of subfertile stallions during the non-breeding season. Levels of ROS production never seemed to result in compromised sperm DNA integrity, indicating that measurements were within physiological levels and/or that there is an efficient antioxidant activity in stallion sperm cells. PMID:17451892

Morte, Maria Inês; Rodrigues, Ana Margarida; Soares, Diana; Rodrigues, Ana Sofia; Gamboa, Sandra; Ramalho-Santos, João



Association between the presence of protein bands in ram seminal plasma and sperm tolerance to freezing.  


This study evaluated associations between the presence of protein bands in ram seminal plasma and the quality of sperm frozen with distinct extenders. Ejaculates were frozen in a Tris-egg yolk based extender, including either 5% glycerol or 100mM trehalose. Seminal plasma samples were submitted to unidimensional electrophoresis. Pre-freezing and post-thawing sperm quality was similar between extenders (P>0.05). A total of 26 bands were identified in ram seminal plasma. Pre-freezing sperm motility was increased when the 15, 19 and 80kDa bands were present in seminal plasma (P<0.05). The presence of an 11kDa band in seminal plasma was associated with reduced pre-freezing membrane integrity (P<0.05). After thawing, both sperm motility and membrane integrity were reduced when a 24kDa band was present in seminal plasma (P<0.05). Post-thawing acrosome integrity was greater in the presence of a 31kDa band in seminal plasma (P<0.05). Regardless of the cryoprotectant included in the freezing extender, these six bands may be potential markers for ram sperm tolerance to freezing. PMID:24725536

Goularte, K L; Gastal, G D A; Schiavon, R S; Gonçalves, A O; Schneider, J R; Corcini, C D; Lucia, T



Seminal plasma aids the survival and cervical transit of epididymal ram spermatozoa.  


Seminal plasma purportedly plays a critical role in reproduction, but epididymal spermatozoa are capable of fertilisation following deposition in the uterus, calling into question the biological requirement of this substance. Through a combination of direct observation of spermatozoa in utero using probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy, in vivo assessment of sperm fertility and in vitro analysis of various sperm functional parameters, this study investigated the role of seminal plasma in spermatozoa transit through the cervix of the ewe. Following deposition in the cervical os, epididymal spermatozoa previously exposed to seminal plasma displayed an enhanced ability to traverse the cervix as evidenced by both significantly higher pregnancy rates and numbers of spermatozoa observed at the utero-tubal junction when compared with epididymal spermatozoa not previously exposed to seminal plasma. The beneficial effect of seminal plasma on sperm transport was clearly localised to transit through the cervix as pregnancy rates of spermatozoa deposited directly into the uterus were unaffected by exposure to seminal plasma. This phenomenon was not explained by changes to sperm motion characteristics, as seminal plasma had no effect on the motility, kinematic parameters or mitochondrial membrane potential of spermatozoa. Rather, in vitro testing revealed that seminal plasma improved the ability of epididymal spermatozoa to penetrate cervical mucus recovered from ewes in oestrus. These results demonstrate that the survival and transport of ram spermatozoa through the cervix of the ewe is not linked to their motility or velocity but rather the presence of some cervical penetration trait conferred by exposure to seminal plasma. PMID:25118301

Rickard, J P; Pini, T; Soleilhavoup, C; Cognie, J; Bathgate, R; Lynch, G W; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C; Druart, X; de Graaf, S P



The influence of seminal plasma on ovarian function in pigs—a novel inflammatory mechanism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seminal plasma is increasingly recognised as contributing to the reproductive process in roles apart from that of providing nutritive support and transport for spermatozoa. Seminal components elicit inflammatory responses in the female reproductive tract, including altered patterns of cytokine secretion, which have consequences for early embryo development and implantation. This review examines evidence, generated principally in the porcine model, for

Sean O'Leary; Sarah A. Robertson; David T. Armstrong



Correlation between Sperm Parameters and Protein Expression of Antioxidative Defense Enzymes in Seminal Plasma: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Semen analysis is the cornerstone in the evaluation of male (in)fertility. However, there are men with normal semen tests but with impaired fertilizing ability, as well as fertile men with poor sperm characteristics. Thus, there is rising interest to find novel parameters that will help to predict and define the functional capacity of spermatozoa. Methods. We examined whether there is a correlation between semen parameters (count, progressive motility, and morphology) and protein expression/activity of antioxidative defense enzymes in seminal plasma from 10 normospermic subjects. Results. Sperm progressive motility was in positive correlation with seminal plasma protein expression of both superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms (MnSOD and CuZnSOD) and catalase. Also, positive correlation was observed between sperm count and MnSOD protein expression, as well as between sperm morphology and protein expression of catalase in seminal plasma. In contrast, protein expression of glutathione peroxidase was not in correlation with any sperm parameter, while its activity negatively correlated with sperm morphology and motility. Conclusions. These data suggest that evaluation of protein expression of antioxidative defense enzymes in seminal plasma might be of importance in the evaluation of male fertility status and that could be used as an additional biomarker along with classic semen analysis in assessment of semen quality.

Macanovic, Biljana; Vucetic, Milica; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Buzadzic, Biljana; Garalejic, Eliana; Otasevic, Vesna



HSP-1/2, a major protein of equine seminal plasma, exhibits chaperone-like activity.  


The major bovine seminal plasma protein, PDC-109 exhibits chaperone-like activity (CLA) against a variety of target proteins. The present studies show that the homologous protein from equine seminal plasma, HSP-1/2 also exhibits CLA and inhibits the thermal aggregation of target proteins such as lactate dehydrogenase, and DTT-induced aggregation of insulin in a concentration-dependent manner. Phosphorylcholine binding inhibited the CLA of HSP-1/2, suggesting that aggregation state of the protein is important for this activity. These results demonstrate that HSP-1/2 functions as a molecular chaperone in vitro, and suggest that it may protect other proteins of equine seminal plasma from unfolding/misfolding or aggregation. These results suggest that homologous proteins from the seminal plasma of other mammals also exhibit CLA, which will be physiologically relevant. PMID:22982540

Sankhala, Rajeshwer Singh; Kumar, C Sudheer; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Arangasamy, A; Swamy, Musti J



Influence of seminal plasma on fertility of fresh and frozen-thawed stallion epididymal spermatozoa.  


The use of epididymal stallion spermatozoa for routine artificial insemination can secure easy future use of valuable genetics after unforeseen death or injury of a valuable stallion. The aims of this study were to (1) directly compare pregnancy rates for fresh and frozen-thawed stallion epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa after conventional artificial insemination and (2) to investigate the effect of seminal plasma on the fertility of epididymal spermatozoa after insemination. Twenty-one mares were randomly assigned to three stallions. Mares were inseminated at five consecutive oestrous periods using fresh ejaculated spermatozoa (Fr-E, n=18), fresh epididymal spermatozoa that had been exposed to seminal plasma (Fr-SP+, n=12) or fresh epididymal spermatozoa that had never been exposed to seminal plasma (Fr-SP-, n=9), frozen-thawed ejaculated spermatozoa (Cr-E, n=18), frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa that had been exposed to seminal plasma prior to freezing (Cr-SP+, n=18) and frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa that had never been exposed to seminal plasma (Cr-SP-, n=15). Pregnancy examinations were performed 14 days after each ovulation. Pregnancy rates were 55.6% (Fr-E, 10/18), 75% (Fr-SP+, 9/12), 22.2% (Fr-SP-, 2/9), 38.9% (Cr-E, 7/18), 27.8% (Cr-SP+, 5/18) and 6.7% (Cr-SP-, 1/15). Overall pregnancy rates for fresh and frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa that had been exposed to seminal plasma were significantly better than for epididymal spermatozoa that had never been exposed to seminal plasma (P<0.05). We conclude that the exposure of stallion epididymal spermatozoa to seminal plasma improves pregnancy rates. PMID:19592182

Heise, A; Kähn, W; Volkmann, D H; Thompson, P N; Gerber, D



Effect of Seminal Plasma on Equine Sperm Quality: Preparation and Storage Techniques  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF SEMINAL PLASMA ON EQUINE SPERM QUALITY: PREPARATION AND STORAGE TECHNIQUES A Thesis by ALISON ROSE-LEE WHIGHAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Subject: Biomedical Sciences Copyright 2013 Alison Rose-Lee Whigham ii ABSTRACT This study had four experimental aims. We investigated whether fresh (unfrozen) or snap-frozen homologous seminal plasma yielded similar sperm quality in cool...

Whigham, Alison R



Lipid and antioxidant changes in spermatozoa and seminal plasma throughout the reproductive period of bulls.  


The lipid compositions and associated antioxidant capacities of spermatozoa and seminal plasma from bulls were examined at the beginning, middle and end of their reproductive period. The reduction in concentration and motility of spermatozoa associated with ageing was accompanied by a large decrease in lipid concentrations within the seminal plasma; this change in lipid concentration was accompanied by an increase in the proportion of phospholipid. By contrast, the proportion of phospholipids in the spermatozoa was significantly reduced. The major phospholipid fractions within both the spermatozoa and seminal plasma were phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. With increasing age there was a large decrease in the proportion of phosphatidyl ethanolamine and a commensurate increase in that of phosphatidyl choline within the spermatozoa and seminal plasma. These major changes in phospholipids were accompanied by a decrease in the amount of phosphatidyl inositol and an increase in that of cardiolipin in both spermatozoa and seminal plasma. The reductions in the proportions of phosphatidyl ethanolamine were accompanied by extensive reductions in the content of the major polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic 20:4 (n-6) and docosahexaenoic 22:6 (n-3); there was a decrease also in the concentration of 22:6 (n-3) in phosphatidyl choline. The changes in lipid composition owing to ageing were associated with a marked reduction within the seminal plasma of the major antioxidant enzyme systems, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. PMID:9068407

Kelso, K A; Redpath, A; Noble, R C; Speake, B K



Glycosaminoglycans in the accessory sex glands, testes and seminal plasma of alpaca and ram.  


The viscous nature of alpaca semen limits its use in cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies. The cause and source of this viscosity is unknown although it has been postulated, but never proven, that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) secreted by the bulbourethral gland are responsible. The present study investigated the concentration and composition of GAGs in alpaca seminal plasma, testes, bulbourethral gland and prostate gland and compared them to those in the ram to determine the relationship between seminal plasma GAGs and viscosity and to identify the source of seminal plasma GAGs. Alpaca seminal plasma contained more GAGs than ram (P<0.001) and the predominant GAG, keratan sulfate, was correlated with viscosity (P=0.05, R(2)=0.2635). The alpaca bulbourethral gland contained most GAGs compared with prostate or testis (P<0.001). In the ram, the prostate contained most GAGs. These findings suggest that GAGs, particularly keratan sulfate, may be the cause of seminal plasma viscosity in alpacas, and that the seminal plasma GAGs originate from the bulbourethral gland. PMID:22281083

Kershaw-Young, Claire M; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C



Spermatozoa and seminal plasma fatty acids as predictors of cryopreservation success.  


There is a lack of information about the importance of fatty acid composition of the human sperm membranes and seminal plasma in the cryopreservation procedure. Our aims were to study the possible relationships between the fatty acid composition of human spermatozoa or seminal fluid before freezing, and the sperm quality, measured in terms of viability and motility, before and after freezing-thawing. A further objective of this study was to determine whether the antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the seminal plasma is related to fatty acid (FA) composition and to success of the cryopreservation process. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), ?3 PUFAs and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in spermatozoa were significantly positively correlated with sperm viability and motility parameters before and after freezing. An inverse relationship was found for monounsaturated (MUFA), ratio ?6/?3, ratio saturated saturated fatty acids/PUFA (SFA/PUFA) with the seminal parameters. Seminal plasma fatty acid composition was not related to viability. However, motility parameters before and after freezing were related to stearic acid (C18:0) and DHA. TAC in seminal plasma was directly related to PUFA, w3 and DHA. On the other hand, SFA, C22:0, C24:0 and MUFA in seminal plasma were inversely related to the antioxidant capacity. TAC was directly correlated with motion parameters after thawing, We described a significant correlation between the fatty acid composition of the human spermatozoa or seminal plasma and the sperm parameters of the samples after thawing. PUFA, W3 and specially DHA are directly correlated with sperm motility and viability after freezing/thawing, and MUFA was inversely correlated. This means that in the future the fatty acid composition could be used as a predictor of the capacity of cryopreservation. On the other hand, we could design further procedures to modify the lipid composition or/and antioxidant capacity of ejaculate to make it more resistant to the cryopreservation process. PMID:23596043

Martínez-Soto, J C; Landeras, J; Gadea, J



Seminal plasma affects sperm sex sorting in boars.  


Two experiments were conducted in boar semen samples to evaluate how both holding time (24h) and the presence of seminal plasma (SP) before sorting affect sperm sortability and the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to tolerate liquid storage. Whole ejaculate samples were divided into three aliquots immediately after collection: one was diluted (1:1, v/v) in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS; 50% SP); the SP of the other two aliquots was removed and the sperm pellets were diluted with BTS + 10% of their own SP (10% SP) or BTS alone (0% SP). The three aliquots of each ejaculate were divided into two portions, one that was processed immediately for sorting and a second that was sorted after 24h storage at 15-17°C. In the first experiment, the ability to exhibit well-defined X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm peaks (split) in the cytometry histogram and the subsequent sorting efficiency were assessed (20 ejaculates). In contrast with holding time, the SP proportion influenced the parameters examined, as evidenced by the higher number of ejaculates exhibiting split and better sorting efficiency (P<0.05) in semen samples with 0-10% SP compared with those with 50% SP. In a second experiment, the quality (viability, total and progressive motility) and functionality (plasma membrane fluidity and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species) of sex-sorted spermatozoa were evaluated after 0, 72 and 120h storage at 15-17°C (10 ejaculates). Holding time and SP proportion did not influence the quality or functionality of stored sex-sorted spermatozoa. In conclusion, a holding time as long as 24h before sorting did not negatively affect sex sorting efficiency or the ability of sorted boar spermatozoa to tolerate long-term liquid storage. A high proportion of SP (50%) in the semen samples before sorting reduced the number of ejaculates to be sorted and negatively influenced the sorting efficiency, but did not affect the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to tolerate liquid storage. PMID:25163401

Alkmin, Diego V; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Tarantini, Tatiana; Del Olmo, David; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi



Determination of some blood and seminal plasma ions in the beluga, Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758).  


Blood and seminal plasma ionic parameters are essential for monitoring health status, detecting illnesses, fish stock conservation and development of artificial propagation methods via extender improvement. In this study, comparison of blood and seminal plasma ionic parameters in beluga, Huso huso (30-45 kg, 1-2 m, n = 10), was made. The results obtained show that Na(+) (82.54 ± 5.46), Cl(-) (15.95 ± 0.72) and K(+) (3.57 ± 0.15) were predominant ions in the seminal plasma (as mm). Blood ionic values (as mm) were determined for Na(+) (110.2 ± 1.26), K(+) (3.77 ± 0.081), Cl(-) (60.12 ± 1.5), Ca(2+) (2.05 ± 0.35) and Mg(2+) (1.9 ± 0.16). Results of the comparison between ionic parameters of seminal and blood plasma indicated that the concentrations of all parameters of blood plasma with the exception of K(+) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of seminal plasma. PMID:25041321

Aramli, M S; Habibi, E; Aramli, S; Nouri, H A




EPA Science Inventory

Negative-chemical-ionization mass spectral screening of extracts of human seminal plasma has revealed a presence of a Cl7 ion cluster at a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 463 in a significant number of the samples examined (34 out of 123). Experiments with different gases used to g...


Role of seminal plasma in the anti-HIV-1 activity of candidate microbicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Evaluation of microbicides for prevention of HIV-1 infection in macaque models for vaginal infection has indicated that the concentrations of active compounds needed for protection by far exceed levels sufficient for complete inhibition of infection in vitro. These experiments were done in the absence of seminal plasma (SP), a vehicle for sexual transmission of the virus. To gain insight

A Robert Neurath; Nathan Strick; Yun-Yao Li



Relationships between seminal plasma arginase activity and spermatological parameters in rams.  


This study was conducted to evaluate the correlation between seminal plasma arginase activity and spermatological parameters in rams. In this study, five fertility-proven Awassi rams were used as material. Six ejaculates were collected from each ram by an artificial vagina. Spermatological parameters (semen volume, mass activity, sperm motility and concentration and abnormal sperm rate) were immediately determined in each ejaculate. For enzyme assay, the semen samples were centrifuged and stored at -20 °C for the analysis of arginase activity. The average seminal plasma arginase activity was 0.61 ± 0.20 U (mg protein)(-1) . There was a positive correlation between arginase activity and semen volume (r = 0.412, P < 0.05), semen mass activity (r = 0.610, P < 0.01), sperm motility (r = 0.447, P < 0.05) and sperm concentration (r = 0.808, P < 0.01). However, there was a negative correlation between arginase activity and abnormal sperm rate (r = -0.424, P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study clearly suggests that there is a significant correlation between seminal plasma arginase activity and spermatological parameters. In light of these results, seminal plasma arginase activity may be a biochemical criterion for determining sperm quality besides classical semen analysis parameters in rams. PMID:21848887

Gür, S; Kandemir, F M



Characterization, expression and antibacterial properties of apolipoproteins A from carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) seminal plasma.  


Apolipoproteins A are multifunctional proteins that, in addition to contributing to lipid metabolism and transport, are associated with the innate immune system in fish. Using a three step isolation procedure consisting of affinity chromatography on Blue-Sepharose, delipidation and reverse phase HPLC we isolated apolipoproteins from carp seminal plasma and identified them as ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa. Moreover, we provided the full-length cDNA sequence of ApoA-I encoding 257 amino acids including a 18 amino acid signal peptide and a 4 amino acid propeptide. Apolipoproteins corresponded to the most abundant proteins in carp seminal plasma. Both ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa were represented by several proteoforms that differ both in molecular mass and isoelectric point. The proteoforms of ApoA-I characteristic for seminal plasma were distinguished from those of blood. Carp seminal plasma ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa showed a high immunologic similarity to their counterparts in carp blood and seminal plasma of other Cyprinid species. The mRNA expression analysis and immunohistochemical study suggest synthesis and secretion of ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa in the fish reproductive tract and suggest a role in spermatogenesis and the stabilization of sperm membrane. Moreover, ApoA-I displayed bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and bacteriostatic activity against Aeromonas hydrophila which suggests that ApoA-I is associated with innate immune system of the fish reproductive tract. PMID:25251775

Dietrich, Mariola A; Adamek, Miko?aj; Bili?ska, Barbara; Hejmej, Anna; Steinhagen, Dieter; Ciereszko, Andrzej



Phospholipid composition of human sperm and seminal plasma in relation to sperm fertility.  


The phospholipid and fatty acid composition of sperm was studied in 8 healthy and 16 infertile men. Infertile men randomly formed from the patients with normal semen parameters according to WHO criterion. Therefore, all semen parameters of infertile patients were similar to the same characteristics of the semen of healthy men, except the abnormal forms. The amount of abnormal forms in infertile men was significantly higher than in healthy men. Sperm from infertile men show a drastic loss of phosphatidyl ethanolamine. At the same time, the significant increase of phosphatidyl serine in the sperm and seminal plasma of sterile patients was found. Lysophosphatidyl serine in the sperm of the infertile men was detected. Fatty acid composition of the semen of infertile men was altered. The levels of stearic and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosopentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) was dramatically lowered, but the values of some n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (linolenic and docosatetraenoic) acids increased. There was significant positive correlation between docosahexaenoic acid and sperm motility (r = .82, p < .001) and negative correlation between linolenic acid and spermatozoa motility (r = -0.58. p < .05). Infertility of men with normal semen quality can originate from the disorder of sperm lipid metabolism. The drastic loss of phosphatidyl ethanolamine and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with simultaneous enhancement of phosphatidyl serine and some n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in sperm could be an important cause of male infertility. PMID:11339641

Gulaya, N M; Margitich, V M; Govseeva, N M; Klimashevsky, V M; Gorpynchenko, I I; Boyko, M I



Seminal plasma and serum fertility biomarkers in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).  


Eight healthy fertile (control) and 11 infertile male dromedaries were used to investigate whether specific seminal plasma and serum fertility biomarkers could be related to their in vivo fertility. Eight fertility biomarkers and testosterone were determined in both seminal plasma and serum of all studied camels during the rutting season using commercial kits. Results revealed a significant (P < 0.01) difference in semen parameters between the control and infertile camels. There was a significant (P < 0.01) difference between the control and infertile dromedaries in seminal plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (15.04 ± 1.14 vs. 4.55 ± 0.96 nmol/min/mL, respectively) and both phospholipase A2 (sPLA2; 50.66 ± 6.28 vs. 23.56 ± 4.29 pg/mL, respectively) and testosterone concentrations (732.14 ± 57.12 vs. 396.36 ± 79.34 pg/mL, respectively). A significant (P < 0.05) difference was found between the control and infertile camels in seminal plasma concentrations of osteopontin, cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP3), and prostaglandin D synthase (lipocalcin-type). There was a significant (P < 0.01) difference between the fertile and infertile camels in serum GPx activity 67.81 ± 12.41 vs. 21.31 ± 4.63 nmol/min/mL, respectively) and both testosterone (599.57 ± 110.90 vs. 176.09 ± 24.05 pg/mL, respectively) and clusterin concentrations (137.29 ± 14.15 vs. 253.00 ± 17.14 ng/mL, respectively). A significant (P < 0.05) difference existed between the control and infertile male dromedaries in serum concentrations of sPLA2, CRISP3, malonialdehyde, and insulinlike growth factor 1. In conclusion, CRISP3, sPLA2, GPx, and testosterone are fertility-associated biomarkers in both seminal plasma and serum of dromedary camels. Seminal plasma osteopontin is positively correlated and prostaglandin D synthase (lipocalcin-type) is negatively correlated with camels' fertility. Serum malonialdehyde, insulinlike growth factor 1, and clusterin are negatively correlated with fertility of male dromedary camels. PMID:25434775

Waheed, M M; Ghoneim, I M; Alhaider, A K



Presence of Membranous Vesicles in Cat Seminal Plasma: Ultrastructural Characteristics, Protein Profile and Enzymatic Activity.  


This study sought to verify the presence of membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma by means of transmission electron microscopy and to identify protein profile and some of the enzymatic activities associated with these particles. The transmission electron microscopy observations showed the existence of different sized vesicular membranous structures of more or less spherical shape. These vesicles were surrounded by single-, double- or multiple-layered laminar membranes. The vesicle diameters ranged from 16.3 to 387.4 nm, with a mean of 116.5 ± 70.7 nm. Enzyme activity determinations showed the presence of dipeptilpeptidase IV, aminopeptidase, alkaline and acid phosphatase. To our knowledge, this is the first report that identifies and characterizes the membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma. However, further studies are necessary to identify the exact site of production of these membranous vesicles in the cat male genital tract and to determine their specific roles in the reproductive events of this species. PMID:25414137

Polisca, A; Troisi, A; Minelli, A; Bellezza, I; Fontbonne, A; Zelli, R



Radioimmunoassay for an inhibin-like peptide from human seminal plasma  

SciTech Connect

Antisera raised in rabbits to a synthetic peptide consisting of 31 amino acids with a sequence identical to inhibin-like peptide (ILP) isolated from human seminal plasma afford a highly specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay. Synthetic ILP completely displaces antiserum binding of radioiodinated (Tyr4)-ILP, with half maximal displacement at 36 fmoles ILP/tube. ILP, (Tyr4)-ILP and ILP-(9-31) had essentially equal potency, while ILP-(1-25), ILP-(1-23) and ILP-(1-16) had reduced potency. No cross reactivity was found among a variety of peptide hormones and proteins. Human seminal plasma displaces 50% of (/sup 125/I-Tyr4)-ILP at dilutions equivalent to 50-250 pl/tube, corresponding to immunoreactive ILP concentration of 0.5-2.5 mg/ml.

Hammonds, R.G. Jr.; Li, C.H.; Yamashiro, D.; Cabrera, C.M.; Westphal, M.



Fatty acid analysis of blood serum, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa of normozoospermic vs. asthenozoospermic males.  


Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) is found in extremely high levels in human ejaculate with the majority occurring in the spermatozoa. However, the relative concentration of DHA and other fatty acids, in blood serum, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa of asthenozoospermic vs. normozoospermic individuals is not known. We analyzed the phospholipid fatty acid composition of blood serum, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa of normozoospermic men and asthenozoospermic men in order to determine if DHA levels, as well as the levels of other fatty acids, differed. The serum phospholipid DHA levels were similar in the two groups, suggesting similar intakes of dietary DHA. On the other hand, seminal plasma levels of DHA (3.0 vs. 3.7%) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (11.8 vs. 13.5%) were significantly lower in asthenozoospermic vs. normozoospermic men, respectively, while 18:1 (19.0 vs. 16.8%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (24.2 vs. 21.7%) were significantly higher in the asthenozoospermic vs. the normozoospermic men. Spermatozoa from asthenozoospermic men had higher levels of 18:1, 20:0, 22:0, 22:1, and 24:0 than sperm from normozoospermic men, and lower levels of 18:0 and DHA (8.2 vs. 13.8%). Furthermore, total MUFA (19.3 vs. 16.5%) was higher and total PUFA (19.0 vs. 24.0%), n-3 fatty acids (9.3 vs. 14.6%), and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids (1.0 vs. 1.6) were lower in the asthenozoospermic men. Therefore, in asthenozoospermic individuals, lower levels of DHA in the seminal plasma, but not in the blood serum, mimic the decreased concentrations of DHA in the spermatozoa. This suggests that the lower concentrations of spermatozoon DHA in these individuals are due not to dietary differences but to some type of metabolic difference in the asthenozoospermic men. PMID:10529089

Conquer, J A; Martin, J B; Tummon, I; Watson, L; Tekpetey, F



Multicenter quality control for the detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in seminal plasma specimens.  


The discrepant results available in the literature about the presence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in seminal plasma of men chronically infected by this agent are related, at least in part, to the molecular techniques used and particularly to the wide range of protocols dedicated to RNA extraction. In order to evaluate these protocols and to standardize the method of detection of HCV RNA in this fluid, a panel of coded specimens was tested blindly in 12 French laboratories; it included 14 seminal plasma specimens and four water controls spiked with HCV RNA ranging from 10 to 20000 IU/ml and two HCV-negative seminal plasma specimens. The extraction step was performed according to methods using either silica beads (NucliSens [Organon Teknika S.A., Fresnes, France]; RNA viral kit [Qiagen, Courtaboeuf, France]) or guanidinium thiocyanate (Amplicor HCV assay; Roche Diagnostics, Meylan, France), preceded or not by a centrifugation of the seminal plasma. For the amplification step, all the laboratories performed the same reverse transcription-PCR technique (Amplicor HCV Cobas assay). The percentage of correct results ranged from 53.3 to 100, the poorest results being obtained when no centrifugation step preceded the Amplicor extraction protocol. The rate of correct results was significantly higher in laboratories using a preliminary centrifugation of the specimen (P = 0.034 by chi-square test). By contrast, the overall number of correct results was not correlated to the initial volume of sample used for the test. These results allowed us to validate standardized techniques adapted to the performance of this test on a routine basis, especially in men infected with HCV and involved in programs of medically assisted reproduction. PMID:12574284

Bourlet, Thomas; Levy, Rachel; Laporte, Silvy; Blachier, Stéphane; Bocket, Laurence; Cassuto, Guy; Chollet, Lionel; Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Maertens, Anne; Mousnier, Fabienne; Pasquier, Christophe; Payan, Christopher; Pellegrin, Bertrand; Schvoerer, Evelyne; Zavadzki, Patricia; Chouteau, Jacques; Duverlie, Gilles; Izopet, Jacques; Lunel-Fabiani, Françoise; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Profizi, Nerina; Rouzioux, Christine; Stoll-Keller, Françoise; Thibault, Vincent; Wattré, Pierre; Pozzetto, Bruno



Cholesterol concentration in seminal plasma as a predictive tool for quality semen evaluation.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lipid composition of bovine serum and seminal plasma, seasonality, and semen quality. The experiment was carried out in two groups of Simmental breeding bulls: Group I (ages 2 to 4 yr) and Group II (ages 5 to 10 yr). Blood samples were collected from jugular vein, and bovine semen was sampled with an artificial vagina once per season. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerols, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and lipoprotein electrophoretic patterns were determined. Seminal plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDL-C were assayed. Serum concentration of triacylglycerols in young bulls was significantly higher in winter compared with that in autumn, whereas serum NEFA concentration was significantly higher in autumn compared with that in other seasons. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, LDL-C, and LDL lipoproteins in older bulls was significantly higher in winter than in spring. Seminal plasma concentration of total cholesterol in young bulls was significantly higher in spring compared with that in summer, whereas in older bulls it was significantly higher in winter compared with that in autumn samples. Sperm volume of both groups was significantly higher in summer compared with that in autumn and winter. Sperm motility in young bulls was lowest in summer and differed significantly from the values recorded in other seasons. The changes observed in seminal plasma cholesterol concentration were associated with extracellular lipid use and appeared to be applicable as a biochemical marker of sperm quality. PMID:19767087

Beer-Ljubi?, B; Aladrovi?, J; Marenjak, T S; Laskaj, R; Maji?-Bali?, I; Milinkovi?-Tur, S



Reactive Oxygen Species Production by the Spermatozoa of Patients With Idiopathic Infertility: Relationship to Seminal Plasma Antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe attempted to determine reactive oxygen species production by the spermatozoa of patients with idiopathic infertility and healthy donors, and observe whether increased production was due to decreased seminal plasma reactive oxygen species scavengers.

Ilter Alkan; Ferruh Simsek; Goncagul Haklar; Ertan Kervancioglu; Hakan Ozveri; Suha Yalcin; Atif Akdas



Determination of semen quality of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, by sperm motility, seminal plasma parameters, and spermatozoal metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationships between semen fertilization capacity and sperm motility, seminal plasma composition and sperm metabolism in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to find out biomarkers for semen quality. Variations in semen fertilization rate could be best described by three multiple regression models: Firstly, a model including the seminal plasma pH (x1), ?-d-glucuronidase activity (x2), total lipid levels

F Lahnsteiner; B Berger; T Weismann; R. A Patzner



Glycomic Characterization of Prostate Specific Antigen and Prostatic Acid Phosphatase in Prostate Cancer and Benign Disease Seminal Plasma Fluids  

PubMed Central

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) are glycoproteins secreted by prostate epithelial cells, and have a long clinical history of use as serum biomarkers of prostate cancers. These two proteins are present at significantly higher concentrations in seminal plasma, making this proximal fluid of the prostate a good source for purifying enough protein for characterization of prostate disease associated changes in glycan structures. Using seminal fluid samples representative of normal control, benign prostatic disease and prostate cancers, PAP and PSA were enriched by thiophilic absorption chromatography. Released N-linked glycan constituents from both proteins were analyzed by a combination of normal phase HPLC and MALDI-TOF spectrometry. For PSA, 40 putative glycoforms were determined, and 21 glycoforms were determined for PAP. PAP glycans were further analyzed with a hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer to assign specific glycoform classes to each of the three N-linked sites. The glycans identified in these studies will allow for more defined targeting of prostate disease-specific changes for PAP, PSA and other secreted prostatic glycoproteins. PMID:19128049

White, Krista Y.; Rodemich, Lucy; Nyalwidhe, Julius O.; Comunale, Mary Ann; Clements, Mary Ann; Lance, Raymond S.; Schellhammer, Paul F.; Mehta, Anand; Semmes, O. John; Drake, Richard R.



Effects of vasectomy on seminal plasma alkaline phosphatase in male alpacas (Vicugña pacos).  


Azoospermia is a common finding in male alpacas which present for infertility. The challenge is to differentiate azoospermia of testicular origin from non-testicular origin. In several species, alkaline phosphatase (AP) concentrations in seminal plasma have been used as a diagnostic marker of contributions of the testis and epididymis to the ejaculate. The purpose of this study was to determine whether AP assay could differentiate testicular from non-testicular azoospermia in male alpacas. An experimental model of bilateral outflow obstruction (pre-scrotal vasectomy) was used in 22 male alpacas, aged 2-9 years. No reproductive history was available. Animals were submitted for electroejaculation (EE) under general anaesthesia and vasectomy performed. Five weeks later, animals were submitted for EE. Vasectomy was not successful in one animal, which was removed from analysis. AP levels were compared in seminal plasma in the pre- and post-vasectomy samples. The mean ± SEM concentration of AP in pre-vasectomy seminal plasma was 504.29 ± 166.45 U/l (range 10-2910); the post-vasectomy levels were 252.48 ± 81.77 U/l (range 0-1640; p = 0.06). In 71.4% of animals, AP levels decreased, varying from 18% to 100% reduction. Results of this study suggest that AP is not produced exclusively by the testis and epididymis in alpacas and that AP assay is not a valid diagnostic test for determination of origin of azoospermia; the gold standard for diagnosis of origin of azoospermia remains testicular biopsy. PMID:23790090

Pearson, L K; Campbell, A J; Sandoval, S; Tibary, A



Isolation and characterization of heparin- and phosphorylcholine-binding proteins of boar and stallion seminal plasma. Primary structure of porcine pB1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the bovine, seminal plasma heparin-binding proteins bind to sperm lipids containing the phosphorylcholine group and mediate the capacitating effects of heparin-like glycosaminoglycans during sperm residence in the female genital tract. We report the characterization of heparin- and phosphorylcholine-binding proteins of stallion and boar seminal plasma. Horse seminal plasma proteins HSP-1 and HSP-2, and boar protein pB1, belong to the

Juan J Calvete; Manfred Raida; Marc Gentzel; Claus Urbanke; Libia Sanz; Edda Töpfer-Petersen



Subsequent effect of subacute T-2 toxicosis on spermatozoa, seminal plasma and testosterone production in rabbits.  


Pannon White (n=12) male rabbits (weight: 4050 to 4500 g, age: 9 months) received 2 ml of a suspension containing purified T-2 toxin by gavage for 3 days. The daily toxin intake was 4 mg/animal (0.78 to 0.99 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Control animals (n=12) received toxin-free suspension for 3 days. Since a feed-refusal effect was observed on the second day after T-2 administration, a group of bucks (n=10) were kept as controls (no toxin treatment) but on a restricted feeding schedule, that is, the same amount of feed was provided to them as was consumed by the exposed animals. On day 51 of the experiment (i.e. 48 days after the 3-day toxin treatment), semen was collected, and pH, concentration, motility and morphology of the spermatozoa, as well as concentration of citric acid, zinc and fructose in the seminal plasma, were measured. After gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue treatment, the testosterone level was examined. One day of T-2 toxin treatment dramatically decreased voluntary feed intake (by 27% compared to control, P<0.05) and remained lower (P<0.05) during the first 2 weeks after the withdrawal of the toxin. BW of the contaminated rabbits decreased by 88% on days 17 and 29 compared to controls (P<0.05). No effect of toxin treatment was detected on pH and quantity of the semen or concentration of spermatozoa. The ratio of spermatozoa showing progressive forward motility decreased from 65% to 53% in the semen samples of toxin-treated animals compared to controls (P>0.05). The ratio of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology increased (P<0.05) in the ejaculates collected from the toxin-treated animals. T-2 toxin applied in high doses decreased the concentration of citric acid in seminal plasma (P<0.05). No effect of T-2 toxin on the concentrations of the other seminal plasma parameters (fructose and zinc) was observed. T-2 toxin decreased the basic testosterone level by 45% compared to control (P<0.01) and resulted in lower (P<0.05) GnRH-induced testosterone concentration. Feed restriction, that is, less nutrient intake, resulted in more morphologically abnormal spermatozoa in the semen, but it did not cause significant loss in BW, motility of the spermatozoa, composition of the seminal plasma or testosterone concentration--its effect needs further examination. PMID:22440347

Kovács, M; Tornyos, G; Matics, Zs; Kametler, L; Rajli, V; Bodnár, Zs; Kulcsár, M; Huszenicza, Gy; Keresztes, Zs; Cseh, S



Biochemical and mass spectrometric characterization of soluble ecto-5'-nucleotidase from bull seminal plasma.  

PubMed Central

Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (ecto-5'-NT) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane-bound protein that is ubiquitous in mammalian tissues. It is a target for a number of therapeutic drugs since increased levels of the enzyme correlate with various disease states. In this investigation, we describe the properties of a soluble ecto-5'-NT derived from bull seminal plasma. The protein was highly heterogeneous as demonstrated by chromatofocusing and two-dimensional PAGE. Sequencing analyses revealed a truncated polypeptide lacking the glycosylphospatidylinositol attachment site, suggesting that it is produced post-translationally by cleavage at Gln(547) and/or Phe(548). Heterogeneity was largely due to differential glycosylation, especially in the oligosaccharides linked to Asn(403). Significant differences in substrate specificity were observed between isoforms and, on the basis of molecular-modelling studies, were interpreted in terms of variable glycosylation causing steric hindrance of the substrate-binding site. Thus the soluble forms of ecto-5'-NT found in bull seminal plasma are unique both biochemically and structurally, and have a putative role in signalling interactions with spermatozoa following ejaculation and capacitation in the female reproductive tract. PMID:12608891

Fini, Carlo; Talamo, Fabio; Cherri, Silvia; Coli, Marcello; Floridi, Ardesio; Ferrara, Lino; Scaloni, Andrea



Lead level in seminal plasma may affect semen quality for men without occupational exposure to lead  

PubMed Central

Background Infertility affects approximately 10–15% of reproductive-age couples. Poor semen quality contributes to about 25% of infertile cases. Resulting from the direct effect on testicular function or hormonal alterations, heavy metals exposure has been related to impaired semen quality. The objective of this study was to assess the level of lead in the seminal plasma in men without occupational exposure to lead, and to determine the relationship between semen quality and lead concentration in the semen. Methods This is a prospective and nonrandomized clinical study conducted in University infertility clinic and academic research laboratory. Three hundred and forty-one male partners of infertile couples undergoing infertility evaluation and management were recruited to the study. Semen samples collected for the analyses of semen quality were also used for the measurement of lead concentrations. Semen samples were evaluated according to the WHO standards. Results All subjects were married and from infertile couples without occupational exposure to lead. There is a significant inverse correlation between the lead concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count. A higher semen lead concentration was correlated with lower sperm count, but not with semen volume, sperm motility or sperm morphology as assessed by simple linear regression. Conclusions We found that semen lead concentration was significantly higher among the patients with lower sperm count. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a high level of lead accumulation in semen may reduce the sperm count contributing to infertility of men without occupational exposure to lead. PMID:23137356



Ultrastructural and enzymatic activity of membranous vesicles isolated from canine seminal plasma.  


The objectives of this study were to verify the presence of membranous vesicles (MV) in canine seminal plasma by mean of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), to describe the ultrastructural characteristics and to identify some enzymatic activity associated with them. Semen samples, collected by digital manipulation from dogs with proven fertility, were pooled and used for membrane vesicles preparation according to conventional procedures. TEM observations showed the existence of vesicular membranous structures of more or less spherical shape with different sizes. These vesicles were surrounded by a single-, double- or multiple-layered laminar membranes. The mean vesicle diameter was 117.6 ± 86.9 nm ranging from 24.4 to 716.6 nm. Enzyme activity determinations showed the presence of adenosine deaminase, 5'-nucleotidase, ADPase, ATPase, dipeptilpeptidase IV, alkaline phosphatase, total acid phosphatase and prostatic acid phosphatase, while the aminopeptidase activity was absent. In conclusion, results of this study, compatible with results from other mammals, showed for the first time the presence of MV, their ultrastructural and enzymatic characteristics in dog seminal plasma. PMID:22774777

Zelli, R; Bellezza, I; Rambotti, M G; Minelli, A; Polisca, A



Assessment of post-thawed ram sperm viability after incubation with seminal plasma.  


A suggested alternative to improve post-thawed ram semen quality is the addition of seminal plasma (SP). This is thought to be capable of improving sperm resistance to thermal shock, reverting cryocapacitation and helping sperm survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of frozen-thawed ram semen incubation with SP on mitochondrial activity, acrosomal membrane integrity, necrosis and apoptosis. Frozen/thawed semen was divided into two groups: the SP Group and the control group. After 0, 30 and 60 min, fluorescent probes were added to aliquots from each treatment group and evaluated using flow cytometry. There was no difference between treatment groups in almost all viability parameters evaluated, with exception of the apoptosis, which was found increased in SP group. The increase in incubation period resulted in a decreased percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential and acrosomal membrane integrity and an increased percentage of necrotic and apoptotic sperm cells. In conclusion, the present study showed that addition of seminal plasma after thawing cryopreserved ram sperm had no identifiable beneficial effect on sperm quality. PMID:22661118

Rovegno, Mariana; Feitosa, Weber Beringui; Rocha, Andre Monteiro; Mendes, Camilla Mota; Visintin, Jose Antonio; D'Avila Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz



Determination of retinol and ?-tocopherol in human seminal plasma using an HPLC with UV detection.  


Oxidative stress has been proposed as one of the potential causes for infertility in men. Retinol and ?-tocopherol have an important role in the spermatozoa defences against oxidative stress. A method is described here for the simultaneous determination of retinol and ?-tocopherol in human seminal plasma with a suitable sample preparation procedure to prevent retinol and ?-tocopherol degradation. After adequate sample preparation, the samples were determined by reversed-phase column chromatography with UV detection. The analytical performance of this method was satisfactory. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%. The recoveries were as follows: 90.7% (CV 8.1%) for retinol and 98.2% (CV 4.8%) for ?-tocopherol. No significant differences in both retinol and ?-tocopherol concentration between the smokers and nonsmokers (15 ± 7 nm and 1.86 ± 0.29 ?m versus 15 ± 6 nm and 1.93 ± 0.45 ?m) were found. A selective high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of retinol and ?-tocopherol in human seminal plasma was developed. PMID:23611772

Kan?ár, R; Drábková, P; Myslíková, K; Hampl, R



Macrophage metalloelastase-12 is detectable in human seminal plasma and represents a predictor for inflammatory processes in the male genital tract.  


Macrophage metalloelastase-12 (MMP-12), a protein of the matrix metalloproteinase family, is involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes as well as in disease processes. MMP-12 is almost exclusively produced by macrophages and is associated with inflammatory disorders. Giving the fact that inflammation negatively influences ejaculate parameters, we investigated a possible presence and correlation of MMP-12 in seminal plasma with parameters of the ejaculate, especially in leucocytospermic ejaculates. Forty-two patients who presented for semen analysis were assigned into four groups depending on the result of semen analysis according to the WHO guidelines 2010: normozoospermia (n = 11), OAT (n = 10), azoospermia (n = 10) and leucocytospermia (>1 mio. peroxidase-positive cells per ml) (n = 11). MMP-12 was detected by ELISA and was measurable in nearly all seminal plasma samples. Generally, MMP-12 concentrations were significantly higher in leucocytospermic samples than in nonleucocytospermic ones (P = 0.001). The MMP-12 levels between the latter nonleucocytospermic groups did not differ. Moreover, MMP-12 levels correlated with the presence of peroxidase-positive leucocytes. No correlation with CD 14 positive monocytes/macrophages was detected. In this study, we demonstrate that MMP-12 is present in seminal plasma and is correlated with inflammatory conditions in human semen and therefore may serve as predictor of ongoing inflammatory processes. PMID:24528255

Urbschat, A; Paulus, P; Wiegratz, I; Beschmann, H; Hadji, P; Hofmann, R; Ochsendorf, F



271 induction of ovulation in rabbit does using purified nerve growth factor and camel seminal plasma.  


The presence of an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma (SP) of several species with spontaneous and induced ovulation, including the rabbit, has been documented. Recent studies have demonstrated that the OIF in the SP of camels (SPCAM) is a nerve growth factor (?-NGF). The aim of this study was to determine if purified ?-NGF from mouse submandibular glands or SPCAM could provoke ovulation induction in the rabbit doe. A total of 35 females were synchronized with 25IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (Serigan, Laboratorios Ovejero, Spain) and allocated into 4 groups. Forty-eight hours later (Day 0), does were given a single dose (IM) of 1mL of saline solution (SS; n=8); 1mL of gonadorelin (GnRH; Inducel, Laboratorios Ovejero, Spain; n=9); 24µg of ?-NGF (2.5S-NGF; Promega, USA; n=10); or 1mL of centrifuged raw camel SP (SPCAM; 127pgmL(-1) NGF; n=8). After treatment, an empty catheter was introduced through the vagina to simulate the nervous/mechanical stimulus of coitus (4 animals per group). Plasma LH concentrations were determined in blood samples taken 30min before treatment and at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120min after injection. Progesterone concentrations were assessed at 0 and 120min and every 2 days until Day 6 after treatment. Concentrations of ?-NGF in camel SP and hormone determinations were made by enzyme immunoassay. Ovulation rate (OR) was determined after euthanasia on Day 7. Statistical analyses using CATMOD and MIXED procedures of the SAS program to compare OR data and hormone concentrations, respectively, were performed. Ovulation occurred in 100% of GnRH (9/9), 33% (3/10) of NGF, 25% (2/8) of SS, and 0% (0/8) of SPCAM groups. Both NGF and SS ovulated females had significantly lower LH concentration than GnRH group throughout all preovulatory surge (P<0.001). When does were not stimulated with catheter introduction, only those from the GnRH (5/5) and NGF (1/6) groups ovulated. Total number of corpora lutea in ovulated does was similar (15.9±1.9, 17.0±4.2, and 14.3±3.1 CL in GnRH, SS, and NGF groups, respectively). Plasma P4 concentrations were normally increased from Day 2 to 6 in ovulated rabbits of all groups, but were lower at 120min (P<0.001) for the NGF and SS does, reaching similar levels than GnRH does at 6 days post-treatment. In the present study, ?-NGF from mouse submandibular glands, but not from raw camel SP, induced ovulation in rabbit females, independently of nervous stimulus. Nonetheless, the possible low dose of ?-NGF used and the origin could have been responsible for the lack of a more acute effect. PMID:25472319

Masdeu, M; Garcia-Garcia, R M; Cardinali, R; Millan, P; Arias Alvarez, M; Castellini, C; Lorenzo, P L; Rebollar, P G



Toxic metals signature in the human seminal plasma of Pakistani population and their potential role in male infertility.  


Aims of this study were to provide firsthand data on the incidence of trace metals in human seminal plasma and find possible correlations between levels of toxic metals and semen quality of Pakistani population. Human semen samples were collected from male partners of couples undergoing infertility assessment at the National Institute of Health Islamabad (Pakistan). We investigated seventy-five seminal plasma samples, which were further categorized into three groups (normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia) according to WHO guidelines. The concentration of 17 different toxic metals in human seminal plasma was determined simultaneously by using Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Out of 17 trace metals, Cd and Ni showed significant difference (p < 0.05) among three monitored groups. Ni and Cd concentrations in the seminal plasma were negatively correlated with sperm concentration (r = -0.26, -0.29) and motility (r = -0.33, -0.37), respectively. This study suggested that exposure of Ni and Cd is mainly related with the consumption of contaminated dietary items, including ghee (cooking oil), flour and other agri-products. In some semen samples, the concentrations of Sn, V, Cu, Pb, Cr and Hg exhibited high levels suggesting a recent human exposure to surrounding sources. In Pakistani human semen samples, the levels of trace metals were lower and/or comparable to that found in populations of other countries. The results show the first evidence of the effect of toxic metals on semen quality and male infertility in Pakistan. PMID:25471479

Zafar, Ambreen; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Bostan, Nazish; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Tahir, Faheem; Shah, Syed Tahir Abbas; Hussain, Alamdar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Huang, Qingyu; Peng, Siyuan; Shen, Heqing



Effect of seminal plasma on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) sperm vitrification.  


This study was designed to test a vitrification method in Atlantic salmon spermatozoa and determine the capacity of seminal plasma (SP) to protect these cells from cryoinjuries. The vitrification medium consisted of a standard buffer for fish spermatozoa (Cortland medium) + 10% DMSO + 2% BSA + 0.13-M sucrose + SP at concentrations of 30% (G30), 40% (G40), or 50% (G50). Fresh sperm was used as a control. To freeze the samples, 30-?L suspensions of spermatozoa from each group were dropped directly into liquid nitrogen. The resulting spheres were placed in cryotubes for storage in liquid nitrogen. The cryotubes with the vitrified spermatozoa were thawed by placing them in a water bath at 37 °C for 45 seconds. After thawing, the following sperm quality parameters were determined by flow cytometry: DNA fragmentation (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling), plasma membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI, staining technique), and mitochondrial membrane potential (JC-1 staining). An optical microscope was used to assess subjectively sperm motility, whereas fertility was determined by the presence of neurulation using five replicates per treatment in a sample of 30 eggs. Spermatozoa quality variables were preserved best when the highest concentration of SP (50%) was used (DNA fragmentation, 9.2%; plasma membrane integrity, 98.6%; mitochondrial membrane integrity, 47.2%; motility, 44.1%; and fertility, 46.2%). PMID:25442390

Figueroa, E; Merino, O; Risopatrón, J; Isachenko, V; Sánchez, R; Effer, B; Isachenko, E; Farias, J G; Valdebenito, I



Timing of intermittent seminal HIV-1 RNA shedding in patients with undetectable plasma viral load under combination antiretroviral therapy.  


