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Sample records for normal seminal plasma

  1. Seminal plasma hexosaminidase in patients with normal and abnormal spermograms

    PubMed Central

    Menendez-Helman, Renata Julia; Sanjurjo, Claudia; Miranda, Patricia Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glycosidases profusion in male reproductive fluids suggests a possible relationship with sperm function. Although Hexosaminidase (Hex) is the most active glycosidase in epididymal fluid and seminal plasma, as well as in spermatozoa, Glucosidase is considered a marker for epididymal function and azoospermia. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine Hex activity in seminal plasma from patients with normal and abnormal spermograms and analyze its correlation with seminal parameters. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, seminal plasma from azoospermic, asthenozoospermic, teratozoospermic, and normozoospermic patients was analyzed for the activity of: total Hex, HexA isoform, and glucosidase. Besides, hexosamine levels were determined, and the amount of Hex was quantified by immunoblot with a specific antibody. Correlation of Hex activity with seminal parameters was also analyzed. Results: Hex activity, like glucosidase, was significantly reduced in azoospermic samples (44, 49, and 60% reduction for total Hex, HexA and glucosidase, respectively). A reduced amount of Hex in azoospermic samples was confirmed by western immunoblot. Hex activity was negatively correlated with round cells in azoospermic samples and positively correlated with motility in asthenozoospermic ones. Conclusion: The results suggested that Hex activity was reduced in azoospermic samples and this was due to a lower amount of enzyme. The correlation to seminal parameters related to particular pathologies suggests a possible relationship of Hex with fertilizing capacity. PMID:26568758

  2. Seminal plasma proteins and their relationship with percentage of morphologically normal sperm in 2-year-old Brahman (Bos indicus) bulls.

    PubMed

    Boe-Hansen, G B; Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Burns, B M; McGowan, M R

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to determine the relationship between seminal plasma proteins and sperm morphology in Bos indicus bulls of the Brahman breed. Fifty-six 24-month-old Australian Brahman bulls were electroejaculated and samples were examined to determine the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (PNS24) and the seminal plasma protein composition was identified and quantified by 2-D gel electrophoresis. The total integrated optical density of 152 seminal plasma protein spots (SPPs) across all gels was determined using the PDQuest software version 8.0 (Bio Rad, USA). Using a single regression mixed model with the density of individual spots as a covariate for PNS24, 17 SPPs were significantly associated with PNS24 (p<0.05). A multiple regression analyses of these SPPs, using three models; non-parametric Tree Model, Generalized Additive Model, and a step-wise selection method were conducted, and 6 SPPs could be used to predict PNS24; four SPPs had positive and two had negative association with PNS24. Together these spots explained 35% of the phenotypic variation in PNS24. Using mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF and TripleToF-MS) the SPPs with positive relationship contained mainly apolipoprotein A-I (1310), protein DJ-1 and glutathione peroxidase 3 (2308), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (6402) and apolipoprotein A-I and secretoglobin family 1D member (8008). The SPPs inversely associated with PNS24 were clusterin/seminal plasma protein A3 (1411) and epididymal secretory protein E1 (8108). This is the first comprehensive report on the association between seminal plasma protein composition in Bos indicus Brahman bulls and sperm morphology. PMID:26417650