It was demonstrated that combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the HIV-1 viral load (VL) in the blood and the seminal compartment. Some studies have reported that the seminal HIV-1 VL is undetectable in individuals with an undetectable blood plasma viral load (bpVL) under cART. However, some recent studies have demonstrated that seminal HIV-1 RNA may still be detected, and potentially infectious, even in the case of an undetectable bpVL. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the detection rate of a seminal VL and whether shedding could be intermittent over a very short time. From January 2006 to December 2011, 88 HIV-1 infected men, enrolled in an Assisted Reproduction program, provided 306 semen samples, corresponding to 177 frozen sperm samples (two samples delivered at a one-hour interval (n?=?129) or one sample (n?=?48)). All enrolled men were under cART, with an undetectable bpVL for more than 6 months. HIV-1 RNA was quantified in seminal plasma using a Roche COBAS Ampliprep COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test. Seminal HIV-1 RNA was detected in 23 samples (7.5%) from 17 patients (19.3%). This detection rate was stable over years. With regards to the freezing of two samples delivered at a one-hour interval, the proportion of discordance between the first and second samples was 9.3% (12/129). Our results confirm the intermittent shedding of HIV-1 in semen. While this finding has been shown by studies examining longer time intervals, to our knowledge, this has never been demonstrated over such a short time interval. PMID:24594873

Ferraretto, Xavier; Estellat, Candice; Damond, Florence; Longuet, Pascale; Epelboin, Sylvie; Demailly, Pauline; Yazbeck, Chadi; Llabador, Marie-Astrid; Pasquet, Blandine; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Matheron, Sophie; Patrat, Catherine



Human seminal clusterin (SP-40,40). Isolation and characterization.  

PubMed Central

Molecular cloning of the human complement inhibitor SP-40,40, has revealed strong homology to a major rat and ram Sertoli cell product, sulfated glycoprotein-2, known also as clusterin. This study reports the purification and characterization of human seminal clusterin. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed charge differences between clusterin purified from semen and the serum-derived material. Both preparations demonstrate comparable hemagglutination (clustering) activity and inhibition of C5b-6 initiated hemolysis. The average clusterin concentration in normal seminal plasma is considerably higher than that found in serum. Mean seminal plasma clusterin concentrations were significantly lower in azoospermia caused by obstruction or seminiferous tubule failure than with oligospermia or normospermia. Only men with vasal agenesis had undetectable seminal clusterin, suggesting that some of the seminal clusterin is produced by the seminal vesicles. Immunofluorescence of human spermatozoa revealed that clusterin was detected on 10% of spermatozoa, predominantly those that were immature or had abnormal morphology. A pilot study of 25 patients suggests that seminal clusterin concentration, together with sperm motility and morphology, is correlated with the fertilization rate in vitro. The function of seminal clusterin is unknown. Its extensive distribution in the male genital tract and its high concentration in seminal plasma suggests an important role in male fertility. Images PMID:2185274

O'Bryan, M K; Baker, H W; Saunders, J R; Kirszbaum, L; Walker, I D; Hudson, P; Liu, D Y; Glew, M D; d'Apice, A J; Murphy, B F



Resolution of the sperm motility-stimulating principle of fowl seminal plasma into Ca2+ and an unidentified low molecular weight factor.  


It was confirmed, using an objective assay of motility, that fowl seminal plasma restores and stimulates the motility of fowl spermatozoa at 40 degrees C in a dose-dependent manner. By separation of a 100,000 g supernatant of fowl seminal plasma with Sephadex G-15, two peaks of motility-stimulating activity were distinguished. One peak coincided with that of calcium and was absent when calcium was removed from the seminal plasma with Dowex 50. The other peak, which accounted for 44% of motility-stimulating activity, contained a low molecular weight, dialysable factor which remains to be identified. PMID:3430466

Ashizawa, K; Wishart, G J



New insights into the mechanisms of ram sperm protection by seminal plasma proteins.  


To provide new insights into the mechanisms through which seminal plasma proteins (SPP) are able to protect spermatozoa, we tested the hypothesis that apoptosis can contribute to the negative effect of refrigeration on ram spermatozoa, and that SPP prevent this damage. Having proved the presence of key constituents of apoptosis-related pathways in ram sperm protein extracts, we carried out a comparative analysis of the effects of the addition of SPP before refrigeration (15 °C, 30 min) and induced-apoptosis with betulinic acid or fibroblast-associated receptor ligand, assessing sperm quality parameters and apoptotic markers. The protective effect of SPP on plasma membrane integrity and potential, motility and mitochondrial inner membrane potential, and surface (cardiolipin content) was evidenced in refrigerated and induced-apoptosis samples. The addition of SPP resulted in lower values of phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA damage, and caspase activity. Therefore, apoptosis in fresh or refrigerated ram spermatozoa can occur due to activation of both the extrinsic and the intrinsic mediated pathway, and SPP might interfere with both pathways. The addition of SPP also resulted in higher proportions of viable, noncapacitated sperm and fertilizing ability (ZBA rate). This report demonstrates that SPP support survival of ram spermatozoa acting not only at the plasma membrane but also by inhibition of capacitation, and proposes the possibility that SPP might interfere with the extrinsic and the intrinsic apoptotic pathways. This opens new, interesting perspectives for the study of cellular regulatory mechanisms in spermatozoa that could be crucial for the improvement of ram semen preservation protocols. PMID:23636812

Mendoza, Noelia; Casao, Adriana; Pérez-Pé, Rosaura; Cebrián-Pérez, José A; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa



Lipase activity in stallion seminal plasma and the effect of lipase on stallion spermatozoa during storage at 5 degrees C.  


Previous studies have demonstrated a detrimental effect of seminal plasma on the maintenance of motility of cooled equine spermatozoa; however, the mechanism for the adverse effect of seminal plasma during cooled storage remains undetermined. In goats, a glycoprotein component of bulbourethral gland secretion contains lipase activity that is detrimental to sperm motility when stored in skim milk-based extenders. The objective of the current study was to determine the amount of lipase activity in stallion seminal plasma and to determine the effect of added lipase on spermatozoal motility during cooled semen storage. In the first experiment, seminal plasma (1.0 ml) was assayed for lipase activity based upon hydrolysis of triglycerides (olive oil substrate) into free fatty acids and subsequent titration of pH change (SigmaDiagnostic Lipase Kit). Lipase activity in stallion seminal plasma was 0.36 +/- 0.02 Sigma units/ml, (mean + S.E.M.; n = 16 ejaculates from six stallions). In the second experiment, equine semen (three ejaculates from each of four stallions) was divided into five treatment aliquots. In Treatment 1, semen was extended 1:3 with nonfat dried skim milk extender (NFDSM). In treatment groups 2 through 5, spermatozoa were washed by centrifugation (300 x g for 15 min) and resuspended in NFDSM to a final concentration of 25 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml. Porcine pancreatic lipase (pPL) was added to Treatment 3 (10 pPL units/ml), Treatment 4 (100 pPL units/ml) and Treatment 5 (100 pPL units/ml, heat inactivated at 100 degrees C for 5 min) while Treatment 2 had no pancreatic lipase added and served as the control. Samples were cooled slowly to 5 degrees C, and stored at 5 degrees C until evaluation. Sperm motility was evaluated at time 0, 24, 48 and 72 h by computerized semen analysis, and data were analyzed via repeated measures ANOVA. The addition of 100 units/ml but not 10 units/ml of pPL decreased (P < 0.01) total and progressive motility of stored sperm. Heat-inactivated pPL (Treatment 5) did not significantly decrease motility of spermatozoa during storage. Because the lipase activity assayed (Sigma units) and the lipase activity added to cooled semen (pPL units) were not equivalent, pPL was assayed in the Sigma Diagnostic Lipase assay. The relationship between Sigma Units (Y) and pPL units (X) appeared to be a log-linear relationship with log(Y) = -0.912 + 0.007X; R2 = 0.90. Mean lipase activity assayed in stallion seminal plasma was equivalent to approximately 64 pPL units/ml. These data suggest that endogenous lipase activity in stallion seminal plasma may be a factor in the adverse effects of seminal plasma on cooled spermatozoa in some stallions. PMID:12374128

Carver, D A; Ball, B A



Levels of Environmental Contaminants in Human Follicular Fluid, Serum, and Seminal Plasma of Couples Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental chemicals are thought to adversely affect human reproductive function, however there are no studies that have\\u000a explored the association between failed fertilization and exposure of both partners to environmental contaminants. Therefore,\\u000a we collected blood and follicular fluid from the female partner and seminal plasma from the male partner of 21 couples attending\\u000a an in vitro fertilization (IVF) program, in

E. V. Younglai; W. G. Foster; E. G. Hughes; K. Trim; J. F. Jarrell



Relationship between seminal plasma interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor a levels with semen parameters in fertile and infertile men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of two proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor ! (TNF-!) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), were investigated in seminal plasma (SP) of proven fertile (n=24) and infertile (n=55) men to evaluate the relationship between diagnosis and semen parameters in a prospective study. Infertile men were divided into four groups as follows: (1) varicocele (n=23), (2) 3 months after varicocelectomy

Izzet Koçak; Çigdem Yenisey; Mehmet Dündar; Pinar Okyay; Mukadder Serter



Protection of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) spermatozoa motility under oxidative stress by antioxidants and seminal plasma.  


The protective influence of seminal plasma and the antioxidants catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GTH) on quality parameters, oxidative stress indices, and antioxidant activity was studied in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) spermatozoa exposed to the xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO) system. Fish spermatozoa were incubated for 5 and 20 min at 4 °C with X-XO concentrations of 1 mM X-0.1 U/mL, 0.6 mM X-0.05 U/mL, 0.3 mM X-0.025 U/mL, and 0.1 mM X-0.0125 U/mL. A dose-dependent reduction in spermatozoa motility and velocity was observed at concentrations of 0.1 mM X-0.0125 U/mL to 1 mM X-0.1 U/mL XO. Increase in spermatozoa motility parameters was recorded following treatment with antioxidants and seminal plasma. The level of the oxidative stress indices lipid peroxidation (LPO) and carbonyl derivatives of proteins (CP) was significantly reduced after addition of CAT, SOD, or GTH along with seminal plasma. Significant differences in SOD, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity were seen in spermatozoa incubated with, compared to that without, seminal plasma at all studied X-XO concentrations. The data demonstrated that CAT, SOD, or GTH in combination with SP can reduce reactive oxygen species stress in fish spermatozoa and improve spermatozoa quality. PMID:25079247

Shaliutina-Kolešová, A; Gazo, I; Cosson, J; Linhart, O



Influence of dietary zinc on semen traits and seminal plasma antioxidant enzymes and trace minerals of beetal bucks.  


Zinc (Zn) is a potent antioxidant and plays a key role in scavenging free radicals. We hypothesized that supplementation of Zn would reduce the oxidative damage, which is linked with poor sperm quality. Sixteen bucks of similar average age (2 years) and body weight (41 kg) were randomly divided into four groups viz., 1, 2, 3 and 4 supplemented with zinc sulphate into the diet at the rate of 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/buck/day, respectively, for 3 months. At the end of the experiment, semen samples were collected and assessed. Seminal plasma was separated to find the concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and trace minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe). The results revealed that semen volume (1.85 ± 0.01 ml) and sperm motility (88.23 ± 5.77%) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in supplemented groups compared with the control specifically in group 3. SOD (10.66 ± 0.23 inhibition rate %) and GPx (23.55 ± 0.49 mU/ml) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in group 3 with no effect on AST and ALT. Among seminal plasma trace elements, no significant change (p > 0.05) was observed. From the present results, we concluded that zinc sulphate at the rate of 100 mg/buck/day improved semen traits and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in Beetal bucks. PMID:25263460

Rahman, H U; Qureshi, M S; Khan, R U



Effects of multiple collections on spermatozoa quality of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus: motility, density and seminal plasma composition.  


In this study, we investigated the effects of multiple collections of sperm on the endangered Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, in terms of a number of sperm functional parameters (percentage of motile spermatozoa, total time period of motility and sperm concentration) as well as on the ionic composition, protein concentration and osmolality of seminal plasma. Semen samples were collected from 12 induced male fish in three experimental groups that had been injected intramuscularly with LHRH-A2 , at dosages of 5 ?g/kg body weight, at a number of time regimes: at 12 h, 17 h and 24 h after spawning induction (1); at 24, 29 and 34 h after spawning induction (2); and at 36, 41 and 46 h after spawning induction (3). The percentage of motile spermatozoa and the period of sperm motility decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after the second and third collections. The concentration of spermatozoa decreased after the third collection, but this decline was not significant. No significant effect of multiple collections on protein concentration and ionic content (with exception of the Cl(-) ion) of seminal plasma was observed. In all experimental groups, a moderate impact of sequential collection on the osmolality (p < 0.05) of seminal plasma was observed. This study provides new data on the effects of multiple collections on spermatological characteristics in the Persian sturgeon. Our results confirm that sequential stripping after the third collections has a negative effect on a number of functional parameters associated with sperm. PMID:24931708

Aramli, M S; Kalbassi, M R; Gharibi, M R



Measurement of activity and concentration of paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) in seminal plasma and identification of PON-2 in the sperm of boar ejaculates.  


This study revealed and characterised the presence of the antioxidant enzymes paraoxonase (PON) type 1 (PON-1, extracellular) and type 2 (PON-2, intracellular) in boar semen. To evaluate PON-1, an entire ejaculate from each of ten boars was collected and the seminal plasma was harvested after double centrifugation (1,500g for 10?min). Seminal plasma was analysed for concentration as well as enzymatic activity of PON-1 and total cholesterol levels. Seminal-plasma PON-1 concentration ranged from 0.961 to 1.670?ng/ml while its enzymatic activity ranged from 0.056 to 0.400 IU/ml, which represent individual variance. Seminal-plasma PON-1 concentration and enzymatic activity were negatively correlated (r?=?-0.763; P?seminal-plasma PON-1 negatively correlated with ejaculate volume (r?=?-0.726, P?seminal-plasma cholesterol concentration positively correlated with PON-1 activity (r?=?0.773; P?seminal plasma and PON-2 within the spermatozoa. Further studies are needed to characterise the relationship between antioxidant PONs with sperm and other seminal-plasma parameters. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25487823

Barranco, Isabel; Roca, Jordi; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Rubér, Marie; Vicente-Carrillo, Alejandro; Atikuzzaman, Mohammad; Ceron, Jose J; Martinez, Emilio A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto



Parameters of the reproductive tract, spermatogenesis, daily sperm production and major seminal plasma proteins of tropically adapted morada nova rams.  


This study describes the reproductive parameters of Morada Nova rams, a breed of hair sheep from Brazil and with unique adaption to tropical environments. At 42 weeks of age, 15 rams were subjected to semen collection and, 1 week later, animals were slaughtered for collection of testes, epididymis and accessory sex glands. We conducted 2-D electrophoresis of seminal plasma proteins and major spots of stained gels were identified by LC-MS/MS. Total RNA was isolated from testis, epididymis and vesicular glands and subjected to qPCR. At slaughter, scrotal circumference and testicular weight were 27.5 ± 0.5 cm and 109.5 ± 6.0 g, respectively. Seminiferous tubule (ST) diameter was 188.3 ± 4.0 ?m and each testis contained 1.9 ± 0.1 Sertoli cells (×10(9) ). Each Sertoli cell supported 0.1 ± 0.01 A spermatogonia, 3.0 ± 0.2 pachytene spermatocytes and 7.7 ± 0.5 round spermatids/tubule cross section. Daily sperm production reached 5.6 × 10(6)  cells/g of testis parenchyma. Testis size appeared as indicative of ST diameter and associated with epididymal measurements, as well as with the population of round spermatids and Sertoli cells/testis. Rams with heavier testes had greater daily sperm production and more Sertoli cells/testis. We detected 90.9 ± 9.6 spots per 2-D gel of seminal plasma. Major seminal proteins were identified as ram seminal vesicle proteins at 14 and 22 kDa, representing 16.2% and 12.8% of the total intensity of valid spots in the gels, respectively. Expression of both genes was greater in the vesicular glands as compared to testis and epididymis. Pixel intensity for those proteins in the 2-D gels was significantly correlated with seminal vesicle weight. This is the first description of the basic reproductive aspects of Morada Nova rams, including protein profiles of their seminal plasma. These findings will allow a better understanding of their reproductive physiology. PMID:24716618

Sousa, F M L; Lobo, C H; Menezes, E S B; Rego, J P A; Oliveira, R V; Lima-Souza, A C; Fioramonte, M; Gozzo, F C; Pompeu, R C F F; Cândido, M J D; Oliveira, J T; Moura, A A



64 could frozen-thawed boar-semen fertility be increased with seminal plasma addition?  


Post-thawed addition of seminal plasma (SP) in equine cryopreserved semen increased the integrity of plasma and acrosomal membranes (Andrade et al. 2011 Reprod. Dom. Anim. 46, 682-686) and these possibly affect sperm lifespan, improving fertility (Garcia et al. 2010 Anim. Reprod. Sci. 119, 160-165). This study was conducted to verify the pregnancy (PR) and fertility rate (FR) of addition of homologous SP in thawed boar semen. First, SP collections were made with polled sperm rich-fraction. Semen was centrifuged (500×g for 10min) and supernatant was removed, centrifuged one more time (2500×g for 30min), vacuum filtered through membranes (0.22?m), and stored at -80°C for future use. Samples collected to frozen were pooled and divided in 2 aliquots, control (cryopreserved with SP; CON) and cryopreserved without SP (WSP; SP was removed and discarded after centrifugation - 500×g for 10min). Samples were extended in freezing extender (Botupharma(®)) to a final concentration of 300×10(6) spermatozoa per milliliter, packaged in 0.5-mL straws, and frozen in an automatic system (TK Tecnologia em Congelação(®)) using a rate of -0.5°Cmin(-1) until 5°C, -20°Cmin(-1) until -120°C, and then immersed in LN (-196°C). Ten straws, from each treatment, were thawed in water bath (37°C/30s) and extended in Beltsville thawing solution to obtain 1.5×10(9) sperm in 40mL. The other 10 straws of WSP were thawed and extended in Beltsville thawing solution plus 10% (v:v) of SP to originate treatment TSP (thawed added of seminal plasma). Thirty-three (11 per treatment) gilts had synchronized ovulation with altrenogest (25mg/5mL, Regumate(®)) administration per 18 days. Following day after withdrawal the altrenogest was administered with an intramuscular injection of 600IU of eCG (Novormon(®)) and 2.5mg of pLH (Lutropin(®)-V) after 72 h; a single deep intrauterine insemination was made 36h after. Five days after, females were slaughtered and embryos were collected (by oviducts flushed) and evaluated by esteromicroscopia. Fertility rate and PR were analysed by SAS program (SAS Institute Inc., 2010, Cary, NC, USA). Fertility rate was analysed by Mixed models, and treatment effects were analysed by orthogonal contrasts (C1: effect without SP=CW v. NC; C2: effect of post-thawed addition of SP=CP v. CW), and PR was evaluated by binary distribution with PROC GLIMMIX test. Fertility rate was not affected (P>0.05) by cryopreservation of boar semen in presence or absence of SP nor by its addition in Beltsville thawing solution (10.58±3.92, 9.57±4.92, 21.29±7.37 for CON, WSP, and TSP, respectively). Treatments did not influence (P>0.05) PR (50.00, 36.36, 72.73 for CON, WSP, and TSP, respectively). Thus, neither SP addition in thawed boar semen nor cryopreservation with or without SP can be beneficial to PR and FR, in our experimental conditions. However, a numeric large difference was observed. Therefore, these results lead us to believe that SP have a potential to increase the fertility and pregnancy rate, and that can be verified in further studies, with more repetitions. PMID:25472113

Torres, M A; Ravagnani, G M; de Lima Oliveira, M; Leal, D F; Amorim de Campos, G; Martins, S M M K; Muro, B B D; Moretti, A S 'a; Papa, F O; Dell'Aqua, J A; Alvarenga, M A; Cesar de Andrade, A F



Ram seminal plasma proteins contribute to sperm capacitation and modulate sperm-zona pellucida interaction.  


Incubation of ram spermatozoa in capacitating conditions with cAMP-elevating agents promotes a progressive time-dependent increase in the capacitated sperm subpopulation. In this study, the fertilizing capacity of ram spermatozoa (ability to bind to the zona pellucida, ZBA rate) capacitated in these conditions was determined. The results showed an increase (P < 0.001) in ZBA rate related to control samples in basal medium that contained BSA, calcium, and bicarbonate (1.97 ± 0.19 vs. 1.31 ± 0.09 sperm bound/oocyte, respectively). A significant correlation between protein tyrosine phosphorylation and ZBA rate (P < 0.05, r = 0.501) corroborated that incubation in a "high-cAMP" environment improves the fertilizing ability of ram spermatozoa. Likewise, the presence of two seminal plasma (SP) proteins able to protect sperm against cold shock (RSVP14 and RSVP20) was evidenced in both SP and the ram sperm surface, and their influence in the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa capacitated in basal medium or with cAMP-elevating agents was determined. The results verified that RSVP14 and RSVP20 act as decapacitating factors given that their addition to SP-free sperm samples previously to capacitation maintained high proportions of the noncapacitated sperm pattern with no increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation. However, the obtained ZBA rate in the high-cAMP-containing samples was increased in the presence of RSVP20 (P < 0.05). These findings would indicate that the stimulating effect exerted by this protein on the sperm-oocyte binding occurs downstream from the cAMP generation and that the mechanisms by which RSVP20 promotes the zona pellucida binding might be independent of protein tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID:25515364

Luna, C; Colás, C; Casao, A; Serrano, E; Domingo, J; Pérez-Pé, R; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Muiño-Blanco, T



Mass spectrometry study of ecto-5'-nucleotidase from bull seminal plasma.  


The structure of ecto-5'-nucleotidase from bull seminal plasma, containing a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor, was studied using mass spectrometry. MALDI-MS analysis of intact protein indicated a mass of 65 568.2 Da for the monomeric form, and it also showed a heterogeneous population of glycoforms with the glycosidic moiety accounting for approximately 6000 Da. MALDI-MS analysis showed that Asn53, Asn311, Asn333 and Asn403 were four sites of N-glycosylation. GC-MS analysis provided information on the glycosidic structures linked to the four asparagines. Asn53, Asn311 and Asn333 were linked to high-mannose saccharide chains, whereas the glycan chains linked to Asn403 contained a heterogeneous mixture of oligosaccharides, the high-mannose type structure being the most abundant and hybrid or complex type glycans being minor components. By combining enzymatic and/or chemical hydrolysis with GC-MS analysis, detailed characterization of the glycosyl-phpsphatidylinositol anchor was obtained. MALDI spectral analysis indicated that the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol core contained EtN(P)Man3GlcNH2-myo-inositol(P)-glycerol, principally modified by stearoyl and palmitoyl residues or by stearoyl and myristoyl residues to a minor extent. Moreover, 1-palmitoylglycerol and 1-stearoylglycerol outweighed 2-palmitoylglycerol and 2-stearoylglycerol. The combination of chemical and enzymatic digestions of the protein with the mass spectral analysis yielded a complete pattern of S-S bridges. The protein does not contain free thiols and its eight cysteines are linked by intramolecular disulfide bonds, the pairs being: Cys51-Cys57, Cys353-Cys358, Cys365-Cys387 and Cys476-Cys479. This work resolves details of the structure of ecto-5'-nucleotidase, with particular regard to the localization and composition of the glycidic moiety, number and localization of the disulfide bridges and characterization of the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor. PMID:10931179

Fini, C; Amoresano, A; Andolfo, A; D'auria, S; Floridi, A; Paolini, S; Pucci, P



Effect of heterologous and homologous seminal plasma on stallion sperm quality.  


Removing most of the seminal plasma (SP) from stallion semen has been shown to improve survival during cooled storage, yet adding small quantities of SP may improve pregnancy rates or cryosurvival. Furthermore, there is considerable controversy about whether the stallion's own SP or heterologous SP produces the best effect, possibly because of the variation between stallions in SP proteins or because some homologous SP remained in the sperm preparation. The SP is removed completely from stallion spermatozoa prepared by colloid centrifugation. Thus, the aim of the present study was (1) to investigate the effect of adding back SP to colloid centrifuged spermatozoa to determine its effect on spermatozoa; and (2) to investigate whether the stallion's own SP had a greater or lesser effect than heterologous SP. Conventional semen doses were sent from a stud overnight to the laboratory using standard transport conditions. Once at the laboratory, the semen samples were used for single layer centrifugation with Androcoll-E, and the resulting sperm preparations were treated with heterologous SP. Adding SP had a small but significant effect on sperm motility but no effect on the proportion of spermatozoa that had acrosome reacted. There were significant increases in hydrogen peroxide production and chromatin damage (P < 0.001). When homologous and heterologous SP were compared, considerable variation was observed between stallions, so that it was not possible to predict whether homologous or heterologous SP, or no SP, will produce the best motility for spermatozoa from any given stallion. Therefore, it is necessary to test different combinations of spermatozoa and SP to find the optimal effect on motility. The SP from most stallions increased reactive oxygen species and chromatin damage. In conclusion, the interaction between SP and spermatozoa depends on the origin of both SP and spermatozoa. If it is desirable to add SP to stallion sperm samples, it should be done directly before insemination rather than before storage, because of increased hydrogen peroxide production and sperm chromatin damage. PMID:24768057

Morrell, J M; Georgakas, A; Lundeheim, N; Nash, D; Davies Morel, M C G; Johannisson, A



Development of Normal Reference Values for Seminal Reactive Oxygen Species and Their Correlation with Leukocytes and Semen Parameters in a Fertile Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although reactive oxygen species (ROSs) are clearly implicated in the pathogenesis of male infertility, few studies have attempted to define the basal levels of ROSs in fertile men. Levels of ROSs are highly influenced by the presence of leukocytes and are associated with decreased seminal parameters. The objective of our study was to determine the normal ROS reference values in

Kelly S. Athayde; Marcello Cocuzza; Ashok Agarwal; Natalie Krajcir; Antonio M. Lucon; Miguel Srougi; Jorge Hallak



Fertility-associated metabolites in bull seminal plasma and blood serum: (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.  


Early estimation of bull fertility is highly desirable for the conservation of male genetics of endangered species and for the exploitation of genetically superior sires in artificial insemination programs. The present work was conducted as a proof-of-principle study to identify fertility-associated metabolites in dairy bull seminal plasma and blood serum using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR). Semen and blood samples were collected from high- and low-fertility breeding bulls (n?=?5 each), stationed at Semex, Guelph, Canada. NMR spectra of serum and seminal plasma were recorded at a resonance frequency of 500.13?MHz on a Bruker Avance-500 spectrometer equipped with an inverse triple resonance probe (TXI, 5?mm). Spectra were phased manually, baseline corrected, and calibrated against 3-(trimethylsilyl) propionic-2,2,3,3-d4 acid at 0.0 parts per million (ppm). Spectra were converted to an appropriate format for analysis using Prometab software running within MATLAB. Principal component analysis was used to examine intrinsic variation in the NMR data set, and to identify trends and to exclude outliers. Partial least square-discriminant analysis was performed to identify the significant features between fertility groups. The fertility-associated metabolites with variable importance in projections (VIP) scores >2 were citrate (2.50?ppm), tryptamine/taurine (3.34-3.38?ppm), isoleucine (0.74?ppm), and leucine (0.78?ppm) in the seminal plasma; and isoleucine (1.14?ppm), asparagine (2.90-2.94?ppm), glycogen (3.98?ppm), and citrulline (1.54?ppm) in the serum. These metabolites showed identifiable peaks, and thus can be used as biomarkers of fertility in breeding bulls. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 82: 123-131, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25640164

Kumar, Ajeet; Kroetsch, Tom; Blondin, Patrick; Anzar, Muhammad



Immunoaffinity chromatographic isolation of prostate-specific antigen from seminal plasma for capillary electrophoresis analysis of its isoforms.  


Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration in serum has been the biomarker employed for prostate cancer diagnosis in the last two decades. However, new more specific biomarkers allowing a better differentiation of cancer from non-malignant prostate diseases are necessary. Glycosylation of PSA gives rise to different forms of the protein which can be separated into several isoforms by analytical techniques, such as CE. Because PSA glycosylation is influenced by pathological conditions, the CE pattern of PSA isoforms could be different in prostate cancer than in non-malignant prostate diseases. To study this CE pattern of PSA, prior purification of the protein from the biological fluid is mandatory. In this study an immunoaffinity chromatography method which allows PSA purification without altering the CE pattern is developed. An in-house prepared column produced with commercial anti-PSA antibodies is employed. The use of 1 M propionic acid as elution agent provides higher than 40% recovery of high purity PSA. CE analysis of PSA immunopurified from seminal plasma of a healthy individual shows the same 8 peaks as the commercially available PSA standard. Sample preparation only requires dilution with phosphate buffered saline prior to immunoaffinity purification. High repeatability for the sample preparation step was achieved (RSD% for percentage of corrected peak area in the range 0.6-5.3 for CE analysis of three independently purified seminal plasma aliquots compared to range 0.8-4.9 for a given aliquot analyzed three times by CE). IAC of five microliters seminal plasma provided enough PSA to achieve signal/noise ratio larger than 5 for the smallest CE isoforms. PMID:24745737

Garrido-Medina, Raul; Farina-Gomez, Noemi; Diez-Masa, Jose Carlos; de Frutos, Mercedes



Lysozyme activities and immunoglobulin concentrations in seminal plasma and spermatozoa of different teleost species and indications on its significance for sperm function.  


The occurrence of lysozyme and immunoglobulin (Ig) in semen of different teleost species (brown trout-Salmo trutta, perch-Perca fluviatilis, burbot-Lota lota) was studied. In all investigated species lysozyme activities (1.13-1.45 U ml(-1)) and Ig concentrations (T-Ig: 1.11-1.61 microg ml(-1), IgG [measured only in brown trout]: 1.49 microg ml(-1)) were detected in seminal plasma. Ig was also found in spermatozoa (T-Ig: 0.234-0.357 microg/g protein, IgG: 0.198 microg ml(-1)) while spermatozoal lysozyme activities were low and fluctuating (0.093-0.164 U/g protein). In Salmo trutta lysozyme activities and immunoglobulin levels were compared between semen samples with high and low sperm motility as motility is an indicator for sperm fertility. Lysozyme activities were higher in seminal plasma of samples with high motility than in those with low motility while seminal plasma and spermatozoal immunoglobulin concentrations (T-Ig, IgG) were increased in samples with low motility in comparison to samples with high motility. Seminal plasma and spermatozoal IgG concentrations and seminal plasma lysozyme activities showed significant correlations with the sperm motility rate and swimming velocity. Moreover, lysozyme improved the viability of spermatozoa in in vitro experiments. Possible physiological meanings of these results are discussed. PMID:20416943

Lahnsteiner, F; Radner, M



Characterization of the cDNA and in vitro expression of the ram seminal plasma protein RSVP14.  


In previous studies we have shown that seminal plasma (SP) proteins can prevent and repair cold-shock membrane damage to ram spermatozoa. Three proteins of approximately 14, 20 and 22kDa, mainly responsible for this protective ability, were identified in ram SP. They are exclusively synthesized in the seminal vesicles and, consequently, named RSVP14, RSVP20 and RSVP22. The aim of this study is to characterize and express the RSVP14 gene to provide new insights into the mechanisms through which SP proteins are able to protect spermatozoa. Additionally, a first approach has been made to the recombinant protein production. The cDNA sequence obtained encodes a 129 amino acid chain and presents a 25-amino acid signal peptide, one potential O-linked glycosylation site and seven phosphorylation sites on tyrosine, serine and threonine residues. The sequence contains two FN-2 domains, the signature characteristic of the bovine seminal plasma (BSP) protein family and related proteins of different species. More interestingly, it was shown that RSVP14 contains four disulphide bonds and a cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC) domain, also found in BSP and similar proteins. Analysis of the relationships between RSVP14 and other mammalian SP proteins revealed a 76-85% identity, particularly with the BSP protein family. The recombinant protein was obtained in insect cell extracts and in Escherichia coli in which RSVP14 was detected in both the pellet and the supernatant. The results obtained corroborate the role of RSVP14 in capacitation and might explain its protective effect against cold-shock injury to the membranes of ram spermatozoa. Furthermore, the biochemical and functional similarities between RSVP14 and BSP proteins suggest that it might play a similar role in sperm functionality. PMID:23462333

Serrano, Edith; Pérez-Pé, Rosaura; Calleja, Lucía; Guillén, Natalia; Casao, Adriana; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramón; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José A



Cadmium concentrations in blood and seminal plasma: correlations with sperm number and motility in three male populations (infertility patients, artificial insemination donors, and unselected volunteers).  


To investigate a possible common environmental exposure that may partially explain the observed decrease in human semen quality, we correlated seminal plasma and blood cadmium levels with sperm concentration and sperm motility. We studied three separate human populations: group 1, infertility patients (Long Island, NY, USA); group 2, artificial insemination donors (AID) (Rochester, NY, USA); and group 3, general population volunteers (Rochester, NY, USA). Information about confounding factors was collected by questionnaire. Seminal plasma cadmium did not correlate with blood cadmium (Spearman correlation, n = 91, r = -0.092, P = 0.386, NS). Both blood and seminal plasma cadmium were significantly higher among infertility patients than the other subjects studied (for example, median seminal plasma cadmium was 0.282 microg/L in infertility patients versus 0.091 microg/L in AID and 0.092 microg/L in general population volunteers; Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.001). The percentage of motile sperm and sperm concentration correlated inversely with seminal plasma cadmium among the infertility patients (r = -0.201, P < 0.036 and r = -0.189, P < 0.05, respectively), but not in the other two groups. Age (among infertility patients) was the only positive confounder correlating with seminal plasma cadmium. To validate our human findings in an animal model, we chronically exposed adolescent male Wistar rats to low-moderate cadmium in drinking water. Though otherwise healthy, the rats exhibited decreases in epididymal sperm count and sperm motility associated with cadmium dose and time of exposure. Our human and rat study results are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental cadmium exposures may contribute significantly to reduced human male sperm concentration and sperm motility. PMID:19593409

Benoff, Susan; Hauser, Russ; Marmar, Joel L; Hurley, Ian R; Napolitano, Barbara; Centola, Grace M



Post-thaw addition of seminal plasma reduces tyrosine phosphorylation on the surface of cryopreserved equine sperm, but does not reduce lipid peroxidation.  


The objective was to verify the relationship between equine semen cryopreservation and changes related to increased lipid peroxidation. Also, addition of autologous or homologous seminal plasma from a stallion with a good freezing response to post-thawed sperm was tested to determine whether it would confer protection. Frozen-thawed sperm were evaluated and allocated into three groups: without plasma addition, and supplemented with either homologous or autologous seminal plasma. All groups were evaluated at 0, 60 and 120 min after incubation at 37 °C. Cryopreservation did not increase plasma membrane disorders (mean ± SEM 9.48 ± 0.65 and 1.62 ± 0.23% in raw and frozen-thawed sperm, respectively). However, both membrane peroxidation and protein phosphorylation were increased (P < 0.05) compared to raw semen (1.74 and 5.20-fold, respectively). There was a correlation (r = 0.73; P < 0.05) between the increase in lipid peroxidation and tyrosine phosphorylation. Seminal plasma, regardless of origin, reduced (P > 0.05) tyrosine phosphorylation present on the surface of cryopreserved sperm; however, lipid peroxidation was not significantly reduced. In conclusion, we inferred that emergence of phosphorylated proteins on the surface of cryopreserved sperm was due to increased lipid peroxidation that occurred during the freezing/thawing process; however, reduced tyrosine phosphorylation that occurred after addition of seminal plasma was triggered by other mechanisms, apparently independent from the reduction in membrane peroxidation. PMID:22444550

de Andrade, André Furugen Cesar; Zaffalon, Fabiane Gilli; Celeghini, Eneiva Carla Carvalho; Nascimento, Juliana; Bressan, Fabiana Fernandes; Martins, Simone Maria Massami Kitamura; de Arruda, Rubens Paes



Proteomics of human seminal plasma: identification of biomarker candidates for fertility and infertility and the evolution of technology.  


Proteomics is a research area that has developed rapidly in the last decade. It studies the large-scale characterization of the full protein components of a cell, a tissue, or a biological fluid. In the last decade, clinical proteomics has developed new technology and bioinformatics useful in identifying molecular markers of pathology; the next decade might be the era of proteomics. Seminal plasma (SP) represents a good sample for proteomic analysis in the evaluation of male fertility/infertility. SP is an acellular fluid conglomerate, comprised of contributions from the epididymis and accessory sexual glands. Human SP contains many proteins that are important to the successful fertilization of the oocyte by the spermatozoa. Proteomic studies have identified numerous seminal-specific proteins, and recent reports have provided a further understanding of their function with respect to male fertility. Upon further validation, these proteins may be useful in the clinical distinction between fertility and infertility. This article reviews the proteomic methods, such as one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D-PAGE), two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), and mass spectrometry (MS), employed to detect human SP markers involved in fertility and infertility. As such, proteomic studies will help the development of new techniques to identify novel biomarkers for a better clinical diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. PMID:23559416

Milardi, Domenico; Grande, Giuseppe; Vincenzoni, Federica; Castagnola, Massimo; Marana, Riccardo



Gene expression and cDNA cloning identified a major basic protein constituent of bovine seminal plasma as bovine monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1).  


P6 is one of the major basic proteins of bovine seminal plasma. Using cell-free translation of poly(A)+RNA from bovine seminal vesicle tissue and monospecific anti-P6-IgGs, we show that P6 is a secretory product of the seminal vesicles. Immunohistochemical experiments supported this finding. Immunoscreening of a lambda gt11 cDNA library derived from seminal vesicle poly(A)+RNA furnished a number of positive cDNA clones, from which clone pH42 was characterized by sequencing. The partial amino acid sequence of a CNBr-fragment of P6 permitted identification of the reading frame of clone pH42 encoding the precursor protein of P6. The P6 precursor contains a signal peptide of 23 amino acids followed by the mature P6 sequence of 76 amino acid residues. The cDNA sequence of pH42 was 80% homologous with that of the human monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (hMCP-1). The respective amino acid sequences for the precursor molecules are 72% identical. Northern analysis of seminal vesicle poly(A)+RNA using pH42 as probe probe identified a 0.9-kb P6 mRNA. Stimulation of P6 mRNA expression by phytohemagglutinin in bovine peripheral mononuclear leukocytes suggests that P6 is identical to bovine MCP-1. PMID:1721821

Wempe, F; Henschen, A; Scheit, K H



Concentrations of Gatifloxacin in Plasma and Urine and Penetration into Prostatic and Seminal Fluid, Ejaculate, and Sperm Cells after Single Oral Administrations of 400 Milligrams to Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Gatifloxacin (GTX), a new fluoroquinolone with extended antibacterial activity, is an interesting candidate for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). Besides the antibacterial spectrum, the concentrations in the target tissues and fluids are crucial for the treatment of CBP. Thus, it was of interest to investigate its penetration into prostatic and seminal fluid. GTX concentrations in plasma, urine, ejaculate, prostatic and seminal fluid, and sperm cells were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography method after oral intake of a single 400-mg dose in 10 male Caucasian volunteers in the fasting state. Simultaneous application of the renal contrast agent iohexol was used to estimate the maximal possible contamination of ejaculate and prostatic and seminal fluid by urine. GTX was well tolerated. The means (standard deviations) for the following parameters were as indicated: time to maximum concentration of drug in serum, 1.66 (0.91) h; maximum concentration of drug in serum, 2.90 (0.39) ?g/ml; area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h, 25.65 ?g · h/ml; and half life, 7.2 (0.90) h. Within 12 h about 50% of the drug was excreted unchanged into the urine. The mean renal clearance was 169 ml/min. The gatifloxacin concentrations in ejaculate, seminal fluid, and prostatic fluid were in the range of the corresponding plasma concentrations which were 1.92 (0.27) ?g/ml at approximately the same time point (4 h after drug intake). The concentrations in sperm cells (0.195, 0.076, and 0.011 ?g/ml) could be determined in three subjects. The good penetration into prostatic and seminal fluid, the good tolerance, and the previously reported broad antibacterial spectrum suggest that GTX may be a good alternative for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis. Clinical studies should be performed to confirm this assumption. PMID:11120980

Naber, Christoph K.; Steghafner, Michaela; Kinzig-Schippers, Martina; Sauber, Christian; Sörgel, Fritz; Stahlberg, Hans-Jürgen; Naber, Kurt G.



Assay of total glutathione and glutathione disulphide in seminal plasma of male partners of couples presenting for a fertility evaluation.  


A method is described here for the determination of total glutathione (TGSH) and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) in the seminal plasma of the male partners of couples requesting a fertility evaluation. A suitable sample preparation procedure prior to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis is discussed. After adequate sample preparation, the samples were derivatised with ortho-phthaldialdehyde to form a stable, highly fluorescent tricyclic derivative. Reversed-phase column chromatography was used for the separation, and the effluent was monitored with a fluorescence detector at an excitation wavelength of 350 nm and an emission wavelength of 420 nm. The analytical performance of this method was satisfactory. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%. The recoveries were as follows: 94.1% (CV 2.3%) for TGSH and 93.2% (CV 4.0%) for GSSG. No significant differences were found in either TGSH or GSSG concentration between the smokers and nonsmokers (2.07 ± 1.28 ?m versus 1.56 ± 1.20 ?m, P = 0.431 and 95 ± 56 nm versus 112 ± 138 nm, P = 0.825). PMID:24124871

Kan?ár, R; Hájková, N



Decreased melatonin levels and increased levels of advanced oxidation protein products in the seminal plasma are related to male infertility.  


Melatonin, an indolamine secreted by the pineal gland, is known as a powerful free-radical scavenger and wide-spectrum antioxidant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to correlate markers of oxidative protein damage (advanced oxidation protein products, AOPPs) and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) with melatonin levels in the seminal plasma of men with azoospermia (n=37), theratozoospermia (n=29) and fertile controls (normozoospermia, n=37). Melatonin concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. The levels of AOPP as well as TAC efficiency (determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP) were estimated by spectrophotometric methods. The concentration of melatonin and AOPP significantly differed in azoospermic (PPr=-0.33, P=0.0016). The TAC levels were significantly higher in azoospermia than in theratozoospermia (P=0.0022) and the control group (P=0.00016). In azoospermia, the AOPP concentration was also significantly higher than that observed in theratozoospermia (P=0.00029). Decreased levels of melatonin together with elevated AOPP altered the oxidative-antioxidative balance in the ejaculate, thereby reducing fertility. Therefore, melatonin and AOPP levels may serve as additional diagnostic markers of semen quality and male reproductive potential. PMID:25218686

Kratz, Ewa Maria; Piwowar, Agnieszka; Zeman, Michal; Stebelová, Katarína; Thalhammer, Theresia



The effects of opiate consumption on serum reproductive hormone levels, sperm parameters, seminal plasma antioxidant capacity and sperm DNA integrity.  


We evaluated the effects of opiate consumption on semen quality, sperm function, seminal plasma antioxidant capacity, and sperm DNA integrity. A total of 142 opiate addict men (group 1) were enrolled in the study and 146 healthy age matched male volunteers (group 2) served as controls. Two semen analyses were performed in all participants. Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) was used to identify sperm DNA integrity. The mean±SD sperm concentration in opiate users and in control subjects was 22.2±4.4 and 66.3±8.3 million per ml, respectively (P=0.002). A significant increase in the amount of fragmented DNA was found in opiate consumers compared with that in controls (36.4±3.8% vs. 27.1±2.4%, P=0.004). Significantly decreased levels of catalase-like and superoxide dismutase-like (SOD) activity were observed in group 1 compared with group 2. Opiate consumption has significant adverse effects on semen quality. In cases of unexplained infertility in men, opium consumption should be considered as a possible factor. PMID:23207164

Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Asgari, Seyyed Alaeddin; Farshi, Alireza; Ghaedi, Gholamhossein; Kolahi, Ali Asghar; Iravani, Shahrokh; Khoshdel, Ali Reza



Ram seminal plasma improves pregnancy rates in ewes cervically inseminated with ram semen stored at 5 °C for 24 hours.  


In this study, we compared pregnancy rates obtained using ram semen stored at 5 °C for 24 h, with ram or bull seminal plasma (SP) added to TRIS-egg yolk extender. During the breeding period, 670 adult Corriedale ewes were cervically inseminated with semen (2 × 10(8) sperm in a volume of 0.2 mL) from eight adult Corriedale rams. Ejaculates, obtained using an artificial vagina, were split into three aliquots and diluted with the following: TRIS-egg yolk based extender (T), T + 30% ram SP (R), or T + 30% bull SP (B). Samples were refrigerated and stored at 5 °C for 24 h until used for AI. Pregnancy was assessed by ultrasonography 35 to 40 d after AI. Pregnancy rate was not affected by ram (P = 0.77) or breeding period (P = 0.43), and there were no interactions between extender and ram (P = 0.94), or extender and breeding period (P = 0.24). However, there was an effect of extender (P = 0.0009) on pregnancy rates; ram SP, but not bull SP, increased pregnancy rates compared with extender without SP (49.7, 38.1, and 31.1%, for R, B, and T respectively). In conclusion, ram SP added to TRIS-egg yolk extender had a beneficial effect on the pregnancy rate of ram sperm stored at 5 °C for 24 h and used for cervical insemination of ewes. PMID:21958634

López-Pérez, A; Pérez-Clariget, R



Detection of haptoglobin in seminal plasma of Awassi rams and the relation with its level in serum and some semen parameters  

PubMed Central

The study was conducted to detect haptoglobin in seminal plasma (SP-Hp) of Awassi rams and the effect of the breeding season on its concentration, along with determining the correlation with its concentration in serum (S-Hp) and main semen variables. Pre-warmed artificial vagina was used to collect semen samples biweekly from five Awassi rams. Semen samples were evaluated for volume, concentration and sperm motility. Blood samples were collected 10–30 min after semen collection. The concentration of serum and seminal plasma Hp was determined using ELISA. The mean ± SESP-Hp concentrations ranged from 0.25 ± 0.05 to 0.81 ± 0.44 ?g/ml, whereas those of S-Hp-ranged from 0.99 ± 0.29 to 2.99 ± 0.18 mg/ml. There was a significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation (r = 0.329) between SP-Hp and S-Hp concentrations. Both SP-Hp and S-Hp concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in winter as compared with the other seasons. The concentrations of SP-Hp and S-Hp during the breeding season were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those of the out season period. SP-Hp concentration negatively correlated with semen volume and sperm concentration (r = ?0.164 and ?0.121), whereas sperm concentration positively correlated with individual sperm motility (r = 0.100). No significant correlation was detected between SP-Hp and semen parameters. It can be concluded that, Hp is present in ram seminal plasma and its concentration was about 2000 folds lower than that of the serum, and Hp concentration was lower during the breeding season, but its concentration in seminal plasma has no significant correlation with semen parameters.

Aziz, Dhafer M.; Ahmad, Ahmad K.



Pancreastatin molecular forms in normal human plasma.  


Circulating molecular forms with pancreastatin (PST)-like immunoreactivity in plasma from normal subjects were examined. An immunoreactive form corresponding to a human PST-like sequence [human chromogranin-A-(250-301)] (hPST-52) and a larger form (mol wt 15-21 kDa) were detected by gel filtration of plasma from normal subjects. On high performance liquid chromatography, predominant immunoreactive forms coeluted with the three larger forms which were purified from the xenograft of human pancreatic islet cell carcinoma cell line QGP-1N cells and with synthetic hPST-52. The fraction containing larger forms purified from xenograft of QGP-1N cells had biological activity equivalent to that of hPST-52 on the inhibition of pancreatic exocrine secretion. These results suggest that the larger molecular forms as well as hPST-52 may be physiologically important circulating forms of PST in human. PMID:8196476

Kitayama, N; Tateishi, K; Funakoshi, A; Miyasaka, K; Shimazoe, T; Kono, A; Iwamoto, N; Matsuoka, Y



Luteotrophic effect of ovulation-inducing factor/nerve growth factor present in the seminal plasma of llamas.  


The hypothesis that ovulation-inducing factor/nerve growth factor (OIF/NGF) isolated from llama seminal plasma exerts a luteotrophic effect was tested by examining changes in circulating concentrations of LH and progesterone, and the vascular perfusion of the ovulatory follicle and developing CL. Female llamas with a growing follicle of 8 mm or greater in diameter were assigned randomly to one of three groups (n = 10 llamas per group) and given a single intramuscular dose of PBS (1 mL), GnRH (50 ?g), or purified OIF/NGF (1.0 mg). Cineloops of ultrasonographic images of the ovary containing the dominant follicle were recorded in brightness and power Doppler modalities. Llamas were examined every 4 hours from the day of treatment (Day 0) until ovulation, and every other day thereafter to Day 16. Still frames were extracted from cineloops for computer-assisted analysis of the vascular area of the preovulatory follicle from treatment to ovulation and of the growing and regressing phases of subsequent CL development. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of plasma LH and progesterone concentrations. The diameter of the dominant follicle at the time of treatment did not differ among groups (P = 0.48). No ovulations were detected in the PBS group but were detected in all llamas given GnRH or OIF/NGF (0/10, 10/10, and 10/10, respectively; P < 0.0001). No difference was detected between the GnRH and OIF/NGF groups in the interval from treatment to ovulation (32.0 ± 1.9 and 30.4 ± 5.7 hours, respectively; P = 0.41) or in maximum CL diameter (13.1 ± 0.4 and 13.5 ± 0.3 mm, respectively; P = 0.44). The preovulatory follicle of llamas treated with OIF/NGF had a greater vascular area at 4 hours after treatment than that of the GnRH group (P < 0.001). Similarly, the luteal tissue of llamas treated with purified OIF/NGF had a greater vascular area than that of the GnRH group on Day 6 after treatment (P < 0.001). The preovulatory surge in plasma LH concentration began, and peaked 1 to 2 hours later in the OIF/NGF group than in the GnRH group (P < 0.05). Plasma progesterone concentration was higher on Day 6 in the OIF/NGF group than in the GnRH group (P < 0.001). Results support the hypothesis that OIF/NGF exerts a luteotrophic effect by altering the secretion pattern of LH and enhancing tissue vascularization during the periovulatory period and early stages of CL development. PMID:24582374

Ulloa-Leal, C; Bogle, O A; Adams, G P; Ratto, M H



Correlations between phthalate metabolites in urine, serum, and seminal plasma from young Danish men determined by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  


Phthalates are suspected of endocrine disrupting effects. We aimed to develop an analytical method for simultaneous determination of several phthalate metabolites in human urine, serum, and seminal plasma and to study correlations between levels of metabolites in these matrices. Thirteen metabolites were determined in samples from 60 young Danish men. Metabolites of common di-ester phthalates were detected in most urine samples. Summed di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites were excreted in urine in the highest amount (median = 91.1 ng/mL), followed by monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and finally summed di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) metabolites. All these metabolite levels correlated significantly, indicating that when a participant was highly exposed to one phthalate he was also highly exposed to other phthalates. Several metabolites were also detectable in serum and in seminal plasma, although in much lower levels. Significant correlations between MEP and MiBP levels in serum and urine were observed, showing that serum levels could be used as biomarkers of human exposure. For DEHP and DiNP metabolites, correlations between urine and serum levels were only observed for mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) and mono-(4-methyl-7-carboxyheptyl) phthalate (MCiOP), indicating that these secondary carboxylated metabolites were better serum markers than primary metabolites [mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and mono-iso-nonyl phthalate (MiNP)]. In seminal plasma, only MEP levels correlated significantly to levels in urine and in serum. PMID:20822678

Frederiksen, Hanne; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria



Characterization of adiponectin concentrations and molecular weight forms in serum, seminal plasma, and ovarian follicular fluid from cattle.  