  3. Seminal plasma induces the expression of IL-1? in normal and neoplastic cervical cells via EP2/EGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is a chronic inflammatory disease of multifactorial etiology usually presenting in sexually active women. Exposure of neoplastic cervical epithelial cells to seminal plasma (SP) has been shown to promote the growth of cancer cells in vitro and tumors in vivo by inducing the expression of inflammatory mediators including pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-1? is a pleotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine induced in several human cancers and has been associated with virulent tumor phenotype and poorer prognosis. Here we investigated the expression of IL-1? in cervical cancer, the role of SP in the regulation of IL-1? in neoplastic cervical epithelial cells and the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation. Methods and results Real-time quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the elevated expression of IL-1? mRNA in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma tissue explants, compared with normal cervix. Using immunohistochemistry, IL-1? was localized to the neoplastically transformed squamous, columnar and glandular epithelium in all cases of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinomas explants studied. We found that SP induced the expression of IL-? in both normal and neoplastic cervical tissue explants. Employing HeLa (adenocarcinoma) cell line as a model system we identified PGE2 and EGF as possible ligands responsible for SP-mediated induction of IL-1? in these neoplastic cells. In addition, we showed that SP activates EP2/EGFR/PI3kinase-Akt signaling to induce IL-1? mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in normal cervical tissue explants the induction of IL-1? by SP is via the activation of EP2/EGFR/PI3 kinase-Akt signaling. Conclusion SP-mediated induction of IL-1? in normal and neoplastic cervical epithelial cells suggests that SP may promote cervical inflammation as well as progression of cervical cancer in sexually active women. PMID:25237386

  4. Seminal plasma effects on sex-sorting bovine sperm.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, C A; Graham, J K; Lenz, R W; Seidel, G E

    2013-02-01

    The objective was to determine which characteristics of bovine ejaculates affected efficacy of sex sorting bovine sperm by flow cytometry. The effects of first versus second ejaculates, seminal plasma content, addition of BSA, and seminal plasma from different bulls during staining were all studied, as was the effect of 8-hour storage with and without seminal plasma. Semen collected by artificial vagina was centrifuged at 1000 ×g for 15 minutes to separate sperm from seminal plasma; seminal plasma was clarified by 10 minutes of additional centrifugation at 2000 ×g. Sperm were rediluted to 160 × 10(6) sperm per mL with: Tyrode's medium plus albumin, lactate, and pyruvate (TALP) containing 0%, 5%, 10%, or 20% homologous seminal plasma, TALP containing 10% heterologous seminal plasma, or TALP containing 0.3% (control), 0.6%, or 1.2% BSA. After incubation with Hoechst 33342 for 45 minutes, an equal volume of TALP containing red food dye was added, and sperm were analyzed by flow cytometry/cell sorting to determine percent of live-oriented sperm, X sort rate, percent of membrane-impaired sperm, and split (degree of separation between X- and Y-bearing sperm populations). The percent of live-oriented sperm was higher for sperm incubated with 0% seminal plasma (64%) than for sperm incubated with 5%, 10%, or 20% seminal plasma (60%, 59%, and 58%, respectively; P < 0.05). The X sort rate was higher for sperm incubated with 0% seminal plasma than sperm with 20% seminal plasma (4.26 vs. 3.61 × 10(3) sperm per second). When seminal plasma was exchanged between bull ejaculates, only one bull had seminal plasma that was detrimental to sperm, resulting in 31% membrane-impaired sperm compared with a range of 16% to 19% for seminal plasmas from other bulls (P < 0.05). The addition of BSA did not affect sort efficiency at the concentrations studied. Sperm from six bulls stored for 8 hours without seminal plasma had more membrane-impaired sperm (which were discarded) during sorting (28%) than with seminal plasma (19%; P < 0.01), but higher postthaw motility postsorting (63%) than with seminal plasma (52%; P < 0.05). In conclusion, the presence of seminal plasma during staining and sorting decreased sort rates and percent of live-oriented sperm, and storing sperm without seminal plasma increased postthaw motility. PMID:23244767

  5. Identification of fatty acids in canine seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Díaz, R; Inostroza, K; Risopatrón, J; Sanchez, R; Sepúlveda, N

    2014-03-01

    Seminal plasma contains various biochemical components associated with sperm function. However, there is limited information regarding the fatty acid composition of seminal plasma and their effect on sperm. The aim of this study was to identify the fatty acid content in canine seminal plasma using gas chromatography. Twelve ejaculates were studied, the seminal plasma was obtained by centrifugation and then the lipids were extracted, methylated and analysed by chromatography. The total lipids in the seminal plasma were 2.5 ± 0.3%, corresponding to 85% saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 15% unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). The greatest proportions of SFA were palmitic acid (30.4%), stearic acid (23.4%) and myristic acid (5.3%) and of UFA oleic acid (9.0%). Therefore, the protocols and techniques used enabled the identification of 18 different fatty acids in canine seminal plasma, which constitutes a good method to evaluate and quantify the fatty acid profile in this species. PMID:23398451

  6. Components in seminal plasma regulating sperm transport and elimination.

    PubMed

    Troedsson, M H T; Desvousges, A; Alghamdi, A S; Dahms, B; Dow, C A; Hayna, J; Valesco, R; Collahan, P T; Macpherson, M L; Pozor, M; Buhi, W C

    2005-10-01

    Seminal plasma has been suggested to be involved in sperm transport, and as a modulator of sperm-induced inflammation, which is thought to be an important part of sperm elimination from the female reproductive tract. This article reports on recent experiments on the importance of seminal plasma components in sperm transport and elimination. In Experiment 1, hysteroscopic insemination in the presence (n = 3) or absence (n = 3) of 2 ng/mL PGE showed an increased portion of spermatozoa crossing the utero-tubal junction in the presence of PGE in two mares, while no difference was observed between treatments in a third mare. In Experiment 2, whole seminal plasma, heat-treated seminal plasma (90 degrees C for 45 min), and charcoal-treated seminal plasma were added to: (1) sperm samples during opsonization prior to polymorphonuclear neutrophil(s) (PMN)-phagocytosis assays (n = 5); or to (2) phagocytosis assays (n = 5). Opsonization of spermatozoa was suppressed in the presence of whole seminal plasma, compared with samples without seminal plasma (p < 0.05). Charcoal treatment did not remove the suppressive effect of seminal plasma on opsonization, but heat treatment of seminal plasma reduced its suppressive properties (p < 0.05). The addition of whole seminal plasma to opsonized spermatozoa almost completely blocked phagocytosis (p < 0.05). Charcoal treatment did not remove the suppressive effect of seminal plasma. However, heat-treated fractions of seminal plasma removed the suppressive effect of seminal plasma on phagocytosis (p < 0.05). In Experiment 3, viable and non-viable (snap-frozen/thawed) spermatozoa were subjected to in vitro assays for PMN binding and phagocytosis with the following treatments (n = 3): (1) seminal plasma (SP), (2) extender; (3) ammonium sulfate precipitated seminal plasma proteins with protease inhibitor (SPP+); or (4) ammonium sulfate precipitated seminal plasma proteins without protease inhibitor (SPP-). Treatment was observed to impact binding and phagocytosis of viable and non-viable spermatozoa (p < 0.05). SP and SPP+ suppressed PMN-binding and phagocytosis of viable sperm. This effect was also seen, but to a lesser degree, in SPP- treated samples. Non-viable spermatozoa showed less PMN-binding and phagocytosis than live sperm in the absence of SP. The addition of SP promoted PMN-binding and phagocytosis of non-viable spermatozoa. SPP- treated samples also restored PMN-binding of non-viable spermatozoa. The addition of protease inhibitors removed this effect. In Experiment 4, seminal plasma proteins were fractionated based on MW by Sephacryl S200 HR columns (range 5000-250,000 kDa). Fractionated proteins were submitted to sperm-PMN binding assays. A protein fraction <35 kDa suppressed PMN-binding to live and snap-frozen spermatozoa. A greater MW protein fraction appeared to promote binding between PMNs and snap-frozen spermatozoa. While the addition of protease inhibitors was necessary to maintain the protective effect of seminal plasma proteins on viable spermatozoa, the promotive effect of seminal plasma on non-viable spermatozoa appeared to require some protease activity. It was concluded from these experiments that components of seminal plasma play active roles in transportation and survival of viable spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract and in the elimination of non-viable spermatozoa from the uterus. PMID:16102920