Adiponectin (AdipoQ), an adipocyte-derived hormone, is one of the most abundant adipokines in the blood circulation. Adiponectin has various metabolic functions, such as improving insulin sensitivity in humans and rodents. The role of AdipoQ in reproduction is not yet fully understood, but the expression of AdipoQ in reproductive tissues has been observed in various animals and humans, including chicken testis, bovine ovary, and human placenta. The objective of this study was to characterize AdipoQ in the bovine body fluids related to reproduction. Therefore, we evaluated the seminal plasma (SP) from breeding bulls (n = 29) and follicular fluid (FF) from heifers (n = 14), and we also collected blood samples from these animals. In addition, blood samples from other bulls (n = 30) and heifers (n = 14) were assayed for AdipoQ. The concentrations were assessed using a bovine-specific ELISA, and the molecular weight (MW) pattern of the AdipoQ protein was estimated by the Western blot analysis. The SP AdipoQ concentrations were approximately 180-fold lower compared with that in the serum concentrations. Furthermore, the AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP were positively correlated. The MW patterns of AdipoQ in the serum and SP were different such that the high MW form of AdipoQ was more abundant in the SP than serum. The AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP also increased with age: old bulls (>6 years) had higher AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP than bulls aged 24 months or lesser (P < 0.05). In the FF, the AdipoQ concentrations were 1.6-fold lower than those in the corresponding serum samples, and the concentrations in the serum and FF were not correlated (P > 0.1). In the FF, only the middle MW forms of AdipoQ were detectable by Western blotting. The MW pattern in the serum did not differ between the sexes. Our data provide both the AdipoQ concentration and the MW patterns for bovine body fluids related to reproduction. PMID:25468552

Heinz, Johanna F L; Singh, Shiva P; Janowitz, Ulrich; Hoelker, Michael; Tesfaye, Dawit; Schellander, Karl; Sauerwein, Helga



Influence of seminal plasma on leucocyte migration and amount of COX-2 protein in the jenny endometrium after insemination with frozen-thawed semen.  


After mating, seminal plasma has an immuno-modulatory effect on the endometrium in some mammals. In jennies, achieving conception via artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed semen is generally much more difficult than in mares. The endometrial inflammatory response is hypothesized to be a contributing factor to the lesser fertility. Following a cross-over experimental design, the uterine inflammatory response of six jennies was evaluated at 6h after AI with frozen-thawed semen (deposited in the uterine body) in the presence or absence of autologous seminal plasma (+SP or -SP). The endometrial cytology and histology of the animals were examined by uterine lavage, uterine swabbing and biopsy. The amount of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein in endometrial cells was also evaluated. As a control (C), the same examinations were made before any AI procedure (i.e., when the jennies were in oestrus). Large numbers of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) were observed in the -SP and +SP cytology and biopsy samples; more than in the C samples. The -SP samples also had intense COX-2 labelling; less labelling was detected in the +SP and C samples (no significant difference between these latter two types). Thus, while the presence of SP does not change the post-AI number of PMNs with regard to that detected in its absence, it does reduce COX-2 protein. Further research into the complex mix of molecules in SP and its effects during AI might help increase the pregnancy rates achieved in jennies. PMID:24280633

Vilés, K; Rabanal, R; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Miró, J



On a matter of seminal importance.  


Egg and sperm have, understandably, been the "stars" of mammalian fertilization biology, particularly because artificial reproductive technologies allow for fertilization to occur outside of the female reproductive tract without other apparent contributions from either sex. Yet, recent research, including an exciting new paper, reveals unexpected and important contributions of seminal plasma to fertility. For example, seminal plasma proteins play critical roles in modulating female reproductive physiology, and a new study in mice demonstrates that effects of some of these proteins on the female can even affect the health of her progeny. Furthermore, although several actions of seminal plasma have been conserved across taxa, male accessory glands and their products are diverse - even among mammals. Taken together, these studies suggest that the actions of seminal plasma components are important to understand, and also to consider in future development of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) for humans, farm species and endangered species of mammals. PMID:25379987

McGraw, Lisa A; Suarez, Susan S; Wolfner, Mariana F



Maternal tract factors contribute to paternal seminal fluid impact on metabolic phenotype in offspring.  


Paternal characteristics and exposures influence physiology and disease risks in progeny, but the mechanisms are mostly unknown. Seminal fluid, which affects female reproductive tract gene expression as well as sperm survival and integrity, provides one potential pathway. We evaluated in mice the consequences for offspring of ablating the plasma fraction of seminal fluid by surgical excision of the seminal vesicle gland. Conception was substantially impaired and, when pregnancy did occur, placental hypertrophy was evident in late gestation. After birth, the growth trajectory and metabolic parameters of progeny were altered, most profoundly in males, which exhibited obesity, distorted metabolic hormones, reduced glucose tolerance, and hypertension. Altered offspring phenotype was partly attributable to sperm damage and partly to an effect of seminal fluid deficiency on the female tract, because increased adiposity was also evident in adult male progeny when normal two-cell embryos were transferred to females mated with seminal vesicle-excised males. Moreover, embryos developed in female tracts not exposed to seminal plasma were abnormal from the early cleavage stages, but culture in vitro partly alleviated this. Absence of seminal plasma was accompanied by down-regulation of the embryotrophic factors Lif, Csf2, Il6, and Egf and up-regulation of the apoptosis-inducing factor Trail in the oviduct. These findings show that paternal seminal fluid composition affects the growth and health of male offspring, and reveal that its impact on the periconception environment involves not only sperm protection but also indirect effects on preimplantation embryos via oviduct expression of embryotrophic cytokines. PMID:24469827

Bromfield, John J; Schjenken, John E; Chin, Peck Y; Care, Alison S; Jasper, Melinda J; Robertson, Sarah A



Lipid analysis of human spermatozoa and seminal plasma by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy - effects of freezing and thawing.  


In the present study, the applicability of proton NMR spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to the analysis of the lipid composition of human spermatozoa and seminal fluids as well as changes after cryopreservation of human spermatozoa was investigated. Whereas NMR spectra primarily indicated a high content of double bonds within the spermatozoa but no marked differences upon cryopreservation, MS detected intense peaks which could be assigned to phosphatidylcholines containing one docosahexaenoic and one palmitic or stearic acid residue (m/z=806 and 834). In contrast, the seminal plasma contained more saturated fatty acids and especially more sphingomyelin (SM). A freezing/thawing cycle markedly influences the lipid composition of spermatozoa. There was a diminution of phosphatidylcholines (16:0, 22:6 and 18:0, 22:6) and SM (16:0) and the appearance of lysophosphatidylcholines (16:0 and 18:0) and ceramide (16:0). These data demonstrate the release or activation of both phospholipase A(2) and sphingomyelinase in human spermatozoa due to the freezing/thawing cycle. These results were finally confirmed by experiments on the action of phospholipases on lipids containing docosahexaenoic acid. PMID:10930566

Schiller, J; Arnhold, J; Glander, H J; Arnold, K



Seminal Plasma Accelerates Semen-derived Enhancer of Viral Infection (SEVI) Fibril Formation by the Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP248–286) Peptide*  

PubMed Central

Amyloid fibrils contained in semen, known as SEVI, or semen-derived enhancer of viral infection, have been shown to increase the infectivity of HIV dramatically. However, previous work with these fibrils has suggested that extensive time and nonphysiologic levels of agitation are necessary to induce amyloid formation from the precursor peptide (a proteolytic cleavage product of prostatic acid phosphatase, PAP248–286). Here, we show that fibril formation by PAP248–286 is accelerated dramatically in the presence of seminal plasma (SP) and that agitation is not required for fibrillization in this setting. Analysis of the effects of specific SP components on fibril formation by PAP248–286 revealed that this effect is primarily due to the anionic buffer components of SP (notably inorganic phosphate and sodium bicarbonate). Divalent cations present in SP had little effect on the kinetics of fibril formation, but physiologic levels of Zn2+ strongly protected SEVI fibrils from degradation by seminal proteases. Taken together, these data suggest that in the in vivo environment, PAP248–286 is likely to form fibrils efficiently, thus providing an explanation for the presence of SEVI in human semen. PMID:22354963

Olsen, Joanna S.; DiMaio, John T. M.; Doran, Todd M.; Brown, Caitlin; Nilsson, Bradley L.; Dewhurst, Stephen



Involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in the adverse effect exerted by seminal plasma from men with spinal cord injury on sperm motility.  


The aetiology of severe asthenozoospermia in men with spinal cord injury includes an adverse impact of seminal plasma (SP) on sperm motility. In this study we investigated the effect exerted by SP from men with SCI on donor sperm mitochondrial activity and its reflection on motility. Donor spermatozoa were exposed (1 h) to SP from 22 ejaculates of men with SCI. Only SP from samples exhibiting both a low fructose level and an inhibitory effect on mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), assessed at flow cytometry with JC-1, affected donor sperm motility when evaluated 1 h after co-incubation. This effect was reverted by washing from SP and sperm re-suspension in medium containing glucose, in spite of persistently depressed ??m. In the same samples, sperm motility and vitality dramatically decreased when evaluated 6 h after washing and re-suspension in the glucose-containing medium. Seminal plasmas which induced a disruption of ??m, also enhanced a mitochondrial ROS generation, as assessed by MitoSOX red. The enhanced mitochondrial ROS generation was associated with a late induction of sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, as assessed by BODIPY C11 , when evaluated at 6 h, but not at 1 h, after washing from SP. Furthermore, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 accompanied the loss of ??m. In conclusion, a double energetic blockage (glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration) can represent a metabolic determinant of the early adverse effect exerted by SP from men with SCI on sperm motility. Mitochondrial dysfunction-related oxidative/apoptotic mechanisms can account for later consequences on sperm motility/vitality. PMID:23494980

Barbonetti, A; Vassallo, M R C; Di Rosa, A; Leombruni, Y; Felzani, G; Gandini, L; Lenzi, A; Necozione, S; Francavilla, S; Francavilla, F



Cryosurvival and in vitro fertilizing capacity postthaw is improved when boar spermatozoa are frozen in the presence of seminal plasma from good freezer boars.  


The study evaluated the protective effect of seminal plasma (SP) added to freezing extender against cryopreservation injuries to boar spermatozoa. Pooled sperm-rich fractions collected from 9 fertile boars were frozen in 0.5-mL straws after being extended in a conventional freezing extender either alone or supplemented with 5% of SPs (SP1-SP4) collected from the sperm-rich fractions (diluted 1:1, vol/vol, in Beltsville Thawing Solution extender) from 4 boars (1-4) with known sperm cryosurvival (poor, moderate, and good sperm freezers). Cryopreservation injuries were assessed in terms of postthaw sperm motility (assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis), viability (plasma membrane and acrosome integrity assessed simultaneously by flow cytometry), membrane lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA] production), and the ability of thawed spermatozoa to fertilize in vitro-matured homologous oocytes. The addition of SP from good sperm freezers (SP3 and SP4) improved (P < .01) the motility and viability of thawed spermatozoa without any influence on MDA production. Moreover, SP from good sperm freezers also increased (P < .05) the percentage of penetrated (SP3) and polyspermic oocytes (SP4) with respect to the control. Neither the total amount of SP proteins, protein profiles, nor antioxidant capacity of the different SPs were related to the various cryosurvival/fertilizing capacities of the processed spermatozoa. PMID:17460094

Hernández, Marta; Roca, Jordi; Calvete, Juan J; Sanz, Libia; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José A; Vázquez, Juan M; Martínez, Emilio A



Blood and seminal plasma concentrations of selenium, zinc and testosterone and their relationship to sperm quality and testicular biometry in domestic cats.  


The aim of this study was to assess seminal plasma (SP) and serum concentrations of zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and testosterone (T) in domestic cats and determine whether these are related to sperm quality and testicular biometry. Six tomcats were collected using an artificial vagina and sperm analysis included motility by CASA, morphology, plasma membrane integrity, and sperm count. Serum and SP were submitted to total T concentration determination using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay technique while Zn and Se were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum T concentrations were greater compared to SP concentrations, but both values were significantly correlated. Se concentrations were higher in serum, whereas SP had greater Zn values. Concentrations of Se, Zn and T were not correlated with each other either in serum or SP. Negative correlations were detected between Se concentrations in SP and total sperm head defects, and between Se concentrations in serum and VAP, VSL, STR, and LIN. Serum concentrations of Zn were negatively correlated with total abnormal sperm and midpiece defects and positively related to progressive motility. Both serum and SP concentrations of T had no relationship with sperm quality. Concentrations of Se exhibited a negative correlation with total testicular weight, whereas T concentrations in SP and serum were correlated with total testicular volume and weight. In conclusion, both Se and Zn concentrations in serum were correlated to sperm quality variables in the domestic cat, thus, making these potential candidates for fertility markers. PMID:25201769

Villaverde, Ana Izabel S B; Fioratti, Eduardo G; Ramos, Renata S; Neves, Renato C F; Ferreira, João Carlos P; Cardoso, Guilherme S; Padilha, Pedro M; Lopes, Maria Denise



Inhibitors on an elastase-like enzyme activity catalyzing Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Leu-pNA amidolysis in human seminal plasma.  


The behavior of some proteinase inhibitors toward the Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Leu-pNA amidolytic enzyme activity in human seminal plasma (HSP) was tested. [(2S, 3R)-3-Amino-2-hydroxy-5-methyl-hexanoyl]L-valyl-L-valyl-L-aspartic acid (Amastatin) and 3-[1-[(2-(hydroxymethyl)- -pyrolidinyl)-2-methylpropyl]-carbamoyl] octanohydroxamic acid (Actinonin) showed strong inhibitory effects. No inhibition of this present enzyme activity was seen with anti-human serum (whole), anti-human leukocyte elastase, phenyl-methyl sulfonyl fluoride, Elastatinal, ethyeneglycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ethyl)N,N,N:N'-tetra acetic acid, and [L-3-trans-ethoxycarbonyl-oxirane-2-carbonyl]1-L-leucine(3-methylbutyl)a mido (E-64). No relation was observed between human pancreatic elastase antigen and the Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Leu-pNA amidolytic enzyme enzyme activity in HSP. Two peaks of Suc-Ala-Ala-Leu-Pro-pNA amidolytic enzyme activity were separated by Cellulofine GCL-2000 gel filtration and these activities were completely abolished by addition of Amastatin. Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Leu-pNA amidolytic enzyme activity in HSP is not an elastase-like metalloproteinase but is rather an acyl amidase-like leucine aminopeptidase. PMID:10690759

Matsuda, Y; Katayama, M; Hara, I; Sato, H; Tomomasa, H; Iizumi, T; Umeda, T; Ishikawa, H



Protective effect of esterified glucomannan on aflatoxin-induced changes in testicular function, sperm quality, and seminal plasma biochemistry in rams.  


The aim of this study was to determine the effect of aflatoxin (AF) on spermatologic, biochemical, and testis parameters in rams, and the protective efficiency of esterified glucomannan (EG) co-administered with AF. Thirty-two Merino rams (12-14 months old) were used. The experimental design consisted of four dietary treatments. The control group was fed commercial feed. The AF group was fed with commercial feed plus 250 ?g/d of total AF. The EG group received commercial feed plus 2 g/d of EG. The AF + EG group was given commercial feed plus 250 ?g/d of total AF and 2 g/d of EG. There were treatment, time, and treatment-by-time interaction effects on sperm motility, abnormal spermatozoa, damaged acrosome, and dead spermatozoa (P < 0.01). The percentage of motile sperm was lower and the percentages of abnormal sperm, sperm with damaged acrosomes, and dead sperm were greater in the AF group than in the control, AF+EG, and EG groups, as from week 3 until the end of week 12 (P < 0.05). As from week 3, hyaluronidase activity in the seminal plasma increased significantly in the AF group, compared with the control. The co-administration of AF+EG was found to be effective in preventing the increase in hyaluronidase activity. As week 4, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly higher in the AF group compared with the control. The combined administration of AF+EG was found to be effective in lowering the MDA levels, increased by AF, to the levels measured in the control (P < 0.05). Although glutathione (GSH) levels were determined to have significantly decreased in the AF group in comparison to the control, it was observed that, in the group co-administered with AF and EG, particularly after week 7, the GSH levels, which had decreased owing to AF, were largely ameliorated (P < 0.05). In conclusion, AF adversely affected spermatologic, biochemical, and testis parameters, and the combined administration of EG with AF reversibly eliminated these adverse effects in rams. PMID:24210915

Ataman, Mehmet Bozkurt; Dönmez, Hasan Hüseyin; Dönmez, Nurcan; Sur, Emrah; Bucak, Mustafa Numan; Coyan, Kenan



Survival and proliferation factors of normal and malignant plasma cells  

PubMed Central

Since the first identifications of interleukin(IL)-6 as a myeloma cell growth factor by Dr Kawano’s and Dr Klein’s groups 14 years ago, numerous studies have emphasized its major role in the emergence of malignant plasma cells in vivo and in the generation of normal plasma cells. Four transcription factors control B cell differentiation into plasma cells. The B cell transcription factor pax-5 is mainly responsible for a B cell phenotype and bcl-6 represses the plasma cell transcription factor blimp-1 and plasma cell differentiation. Bcl-6 expression is triggered by CD40 and IL-4 activation. A lack of CD40 and IL-4 activation yields a down regulation of bcl-6 expression and IL-6 stimulation an upregulation of blimp-1, mainly through STAT3 activation. Blimp-1 will further downregulate bcl-6 and pax-5 expression and makes it possible plasma cell differentiation. IL-6 as well as IL-10 upregulate XBP-1. XBP-1 is another transcription factor involved in plasma cell differentiation whose gene expression is shut down by pax-5. These plasma cell transcription factors blimp-1 and XBP-1 are upregulated and the B cell transcription factors bcl-6 and pax-5 downregulated in malignant cells compared to B cells. Apart for this recent identification of these four transcription factors, the factors involved in normal plasma cell generation are mostly unknown. Regarding malignant plasma cells, three categories of growth factors have been identified. 1) the IL-6 family cytokines, IL-10 and IFN? that activate the JAK/STAT and MAPK pathways. 2) growth factors activating the PI-3 kinase/AKT and MAPkinase pathways, unlike the JAK/STAT pathway (insulin like growth factor 1, hepatocyte growth factor and members of the epidermal growth factor family able to bind syndecan-1 proteoglycan). 3) BAFF or APRIL that activate the NF-kappaB and PI-3 kinase/AKT pathways. BAFF and APRIL bind to BAFF receptor and TACI and are major B cell survival factors. Recent data indicate that these various growth factors may cooperate together to provide optimum signalling, eventually because ther are colocalized together and with cytoplasmic transduction elements in caveolin-linked membrane caveolae. The identification of these myeloma cell growth factors and of the associated transduction pathways should provide novel therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma. PMID:12953803

Klein, Bernard; Tarte, Karin; Jourdan, Michel; Mathouk, Karene; Moreaux, Jerome; Jourdan, Eric; Legouffe, Eric; De Vos, John; Rossi, Jean François



Seminal CD38 is a pivotal regulator for fetomaternal tolerance.  


A successful pregnancy depends on a complex process that establishes fetomaternal tolerance. Seminal plasma is known to induce maternal immune tolerance to paternal alloantigens, but the seminal factors that regulate maternal immunity have yet to be characterized. Here, we show that a soluble form of CD38 (sCD38) released from seminal vesicles to the seminal plasma plays a crucial role in inducing tolerogenic dendritic cells and CD4(+) forkhead box P3(+) (Foxp3(+)) regulatory T cells (Tregs), thereby enhancing maternal immune tolerance and protecting the semiallogeneic fetus from resorption. The abortion rate in BALB/c females mated with C57BL/6 Cd38(-/-) males was high compared with that in females mated with Cd38(+/+) males, and this was associated with a reduced proportion of Tregs within the CD4(+) T-cell pool. Direct intravaginal injection of sCD38 to CBA/J pregnant mice at preimplantation increased Tregs and pregnancy rates in mice under abortive sonic stress from 48 h after mating until euthanasia. Thus, sCD38 released from seminal vesicles to the seminal plasma acts as an immunoregulatory factor to protect semiallogeneic fetuses from maternal immune responses. PMID:25591581

Kim, Byung-Ju; Choi, Yun-Min; Rah, So-Young; Park, Dae-Ryoung; Park, Seon-Ah; Chung, Yun-Jo; Park, Seung-Moon; Park, Jong Kwan; Jang, Kyu Yun; Kim, Uh-Hyun



Primary paraganglioma of seminal vesicle?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Paragangliomas are rare tumors arising from neural crest tissue located outside the adrenal gland. Primary seminal vesicle paraganglioma is extremely rare entity. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 26-year-old male patient presented with symptoms and signs of acute appendicitis where a CT of abdomen and pelvis showed an inflamed appendix and incidental finding of left seminal vesicle mass. The patient underwent uneventful laparoscopic appendectomy followed by transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided seminal vesicle biopsies. Histopathology revealed a neuroendocrine neoplasm consistent with paraganglioma. Surgical excision of the left seminal vesicle was carried out. DISCUSSION Paraganglioma of genitourinary tract is rare. The urinary bladder is the most common site, followed by the urethra, pelvis and ureter. Seminal vesicle paragangliomas were reported in association with other genitourinary organ involvement such as bladder and prostate. Isolated seminal vesicle paraganglioma is extremely rare and surgical excision remains the standard treatment for localized paraganglioma. CONCLUSION Primary tumors of seminal vesicle are rare and represent a diagnostic challenge. Differential diagnosis includes a list of benign and malignant tumors. Primary seminal vesicle paraganglioma is a rare but important diagnosis to be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:23959408

Alharbi, Badr; Al-Ghamdi, Abdullah



Proteomic analysis of seminal fluid from men exhibiting oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

Background Seminal plasma serves as a natural reservoir of antioxidants. It helps to remove excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and consequently, reduce oxidative stress. Proteomic profiling of seminal plasma proteins is important to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress and sperm dysfunction in infertile men. Methods This prospective study consisted of 52 subjects: 32 infertile men and 20 healthy donors. Once semen and oxidative stress parameters were assessed (ROS, antioxidant concentration and DNA damage), the subjects were categorized into ROS positive (ROS+) or ROS negative (ROS-). Seminal plasma from each group was pooled and subjected to proteomics analysis. In-solution digestion and protein identification with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), followed by bioinformatics analyses was used to identify and characterize potential biomarker proteins. Results A total of 14 proteins were identified in this analysis with 7 of these common and unique proteins were identified in both the ROS+ and ROS- groups through MASCOT and SEQUEST analyses, respectively. Prolactin-induced protein was found to be more abundantly present in men with increased levels of ROS. Gene ontology annotations showed extracellular distribution of proteins with a major role in antioxidative activity and regulatory processes. Conclusions We have identified proteins that help protect against oxidative stress and are uniquely present in the seminal plasma of the ROS- men. Men exhibiting high levels of ROS in their seminal ejaculate are likely to exhibit proteins that are either downregulated or oxidatively modified, and these could potentially contribute to male infertility. PMID:24004880



Normal modes of cold confined one-component plasmas Daniel H. E. Dubin  

E-print Network

Normal modes of cold confined one-component plasmas Daniel H. E. Dubin Department of Physics the effect of correlations on the linear normal modes of oscillation in these strongly coupled plasmas of the normal mode frequencies of trapped charge clouds. However, the theory treats the cloud as a charged cold

California at San Diego, University of



Microsoft Academic Search

Blood samples taken from five great horned ow!s (Bubo virginianus), eight red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicencis), four marsh hawks (Circus cyaneus), two prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), five golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and five white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) that had been fasted for 24 h were used to determine plasma bevels of glucose by the glucose oxidase method. The mean plasma




E-print Network

transcription factor blimp-1 and plasma cell differentiation. Bcl-6 expression is triggered by CD40 and IL-4 stimulation an upregulation of blimp-1, mainly through STAT3 activation. Blimp-1 will further downregulate bcl expression is shut down by pax-5. These plasma cell transcription factors blimp-1 and XBP-1 are upregulated

Boyer, Edmond


Seminal vesicle schwannoma presenting with left hydroureteronephrosis  

PubMed Central

We report a very rare case of seminal vesicle schwannoma in a 50-year-old male, with left hydroureteronephrosis. Only five cases of seminal vesicle schwannomas have been reported in medical literature until date. PMID:25371618

Arun, Gopalakrishnan; Chakraborti, Shrijeet; Rai, Santosh; Prabhu, Gurupur Guni Laxman



Normal fasting plasma glucose levels in some birds of prey.  


Blood samples taken from five great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), eight red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), four marsh hawks (Circus cyaneus), two prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), five golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and five white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) that had been fasted for 24 h were used to determine plasma levels of glucose by the glucose oxidase method. The mean plasma glucose levels were: great horned owls 374.6 mg/100 ml, red-tailed hawks 346.5 mg/00 ml, marsh hawks 369.3 mg/100 ml, prairie falcons 414.5 mg/100 ml, golden eagles 368.4 mg/100 ml, and white Leghorn chickens 218.2 mg/100 ml. The plasma glucose levels obtained for the raptorial birds in this study were considerably higher than those found for the chickens. These values are discussed in relation to the carnivorous food habits of raptors. PMID:739587

O'Donnell, J A; Garbett, R; Morzenti, A



Microarray-based understanding of normal and malignant plasma cells  

PubMed Central

Plasma cells develop from B-lymphocytes following stimulation by antigen and express a genetic program aimed at the synthesis of immunoglobulins. This program includes the induction of genes coding for transcription factors such as PRDM1 and XBP1, cell-surface molecules such as CD138/syndecan-1 and for the unfolded protein response (UPR). We review how the microarray technology has recently contributed to the understanding of the biology of this rare but essential cell population and its transformation into pre-malignant and malignant plasma cells. PMID:16623766

De Vos, John; Hose, Dirk; Rème, Thierry; Tarte, Karin; Moreaux, Jérôme; Mahtouk, Karéne; Jourdan, Michel; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Rossi, Jean-François; Cremer, Friedrich W.; Klein, Bernard



Quantitation of seminal factor IX and factor IXa in fertile, nonfertile, and vasectomy subjects: a step closer toward identifying a functional clotting system in human semen.  


Coagulation factor (F) IX is a zymogen of the plasma serine proteases, one that plays an essential role in the regulation of normal blood coagulation. Congenital defects of FIX synthesis or function cause hemophilia B (originally called hemophilia C). Factor IX is activated by Tissue Factor (TF):FVII/FVIIa complex and FXIa. Subsequent to its activation, FIXa combines with FVIIIa on the platelet surface and activates FX to FXa. Human semen forms a semi-solid gelatinous coagulum, which then liquefies within 5-20 minutes in vitro. In spite of evidence demonstrating the importance of the seminal coagulation and liquefaction process in terms of global fertility and despite the fact that the seminal coagulum is composed of fibrin-like material, it has always been addressed from the perspective of High Molecular Weight Seminal Vesicle (HMW-SV) proteins (Semenogelin I and II) and their cleavage by prostate-specific antigen rather than the conventional hemostatic factors. In this study and as part of our continuing investigation of human seminal clotting factors, we report here on seminal FIX and FIXa in normal, subfertile, and vasectomized subjects. Factors IX and FIXa were studied in a total of 119 semen specimens obtained from subfertile (n=18), normally fertile (n=34), and fertile sperm donors (n=27) and vasectomy subjects (n=40). Seminal FIX and FIXa levels were also measured in a group defined by normality in several parameters derived from the World Health Organization fertility criteria and termed "pooled normal semen parameters." Both FIX and FIXa were quantifiable in human semen. There was a wide individual variation in FIX and FIXa levels within groups. Despite the group size, statistically significant associations with fertility-related parameters were infrequent. There is a positive correlation between FIX and its activation product, FIXa (n=36; r=0.51; P <.05). Factor IXa elevation in the high sperm-clump group was significant (P <.05), and days of abstention correlated with FIXa levels (n=63; r=0.3; P <.05). The key finding of the present study is that both FIX and FIXa are present in concentrations that are not dissimilar to plasma levels and that are apparently functional, as the activated form is also present. This fact, taken with other reports of coagulation factors in semen, raises the likelihood that a functional set of hemostatic coagulation proteins exists in semen, potentially to interact with the HMW-SV proteins and the prostate-specific antigen system. PMID:15611579

Lwaleed, Bashir A; Greenfield, Robert S; Hicks, James; Birch, Brian R; Cooper, Alan J



A redefinition of normal acid-base equilibrium in man: Carbon dioxide tension as a key determinant of normal plasma bicarbonate concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A redefinition of normal acid-base equilibrium in man: Carbon dioxide tension as a key determinant of normal plasma bicarbonate concentration. It has been shown recently that normal acid-base equilibrium in the dog is characterized by a strong positive correlation between plasma bicarbonate concentration and Pco2. The present study was undertaken to examine the possibility that a similar relationship between normal

Nicolaos E Madias; Horacio J Adrogué; Gary L Horowitz; Jordan J Cohen; William B Schwartz



ADAMTS13 phenotype in plasma from normal individuals and patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura  

PubMed Central

The activity of ADAMTS13, the von Willebrand factor cleaving protease, is deficient in patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). In the present study, the phenotype of ADAMTS13 in TTP and in normal plasma was demonstrated by immunoblotting. Normal plasma (n?=?20) revealed a single band at 190 kD under reducing conditions using a polyclonal antibody, and a single band at 150 kD under non-reducing conditions using a monoclonal antibody. ADAMTS13 was not detected in the plasma from patients with congenital TTP (n?=?5) by either antibody, whereas patients with acquired TTP (n?=?2) presented the normal phenotype. Following immunoadsorption of immunoglobulins, the ADAMTS13 band was removed from the plasma of the patients with acquired TTP, but not from that of normal individuals. This indicates that ADAMTS13 is complexed with immunoglobulin in these patients. The lack of ADAMTS13 expression in the plasma from patients with hereditary TTP may indicate defective synthesis, impaired cellular secretion, or enhanced degradation in the circulation. This study differentiated between normal and TTP plasma, as well as between congenital and acquired TTP. This method may, therefore, be used as a complement in the diagnosis of TTP. PMID:17187257

Manea, Minola; Kristoffersson, AnnCharlotte; Tsai, Han-Mou; Zhou, Wenhua; Winqvist, Ingemar; Oldaeus, Göran; Billström, Rolf; Björk, Peter; Holmberg, Lars



Proteolysis of Complement Factors iC3b and C5 by the Serine Protease Prostate-Specific Antigen in Prostatic Fluid and Seminal Plasma  

PubMed Central

Prostate-specific Ag (PSA) is a serine protease that is expressed exclusively by normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells. The continued high-level expression of PSA by the majority of men with both high- and low-grade prostate cancer throughout the course of disease progression, even in the androgen-ablated state, suggests that PSA has a role in the pathogenesis of disease. Current experimental and clinical evidence suggests that chronic inflammation, regardless of the cause, may predispose men to prostate cancer. The responsibility of the immune system in immune surveillance and eventually tumor progression is well appreciated but not completely understood. In this study, we used a mass spectrometry–based evaluation of prostatic fluid obtained from diseased prostates after removal by radical prostatectomy to identify potential immunoregulatory proteins. This analysis revealed the presence of Igs and the complement system proteins C3, factor B, and clusterin. Verification of these findings by Western blot confirmed the high-level expression of C3 in the prostatic fluid and the presence of a previously uncharacterized C-terminal C3 cleavage product. Biochemical analysis of this C3 cleavage fragment revealed a putative PSA cleavage site after tyrosine-1348. Purified PSA was able to cleave iC3b and the related complement protein C5. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized function of PSA as an immunoregulatory protease that could help to create an environment hospitable to malignancy through proteolysis of the complement system. PMID:23401592

Manning, Michael L.; Williams, Simon A.; Jelinek, Christine A.; Kostova, Maya B.; Denmeade, Samuel R.



Testosterone normalizes plasma vasopressin response to osmotic stimuli in men with hypogonadism.  


We studied plasma vasopressin concentrations during hypertonic saline infusions in 5 men with hypogonadism and 10 normal men to investigate the effect of gonadal steroid on hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal function. All the subjects received the infusion of 5% saline, and plasma vasopressin concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Three of the 5 men were patients with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) and the other two were patients with Klinefelter's syndrome. None of them had any symptoms of diabetes insipidus. Although there was no difference between basal plasma osmolality in the patients and the normal subjects (287.2 +/- 2.1 vs. 285.3 +/- 1.8 mmol/kg), the basal level of plasma vasopressin in the patients was lower than that in the normal subjects (0.62 +/- 0.17 vs. 1.36 +/- 0.15 pg/ml, P < 0.05). Hypertonic saline infusion revealed varying degrees of subnormal vasopressin responses in the patients except one patient with Klinefelter's syndrome. The mean vasopressin response to osmotic stimuli (delta plasma vasopressin/delta plasma osmolality) in the 5 patients was lower than in the normal subjects (0.04 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.16 +/- 0.02, P < 0.05). Three patients with IHH and one patient with Klinefelter's syndrome were re-examined after pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) infusion or testosterone enanthate i.m. injection. After the treatment with testosterone or GnRH, the response of plasma vasopressin to hypertonic saline infusion was normalized in three patients who had subnormal vasopressin response before treatment (delta plasma vasopressin/delta plasma osmolality: 0.04 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.09 +/- 0.01, P < 0.05). These results suggest that testosterone improves the subnormal vasopressin response to osmotic stimuli in men with hypogonadism. PMID:7920892

Ikeda, Y; Tanaka, I; Oki, Y; Gemmma, R; Morita, H; Komatsu, K; Yoshimi, T



Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) in different reproductive states.  


Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of castrated tree sparrows from each of three reproductive states was evaluated by measuring the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of replacement or plasma testosterone. Birds were exposed to exogenous testosterone for 38 days. Replacement doses less than 0.17 mumol or plasma concentrations less than about 0.7 nmol/l did not induce seminal-sac growth in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days, in photosensitive castrated birds transferred from short to long days, or in photorefractory castrated birds retained on long days. Higher replacement doses or plasma concentrations, however, stimulated log dose-dependent growth of the seminal sacs in castrated birds from all three reproductive states. The change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of the dose of replacement testosterone was less (P = 0.0495) in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days than in photosensitive castrated birds transferred to long days. A more critical test of sensitivity (i.e. the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of mean plasma testosterone concentration) indicated, however, that sensitivity of the seminal sacs to testosterone is independent of reproductive state. That result, when considered in the context of the plasma testosterone profile of intact males during a simulated reproductive cycle, argues that the seminal sacs of sexually quiescent (photosensitive or photorefractory) tree sparrows are small not because of their insensitivity to androgens, but because of a deficiency of circulating androgens. PMID:3701240

Wilson, F E



Relationship between seminal antioxidant enzymes and the phospholipid and fatty acid composition of spermatozoa.  


Sperm cell membranes are susceptible to peroxidative damage through an excess of reactive oxygen species. The objective of this study was to determine seminal plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and relate these to phospholipid profiles and phospholipid-esterified fatty acid composition of spermatozoa. Seminal plasma GPX and SOD activity, phospholipid, phospholipid-esterified fatty acid composition and malondialdehyde (MDA) of spermatozoa were assayed in 10 normozoospermic and 25 asthenozoospermic subjects. Mean seminal GPX and SOD activity in normozoospermic men were not significantly different from asthenozoospermic men. A significant positive correlation was observed between seminal plasma GPX activity and phosphatidylcholine content (r = +0.77, P = 0.037) and there was a significant negative correlation with lysophosphatidylcholine content (r = -0.89, P = 0.02) in normozoospermic sperm samples. Positive correlations were found between SOD activity and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of spermatozoa. MDA content in the spermatozoa of asthenozoospermic subjects was significantly higher than in normozoospermic males (P < 0.05). Negative correlations were found between MDA content and seminal SOD activity and arachidonic acid content of spermatozoa from normozoospermic samples (r = -0.5; P = 0.046, r = -0.9; P = 0.001 respectively). Seminal plasma GPX and SOD provide protection against lipid peroxidation of phospholipid and phospholipid-bound fatty acids in normozoospermic samples. PMID:18492368

Tavilani, Heidar; Goodarzi, Mohamad Taghi; Doosti, Mahmoud; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Hassanzadeh, Taghi; Salimi, Saeedeh; Joshaghani, Hamid Reza



Plasma vitronectin polymorphism in normal subjects and patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation.  


Vitronectin, also known as serum-spreading factor or S-protein, mediates cell adhesion and inhibits formation of the membrane-lytic complex of complement and the rapid inactivation of thrombin by antithrombin III in the presence of heparin. Vitronectin is normally present in plasma at a concentration of approximately 300 micrograms/mL. The investigators quantified plasma vitronectin with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and visualized reduced and nonreduced vitronectin by immunoblotting after separation of plasma or serum by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The concentration of plasma vitronectin was markedly reduced in some patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation, especially in those with liver failure; it was near normal in patients with metastatic cancer and acute leukemia. Patients with vitronectin levels less than 40% normal invariably had low fibrinogen and antithrombin III and a prolonged prothrombin time. In both normal and patient plasmas there was heterogeneity in the ratio of the 75,000- and 65,000-mol wt polypeptides of reduced vitronectin: 18% had mostly the 75,000-mol wt polypeptide, 59% had roughly equal amounts of the two polypeptides, and 22% had mostly the 65,000-mol wt polypeptide. This polymorphism is inherited and appears to be due to two alleles that are present with approximately equal frequency. The blotting patterns of vitronectin in reduced and nonreduced plasmas were largely unaltered in plasma of patients with defibrination syndrome, fibrinolysis, liver failure, sepsis, metastatic cancer, and acute leukemia. There was no evidence of fragmentation of vitronectin or formation of the disulfide-bonded complex of vitronectin and thrombin-antithrombin III that is found when blood is clotted. Thus these results corroborate in vitro observations that the liver is the major source of plasma vitronectin, suggest that vitronectin may become depleted during disseminated intravascular coagulation, and define a genetic polymorphism of vitronectin. PMID:2455567

Conlan, M G; Tomasini, B R; Schultz, R L; Mosher, D F



Plasma concentrations of growth hormone and somatomedin C in dwarf and normal chickens  

E-print Network

between the dwarf gene and the gold gene for feather color (table 1). The eggs were incubated at 37.5 °CPlasma concentrations of growth hormone and somatomedin C in dwarf and normal chickens L. M in this study. On days 18 and 20 of incubation, plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and somatomedin C

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Restoration of the normal squamous lining in Barrett's esophagus by argon beam plasma coagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Barrett's esophagus is associated with significantly increased risk of development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Replacing columnar epithelium with the normal squamous lining in this condition offers the possibility of decreasing the risk of degeneration to invasive adenocarcinoma. This study aimed to establish the feasibility of argon beam plasma coagulation (ABPC), in conjunction with control of gastroesophageal reflux, to restore the squamous

James P. Byrne; Gordon R. Armstrong; Stephen E. A. Attwood




NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint lecture, by Jason Park of San Jose State University Department of Computer Science, offers students a quick introduction to database normalization, the "process of removing redundant data from your tables in to improve storage efficiency, data integrity, and scalability." Here, visitors will find information about database normalization history and applications. With information on the normal forms, field pioneer Edgar F. Codd, and problematic tables, this presentation will be helpful in any database programming and design classroom.

Park, Jason



Recall performance, plasma cortisol and plasma norepinephrine in normal human subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) correlates of recall performance in normal human subjects. Twenty-two normal human subjects were given one memory task: short-term recall of unrelated non-organizable lists of neutral words, in immediate recall conditions. Two types of memory were individualized: measures reflecting effortful processing and measures reflecting automatic processing, which were related to 3

Karel J Bemelmans; Jaap G Goekoop; Roel de Rijk; Godfried M. J van Kempen



Subsonic Plasma Aerodynamics using Lorentzian Momentum Transfer in Atmospheric Normal Glow Discharge Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent development of the One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP) has made it possible to cover large areas, including the wings and fuselage of aircraft, with a thin layer of plasma at low energy cost. The Lorentzian collisions between the ions and neutral gas in the plasma layer couple the electric field and the neutral gas in this layer. The coupling is strong enough at one atmosphere to accelerate the boundary layer flow. One EHD flow acceleration method is based on paraelectric EHD effects, the electrostatic analog of paramagnetism, in which a plasma is accelerated toward increasing electric field gradients, while dragging the neutral gas with it. By using paraelectric effects to add momentum to the flow, we have recently achieved improved flow attachment and increased stall angles in airfoils for external aerodynamic applications. In a second approach, peristaltic flow acceleration, we have used a polyphase power supply to excite the OAUGDP at progressive voltage phase angles on successive linear electrode strips. This excitation produces a traveling wave analogous to the "moving" lights on a theatre marquee, which accelerates the ions and neutral gas to velocities of aerodynamic interest.

Reece Roth, J.; Sin, Hojung; Mohan Madhan, Raja Chandra



Plasma antibodies to Abeta40 and Abeta42 in patients with Alzheimer's disease and normal controls.  


Antibodies to amyloid beta protein (Abeta) are present naturally or after Abeta vaccine therapy in human plasma. To clarify their clinical role, we examined plasma samples from 113 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 205 normal controls using the tissue amyloid plaque immunoreactivity (TAPIR) assay. A high positive rate of TAPIR was revealed in AD (45.1%) and age-matched controls (41.2%), however, no significance was observed. No significant difference was observed in the MMS score or disease duration between TAPIR-positive and negative samples. TAPIR-positive plasma reacted with the Abeta40 monomer and dimer, and the Abeta42 monomer weakly, but not with the Abeta42 dimer. TAPIR was even detected in samples from young normal subjects and young Tg2576 transgenic mice. Although the Abeta40 level and Abeta40/42 ratio increased, and Abeta42 was significantly decreased in plasma from AD groups when compared to controls, no significant correlations were revealed between plasma Abeta levels and TAPIR grading. Thus an immune response to Abeta40 and immune tolerance to Abeta42 occurred naturally in humans without a close relationship to the Abeta burden in the brain. Clarification of the mechanism of the immune response to Abeta42 is necessary for realization of an immunotherapy for AD. PMID:18534566

Xu, Wuhua; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Matsubara, Etsuro; Deguchi, Kentaro; Murakami, Tetsuro; Harigaya, Yasuo; Ikeda, Masaki; Amari, Masakuni; Kuwano, Ryozo; Abe, Koji; Shoji, Mikio



JET intrinsic rotation studies in plasmas with a high normalized beta and varying toroidal field ripple  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the origin of rotation in ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heated plasmas is important for predictions for burning plasmas sustained by alpha particles, being characterized by a large population of fast ions and no external momentum input. The angular velocity of the plasma column has been measured in JET H-mode plasmas with pure ICRF heating both for the standard low toroidal magnetic ripple configuration, of about ˜0.08% and, for increased ripple values up to 1.5% (Nave et al 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 105005). These new JET rotation data were compared with the multi-machine scaling of Rice et al (2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 1618) for the Alfvén-Mach number and with the scaling for the velocity change from L-mode into H-mode. The JET data do not fit well any of these scalings that were derived for plasmas that are co-rotating with respect to the plasma current. With the standard low ripple configuration, JET plasmas with large ICRF heating power and normalized beta, ?N ? 1.3, have a very small co-current rotation, with Alfvén-Mach numbers significantly below those given by the rotation scaling of Rice et al (2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 1618). In some cases the plasmas are actually counter-rotating. No significant difference between the H-mode and L-mode rotation is observed. Typically the H-mode velocities near the edge are lower than those in L-modes. With ripple values larger than the standard JET value, between 1% and 1.5%, H-mode plasmas were obtained where both the edge and the core counter-rotated.

Nave, M. F. F.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Giroud, C.; Johnson, T. J.; Kirov, K.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Ongena, J.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Rimini, F.; Tala, T.; de Vries, P.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Contributors, JET-EFDA



Epicardial adipose tissue thickness and plasma homocysteine in patients with metabolic syndrome and normal coronary arteries  

PubMed Central

Background Increased epicardial adipose tissue thickness and plasma homocysteine levels are associated with Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and coronary artery disease. The majority of patients with MS have subclinical or manifest coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between MS and plasma homocysteine levels and epicardial adipose tissue thickness in subjects without epicardial coronary artery disease. Methods Patients who underwent coronary angiography due to angina or equivocal symptoms and/or abnormal stress test results and were found to have normal coronary arteries were evaluated for the presence of MS. The study group comprised 75 patients with normal coronary arteries and MS, and the control group included 75 age-gender matched subjects without coronary artery disease or MS. Results Epicardial adipose tissue thickness (5.8?±?1.9 mm vs. 4.3?±?1.6 mm, p <0.001) and plasma homocysteine levels (21.6?±?6.1 ?mol/L vs. 15.1?±?5.8 ?mol/L, p <0.001) were significantly higher in the MS group. Body mass index, triglyceride level, weight, age and waist circumference were positively and HDL cholesterol level were negatively correlated with both epicardial adipose tissue thickness and plasma homocysteine level. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness had the strongest correlation with plasma homocysteine level (r?=?0.584, p?plasma homocysteine level was expected. Conclusions We observed a close relationship between MS and epicardial adipose tissue thickness and plasma homocysteine levels, even in the absence of overt coronary artery disease. PMID:24872849



Plasma amyloid levels and the risk of AD in normal subjects in the Cardiovascular Health Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association between incident Alzheimer disease (AD), and plasma A?1-40 and A?1-42 levels in normal and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects in a subgroup of participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study Cognition Study. Methods We determined the plasma A?1-40 and A?1-42 levels of 274 nondemented subjects (232 normals and 42 with MCI) in 1998 –1999 and repeated the measurements in 2002–2003. The mean age of the subjects at baseline was 79.3 ± 3.6 years. We examined the association between A? levels and incident AD over the ensuing 4.5 years, controlling for age, cystatin C level (marker of glomerular function), apolipoprotein E-4 allele, Modified-Mini-Mental State Examination scores, and MRI-identified infarcts. Results In an unadjusted prospective model in normal subjects, both A?1-40 and A?1-42 levels in 1998 –1999 were associated with incident AD (n = 55) in 2002–2003 (longitudinal analysis). In the fully adjusted multivariate model, neither A?1-42 nor A?1-40 nor their ratio was associated with incident AD. However, adjustment had a very small effect on point estimates for A?1-42, from an odds ratio (OR) of 1.61 (p = 0.007) in the unadjusted model to an OR of 1.46 (p = 0.08) in the fully adjusted model. In 2002–2003 (cross-sectional analysis), only the unadjusted models showed that both peptides were associated with AD. Conclusions Plasma A? levels are affected by age and by systemic and CNS vascular risk factors. After controlling for these conditions, A?-40 and A?1-42 are weak predictors of conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD) in normal subjects and are only weakly associated with AD in cross-sectional analysis. Consequently, plasma levels of A? do not seem to be useful biomarkers for AD. PMID:18401021

Lopez, O.L.; Kuller, L.H.; Mehta, P.D.; Becker, J.T.; Gach, H.M.; Sweet, R.A.; Chang, Y.F.; Tracy, R.; DeKosky, S.T.



Inverse relationship between plasma adiponectin and leptin concentrations in normal-weight and obese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Adiponectin, a novel adipocyte-derived collagen-like protein, is the gene product of the adipose most-abundant gene transcript 1 (apM1), which has been considered to have anti-inflamma- tory and anti-atherogenic effects. Objective: To characterize the relationship between adiponectin and leptin, the ob gene product, in normal-weight and obese women. Design and methods: In this cross-sectional study, we measured fasting plasma adiponectin

Miyao Matsubara; Shoji Maruoka; Shinji Katayose



Improvement in the high-performance liquid chromatography malondialdehyde level determination in normal human plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a very rapid and simple isocratic reversed-phase HPLC separation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in normal human plasma without previous purification of the MDA–2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) complex. The separation of MDA–TBA complex was performed using a 250×4.6 mm Nucleosil-5C18 column with a mobile phase composed of 35% methanol and 65% 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0. Samples of 50

Nicola Volpi; Patrizia Tarugi



Faster plasma vitamin E disappearance in smokers is normalized by vitamin C supplementation.  


Vitamin E disappearance is accelerated in cigarette smokers due to their increased oxidative stress and is inversely correlated with plasma vitamin C concentrations. Therefore, we hypothesized that ascorbic acid supplementation (500 mg, twice daily; 2 weeks) would normalize smokers' plasma alpha- and gamma-tocopherol disappearance rates and conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover investigation in smokers (n=11) and nonsmokers (n=13) given a single dose of deuterium-labeled alpha- and gamma-tocopherols (50 mg each d6-RRR-alpha and d2-RRR-gamma-tocopheryl acetate). During the placebo trial, smokers, compared with nonsmokers, had significantly (P<0.05) greater alpha- and gamma-tocopherol fractional disappearance rates and shorter half-lives. Ascorbic acid supplementation doubled (P<0.0001) plasma ascorbic acid concentrations in both groups and attenuated smokers', but not nonsmokers', plasma alpha- and gamma-tocopherol (P<0.05) fractional disappearance rates by 25% and 45%, respectively. Likewise, smokers' plasma deuterium-labeled alpha- and gamma-tocopherol concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05) at 72 h during ascorbic acid supplementation compared with placebo. Ascorbic acid supplementation did not significantly change (P>0.05) time of maximal or maximal-labeled alpha- and gamma-tocopherol concentrations. Smokers' plasma F2alpha-isoprostanes were approximately 26% higher than nonsmokers (P>0.05) and were not affected by ascorbic acid supplementation in either group (P>0.05). In summary, cigarette smoking increased plasma alpha- and gamma-tocopherol fractional disappearance rates, suggesting that the oxidative stress from smoking oxidizes tocopherols and that plasma ascorbic acid reduces alpha- and gamma-tocopheroxyl radicals to nonoxidized forms, thereby decreasing vitamin E disappearance in humans. PMID:16458200

Bruno, Richard S; Leonard, Scott W; Atkinson, Jeffery; Montine, Thomas J; Ramakrishnan, Rajasekhar; Bray, Tammy M; Traber, Maret G



Correlation of Serum Lipid P rofile with Histological and Seminal Parameters of Testis in The Goat  

PubMed Central

Background: The lipid composition of a mammal’s spermatozoa and seminal plasma vary in both structure and function. Evidence exists to suggest that dietary supplementation with the appropriate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) affects spermatogenesis, semen quality and sperm motility. Therefore, this study has been conducted to evaluate the correlations between serum lipid profile and histological, anatomical and seminal parameters of testes in clinically healthy goats. Materials and Methods: In this analytic, cross-sectional study, we chose a total of ten mature Iranian male goats that comprised a homogenous group through simple random sampling. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein; the sera were separated and subsequently used for measurement of serum lipids, lipoproteins and testosterone levels. In addition, we collected semen from the animals and evaluated the seminal characteristics. We also performed histological and anatomical assessments of the testes. Results: The findings demonstrated that serum levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) had a significant positive correlation with interstitial testicular tissue area (r=0.73; p<0.001), seminiferous tubule area (r=0.61; p<0.01), the number of Leydig cells (r=0.53; p<0.05), the diameter of the Leydig cell nuclei (r=0.54; p<0.05), scrotal circumference (r=0.83; p<0.001), testis weight (r=0.72; p<0.001), the number of live, normal sperm (r=0.94 ; p<0.001) and serum testosterone levels (r=0.88; p<0.001). Significant but negative correlations were found between serum triglyceride concentration and seminiferous tubule area (r=-0.53; p<0.05), the diameter of the Leydig cell nuclei (r=-0.55; p<0.05), testis weight (r =-0.64; p<0.01), total sperm number (r=-0.82; p<0.001), number of live, normal sperm (r=-0.55; p<0.05) and serum testosterone levels (r=-0.79; p<0.001). In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) concentration and the percent of live sperm (r=-0.67; p<0.01), and serum testosterone levels (r=-0.65; p<0.01). Conclusion: The present results indicated that among serum lipids only the levels of HDL-c positively correlated with testicular parameters. High serum triglyceride levels exerted direct adverse effects at the testicular level, which was mainly observed in the seminiferous tubules (STs), characterization of Leydig cells and semen quality. PMID:24520474



Carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 decreases thick diameter fibrin fibre formation in normal and Factor XIII deficient plasmas.  


Carbon monoxide derived from carbon monoxide releasing molecules (CORMs) has been demonstrated to enhance normal plasma thrombus speed of growth and strength as well as diminish vulnerability to fibrinolysis in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2) would modify plasma thrombi ultrastructure as determined by electron microscopy. Normal and FXIII-deficient (<1% normal activity) plasmas were exposed to 0 or 100 micromol/l CORM-2, with coagulation initiated with tissue factor followed by a 15 min incubation at 37 degrees C prior to fixation. Transmission electron microscopy of the four conditions was conducted at 5000-60,000-fold magnification. CORM-2 markedly diminished the formation of thick diameter fibrin fibres in normal plasma and FXIII-deficient plasma. The density of thin diameter fibrin fibres did not seem to be changed by CORM-2 in normal plasma, but was increased in FXIII-deficient plasma. CORM-2 significantly modifies thrombin-mediated polymerization of fibrin. This finding may partially explain how CORM-2 exposure results in stronger thrombi resistant to fibrinolysis. PMID:19844175

Nielsen, Vance G; Kirklin, James K; George, James F; Messinger, Jeffrey D



Effect of spermatic vein ligation on seminal total antioxidant capacity in terms of varicocele grading.  


We aimed to assess the effect of spermatic vein ligation on seminal total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in patients with varicocele. Twenty infertile male patients with varicocele and 20 normal fertile men (control group) were included in the study. All the male patients were diagnosed with primary infertility and varicocele. The patients with varicocele were divided into two groups as nonpalpable (GI) (eight patients) and palpable (GII-III) (12 patients) varicocele groups. All the patients underwent microsurgical spermatic vein ligation. Seminal TAC levels and sperm parameters were evaluated in all the patients. Preoperative sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology and seminal TAC levels with equivalent figures 3-6 months after spermatic vein ligation and the same values of the control group were compared. There was a statistically significant increase in the total seminal antioxidant capacity level after spermatic vein ligation, and there was a statistically significant increase in the sperm count, sperm motility and spermatozoa with normal morphology. However, evaluation of the patients for varicocele grade showed a statistically significant increase in the TAC level only in the GII-III varicocele group. Spermatic vein ligation can improve the total seminal antioxidant capacity levels especially in patients with middle and high grade varicocele. PMID:21592179

Ozturk, U; Ozdemir, E; Buyukkagnici, U; Dede, O; Sucak, A; Celen, S; Imamoglu, M A



Plasma immunoreactive proopiomelanocortin peptides and cortisol in normal dogs and dogs with Addison's disease and Cushing's syndrome: basal concentrations.  


We measured basal plasma concentrations of the immunoreactive (IR) proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides ACTH, beta-lipotropin (beta LPH), beta-endorphin (beta END), and alpha MSH in 160 normal dogs, 32 dogs with Addison's disease, 42 dogs with adrenocortical tumors causing Cushing's syndrome, and 169 dogs with pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease. In normal dogs, plasma IR-POMC peptide levels were similar to those in man, except that IR-alpha MSH, a pars intermedia POMC product, was readily detected. In Addisonian dogs, plasma cortisol was decreased, and the IR-POMC peptides were increased, except for IR-alpha MSH, which was normal. In 7 Addisonian dogs given dexamethasone, elevated plasma IR-ACTH, beta LPH, and beta END levels fell dramatically. In dogs with Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal tumors, plasma IR-ACTH, beta LPH, and beta END were decreased, and cortisol was increased, but IR-alpha MSH was normal. Dogs with Cushing's disease due to pars distalis tumors had elevated plasma IR-ACTH, beta LPH, beta END, and cortisol, but normal IR-alpha MSH; their plasma cortisol was suppressed by dexamethasone. There appeared to be 2 types of pars intermedia tumors causing Cushing's disease: 1 dexamethasone nonsuppressible and with disproportionately high plasma IR-alpha MSH levels, the other relatively dexamethasone suppressible and with normal to slightly elevated IR-alpha MSH levels. These 2 pars intermedia tumor types may arise from 2 distinct normal canine pars intermedia cell types. Canine Cushing's disease may provide a useful model for variants of the disorder in man. PMID:3015556

Peterson, M E; Orth, D N; Halmi, N S; Zielinski, A C; Davis, D R; Chavez, F T; Drucker, W D



Sperm motility inversely correlates with seminal leptin levels in idiopathic asthenozoospermia  

PubMed Central

Background: Asthenozoospermia is one kind cause of male infertility. Nevertheless, no specific etiology can be identified by routine tests in some cases. Recently, it has been shown that leptin plays a critical role in male fertility. However, the link between leptin and sperm motility is yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to explore association between seminal and serum leptin levels and sperm motility in idiopathic asthenozoospermia. Methods: Our study included 79 asthenozoospermic men and 77 normozoospermic men. Semen was assessed by volume, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. Serum gonadotropic and sex hormones were determined by a chemiluminescent assay. The leptin levels in serum and seminal plasma were detected with ELISA. Results: The mean seminal leptin level in asthenozoospermic group was significantly higher than that in control group, but there was no significant difference in the serum leptin levels between these two groups. The serum leptin had no significant correlation with sperm motility. The seminal leptin had significantly negative correlation with sperm progressive motility and serum total testosterone. Conclusions: The findings indicate a pathophysiological relevance of seminal leptin in sperm motility. PMID:25419396

Guo, Jianhua; Zhao, Yang; Huang, Weiying; Hu, Wei; Gu, Jianjun; Chen, Chuhong; Zhou, Juan; Peng, Yubing; Gong, Min; Wang, Zhong



Heterologous Ovum Penetration Test and Seminal Parameters in Fertile and Infertile Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm penetration rates in the heterologous ovum pen- etration test were correlated with results of routine semen analysis in 30 fertile and 50 infertile men. There was no difference in penetration rates when comparing infertile men with normal and abnormal seminal pa- rameters, nor was any difference seen between fertile (15-83%) and infertile men (8-83%). Of the 22 infertile men



Polymicrobial seminal vesical abscess in a kidney transplant recipient.  


Seminal vesicle abscess is extremely rare and is associated with specific predisposing conditions. Here we report a polymicrobial seminal vesicle abscess in a kidney transplant recipient that was not associated with any of the known precipitating events. PMID:18468658

Wadei, Hani M; Brumble, Lisa; Broderick, Gregory A; Gonwa, Thomas A



Robert Hooke's Seminal Contribution to Orbital Dynamics  

E-print Network

1 Robert Hooke's Seminal Contribution to Orbital Dynamics Michael Nauenberg* During the second half's laws describing the observed orbital motion of a planet around the Sun. Robert Hooke (1635 or misunderstood. Key words: Robert Hooke; Isaac Newton; astronomy; orbital motion. Introduction One of the most

Belanger, David P.


Drosophila seminal protein ovulin mediates ovulation through female octopamine neuronal signaling  

PubMed Central

Across animal taxa, seminal proteins are important regulators of female reproductive physiology and behavior. However, little is understood about the physiological or molecular mechanisms by which seminal proteins effect these changes. To investigate this topic, we studied the increase in Drosophila melanogaster ovulation behavior induced by mating. Ovulation requires octopamine (OA) signaling from the central nervous system to coordinate an egg’s release from the ovary and its passage into the oviduct. The seminal protein ovulin increases ovulation rates after mating. We tested whether ovulin acts through OA to increase ovulation behavior. Increasing OA neuronal excitability compensated for a lack of ovulin received during mating. Moreover, we identified a mating-dependent relaxation of oviduct musculature, for which ovulin is a necessary and sufficient male contribution. We report further that oviduct muscle relaxation can be induced by activating OA neurons, requires normal metabolic production of OA, and reflects ovulin’s increasing of OA neuronal signaling. Finally, we showed that as a result of ovulin exposure, there is subsequent growth of OA synaptic sites at the oviduct, demonstrating that seminal proteins can contribute to synaptic plasticity. Together, these results demonstrate that ovulin increases ovulation through OA neuronal signaling and, by extension, that seminal proteins can alter reproductive physiology by modulating known female pathways regulating reproduction. PMID:24101486

Rubinstein, C. Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F.



Drosophila seminal protein ovulin mediates ovulation through female octopamine neuronal signaling.  


Across animal taxa, seminal proteins are important regulators of female reproductive physiology and behavior. However, little is understood about the physiological or molecular mechanisms by which seminal proteins effect these changes. To investigate this topic, we studied the increase in Drosophila melanogaster ovulation behavior induced by mating. Ovulation requires octopamine (OA) signaling from the central nervous system to coordinate an egg's release from the ovary and its passage into the oviduct. The seminal protein ovulin increases ovulation rates after mating. We tested whether ovulin acts through OA to increase ovulation behavior. Increasing OA neuronal excitability compensated for a lack of ovulin received during mating. Moreover, we identified a mating-dependent relaxation of oviduct musculature, for which ovulin is a necessary and sufficient male contribution. We report further that oviduct muscle relaxation can be induced by activating OA neurons, requires normal metabolic production of OA, and reflects ovulin's increasing of OA neuronal signaling. Finally, we showed that as a result of ovulin exposure, there is subsequent growth of OA synaptic sites at the oviduct, demonstrating that seminal proteins can contribute to synaptic plasticity. Together, these results demonstrate that ovulin increases ovulation through OA neuronal signaling and, by extension, that seminal proteins can alter reproductive physiology by modulating known female pathways regulating reproduction. PMID:24101486

Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F



Wave Normal and Poynting Vector Calculations using the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wave normal and Poynting vector measurements from the Cassini radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWS) are used to examine the propagation characteristics of various plasma waves during the Earth flyby on August 18, 1999. Using the five-channel waveform receiver (WFR), the wave normal vector is determined using the Means method for a lightning-induced whistler, equatorial chorus, and a series of low-frequency emissions observed while Cassini was in the magnetosheath. The Poynting vector for these emissions is also calculated from the five components measured by the WFR. The propagation characteristics of the lightning-induced whistler were found to be consistent with the whistler wave mode of propagation, with propagation antiparallel to the magnetic field (southward) at Cassini. The sferic associated with this whistler was observed by both Cassini and the Stanford VLF group at the Palmer Station in Antarctica. Analysis of the arrival direction of the sferic at the Palmer Station suggests that the lightning stroke is in the same sector as Cassini. Chorus was observed very close (within a few degrees) to the magnetic equator during the flyby. The chorus was found to propagate primarily away from the magnetic equator and was observed to change direction as Cassini crossed the magnetic equator. This suggests that the source region of the chorus is very near the magnetic equator. The low-frequency emission in the magnetosheath has many of the characteristics of lion roars. The average value of the angle between the wave normal vector and the local magnetic field was found to be 16 degrees, and the emissions ranged in frequency from 0. 19 to 0.75 f(sub ce), where f(sub ce) is the electron cyclotron frequency. The wave normal vectors of these waves were primarily in one direction for each individual burst (either parallel or antiparallel to the local field) but varied in direction throughout the magnetosheath. This suggests that the sources of the emissions are far from the spacecraft and that there are multiple source regions.

Hospodarsky, G. B.; Averkamp, T. F.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Dougherty, M.; Inan, Umran; Wood, Troy



Plasma Malondialdehyde in Coronary Patients and in “Normal” People at Rest and After Exercise  

PubMed Central

The behavior of plasma lipid peroxides, expressed as plasma malondialdehyde, was studied in 27 patients with documented coronary artery disease and 17 volunteers without coronary artery disease (henceforth designated “normal”), after a standardized exercise on a bicycle ergometer. In the control group, the basal values of malondialdehyde were significantly lower than in coronary patients. Persons in the control group did not show any significant variation of malondialdehyde after exercise and recovery, whereas patients with coronary artery disease showed malondialdehyde levels significantly higher than the baseline, both after exercise and after recovery. In the control group, a significant inverse correlation between the malondialdehyde variations during the exercise and the total work produced was ten times lower than in coronary patients. It seems probable that the higher levels of lipid peroxides in these patients may leave some long-term unwanted effects. Furthermore, the increased values of lipid peroxides after exercise may be regarded as a possible trigger of fatal myocardial malfunction occurring during physical activity. Texas Heart Institute Journal 1986; 13:291-296) PMID:15226858

Avogaro, Pietro; Bon, Gabriele Bittolo; Cazzolato, Giuseppe; Gualandi, Giuseppe; Caturelli, Giorgio



Tactic-specific differences in seminal fluid influence sperm performance  

PubMed Central

Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that of rivals. As a consequence males may be expected to allocate their investment in both sperm and seminal fluid in relation to the potential level of competition. Grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) is an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics, where sperm competition risk varies according to the tactic adopted. Here, we experimentally manipulated grass goby ejaculates by separately combining sperm and seminal fluid from territorial and sneaker males. While sperm of sneaker and territorial males did not differ in their performance when they interacted with their own seminal fluid only, sperm of sneakers increased their velocity and fertilization rate in the presence of territorial males' seminal fluid. By contrast, sneaker males' seminal fluid had a detrimental effect on the performance of territorial males' sperm. Sperm velocity was unaffected by the seminal fluid of males employing the same tactic, suggesting that seminal fluid's effect on rival-tactic sperm is not based on a self/non-self recognition mechanism. Our findings show that cross interactions of sperm and seminal fluid may influence the fertilization success of competing ejaculates with males investing in both sperm and seminal fluid in response to sperm competition risk. PMID:23363633

Locatello, Lisa; Poli, Federica; Rasotto, Maria B.



Physiological reduction in fasting plasma glucose concentration in the first trimester of normal pregnancy: The diabetes in early pregnancy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies indicate that fasting plasma glucose decreases during gestation, but the timing and extent are not consistent from study to study. We had an opportunity to examine this question in the normal pregnancy cohort of women studied in the Diabetes in Early Pregnancy Study. Subjects were monitored to identify pregnancy by human chorionic gonadotropin testing, enrolled within 21 days

James L. Mills; Lois Jovanovic; Robert Knopp; Jerome Aarons; Mary Conley; Y. Jack Lee; Lewis Holmes; Joe L. Simpson; Boyd Metzger



Normalization schemes for ultrafast x-ray diffraction using a table-top laser-driven plasma source  

SciTech Connect

We present an experimental setup of a laser-driven x-ray plasma source for femtosecond x-ray diffraction. Different normalization schemes accounting for x-ray source intensity fluctuations are discussed in detail. We apply these schemes to measure the temporal evolution of Bragg peak intensities of perovskite superlattices after ultrafast laser excitation.

Schick, D.; Bojahr, A.; Herzog, M. [Institut fuer Physik and Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Korff Schmising, C. von [Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Shayduk, R.; Leitenberger, W.; Gaal, P.; Bargheer, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)



Obesity is associated with increased seminal insulin and leptin alongside reduced fertility parameters in a controlled male cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity appears to be associated with male reproductive dysfunction and infertility, although this has been inconsistent and inconclusive. Insulin and leptin are known mediators and modulators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testes axis, contributing to the regulation of male reproductive potential and overall wellbeing. These hormones are also present in semen influencing sperm functions. Although abdominal obesity is closely associated with insulin resistance (hyperinsulinaemia), hyperleptinaemia and glucose dysfunction, changes in seminal plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin and glucose in obese males has not previously been investigated. Methods This small case controlled study assessed serum and seminal concentrations of insulin, leptin and glucose in obese (BMI?>?=30; n?=?23) and non-obese (BMI?seminal insulin and leptin, with no significant difference in seminal glucose. Serum and seminal concentrations of insulin and leptin were positively correlated. Furthermore, obesity was associated with decreased sperm concentration, sperm vitality and increased MMP and DF, with a non-significant impact on motility and morphology. Conclusions Hyperinsulinaemia and hyperleptinaemia are associated with increased seminal insulin and leptin concentrations, which may negatively impact male reproductive function in obesity. Insulin was also found to be highly concentrated in the seminal plasma of both groups. This data will contribute to the contradictive information available in the literature on the impact of obesity and male reproduction. PMID:24885899



Intercorrelations among plasma high density lipoprotein, obesity and triglycerides in a normal population  

SciTech Connect

The interrelationships among fatness measures, plasma triglycerides and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were examined in 131 normal adult subjects: 38 men aged 27 to 46, 50 men aged 47 to 66, 29 women aged 27 to 46 and 24 women aged 47 to 66. None of the women were taking estrogens or oral contraceptive medication. The HDL concentration was subdivided into HDL/sub 2b/, HDL/sub 2a/ and HDL by a computerized fitting of the total schileren pattern to reference schlieren patterns. Anthropometric measures employed included skinfolds at 3 sites, 2 weight/height indices and 2 girth measurements. A high correlation was found among the various fatness measures. These measures were negatively correlated with total HDL, reflecting the negative correlation between fatness measures and HDL/sub 2/ (as the sum of HDL/sub 2a/ and /sub 2b/). Fatness measures showed no relationship to HDL/sub 3/. There was also an inverse correlation between triglyceride concentration and HDL/sub 2/. No particular fatness measure was better than any other for demonstrating the inverse correlation with HDL but multiple correlations using all of the measures of obesity improved the correlations. Partial correlations controlling for fatness did not reduce any of the significnt correlations between triglycerides and HDL/sub 2/ to insignificance. The weak correlation between fatness and triglycerides was reduced to insigifnicance when controlled for HDL/sub 2/.

Albrink, M.J. (West Virgina Unov., Morgantown); Krauss, R.M.; Lindgren, F.T.; von der Groeben, J.; Pan, S.; Wood, P.D.



The one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma (OAUGDP) as a classical normal glow discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. The one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma (OAUGDP) operating in air and other gases, has been recently developed at the UTK Plasma Sciences Laboratory and is proprietary to the University of Tennessee. The plasma is driven at low RF frequency, on the order of a few kilohertz, and is formed in a relatively large

R. B. Gadri; D. M. Sherman; Zhiyu Chen; F. Karakaya; J. R. Roth



PTK6/BRK is expressed in the normal mammary gland and activated at the plasma membrane in breast tumors.  


Protein Tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6/BRK) is overexpressed in the majority of human breast tumors and breast tumor cell lines. It is also expressed in normal epithelial linings of the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and prostate. To date, expression of PTK6 has not been extensively examined in the normal human mammary gland. We detected PTK6 mRNA and protein expression in the immortalized normal MCF-10A human mammary gland epithelial cell line, and examined PTK6 expression and activation in a normal human breast tissue microarray, as well as in human breast tumors. Phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 342 in the PTK6 activation loop corresponds with its activation. Similar to findings in the prostate, we detect nuclear and cytoplasmic PTK6 in normal mammary gland epithelial cells, but no phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 342. However, in human breast tumors, striking PTK6 expression and phosphorylation of tyrosine 342 is observed at the plasma membrane. PTK6 is expressed in the normal human mammary gland, but does not appear to be active and may have kinase-independent functions that are distinct from its cancer promoting activities at the membrane. Understanding consequences of PTK6 activation at the plasma membrane may have implications for developing novel targeted therapies against this kinase. PMID:25015012

Peng, Maoyu; Emmadi, Rajyasree; Wang, Zebin; Wiley, Elizabeth L; Gann, Peter H; Khan, Seema; Banerji, Nilanjana; McDonald, William; Asztalos, Szilard; Pham, Thao N D; Tonetti, Debra A; Tyner, Angela L



PTK6/BRK is expressed in the normal mammary gland and activated at the plasma membrane in breast tumors  

PubMed Central

Protein Tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6/BRK) is overexpressed in the majority of human breast tumors and breast tumor cell lines. It is also expressed in normal epithelial linings of the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and prostate. To date, expression of PTK6 has not been extensively examined in the normal human mammary gland. We detected PTK6 mRNA and protein expression in the immortalized normal MCF-10A human mammary gland epithelial cell line, and examined PTK6 expression and activation in a normal human breast tissue microarray, as well as in human breast tumors. Phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 342 in the PTK6 activation loop corresponds with its activation. Similar to findings in the prostate, we detect nuclear and cytoplasmic PTK6 in normal mammary gland epithelial cells, but no phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 342. However, in human breast tumors, striking PTK6 expression and phosphorylation of tyrosine 342 is observed at the plasma membrane. PTK6 is expressed in the normal human mammary gland, but does not appear to be active and may have kinase-independent functions that are distinct from its cancer promoting activities at the membrane. Understanding consequences of PTK6 activation at the plasma membrane may have implications for developing novel targeted therapies against this kinase. PMID:25153721

Peng, Maoyu; Emmadi, Rajyasree; Wang, Zebin; Wiley, Elizabeth L.; Gann, Peter H.; Khan, Seema A.; Banerji, Nilanjana; McDonald, William; Asztalos, Szilard; Pham, Thao N.D.; Tonetti, Debra A.; Tyner, Angela L.



PTK6/BRK is expressed in the normal mammary gland and activated at the plasma membrane in breast tumors.  


Protein Tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6/BRK) is overexpressed in the majority of human breast tumors and breast tumor cell lines. It is also expressed in normal epithelial linings of the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and prostate. To date, expression of PTK6 has not been extensively examined in the normal human mammary gland. We detected PTK6 mRNA and protein expression in the immortalized normal MCF-10A human mammary gland epithelial cell line, and examined PTK6 expression and activation in a normal human breast tissue microarray, as well as in human breast tumors. Phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 342 in the PTK6 activation loop corresponds with its activation. Similar to findings in the prostate, we detect nuclear and cytoplasmic PTK6 in normal mammary gland epithelial cells, but no phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 342. However, in human breast tumors, striking PTK6 expression and phosphorylation of tyrosine 342 is observed at the plasma membrane. PTK6 is expressed in the normal human mammary gland, but does not appear to be active and may have kinase-independent functions that are distinct from its cancer promoting activities at the membrane. Understanding consequences of PTK6 activation at the plasma membrane may have implications for developing novel targeted therapies against this kinase. PMID:25153721

Peng, Maoyu; Emmadi, Rajyasree; Wang, Zebin; Wiley, Elizabeth L; Gann, Peter H; Khan, Seema A; Banerji, Nilanjana; McDonald, William; Asztalos, Szilard; Pham, Thao N D; Tonetti, Debra A; Tyner, Angela L



Age-related change in plasma concentration of 7B2(a novel pituitary polypeptide) in normal humans  

SciTech Connect

Using a specific radioimmunoassay, the authors measured concentrations of plasma 7B2(a novel pituitary polypeptide) immunoreactivity(7B2-IR) in normal human subjects, patients with chronic renal failure and those with liver cirrhosis. Mean(+/-SEM) values of plasma 7B2-IR in normal healthy men and women were 55.8 +/- 1.2 pg/ml (n=266) and 56.1 +/- 0.9 pg/ml (n = 408), respectively. The elevation of plasma 7B2-IR showed a relationship with age of the subjects, in both men(r=0.39, t = 6.86, p < 0.001) and women (r=0.35, t=7.44, p < 0.001). Plasma 7B2-IR concentrations were elevated in patients with chronic renal failure (536 +/- 45 pg/ml, Mean +/- SEM, n = 10) as well as those in liver cirrhosis (95 +/- 10 pg/ml, Mean +/- SEM, n = 15) compared to values in normal subjects, suggesting that 7B2 is mainly eliminated through the kidney and is partly metabolized in the liver. 10 references, 4 figures.

Natori, S.; Iguchi, H.; Nawata, H.; Kato, K.; Ibayashi, H.; Chretian, M.



Plasma BDNF associations with cortical thickness in normal controls and subjects mild cognitive impairment Methods: We collected peripheral blood and 3D MP-RAGE T1-  

E-print Network

Plasma BDNF associations with cortical thickness in normal controls and subjects mild cognitive criteria. Results: Plasma levels of BDNF showed positive associations with cortical thickness concentrations of ApoE, ApoJ, HSP40, IL6, and TNF. Conclusions: Decreased plasma levels of BDNF, a protein known

Thompson, Paul


17 effect of local treatment of seminal vesiculitis on the quality of equine fresh semen.  


Stallions affected by seminal vesiculitis present history of infertility or subfertility, ejaculatory disturbance, spread of sexually transmitted pathogens, and changes in semen characteristics, leading to reduced semen quality and longevity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the semen quality of stallions with seminal vesiculitis before and after local treatment. Five stallions with a mean age of 12.4 years diagnosed with seminal vesiculitis were used. The identification of the microorganism involved in the pathogenesis of seminal vesiculitis of each animal was performed by bacterial culture of the seminal vesicles flush with Ringer Lactate solution, performed in duplicate at 1-week intervals. After identification of bacteria was performed, there was susceptibility testing to antibiotic (antibiogram) and the appropriate antibiotic was chosen. The local treatment was performed by endoscopy for 10 consecutive days, and this consisted of flushing with Ringer Lactate solution, followed by infusion of the antibiotic selected. The semen analyses were performed before starting the local treatment for seminal vesiculitis (M0), after a week (M1), and after a month (M2) of therapy. Sperm kinetics were performed by computerized method - CASA for the following parameters: percentage of sperm with total motility, progressive motility, and rapid sperm. Analysis of plasma membrane integrity was performed by epi-fluorescence microscopy, using the combination of fluorescent probes carboxyfluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide. Percentage of leukocytes was assessed through evaluation in light optical microscopy of semen smears stained with DiffQuick. The content of nitric oxide (NO) was determined by colourimetric Griess reaction by a spectrophotometer through the concentrations of nitrate (NO3(-)) and nitrite (NO2(-)). To perform the count of colony forming units per millilitre (CFUmL(-1)), an aliquot of 0.1mL of semen was diluted in 9.9mL of saline. A 0.1-mL aliquot of this sample was plated on Mueller-Hinton agar. The seeded plates were incubated, and the bacterial colonies were counted after 24h. According to the performed dilution, total colonies identified corresponds to ×10000CFUmL(-1). The data were analysed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (P<0.05). The values (mean ± standard error) of seminal parameters on M0, M1, and M2 were the following, respectively: sperm kinetics (total motility: 46.5±5.13(a); 75.1±3.42(b); 42.8±5.28(a); progressive motility: 19.3±3.86(a); 33.4±2.39(b); 16.5±2.40(a); rapid sperm: 22.2±1.82(a); 52.2±5.65(b); 22.1±2.62(a)); plasma membrane integrity (47.5±4.65(a); 62.9±5.41(b); 39.1±4.32(a)); percentage of leukocytes (35.2±2.36(a); 15.1±2.55(b); 36.1±4.04(a)); CFU (119980×10(3) ±19528.0×10(3a); 5375×10(3) ±2453.7×10(3b); 65850×10(3)±19701.0×10(3ab)) on fresh semen; and NO content (0.645±0.172(a), 0.117±0.023(b), 0.364±0.110(ab)) on seminal plasma. The results demonstrate that local treatment after a week leads to an improvement in sperm quality; however, this was not maintained after 1 month of therapy, since the seminal parameters at this time are similar to pretreatment, which can be justified by recurrent disease. PMID:25472066



Plasma pharmacological study on Da huang zhe chong capsule on platelet aggregation of normal person  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To develop a plasma pharmacological method evaluates the effect of Da Huang Zhe Chong capsule on platelet aggregation and\\u000a its mechanism, which is a representative Traditional Chinese Medicine Patent Prescription Promoting blood circulation by removing\\u000a blood stasis. Methods Platelets specimens from healthy volunteers made serum and plasma with medicine, while platelet PRP were separated, which\\u000a were divided into 8groups,

Dong-sheng Wang; Fang-ping Chen; Chang-jiang Xiao; Shi-lin He; Bin Fu; Xin Li; Xing-yu Cao; Yan Chen; Qin-zhi Xie



Correlation of seminal parameters with serum lipid profile and sex hormones.  


The phospholipids and fatty acid composition of sperm are altered under the influence of serum lipids on impaired seminal parameters in infertile men. We studied the correlation of the serum lipid profile and sex hormone results of a group of infertile men with sperm characteristics of 18 infertile men. Semen samples were collected and analyzed. Serum fasted and post-meal glucose levels, insulin, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, triglyceride, FSH, LH, and testosterone measurements were performed. The increased serum VLDL, total triglyceride, and testosterone values were significantly correlated with decreased sperm motility. Serum FSH values were also inversely correlated with normal sperm morphology. The increased VLDL impaired seminal parameters; additionally, increased triglycerides may have deleterious effects on spermatogenesis. Deterioration is related with increased serum VLDL and triglyceride levels. PMID:17364460

Ergün, A; Köse, S K; Aydos, K; Ata, A; Avci, A



Characterization of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma NPY levels in normal volunteers over a 24-h timeframe.  


Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundant in mammals, where it contributes to diverse behavioral and physiological functions, centrally and peripherally, but little information is available in regard to NPY cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/plasma concentration relationships and dynamics. Since plasma NPY levels are commonly used as proxy "biomarkers" for central NPY activity in stress and mental health research in humans this study aims to better characterize the CSF/plasma NPY relationships. Subjects were eleven healthy male volunteers, admitted to the clinical research center for placement of an indwelling CSF catheter, as well as venous catheter, for 24-h collection of CSF NPY (cNPY) and plasma NPY (pNPY) samples. As observed in prior studies, group mean (SE) cNPY concentrations [792.1 (7.80) pg/mL] were higher than pNPY concentrations [220.0 (3.63) pg/mL]. For the eleven normal volunteers who had sufficient common (hourly) pNPY and cNPY data points, analysis of pNPY/cNPY concentration ratios and lagged cross-correlation analysis was completed. Average pNPY/cNPY concentration ratios ranged from .20 to .40 across study subjects, with a mean of .29. pNPY/cNPY cross correlation analyses, computed at varying time lags, were non-significant. An attempt was made to analyze the circadian rhythmicity of NPY secretion, but circadian components were not detectable. Using 24-h data collection, we characterized CSF/plasma NPY relationships, including presentation of evidence of weak CSF and plasma correlations, an important consideration for study design of NPY in stress or mental health. PMID:23759334

Baker, Dewleen G; Bertram, Tobias Moeller; Patel, Piyush M; Barkauskas, Donald A; Clopton, Paul; Patel, Sejal; Geracioti, Thomas D; Haji, Uzair; O'Connor, Daniel T; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Hauger, Richard L



Benefits of normalizing plasma phenylalanine: Impact on behaviour and health. A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elderly man with mental retardation who had never received dietary treatment for his phenylketonuria was placed on a phenylalanine-restricted diet. Social skills and walking gait improved and a new interest in the objects in his environment developed spontaneously. A 2-year analysis of diet, blood plasma phenylalanine levels and behavioural state indicated that small differences in phenylalanine intake impacted his

K. Williams



Plasma Sphingolipids as Potential Indicators of Hepatic Necroinflammation in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase Level  

PubMed Central

Accurate estimation of hepatic necroinflammation caused by chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is crucial for prediction of prognosis and design of therapeutic strategy, which is particularly true for CHC patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Recent studies have shown that sphingolipids have a close relationship with hepatitis C virus infection. The present study aimed to identify plasma sphingolipids related to hepatic necroinflammation. We included 120 treatment-naïve CHC patients and 64/120 had normal ALT levels (<40 U/L). CHC patients who underwent liver biopsies were subjected to Scheuer scoring analysis for scope of hepatic inflammation. Plasma sphingolipids were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Our results showed 44 plasma sphingolipids were detected altogether. Of all detected sphingolipids, hexosylceramide (HexCer) (d18?1/22?0) and HexCer (d18?1/24?0) showed a significant difference among G0/G1, G2, and G3/G4 (P<0.05). For identifying hepatic necroinflammation (G?2), after adjusting other factors, the odds ratio (OR) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) reached 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00–1.02). Furthermore, the area under the curve (AUC) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was 0.7 (P?=?0.01) and approached that of ALT (AUC?=?0.78). However, in CHC patients with normal ALT, HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was an independent factor (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01–1.03) to identify the hepatic necroinflammation (G?2). HexCer (d18?1/22?0) not only showed the largest AUC (0.78, P?=?0.001), but also exhibited the highest specificity of all indicators. These results indicate that plasma HexCer (d18?1/22?0) is a potential indicator to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation in CHC patients. For CHC with normal ALT, the ability of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation might be superior to conventional serum indicators. PMID:24736528

Ren, Jin-Yu; Wu, Hui-Li; Liu, Mei; Liu, Hui; Ren, Feng; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Duan, Zhong-Ping



Diurnal variations of protein and electrolyte concentrations and of acid-base status in plasma and red cells of normal man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venous blood was sampled in 3-h intervals from 5 men and 4 women under conditions of normal daily activity during 24 h (Series I). Hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration in blood and red cells, sodium, potassium, magnesium and chloride concentrations in plasma and red cells, protein, calcium and inorganic phosphate concentrations and standard bicarbonate in plasma, pH in blood and red cells,

D. Böning; U. Schweigart; M. Kunze



Electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometric analysis of intact bikunin glycosaminoglycan from normal human plasma  

PubMed Central

A mixture of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains from a plasma proteoglycan bikunin was fractionated using native, continuous-elution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the resulting fractions were analyzed by electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ESI FTMS). Molecular mass analysis of the intact GAG afforded information about the length and composition of GAG chains in the mixture. Ambiguity in the interpretation of the intact GAG mass spectra was eliminated by conducting an additional experiment in which the GAG chains of known molecular mass were treated with a GAG-degrading enzyme, chondroitinase ABC, and the digestion products were analyzed by ESI FTMS. The plasma bikunin GAG chains consisted predominantly of odd number of saccharides, although few chains consisting of even number of saccharides were also detected. Majority of the analyzed chains were tetrasulfated or pentasulfated and comprised by 29 to 41 monosaccharides. PMID:21860600

Laremore, Tatiana N.; Leach, Franklin E.; Amster, I. Jonathan; Linhardt, Robert J.



Effect of season on seminal traits and serum hormone concentrations in captive male Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris).  


Electroejaculates and serum samples were collected throughout the year from 5 male Siberian tigers. Semen quality, seminal plasma chemistry and serum hormone concentrations were evaluated and analysed as a function of season. Semen volume, concentration, motility, viability and morphology were not influenced by season. The ability of spermatozoa to undergo capacitation and penetrate zona-free hamster eggs did not differ due to season. Season had no influence on seminal plasma concentrations of acid phosphatase, calcium, glucose, potassium and phosphorus. Serum values of thyroxine and triiodothyronine were lowest (P = 0.002 and P = 0.03, respectively) during the summer months while cortisol showed no seasonal variation. Serum testosterone concentrations were higher in fall and early winter (P less than 0.001) than at other times of the year but were not correlated with semen quality. These results demonstrate that season has no effect on the semen production and quality of captive male Siberian tigers. PMID:2231534

Byers, A P; Hunter, A G; Seal, U S; Graham, E F; Tilson, R L



Comments on compressible effects on Alfven normal modes in nonuniform plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses the regime of validity of the theory of dissipative Alfven normal modes presented by Mok and Einaudi (1985) and Einaudi and Mok (1985), which was based on the incompressible closure of the system of ideal MHD equations. Some simple extensions of the earlier results to the compressible case are described. In addition, certain misunderstandings of this work, which have appeared in other papers, are clarified.

Mok, Y.; Einaudi, G.



Myelomatous plasma cells display an aberrant gene expression pattern similar to that observed in normal memory B cells  

PubMed Central

Memory B cells (MBCs) remain in a quiescent state for years, expressing pro-survival and anti-apoptotic factors while repressing cell proliferation and activation genes. During their differentiation into plasma cells (PCs), their expression pattern is reversed, with a higher expression of genes related to cell proliferation and activation, and a lower expression of pro-survival genes. To determine whether myelomatous PCs (mPCs) share characteristics with normal PCs and MBCs and to identify genes involved in the pathophysiology of multiple myeloma (MM), we compared gene expression patterns in these three cell sub-types. We observed that mPCs had features intermediate between those of MBCs and normal PCs, and identified 3455 genes differentially expressed in mPCs relative to normal PCs but with a similar expression pattern to that in MBCs. Most of these genes are involved in cell death and survival, cell growth and proliferation and protein synthesis. According to our findings, mPCs have a gene expression pattern closer to a MBC than a PC with a high expression of genes involved in cell survival. These genes should be physiologically inactivated in the transit from MBC to PC, but remain overexpressed in mPCs and thus may play a role in the pathophysiology of the disease.

Báez, Alicia; Piruat, José I; Caballero-Velázquez, Teresa; Sánchez-Abarca, Luís I; Álvarez-Laderas, Isabel; Barbado, M Victoria; García-Guerrero, Estefanía; Millán-Uclés, África; Martín-Sánchez, Jesús; Medrano, Mayte; Pérez-Simón, José Antonio



4D tracking of clinical seminal samples for quantitative characterization of motility parameters.  


In this paper we investigate the use of a digital holographic microscope, with partial spatial coherent illumination, for the automated detection and tracking of spermatozoa. This in vitro technique for the analysis of quantitative parameters is useful for assessment of semen quality. In fact, thanks to the capabilities of digital holography, the developed algorithm allows us to resolve in-focus amplitude and phase maps of the cells under study, independently of focal plane of the sample image. We have characterized cell motility on clinical samples of seminal fluid. In particular, anomalous sperm cells were characterized and the quantitative motility parameters were compared to those of normal sperm. PMID:24688806

Di Caprio, Giuseppe; El Mallahi, Ahmed; Ferraro, Pietro; Dale, Roberta; Coppola, Gianfranco; Dale, Brian; Coppola, Giuseppe; Dubois, Frank



Angular melting scenarios in binary dusty-plasma Coulomb balls: Magic versus normal clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular-dynamic simulations were performed in order to investigate the melting processes of isotropically confined binary systems. We considered two species of particles, which differ by their amount of electric charge. A Lindemann type of criterion was used to determine the angular melting temperature. We demonstrate that the magic-to-normal cluster transition can evolve in two distinct ways, that is, through a structural phase transition of the first order or via a smooth transition where an increase of the shells' width leads to a continuous decreasing mechanical stability of the system. Moreover, for large systems, we demonstrate that the internal cluster exerts a minor effect on the mechanical stability of the external shell. Furthermore, we show that highly symmetric configurations, such as those found for multiple ring structures, have large mechanical stability, i.e., high angular melting temperature.

Apolinario, S. W. S.; Aguiar, J. Albino; Peeters, F. M.



Restoration of Hepatic Glucokinase Expression Corrects Hepatic Glucose Flux and Normalizes Plasma Glucose in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—We examined in 20-week-old Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats whether restoration of hepatic glucokinase (GK) expression would alter hepatic glucose flux and improve hyperglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—ZDF rats were treated at various doses with an adenovirus that directs the expression of rat liver GK (AdvCMV-GKL) dose dependently, and various metabolic parameters were compared with those of nondiabetic lean littermates (ZCL rats) before and during a hyperglycemic clamp. Viral infection per se did not affect hepatic GK activity, since expression of a catalytically inactive form of GK did not alter endogenous hepatic GK activity. RESULTS—ZDF rats compared with ZCL rats have lower hepatic GK activity (11.6 ± 1.9 vs. 32.5 ± 3.2 mU/mg protein), marked hyperglycemia (23.9 ± 1.2 vs. 7.4 ± 0.3 mmol/l), higher endogenous glucose production (80 ± 3 vs. 38 ± 3 ?mol · kg?1 · min?1), increased glucose-6-phosphatase flux (150 ± 11 vs. 58 ± 8 ?mol · kg?1 · min?1), and during a hyperglycemic clamp, a failure to suppress endogenous glucose production (80 ± 7 vs. ?7 ± 4 ?mol · kg?1 · min?1) and promote glucose incorporation into glycogen (15 ± 5 vs. 43 ± 3 ?mol/g liver). Treatment of ZDF rats with different doses of AdvCMV-GKL, which restored hepatic GK activity to one to two times that of ZCL rats, normalized plasma glucose levels and endogenous glucose production. During a hyperglycemic clamp, glucose production was suppressed and glucose incorporation into glycogen was normal. CONCLUSIONS—Alteration of hepatic GK activity in ZDF rats has profound effects on plasma glucose and hepatic glucose flux. PMID:18952838

Torres, Tracy P.; Catlin, ReEtta L.; Chan, Robert; Fujimoto, Yuka; Sasaki, Noriyasu; Printz, Richard L.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Shiota, Masakazu



Normal Fasting Plasma Glucose and Risk of Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes: The Isfahan Diabetes Prevention Study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the association of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level within normal range and the risk of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in an Iranian population. METHODS: A total of 806 first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with type 2 diabetes who had FPG levels less than 5.6 mmol/l (100 mg/dl) in 2003 to 2005, and who did not have diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (IFG), were followed through 2010 for the occurrence of prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. At baseline and through follow-ups, participants underwent a standard 75 g 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). RESULTS: The incidence of type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and IFG was 9.6 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.8-12.4), 28.7 (23.8-33.6), and 33.0 (27.7-38.2) per 1,000 person-years based on 4,489 person-years of follow-up, respectively. FPG was associated with the incidence of diabetes, IGT, and IFG. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for diabetes, IGT, and IFG were 1.36 (1.01-1.84), 1.45 (1.10-1.91) and 1.31 (1.00-1.71), for the highest quintile of FPG compared with the lowest quintile, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: An increase in FPG in the normal range is associated with an increase in the incidence of IGT, IFG, and type 2 diabetes. These results prove FPG in the normal range to be useful in identifying apparently healthy FDRs of patients with type 2 diabetes at risk of developing prediabetes and diabetes. PMID:22580730

Janghorbani, Mohsen; Amini, Masoud



Seminal vesicle metastasis after partial hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Metastasis to the seminal vesicle is extremely rare for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To our knowledge, it has been not reported in literature. The purpose of the present paper was to report a case of metastasis to the seminal vesicle after HCC resection, along with its histological features and immunohistochemical characteristics. Case Presentation A 46-year-old Chinese man was admitted to our hospital due to abdominal distension. He had a history of HCC related to hepatitis B virus infection. Moreover, left partial hepatectomy was performed in another hospital 28 months ago, and right partial hepatectomy for HCC recurrence in our hospital 4 months ago. After resection, radiofrequency ablation therapy had been performed. About 27 months after the initial operation, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the pelvic cavity revealed a mass with homogeneous enhancement in the seminal vesicle. Transrectal needle biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Therefore, seminal vesiculectomy was resected. The histological diagnosis of the removed tumor was compatible with the original HCC. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated that the tumor cells were positive for glypican-3 (GPC3), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), hepatocyte paraffin-1 (Hep Par 1), cytokeratin 18 (CK 18), and hepatocyte antigen, which confirmed that the seminal vesicle tumor was a metastatic tumor of HCC. However, CT subsequently revealed multiple metastatic foci in the abdominal and pelvic cavities in May 2009 and August 2009, respectively. Conclusion The seminal vesicle is an extremely rare metastatic site for HCC, and the prognosis is very poor. A combination of clinical and pathological features is necessary for a correct diagnosis, and primary tumor should be excluded before diagnosing metastatic foci. PMID:21443783



Competition between clonal plasma cells and normal cells for potentially overlapping bone marrow niches is associated with a progressively altered cellular distribution in MGUS vs myeloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disappearance of normal bone marrow (BM) plasma cells (PC) predicts malignant transformation of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering myeloma (SMM) into symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM). The homing, behavior and survival of normal PC, but also CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), B-cell precursors, and clonal PC largely depends on their interaction with stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) expressing, potentially

B Paiva; M Pérez-Andrés; M-B Vídriales; J Almeida; N de las Heras; M-V Mateos; L López-Corral; N C Gutiérrez; J Blanco; A Oriol; M T Hernández; F de Arriba; A G de Coca; M-J Terol; J de la Rubia; Y González; A Martín; A Sureda; M Schmidt-Hieber; A Schmitz; H E Johnsen; J-J Lahuerta; J Bladé; J F San-Miguel; A Orfao



Evaluation of Serum Testosterone, Progesterone, Seminal Antisperm Antibody, and Fructose Levels among Jordanian Males with a History of Infertility  

PubMed Central

Due to the biochemical complexity of seminal fluid, we attempt to study the possible correlation between fructose, which is secreted under the effect of androgen hormone, and autoimmunity, which might play a role in varicocele associated infertility, in reducing sperm motility. Seminal fructose, antisperm antibodies (ASAs) and blood steroids hormones (testosterone and progesterone) levels were measured in 66 infertile males with varicocele and 84 without varicocele referred for fertility treatment. Seminal analysis was performed with biochemical measurements of seminal fructose and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR) for ASA. Serum levels of progesterone and testosterone were estimated using a competitive chemoluminescent enzyme immunoassay. The mean values for serum testosterone were 380.74 ± 24.331, 365.9 ± 16.55, and 367.5 ± 21.8?ng/dl, progesterone 0.325 ± 0.243, 0.341 ± 0.022, and 0.357 ± 0.0306?ng/ml, and seminal plasma fructose 359.6 ± 26.75, 315.6 ± 13.08, and 332.08 ± 24.38?mg/dl in males with varicocele, without varicocele, and fertile males, respectively. A significant high level of testosterone was observed within varicocele group (P = .001). This result showed that testosterone may play a role as an infertility determinant in subjects with varicocele. ASA was detected in 18 (26.47%) of cases with varicocele, 20 (38.46%) without varicocele, and in 16 (32.0%) fertile men. Cases with ASAs associated with low sperm motility morphology. An inverse correlation between sperm-bound antibodies and viscosity has been shown (P = .017). ASA showed some significant inverse relations with ages, durations of infertility, and viscosity (P < .05). In addition, a significant correlation was observed between ASA positive seminal plasma and testosterone concentration among infertile cases (with or without varicocele) and fertile (P < .05). Our results suggest a relationship between testicular steroid hormone levels with autoimmunity and sperm antibodies which influence the motility of ejaculated spermatozoa among Jordanian infertile males. PMID:21188073

Al-Daghistani, Hala I.; Hamad, Abdul-Wahab R.; Abdel-Dayem, Muna; Al-Swaifi, Mohammad; Abu Zaid, Mohammad



Comparative studies on bull and stallion seminal DNase activity and interaction with semen extender and spermatozoa.  