  7. Glycoprotein fucosylation is increased in seminal plasma of subfertile men.

    PubMed

    Olejnik, Beata; Kratz, Ewa M; Zimmer, Mariusz; Ferens-Sieczkowska, Mirosława

    2015-01-01

    Fucose, the monosaccharide frequent in N- and O-glycans, is a part of Lewis-type antigens that are known to mediate direct sperm binding to the zona pellucida. Such interaction was found to be inhibited in vitroby fucose-containing oligo- and polysaccharides, as well as neoglycoproteins. The objective of this study was to screen seminal plasma proteins of infertile/subfertile men for the content and density of fucosylated glycoepitopes, and compare them to samples of fertile normozoospermic subjects. Seminal proteins were separated in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and blotted onto nitrocellulose membrane and probed with fucose-specific Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL). Twelve electrophoretic bands were selected for quantitative densitometric analysis. It was found that the content, and especially the density of fucosylated glycans, were higher in glycoproteins present in seminal plasma of subfertile men. No profound differences in fucosylation density were found among the groups of normozoospermic, oligozoospermic, asthenozoospermic, and oligoasthenozoospermic subfertile men. According to the antibody probing, AAL-reactive bands can be attributed to male reproductive tract glycoproteins, including prostate-specific antigen, prostatic acid phosphatase, glycodelin and chorionic gonadotropin. Fibronectin, α1 -acid glycoprotein, α1 -antitrypsin, immunoglobulin G and antithrombin III may also contribute to this high fucosylation. It is suggested that the abundant fucosylated glycans in the sperm environment could interfere with the sperm surface and disturb the normal course of the fertilization cascade. PMID:25248658

  8. Oxygen consumption of human seminal plasma: relationships with semen characteristics.

    PubMed

    Silvestroni, L; Sartori, C; Frajese, G

    1982-09-01

    It is possible to determine oxygen consumption rate in human seminal plasma through voltammetric measurements. The seminal fluid of the sterile patients in this investigation was characterized by an anomalous sperm motility. Also studied was a control group of proven fertile subjects. The mean value of oxygen consumption resulted greater in the reduced sperm motility group than in the control group. The polyaminoxidase system is the most important factor in oxygen consumption in seminal plasma; however, it is likely that the high toxicity of polyamine degradation products is the cause of reduced and/or anomalous sperm motility in some seminal fluids. PMID:7149853

  9. Inhibin B in seminal plasma: testicular origin and relationship to spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R A; Irvine, D S; Balfour, C; Groome, N P; Riley, S C

    1998-04-01

    In men, inhibin B is the circulating isoform involved in the regulation of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion. Within the testis, inhibin B may have a role in Sertoli and germ cell interactions, thus secretion into seminal plasma may reflect seminiferous tubule function. Using specific immunoassays, inhibin B was present in seminal plasma in fertile men (n = 105) and in unselected men attending an infertility clinic (n = 174) with a wide range in concentration from undetectable (<15 pg/ml) up to 54,100 pg/ml (geometric mean 280 pg/ml). There was a highly significant correlation between seminal plasma inhibin B concentration and sperm concentration (r = 0.46, P < 0.001), but no correlation with percentages of spermatozoa with progressive motility or normal morphology. Inhibin A and isoforms containing pro and alphaC immunoreactivity were not detectable. In post-vasectomy seminal plasma samples (18 of 20) inhibin B was undetectable, indicating that the testis is the predominant source. In unselected men attending an infertility clinic, inhibin B was undetectable in 17% (present in remainder; maximum concentration 26,200 pg/ml; mean 263 pg/ml), with a highly significant correlation between seminal plasma inhibin B and sperm concentration (r = 0.55, P < 0.0001). In men with oligo/ azoospermia (sperm concentration <20 x 10(6)/ml), seminal plasma inhibin B concentrations were lower in those with elevated plasma FSH concentrations (mean values 42 and 205 pg/ml, P < 0.05). Inhibin alpha and betaB subunits were localized predominantly in Sertoli and Leydig cells, using immunohistochemistry. We conclude that inhibin B of testicular origin is present in normal human seminal plasma, but with a very wide range in concentration, and may reflect the functional state of the seminiferous epithelium. PMID:9619549

  10. beta-Microseminoprotein binds CRISP-3 in human seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Udby, Lene; Lundwall, Ake; Johnsen, Anders H; Fernlund, Per; Valtonen-André, Camilla; Blom, Anna M; Lilja, Hans; Borregaard, Niels; Kjeldsen, Lars; Bjartell, Anders

    2005-07-29

    beta-Microseminoprotein (MSP) and cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP-3) are abundant constituents of human seminal plasma. Immunoprecipitation and gel filtration of seminal plasma proteins combined with examination of the proteins in their pure form showed that MSP and CRISP-3 form stable, non-covalent complexes. CRISP-3 binds MSP with very high affinity, as evidenced by surface plasmon resonance. Due to far higher abundance of MSP in prostatic fluid, it manifests large overcapacity for CRISP-3 binding. Structural similarity with an MSP-binding protein from blood plasma suggests that CRISP-3 binds MSP through its aminoterminal SCP-domain. PMID:15950934

  11. N-Glycoproteomics of Human Seminal Plasma Glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Mayank; Joenväärä, Sakari; Tomar, Anil Kumar; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita; Renkonen, Risto

    2016-03-01

    Seminal plasma aids sperm by inhibiting premature capacitation, helping in the intracervical transport and formation of an oviductal sperm reservoir, all of which appear to be important in the fertilization process. Epitopes such as Lewis x and y are known to be present on seminal plasma glycoproteins, which can modulate the maternal immune response. It is suggested by multiple studies that seminal plasma glycoproteins play, largely undiscovered, important roles in the process of fertilization. We have devised a strategy to analyze glycopeptides from a complex, unknown mixture of protease-digested proteins. This analysis provides identification of the glycoproteins, glycosylation sites, glycan compositions, and proposed structures from the original sample. This strategy has been applied to human seminal plasma total glycoproteins. We have elucidated glycan compositions and proposed structures for 243 glycopeptides belonging to 73 N-glycosylation sites on 50 glycoproteins. The majority of the proposed glycan structures were complex type (83%) followed by high-mannose (10%) and then hybrid (7%). Most of the glycoproteins were either sialylated, fucosylated, or both. Many Lewis x/a and y/b epitopes bearing glycans were found, suggesting immune-modulating epitopes on multiple seminal plasma glycoproteins. The study also shows that large scale N-glycosylation mapping is achievable with current techniques and the depth of the analysis is roughly proportional to the prefractionation and complexity of the sample. PMID:26791533

  12. Seminal plasma components in camelids and comparisons with other species.

    PubMed

    Kershaw-Young, C M; Maxwell, W M C

    2012-08-01

    Camelid semen is characterized by a highly viscous, low-volume ejaculate with a low concentration of spermatozoa that exhibit low progressive motility. The viscous seminal plasma is currently the major impediment to the development of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in camelids. To advance ARTs such as sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination in camelids, it is necessary to identify the cause of the viscosity and gain an understanding of the role of seminal plasma components on sperm function and fertility. Numerous compounds and proteins have been identified as mediators of sperm function and predictors of fertility in other livestock species, and understanding the importance of specific proteins has progressed the success of ARTs in these species. Current knowledge on the components of camelid seminal plasma is outlined, together with the implications of these components for the development of ARTs in camelids. The cause of semen viscosity, as well as proteins that are present in camelid seminal plasma, is described for the first time. Seminal plasma components are compared with those of other species to hypothesize their role in sperm function and fertility. PMID:22827394

  13. Verification of Male Infertility Biomarkers in Seminal Plasma by Multiplex Selected Reaction Monitoring Assay*

    PubMed Central

    Drabovich, Andrei P.; Jarvi, Keith; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.