We performed a series of comparative studies of bull and stallion seminal plasma (SP) and its role on sperm-neutrophil binding as well as the interaction between semen extender and seminal DNase. Because of contrasting roles of SP on sperm-neutrophil binding between horses and cattle, it was suspected there were some species-specific differences on sperm interaction with SP proteins due to the variations in the natural location of semen deposition (uterus compared to vagina). Bull frozen-thawed sperm removed from egg yolk extender showed similar results to fresh sperm, but this also caused extensive sperm agglutination unless SP or egg yolk was included. If similar agglutination occurs after AI with frozen bull semen, it could interfere with sperm transport or sperm functions. Commonly used bull semen extenders were poor media for seminal DNase activity on plasmid DNA degradation, raising the prospect that the same may be true with other SP factors important to fertility. DNase activity per mg SP protein of bulls was less than that of horses (P<0.05), but DNase activity associated with bull sperm was greater (P<0.05) indicating a different affinity of DNase to spermatozoa. This could be related to the fact that bull sperm naturally migrate from the vagina to the uterus leaving the bulk of SP behind. In such migration, sperm cells needed to carry DNase and other SP factors along. Incorporation of egg yolk in bull semen and introducing SP into the uterus of cattle with current AI protocols may contribute to reduced fertility. Modifications of semen extender and/or semen processing should be examined to allow sperm cells a maximum potential for fertilization. PMID:20638801

Alghamdi, Abdorrahman S; Funnell, Bethany J; Bird, Scott L; Lamb, G Cliff; Rendahl, Aaron K; Taube, Patrick C; Foster, Douglas N



Numerical analysis of shroud gas effects on air entrainment into thermal plasma jet in ambient atmosphere of normal pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical analysis of the influence of air entrainment into the plasma jet on the thermal plasma characteristics is performed to provide a design basis for nontransferred plasma torches operated in an ambient air of atmospheric pressure along with shroud gas injection. The assumption of steady-state, axisymmetric, local thermodynamic equilibrium, and optically thin plasma is adopted in a two-dimensional modeling

Kyoung Doo Kang; Sang Hee Hong



Disease-causing mutations in the CLRN1 gene alter normal CLRN1 protein trafficking to the plasma membrane  

PubMed Central

Purpose Mutations of clarin 1 (CLRN1) cause Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3). To determine the effects of USH3 mutations on CLRN1 function, we examined the cellular distribution and stability of both normal and mutant CLRN1 in vitro. We also searched for novel disease-causing mutations in a cohort of 59 unrelated Canadian and Finnish USH patients. Methods Mutation screening was performed by DNA sequencing. For the functional studies, wild-type (WT) and mutant CLRN1 genes were expressed as hemagglutinin (HA) tagged fusion proteins by transient transfection of BHK-21 cells. Subcellular localization of CLRN1-HA was examined by confocal microscopy. The N-glycosylation status of CLRN1 was studied by using the N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) enzyme and western blotting. Cycloheximide treatment was used to assess the stability of CLRN1 protein. Results We found three previously reported pathogenic mutations, p.A123D, p.N48K, and p.Y176X, and a novel sequence variant, p.L54P, from the studied USH patients. The WT HA-tagged CLRN1 was correctly trafficked to the plasma membrane, whereas mutant CLRN1-HA proteins were mislocalized and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. PNGase F treatment of CLRN1-HA resulted in an electrophoretic mobility shift consistent with sugar residue cleavage in WT and in all CLRN1 mutants except in p.N48K mutated CLRN1, in which the mutation abolishes the glycosylation site. Inhibition of protein expression with cycloheximide indicated that WT CLRN1-HA remained stable. In contrast, the CLRN1 mutants showed reduced stability. Conclusions WT CLRN1 is a glycoprotein localized to the plasma membrane in transfected BHK-21 cells. Mutant CLRN1 proteins are mislocalized. We suggest that part of the pathogenesis of USH3 may be associated with defective intracellular trafficking as well as decreased stability of mutant CLRN1 proteins. PMID:19753315

Isosomppi, Juha; Geller, Scott F.; Heon, Elise; Flannery, John G.; Sankila, Eeva-Marja



Comparison of total blood volume in normal, preeclamptic, and nonproteinuric gestational hypertensive pregnancy by simultaneous measurement of red blood cell and plasma volumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to demonstrate reduced blood volume in preeclampsia compared with nonproteinuric gestational hypertension and normal pregnancy by use of independent measures of red blood cell and plasma volumes.STUDY DESIGN: Red blood cells labeled with a nonradioactive stable isotope of chromium and Evans’ blue were infused in subjects with preeclampsia or gestational hypertension and normotensive pregnant controls. Blood

Helayne M. Silver; MaryAnn Seebeck; Rose Carlson



Environmental factors and not genotype influence the plasma level of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in normal individuals  

PubMed Central

Cytokine production may be regulated by both genotypic (single nucleotide or tandem repeat polymorphisms) and non-genotypic factors relating to the environment and inherent biology (i.e. gender). Interleukin (IL)-1 is one of the body's most highly proinflammatory cytokines and is implicated in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases, but also in the maintenance of homeostasis in a number of tissues. The cytokine IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is the competitive inhibitor of the IL-1 agonists IL-1? and IL-1?. In vivo IL-1Ra was measured in a cohort of 200 + blood donors and the effect of the IL-1 gene polymorphisms, environmental and biological factors assessed. In this study, we observed that possession of particular alleles of 5 IL-1 gene polymorphisms (IL1A-889, IL1? VNTR, IL1B -511, IL1B +3953 and the IL1RN VNTR) did not correlate with higher plasma IL-1Ra levels. Environmental factors such as smoking and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ingestion were associated with higher in vivo IL-1Ra levels (P = 0·015 and 0·022, respectively), but biological factors such as gender, age and menstruation status did not have any impact upon in vivo IL-1Ra levels. Genotypic associations of IL-1 gene family polymorphisms with disease features may reflect characteristics of stressed rather than normal control circuits for cytokine production. PMID:15270852

Cullup, H; Middleton, P G; Duggan, G; Conn, J S; Dickinson, A M



An unusual cause of hematospermia: Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle  

PubMed Central

Adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles is one of the rare causes of hematospermia. Primary seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose due to frequent invasion of adenocarcinomas of the surrounding organs, especially the prostate. In the present study, a case of a primary seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma will be discussed in the light of the current literature. PMID:23283099

Eken, Alper; Izol, Volkan; Aridogan, I. Atilla; Erdogan, Seyda; Ac?kal?n, Arbil; Tansug, Zuhtu



A novel method of seminal vesicle preparation in isolated seminal vesicle experiments in the rat: ring preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel method of seminal vesicle (SV) preparation—ring preparation method—in isolated SV experiments in the rat. Rat SVs were prepared as strips and rings and applied to organ baths. The relaxation responses by sodium nitroprusside or doxazosin and contractile responses by electrical field stimulation (EFS) were recorded in both groups. We compared

H W Lee; J Y Jeong; J B Yang; D H Han; S W Lee



Seminal vesicle secretion 2 acts as a protectant of sperm sterols and prevents ectopic sperm capacitation in mice.  


Seminal vesicle secretion 2 (SVS2) is a protein secreted by the mouse seminal vesicle. We previously demonstrated that SVS2 regulates fertilization in mice; SVS2 is attached to a ganglioside GM1 on the plasma membrane of the sperm head and inhibits sperm capacitation in in vitro fertilization as a decapacitation factor. Furthermore, male mice lacking SVS2 display prominently reduced fertility in vivo, which indicates that SVS2 protects spermatozoa from some spermicidal attack in the uterus. In this study, we tried to investigate the mechanisms by which SVS2 controls in vivo sperm capacitation. SVS2-deficient males that mated with wild-type partners resulted in decreased cholesterol levels on ejaculated sperm in the uterine cavity. SVS2 prevented cholesterol efflux from the sperm plasma membrane and incorporated liberated cholesterol in the sperm plasma membrane, thereby reversibly preventing the induction of sperm capacitation by bovine serum albumin and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin in vitro. SVS2 enters the uterus and the uterotubal junction, arresting sperm capacitation in this area. Therefore, our results show that SVS2 keeps sterols on the sperm plasma membrane and plays a key role in unlocking sperm capacitation in vivo. PMID:25395676

Araki, Naoya; Trencsényi, György; Krasznai, Zoárd T; Nizsalóczki, Enik?; Sakamoto, Ayako; Kawano, Natsuko; Miyado, Kenji; Yoshida, Kaoru; Yoshida, Manabu



Evaluation of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) membrane test assays for the forensic identification of seminal fluid.  


Prostate specific antigen (PSA, also known as p30), a glycoprotein produced by the prostatic gland and secreted into seminal plasma, is a marker used for demonstrating the presence of seminal fluid. Methods for the detection of PSA include Ouchterlony double diffusion, crossover electrophoresis, rocket immuno-electrophoresis, radial immunodiffusion, and ELISA. The extremely sensitive ELISA technique can detect PSA in concentrations as low as approximately 4 ng/mL. However, all these techniques are cumbersome and time consuming to perform in forensic laboratories, especially when only a few samples per week are processed. Various membrane tests are currently used in clinical settings to screen a patient's serum for the presence of PSA at levels greater than 4 ng/mL. In this study we evaluated three immunochromatographic PSA membrane tests by analyzing semen stains stored at room temperature for up to 30 years, post-coital vaginal swabs taken at different time after intercourse, semen-free vaginal swabs, and various female and male body fluids, including urine. The data demonstrate that PSA membrane test assays offer the same sensitivity as ELISA-based tests and provide a rapid approach for the forensic identification of seminal fluid. Furthermore, when the supernatant from a DNA extraction is used for the assay, there is essentially no DNA consumption for determining the presence of PSA in a forensic sample. PMID:10486959

Hochmeister, M N; Budowle, B; Rudin, O; Gehrig, C; Borer, U; Thali, M; Dirnhofer, R



Plasma immunoreactive proopiomelanocortin peptides and cortisol in normal dogs and dogs with Cushing's syndrome: diurnal rhythm and responses to various stimuli.  


We have studied the diurnal rhythm of pars distalis and pars intermedia-type immunoreactive (IR)-POMC peptides and cortisol in 3 normal dogs and 1 dog with Cushing's syndrome and have documented the responses to a variety of agents in 42 dogs with Cushing's disease, 2 of which were known or presumed to have pars intermedia tumors and another of which had both pars distalis and pars intermedia adenomas, and in 20 dogs with adrenocortical adenomas causing Cushing's syndrome. The normal dogs did not have a diurnal plasma POMC peptide rhythm; the dog with Cushing's disease appeared to have a similar number of secretory episodes of increased amplitude. Plasma POMC peptides and cortisol in animals with Cushing's disease did not suppress normally with low dose dexamethasone. Five animals with Cushing's disease did suppress with high dose dexamethasone, the dog with dual adenomas suppressed only partially, and 1 dog with a pars intermedia adenoma did not suppress at all. The response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia was similar in normal dogs and 4 dogs with Cushing's disease, but 3 animals with adrenal tumors did not respond. The response to metyrapone was normal in 6 dogs with Cushing's disease and, surprisingly, in 1 with adrenal tumor. Arginine vasopressin stimulated POMC peptide secretion in normal and 6 Cushing's dogs, as well as alpha MSH, a pars intermedia-type POMC peptide, in a dog presumed to have a pars intermedia tumor. Ovine CRF stimulated pars distalis-type POMC peptide secretion in normal dogs and 17 dogs with Cushing's disease, but not in 15 dogs with adrenal tumor; IR-alpha MSH was unaffected. TRH appeared to stimulate IR-ACTH in normal animals, but not in those with Cushing's disease. Dopamine had no apparent effect in 2 normal and 1 Cushing's dogs. Initial plasma disappearance t1/2 values of IR-ACTH and lipotropin were 22-27 min. In summary, responses in normal and Cushing's dogs were generally what would be predicted from previous human and animal studies, but some of those in animals with pars intermedia tumors and even in normal dogs were different from what had been anticipated. Canine Cushing's syndrome provides an interesting model for an uncommon human disorder. PMID:3126032

Orth, D N; Peterson, M E; Drucker, W D



Leiomyoma of the Seminal Vesicle: A Rare Case  

PubMed Central

Leiomyomas though common benign tumors of smooth muscle cells are extremely rare in the male genitourinary tract. We present a case of an elderly male who presented with complaints suggestive of urinary bladder outlet obstruction since 1 year. His evaluation showed it due to a tumour arising from the left seminal vesicle. Excision of the tumor was done which was diagnosed on histopathology as leiomyoma. A brief case report and review of literature is being presented. PMID:24765520

Shaikh, Aftab S.; Bakhshi, Girish D.; Khan, Arshad S.; Jamadar, Nilofar M.; Nirmala, Aravind Kotresh; Raza, Arif Ahmed



Does Cigarette Smoking Affect Seminal Fluid Parameters? A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal fluid parameters, namely; volume, sperm concentration, and motility, as well as morphology, leukocyte infiltration, among males complaining of infertility. Methods Between August 2010 and July 2011, seminal fluid analysis was done for 1438 males who are partners of couples who visited the infertility clinic at Prince Rashid Ben Al Hassan Hospital (PRH) for infertility. The men who fit the inclusion criteria (n=960) were classified into two groups: group a (non-smokers; n=564) and group B (smokers; n=396), which represents 41.25% of the study group. Seminal fluid was collected using masturbation after 3-5 days of abstinence then analyzed for volume, sperm count, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. In order to analyze whether the number of cigarettes smoked per day has an effect on the spermatogram; the smoking men were divided into two subgroups: the heavy smokers (n=266) and non-heavy smokers (n=130). Results A total of 960 adult males were enrolled. Their age ranged between 21 and 76 years, 564 were non-smokers with mean age of 36. 45±6.27 (Mean±SD). Three-hundred-and-ninety-six were smokers with a mean age of 34.35±4.25 (Mean±SD). There was a significant effect of smoking on the motility of sperms and the ratios of abnormality (p<0.005). Concentration appeared not to be affected by smoking. Furthermore, the group of heavy smokers were found to have lower sperm concentrations and a higher percentage of abnormal sperms compared to the non-heavy smokers. Conclusion Cigarette smoking has a deleterious effect on some of the seminal fluid parameters (motility, morphology and leukocyte count) which in turn may result in male subfertility. PMID:23386938

Meri, Zakarya Bani; Irshid, Ibrahim Bani; Migdadi, Mohammad; Irshid, Ayat Bani; Mhanna, Somia A.



Metastasizing seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma in a Wistar rat.  


An adenocarcinoma in the seminal vesicles of a 15-month-old male Wistar rat from a 30-month inhalation study is described. The rat was killed because of cachexia, apathy and a large palpable mass in the abdominal cavity. Macroscopic examination of the abdominal cavity revealed a 3.8 cm x 3.2 cm yellow-grey to pink mass, firm to soft in consistency. The cut section revealed cystic spaces. Histologically, the mass consisted of epithelial cells arranged in glandular and solid patterns with abundant amounts of connective tissue. Epithelial tumour cells were round-to-cylindrical with round-to-oval basophilic nuclei and one or two prominent nucleoli and a distinct eosinophilic cytoplasm. The glandular structure contained clusters of macrophages in their lumen with eosinophilic cytoplasm and indented nuclei. Extensive necrosis and reactive inflammation were present. The histological features of the small nodules in the pancreas and on the surface of the liver, rectum and urinary bladder resembled those of the primary tumour in the seminal vesicles. Based on these criteria, the neoplasm (mass) was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles. The immunohistological examination confirmed the diagnosis, i.e. immunostaining was positive for cytokeratins (4, 7, 14, 15, 18, and 19), vimentin, PCNA, and ED(1). PMID:15836444

Teredesai, A; Wöhrmann, T



Bone Morphogenic Protein 6: a Member of a Novel Class of Prognostic Factors Expressed by Normal and Malignant Plasma Cells  

E-print Network

-angiogenic and bone-metabolism modifying factors by malignant plasma cells. Given the frequently long time-span from disease of clonal plasma cells which accumulate in the bone marrow (BM) causing clinical signs). Pathogenesis of MM is associated with an aberrant expression of pro-proliferative, pro- angiogenic and bone-metabolism

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Berberine in Rat Plasma after Oral Administration of Berberine Hydrochloride in Normal and Post Inflammation Irritable Bowel Syndrome Rats  

PubMed Central

In the present study, post inflammation irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) rats were firstly established by intracolonic instillation of acetic acid with restraint stress. Then the pharmacokinetics of berberine in the rat plasma were compared after oral administration of berberine hydrochloride (25 mg/kg) to normal rats and PI-IBS rats. Quantification of berberine in the rat plasma was achieved by using a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method. Plasma samples were collected at 15 different points in time and the pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by WinNonlin software. Compared with the normal group, area under the plasma concentration vs. time curve from zero to last sampling time (AUC0–t) and total body clearance (CL/F) in the model group significantly increased or decreased, (2039.49 ± 492.24 vs. 2763.43 ± 203.14; 4999.34 ± 1198.79 vs. 3270.57 ± 58.32) respectively. The results indicated that the pharmacokinetic process of berberine could be altered in PI-IBS pathological conditions. PMID:24451127

Gong, Zipeng; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Ruijie; Wang, Yinghan; Guo, Yan; Yang, Qing; Zhang, Haixian; Dong, Yu; Weng, Xiaogang; Gao, Shuangrong; Zhu, Xiaoxin



Parameters of the three-pool model of the turnover of plasma cholesterol in normal and hyperlipidemic humans.  

PubMed Central

Long-term studies (32-49 wk) of the turnover of plasma cholesterol were conducted in 24 subjects. Eight subjects were normilipidemic, six had hypercholesterolemia, eight had hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, and two had hypertriglyceridemia alone. 10 of the hyperlipidemic patients had a definite familial disorder. In all subjects (except one for whom complete data were not available), the same three-pool model previously described gave the best fit for the data. The parameters of the three-pool model observed in the normal subjects were compared with the model parameters found in the patients with the different kinds of hyperlipidemia. In addition, single and multiple regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationships between the model parameters and various physiological variables, including age, body size, and serum lipid concentrations. Using this approach, significant differences between groups, or correlations with serum lipid levels were seen for several parameters of the three-pool model: the production rate (PR); the size of the rapidly exchanging pool 1 (M1); all estimates of the size of the most slowly equilibrating pool 3 (M3); and the rate constant k21. The PR in normal subjects (1.14 +/- 0.19 g/day, mean +/- SD) was not significantly different from that found in patients with hypercholesterolemia, with or without hypertriglyceridemia. The major determinant of cholesterol PR was overall body size, expressed either as total body weight or as surface area. The correlations between PR and indices of adiposity (percent ideal weight and excess weight), although statistically significant, were much weaker in this nonobese population. After adjustment for body size variation, cholesterol PR was not correlated with the serum cholesterol concentration but was probably (P less than 0.05) correlated with the triglyceride concentration. When the two patients with very high triglyceride concentrations were excluded, however, no correlation was observed between adjusted PR and triglyceride level. It is probable that hypertriglyceridemic patients represent a heterogeneous population, in which the majority do not show increased cholesterol PR. M1 was correlated with all body size variables, but most strongly with excess weight. After adjusting for the effects of body size, M1 was also correlated and triglyceride. Major differences were found in the relationships between the physiological variables and the sizes of pools 2 and 3. M2 was correlated neither with any of the indices of body size or adiposity, nor with the serum levels of either cholesterol or triglyceride. In contrast, all estimates of M3 were correlated with indices of adiposity (but not of overall body size) and with the serum cholesterol concentration. Thus, the amount of cholesterol in slowly equilibrating tissue sites appears to particularly increase with elevations of the serum cholesterol level. The results also confirm previous data that adipose tissue cholesterol is an important part of pool 3. PMID:1245596

Smith, F R; Dell, R B; Noble, R P; Goodman, D S




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Choline deficiency is associated with hepatic abnormalities in adult volunteers and patients administered total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Preliminary investigation has suggested that plasma-free choline concentration (PFCh) is greater in neonatal animals, including humans, than in adults. The aims...


Relationship amongst teratozoospermia, seminal oxidative stress and male infertility  

PubMed Central

Background Spermatozoa morphology is an important and complex characteristic of the fertilization capacity of male germ cells. Morphological abnormalities have been observed to be accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and further damage to spermatozoa, ultimately leading to infertility. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between seminal ROS production and sperm morphology in infertile teratozoospermic patients as well as in healthy men of proven and unproven fertility. Methods Semen samples were collected from 79 patients classified as teratozoospermic and 56 healthy donors (control). Standard semen analysis was performed and spermatozoa morphology was assessed according to the WHO 2010 guidelines. Seminal ROS was measured by chemiluminescence assay. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated, and sensitivity, specificity, cutoff value and area under curve (AUC) were determined. Results Sperm morphology was significantly poor in the Teratozoospermic Group compared with the 3 Donor Groups (P?seminal ROS. Therefore, besides sperm concentration and motility, spermatozoa morphology should receive an equally important consideration in the overall assessment of male fertility. PMID:24884815



Preferential induction of apoptotic cell death in melanoma cells as compared with normal keratinocytes using a non-thermal plasma torch  

PubMed Central

Selective induction of apoptosis in melanoma cells is optimal for therapeutic development. To achieve this goal, a non-thermal helium plasma torch was modified for use on cultured cells in a temperature-controlled environment. Melanoma cells were targeted with this torch (1) in parallel cultures with keratinocytes, (2) in co-culture with keratinocytes and (3) in a soft agar matrix. Melanoma cells displayed high sensitivity to reactive oxygen species generated by the torch and showed a 6-fold increase in cell death compared with keratinocytes. The extent of cell death was compared between melanoma cells and normal human keratinocytes in both short-term (5 min) co-culture experiments and longer assessments of apoptotic cell death (18–24 h). Following a 10 sec plasma exposure there was a 4.9-fold increase in the cell death of melanoma vs. keratinocytes as measured after 24 h at the target site of the plasma beam. When the treatment time was increased to 30 sec, a 98% cell death was reported for melanoma cells, which was 6-fold greater than the extent of cell death in keratinocytes. Our observations further indicate that this preferential cell death is largely due to apoptosis.. In addition, we report that this non-thermal plasma torch kills melanoma cells growing in soft agar, suggesting that the plasma torch is capable of inducing melanoma cell death in 3D settings. We demonstrate that the presence of gap junctions may increase the area of cell death, likely due to the “bystander effect” of passing apoptotic signals between cells. Our findings provide a basis for further development of this non-invasive plasma torch as a potential treatment for melanoma. PMID:22895073

Zucker, Shoshanna N.; Zirnheld, Jennifer; Bagati, Archis; DiSanto, Thomas M.; Des Soye, Benjamin; Wawrzyniak, Joseph A.; Etemadi, Kasra; Nikiforov, Mikhail; Berezney, Ronald



Bacterial Communities in Semen from Men of Infertile Couples: Metagenomic Sequencing Reveals Relationships of Seminal Microbiota to Semen Quality  

PubMed Central

Some previous studies have identified bacteria in semen as being a potential factor in male infertility. However, only few types of bacteria were taken into consideration while using PCR-based or culturing methods. Here we present an analysis approach using next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics analysis to investigate the associations between bacterial communities and semen quality. Ninety-six semen samples collected were examined for bacterial communities, measuring seven clinical criteria for semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, Kruger's strict morphology, antisperm antibody (IgA), Atypical, and leukocytes). Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) was also performed. Results showed that the most abundant genera among all samples were Lactobacillus (19.9%), Pseudomonas (9.85%), Prevotella (8.51%) and Gardnerella (4.21%). The proportion of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella was significantly higher in the normal samples, while that of Prevotella was significantly higher in the low quality samples. Unsupervised clustering analysis demonstrated that the seminal bacterial communities were clustered into three main groups: Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, and Prevotella predominant group. Remarkably, most normal samples (80.6%) were clustered in Lactobacillus predominant group. The analysis results showed seminal bacteria community types were highly associated with semen health. Lactobacillus might not only be a potential probiotic for semen quality maintenance, but also might be helpful in countering the negative influence of Prevotella and Pseudomonas. In this study, we investigated whole seminal bacterial communities and provided the most comprehensive analysis of the association between bacterial community and semen quality. The study significantly contributes to the current understanding of the etiology of male fertility. PMID:25340531

Weng, Shun-Long; Chiu, Chih-Min; Lin, Feng-Mao; Huang, Wei-Chih; Liang, Chao; Yang, Ting; Yang, Tzu-Ling; Liu, Chia-Yu; Wu, Wei-Yun; Chang, Yi-An; Chang, Tzu-Hao; Huang, Hsien-Da



A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo study of plasma-induced damage of normal incidence collector optics used in extreme ultraviolet lithography  

SciTech Connect

We present a kinetic simulation of the plasma formed by photoionization in the intense flux of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) light source. The model is based on the particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo approach. The photoelectric effect and ionization by electron collisions are included. The time evolution of the low density argon plasma is simulated during and after the EUV pulse and the ion-induced sputtering of the coating material of a normal incidence collector mirror is computed. The relation between the time and position at which the ions are created and their final energy is studied, revealing how the evolution and the properties of the sheath influence the amount of sputtered material. The influence of the gas pressure and the source intensity is studied, evaluating the behavior of Ar{sup +} and Ar{sup 2+} ions. A way to reduce the damage to the collector mirror is presented.

Wieggers, R. C.; Goedheer, W. J.; Akdim, M. R.; Bijkerk, F.; Zegeling, P. A. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80010, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)



Effect of semen and seminal amyloid on vaginal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus  

PubMed Central

Background Semen and semen-derived amyloid fibrils boost HIV infection in vitro but their impact on sexual virus transmission in vivo is unknown. Here, we examined the effect of seminal plasma (SP) and semen-derived enhancer of virus infection (SEVI) on vaginal virus transmission in the SIV/rhesus macaque (Macacca mulatta) model. Results A total of 18 non-synchronized female rhesus macaques (six per group) were exposed intra-vaginally to increasing doses of the pathogenic SIVmac239 molecular clone in the presence or absence of SEVI and SP. Establishment of productive virus infection was assessed by measuring plasma viral RNA loads at weekly intervals. We found that the first infections occurred at lower viral doses in the presence of SP and SEVI compared to the control group. Furthermore, the average peak viral loads during acute infection were about 6-fold higher after exposure to SP- and SEVI-treated virus. Overall infection rates after a total of 27 intra-vaginal exposures to increasing doses of SIV, however, were similar in the absence (4 of 6 animals) and presence of SP (5 of 6), or SEVI (4 of 6). Furthermore, the infectious viral doses required for infection varied considerably and did not differ significantly between these three groups. Conclusions Semen and SEVI did not have drastic effects on vaginal SIV transmission in the present experimental setting but may facilitate spreading of virus infection after exposure to low viral doses that most closely approximate the in vivo situation. PMID:24308721



Sperm competition and the evolution of seminal fluid composition.  


Male ejaculates include large amounts of seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) that influence male sperm competitive success. In spite of their diverse proximate functions, Sfps involved in sperm competition increase male fitness in one of three ways: (1) "avoidance" proteins help males avoid sperm competition, (2) "defense" proteins help males defend their sperm from displacement by the female's subsequent mate, and (3) "offense" proteins aid males in displacing sperm of preceding males. Here, we present a population genetic model of the evolution of allocation of finite resources by males to the three kinds of Sfps. We analyze the influence of relative efficiencies of different Sfps, of plasticity in resource allocation, and of differences in viability costs of Sfps. We find that in absence of plasticity or different viability costs, equal investment in defense and offense Sfps evolves, irrespective of their relative efficiency. In all cases, males evolve to invest more in avoidance when avoidance proteins are increasingly efficient, and when offense is more efficient than defense. Differences in viability costs result in lower investment in costly proteins, whereas plasticity has complex effects, influencing both the optimal seminal fluid composition and maintenance of variation in investment in these proteins across populations. PMID:24975874

Dhole, Sumit; Servedio, Maria R



Seminal Fluid Regulation of Female Sexual Attractiveness in Drosophila melanogaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finding a willing and suitable mate is critical for sexual reproduction. Visual, auditory, and chemical cues aid in locating and/or attracting partners. After mating, females from many insect species become less attractive. This is caused by changes in the quantity and/or quality of pheromones synthesized by the female and to changes in the female's behavior. For example, female insects may stop releasing pheromones, assume a mate refusal posture, or move less in response to males. Many postmating changes in female insects are triggered by seminal fluid proteins from the male's accessory gland proteins (Acps) and by sperm. To determine the role of seminal fluid components in mediating changes in attractiveness, we measured the attractiveness of Drosophila melanogaster females that had been mated to genetically altered males that lack sperm and/or Acps. We found that the drop in female attractiveness occurs in two phases. A short-term drop in attractiveness is triggered independent of the receipt of sperm and Acps. Maintenance of lowered attractiveness is dependent upon sperm.

Tram, Uyen; Wolfner, Mariana F.



Normalization of elevated cardiac, kidney, and hemolysis plasma markers within 48 h in Mexican Tarahumara runners following a 78 km race at moderate altitude  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to examine to what extent extreme endurance exercise results in changes of plasma markers associated with cardiac and renal damage, as well as hemolysis in male, Mexican Tarahumara runners. Methods Ten Tarahumara runners (mean (sd) age of 38 (12) years) participated in a 78 km race in Chihuahua, Mexico at 2,400 m above sea level. Cardiac, kidney, and hematology plasma markers were measured pre-race and <5 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h post-race. Anthropometry, blood pressure, pulse rate, electrocardiography, HbA1c, hemoglobin and VO2max (estimated from heart rate following step test) were assessed pre-race, while physical activity energy expenditure and intensity were estimated during the race, and oxygen partial pressure saturation (SpO2) <30 min post-race. Results Estimated mean VO2max was 48 (9) mLO2 min?1 kg?1 and relative intensity during the race was 68 (11)%VO2max. Mean SpO2 was 92 (3)% <30 min post-race. Plasma concentrations of especially total creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB isoform, and haptoglobin changed significantly from pre-race values (P < 0.001) up to 24 h post-race, but had returned to pre-race values after 48 h. The plasma concentrations of mid-regional proatrial natiuretic peptide and copeptin returned to pre-race concentrations after 1 and 6 h, respectively. Conclusions Altered cardiac, renal, and hemolysis plasma markers were normalized after 48 h following 78 km of running, suggesting that the impact of exercise-induced cardiac and kidney damage as well as hemolysis in the Mexican Tarahumara is low. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 26:836–843, 2014. © 2014 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25145663

Christensen, Dirk L; Espino, Diana; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío; Brage, Soren; Terzic, Dijana; Goetze, Jens P; Kjaergaard, Jesper



Chondroitin sulfate in normal human plasma is modified depending on the age. Its evaluation in patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma chondroitin sulfate (CS) amount and charge density were determined in 45 healthy volunteers (control group), 45 pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE)-affected patients and 19 healthy carriers by using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) and HPLC equipped with postcolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection. The mean values of CS amount were 4.9±1.21 for volunteers, 4.7±1.40 for PXE subjects and 4.4±1.44 for the carriers. No

Nicola Volpi; Francesca Maccari



Epithelial Development in the Rat Ventral Prostate, Anterior Prostate and Seminal Vesicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prostate and seminal vesicle (SV) are androgen-dependent secretory glands of the male genital tract. The epithelial cells of these glands produce the bulk of the seminal secretions. The objective of the present study was to examine the ontogeny of cytokeratin and androgen receptor (AR) expression in the rat SV, anterior prostate (AP) and ventral prostate (VP). The study utilized

S. W. Hayward; L. S. Baskin; P. C. Haughney; A. R. Cunha; B. A. Foster; R. Dahiya; G. S. Prins; G. R. Cunha



Seminal-type ribonuclease genes in ruminants, sequence conservation without protein expression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) is an interesting enzyme both for functional and structural reasons. The enzyme is the product of a gene duplication that occurred in an ancestral ruminant. It is possible to demonstrate the presence of seminal-type genes in all other investigated ruminant species, but they are not expressed and show features of pseudogenes. In this paper we report

Reinhard G Kleineidam; Peter A Jekel; Jaap J Beintema; Polmer Situmorang




E-print Network

capacity of a male's sperm. In some fishes and birds, intense nuptial coloration is correlated with maleCAROTENOIDS IN THE SEMINAL FLUID OF WILD BIRDS: INTERSPECIFIC VARIATION IN FAIRY-WRENS Melissah, sperm competition. Carotenoides en el Fluido Seminal de Aves Silvestres: Variación Inter Específica en

McGraw, Kevin J.


Testicular function in potential sperm donors: normal ranges and the effects of smoking and varicocele.  


Testicular exocrine (semen analysis) and endocrine (plasma LH, FSH, prolactin and testosterone) function was assessed in 119 consecutive healthy men presenting for screening as potential sperm donors. Since these volunteers were unbiased with respect to their fertility status, this sample of the general male population was suitable to determine normal ranges and the influence of a variety of physical (height, weight, standardized body weight, varicocele) and demographic (age, marital and fertility status, tobacco and alcohol consumption) factors on normal human testicular endocrine and exocrine function, without the confounding effects of bias in selection of subjects. The statistical distribution of all seminal parameters was non-gaussian, but cube-root transformation of the data normalized the distribution, allowing for parametric statistical analysis. The median (and 95% confidence limits) for the various semen parameters was 73.0 (10.6-235.3) million sperm per ml; 189.0 (12.6-868) million sperm per ejaculate; 50.4 (5.9-181.9) million motile sperm per ml; 133.0 (6.9-661.7) million motile sperm per ejaculate; 54.0 (7.0-172.9) million morphologically normal sperm per ml and 138.5 (7.5-672) million morphologically normal sperm per ejaculate. Testicular volume was correlated positively with measures of physique such as standardized body weight (r = 0.25, P less than 0.01) and body surface area (r = 0.30, P less than 0.002), and negatively with plasma levels of FSH (r = -0.31), P less than 0.002) but not LH. Sperm output was positively correlated with testicular volume (r = 0.28, P less than 0.005) and negatively correlated with plasma FSH (r = -0.31, P less than 0.002) and plasma LH (r = -0.31, P less than 0.002). Smoking was associated with a highly significant reduction in sperm output and motility. Men with varicocele (25%) were significantly taller, had slightly lower haemoglobin levels and moderate left (but not right) testicular atrophy, but neither seminal nor hormonal parameters were different from men without varicocele. There was no difference in any markers of human testicular function between men according to marital or fertility status, grades of moderate alcohol consumption or the presence of low titres of sperm antibodies. PMID:6441782

Handelsman, D J; Conway, A J; Boylan, L M; Turtle, J R



Suspected seminal vesiculitis in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).  


A 32-year-old male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) underwent routine transrectal stimulation for semen collection as part of an artificial insemination program. The procedure consisted of a preinsemination semen collection followed by two consecutive days of semen collections for artificial insemination. The second day's sample contained large numbers of inflammatory cells, intracellular bacteria, and phagocytized sperm. Semen was submitted for culture and sensitivity. Culture revealed Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staphylococcus intermedius, Kocuria roseus, and an unidentified gram-positive organism. Empirical antibiotic therapy with trimethoprim sulfa was initiated and then changed to enrofloxacin based on sensitivity panel results for a total of 28 days of treatment. Diagnostic semen collections were performed during treatment and 2 wk posttreatment to determine the success of therapy. Posttreatment collections revealed resolution of the inflammation. The origin of the infection was suspected to be the seminal vesicles. PMID:22950323

Kilburn, Jennifer J; Velguth, Karen E; Backues, Kay A



A Drosophila seminal fluid protein, Acp26Aa, stimulates egg laying in females for 1 day after mating.  

PubMed Central

Mating triggers behavioral and physiological changes in the Drosophila melanogaster female, including an elevation of egg laying. Seminal fluid molecules from the male accessory gland are responsible for initial behavioral changes, but persistence of these changes requires stored sperm. Using genetic analysis, we have identified a seminal fluid protein that is responsible for an initial elevation of egg laying. This molecule, Acp26Aa, has structural features of a prohormone and contains a region with amino acid similarity to the egg-laying hormone of Aplysia. Acp26Aa is transferred to the female during mating, where it undergoes processing. Here we report the generation and analysis of mutants, including a null, in Acp26Aa. Females mated to male flies that lack Acp26Aa lay fewer eggs than do mates of normal males. This effect is apparent only on the first day after mating. The null mutation has no other detectable physiological or behavioral effects on the male or the mated female. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7479736

Herndon, L A; Wolfner, M F



Reduced Seminal Concentration of CD45pos Cells after Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Treatment in Selected Patients with Idiopathic Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia  

PubMed Central

The present study evaluated the conventional sperm parameters and the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells (pan-leukocyte marker) of infertile patients with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT). The patients were arbitrarily divided into three groups treated with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone FSH: ? (Group A = 20 patients), recombinant FSH-? (Group B = 20 patients), and highly purified human FSH (Group C = 14 patients). All treated groups achieved a similar improvement of the main sperm parameters (density, progressive motility, and morphology), but only the increase in the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology was significant compared to the baseline in all three examined groups. Moreover, all groups had a significant reduction of the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells and of the percentage of immature germ cells. Before and after the treatment, the concentration of CD45pos cells showed a positive linear correlation with the percentage of immature germ cells and a negative correlation with the percentage of spermatozoa with regular morphology. These results demonstrate that treatment with FSH is effective in patients with idiopathic OAT and that there are no significant differences between the different preparations. The novelty of this study is in the significant reduction of the concentration of CD45pos cells observed after the treatment. PMID:24550984

Condorelli, Rosita A.; Calogero, Aldo E.; Vicari, Enzo; Mongioi', Laura; Cannarella, Rossella; Giacone, Filippo; Iacoviello, Linda; Favilla, Vincenzo; La Vignera, Sandro



Differential staining of Western blots of human secreted glycoproteins from serum, milk, saliva, and seminal fluid using lectins displaying diverse sugar specificities.  


Human milk, serum, saliva, and seminal fluid glycoproteins (gps) nourish and protect newborn and adult tissues. Their saccharides, which resemble cell membrane components, may block pathogen adhesion and infection. In the present study, they were examined by a battery of lectins from plants, animals, and bacteria, using hemagglutination inhibition and Western blot analyses. The lectins included galactophilic ones from Aplysia gonad, Erythrina corallodendron, Maclura pomifera (MPL), peanut, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA-IL); fucose-binding lectins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA-IIL), Ralstonia solanacearum (RSL), and Ulex europaeus (UEA-I), and mannose/glucose-binding Con A. The results demonstrated the chosen lectin efficiency for differential analysis of human secreted gps as compared to CBB staining. They unveiled the diversity of these body fluid gp glycans (those of the milk and seminal fluid being highest): the milk gps interacted most strongly with PA-IIL, followed by RSL; the saliva gps with RSL, followed by PA-IIL and MPL; the serum gps with Con A and MPL, followed by PA-IIL and RSL, and the seminal plasma gps with RSL and MPL, followed by UEA-I and PA-IIL. The potential usage of these lectins as probes for scientific, industrial, and medical purposes, and for quality control of the desired gps is clearly indicated. PMID:16259015

Gilboa-Garber, Nechama; Lerrer, Batya; Lesman-Movshovich, Efrat; Dgani, Orly



A unique scrotal extratesticular epidermod cyst attached to the seminal vesicles  

PubMed Central

A 46-year-old man was admitted with a scrotal long standing painless mass. The workup included physical examination, alpha-fetoprotein (?FP) and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) analyses, scrotal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and urethrocystoscopy. Surgical exploration revealed a separate mass between the testes extending superiorly with a thin stalk. It was dissected easily to the anterior aspect of the seminal vesicles and removed from the junction to the seminal vesicles. Pathology reported an epidermoid cyst. To our knowledge this is the first case of a scrotal extratesticular epidermoid cyst attached to the seminal vesicles. PMID:23671535

Sa?lam, Hasan Salih; Kumsar, ?ükrü; Köse, Osman; Adsan, Oztu?



Comparative study of asparagine-linked glycans of plasma T-kininogen in normal rats and during acute inflammation.  

PubMed Central

Rat T-kininogen has been separated into two molecular variants by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A (ConA): a ConA-reactive (ConA+) and a ConA-non-reactive (ConA-) fraction, from which carbohydrate chains were quantitatively released by hydrazinolysis. On the basis of high-resolution 400 MHz 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy of the re-N-acetylated hydrazinolysates, the carbohydrate structures of the two ConA molecular variants of rat T-kininogen were established. The ConA-non-reactive species contains a single type of carbohydrate chain with the following structure: [formula: see text] The ConA-reactive fraction contains the same structure and the following additional one: [formula: see text] The relative abundance of the two molecular forms is profoundly affected during inflammation (ratio ConA+/ConA-: 44% in normal and 95% in inflamed T-kininogen), but no structural modification of the carbohydrate chains was observed. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1575697

Baussant, T; Alonso, C; Wieruszeski, J M; Strecker, G; Montreuil, J; Alhenc-Gelas, F; Michalski, J C



21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR




21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR




Mechanics Guest Editorial Honoring Professor Erdogan's Seminal Contributions to Mixed Boundary-Value Problems  

E-print Network

Journal of Applied Mechanics Guest Editorial Honoring Professor Erdogan's Seminal Contributions Fazil Erdogan has influenced several generations of applied and solid mechanicians working in the area . Professor Erdogan's continuing leadership role and ceaseless contributions to the fracture and contact

Paulino, Glaucio H.


Semin Immunopathol . Author manuscript Obstructive sleep apnea, immuno-inflammation, and atherosclerosis  

E-print Network

by recurrent pharyngeal collapses occurring during sleep 1 . The upper airway[ ] closure could be completeSemin Immunopathol . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Obstructive sleep apnea, immuno Arnaud Abstract Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent

Boyer, Edmond


Gender may affect the action of garlic oil on plasma cholesterol and glucose levels of normal subjects.  


Early trials of garlic preparations on blood lipids mainly supported a lipid-lowering effect, whereas later well-designed garlic tablet trials were mainly entirely null. However, enteric simulation tests suggest that this discordance may result from ineffective delivery of bioactive agents from the brands of garlic powder (GP) and cyclodextrin-bound garlic oil (GO) tablets tested in some recent negative trials. In contrast, enteric simulation tests show that the preformed bioactive agents present in "traditional" gelatin capsules of GO are efficiently released, although such capsules have rarely been investigated in lipid-lowering trials. It was hypothesized that gelatin capsules of GO given to normal subjects would improve specified coronary heart disease risk factors. Effects of a GP preparation were also investigated. Subjects (n = 51; men and women, mean age 27 y) were randomly assigned to receive either 8.2 mg/d of GO (allyl sulfides) or placebo for 11 wk. Another 27 subjects received garlic powder (GP) of similar biopotential (7.8 mg allicin/d). Outcome measures were 95% confidence intervals (CI) between GO and placebo groups for differences between baseline and subsequent sample times. Men and women combined showed no significant differences save for an improved total antioxidant capacity at 6 wk (P = 0.01). Hence, no benefit from GO after 11 wk is one plausible conclusion. However, there were significant differences in effect of GO between men and women for HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) (P = 0.004) and total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C (P = 0.003). Women showed favorable effects in terms of CHD risk factors (i.e., increases in HDL-C and reductions in TC/HDL-C), whereas men had small adverse effects. There was a significant difference in the GO effect for glucose (P = 0.006), with a reduction seen for men and an increase for women. The gender effects were unexpected and such analyses were not planned in advance. Confirmation of these findings with larger numbers of subjects would have importance for the use of garlic against CHD and for the design of future garlic studies. PMID:11340102

Zhang, X H; Lowe, D; Giles, P; Fell, S; Connock, M J; Maslin, D J



Reproductive hacking A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.  


Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

Dustin Rubinstein, C; Wolfner, Mariana F



Peptides in seminal fluid and their role in infertility: a potential role for opiorphin inhibition of neutral endopeptidase activity as a clinically relevant modulator of sperm motility: a review.  


Infertility is a devastating medical condition that adversely affects emotional health and well-being of couples who desire pregnancy and parenthood. The overall demographic data suggest that the indication for more than one-third of assisted reproductive technology cycles performed in the United States includes male factor infertility. There is increasing recognition of the role that peptides present in seminal plasma have in determining sperm motility. Several recent studies suggest that peptidases, such as neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and aminopeptidase N (APN), impose significant adverse effects on sperm motility. Interestingly, several recent studies demonstrate that there is an endogenous NEP/APN inhibitor peptide called opiorphin in human seminal plasma. Our pilot studies suggest opiorphin promotes sperm motility and may positively influence sperm motility parameters in some cases of males infertility characterized by asthenozoospermia. PMID:24855109

Bosler, Jayme S; Davies, Kelvin P; Neal-Perry, Genevieve S



Gender and single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2R, and SCARB1 are significant predictors of plasma homocysteine normalized by RBC folate in healthy adults.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using linear regression models, we studied the main and two-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma homocysteine normalized by red blood cell...


Biochemical and steroid concentrations in follicular fluid and blood plasma in different follicular waves of the estrous cycle from normal and superovulated beef cows.  


The objectives of the current study were to (i) define the changes in size and number of follicles populations, (ii) determine the follicular fluid (FF) biochemical and steroid concentrations collected from different-sized follicles (5-9 and ? 10 mm) and (iii) compare between biochemical and hormonal concentrations of FF with those in blood plasma in relation to the first two follicular waves of the estrous cycle (days 4 and 13) from normal and cows primed for superovulation. After estrus, cows (n=20) were assigned randomly to each of four treatment groups. Group 1: ovariectomy on day 4 (day 0 = ovulation). Group 2: FSH treatment and ovariectomy on day 4. Group 3: dominant follicle ablation (DFA) on day 8 and ovariectomy on day 13. Group 4: DFA on day 8, FSH treatment and ovariectomy on day 13. Blood samples were collected and FF was aspirated and pooled per follicle class within cow to determine glucose, urea, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatin phosphokinase, estradiol-17? and progesterone concentrations. Follicular class×follicular wave interaction was detected for albumin and lactate dehydrogenase. Results showed that FF concentrations of cholesterol increased from medium to large follicles and decreased for urea and aspartate aminotransferase. Tryglycerides and total protein were greater in the second than in the first follicular wave. FSH treatment decreased FF alkaline phosphatase, E2 and P4 concentrations. Quantitative differences between these fluids are discussed with respect to follicular development. PMID:24139762

Aller, J F; Callejas, S S; Alberio, R H



Estrogen Receptor-? Mediates Diethylstilbestrol-Induced Feminization of the Seminal Vesicle in Male Mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Studies have shown that perinatal exposure to the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) leads to feminization of the seminal vesicle (SV) in male mice, as illustrated by tissue hyperplasia, ectopic expression of the major estrogen-inducible uterine secretory protein lactoferrin (LF), and reduced expression of SV secretory protein IV (SVS IV). Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the role of the estrogen receptor (ER) in this action by using ER-knockout (ERKO) mice. Methods: Wild-type (WT), ER?-null (?ERKO), and ER?-null (?ERKO) male mice were treated with either vehicle or DES (2 ?g/day) on neonatal days 1–5. These mice were divided into two groups: In the first group, intact mice were sacrificed at 10 weeks of age; in the second group, mice were castrated at 10 weeks of age, allowed to recover for 10 days, treated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or placebo, and sacrificed 2 weeks later. Body weights and SV weights were recorded, and mRNA expression levels of Ltf (lactoferrin), Svs4, and androgen receptor (Ar) were assessed. Results: In DES-treated intact mice, SV weights were reduced in WT and ?ERKO mice but not in ?ERKO mice. DES-treated WT and ?ERKO males, but not ?ERKO males, exhibited ectopic expression of LF in the SV. DES treatment resulted in decreased SVS IV protein and mRNA expression in WT males, but no effect was seen in ?ERKO mice. In addition, DES-treated ?ERKO mice exhibited reduced Svs4 mRNA expression but maintained control levels of SVS IV protein. In DES-treated castrated mice, DHT implants restored SV weights to normal levels in ?ERKO mice but not in WT mice, suggesting full androgen responsiveness in ?ERKO mice. Conclusions: These data suggest that DES-induced SV toxicity and feminization are primarily mediated by ER?; however, some aspects of androgen response may require the action of ER?. PMID:22275727

Walker, Vickie R.; Jefferson, Wendy N.; Couse, John F.



Sperm: seminal fluid interactions and the adjustment of sperm quality in relation to female attractiveness  

PubMed Central

An important predictor of male fitness is the fertilizing efficiency of their ejaculates. Ejaculates are costly to produce and males are predicted to devote greater resources to copulations with reproductively superior females. It is well established that males allocate different numbers of sperm to ejaculates. However, less is known about how males adjust their sperm quality, which has important implications for our understanding of fertilization and the evolution of sexual strategies. Here we test in the fowl, Gallus gallus, whether males adjust their sperm velocity by differentially allocating seminal fluid to copulations with attractive and unattractive females. To disentangle the contributions of sperm and seminal fluid to sperm velocity, we separated and remixed sperm and seminal fluid from ejaculates allocated to females of different attractiveness. We show that dominant males increase the velocity of the sperm they invest in more attractive females by allocating larger ejaculates that contain seminal fluid that increases sperm velocity. Furthermore, we find weak evidence that males also allocate sperm with higher velocity, irrespective of seminal fluid, to more attractive females. PMID:19586951

Cornwallis, Charlie K.; O'Connor, Emily A.



Regulation of the maize (Zea mays L.) embryo proteome by RTCS which controls seminal root initiation.  


Seminal roots are initiated at the scutellar node during maize (Zea mays L.) embryo development. The maize mutant rtcs (rootless concerning crown and seminal roots) does not initiate seminal roots while its wild-type siblings form on average 2.9 seminal roots per seedling. In this study, proteome profiles of 25-day-old immature maize embryos were compared between wild-type and rtcs plants via two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) identified 23 proteins encoded by 21 different genes that were differentially accumulated between wild-type and rtcs embryos (Fc> or =2; FDR<10%). Among the differentially accumulated proteins, two isoforms of a phosphoglycerate kinase and a malate dehydrogenase were preferentially accumulated in wild-type embryos. Both enzymes are related to the generation of energy-rich ATP or NADPH molecules and are crucial checkpoints of cellular energetics in plants. Comparison of embryonic proteins differentially accumulated between wild-type and rtcs embryos revealed little overlap with proteins differentially accumulated between wild-type and rum1 embryos which also do not initiate seminal roots. This might be due to distinct influences of RTCS and RUM1 on the composition of the embryo proteome, but could also be explained by different stages of embryo development that were analyzed in these studies. PMID:19962210

Muthreich, Nils; Schützenmeister, André; Schütz, Wolfgang; Madlung, Johannes; Krug, Karsten; Nordheim, Alfred; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Hochholdinger, Frank



Effects of dietary energy on scrotal surface temperature, seminal quality, and sperm production in young beef bulls.  