    2011-01-01

    Seminal plasma is a promising biological fluid to use for noninvasive clinical diagnostics of male reproductive system disorders. To verify a list of prospective male infertility biomarkers, we developed a multiplex selected reaction monitoring assay and measured the relative abundance of 31 proteins in 30 seminal plasma samples from normal, nonobstructive azoospermia and post-vasectomy individuals. Median levels of some proteins were decreased by more than 100-fold in nonobstructive azoospermia or post-vasectomy samples, in comparison with normal samples. To follow up the most promising candidates and measure their concentrations in seminal plasma, heavy isotope-labeled internal standards were synthesized and used to reanalyze 20 proteins in the same set of samples. Concentrations of candidate proteins in normal seminal plasma were found in the range 0.1–1000 μg/ml but were significantly decreased in nonobstructive azoospermia and post-vasectomy. These data allowed us to select, for the first time, biomarkers to discriminate between normal, nonobstructive azoospermia, and post-vasectomy (simulated obstructive azoospermia) seminal plasma samples. Some testis-specific proteins (LDHC, TEX101, and SPAG11B) performed with absolute or nearly absolute specificities and sensitivities. Cell-specific classification of protein expression indicated that Sertoli or germ cell dysfunction, but not Leydig cell dysfunction, was observed in nonobstructive azoospermia seminal plasma. The proposed panel of biomarkers, pending further validation, could lead to a clinical assay that can eliminate the need for testicular biopsy to diagnose the category of male infertility, thus providing significant benefits to patients as well as decreased costs associated with the differential diagnosis of azoospermia. PMID:21933954

  14. Relationship between Lipids Levels of Serum and Seminal Plasma and Semen Parameters in 631 Chinese Subfertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qi; Fan, Kai; Wang, Guo-Hong; Feng, Rui-Xiang; Liang, Yuan-Jiao; Chen, Li; Ge, Yi-Feng; Yao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Objective This prospective study was designed to investigate the relationship between lipids levels in both serum and seminal plasma and semen parameters. Methods 631 subfertile men were enrolled. Their obesity-associated markers were measured, and semen parameters were analyzed. Also, seminal plasma and serum TC, TG, HDL and LDL and serum FFA, FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2) and SHBG levels were detected. Results Seminal plasma and serum TG, TC and LDL levels were positively related to age. Serum TC, TG and LDL were positively related to obesity-associated markers (P < 0.001), while only seminal plasma TG was positively related to them (P < 0.05). For lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma, only TG level had slightly positive correlation between them (r = 0.081, P = 0.042). There was no significant correlation between serum lipids levels and semen parameters. However, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels were negatively related to one or several semen parameters, including semen volume (SV), sperm concentration (SC), total sperm count (TSC), sperm motility, progressive motility (PR) and total normal-progressively motile sperm counts (TNPMS). Moreover, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels in patients with oligospermatism, asthenospermia and teratozoospermia were higher than those with normal sperm concentration, motility or morphology. After adjusting age and serum LH, FSH, TT, E2 and SHBG levels, linear regression analysis showed that SV was still significantly correlated with seminal plasma LDL (P = 0.012), both of SC and TSC with seminal plasma HDL (P = 0.028 and 0.002), and both of PR and sperm motility with seminal plasma TC (P = 0.012 and 0.051). Conclusion The abnormal metabolism of lipids in male reproductive system may contribute to male factor infertility. PMID:26726884

  15. Lactotransferrin in Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Seminal Plasma Correlates with Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kiso, Wendy K.; Selvaraj, Vimal; Nagashima, Jennifer; Asano, Atsushi; Brown, Janine L.; Schmitt, Dennis L.; Leszyk, John; Travis, Alexander J.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.