The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary energy, breed (British vs Continental x British crosses), and their interactions on scrotal surface temperature (SST), seminal quality, and sperm production in bulls. This experiment, replicated over 2 yr, included 72 Angus, Angus x Simmental, or Hereford x Simmental bulls fed either a moderate- (100% forage) or high-energy (80% grain, 20% forage) diet for 168 d after weaning. At the end of the feeding period, SST was determined by infrared thermography, seminal samples (two ejaculates) were collected by electroejaculation, and reproductive tracts were collected at slaughter. Bulls fed the high-energy diet were heavier (P < .0001; diet x time interaction), had thicker backfat (P < .05; diet x line x time interaction), and had a larger scrotal circumference (P < .05). Testicular tone decreased over time (P < .0001) with a diet x time interaction (P < .05). There was no significant effect of diet on top, bottom, or average SST. However, bulls fed the moderate-energy diet had a larger (P < .02) SST gradient (3.9 vs. 3.4 degrees C). Bulls fed the moderate-energy diet had more (P < .01) morphologically normal spermatozoa (68.8 +/- 2.1 vs 62.5 +/- 2.5%) and a higher proportion (P < .006) of progressively motile spermatozoa (53.4 +/- 2.1 vs 44.5 +/- 2.4%). No effects (P > .05) of dietary energy on epididymal sperm reserves or daily sperm production were detected. Increased dietary energy may affect scrotal or testicular thermoregulation by reducing the amount of heat that can be radiated from the scrotal neck, thereby increasing the temperature of the testes and scrotum. PMID:9110219

Coulter, G H; Cook, R B; Kastelic, J P



[Fibrin glue sealant for management of seminal vesicle-rectal fistula : a case report].  


A 56- year-old man underwent a laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer (cT3bN0M0). Postoperatively, he was fairly well and started oral intake on postoperative day (POD) 9. On POD 14, he had an uncomfortable feeling during urination and noticed pneumaturia, and urinalysis revealed hematopyuria. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed air collection in the left seminal vesicle and bladder, and colonoscopy demonstrated a fistula at the anastomotic site. Abdominal CT following the fistulography under colonoscopy demonstrated fistulous communication between the rectum and left seminal vesicle. Under the diagnosis of seminal vesicle-rectal fistula, the patient was successfully treated by filling the fistula with fibrin glue by colonoscopy. No obvious recurrence of the fistula has been observed for 6 months after the treatment. PMID:24419012

Soda, Tetsuji; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Kakuta, Yoichi; Nakai, Yasutomo; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio



The relationship between seminal leukocytes, oxidative status in the ejaculate, and apoptotic markers in human spermatozoa.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between seminal leukocytes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the ejaculate, and markers of apoptosis in human spermatozoa. Semen samples were collected from 60 patients attending fertility clinics at the Reproductive Biology Unit at Tygerberg Academic Hospital and Vincent Pallotti Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. The concentration of seminal leukocytes was determined and was correlated with ROS production in the ejaculate, the percentage of superoxide (·O2(-))- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-positive spermatozoa, glutathione activation in the ejaculate, and with markers of apoptosis in spermatozoa, namely cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases (caspase)-3/7 activation, mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), and the percentage of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive sperm. Significant correlations with the concentration of seminal leukocytes were found for ROS production in the ejaculate, the percentage of ·O2(-)-positive spermatozoa, and caspase-3/7 activation in the ejaculate. Leukocytospermic samples showed significantly higher ROS production, percentage of ·O2(-)-positive sperm, GSH activation, and caspase-3/7 activation compared to non-leukocytospermic samples. The percentage of ·O2(-)-positive sperm was significantly correlated with sperm ??m and caspase-3/7 activation in the ejaculate. Sperm ??m and TUNEL-positive sperm did not correlate with seminal leukocyte concentration. Data demonstrate that high seminal leukocyte concentrations that leads to increased seminal ROS production, and is also associated with caspase activation in the male germ cell and increased mitochondrial ROS production. The latter could possibly be a result of disturbed ??m. The activation of caspase-3/7 could then follow the increased intrinsic superoxide levels due to depleted intrinsic glutathione (GSH). These cellular events might not directly and immediately lead to DNA fragmentation as an endpoint of apoptosis because of topological hindrances. PMID:23898825

Mupfiga, Cleyson; Fisher, David; Kruger, Thinus; Henkel, Ralf



Angiosarcoma of the Seminal Vesicle: A Case Report of Long-Term Survival Following Multimodality Therapy  

PubMed Central

Angiosarcoma of the seminal vesicle is an extremely rare malignancy, with few published case reports in the literature. We present a case of primary angiosarcoma of the seminal vesicle in a 45-year-old male who was treated with multimodality therapy, consisting of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiation followed by surgical resection and intraoperative radiation therapy. He has been free of cancer recurrence for more than six years after completion of therapy. To our knowledge, this represents the longest reported survival of a patient with this rare tumor, and one of the few cases reported using a multimodality therapy approach. PMID:24711908

Chang, Kenneth; Sio, Terence T.; Chandan, Vishal S.; Iott, Matthew J.; Hallemeier, Christopher L.



Cystosarcoma Phyllodes of the Seminal Vesicle: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Cystosarcoma of the seminal vesicle is a very rare malignant tumor; in the literature only four cases are reported. We present a case of cystosarcoma phyllodes arising in the right seminal vesicle of a 49-year-old man without any urinary symptom but with persistent constipation. Ultrasound examination showed a mass at the right superior base of the prostate subsequently studied with CT and MRI. The patient underwent vesiculectomy; his postoperative course was uneventful. The patient is still well, without evidence of recurrent disease. PMID:24639910

Olivetti, Lucio; Laffranchi, Francesco; De Luca, Vincenzo



The gifts that keep on giving: physiological functions and evolutionary dynamics of male seminal proteins in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

During mating, males transfer seminal proteins and peptides, along with sperm, to their mates. In Drosophila melanogaster, seminal proteins made in the male's accessory gland stimulate females’ egg production and ovulation, reduce their receptivity to mating, mediate sperm storage, cause part of the survival cost of mating to females, and may protect reproductive tracts or gametes from microbial attack. The

M F Wolfner



Drosophila seminal fluid proteins enter the circulatory system of the mated female fly by crossing the posterior vaginal wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seminal fluid proteins from males of many insect species affect the behavior and physiology of their mates. In some cases, these effects result from entry of the proteins into the female's circulatory system. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, some seminal fluid proteins enter the female's circulatory system after transfer from the male while others remain confined within the reproductive

Oliver Lung; Mariana F. Wolfner



Diagnosis and Management of Seminal Vesicle Cysts Associated with Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis: A Pooled Analysis of 52 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Seminal vesicle cysts combined with ipsilateral renal agenesis represent a rare urological anomaly. We searched the literature to review the clinical presentation, diagnosis and therapeutic treatment options of this anomaly. Methods: A pooled analysis was performed of 52 cases of seminal vesicle cysts combined with ipsilateral renal agenesis, including our own observation. The evaluation included: patient age at diagnosis,

D. van den Ouden; J. H. M. Blom; C. Bangma; A. H. V. C. de Spiegeleer



Sexual behavior and seminal characteristics of fertile mature New Zealand White male rabbits of different body weights.  


Body weight in different mammalian species influences reproductive potential. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship of body weight at the time of semen collection with libido, seminal characteristics and number of semen doses for artificial insemination (AI) in New Zealand White mature fertile male rabbits. Data came from 728 semen collections of 14 rabbits, 15-months of age that were sexually experienced with proven semen quality and fertility. Semen collection was performed twice a week with two ejaculates at each collection time and lasted 14 weeks. A second ejaculation was collected at 1-2h after the first. Data from each male from first and second ejaculates from 1 day of semen collection throughout the trial were averaged (n=324) and partial correlation coefficients and regression equations were estimated to describe the relationship of male body weight to ejaculation reaction time and 12 semen and sperm characteristics. As body weight increased there was a linear (P<0.05) increase in reaction time, abnormal sperm with an intact membrane and abnormal sperm with a damaged membrane and a linear (P<0.05) decrease in semen volume, sperm concentration per ejaculate, normal sperm with an intact membrane, number of normal motile sperm with an intact membrane and suitable semen doses for AI. Body weight of the mature male rabbit at semen collection had some influence on libido, semen and sperm characteristics, with a general trend toward a lesser reproduction potential as body weight increases. PMID:25482591

Rodríguez-De Lara, R; Fallas-López, M; García-Muñiz, J G; Martínez-Hernández, P A; Rangel-Santos, R; Maldonado-Siman, E; Cadena-Meneses, J A



Effect of systemic inflammation on level of ferritin seminal in chronic renal male patient undergoing hemodialysis  

PubMed Central

Background Most hemodialysis patients present with chronic systemic inflammation characterized by the elevation of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and/or the production of proinflammatory interleukins by the immune system in response to the hemodialysis process. Plasma ferritin(PF) is one of the parameters used to correct anemia. An PF level of >500 ng/mL is not recommended for correction of anemia because of the uncertainty of whether these levels are elevated because of anemia or a mere reaction to inflammation. we aimed to study the effects of inflammation on seminal ferritin (SF) levels and hypothesized that SF is not affected because of the testicular immune privilege. Methods A prospective prevalence study was conducted at the Department of Hemodialysis of the University Hospital of Brasília (HuB) between June 2010 and July 2011. The sample included 60 chronic renal patients undergoing hemodialysis and 20 control subjects from the health promotion general outpatient clinic. All participants were males aged 18–60 years. Inflammation was assessed through serum CRP levels, and the testicular condition was determined by measuring sex hormone levels. In the patient group, inflammation was considered to be present when CRP was >5 mg/L (n?=?27) and absent when CRP was ?5 mg/L (n?=?33). Control group (n?=?20) CRP was ?1 mg/L. Blood and semen were collected via arm venoclysis and after voluntary masturbation, respectively. CRP was measured by turbidimetry; PF, SF, and sex hormone levels by immunochemoluminescence. Statistical significance was set at p?



Fructolysis effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (leaves) in seminal vesicles of rat.  


50% ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (leaves) has been found to reduce the fructose synthesis in seminal vesicles; as a result of which the viability of spermatozoa seems to be altered. Fertility testing revealed sterile matings till 30 days of last treatment. PMID:1844325

Mathur, R



The Drosophila melanogaster Seminal Fluid Protease “Seminase” Regulates Proteolytic and Post-Mating Reproductive Processes  

PubMed Central

Proteases and protease inhibitors have been identified in the ejaculates of animal taxa ranging from invertebrates to mammals and form a major protein class among Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid proteins (SFPs). Other than a single protease cascade in mammals that regulates seminal clot liquefaction, no proteolytic cascades (i.e. pathways with at least two proteases acting in sequence) have been identified in seminal fluids. In Drosophila, SFPs are transferred to females during mating and, together with sperm, are necessary for the many post-mating responses elicited in females. Though several SFPs are proteolytically cleaved either during or after mating, virtually nothing is known about the proteases involved in these cleavage events or the physiological consequences of proteolytic activity in the seminal fluid on the female. Here, we present evidence that a protease cascade acts in the seminal fluid of Drosophila during and after mating. Using RNAi to knock down expression of the SFP CG10586, a predicted serine protease, we show that it acts upstream of the SFP CG11864, a predicted astacin protease, to process SFPs involved in ovulation and sperm entry into storage. We also show that knockdown of CG10586 leads to lower levels of egg laying, higher rates of sexual receptivity to subsequent males, and abnormal sperm usage patterns, processes that are independent of CG11864. The long-term phenotypes of females mated to CG10586 knockdown males are similar to those of females that fail to store sex peptide, an important elicitor of long-term post-mating responses, and indicate a role for CG10586 in regulating sex peptide. These results point to an important role for proteolysis among insect SFPs and suggest that protease cascades may be a mechanism for precise temporal regulation of multiple post-mating responses in females. PMID:22253601

LaFlamme, Brooke A.; Ravi Ram, K.; Wolfner, Mariana F.



The Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid protease "seminase" regulates proteolytic and post-mating reproductive processes.  


Proteases and protease inhibitors have been identified in the ejaculates of animal taxa ranging from invertebrates to mammals and form a major protein class among Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid proteins (SFPs). Other than a single protease cascade in mammals that regulates seminal clot liquefaction, no proteolytic cascades (i.e. pathways with at least two proteases acting in sequence) have been identified in seminal fluids. In Drosophila, SFPs are transferred to females during mating and, together with sperm, are necessary for the many post-mating responses elicited in females. Though several SFPs are proteolytically cleaved either during or after mating, virtually nothing is known about the proteases involved in these cleavage events or the physiological consequences of proteolytic activity in the seminal fluid on the female. Here, we present evidence that a protease cascade acts in the seminal fluid of Drosophila during and after mating. Using RNAi to knock down expression of the SFP CG10586, a predicted serine protease, we show that it acts upstream of the SFP CG11864, a predicted astacin protease, to process SFPs involved in ovulation and sperm entry into storage. We also show that knockdown of CG10586 leads to lower levels of egg laying, higher rates of sexual receptivity to subsequent males, and abnormal sperm usage patterns, processes that are independent of CG11864. The long-term phenotypes of females mated to CG10586 knockdown males are similar to those of females that fail to store sex peptide, an important elicitor of long-term post-mating responses, and indicate a role for CG10586 in regulating sex peptide. These results point to an important role for proteolysis among insect SFPs and suggest that protease cascades may be a mechanism for precise temporal regulation of multiple post-mating responses in females. PMID:22253601

LaFlamme, Brooke A; Ram, K Ravi; Wolfner, Mariana F



Measurement of lipid hydroperoxides in normal human blood plasma using HPLC-chemiluminescence linked to a diode array detector for measuring conjugated dienes.  


A modification of a method using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection for the measurement of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) in human blood plasma has been developed. The system involves separation of different classes of LOOH using reverse-phase HPLC, and post-column detection of CL produced by isoluminol oxidation during the reaction of LOOH with microperoxidase. Complete ultra-violet absorption spectra are collected with an in-line diode-array detector and used to confirm a positive CL response due to LOOH, or other compounds, by the presence or absence, respectively, of the LOOH conjugated diene chromophore. We have used the method to investigate the stability of exogenous 15(S)-HPETE (a hydroperoxide of eicosatetraenoic acid) and conjugated dienes (of both 15(S)-HPETE and its reduced metabolite, 15(S)-HETE) in human plasma stored at various temperatures. A large and rapid loss of the hydroperoxide occurred in plasma incubated at 0 degrees C or 27 degrees C, whereas only a small reduction in the level of conjugated dienes was found. 15(S)-HPETE in PBS was stable under the same conditions, and zero time recovery of the hydroperoxide from denatured plasma and from buffer containing albumin was identical to that of fresh plasma. Our data suggest that the observed temperature-dependent loss of exogenous hydroperoxide from fresh plasma results from a combination of enzymatic degradation to the hydroxy derivative and binding to plasma albumin. 15(S)-HPETE was found to be stable in plasma stored at -70 degrees C for up to 2 weeks and in liquid nitrogen for 3 months in the presence of the antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and desferal, with no significant loss of conjugated dienes. PMID:1769613

Holley, A E; Slater, T F



Enantioselective and highly sensitive determination of carvedilol in human plasma and whole blood after administration of the racemate using normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly sensitive HPLC method for enantioselective determination of carvedilol in human whole blood and plasma was developed. Carvedilol and S-carazolol as an internal standard extracted from whole blood or plasma were separated using an enantioselective separation column (Chiralpak AD column; 2.0Ø×250mm) without any chiral derivatizations. The mobile phase was hexane:isopropanol:diethylamine (78:22:1, v\\/v). The excitation and emission wavelengths were set

Masako Saito; Junichi Kawana; Tetsuro Ohno; Masahiro Kaneko; Kiyoshi Mihara; Kazuhiko Hanada; Risa Sugita; Natsuki Okada; Sachiko Oosato; Masatoshi Nagayama; Tetsuya Sumiyoshi; Hiroyasu Ogata



Seminal Factor VIII and von Willebrand Factor: a possible role of the conventional clotting system in human semen?  


Factor (F) VIII circulates in blood complexed with von Willebrand Factor (vWF). Deficiency or defect accounts for haemophilia A and vWF disease. In blood, FVIII functions as a co-factor for FIXa in the activation of FX. Human semen coagulates and liquefies in a process that resembles and has some links with the conventional haemostatic process. A study elsewhere has detected traces, but not measurable levels, of FVIII coagulant activity (FVIII:C). In the present study we have assessed FVIII antigen (FVIII:Ag), FVIII:C and vWF antigen (vWF:Ag) levels in 159 semen specimens obtained from sub-fertile (n = 21), normally fertile (n = 38), fertile donors (n = 32), and vasectomized men (n = 57). Seminal FVIII:Ag levels were also measured in a group defined by several parameters derived from the World Health Organization (WHO) fertility criteria, termed "pooled normal semen parameters" (PNSP). Factor VIII:Ag levels were compared with conventional fertility parameters. In addition, both FVIII:C and vWF:Ag were assessed in a separate group of normal individuals (n = 11). Factor VIII:Ag, FVIII:C and vWF were present and quantifiable in human semen. Factor VIII:Ag levels were significantly lower in vasectomy subjects compared with donors (p = 0.01) or PNSP group (p = 0.01). Several trends taken together suggest an associations between FVIII:Ag and semen quality. Parallel investigations demonstrate FV, FVII, FVIIa, FIX, FIXa, FXa, FXI, FXII, tissue factor (TF) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) in semen. The present report therefore provides further evidence for the presence of a functioning clotting system in human semen. PMID:15679619

Lwaleed, Bashir A; Greenfield, Robert; Royle, Eric; Birch, Brian; Cooper, Alan J



Normal Distributions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by Michelle Lacey of Yale University, gives a definition and an example of normal distributions. Topics include assessing normality and normal probability plots. The author thoughtfully combines her textual explanation with graphs and images to enhance the presentation. While brief, this is still a useful resource for any mathematics classroom.

Lacey, Michelle


Seminal factor VII and factor VIIa: supporting evidence for the presence of an active tissue factor-dependent coagulation pathway in human semen.  


Human semen spontaneously coagulates into a semisolid mass and then wholly liquefies in a process that may have some similarity to that of normal blood. This well described phenomenon is referred to as coagulation and liquefaction of semen. Besides other active components of the haemostatic system, semen contains a significant amount of functional tissue factor (TF). However, TF needs factor (F)VII in order to exert it actions. In this study, we assessed human semen for the presence of FVII and FVIIa, and related their levels to conventional fertility parameters. Using a functional, one stage, clotting assay based upon the prolongation of the prothrombin clotting time, using the ACL 300R analyser and an Imubind FVIIa ELISA assay, FVII and FVIIa levels were measured in 97 semen specimens obtained from sub-fertile (sperm counts <20 x 10(6)/mL), normally fertile (sperm counts >or=20 x 10(6) but <60 x 10(6)/mL), fertile sperm donors (sperm counts >or=60 x 10(6)/mL), vasectomized subjects and in a pooled normal semen parameters group (categorization into groups was based on the World Health Organization guidelines on fertility criteria). In addition, conventional semen parameters were analysed on all semen samples. Both FVII and FVIIa were quantifiable in human semen. The mean levels of FVII and FVIIa were 4.4 IU/dL and 12 ng/mL respectively. Despite the observed variations of FVIIa levels in the studied groups they did not meet statistical significance when the groups were tested against each other. However, seminal FVIIa levels showed a significant positive association with semen liquefaction time, sperm motility and semen volume. The anti-sperm antibodies and sperm-agglutination groups were also associated with raised seminal FVIIa levels. We observed no significant relationship between FVIIa levels and total sperm concentration, sperm count per mL (sperm density), sperm progression and days of sexual abstinence. This study demonstrates that human semen contains appreciable amounts of FVII and FVIIa. It is possible to quantify these using commercially available assays. There also appears to be a direct correlation between the levels of these factors and certain seminal parameters. This finding reinforces the concept of an active clotting system in human semen, by establishing the missing link in the activation of a TF-dependent pathway. PMID:17459125

Lwaleed, Bashir A; Goyal, Anuj; Delves, George; Gossai, Sunil; Greenfield, Robert S; Cooper, Alan J



Seminal fluid enhances sperm viability in the leafcutter ant Atta colombica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seminal fluid that accompanies sperm in ejaculates has been shown or suggested to affect sperm competition and paternity\\u000a success of insects by preventing female remating, inducing oviposition, and forming mating plugs. In Atta leafcutter ants, queens have multiple mates but never remate later in life, although they may live and produce fertilized\\u000a eggs for several decades. The mating biology

Susanne P. A. den Boer; Jacobus J. Boomsma; Boris Baer



A UFLC-MS/MS method with a switching ionization mode for simultaneous quantitation of polygalaxanthone III, four ginsenosides and tumulosic acid in rat plasma: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and Alzheimer's disease rats.  


A fast, sensitive and reliable ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of polygalaxanthone III (POL), ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), ginsenoside Rd (GRd), ginsenoside Re (GRe), ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1) and tumulosic acid (TUM) in rat plasma after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San, which plays an important role for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The plasma samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate-isopropanol (1:1, v/v) with salidrdoside as internal standard (IS). Good chromatographic separation was achieved using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.01% acetic acid in water. The tandem mass spectrometric detection was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode on 4000Q UFLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in a negative and positive switching ionization mode. The lower limits of quantification were 0.2-1.5?ng/ml for all the analytes. Both intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of analytes were well within acceptance criteria (±15%). The mean absolute extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rat plasma were all more than 60.0%. The validated method has been successfully applied to comparing pharmacokinetic profiles of analytes in normal and AD rat plasma. The results indicated that no significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of GRe, GRg1 and TUM were observed between the two groups, while the absorption of POL and GRd in AD group were significantly higher than those in normal group; moreover, the GRb1 absorbed more rapidly in model group. The different characters of pharmacokinetics might be caused by pharmacological effects of the analytes. PMID:23893636

Lv, Chunxiao; Li, Qing; Zhang, Yaowen; Sui, Zhenyu; He, Bosai; Xu, Huarong; Yin, Yidi; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun



Multi-scale feature learning on pixels and super-pixels for seminal vesicles MRI segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a learning-based approach to segment the seminal vesicles (SV) via random forest classifiers. The proposed discriminative approach relies on the decision forest using high-dimensional multi-scale context-aware spatial, textual and descriptor-based features at both pixel and super-pixel level. After affine transformation to a template space, the relevant high-dimensional multi-scale features are extracted and random forest classifiers are learned based on the masked region of the seminal vesicles from the most similar atlases. Using these classifiers, an intermediate probabilistic segmentation is obtained for the test images. Then, a graph-cut based refinement is applied to this intermediate probabilistic representation of each voxel to get the final segmentation. We apply this approach to segment the seminal vesicles from 30 MRI T2 training images of the prostate, which presents a particularly challenging segmentation task. The results show that the multi-scale approach and the augmentation of the pixel based features with the super-pixel based features enhances the discriminative power of the learnt classifier which leads to a better quality segmentation in some very difficult cases. The results are compared to the radiologist labeled ground truth using leave-one-out cross-validation. Overall, the Dice metric of 0:7249 and Hausdorff surface distance of 7:0803 mm are achieved for this difficult task.

Gao, Qinquan; Asthana, Akshay; Tong, Tong; Rueckert, Daniel; Edwards, Philip "Eddie"



Brain gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor binding is normal in rats with thioacetamide-induced hepatic encephalopathy despite elevated plasma gamma-aminobutyric acid-like activity.  


Brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor density, affinity, and function, and plasma GABA-like activity were determined in rats with acute hepatic encephalopathy induced by an intraperitoneal injection of thioacetamide. In addition, the effect of various stress factors on brain GABA binding was assessed. Plasma GABA-like activity was significantly increased in rats with thioacetamide-induced hepatic encephalopathy compared with rats injected with vehicle alone (1506 +/- 993 nM, n = 7 vs. 367 +/- 97 nM, n = 9, mean +/- SD; p less than 0.001). In contrast, there were no alterations in either brain GABA receptor binding or in GABA-enhanced benzodiazepine binding in rats with hepatic encephalopathy when compared with relevant controls. However, rats that had received intraperitoneal injections of thioacetamide or vehicle (0.15 M NaCl) had significantly more low-affinity GABA receptors than rats that had neither been injected nor handled before killing (8769 +/- 1101 vs. 2710 +/- 757 fmol/mg protein, mean +/- SEM, p less than 0.001). We concluded that stress factors appear to be important causes of altered brain GABA binding. Brain GABA receptor binding and function, however, are unaltered in rats with thioacetamide-induced hepatic encephalopathy despite elevated plasma GABA-like activity. PMID:2820827

Maddison, J E; Dodd, P R; Johnston, G A; Farrell, G C



Normal Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet, created by Tom Malloy of the University of Utah, demonstrates probability as the area under the normal and the standard normal curves. Students can manipulate mean, standard deviation, and lower and upper bounds to find probabilities. This is a nice interactive resource allowing students a more hands on approach to statistics.

Malloy, Tom


Simultaneous determination of corosolic acid and euscaphic acid in the plasma of normal and diabetic rat after oral administration of extract of Potentilla discolor Bunge by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.  


Potentilla discolor Bunge has been used for diabetes in China for a long time. Corosolic acid (CA) and euscaphic acid (EA), with significant anti-diabetic activity, are two major triterpenoids in P. discolor. In this study, a specific, sensitive and convenient LC-MS method has been developed for simultaneous determination of CA and EA in the plasma of normal and diabetic rats after oral administration of the extract of P. discolor. The chromatographic separation was achieved using an Alltima C18 column (53?×?7.0 mm, i.d., 3 µm) with a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid water and 0.1% formic acid acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection was performed by MS with electrospray ionization interface in negative selected ion monitoring mode. All the validation data, such as specificity, linearity (r(2) ?>?0.9991 within 0.025-10.0 µg/mL), lower limit of quantitation (2.5 ng/mL), precision (intra- and inter-day <14.7%), accuracy (<15.0%), recovery (85.7-110.8%) and stability were determined and all of them were within the required limits. This method was successfully applied for the evaluation of the pharmacokinetic behaviors of these two compounds in the plasma of normal and diabetic rats. PMID:24311372

Li, Jing-jing; Li, Yi; Bai, Min; Tan, Jing-fu; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Jie



Normalized Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discussions of diagnostic tools that gauge students' conceptual understanding permeate the literature. Many instructors report their class' normalized gain to characterize the change in scores from pre-test to post-test. We describe a new procedure for characterizing these changes. This procedure, which we call the normalized change, c, involves the ratio of the gain to the maximum possible gain or the loss to the maximum possible loss. We also advocate reporting the average of a class' normalized changes and utilizing a particular statistical and graphical approach for comparing average c values.

Marx, Jeffrey; Cummings, Karen



A plasma membrane-bound putative endo-1,4-beta-D-glucanase is required for normal wall assembly and cell elongation in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed Central

Endo-1,4-beta-D-glucanases (EGases) form a large family of hydrolytic enzymes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In higher plants, potential substrates in vivo are xyloglucan and non-crystalline cellulose in the cell wall. Gene expression patterns suggest a role for EGases in various developmental processes such as leaf abscission, fruit ripening and cell expansion. Using Arabidopsis thaliana genetics, we demonstrate the requirement of a specialized member of the EGase family for the correct assembly of the walls of elongating cells. KORRIGAN (KOR) is identified by an extreme dwarf mutant with pronounced architectural alterations in the primary cell wall. The KOR gene was isolated and encodes a membrane-anchored member of the EGase family, which is highly conserved between mono- and dicotyledonous plants. KOR is located primarily in the plasma membrane and presumably acts at the plasma membrane-cell wall interface. KOR mRNA was found in all organs examined, and in the developing dark-grown hypocotyl, mRNA levels were correlated with rapid cell elongation. Among plant growth factors involved in the control of hypocotyl elongation (auxin, gibberellins and ethylene) none significantly influenced KOR-mRNA levels. However, reduced KOR-mRNA levels were observed in det2, a mutant deficient for brassinosteroids. Although the in vivo substrate remains to be determined, the mutant phenotype is consistent with a central role for KOR in the assembly of the cellulose-hemicellulose network in the expanding cell wall. PMID:9755157

Nicol, F; His, I; Jauneau, A; Vernhettes, S; Canut, H; Höfte, H



The relationship between intramembranous particles and aquaporin molecules in the plasma membranes of normal rat skeletal muscles: a fracture-label study.  


The plasma membrane of skeletal muscles contains water channels such as aquaporin 4 (AQP4), aquaporin 3 (AQP3) and aquaporin 7 (AQP7). In dehydrated mice, we have recently reported the altered distribution of the aggregations of intramembranous particles (IMPs), such as orthogonal array (a crystal-like structure) and IMP cluster (a rosette-like structure) on the freeze-fractured skeletal muscle plasma membranes. In this fracture-label study, we first tested whether the orthogonal arrays (OAs) were composed of AQP4 in skeletal muscles and further analyzed the relationship between IMPs including IMP clusters and AQP3 molecules. As a result, many of the gold particles indicating AQP4 was associated with OAs (79%) by our fracture-label technique. On the other hand, approximately 50% of gold particles indicating AQP3 were associated with IMP clusters. Thus we confirmed that the OAs are composed of AQP4 in skeletal muscles, and further demonstrated that some of the IMP clusters are composed of AQP3 and may participate in maintaining osmotic homeostasis in skeletal myofibers. The fracture-label method is useful in investigating the molecular identification of membrane proteins such as AQP3 and AQP4. PMID:16798777

Shibuya, Seiji; Wakayama, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Masahiko; Kojima, Hiroko; Oniki, Hiroaki



Normal Distribution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students adjust the standard deviation and sample size of a normal distribution to see how it will affect a histogram of that distribution. This activity allows students to explore the effect of changing the sample size in an experiment and the effect of changing the standard deviation of a normal distribution. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.



Multiple effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and on vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility  

SciTech Connect

Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine and 5-HT reuptake largely used in the management of obesity. Although a fairly safe drug, postmarketing adverse effects of sibutramine were reported including abnormal ejaculation in men. This study investigates the effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility. Adult male rats received sibutramine (5; 20; or 50 mg kg{sup -1}, ip) and after 60 min were exposed to receptive females for determination of ejaculation parameters. The vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles of untreated rats were mounted in isolated organ baths for recording of isometric contractions and HEK293 cells loaded with fluorescent calcium indicator were used to measure intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transients. Sibutramine 5 and 20 mg kg{sup -1} reduced ejaculation latency whereas 50 mg kg{sup -1} increased ejaculation latency. Sibutramine 3 to 30 {mu}M greatly increased the sensitivity of the seminal vesicle and vas deferens to norepinephrine, but at concentrations higher than 10 {mu}M there were striking depressions of maximal contractions induced by norepinephrine, carbachol and CaCl{sub 2}. In HEK293 cells, sibutramine 10 to 100 {mu}M inhibited intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transients induced by carbachol. Depending on the doses, sibutramine either facilitates or inhibits ejaculation. Apart from its actions in the central nervous system, facilitation of ejaculation may result from augmented sensitivity of smooth muscles to norepinephrine while reductions of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} may be involved in the delayed ejaculation observed with high doses of sibutramine.

Nojimoto, Fernanda D.; Piffer, Renata C.; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo de A. [Department of Pharmacology, Instituto de Biociencias, UNESP, Botucatu, SP 18618000 (Brazil); Lameu, Claudiana; Camargo, Antonio C.M. de [Center for Applied Toxinology-CAT/CEPID, Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pereira, Oduvaldo C.M. [Department of Pharmacology, Instituto de Biociencias, UNESP, Botucatu, SP 18618000 (Brazil); Pupo, Andre S. [Department of Pharmacology, Instituto de Biociencias, UNESP, Botucatu, SP 18618000 (Brazil)], E-mail:



Sperm Bundles in the Seminal Vesicles of Sexually Mature Lasius Ant Males  

PubMed Central

In many insects, sperm cells are produced in bundles with their heads being held together by a glycoprotein matrix secreted by a cyst cell. Mature sperm cells in the seminal vesicles are usually free, but in sawflies and several other insects, such structures (spermatodesmata) remain intact and sperm cells may be ejaculated as bundles. Here we report the occurrence of spermatodesmata in mature males of the ant Lasius pallitarsis. Microscopic investigations of the abdominal contents of males immediately prior to their nuptial flights showed that the anterior ends of numerous sperm cells were embedded in an oval-shaped 20 by 30 micrometer extracellular fibrous cap. Individual sperm ranged in length from 55 to 75 micrometers with an average overall length of 65 micrometers. The bulb-shaped heads of the sperm were relatively small, only about 1.5 micrometers in length and about 1.1 micrometers in diameter. The diameter of the sperm tails was approximately 1 micrometer. Observations of live preparations of the spermatodesmata showed increasingly active undulating wave-like movement of the sperm tails as the slide preparations aged. This appears to be the first case of sperm bundles being present in the seminal vesicles of mature ant males – males that are immediately poised to complete their nuptial mating flight. PMID:24671307

Burnett, William E.; Heinze, Jürgen



Engineering the refolding pathway and the quaternary structure of seminal ribonuclease by newly introduced disulfide bridges.  


Seminal RNase (BS-RNase), a ribonuclease from bovine seminal vesicles, is a homodimeric enzyme with a strong cytotoxic activity selective for tumor cells. It displays the unusual structural feature of existing in solution as an equilibrium mixture of two quaternary isoforms. The major one is characterized by the swap between subunits of their N-terminal ends, whereas the minor isoform shows no swap. The tendency of the two isolated isoforms to interconvert into each other has so far made it difficult to attribute the functional properties of BS-RNase to either isoform. Herein, molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis were used to engineer the refolding pathway of BS-RNase and obtain a stable variant of its non-swapping isoform. The protein was engineered with two extra disulfide bridges linking the N-terminal helix of each subunit to the main body of the same subunit. Purified as an active enzyme, the BS-RNase variant was found to be very resistant to thermal denaturation. Its functional characterization revealed that the lack of swapping has a negative effect on the cytotoxic activity of BS-RNase. PMID:12377788

Russo, Aniello; Antignani, Antonella; Giancola, Concetta; D'Alessio, Giuseppe



Morphological changes in the seminal receptacle during ovarian development in the speckled swimming crab Arenaeus cribrarius.  


To understand sperm plug dissolution and spermatophore dehiscence in Portunidae, histological and ultrastructural changes in the seminal receptacle (SR) of Arenaeus cribrarius were investigated during ovarian development. In juvenile females the SR was filled with acid polysaccharides and the dorsal epithelium was stratified. Mated females with rudimentary ovaries showed a large SR filled by a glycoprotein sperm plug. This plug was present until the developing-ovary stage, when spermatophore dehiscence and intense holocrine secretions in the dorsal dense layer occurred. The plug was absent after the intermediate stage, and the SR became flaccid. The secretion produced moved the spermatophores into the ventral region. The modified dorsal epithelium in the transition between the dorsal and ventral regions released acid polysaccharides, which were found among the sperm, by exocytosis. The morphological changes of the SR in A. cribrarius, including the presence of the sperm plug, followed the macroscopic pattern observed in other members of Portunidae, such as blue crabs. However, in this species dissolution of the sperm plug was synchronized with ovarian development and occurred simultaneously with spermatophore dehiscence, showing the evolutionary relationship of the seminal receptacle and the female reproductive system to the storage of spermatophores and spermatozoa. PMID:25216499

Zara, Fernando Jose; Raggi Pereira, Gerson Rodrigues; Sant'anna, Bruno Sampaio



[The role of cells originating from seminal vesicles in aspiration biopsy smears of the prostate (author's transl)].  


328 (30.7%) of 1068 prostatic aspirates obtained from 874 patients contained cells of seminal vesicle origin. Cells originating from the seminal vesicles were recognized in aspirates obtained from 27.6% of the untreated patients and in aspirates from 60.4% of the treated patients. Patients of the latter group had received hormonal treatment or radation therapy, or both, or had been surgically treated by prostatectomy. The occurrence of cells derived from seminal vesicles was due to the site of the needled prostatic lesion in 21% of the aspirates obtained, to treatment in 21% and to incorrect biopsy technique in the remaining 58%. A false cytologic report was made in the case of 6 aspirates (1.6%). PMID:1258228

Droese, M; Voeth, C; Konetzke, C



Multivariate normality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sets of experimentally determined or routinely observed data provide information about the past, present and, hopefully, future sets of similarly produced data. An infinite set of statistical models exists which may be used to describe the data sets. The normal distribution is one model. If it serves at all, it serves well. If a data set, or a transformation of the set, representative of a larger population can be described by the normal distribution, then valid statistical inferences can be drawn. There are several tests which may be applied to a data set to determine whether the univariate normal model adequately describes the set. The chi-square test based on Pearson's work in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is often used. Like all tests, it has some weaknesses which are discussed in elementary texts. Extension of the chi-square test to the multivariate normal model is provided. Tables and graphs permit easier application of the test in the higher dimensions. Several examples, using recorded data, illustrate the procedures. Tests of maximum absolute differences, mean sum of squares of residuals, runs and changes of sign are included in these tests. Dimensions one through five with selected sample sizes 11 to 101 are used to illustrate the statistical tests developed.

Crutcher, H. L.; Falls, L. W.



Normal Modes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play with a 1D or 2D system of coupled mass-spring oscillators. Vary the number of masses, set the initial conditions, and watch the system evolve. See the spectrum of normal modes for arbitrary motion. See longitudinal or transverse modes in the 1D system.

Simulations, Phet I.; Dubson, Michael; Olson, Jon; Paul, Ariel; Loeblein, Trish



Simultaneous determination of two iridoid glycosides, two anthraquinones and four flavonoid glycosides of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction in rat plasma by UFLC-MS/MS: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and cholestatic liver injury rats.  


A selective, sensitive and reliable ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of two iridoid glycosides (geniposide and genipin gentiobioside), two anthraquinones (rhein and emodin) and four flavonoid glycosides (isonaringin, naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin), the major active ingredients of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction (ZZDHD), in rat plasma using paeoniflorin as internal standard (IS). After liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate-isopropanol (1:1, v/v), separation was achieved on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 mm×3.0 mm, 2.2 ?m) using gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of water (containing 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Detection was performed on 4000 QTRAP mass spectrometry equipped with turbo ion spray source in the negative ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The intra- and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation) were less than 11.4%, and accuracy (as relative error) was within ± 10.0%. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) were 4.0, 0.5, 2.0, 0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 1.0, 2.0 ng/mL for geniposide, genipin gentiobioside, rhein, emodin, isonaringin, naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin, respectively. The extraction recoveries of the analytes and IS from rat plasma were all more than 86.0%. The method was fully validated and applied to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of the analytes in normal and cholestatic liver injury (CLI) rats after oral administration of ZZDHD. Results showed that there were remarkable differences in pharmacokinetic properties of the analytes between normal and CLI group. PMID:24793084

Zhu, Heyun; Bi, Kaishun; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Tang, Zheng; Chen, Kelin; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Yin, Ran; Hou, Xiaohong



Intraluminal occlusion of the seminal duct by laser and Histoacryl: Two non-invasive alternatives for vasectomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction and objective: Vasectomy is a well-established method in family control. Even though it is a safe and low risk operation, this surgery is invasive and difficult to reverse. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate new non-invasive methods for occlusion of the seminal duct. Material and Methods: Seminal duct tissue was obtained from patients (n=30) suffering from prostate cancer and therefore undergoing prostatectomy. In a first set of experiments, the seminal duct was occluded by intraluminal application of Histoacryl® (Braun Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany). In a 2nd set of experiments, endoluminal laser induced occlusion was performed. Four different laser wavelengths (1940nm, 1470nm, 1064nm, 940nm) and different sets of laser parameters (e.g. power, exposure duration, fibre diameter, energy applied) were compared. Effectiveness of occlusion of the seminal duct was proven by post-treatment irrigation flow measurement, as well as by morphological analyses. To evaluate a potential damage of the surrounding tissue, external temperature was measured using a thermometer during laser application. Results: Intraluminal application of Histoacryl® induced an immediate and complete occlusion of the seminal duct. The underlying connective tissue maintained its functional integrity after this treatment. By laser light application to a Histoacryl® block, a hole could be created into the block thus indicating the possibility of recanalization. Treatment with laser energy resulted in shrinkage of the ductal lumen. The laser application generally caused necrosis in the epithelium and induced formation of vacuoles in the underlying connective tissue. As described for endoluminal varicose treatment, this distinct local reaction might result in an intense inflammation leading to a functional occlusion of the vas deferens. Conclusions: Both laser-induced occlusion and application of Histoacryl® are fast and simple techniques which may be able to achieve a functional occlusion of the seminal duct. The application of Histoacryl® additionally may be easily reversible by laser treatment.

Freitag, B.; Sroka, R.; Koelle, S.; Becker, A. J.; Khoder, W.; Pongratz, T.; Stief, C. G.; Trottmann, M.



Correlation of plasma gonadotrophins and ovarian steroids pattern with symptomatic changes in cervical mucus during the menstrual cycle in normal cycling women.  


27 healthy young Italian women were studied to evaluate their ability to identify symptomatically the potentially fertile phase of the menstrual cycle by self observation of their cervical mucus pattern as described in the Ovulation Method Billings. The women's observations were correlated with daily plasma levels of FSH, LH, estradiol-17 beta and progesterone. Ovulation was considered to occur on the day following the LH peak. The hormonal assays revealed that 2 of the 34 cycles studied were anovulatory. 24 of the 27 subjects in the study group demonstrated their ability to recognize the onset of the mucus discharge and the peak symptom from the first cycle after teaching, another two from the second cycle. The only other subject contributed an anovulatory cycle in which the hormonal assay confirmed the accuracy of her mucus observations. In the study, the mean interval between the time of ovulation as assessed and the peak symptom recorded by the subjects was 0.0 days, with a range from -2 to +1 days. The mean time interval from the first recorded symptom to the estimated day of ovulation was 6.0 days, with a range from 3 to 10 days. The study shows that young Italian women can be taught to recognize their cervical mucus pattern as described in the Ovulation Method Billings. The accuracy of their observations is demonstrated by the hormonal assays. The study also confirms the conclusion reached in earlier similar studies that there is a direct correlation between the cervical mucus symptom and the potentially fertile phase of the cycle. Research is currently being conducted on a larger number of couples employing the Ovulation Method Billings to actually regulate their fertility. PMID:6793304

Cortesi, S; Rigoni, G; Zen, F; Sposetti, R



Physical Warmth and Perceptual Focus: A Replication of IJzerman and Semin (2009)  

PubMed Central

With the changing of modal research practices in psychology, the grounded cognition perspective (sometimes categorized under the more popular term of “social priming”) has become heavily criticized. Specifically, LeBel and Campbell (2013) reported a failed replication of a study involving what some would call “social priming.” We sought to replicate a study from our own lab (IJzerman & Semin, 2009), to investigate the reproducibility of the reported effect that physical warmth leads to a greater focus on perceptual relations. We also improved our methods to reduce potential experimenter's bias (cf. Doyen, Klein, Pichon, & Cleeremans, 2012). We successfully replicated the finding that a simple cue of physical warmth makes people more likely to adopt a relational focus. PMID:25402343

Schilder, Janneke D.; IJzerman, Hans; Denissen, Jaap J. A.



A new Stygarctus (Arthrotardigrada: Stygarctidae) from Japan, with entangled seminal receptacle ducts.  


Stygarctus ayatori sp. nov. (Arthrotardigrada: Stygarctidae), is described from a sandy beach located at Okinoshima, Tateyama Bay, Boso Peninsula, Honshu, Japan. The most prominent characters were observed in the female genital structure, with the seminal receptacle ducts forming a three-dimensional entanglement near the exterior opening, and internal thickening situated peripheral to the gonopore and between the gonopore and anus. The new species is distinguished from the congeners by these characters; excluding S. abornatus McKirdy et al., 1976 for which there is no information on the genital structure. However, S. ayatori sp. nov. and S. abornatus can be differentiated by the presence of dorsal spines on the former species, which are absent from the latter. PMID:24872047

Fujimoto, Shinta



Seminal vesicle protein SVS2 is required for sperm survival in the uterus  

PubMed Central

In mammals, sperm migrate through the female reproductive tract to reach the egg; however, our understanding of this journey is highly limited. To shed light on this process, we focused on defining the functions of seminal vesicle secretion 2 (SVS2). SVS2?/? male mice produced sperm but were severely subfertile, and formation of a copulatory plug to cover the female genital opening did not occur. Surprisingly, even when artificial insemination was performed with silicon as a substitute for the plug, sperm fertility in the absence of SVS2 remained severely reduced because the sperm were already dead in the uterus. Thus, our results provide evidence that the uterus induces sperm cell death and that SVS2 protects sperm from uterine attack. PMID:24591616

Kawano, Natsuko; Araki, Naoya; Yoshida, Kaoru; Hibino, Taku; Ohnami, Naoko; Makino, Maako; Kanai, Seiya; Hasuwa, Hidetoshi; Yoshida, Manabu; Miyado, Kenji; Umezawa, Akihiro



Single-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy can provide dose distributions equivalent to fixed-beam intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostatic irradiation with seminal vesicle and/or lymph node involvement  

PubMed Central

Objectives Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is becoming an increasingly utilised modality for treating a variety of anatomical sites. However, the efficacy of single-arc VMAT to treat prostate cancer suspicious for extraprostatic extension was heretofore unknown. In this work, we report our institutional experience with single-arc VMAT and fixed-beam intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer patients treated for seminal vesicle and/or lymph node involvement. Methods Single-arc VMAT and 7- or 9-field IMRT treatment plans were compared for 10 prostate cancer patients treated for seminal vesicle involvement and/or lymph node involvement. All treatment plans were constructed using the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system (v.9.0, Fitchburg, WI) and delivered on an Elekta Infinity radiotherapy accelerator (Crawley, UK). Resulting plans were compared using metrics that characterised dosimetry and delivery efficiency. Results No statistically significant differences in target coverage, target homogeneity or normal tissue doses were noted between the plans (p>0.05). For prostate patients treated for seminal vesicle involvement, VMAT plans were delivered in 1.4±0.1 min (vs 9.5±2.4 min for fixed-beam IMRT) (p<0.01) and required approximately 20% fewer monitor units (p=0.01). For prostate patients treated for lymph node involvement, VMAT plans were delivered in 1.4±0.1 min (vs 11.7±1.3 min for fixed-beam IMRT) (p<0.01) and required approximately 45% fewer monitor units (p<0.01). Conclusion Single-arc VMAT plans were dosimetrically equivalent to fixed-beam IMRT plans with significantly improved delivery efficiency. PMID:21712428

Fontenot, J D; King, M L; Johnson, S A; Wood, C G; Price, M J; Lo, K K



In the 1950s, seminal electron microscopy studies led to the canonical view of mitochondria as bean-shaped  

E-print Network

In the 1950s, seminal electron microscopy studies led to the canonical view of mitochondria as bean-shaped organelles. These studies revealed the ultrastructural hallmarks of mitochondria, which include double lipid for the fact that the mitochondrial structure is highly dynamic1,2 . Mitochondria have drastically different

Chan, David


Premature Ejaculation – Dose and Duration Dependent Effect of Fluoxetine: A Histological Study on Seminal Vesicle of Albino Rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Fluoxetine is a prototype drug of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Its active demethylated metabolite has a half life of 7-10 d. Fluoxetine is used to treat depression and is also prescribed in premature ejaculation. Aim: In the present study dose and duration dependent effects of Fluoxetine on histology of seminal vesicle of the albino rats were observed. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 36 adult male albino rats. Fluoxetine was administered intraperitoneally for 2 wk, 4 wk and 12 wk with mild (10mg/kg/day), moderate (20mg/kg/day) and severe doses (40mg/kg/day). Histological slides of Seminal vesicle were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Results: On examination through the light microscope, the proliferation of primary, secondary and tertiary villi, increased crypt/alveoli, increased thickness of lamina propria, decreased epithelial cell height, metaplasia, changes in the amount of luminal eosinophilic secretory material in the form of scanty secretion in lumen of seminal vesicle. Conclusion: Low doses for long duration and high doses for short duration of Fluoxetine produce histological changes in seminal vesicle of albino rats. PMID:25386416

Jethani, SL; Rohatagi, RK; Kalra, Juhi



Seminal vesicles and diabetic neuropathy: ultrasound evaluation after prolonged treatment with a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor.  


We have previously reported that infertile patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a particular ultrasound features of the seminal vesicles (SV) characterized by higher fundus-to-body ratio and lower pre- and post-ejaculatory difference in body antero-posterior diameter (APD). Based on these premises the aim of the present study was to investigate possible ultrasound SV changes in infertile patients with DM and diabetic neuropathy (DN), after prolonged administration of tadalafil (TAD) (a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor). To accomplish this, 20 infertile patients with symptomatic DN and erectile dysfunction were selected and arbitrarily divided into two groups which were assigned to: daily administration of 5 mg TAD for 3 months (Group A) (n = 10) and administration of placebo (Group B) (n = 10). All patients underwent to scrotal and prostate-vesicular transrectal ultrasound evaluation and semen analysis (Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen, WHO, 2010) before and after treatment. The following SV US parameters were recorded: (i) body APD; (ii) fundus APD; (iii) parietal thickness of the right and left SVs; and (iv) number of polycyclic areas within both SVs. We then calculated the following parameters: (i) fundus/body (F/B) ratio; (ii) difference of the parietal thickness between the right and the left SV and (iii) pre- and post-ejaculatory APD difference. In addition, we also evaluated the SV ejection fraction. Group A patients showed a significant reduction in F/B ratio and higher pre- and post-ejaculatory body SV APD difference compared with baseline or Group B after 3 months. These patients showed also a significant increase in SV ejection fraction and a significant improvement of the total sperm count, progressive motility, seminal levels of fructose, leucocytes and ejaculate volume. In conclusion, these results suggest that infertile DM patients with DN and erectile dysfunction had an improvement of ultrasound features suggestive of diabetic neuropathy after daily treatment with low doses of TAD. PMID:23413137

La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R A; Vicari, E; Lotti, F; Favilla, V; Morgia, G; Maggi, M; Calogero, A E



Control of impurities in toroidal plasma devices  


A method and apparatus for plasma impurity control in closed flux plasma systems such as Tokamak reactors is disclosed. Local axisymmetrical injection of hydrogen gas is employed to reverse the normally inward flow of impurities into the plasma.

Ohkawa, Tihiro (La Jolla, CA)



Dihydroisoxazole inhibitors of Anopheles gambiae seminal transglutaminase AgTG3  

PubMed Central

Background Current vector-based malaria control strategies are threatened by the rise of biochemical and behavioural resistance in mosquitoes. Researching mosquito traits of immunity and fertility is required to find potential targets for new vector control strategies. The seminal transglutaminase AgTG3 coagulates male Anopheles gambiae seminal fluids, forming a ‘mating plug’ that is required for male reproductive success. Inhibitors of AgTG3 can be useful both as chemical probes of A. gambiae reproductive biology and may further the development of new chemosterilants for mosquito population control. Methods A targeted library of 3-bromo-4,5-dihydroxoisoxazole inhibitors were synthesized and screened for inhibition of AgTG3 in a fluorescent, plate-based assay. Positive hits were tested for in vitro activity using cross-linking and mass spectrometry, and in vivo efficacy in laboratory mating assays. Results A targeted chemical library was screened for inhibition of AgTG3 in a fluorescent plate-based assay using its native substrate, plugin. Several inhibitors were identified with IC50?



An ultrastructural study of the seminal vesicle of the hermaphrodite duct of the land snail Limicolaria flammea (Müller) (Pulmonata: Achatinidae).  


The seminal vesicle region of the hermaphrodite duct of the edible land snail, Limicolaria flammea (Müller) is described using light and electron microscopy. The lumen is lined with a single layer of epithelial cells surrounded by connective tissues and circularly arranged smooth muscle. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that there are two types of epithelial cells lining the lumen of the seminal vesicle duct. Type 1 epithelial cells are highly ciliated columnar with large irregular shaped basal nuclei. Type 2 epithelial cells are non-ciliated columnar with large irregularly shaped basal nuclei. The apical surface of the Type 2 cell bears numerous microvilli. Mitochondria, glycogen, lipids, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, Golgi bodies and vacuoles are observed in the two types of epithelial cells and their lateral margins are joined apically by zonula adhaerens, below which are located septate junctions. The functional significance of the epithelial cells are discussed. PMID:19086546

Egonmwan, Rosemary I



Molecular Social Interactions: Drosophila melanogaster Seminal Fluid Proteins as a Case Study  

PubMed Central

Studies of social behavior generally focus on interactions between two or more individual animals. However, these interactions are not simply between whole animals, but also occur between molecules that were produced by the interacting individuals. Such “molecular social interactions” can both influence and be influenced by the organismal-level social interactions. We illustrate this by reviewing the roles played by seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) in molecular social interactions between males and females of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Sfps, which are produced by males and transferred to females during mating, are involved in inherently social interactions with female-derived molecules, and they influence social interactions between males and females and between a female’s past and potential future mates. Here, we explore four examples of molecular social interactions involving D. melanogaster Sfps: processes that influence mating, sperm storage, ovulation, and ejaculate transfer. We consider the molecular and organismal players involved in each interaction and the consequences of their interplay for the reproductive success of both sexes. We conclude with a discussion of the ways in which Sfps can both shape and be shaped by (in an evolutionary sense) the molecular social interactions in which they are involved. PMID:20109658

Sirot, Laura K.; LaFlamme, Brooke A.; Sitnik, Jessica L.; Rubinstein, C. Dustin; Avila, Frank W.; Chow, Clement Y.; Wolfner, Mariana F.



Identification and Characterization of Seminal Fluid Proteins in the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus  

PubMed Central

The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is an important vector for pathogens that affect human health, including the viruses that cause dengue and Chikungunya fevers. It is also one of the world's fastest-spreading invasive species. For these reasons, it is crucial to identify strategies for controlling the reproduction and spread of this mosquito. During mating, seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) are transferred from male mosquitoes to females, and these Sfps modulate female behavior and physiology in ways that influence reproduction. Despite the importance of Sfps on female reproductive behavior in mosquitoes and other insects, the identity of Sfps in Ae. albopictus has not previously been reported. We used transcriptomics and proteomics to identify 198 Sfps in Ae. albopictus. We discuss possible functions of these Sfps in relation to Ae. albopictus reproduction-related biology. We additionally compare the sequences of these Sfps with proteins (including reported Sfps) in several other species, including Ae. aegypti. While only 72 (36.4%) of Ae. albopictus Sfps have putative orthologs in Ae. aegypti, suggesting low conservation of the complement of Sfps in these species, we find no evidence for an elevated rate of evolution or positive selection in the Sfps that are shared between the two Aedes species, suggesting high sequence conservation of those shared Sfps. Our results provide a foundation for future studies to investigate the roles of individual Sfps on feeding and reproduction in this mosquito. Functional analysis of these Sfps could inform strategies for managing the rate of pathogen transmission by Ae. albopictus. PMID:24945155

Boes, Kathryn E.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Wong, Alex; Harrington, Laura C.; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Sirot, Laura K.



Seminal vesicle interfraction displacement and margins in image guided radiotherapy for prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Background To analyze interfraction motion of seminal vesicles (SV), and its motion relative to rectal and bladder filling. Methods and Materials SV and prostate were contoured on 771 daily computed tomography “on rails” scans from 24 prostate cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Random and systematic errors for SV centroid displacement were measured relative to the prostate centroid. Margins required for complete geometric coverage of SV were determined using isotropic expansion of reference contours. SV motion relative to rectum and bladder was determined. Results Systematic error for the SV was 1.9?mm left-right (LR), 2.9?mm anterior-posterior (AP) and 3.6?mm superior-inferior (SI). Random error was 1.4?mm (LR), 2.7?mm (AP) and 2.1?mm (SI). 10?mm margins covered the entire left SV and right SV on at least 90% of fractions in 50% and 33% of patients and 15?mm margins covered 88% and 79% respectively. SV AP movement correlated with movement of the most posterior point of the bladder (mean R2?=?0.46, SD?=?0.24) and rectal area (mean R2?=?0.38, SD?=?0.21). Conclusions Considerable interfraction displacement of SV was observed in this cohort of patients. Bladder and rectal parameters correlated with SV movement. PMID:22889144



The role of imaging in the diagnosis of recurrence of primary seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma.  


Primary seminal vesicle (SV) adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor. A small amount of data about the role of imaging to detect tumor recurrence is available. We report the case of a 58-year-old patient with primary SV clear-cell well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Clinical and instrumental examinations were negative for the 32 months after treatments when computed tomography scan, [(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging showed the appearance of a lesion in the left perineal muscle suspected for recurrence. Patient was symptomless. Cytology of the suspected lesion confirmed SV adenocarcinoma recurrence. The combined approach, using radiological and nuclear medicine techniques, seems to be effective in the follow-up of SV adenocarcinoma. Technological advances, together with awareness of this rare tumor, have the potential of improving patients outcomes not only by providing earlier detection and accurate staging, but also by detecting recurrence and thereby avoiding delays and therapeutic dilemmas. PMID:24872954

Sollini, Martina; Silvotti, Monica; Casali, Massimiliano; Giovanardi, Franco; Zadro, Alvise; Froio, Armando; Erba, Paola Anna; Versari, Annibale



Seminal levels of IL-10, IL-12, and IL-17 in men with asymptomatic chlamydia infection.  


Chlamydia trachomatis, as an obligate intracellular parasite, usually causes asymptomatic genital tract infections in both men and women with several complications. The role of C. trachomatis infection in the secretion of a number of interleukins (ILs) from epithelial cells has been established by in vitro studies performed on various cell lines. The aim of this study was to detect the seminal levels of IL-10, IL-12, and IL-17 in men with asymptomatic chlamydia infection. Our case group study included 50 semen samples being PCR-positive for C. trachomatis from 585 semen samples and the ELISA method was applied for detection of IL-10, IL-12, and IL-17. Our results demonstrated that the semen levels of IL-10 and IL-17 were significantly increased, while IL-12 was decreased in C. trachomatis-infected patients. According to these results, it may be concluded that the increased and decreased semen levels of IL-10 and IL-12, respectively, lead to impaired immune responses against C. trachomatis. Increased semen levels of IL-17 may also be associated with the pathogenesis of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:23996104

Hakimi, Hamid; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Chamani, Leila; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Ahmadabadi, Behzad Nasiri; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein; Fathollahi, Mahmoud Sheikh



The applicability of a seminal professional development theory to creative arts therapies students.  


The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to test the extent to which a seminal theory of the professional development of counsellors and therapists is applicable to the particular experiences of creative arts therapies graduate students who learn how to use the arts in psychotherapy. Nevertheless, readers may consider the results of the present study transferable to other healthcare disciplines. Questionnaires for each developmental phase were used for data collection, and analysis included data quantification, assessment of inter-rater agreement and theory derivation procedure. Results indicate that creative arts therapies students were concerned about translating theory into practice, learning how experienced therapists concretely function in practice, and reducing cognitive dissonance upon realization that their pre-training lay conceptions of helping were no longer valid. Stress and anxiety drove students to adopt easily mastered techniques that were implemented creatively in practicum. The results confirm that students who were older and had undergraduate human-service education and/or considerable life experience were less concerned about their suitability to the profession, were more acquainted with a professional working style and searched for their individual way of becoming therapists. Finally, recommendations for future research are suggested, and implications for practice are offered. PMID:23733240

Orkibi, Hod



‘Semen Contains Vitality and Heredity, Not Germs’: Seminal Discourse in the AIDS Era  

PubMed Central

Perspectives of public health generally ignore culture-bound sexual health concerns, such as semen loss, and primarily attempt to eradicate sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Like in many other countries, sexual health concerns of men in Bangladesh have also received less attention compared to STIs in the era of AIDS. This paper describes the meanings of non-STI sexual health concerns, particularly semen loss, in the masculinity framework. In a qualitative study on male sexuality, 50 men, aged 18–55 years, from diverse sociodemographic backgrounds and 10 healthcare practitioners were interviewed. Men considered semen the most powerful and vital body fluid representing their sexual performance and reproductive ability. Rather than recognizing the vulnerability to transmission of STIs, concerns about semen were grounded in the desire of men to preserve and nourish seminal vitality. Traditional practitioners supported semen loss as a major sexual health concern where male heritage configures male sexuality in a patriarchal society. Currently, operating HIV interventions in the framework of disease and death may not ensure participation of men in reproductive and sexual health programmes and is, therefore, less likely to improve the quality of sexual life of men and women. PMID:17591339

Hudson-Rodd, Nancy; Saggers, Sherry; Bhuiyan, Mahbubul Islam; Bhuiya, Abbas; Karim, Syed Afzalul; Rauyajin, Oratai



Effects of smoking on fatty acid composition of phospholipid sperm membrane and the malondialdehyde levels in human seminal plasma.  


The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acids composition of sperm phospholipids, level of lipoperoxidation represented by malondialdehyde and to examine differences between recent smokers and nonsmokers. The levels of malondialdehyde were in the group of all patients 1.51 ± 0.56 ?mol l(-1) , in smokers 1.36 ± 0.59 ?mol l(-1) and in nonsmokers 1.53 ± 0.55 ?mol l(-1) . Total sperm membrane phospholipid fatty acids were profiled into several groups, saturated acids (in smokers 61.86 ± 9.02%, in nonsmokers 61.20 ± 11.66%), polyunsaturated acids n-3 (in smokers 12.62 ± 8.18%, in nonsmokers 14.28 ± 13.65%), polyunsaturated acids n-6 (in smokers 9.13 ± 4.37%, in nonsmokers 10.10 ± 3.79%) and other acids (in smokers 14.36 ± 3.94%, in nonsmokers 13.88 ± 2.31%). Significant correlations were found between the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total sperm motility in all patients (r = -0.358, P = 0.013), between both the level of MDA and progressive motility (r = -0.465, P = 0.001) and between the level of MDA and total motility (r = -0.382, P = 0.037) in nonsmokers. There were no statistically significant differences between composition of sperm phospholipid important fatty acids in smokers and nonsmokers. Significant correlations between selected sperm fatty acids and sperm motility and morphology in smokers and nonsmokers were not observed. PMID:25311153

Stramová, X; Cegan, A; Hampl, R; Kan?ár, R



Quantitation of Seminal Factor IX and Factor IXa in Fertile, Nonfertile, and Vasectomy Subjects: A Step Closer Toward Identifying a Functional Clotting System in Human Semen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coagulation factor (F) IX is a zymogen of the plasma serine proteases, one that plays an essential role in the regulation of normal blood coagulation. Congenital defects of FIX synthesis or function cause hemophilia B (originally called hemophilia C). Factor IX is activated by Tissue Factor (TF):FVII\\/FVIIa complex and FXIa. Subsequent to its activation, FIXa combines with FVIIIa on the



Normal Scalar Curvature Inequalities Normal Scalar Curvature  

E-print Network

Normal Scalar Curvature Inequalities Normal Scalar Curvature Inequalities Zhiqin Lu, UCI Last revised, March 21, 2014 #12;Normal Scalar Curvature Inequalities Introduction Suppose that M is an n. Define the normal scalar curvature to be = 1 n(n - 1) |R |, where R is the curvature tensor

Lu, Zhiqin


Ionic currents and inhibitory effects of glibenclamide in seminal vesicle smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed Central

1. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were made from smooth muscle cells isolated from guinea-pig seminal vesicle. 2. When the recording pipette solution contained 130 mM KCl and a low concentration of EGTA (0.2 mM), a dominant outward current was elicited by depolarization to positive of -30 mV from a holding potential of -50 mV. The current was non-inactivating, stimulated by intracellular Ca2+ and blocked by bath-applied 1 mM tetraethylammonium but not 1 mM 3,4 diaminopyridine. 3. If 10 mM EGTA was added to the KCl pipette solution and the holding potential was -50 mV, or more negative, the major current elicited by depolarization to positive of -30 mV was an A-type K(+)-current. This current inactivated rapidly (within 100 ms) and was blocked by bath-applied 1 mM 3,4-diaminopyridine but not 10 mM tetraethylammonium. 4. An inward voltage-gated Ca channel current was observed on depolarization to positive of -30 mV with 1.5 mM Ca2+ or 10 mM Ba2+ in the bath solution and when Ca+ replaced K+ in the pipette. The Ba(2+)-current was shown to be abolished by bath-applied 100 microM Cd2+ and inhibited by 90% by 1 microM nifedipine, and thus appeared to be carried by L-type Ca channels. 5. High concentrations of glibenclamide (10-500 microM) inhibited A-type K(+)-current, Ba(2+)-current and contraction of the whole tissue induced by noradrenaline or electrical field stimulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8564204

Sadraei, H.; Beech, D. J.



Androgen-dependent synthesis of basic secretory proteins by the rat seminal vesicle.  

PubMed Central

1. Two basic proteins were purified from secretions of rat seminal vesicles by using Sephadex G-200 chromatography and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions. 2. It is not certain that these two proteins are distinct species and not subunits of a larger protein, but their properties are similar. Highly basic (pI = 9.7), they migrate to the cathode at high pH and their amino acid composition shows them to be rich in basic residues and serine. Threonine and hydrophobic residues are few. Both proteins are glycoproteins and have mol.wts. of 17000 and 18500. 3. Together these two proteins account for 25-30% of the protein synthesized by the vesicles, but they are absent from other tissues. 4. Changes in androgen status of the animal markedly affect these proteins. After castration, a progressive decrease in the basic proteins is observed and the synthesis of the two proteins as measured by [35S]methionine incorporation in vitro is is decreased. Testosterone administration in vivo rapidly restores their rates of synthesis. 5. These effects on specific protein synthesis are also observed for total cellular protein, and it is suggested that testosterone acts generally on the total protein-synthetic capacity of the cell and not specifically on individual proteins. Proliferative responses in the secretory epithelium may also be involved. 6. The extreme steroid specificity of the induction process suggests that the synthesis of these basic proteins is mediated by the androgen-receptor system. 7. The biological function of these proteins is not clear, but they do not appear to be involved in the formation of the copulatory plug. Images PLATE 1(a) PLATES 1(b), 1(c) AND 1(d) PLATE 2 PMID:985427

Higgins, S J; Burchell, J M; Mainwaring, W I



Antibody-based diagnosis of small ruminant lentivirus infection in seminal fluid.  


Antibody-based diagnosis of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) has been efficiently achieved using serum and milk, but not semen, for which polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been proposed as a confirmatory technique. This work, involving 296 ovine (Ovis aries) and caprine (Capra hircus) semen donors, investigates whether seminal fluid (SF) can be reliably used in antibody-based SRLV diagnosis. First, a gold standard was established to assess the infection status and determine the sensitivity and specificity of three commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in serum testing using Western blot and PCR as confirmatory tests. For SF testing, both gold standard and serum testing results were used as reference. The performance of SF testing was affected not only by the ELISA assay sensitivity (related to antigen spectrum) compared with that of the gold standard (as it occurred in serum testing) but also by SF sample quality and SF working dilution. Nonturbid SF samples, commonly collected in artificial insemination centers (AICs), were required. Compared with serum, SF testing had a decreased sensitivity in two of the ELISA assays (with original serum working dilutions

Ramírez, H; Román, B San; Glaria, I; Reina, R; Hernández, M M; de Andrés, X; Crespo, H; Hichou, B; Cianca, S; Goñi, C; Grandas, A; García-Pastor, L; Vijil, L E; Quintín, F; Grilló, M J; de Andrés, D; Amorena, B



Crystallization of multiple forms of bovine seminal ribonuclease in the liganded and unliganded state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) is an intriguing homodimeric enzyme which exists as two conformational isomers, characterized by distinct catalytic and biological properties, referred to as M×M and M=M. Reduction of inter-chain disulfide bridges produces a stable monomeric derivative (M) which is still active. This paper reports the screening and optimization of crystallization conditions for growing single diffraction-quality crystals for the various BS-RNase forms. The crystallization trials were performed using both the vapor diffusion and microbatch methods. The M×M dimer was crystallized in the free form from polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 at pH 8.5 and as a complex with the substrate analog uridylyl(2'- 5')guanosine (UpG) from an unbuffered ammonium sulfate (AS) solution. These two crystal types diffract X-rays to 2.5 and 1.9 Å resolution, respectively. Two different crystal types were obtained both for the M=M dimer and for the monomeric derivative. (M=M)a crystals, grown from PEG 4000 (8% w/v) at pH 5.6, diffract X-rays to 4.0 Å. At higher PEG concentration (15% w/v) a different crystal type was obtained, (M=M)b, which showed a better diffraction limit (2.5 Å). For the monomer, type (M)a and (M)b crystals, diffracting X-rays to 2.5 Å resolution, were obtained from AS at pH 6.5 and from PEG 4000 at pH 8.5, respectively. A comparison with previously crystallized forms of the dimer M×M and its complexes with uridylyl(2'-5')adenosine and 2'-deoxycytidylyl(3'-5')-2'-deoxyadenosine is also presented. The three-dimensional structure analysis of (M×M)·UpG and (M=M)b is in progress.

Sica, F.; Adinolfi, S.; Berisio, R.; De Lorenzo, C.; Mazzarella, L.; Piccoli, R.; Vitagliano, L.; Zagari, A.



Combined EST and proteomic analysis identifies rapidly evolving seminal fluid proteins in Heliconius butterflies.  


Seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) directly influence a wide range of reproductive processes, including fertilization, sperm storage, egg production, and immune response. Like many other reproductive proteins, the molecular evolution of SFPs is generally characterized by rapid and frequently adaptive evolution. However, the evolutionary processes underlying this often-documented pattern have not yet been confidently determined. A robust understanding of the processes governing SFP evolution will ultimately require identifying SFPs and characterizing their evolution in many different taxa, often where only limited genomic resources are available. Here, we report the first comprehensive molecular genetic and evolutionary analysis of SFPs conducted in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). We have identified 51 novel SFPs from two species of Heliconius butterflies (Heliconius erato and Heliconius melpomene) by combining "indirect" bioinformatic and expression analyses of expressed sequence tags from male accessory gland and wing tissues with "direct" proteomic analyses of spermatophores. Proteomic analyses identified fewer SFPs than the indirect criteria but gave consistent results. Of 51 SFPs, 40 were identified in both species but fewer than half could be functionally annotated via similarity searches (Blast, IPRscan, etc.). The majority of annotated Heliconius SFPs were predicted to be chymotrypsins. Comparisons of Heliconius SFPs with those from fruit fly, mosquito, honeybee, and cricket suggest that gene turnover is high among these proteins and that SFPs are rarely conserved across insect orders. Pairwise estimates of evolutionary rates between SFPs and nonreproductive proteins show that, on average, Heliconius SFPs are evolving rapidly. At least one of these SFPs is evolving adaptively (dN/dS > 1), implicating a role for positive selection in this rapid evolution. This work establishes a strong precedent for future research on the causes and consequences of reproductive protein evolution in the Lepidoptera. Butterflies and moths have an extremely rich history of organismal research, which will provide an informative ecological context for further molecular evolutionary investigations. PMID:20375075

Walters, James R; Harrison, Richard G



Hybrid Registration of Prostate and Seminal Vesicles for Image Guided Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Fiducial markers are a good surrogate for the prostate but provide little information on the position and orientation of the seminal vesicles (SVs). Therefore, a more advanced localization method is warranted if the SVs are part of the target volume. The purpose of this study was to develop a hybrid registration technique for the localization of the prostate and SVs. Methods and Materials: Twenty prostate patients implanted with 2 or 3 elongated fiducial markers had cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans acquired at every fraction. The first step of the hybrid registration was to localize the prostate by CBCT-to-planning-CT alignment of the fiducial markers, allowing both translations and rotations. Using this marker registration as a starting point, the SVs were registered based on gray values, allowing only rotations around the lateral axis. We analyzed the differential rotation between the prostate and SVs and compared the required SV margins for 3 correction strategies. Results: The SV registration had a precision of 2.7° (1 standard deviation) and was successful for 96% of the scans. Mean (M), systematic (?), and random (?) differences between the orientation of the prostate and SV were M = ?0.4°, ? = 7.2°, and ? = 6.4°. Daily marker-based corrections required an SV margin of 11.4 mm (translations only) and 11.6 mm (translations + rotations). Rotation corrections of the SVs reduced the required margin to 8.2 mm. Conclusions: We found substantial differences between the orientation of the prostate and SVs. The hybrid registration technique can accurately detect these rotations during treatment. Rotation correction of the SVs allows for margin reduction for the SVs.

Boer, Johan de; Herk, Marcel van; Pos, Floris J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sonke, Jan-Jakob, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)



Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)  


Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Tweet Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder in which excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in ... About Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal ...


Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus  


NINDS Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Information Page Synonym(s): Hydrocephalus - Normal Pressure Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus? Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is an ...


STAVN SEMIN ve stedu dne 19. bezna 2014 v 15:00 hod.  

E-print Network

, such as applications of optoelectronics in medicine, biophotonics, biomedical applications of low temperature plasma crucial assistance to health ever since the birth of medicine. Vast variety of modern advanced physical

KuÂ?el, Petr


BOOK REVIEW: Principles of Plasma Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book gives a comprehensive treatment of plasma spectroscopy, the quantitative study of line and continuous radiation from high temperature plasmas. This highly interdisciplinary field combines elements of atomic, plasma and statistical physics, and has wide application to simulations and diagnostics of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Plasma spectroscopy is naturally intertwined with magnetic and inertial fusion energy science. Radiative processes in plasmas are important in the design of fusion facilities, and can be used to diagnose and control conditions in fusion plasmas. In turn, fusion scientists and facilities have played a central role in developing plasma spectroscopy theory and applications. The book covers radiation from plasmas, spectral line broadening, atomic processes in plasmas and level kinetic models, radiative transfer and applications to spectroscopic plasma diagnostics. It is successful both as an introductory text and as a source book of theoretical and experimental research. The book presents a broad development of the theoretical foundations of these topics, and discusses the seminal papers and critical experiments. There is a strong emphasis on applications of plasma spectroscopy, primarily to plasma diagnostics and calculations of radiative cooling rates. Extensive references (current through the end of 1995) point readers to original material and detailed discussions of advanced topics. Of course, a single text cannot treat all aspects of plasma spectroscopy in depth. The strongest and most detailed section of the book is a long chapter on spectral line broadening. For me, the most significant omission is lack of a discussion of laser assisted transitions which can occur in plasmas produced by high intensity lasers. The book was intentionally written to be accessible to young researchers and graduate students. The level is roughly that of a graduate text. It assumes some familiarity with quantum mechanics and statistical thermodynamics, but develops most of the advanced concepts. Plasma spectroscopy is widely used by non-specialists, and the level and organization of the book are suited to use by researchers developing applications of plasma spectroscopic techniques. Finally, the specialist will profit from the comprehensive overview and excellent bibliography presented. The author is highly qualified to write a general book on the spectroscopy of plasmas. Professor Griem has worked in the field of plasma spectroscopy for more than four decades. He is the author of Plasma Spectroscopy (1964, McGraw-Hill), the first general, quantitative book on the subject of radiation from plasmas, as well as Spectral Line Broadening by Plasmas (1974, Academic Press). Both of these monographs were tremendously influential books. In addition to his long career at the University of Maryland, Professor Griem has worked extensively with numerous research groups in the United States of America and Europe. The depth and breadth of his experience is reflected in the book. The present book is largely new, rather than an update of the 1964 monograph. The two books have a similar organization, especially in the chapters introducing the classical and quantum theories of radiation. The later chapters of the two books diverge strongly as the present text incorporates a vast amount of modern material. The nomenclature and formalism have been updated, and I find this book more accessible than Professor Griem's earlier texts. The other significant changes are that the present book omits the problems at the end of the chapters, many of the tables of numerical results, and the chapters on plasma sources and detectors. While the tables of atomic and line shape results contained in the original book were extremely useful, they have been updated and extended in more recent works. I enthusiastically recommend this book to all scientists interested in the spectroscopy of hot plasmas. Early in his career, Professor Griem wrote the seminal book on plasma spectroscopy. It is gratifying that as a senior scientist he has writte

Osterheld, A. L.



Incidental seminal vesicle amyloidosis observed in diagnostic prostate biopsies—are routine investigations for systemic amyloidosis warranted?  

PubMed Central

Seminal vesicle (SV) amyloidosis is a well-documented histological entity, but it is observed infrequently. Its incidence is on the rise, which is probably related to the increasing use of prostate biopsies to investigate patients with elevated serum prostate-specific antigen levels. Here, we report seven cases of incidental SV amyloidosis over a 3-year period and consider their relationship to the previously suggested aetiological factors. Based on our series, we conclude that incidental localized SV amyloidosis observed in diagnostic prostate biopsies does not warrant formal investigations for systemic amyloidosis. PMID:23223033

Yang, Zichu; Laird, Alexander; Monaghan, Ashley; Seywright, Morag; Ahmad, Imran; Leung, Hing Y



The Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid protein Acp62F is a protease inhibitor that is toxic upon ectopic expression.  

PubMed Central

Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid proteins stimulate sperm storage and egg laying in the mated female but also cause a reduction in her life span. We report here that of eight Drosophila seminal fluid proteins (Acps) and one non-Acp tested, only Acp62F is toxic when ectopically expressed. Toxicity to preadult male or female Drosophila occurs upon one exposure, whereas multiple exposures are needed for toxicity to adult female flies. Of the Acp62F received by females during mating, approximately 10% enters the circulatory system while approximately 90% remains in the reproductive tract. We show that in the reproductive tract, Acp62F localizes to the lumen of the uterus and the female's sperm storage organs. Analysis of Acp62F's sequence, and biochemical assays, reveals that it encodes a trypsin inhibitor with sequence and structural similarities to extracellular serine protease inhibitors from the nematode Ascaris. In light of previous results demonstrating entry of Acp62F into the mated female's hemolymph, we propose that Acp62F is a candidate for a molecule to contribute to the Acp-dependent decrease in female life span. We propose that Acp62F's protease inhibitor activity exerts positive protective functions in the mated female's reproductive tract but that entry of a small amount of this protein into the female's hemolymph could contribute to the cost of mating. PMID:11805057

Lung, Oliver; Tram, Uyen; Finnerty, Casey M; Eipper-Mains, Marcie A; Kalb, John M; Wolfner, Mariana F



Symptomatic and urodynamic responses in patients with reduced or no seminal emission during silodosin treatment for LUTS and BPH  

PubMed Central

Data from phase 3 studies (NCT00224107, NCT00224120) of silodosin for treatment of BPH symptoms were analyzed to examine the relationship between treatment efficacy and occurrence of abnormal ejaculation. Men aged ?50 years with International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS) ?13 and peak urinary flow rates (Qmax) of 4–15?ml?s?1 received placebo or silodosin 8?mg once daily for 12 weeks. Silodosin-treated patients were stratified by absence or presence of ‘retrograde ejaculation' (RE). Groups were compared using analysis of covariance (for change from baseline) and responder analyses. Of the 466 patients receiving silodosin, 131 (28%) reported RE and 335 (72%) did not; 4 of the 457 patients receiving placebo (0.9%) reported RE. Most RE events in silodosin-treated patients (110/134; 82%) were reported as ‘orgasm with absence of seminal emission.' Silodosin-treated patients with (+) and without (?) RE showed significant improvement in IPSS, Qmax and quality of life versus placebo (P<0.02). RE+ patients versus RE? patients experienced numerically greater improvement, but differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). For RE+ patients, the odds of achieving improvement of ?3 points in IPSS and ?3?ml?s?1 in Qmax by study end were 1.75 times those for RE? patients (P=0.0127). Absence of seminal emission may predict superior treatment efficacy of silodosin in individual patients. PMID:21135869

Roehrborn, C G; Kaplan, S A; Lepor, H; Volinn, W



Characterization of a wheat pathogenesis-related protein, TaBWPR-1.2, in seminal roots in response to waterlogging stress.  


We examined the role of pathogenesis-related protein TaBWPR-1.2 in the context of molecular and physiological responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seminal roots under waterlogging stress. Two cDNAs corresponding to the TaBWPR-1.2 gene, TaBWPR-1.2#2 and TaBWPR-1.2#13 were cloned from seminal roots. These cDNAs were predicted to encode proteins of 173 and 172 amino acids, respectively. In a time-course experiment, TaBWPR-1.2 gene expression was highest in whole seminal roots after 1 day of waterlogging treatment and higher than the control for at least 10 days; significantly increased protein abundance was observed after 7 days of waterlogging. Drought, another abiotic stress, did not influence TaBWPR-1.2 gene expression in wheat seminal roots at 5-d-old seedlings. Tissue-specific studies revealed that the highest TaBWPR-1.2 gene expression and protein levels were in the aerenchymatous root zone. TaBWPR-1.2 expression in seminal roots was also increased by the signalling molecules 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC; an ethylene precursor), H2O2, jasmonic acid (JA), and nitric oxide (NO); however, treatment with abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), and ethanol did not alter its expression. Interestingly, aerenchyma formation in the seminal root cortex was induced only by ACC and H2O2. Taken together, these results indicate that TaBWPR-1.2 is a waterlogging-responsive gene that might be associated with root cortex tissue alteration in wheat plants through ACC and/or H2O2 regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24709151

Haque, Md Emdadul; Abe, Fumitaka; Mori, Masahiko; Oyanagi, Atsushi; Komatsu, Setsuko; Kawaguchi, Kentaro



Normal modes and continuous spectra  

SciTech Connect

The authors consider stability problems arising in fluids, plasmas and stellar systems that contain singularities resulting from wave-mean flow or wave-particle resonances. Such resonances lead to singularities in the differential equations determining the normal modes at the so-called critical points or layers. The locations of the singularities are determined by the eigenvalue of the problem, and as a result, the spectrum of eigenvalues forms a continuum. They outline a method to construct the singular eigenfunctions comprising the continuum for a variety of problems.

Balmforth, N.J.; Morrison, P.J.



A hypothesis about the origin of sperm storage in the Eubrachyura, the effects of seminal receptacle structure on mating strategies and the evolution of crab diversity: How did a race to be first become a race to be last?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins and evolution of sperm storage in Brachyura are enigmatic: sperm is either stored in seminal receptacles, accessible via the vulvae on the sixth thoracic sternite, or in spermathecae at the border between the seventh and eighth sternites. Crabs with spermathecae are collectively referred to as “podotremes” while crabs with seminal receptacles belong to the Eubrachyura. The position of

Colin L. McLay; Laura S. López Greco



The multiple forms of bovine seminal ribonuclease: structure and stability of a C-terminal swapped dimer.  


Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) acquires an interesting anti-tumor activity associated with the swapping on the N-terminal. The first direct experimental evidence on the formation of a C-terminal swapped dimer (C-dimer) obtained from the monomeric derivative of BS-RNase, although under non-native conditions, is here reported. The X-ray model of this dimer reveals a quaternary structure different from that of the C-dimer of RNase A, due to the presence of three mutations in the hinge peptide 111-116. The mutations increase the hinge peptide flexibility and decrease the stability of the C-dimer against dissociation. The biological implications of the structural data are also discussed. PMID:24140346

Sica, Filomena; Pica, Andrea; Merlino, Antonello; Russo Krauss, Irene; Ercole, Carmine; Picone, Delia



Diagnosis and treatment of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prostatic abscess involving the seminal vesicle: A case report  

PubMed Central

Prostatic abscess involving the seminal vesicle is a rare disease due to the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. With the elevated risk of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), a great emphasis on its pathogenicity in prostatic abscesses is required. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to describe the use of ultrasound perfusion imaging and traditional computed tomography to diagnose a patient with CA-MRSA prostate abscess involving the seminal vesicle. In the present case, the patient was successfully treated via adjuvant antibiotics and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate needle aspiration. Prostatic abscess involving the seminal vesicle is an uncommon disease with a potential risk of mortality if the appropriate treatment is not provided, and thus deserves particular attention. Ultrasound perfusion imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of prostatic abscess involving the seminal vesicle. In the present case, early treatment with adjuvant antibiotics and TRUS-guided needle aspiration of the prostatic abscess resulted in a shorter hospital stay, and lower risk of local recurrence and mortality.





Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Unilateral castration and unilateral vasectomy both bring about a reduction in the androgen-dependent activity of the RNA poly- merase enzymes of the ipsilateral lobes of the prostate and seminal vesicles compared to that of the equivalent organs on the contralateral side. After unilateral orchidectomy (i.e. the epididymis was not removed with the testis), the ipsilateral lobes of the prostate



Plasma biomarkers of mouse aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal aging is accompanied by a series of physiological changes such as gray hair, cataracts, reduced immunity, and increased\\u000a susceptibility to disease. To identify novel biomarkers of normal aging, we analyzed plasma proteins of male mice longitudinally\\u000a from 2 to 19 months of age. Plasma proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified using mass\\u000a spectrometry (MS), MS\\/MS and liquid

Juan Ding; John J. Kopchick


The Normalized Mean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The normalized mean is developed and discussed as a descriptive measure of central location. The advantages of the normalized mean over the arithmetic mean, median, and trimmed mean are discussed. (Author)

Stavig, Gordon R.



Normal Pancreas Anatomy  


... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Normal Pancreas Anatomy View/Download: Small: 761x736 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Normal Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows the ...


Normal Chest CT  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Set of normal chest CT images with various important anatomic structures outlined, for cine viewing to gain a 3D view of the structure and its relationship to adjacent organs.Annotated: trueDisease diagnosis: Normal

Shaffer, Kitt


Normal Abdominal CT  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Set of normal abdominal CT images with various important anatomic structures outlined, for cine viewing to gain a 3D view of the structure and its relationship to adjacent organs.Annotated: trueDisease diagnosis: Normal

Shaffer, Kitt


On Normal Stratified Pseudomanifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stratified pseudomanifold is normal if its links are connected. A normalization of a stratified pseudomanifold $X$ is a normal stratified pseudomanifold $Y$ together with a finite-to-one projection $n:Y\\\\to X$ satisfying a local condition related to the fibers. The map n preserves the intersection homology. Following Borel any pl-stratified pseudomanifod has a normalization in the above sense. In this parper:

G. Padilla; Facultad De Ciencias



On URL Normalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since syntactically different URLs could represent the same resource in WWW, there are on-going efforts to define the URL\\u000a normalization in the standard communities. This paper considers the three additional URL normalization steps beyond ones specified\\u000a in the standard URL normalization. The idea behind our work is that in the URL normalization we want to minimize false negatives\\u000a further while

Sang Ho Lee; Sung Jin Kim; Seok-hoo Hong



Pelvic Normal Tissue Contouring Guidelines for Radiation Therapy: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Atlas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To define a male and female pelvic normal tissue contouring atlas for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials. Methods and Materials: One male pelvis computed tomography (CT) data set and one female pelvis CT data set were shared via the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center. A total of 16 radiation oncologists participated. The following organs at risk were contoured in both CT sets: anus, anorectum, rectum (gastrointestinal and genitourinary definitions), bowel NOS (not otherwise specified), small bowel, large bowel, and proximal femurs. The following were contoured in the male set only: bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, and penile bulb. The following were contoured in the female set only: uterus, cervix, and ovaries. A computer program used the binomial distribution to generate 95% group consensus contours. These contours and definitions were then reviewed by the group and modified. Results: The panel achieved consensus definitions for pelvic normal tissue contouring in RTOG trials with these standardized names: Rectum, AnoRectum, SmallBowel, Colon, BowelBag, Bladder, UteroCervix, Adnexa{sub R}, Adnexa{sub L}, Prostate, SeminalVesc, PenileBulb, Femur{sub R}, and Femur{sub L}. Two additional normal structures whose purpose is to serve as targets in anal and rectal cancer were defined: AnoRectumSig and Mesorectum. Detailed target volume contouring guidelines and images are discussed. Conclusions: Consensus guidelines for pelvic normal tissue contouring were reached and are available as a CT image atlas on the RTOG Web site. This will allow uniformity in defining normal tissues for clinical trials delivering pelvic radiation and will facilitate future normal tissue complication research.

Gay, Hiram A., E-mail: [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Barthold, H. Joseph [Commonwealth Hematology and Oncology, Weymouth, MA (United States); Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (Israel); O'Meara, Elizabeth [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Al-Lozi, Rawan [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Rosenthal, Seth A. [Radiation Oncology Centers, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lawton, Colleen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Sandler, Howard [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Zietman, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Myerson, Robert [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Willett, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Jhingran, Anuja [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Portelance, Lorraine [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Ryu, Janice [Radiation Oncology Centers, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States); and others



Plasma jets and plasma bullets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma plumes, or plasma jets, belong to a large family of gas discharges whereby the discharge plasma is extended beyond the plasma generation region into the surrounding ambience, either by a field (e.g. electromagnetic, convective gas flow, or shock wave) or a gradient of a directionless physical quantity (e.g. particle density, pressure, or temperature). This physical extension of a plasma

M G Kong; B N Ganguly; R F Hicks



Plasma Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword R. Satava and R. J. Barker; Part I. Introduction to Non-equilibrium Plasma, Cell Biology, and Contamination: 1. Introduction M. Laroussi; 2. Fundamentals of non-equilibrium plasmas M. Kushner and M. Kong; 3. Non-equilibrium plasma sources M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 4. Basic cell biology L. Greene and G. Shama; 5. Contamination G. Shama and B. Ahlfeld; Part II. Plasma Biology and Plasma Medicine: 6. Common healthcare challenges G. Isbary and W. Stolz; 7. Plasma decontamination of surfaces M. Kong and M. Laroussi; 8. Plasma decontamination of gases and liquids A. Fridman; 9. Plasma-cell interaction: prokaryotes M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 10. Plasma-cell interaction: eukaryotes G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 11. Plasma based wound healing G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 12. Plasma ablation, surgery, and dental applications K. Stalder, J. Woloszko, S. Kalghatgi, G. McCombs, M. Darby and M. Laroussi; Index.

Laroussi, M.; Kong, M. G.; Morfill, G.; Stolz, W.



Characterisation of element profile changes induced by long-term dietary supplementation of zinc in the brain and cerebellum of 3xTg-AD mice by alternated cool and normal plasma ICP-MS.  


Metal dyshomeostasis plays a crucial role in promoting several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), a condition that has been linked to deregulation of brain levels of Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Thus, quantitative multi-element profiling of brain tissues from AD models can be of great value in assessing the pathogenic role of metals as well as the value of therapeutic interventions aimed at restoring metal homeostasis in the brain. In this study, we employed low resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to evaluate levels of ultra-trace, trace, and major elements in brains and cerebella of 3xTg-AD mice, a well characterized transgenic (Tg) AD model. This method is based on alternated cool and hot plasma ICP-MS. The essay fulfilled analytical requirements for the quantification of 14 elements in the Central Nervous System (CNS) of our Tg model. Quantification of Li, Al, Cr, and Co, a procedure that requires a pre-concentration step, was validated by high resolution ICP-MS. Changes in element profiles occurring in 3xTg-AD mice were compared to the ones observed in wild type (WT) mice. We also investigated variations in element profiles in 3xTg-AD mice receiving a long-term (17 months) dietary supplementation of Zn. Our data indicate that, compared to WT animals, 3xTg-AD mice displayed signs of altered brain metal homeostasis. We also found that long-term Zn administration promoted decreased brain levels of some metals (K, Ca, and Fe) and restored levels of Al, Cr, and Co to values found in WT mice. PMID:23151739

Ciavardelli, Domenico; Consalvo, Ada; Caldaralo, Valentina; Di Vacri, Maria Laura; Nisi, Stefano; Corona, Carlo; Frazzini, Valerio; Sacchetta, Paolo; Urbani, Andrea; Di Ilio, Carmine; Sensi, Stefano L



Comparative pharmacokinetic study of two boswellic acids in normal and arthritic rat plasma after oral administration of Boswellia serrata extract or Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan by LC-MS.  


Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), a Chinese herbal formula composed of 11 different herbs, has been used traditionally for the treatment of arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the pharmacokinetic profile of its anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds has not been elucidated. Boswellic acids are the bioactive compounds with potent anti-inflammatory activity isolated from Boswellia serrate which is one of the 11 herbs of HLXLD. The objective of the study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of the two bioactive bowsellic acids: 11-keto-?-boswellic acid and 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic following oral administration of HLXLD or Boswellia serrata extract alone in normal and arthritic rats. An LC-MS method was developed and validated for the determination of 11-keto-?-boswellic acid and 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic in the comparative pharmacokinetic study. The results showed that there were significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between normal and arthritic groups. Interestingly, the absorptions of two boswellic acids were significantly higher in HLXLD than Boswellia serrata extract alone, indicating the synergistic effect of other herbal ingredients in HLXLD. This comparative pharmacokinetic study provided direct evidence supporting the notion that the efficacy of a complex mixture such as HLXLD is better than that of single components in treating human diseases. PMID:24806456

Wang, Hui; Zhang, Chenning; Wu, Yun; Ai, Yu; Lee, David Y-W; Dai, Ronghua



Functional development of sex accessory organs of the male rat. Use of oestradiol benzoate to identify the neonatal period as critical for development of normal protein-synthetic and secretory capabilities.  

PubMed Central

Functional development of the sex accessory tissues was studied in the male rat. Three potentially crucial developmental periods (neonatal, prepubertal and pubertal) were examined, and then the functional integrity of the accessory tissues was investigated in the adult, when the animals would have been expected to display normal function. Four accessory tissues (the seminal vesicles, ventral prostate and caput and cauda epididymides) were used because of their different embryological origins and responses to androgens in the adult. Synthesis and secretion of previously characterized tissue-specific androgen-dependent proteins were taken as indicators of normal function. Development was perturbed by using oestradiol benzoate, since this was known to affect gross development of the seminal vesicles and ventral prostate when given to neonatal rats. Treatment during the first 5 days after birth severely restricted development of the seminal vesicles and ventral prostate. Protein secreted by the former was only 1% of the normal amount, and in many cases several major secretory proteins were essentially missing. Prostatic protein secretion was less than 20% of normal, but all the major proteins were detectable. In both tissues overall protein synthesis per cell was quantitatively normal, but the proportion devoted to specific major secretory proteins was markedly depressed, i.e. the response is differential. In contrast, treatment during the prepubertal period was without noticeable effects. Development of the seminal vesicles and prostate was somewhat inhibited by treatment at puberty, but these changes were minor compared with those after neonatal exposure to oestradiol benzoate. No effects on epididymal protein synthesis or secretory proteins were observed, and epididymal weight and DNA content were only moderately decreased regardless of when oestradiol benzoate was administered during sexual maturation. Hence the neonatal period is not so critical for epididymal development. The substantial changes elicited by oestrogen treatment during neonatal life in seminal-vesicle and prostatic protein synthesis and secretion were compared with those evoked in sexually mature males by either oestrogen treatment or castration. Both these latter treatments resulted in a general decrease in seminal-vesicle protein synthesis and secretion, but the marked differential effects on major proteins after neonatal exposure were absent. Castration did, however, evoke a differential prostatic response, but this was not seen after oestrogen treatment of adults. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:7306031

Higgins, S J; Brooks, D E; Fuller, F M; Jackson, P J; Smith, S E



Pivoted document length normalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic information retrieval systems have to deal with documents of varying lengths in a text collection. Document length normalization is used to fairly retrieve documents of all lengths. In this study, we ohserve that a normalization scheme that retrieves documents of all lengths with similar chances as their likelihood of relevance will outperform another scheme which retrieves documents with chances

Amit Singhal; Chris Buckley; Manclar Mitra



[Normal tension glaucoma].  


Normal Tension Glaucoma is known to be a special form of glaucoma which is still a matter of dispute in its etymologic, diagnostic, therapeutic aspects and in its terminology. The diagnosis of normal tension glaucoma is by elimination of other disorders by pachymetry, tonometric curve, neurologic examination and sometimes MRI. What remains may be a locus minoris of general pathology. PMID:20827906

Potop, Vasile; Dumitrache, Marieta; Ciocalteu, Alina



Relationship between apoptotic markers in semen from fertile men and demographic, hormonal and seminal characteristics.  


Apoptosis in the testis has two putative roles during normal spermatogenesis; limitation of the germ cell population to numbers that can be supported by the Sertoli cells, and, possibly, selective depletion of meiotic and postmeiotic abnormal germ cells. We investigated the demographic and biological correlates of the pro-apoptotic marker Fas and the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-xL in sperm cells of fertile men. Six hundred and four men from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine were consecutively enrolled during their pregnant wife's antenatal visits. Semen analysis was performed as recommended by the World Health Organization. Immunofluorescence coupled to flow cytometry was utilized for detection of apoptotic markers in the sperm cell. DNA damage was assessed by flow cytometry using both the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay. The percentage of Fas-positive sperm cells was higher in men with high total sperm count (P<0.01), more motile sperms (P=0.04) and fewer sperm head defects (P=0.05). These associations were consistent within and across study regions. Furthermore, testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and sexual hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly negatively correlated with Fas within and across regions as well. The data indicated no association between the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL marker and semen or personal characteristics. The finding of Fas-positive sperm cells associated with better semen quality in a cohort of spouses of pregnant women seems different from previous data obtained in infertile men and warrants further investigation to clarify the biological significance of sperm apoptotic markers. PMID:23064689

Specht, Ina O; Spanò, Marcello; Hougaard, Karin S; Manicardi, Gian C; Bizzaro, Davide; Toft, Gunnar; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens-Peter E



[Fertilizing capacity of the ejaculate of nutria (Myocastor coypus) after the removal of the seminal vesicles as evaluated by the penetration test and natural mating].  


The fertility of male coypu sperm following seminal vesicle extirpation was investigated using the penetration test into the egg of Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Ejaculates were obtained from five males by means of electro-ejaculation under halothane narcosis. The results of the zona-free hamster eggs (ZFHE) penetration test showed that the ejaculates of all the surgically treated coypu males were fertile and that ZFHE value fluctuated from 54 to 76.6%. The results obtained in experiments with natural mating revealed that the extirpation of male coypu seminal vesicles did not affect their fertility. In total 47 foetuses were found post mortem in ten coypu females covered by surgically treated males, which on average represented 4.7 foetuses per female. PMID:2678717

Jakubicka, I; Barta, M; Babusík, P



Plasma vortices in the ionosphere and atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vortices observed in ionized clouds of thunderstorm fronts have the nature of plasma vortices. In this work, the need to account for the electrostatic instability of plasma in the origination, intensification, and decay of plasma vortices in the atmosphere is shown. Moisture condensation results in mass-energy transfer under the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of aerosols. If a phase volume of natural oscillations is transformed in the frequency-wave vector space in inhomogeneous plasma, the damping of plasma oscillations promotes an increase in the pressure gradients normal to the geomagnetic field. Excitation of the gradient instabilities is probable in atmospheric plasma formations.

Izhovkina, N. I.



Maintenance of genomic integrity after DNA double strand breaks in the human prostate and seminal vesicle epithelium: the best and the worst  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is one of the most frequent cancer types in men, and its incidence is steadily increasing. On the other hand, primary seminal vesicle carcinomas are extremely rare with less than 60 cases reported worldwide. Therefore the difference in cancer incidence has been estimated to be more than a 100,000-fold. This is astonishing, as both tissues share similar epithelial structure and hormonal cues. Clearly, the two epithelia differ substantially in the maintenance of genomic integrity, possibly due to inherent differences in their DNA damage burden and DNA damage signaling. The DNA damage response evoked by DNA double strand breaks may be relevant, as their faulty repair has been implicated in the formation of common genomic rearrangements such as TMPRSS2-ERG fusions during prostate carcinogenesis. Here, we review DNA damaging processes of both tissues with an emphasis on inflammation and androgen signaling. We discuss how benign prostate and seminal vesicle epithelia respond to acute DNA damage, focusing on the canonical DNA double strand break-induced ATM-pathway, p53 and DNA damage induced checkpoints. We propose that the prostate might be more prone to the accumulation of genetic aberrations during epithelial regeneration than seminal vesicles due to a weaker ability to enforce DNA damage checkpoints. PMID:22762987

Jäämaa, Sari; Laiho, Marikki



Normality in Analytical Psychology  

PubMed Central

Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

Myers, Steve



Normality in analytical psychology.  


Although C.G. Jung's interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault's criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung's work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault's own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung's disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

Myers, Steve



Normal covariant quantization maps  

E-print Network

We consider questions related to quantizing complex valued functions defined on a locally compact topological group. In the case of bounded functions, we generalize R. Werner's approach to prove the characterization of the associated normal covariant quantization maps.

J. Kiukas; P. Lahti; K. Ylinen



On normal numbers Veronica Becher  

E-print Network

On normal numbers Ver´onica Becher Universidad de Buenos Aires & CONICET Coloquio del Departamento de Matem´atica, FCEN, UBA, 2 octubre 2014 #12;Normal numbers Normality is a basic form of randomness´onica Becher On normal numbers 1 / 33 #12;Normal numbers Normality is a basic form of randomness for real

Becher, Verónica


Dosimetric implications of residual seminal vesicle motion in fiducial-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer.  


To determine whether residual interfraction seminal vesicle (SV) displacement necessitates specific planning target volume (PTV) margins during fiducial-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate. A planning computed tomography (CT) scan and 2 subsequent CT scans were prospectively obtained for 20 prostate cancer patients with intraprostatic fiducial markers. After CT registration, SV displacement relative to the prostate was quantified as a function of margin size for both the proximal (1 cm) SV (PSV) and the full SV (FSV). Two IMRT plans were simulated for each patient (prostate + PSV and prostate + FSV) both with a uniform 5-mm PTV margin. Minimum clinical target volume (CTV) dose (D(min)) and the volume of SV receiving 95% of the prescription dose (V(95%)) were assessed during treatment and compared with the initial plan. In all cases, SV displacement with respect to the prostate was greater for the FSV compared with the PSV. To ensure at least 95% geometrical coverage of the CTV for 90% of patients, margins of 5 and 8 mm were required for the PSV and FSV, respectively. Dosimetrically, residual SV displacement had minimal impact on PSV coverage compared with FSV coverage. For the PSV D(min) was ?95% of the prescribed dose in 90% of patients with an overall mean V(95%) of 99.6 ± 0.8%; for the FSV D(min) was ?95% of the prescribed dose in only 45% of patients with a mean V(95%) of 97.9 ± 2.4%. The SVs move differentially from the prostate and exhibit greater variation with increasing distance from the prostate. For plans targeting just the prostate and PSVs, 5-mm PTV expansions are adequate. However, despite daily localization of the prostate, larger PTV margins are required for cases where the intent is to completely cover the FSV. PMID:22189029

Stenmark, Matthew H; Vineberg, Karen; Ten Haken, Randall K; Hamstra, Daniel A; Feng, Mary



Dosimetric implications of residual seminal vesicle motion in fiducial-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer  

SciTech Connect

To determine whether residual interfraction seminal vesicle (SV) displacement necessitates specific planning target volume (PTV) margins during fiducial-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate. A planning computed tomography (CT) scan and 2 subsequent CT scans were prospectively obtained for 20 prostate cancer patients with intraprostatic fiducial markers. After CT registration, SV displacement relative to the prostate was quantified as a function of margin size for both the proximal (1 cm) SV (PSV) and the full SV (FSV). Two IMRT plans were simulated for each patient (prostate + PSV and prostate + FSV) both with a uniform 5-mm PTV margin. Minimum clinical target volume (CTV) dose (D{sub min}) and the volume of SV receiving 95% of the prescription dose (V{sub 95%}) were assessed during treatment and compared with the initial plan. In all cases, SV displacement with respect to the prostate was greater for the FSV compared with the PSV. To ensure at least 95% geometrical coverage of the CTV for 90% of patients, margins of 5 and 8 mm were required for the PSV and FSV, respectively. Dosimetrically, residual SV displacement had minimal impact on PSV coverage compared with FSV coverage. For the PSV D{sub min} was {>=}95% of the prescribed dose in 90% of patients with an overall mean V{sub 95%} of 99.6 {+-} 0.8%; for the FSV D{sub min} was {>=}95% of the prescribed dose in only 45% of patients with a mean V{sub 95%} of 97.9 {+-} 2.4%. The SVs move differentially from the prostate and exhibit greater variation with increasing distance from the prostate. For plans targeting just the prostate and PSVs, 5-mm PTV expansions are adequate. However, despite daily localization of the prostate, larger PTV margins are required for cases where the intent is to completely cover the FSV.

Stenmark, Matthew H.; Vineberg, Karen; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Feng, Mary, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)



Plasma medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different aspects of plasma medicine, the new branch interdisciplinary between plasma chemistry and medicine, are considered.\\u000a It was shown that complex biological processes in living tissues and bodies can be controlled, stimulated, catalyzed, and\\u000a diagnosed with the use of low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure air plasma. It was found that discharge plasma can produce\\u000a the desired therapeutic effect in wound sterilization and healing,

V. N. Vasilets; A. Gutsol; A. B. Shekhter; A. Fridman



Plasma Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning at an introductory level, this text presents a thorough treatment of plasma physics, including an extensive discussion of its applications in thermonuclear fusion research. A novel feature of this book is its comprehensive description of the various concepts and formulas widely used in fusion theory based on the fundamental equations of the plasma fluid. The physics of fusion plasmas

Kyoji Nishikawa; Masashiro Wakatani



Is Gaussian normal?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many years, hydraulic conductivity was considered to be lognormal. More so, in stochastic hydrogeology it was postulated that the best multivariate model for logconductivity was the multiGaussian one. However, evidence has proven that in many cases, hydraulic conductivity is not normal and that modeling using a multiGaussian distribution can introduce unwanted spatial patterns. This presentation will discuss some algorithms to address the problem of non Gaussianity of logconductivity in the context of inverse modeling. More precisely, the normal-score ensemble Kalman filter (NS-EnKF), and the ensemble pattern matching (EnPAT) will be commented with its advantages and pitfalls.

Gómez-Hernández, J. Jaime; Xu, Teng



Fibrinolysis in normal vitreous liquid.  


Plasmin is the key enzyme of fibrinolysis. Plasmin-alpha2-antiplasmin (PAP) complexes are biomarkers of fibrinolysis activation. The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the activity of fibrinolysis in normal human eyes, that is in eyes without blood-retina barrier breakdown (BRB), which has not been investigated so far. Twenty-two vitreal samples were harvested at the beginning of a standard 23-gauge three-port pars plana vitrectomy for macular pucker removal, macular hole closure or vitreal floater removal from the central vitreous body. These samples were immediately stabilized with human albumin (2.5% final conc.) and arginine (1.25?mmol/l final conc.) and subsequently frozen. Plasminogen was functionally determined in an ultra-sensitive pNA reaction after activation with streptokinase (100%?=?functional plasminogen in pooled normal citrated plasma). PAP concentrations were measured by enzyme immune assay (EIA). Intravitreal functional plasminogen exhibited to be 1?±?0.65% (range: 0.2-2.49%). PAP concentrations ranged at levels of 14?±?9ng/ml (range: 2-33?ng/ml). Pearson's correlation quotient between functional plasminogen and PAP revealed to be r equal to -0.27 (P?=?0.221). No adverse events or serious side effects occurred. Sampling vitreous fluid at the beginning of a standard 23-gauge three-port pars plana vitrectomy is a well tolerated procedure. A strict stabilization procedure for extracted vitreous specimen is necessary to obtain activities and concentrations that are close to the true intraocular value. There is a basal intraocular fibrinolysis, a possible target for intravitreal pharmacological therapy. PMID:24247317

Bertelmann, Thomas; Stief, Thomas; Bölöni, Reka; Schulze, Stephan; Wenner, Yaroslava; Sekundo, Walter; Mennel, Stefan



New normal numbers Veronica Becher  

E-print Network

New normal numbers Ver´onica Becher Universidad de Buenos Aires & CONICET, Argentina Joint work Departamento de Matem´atica, FCEyN, UBA, julio 2014 Ver´onica Becher New normal numbers 0 / 15 #12;Normal numbers Ver´onica Becher New normal numbers 1 / 15 #12;Normal numbers A base is an integer b greater than

Becher, Verónica


Normal Birth: Two Stories  

PubMed Central

The author shares two stories: one of a normal birth that took place in a hospital with a nurse-midwife in attendance and another of a home birth unexpectedly shared by many colleagues. Both are told with the goal to inform, inspire, and educate. PMID:17273292

Scaer, Roberta M.



Normal Estimate Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates a random sample from a normal distribution, and computes standard point estimates of the distribution mean and standard deviation. The bias and mean square error are also computed.

Siegrist, Kyle


Bivariate Normal Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates the bivariate normal distribution. The means are set at 0, but the standard deviations and the correlation can be varied. Simulated points from the distribution are shown as dots in a scatterplot.

Siegrist, Kyle


Normals to a Parabola  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given a parabola in the standard form y[superscript 2] = 4ax, corresponding to three points on the parabola, such that the normals at these three points P, Q, R concur at a point M = (h, k), the equation of the circumscribing circle through the three points P, Q, and R provides a tremendous opportunity to illustrate "The Art of Algebraic…

Srinivasan, V. K.



Normal and lognormal estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive theoretical study of the problem of estimation of regionalized variables with normal or lognormal distribution is presented. Unbiased linear estimators are derived, under both assumptions that the population mean is known and unknown, and their error variance is calculated. The minimum variance kriging estimators are studied in more detail and are compared with the conditional expectations. The emphasis

Jean-Michel M. Rendu



Dusty plasmas  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities.

Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.



Plasma viscosity: a forgotten variable.  


Evaluation of plasma viscosity has been underutilized in the clinical practice. Plasma viscosity is determined by water-content and macromolecular components. Plasma is a highly concentrated protein solution, therefore weak protein-protein interactions can play a role that is not characterized by electrophoresis. The effect of a protein on plasma viscosity depends on its molecular weight and structure. The less spheroid shape, the higher molecular weight, the higher aggregating capacity, and the higher temperature or pH sensitivity a protein has, the higher plasma viscosity results. Plasma is a Newtonian fluid, its viscosity does not depend on flow characteristics, therefore it is simple to measure, especially in capillary viscosimeters. Its normal value is 1.10-1.30 mPa s at 37 degrees C and independent of age and gender. The measurement has high stability and accuracy, thus little alterations may be pathologically important. Inflammations, tissue injuries resulting in plasma protein changes can increase its value with high sensitivity, though low specificity. It can increase in parallel with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), but it is not influenced by hematocrit (anemia, polycytemia), or time to analysis. Based on these favorable features, in 1942 plasma viscosity was recommended to substitute ESR. In hyperviscosity syndromes plasma viscosity is better in follow-up than ESR. In rheumatoid arthritis, its sensitivity and specificity are better than that of ESR or C-reactive protein. Plasma fibrinogen concentration and plasma viscosity are elevated in unstable angina pectoris and stroke and their higher values are associated with higher rate of major adverse clinical events. Elevation of plasma viscosity correlates to the progression of coronary and peripheral artery diseases. In conclusion, plasma viscosity should be measured routinely in medical practice. PMID:18503132

Késmárky, Gábor; Kenyeres, Péter; Rábai, Miklós; Tóth, Kálmán



Effects of atipamezole and medetomidine administration on seminal variables and functions of erection and ejaculation of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) after electroejaculation  

PubMed Central

Background Alpha adrenergic drugs are usually used in the treatment of erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction in humans. The influence of such drugs on the seminal characteristics of wild animals has not been verified; whereas their impact on the seminal characteristics and erectile and ejaculatory functions of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) has already been determined. This study aimed at investigating and comparing the effects of medetomidine and atipamezole on the seminal variables of collared peccaries undergoing electroejaculation as well as at determining whether these drugs affected the erectile and ejaculatory functions of this species. Results A statistically significant difference in sperm concentration was observed between AP (100.0?±?26.0 × 106 sperm/ml) and MP (220.2?±?49.8 × 106 sperm/ml); however, both these treatments did not differ from P treatment (180.0?±?50.7 × 106 sperm/ml). No statistically significant difference was observed among all treatments with regard to erectile function. With regard to ejaculation time, no significant difference was observed between the MP and AP treatments; however, when compared with the P treatment, AP exhibited a significantly higher difference. Conclusions When collared peccaries were anesthetized with propofol, neither medetomidine nor atipamezole significantly affected the characteristics of the semen or the erectile function, despite the fact that the AP treatment increased ejaculation time. Therefore, the data indicate that using propofol alone is an effective anesthetic protocol for collecting semen in collared peccaries. Other non-injectable anesthetic drugs, such as inhaled anesthetics, may be used in future research to collect semen from peccaries. PMID:25103781



Serum copper, follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, spermatic count, viability, progression and seminal zinc correlations in a human (male) infertility study  

SciTech Connect

The role of copper and its correlations to other parameters has been investigated in a male-fertility pilot study at a University infertility clinic in Montreal. Serum and semen Cu concentrations were determined in 100 men (age 25 to 54 years) referred to the clinic for infertility evaluation. The results of the significant correlations between serum Cu concentrations and male fertility parameters such as (1) the serum concentrations of the hormones FSH, LH and prolactin; (2) spermatozoal count, viability and progression and (3) seminal zinc concentrations are reported.

Sella, G.E. (Laval Univ., Quebec City, Canada); Cunnane, S.C.; McInnes, R.A.



[A case of locally advanced sigmoid colon cancer invading the bladder and seminal vesicle effectively treated with preoperative mFOLFOX6].  


A 77-year-old male was admitted to our hospital complaining of dyschezia. Computed tomography (CT) and colonoscopy (CF) revealed a huge sigmoid colon cancer invading the bladder and seminal vesicle. Chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 was initiated preoperatively, and the tumor shrunk markedly after seven courses of treatment. Pelvic exenteration with negative margins was carried out. The patient is still alive and disease-free 16 months after surgery. It was suggested that mFOLFOX6 may be useful for advanced colon cancer invading other organs when used as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:22189239

Hirayama, Kazuhisa; Hayashi, Tadataka; Nishiwaki, Yoshiro; Kamishima, Megumu; Furuhashi, Satoru; Fukushima, Hisataka; Nakata, Yuuki; Tamura, Hiroaki; Kanai, Toshikazu; Ikematsu, Yoshito; Mori, Hiroki; Ozawa, Takachika



Epididymal sperm from the African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer) can be frozen successfully with AndroMed ® and with Triladyl™ but the addition of bovine seminal plasma is detrimental  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous diseases are carried and can be transmitted from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) to livestock. Buffaloes free of specific diseases (BFSD) are thus in demand amongst game farmers. Current BFSD derive from a small genetic pool and hence there is a special interest in bringing new genetic material into such herds.In this study epididymal sperm from 16 mature African

F. C Herold; J. E Aurich; D Gerber



Normal Fault Visualization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module demonstrates the motion on an active normal fault. Faulting offsets three horizontal strata. At the end of the faulting event, surface topography has been generated. The upper rock layer is eroded by clicking on the 'begin erosion' button. The operator can manipulate the faulting motion, stopping and reversing motion on the fault at any point along the transit of faulting. The action of erosion is also interactive. One possible activity is an investigation of the control of different faulting styles on regional landscape form. This visual lends itself to an investigation of fault motion, and a comparison of types of faults. The interactive normal faulting visual could be compared to other interactive visuals depicting thrust faults, reverse faults, and strike slip faults (interactive animations of these fault types can be found by clicking on 'Media Types' at top red bar, then 'Animations', then 'Faults'). By comparing the interactive images of different types of faulting with maps of terrains dominated by different faulting styles, students are aided in conceptualizing how certain faulting styles produce distinctive landforms on the earth's surface (e.g., ridge and valley topography [thrust faulting dominant] versus basin-and-range topography [normal faulting dominant]). Jimm Myers, geology professor at the University of Wyoming, originated the concept of The Magma Foundry, a website dedicated to improving Earth science education across the grade levels. The Magma Foundry designs and creates modular, stand-alone media components that can be utilized in a variety of pedagogical functions in courses and labs.

Myers, Jimm


Normalization of chest radiographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clinical use of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems is increasing. A possible limitation of CAD systems is that they are typically trained on data from a small number of sources and as a result, they may not perform optimally on data from different sources. In particular for chest radiographs, it is known that acquisition settings, detector technology, proprietary post-processing and, in the case of analog images, digitization, can all influence the appearance and statistical properties of the image. In this work we investigate if a simple energy normalization procedure is sufficient to increase the robustness of CAD in chest radiography. We evaluate the performance of a supervised lung segmentation algorithm, trained with data from one type of machine, on twenty images each from five different sources. The results, expressed in terms of Jaccard index, increase from 0.530 +/- 0.290 to 0.914 +/- 0.041 when energy normalization is omitted or applied, respectively. We conclude that energy normalization is an effective way to make the performance of lung segmentation satisfactory on data from different sources.

Philipsen, R. H. H. M.; Maduskar, P.; Hogeweg, L.; van Ginneken, B.



Dust-acoustic waves in dusty plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

New acoustic waves originating from a balance of dust particle inertia and plasma pressure are investigated. It is shown that these waves can propagate linearly as a normal mode in a dusty plasma, and non-linearly as supersonic solitons of either positive or negative electrostatic potential.




Plasma Porphyrins in Chronic Renal Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a quantitative sensitive HPLC fluorometric assay for the measurement of plasma and urine porphyrins, we have calculated the renal clearance of uro- and coproporphyrin in normal volunteers and in patients with congenital erythropoietic porphyria and hereditary coproporphyria (HCP). In patients with porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), only uroporphyrin clearance was calculated. Plasma porphyrin concentrations were measured in patients with chronic

Mustafa Gebril; Cyril Weinkove; Russ Ead; Ken McDonald; Ross Morton



Analytic calculation of quasi-normal modes  

E-print Network

We discuss the analytic calculation of quasi-normal modes of various types of perturbations of black holes both in asymptotically flat and anti-de Sitter spaces. We obtain asymptotic expressions and also show how corrections can be calculated perturbatively. We pay special attention to low-frequency modes in anti-de Sitter space because they govern the hydrodynamic properties of a gauge theory fluid according to the AdS/CFT correspondence. The latter may have experimental consequencies for the quark-gluon plasma formed in heavy ion collisions.

George Siopsis



Antisperm antibodies detected by mixed agglutination reaction and immunobead test are not associated with chronic inflammation and infection of the seminal tract.  


The association between chronic inflammatory/infectious diseases of the male reproductive tract and the presence of antisperm antibodies (ASA) in semen is still controversial. We compared the results of the mixed agglutinin reaction (MAR) test and immunobead test for detecting ASA type IgG and IgA in 133 patients attending our special outpatient department for andrological infections and evaluated the differences in the detection rate of ASA. Patients were divided into three groups: a study group that included 79 patients with symptomatic nonacute inflammatory/infectious diseases of the seminal tract, a control group (n = 44) and a third group of men with a history of successful vasectomy reversal (n = 10). The two tests correlated in a statistically significant manner for the detection of IgG and IgA in all groups. The overall positive detection rate of clinical significant levels of IgG and IgA was 2.5% and 1.3% (respectively) in the patients with inflammation/infection of the seminal tract. No statistical significant difference in the detection rate of ASA levels between the inflammatory/infectious group and the controls was detected. The results of the MAR test and immunobead test have a statistical significant correlation and their results provide evidence that there is no association between inflammatory/infectious diseases of the male reproductive tract and the presence of ASA in semen. PMID:18727732

Marconi, M; Nowotny, A; Pantke, P; Diemer, T; Weidner, W



Impact of prostate weight on perioperative outcomes of robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy with a posterior approach to the seminal vesicle  

PubMed Central

Background To determine the effect of prostate weight on the preoperative and postoperative outcomes of robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with a posterior approach to the seminal vesicle. Methods This retrospective study examined prospectively collected data on 219 robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomies performed from May 2011 to February 2013. Patients were divided into four groups based on pathologic prostate weight: <30 g, 30–49 g, 50–79 g, and ?80 g. Continence and sexual function were assessed using validated questionnaires. Results Of the 219 patients, 19, 143, 51, and 6 had prostates weighing <30 g, 30–49 g, 50–79 g, and ?80 g, respectively. Significant differences were found between the preoperative Gleason scores, total operative times, and robotic times of the groups. Both estimated blood loss and anastomosis time tended to be greater in the higher prostate weight groups, but the differences were not significant. No significant differences were observed in transfusion rate, length of catheterization, complication incidence, or positive surgical margins. The return of urinary function, as determined by questionnaire scores, was not affected by prostate weight. Conclusions Robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy can be performed safely and with similar perioperative outcomes, regardless of prostate weight. Indeed, oncological outcome, urinary continence, and complications were similar across the prostate weight groups, suggesting that robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with a posterior approach to the seminal vesicle may be performed effectively on men with large prostates, despite greater surgical times. PMID:24400644



On normal numbers Veronica Becher  

E-print Network

On normal numbers Ver´onica Becher Universidad de Buenos Aires & CONICET, Argentina 16 Latin American Symposium on Mathematical Logic July 2014 Ver´onica Becher On normal numbers 0 / 22 #12;Normal numbers Normality is a basic form of randomness for real numbers. It asks that the expansions of real

Becher, Verónica


On normal numbers Veronica Becher  

E-print Network

On normal numbers Ver´onica Becher Universidad de Buenos Aires & CONICET Workshop on Logic Language and Information, July 2014 #12;Normal numbers Normality is a basic form of randomness for real numbers. It asks that the expansions of real numbers obey the Law of Large Numbers. Ver´onica Becher On normal numbers 1 / 30 #12

Becher, Verónica


Radioimmunoassay of ACTH in plasma  

PubMed Central

Techniques are described in detail for a radioimmunoassay of plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) that is capable of detecting hormone in unextracted normal human plasma at 1:5 dilution under the conditions described. The sensitivity of the assay is at the level of 1 ??g/ml (equivalent to 0.014 mU/100 ml). In normal subjects ACTH concentrations averaged 22 ??g/ml (equivalent to 0.308 mU/100 ml) plasma at 8-10 a.m. In a smaller group the concentrations averaged 9.6 ??g/ml (equivalent to 0.134 mU/100 ml) at 10-11 p.m. Although a circadian rhythm in normal subjects was not always well marked throughout the daytime hours, plasma ACTH usually fell to its lowest value in the late evening. In hospital patients who were not acutely ill, concentrations were infrequently above 100 ??g/ml in the morning and usually fell to significantly lower levels in the late evening. Severely ill hospital patients occasionally exhibited a.m. concentrations above 200 ??g/ml. In a group of subjects showing frequent spiking of plasma 17-OHCS concentrations throughout the day parallel spiking of plasma ACTH as well was generally observed. Metyrapone produced marked increases in plasma ACTH within 24 hr in all cases and generally within 3-6 hr except when started late in the day. Dexamethasone brought about a persistent reduction in plasma ACTH in a patient under continued treatment with metyrapone. Hypoglycemia, electroshock, surgery under general anesthesia, histalog and vasopressin administration were usually followed by significant increases in plasma ACTH concentration. Prior administration of dexamethasone blocked the response to hypoglycemia. Marked elevations in plasma ACTH were observed in patients with adrenal insufficiency off steroid therapy, in Cushing's disease after adrenalectomy even in the presence of persistent hypercortisolemia, and in some untreated patients with Cushing's disease. Umbilical cord blood contained higher plasma ACTH concentrations than maternal blood at delivery in seven of eight cases. After suppression of ACTH secretion by dexamethasone or cortisol. ACTH disappeared from plasma with half-times ranging from 22 min to 30 min in three cases studied. Images PMID:4302180

Berson, Solomon A.; Yalow, Rosalyn S.



Studies of bilirubin kinetics in normal adults  

PubMed Central

This report describes studies of bilirubin kinetics in 13 healthy young adults. The plasma content of unconjugated bilirubin-14C was determined at frequent intervals for 24-30 hr after the intravenous injection of a tracer dose of unconjugated isotopic bilirubin. Fecal and urinary radioactivity were measured for 7 days. During this time cumulative recovery averaged 96% of the injected dose. The plasma curves were processed by digital computer. For the 30 hr experimental period, a sum of three exponentials, with average half-times of 18, 81, and 578 min, was required to describe the data. Using the plasma curve integral method, the hepatic bilirubin clearance (47 ±10 ml/min, mean ±SD), the bilirubin production rate (3.8 ±0.6 mg/kg per day), and the mean red blood cell life span (101 ±13 days) were calculated directly from the parameters of this function. To gain further insight into the metabolism of unconjugated bilirubin, the data were also used to determine the parameters of a multicompartmental model. In the model proposed, plasma unconjugated bilirubin exchanges with two additional pools one of which is thought to represent extrahepatic extravascular, and the other intrahepatic unconjugated bilirubin. Bilirubin is eliminated from the system via the proposed intrahepatic pool. From the data and the model, pool sizes and exchange rates between compartments were calculated, and the liver: plasma concentration gradient estimated. These studies provide a detailed analysis of the kinetics of unconjugated bilirubin in a healthy normal population and are intended to serve as a reference point for studies of abnormal states. Images PMID:5824077

Berk, Paul D.; Howe, Robert B.; Bloomer, Joseph R.; Berlin, Nathaniel I.




PubMed Central

Activation of plasma kallikrein arginine esterase activity by kaolin resulted in peak activity at 1 min of incubation and a 50% reduction in activity at 5 min in normal plasma, and 30% reduction in the plasma of patients with hereditary angioneurotic edema who lacked the C1 inactivator. The peak esterolytic activity was inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor whereas the 5 min activity was resistant to this inhibitor. Acid treatment of normal and hereditary angioneurotic edema plasma destroyed the factor responsible for the fall in esterase activity at 5 min and the factor which rendered the esterase resistant to soybean trypsin inhibitor. Purified ?2-macroglobulin inhibited approximately 50% of the TAMe esterase activity of purified plasma kallikrein without changing its activity toward basic amino acid esters. The interaction between the ?2-macroglobulin and kallikrein resulted in alterations in the gel filtration chromatographic pattern of the TAMe esterase and biologic activity of kallikrein, indicating that kallikrein was bound to the ?2-macroglobulin. The TAMe esterase activity of this complex, isolated by column chromatography, was resistant to C1 inactivator and SBTI. Studies of incubation mixtures of kallikrein, ?2-macroglobulin and C1 inactivator suggested that these inhibitors compete for the enzyme, and that the ?2-macroglobulin partially protects the esterase activity of kallikrein from C1 inactivator. The ?2-macroglobulin isolated from kaolin-activated plasma possessed 240 times the esterolytic activity of the ?2-macroglobulin purified from plasma treated with inhibitors of kallikrein and of its activation. The ?2-macroglobulin blocked the uterine-containing activity and vascular permeability-inducing effects of plasma kallikrein. These studies suggest that the ?2-macroglobulin is a major plasma inhibitor of kallikrein and provide a new example of an interrelationship between the coagulation, fibrinolytic, and kallikrein enzyme systems. PMID:4101346

Harpel, Peter C.



Plasma valve  


A plasma valve includes a confinement channel and primary anode and cathode disposed therein. An ignition cathode is disposed adjacent the primary cathode. Power supplies are joined to the cathodes and anode for rapidly igniting and maintaining a plasma in the channel for preventing leakage of atmospheric pressure through the channel.

Hershcovitch, Ady (Mount Sinai, NY); Sharma, Sushil (Hinsdale, IL); Noonan, John (Naperville, IL); Rotela, Elbio (Clarendon Hills, IL); Khounsary, Ali (Hinsdale, IL)



Plasma accelerator  


There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

Wang, Zhehui (Los Alamos, NM); Barnes, Cris W. (Santa Fe, NM)



Diamine Oxidase Activity in Plasma and Urine in Uremia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamine oxidase activity was measured in plasma or urine in 12 normal men, 4 men with chronic liver or heart disease, 13 men with chronic renal failure, and 12 men undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Also in five studies in 4 patients, plasma diamine oxidase activity and total amine levels were measured at hourly intervals during a hemodialysis treatment. Plasma diamine oxidase

Chick Fai Tarn; Joel D. Kopple; Marian Wang; Marian E. Swendseid



Normal black kidney  

PubMed Central

A black kidney has 3 major differential diagnoses: hemosiderosis, lipofuscin pigment and melanotic renal cell carcinoma. Excluding lipofuscin, the other 2 are accompanied by an abnormal renal function. We report on a 25-year-old man who intended to donate a kidney to his cousin. On the operating room table when we incised the left flank region and exposed the kidney, we found a firm and black kidney so the operation was cancelled due to potential vascular injuries. Days after the incomplete procedure, we reviewed the donor’s biochemistry and imaging to reassess his renal function, but the results showed quite normal renal function again. The result of Ham test was also negative. Two weeks later, we began the operation, removed the same left kidney and found that it was in the same conditions as it was before. We took the opportunity to send needle biopsies of the kidney for histopathologic analysis. The analysis showed a melanotic kidney without pathological changes in glomeruli and interstitium and vessels. A black kidney may result in hemosiderin, lipofuscin or melanin deposits in the kidney, which can confirm the diagnosis; however, special tests for underlying disease and renal function should be considered. Some causes of black kidney lead to abnormal function, but our patients’s kidney returned to normal. PMID:24839502

Yarmohamadi, Aliasghar; Rezayat, Ali Reza Akhavan; Memar, Bahram; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Cand, PhD



Response Variability to Sedative Effects of Diazepam in Normal Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-two normal subjects received 35 mg rectal diazepam. Plasma levels and sedative effects were measured up to twelve hours after medication. The tests applied were the Trieger dot test (DOT), perceptual speed test (PST), digit symbol substitution test (DSST), continous simple reaction time and subjective assessment of sedation (SAS). Psychomotor performance under influence of the drug was interpolated at the

Hans Henrik Jensen; Hans Christian Hansen; Niels Erik Drenck




Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of using dextran as a ; plasma expander during a potential military or civilian mass disaster in which ; individuals would suffer both blood loss and the effects of whole-body ; irradiation. To this end the rates of clearance of a standard dextran ; preparation from the sera of normal control and acutely

S. W. Milstein; Y. Miyazaki; L. Stanton; J. M. Howard



Hemostasis during normal pregnancy and puerperium.  


During normal pregnancy the hemostatic balance changes in the direction of hypercoagulability, thus decreasing bleeding complications in connection with delivery. The most important initial factor for acute hemostasis at delivery is, however, uterine muscle contractions, which interrupt blood flow. Global tests such as Sonoclot signature, the Thromboelastogram, and a new method analyzing overall plasma hemostasis, all show changes representative of hypercoagulability during pregnancy. Increased endogenous thrombin generation, acquired activated protein C resistance, slightly decreased activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and increased prothrombin complex level (PT) measured as international normalized ratio (INR) of less than 0.9 have been reported as well. In normal pregnancy, the platelet count is within normal range except during the third trimester when benign gestational thrombocytopenia, 80 to 150 x 10 9/L, can be observed. Platelet turnover is usually normal. Activation of platelets and release of beta-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 are reported. The bleeding time is unchanged during normal pregnancy. Most blood coagulation factors and fibrinogen increase during pregnancy. Factor (F) XI is the only blood coagulation factor that decreases. Blood coagulation inhibitors are mainly unchanged but the level of free protein S decreases markedly and the level of tissue factor pathway inhibitor increases. Thrombomodulin levels increase during pregnancy. Fibrinolytic capacity is diminished during pregnancy, mainly because of markedly increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) from endothelial cells and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) from the placenta. Thrombin-activated fibrinolysis inhibitor is reported to be unaffected. The total hemostatic balance has been studied by analyses of prothrombin fragment 1+2, thrombin-antithrombin complex, fibrinopeptide A, soluble fibrin, D-dimer, and plasmin-antiplasmin complex. There is activation of blood coagulation and a simultaneous increase in fibrinolysis without signs of organ dysfunction during normal pregnancy. These changes increase as pregnancy progresses. During delivery, there is consumption of platelets and blood coagulation factors, including fibrinogen. Fibrinolysis improves and increases fast following childbirth and expulsion of the placenta, resulting in increased D-dimer levels. These changes are self-limiting at normal delivery. The hemostatic changes, noted during pregnancy, normalize after delivery within 4 to 6 weeks. Platelet count and free protein S, however, can be abnormal longer. Hemostasis should not be tested earlier than 3 months following delivery and after terminating lactation to rule out influences of pregnancy. PAI-1 and PAI-2 levels decrease fast postpartum, but PAI 2 has been detected up to 8 weeks postpartum. alpha 2 -antiplasmin, urokinase, and kallikrein inhibitor levels have been reported to be increased 6 weeks postpartum. PMID:12709915

Hellgren, Margareta



Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generator  

SciTech Connect

A prototype RF H{sup -} surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA/kW. Control experiments with H{sup -} beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing.

Dudnikov, V.; Johnson, R. P. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, Illinios 60510 (United States); Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)



Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generator.  


A prototype RF H(-) surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA?kW. Control experiments with H(-) beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing. PMID:22380221

Dudnikov, V; Johnson, R P; Murray, S; Pennisi, T; Piller, C; Santana, M; Stockli, M; Welton, R



Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generatora)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype RF H- surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA/kW. Control experiments with H- beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing.

Dudnikov, V.; Johnson, R. P.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.



Low-normal thyroid function and novel cardiometabolic biomarkers.  


The concept is emerging that low-normal thyroid function, i.e., either higher thyroid-stimulating hormone or lower free thyroxine levels within the euthyroid reference range, could contribute to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is possible that adverse effects of low-normal thyroid function on cardiovascular outcome may be particularly relevant for specific populations, such as younger people and subjects with high cardiovascular risk. Low-normal thyroid function probably relates to modest increases in plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance, but effects on high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are inconsistent. Low-normal thyroid function may enhance plasma cholesteryl ester transfer, and contribute to an impaired ability of HDL to inhibit oxidative modification of LDL, reflecting pro-atherogenic alterations in lipoprotein metabolism and HDL function, respectively. Low-normal thyroid function also confers lower levels of bilirubin, a strong natural anti-oxidant. Remarkably, all these effects of low-normal thyroid functional status appear to be more outspoken in the context of chronic hyperglycemia and/or insulin resistance. Collectively, these data support the concept that low-normal thyroid function may adversely affect several processes which conceivably contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, beyond effects on conventional lipoprotein measures. PMID:25690422

van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J N; Dullaart, Robin P F



Plasma universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditionally the views on the cosmic environent have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasmas. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If a model of the universe is based on the plasma phenomena mentioned it is found that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasmas. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasmas are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model it is applied to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4 to 5 billions of years ago with an accuracy of better than 1%.

Alfven, H.



Institutionalizing Normal: Rethinking Composition's Precedence in Normal Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Composition historians have recently worked to recover histories of composition in normal schools. This essay argues, however, that historians have inadvertently misconstrued the role of normal schools in American education by inaccurately comparing rhetorical education in normal schools to rhetorical education in colleges and universities.…

Skinnell, Ryan



Differing Pattern of Sympathoexcitation in Normal-Weight and Obesity-Related Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension in normal-weight and obese individuals is characterized by activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Measurement of spillover of the sympathetic transmitter, norepinephrine, to plasma indicates that the regional pattern of sympathetic activation in the 2 \\

Elisabeth Lambert; Nora Straznicky; Markus Schlaich; Murray Esler; Tye Dawood; Elodie Hotchkin; Gavin Lambert



Magnetized Plasma for Reconfigurable Subdiffraction Imaging  

SciTech Connect

We show that magnetized plasma with appropriately designed parameters supports nearly diffractionless propagation of electromagnetic waves along the direction of the applied magnetic field, arising from their unbounded equifrequency contour in the magnetized plasma. Such a unique feature can be utilized to construct subdiffraction imaging devices, which is confirmed by detailed numerical investigations. Subdiffraction imaging devices based on magnetic plasma do not require microfabrication normally entailed by construction of metamaterials; more importantly, they can be dynamically reconfigured by tuning the applied magnetic field or the plasma density, and therefore they represent a facile and powerful route for imaging applications.

Zhang Shuang; Xiong Yi; Bartal, Guy [Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center, University of California, 5130 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, California 94720-1740 (United States); Yin Xiaobo; Zhang Xiang [Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center, University of California, 5130 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, California 94720-1740 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)



Reliable Evaluations of URL Normalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

URL normalization is a process of transforming URL strings into canonical form. Through this process, duplicate URL representations for web pages can be reduced significantly. There are a number of normalization methods. In this paper, we describe four metrics for evaluating normalization methods. The reliability and consistency of a URL is also considered in our evaluation. With the metrics proposed,

Sung Jin Kim; Hyo Sook Jeong; Sang Ho Lee



Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.  


Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands. PMID:25160003

Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A



Seasonal morphological variations and age-related changes of the seminal vesicle of viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus): an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.  


The viscacha is a seasonal rodent that exhibit an annual reproductive cycle with periods of maximum reproductive activity and gonadal regression. We studied seasonal variations in the morphology and cellular population of the seminal vesicles (SVs) during both periods and in impuber animals. Seminal vesicles were studied by light and electronic microscopy. Measurements of epithelial height, nuclear diameter, luminal diameter, and muscular layer were performed. Also, we studied the distribution of androgen receptors (AR) in this gland during the reproductive cycle and in impuber animal. During gonadal regression, principal and clear cells showed signs of reduced functional activity. These were characterized by an epithelium of smaller height, irregular nuclei, and cytoplasm with few organelles, dilated cisterns, and glycogen granules. In impuber animals, the principal cells showed large nuclei with chromatin lax and cytoplasm with small mitochondria, poorly developed Golgi apparatus, and granules of glycogen. On the other hand, the cells exhibited seasonal variations in the distribution and percentage of immunolabeled cells to AR throughout the annual reproductive cycle. During the gonadal regression period, glandular mucosa exhibited numerous epithelial cells with intense nuclear staining. However, fibromuscular stromal cells were weakly positive for AR in contrast to what was observed during the activity period. Considering that testosterone values are lower in adult animals during the period of gonadal regression and in impuber animals, our immunohistochemical results show a significant correlation with the percentage of AR-immunopositive cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the structure of the SVs changes in the activity period of viscacha, probably because of elevated levels of testosterone leading to an increase in the secretory activity of epithelial cells. PMID:22383422

Chaves, Eduardo M; Aguilera-Merlo, Claudia; Cruceño, Albana; Fogal, Teresa; Piezzi, Ramón; Scardapane, Luis; Dominguez, Susana



Seminal traits, suitability for semen preservation and fertility in the native Portuguese horse breeds Puro Sangue Lusitano and Sorraia: Implications for stallion classification and assisted reproduction.  


The Puro Sangue Lusitano (PSL) is the major national breed of horse in Portugal, but no studies exist on its seminal characteristics, or on the possibility of conserving semen for future use. The aim of this study was to evaluate semen parameters, fertility and the aptness to semen preservation in Lusitano Stallions. In order to compare characteristics defined by a single or by multiple semen collections per stallion 152 ejaculates obtained from 152 Lusitano stallions presented at an annual breeding soundness examination as well as data related to 371 ejaculates obtained from 9 PSL were analyzed. These latter samples were also evaluated in terms of their possible use in assisted reproduction and were compared with 113 ejaculates obtained from 4 Sorraia horses, a rare and endangered Portuguese breed. The percentage of motile spermatozoa (PMS) was assessed after collection (AC), after semen dilution (AD) and at 24h of cool-storage. Mean values obtained for sperm motility and morphology and semen pH observed after semen collection differ significantly (P<0.05) between single collection/multiple stallions and multiple collections/limited stallions, and no age related effects were detected. Overall, Lusitano semen quality was comparable to that of related breeds, while Sorraia stallions had very poor semen quality. The response to cool-storage of diluted semen samples differed among stallions and breeds, and the best results for progressive motile sperm cells at 24h were in a range of 35-53% for PSL stallions and were lower for Sorraia stallions. Fertility rates obtained with artificial insemination (AI) averaged at 85% for PSL. With the exception of PMS AC, sperm vitality and semen pH no other seminal trait seemed to influence fertility rates in the Lusitano breed. PMID:18632230

Gamboa, Sandra; Machado-Faria, Manuel; Ramalho-Santos, João



Normal and pathological altruism.  


The psychoanalytic literature on altruism is sparse, although much has been written on this topic from a sociobiological perspective. Freud (1917) first described the concept in "Libido Theory and Narcissism." In 1946 Anna Freud coined the term "altruistic surrender" to describe the psychodynamics of altruistic behavior in a group of inhibited individuals who were neurotically driven to do good for others. The usefulness and clinical applicability of this formulation, in conjunction with the frequent coexistence of masochism and altruism, encouraged psychoanalysts to regard all forms of altruism as having masochistic underpinnings. Since then, there has been a conflation of the two concepts in much of the analytic literature. This paper reexamines the psychoanalytic understanding of altruism and proposes an expansion of the concept to include a normal form. Five types of altruism are described: protoaltruism, generative altruism, conflicted altruism, pseudoaltruism, and psychotic altruism. Protoaltruism has biological roots and can be observed in animals. In humans, protoaltruism includes maternal and paternal nurturing and protectiveness. Generative altruism is the nonconflictual pleasure in fostering the success and/or welfare of another. Conflicted altruism is generative altruism that is drawn into conflict, but in which the pleasure and satisfaction of another (a proxy) is actually enjoyed. Pseudoaltruism originates in conflict and serves as a defensive cloak for underlying sadomasochism. Psychotic altruism is defined as the sometimes bizarre forms of caretaking behavior and associated self-denial seen in psychotic individuals, and often based on delusion. We consider Anna Freud's altruistic surrender to combine features of both conflict-laden altruism and pseudoaltruism. Two clinical illustrations are discussed. PMID:11678244

Seelig, B J; Rosof, L S



WMAP normalization of inflationary cosmologies  

SciTech Connect

We use the three-year WMAP observations to determine the normalization of the matter power spectrum in inflationary cosmologies. In this context, the quantity of interest is not the normalization marginalized over all parameters, but rather the normalization as a function of the inflationary parameters n{sub S} and r with marginalization over the remaining cosmological parameters. We compute this normalization and provide an accurate fitting function. The statistical uncertainty in the normalization is 3%, roughly half that achieved by COBE. We use the k-l relation for the standard cosmological model to identify the pivot scale for the WMAP normalization. We also quote the inflationary energy scale corresponding to the WMAP normalization.

Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Mukherjee, Pia [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Leach, Samuel M. [SISSA-ISAS, Astrophysics Sector, Via Beirut 4, 34014 Trieste (Italy)



Plasma carnitine levels in adult males in India: effects of high cereal, low fat diet, fat supplementation, and nutrition status1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of diet and nutrition status on plasma carnitine levels was examined in adult Indian men. Apparently healthy subjects from middle and low income groups, consuming predominantly cereal-based diets had normal levels of plasma carnitine and albumin. Subjects with clear-cut evidence of malnutrition as judged by anthropometry, who, however, had normal plasma albumin, tended to have higher concentrations of plasma

Latfa Khan-Siddiqui; Mahtab S. Bamji


Sexual behavior attenuates the effects of chronic stress in body weight, testes, sexual accessory glands, and plasma testosterone in male rats.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate whether continuous sexual behavior could attenuate the effects of chronic stress on spermatogenesis, sexual glands, plasma testosterone and corticosterone in sexually experienced male rats. Rats were exposed to stress by immersion in cold water (ICW) daily for 20 or 50 consecutive days. Plasma testosterone and corticosterone, masculine sexual behavior, as well as the number of offspring, the epithelial area of seminiferous, prostatic and seminal glands were assessed. In stressed males, body and testicular weights decreased, male sexual behavior was disrupted, and adrenal weights increased. In males stressed for 50 days, prostate and seminal glands had lower weights compared with controls. Prostate and seminal epithelial areas also decreased in these males. Seminiferous tubules in testes from rats stressed for 20 or 50 days showed several degenerative signs, such as vacuoles in the basal epithelium, with picnotic indicia; moderate to severe exfoliation of degenerative germinal cells in the tubule lumen was also observed. In males stressed for 50 days a significant decrease in seminiferous epithelial area was observed from stages I-VIII, regardless of copulation. The litters from females that copulated with males stressed for 50 days decreased significantly. Chronic stress caused increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, which were higher in males stressed for 20 days than in males stressed for 50 days. Testosterone decreased in stressed males and it was lower in males stressed for 50 days. In stressed males allowed to copulate, body and testicular weights were similar to controls. Adrenal, seminal glands, and prostate weights, as well as epithelial areas of males stressed for 50 days allowed to copulate were also similar to controls. Corticosterone was lower than in males stressed for 50 days, but still higher than in controls. Testosterone in males stressed for 50 days and allowed to copulate was higher than in stressed males not allowed to copulate and control males without copulation, but still lower than in control copulating males. These results show that chronic stress causes germ cell loss in testes and a decrease in prostate and seminal epithelium, possibly as a result of testosterone decrease, affecting fertility. Continuous copulation can attenuate the effects of stress on testosterone levels and on the epithelial area in male sexual glands, but not on the seminiferous epithelium after 50 days of stress. PMID:25236886

Retana-Márquez, S; Vigueras-Villaseñor, R M; Juárez-Rojas, L; Aragón-Martínez, A; Torres, G Reyes



Plasma Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a PDF version of lecture slides by Dr. Philip D. Rack (Assistant Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville) that discuss information from the silicon's crystal structure to how to make doped semiconductors and the mechanics. Although the slides were written by Dr. Rack when he taught at the Rochester Institute of Technology, they are currently hosted by him at the University of Tennessee. Slide topics include plasma properties, DC glow discharge, ionization, plasma species, magnetrons, collisions, and chemical reactions. Numerous mathematical formulas are also presented.

Rack, Philip D.



Plasma Astrophysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that most of the matter in the universe is in the plasma state, i.e., it is a fully or partially ionized gas in which electromagnetic interactions between the charged particles play an essential role. Only a very insignificant part of the matter in the universe is in the solid or liquid state. Although not every gas

V. Canuto; C. K. Chou; L. Fassio-Canuto



Studies of the in vivo entry of Ga-67 into normal and malignant tissue  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies of the effect of scandium on the tissue distribution of Ga-67 suggest that Ga-67 makes its initial in vivo entry into normal and malignant tissues by different routes. (Scandium blocking of plasma protein Ga-67 binding increased Ga-67 excretion, decreased its uptake in normal tissues, but had little effect on rodent tumors.). In further studies we have used other methods to alter the plasma binding of Ga-67. Iron saturation of plasma produced effects on Ga-67 tissue distribution similar to those observed with scandium. On the other hand, increasing Ga-67 plasma binding through induction of anemia and administration of apotransferrin produced the reverse of the effects observed with scandium and iron. We conclude that the initial in vivo entry of Ga-67 into tumor tissue involves mainly an unbound or loosely bound form of Ga-67, whereas its uptake by normal soft tissues is strongly promoted by its binding to transferrin.

Hayes, R.L.; Rafter, J.J.; Byrd, B.L.; Carlton, J.E.



Interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor in obese alcoholics compared with normal-weight patients13  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a liver biopsy and measured plasma concentrations of interleukin 1(3 (IL- 1\\/3) and tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a), and spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated in vitro monocyte production of IL-land TNF-a in 19 obese and 17 age-matched, normal-weight alcoholics admitted for treatment of their alcoholism. Nine healthy normal-weight subjects acted as control subjects. Five obese and no normal-weight alcoholics had

Daniel Bunout; Liana Schlesinger; Sandra Hirsch; Margarita Pettermann


A Normalized Levenshtein Distance Metric  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a number of normalized edit distances presented so far may offer good performance in some applications, none of them can be regarded as a genuine metric between strings because they do not satisfy the triangle inequality. Given two strings X and Y over a finite alphabet, this paper defines a new normalized edit distance between X and Y as

Li Yujian; Liu Bo



Normalizing Catastrophe: An Educational Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Processes of normalizing assumptions and values have been the subjects of theoretical framing and critique for several decades now. Critique has often been tied to issues of environmental sustainability and social justice. Now, in an era of global warming, there is a rising concern that the results of normalizing of present values could be…

Jickling, Bob



Fluid involvement in normal faulting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence of fluid interaction with normal faults comes from their varied role as flow barriers or conduits in hydrocarbon basins and as hosting structures for hydrothermal mineralisation, and from fault-rock assemblages in exhumed footwalls of steep active normal faults and metamorphic core complexes. These last suggest involvement of predominantly aqueous fluids over a broad depth range, with implications for fault

Richard H. Sibson



Neural Bases of Talker Normalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

To recognize phonemes across variation in talkers, listeners can use information about vocal characteristics, a process referred to as talker normalization. The present study investigates the cortical mechanisms underlying talker normalization using fMRI. Listeners recognized target words presented in either a spoken list produced by a single talker or a mix of different talkers. It was found that both conditions

Patrick C. M. Wong; Howard C. Nusbaum; Steven L. Small



Normalized Cuts and Image Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel approach for solving the perceptualgrouping problem in vision. Rather than focusingon local features and their consistencies in theimage data, our approach aims at extracting the globalimpression of an image. We treat image segmentationas a graph partitioning problem and propose anovel global criterion, the normalized cut, for segmentingthe graph. The normalized cut criterion measuresboth the total dissimilarity