    2013-01-01

    Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have highly variable ejaculate quality within individuals, greatly reducing the efficacy of artificial insemination and making it difficult to devise a sperm cryopreservation protocol for this endangered species. Because seminal plasma influences sperm function and physiology, including sperm motility, the objectives of this study were to characterize the chemistry and protein profiles of Asian elephant seminal plasma and to determine the relationships between seminal plasma components and semen quality. Ejaculates exhibiting good sperm motility (≥65%) expressed higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology (80.3±13.0 vs. 44.9±30.8%) and positive Spermac staining (51.9±14.5 vs. 7.5±14.4%), in addition to higher total volume (135.1±89.6 vs. 88.8±73.1 ml) and lower sperm concentration (473.0±511.2 vs. 1313.8±764.7×106 cells ml−1) compared to ejaculates exhibiting poor sperm motility (≤10%; P<0.05). Comparison of seminal plasma from ejaculates with good versus poor sperm motility revealed significant differences in concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and glucose. These observations suggest seminal plasma influences semen quality in elephants. One- and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis revealed largely similar compositional profiles of seminal plasma proteins between good and poor motility ejaculates. However, a protein of ∼80 kDa was abundant in 85% of ejaculates with good motility, and was absent in 90% of poor motility ejaculates (P<0.05). We used mass spectrometry to identify this protein as lactotransferrin, and immunoblot analysis to confirm this identification. Together, these findings lay a functional foundation for understanding the contributions of seminal plasma in the regulation of Asian elephant sperm motility, and for improving semen collection and storage in this endangered species. PMID:23976974

  16. Individual difference of seminal plasma detected with crossed immunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, M; Yokoi, T; Sagisaka, K

    1983-06-01

    Seminal plasma from 120 subjects was examined by crossed immunoelectrophoresis using anti-seminal plasma. The samples were divided into two groups depending on a precipitation line which migrated fast in the first dimension electrophoresis. This precipitation line showed an incidence of 48 percent and was proved to have no acid phosphatase, esterase or lactate dehydrogenase activity and was not stained with Schiff's reagent. Analysis with column chromatography, Sephadex G-200 and Sephadex G-50, revealed that molecular weight of the protein was about 10,000 dolton. The difference was not identified with the other methods; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and agarose immunoelectrophoresis. PMID:6612719

  17. Protein composition of seminal plasma in fractionated stallion ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Kareskoski, A M; del Alamo, M M Rivera; Güvenc, K; Reilas, T; Calvete, J J; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Andersson, M; Katila, T

    2011-02-01

    Seminal plasma (SP) contains several types of compounds derived from the epididymides and accessory glands. The aim of this study was to examine the protein composition of different ejaculate fractions. Trial I: fractionated ejaculates were collected from two normal and two subfertile stallions. Samples containing pre-sperm fluid and the first sperm-rich jets (HIGH-1), the main sperm-rich portion (HIGH-2), the jets with low sperm concentrations (LOW), and a combined whole-ejaculate (WE) sample was centrifuged, and the SP was filtered and frozen. A part of each SP sample was stored (5°C, 24 h) with spermatozoa from HIGH-2 and skim milk extender. Sperm motility was evaluated after storage in extender mixed with the stallion's own SP or SP from one of the other stallions (sperm from a normal stallion stored in SP from a subfertile stallion and vice versa). Protein composition was analysed using reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry. The area-under-the-curve (AUC) was used for quantitative comparison of proteins within fractions. Trial II: semen samples were collected from seven stallions. Fractions with the highest (HIGH) and lowest (LOW) sperm concentrations and WE samples were examined using SDS-PAGE and densitometry. No significant differences emerged between fractions in the AUC-values of the Horse Seminal Protein-1 (HSP-1) and HSP-2 peaks, or the peak containing HSP-3 and HSP-4 (HSP-3/4). Levels of HSP-1, HSP-2 and HSP-3/4 were not significantly correlated with total sperm motility, progressive sperm motility or average path velocity after storage. Significant differences between ejaculate fractions in the amount of different protein groups present in SP were not found in Trial I; but in Trial II, the proteins in the 60-70 kDa range were more abundant in LOW than in HIGH and WE, indicating that this band contained proteins derived mainly from the seminal vesicles, which produce most of the SP in LOW. PMID:20546178

  18. AB217. Lipids levels in seminal plasma may reflect semen quality: a report of 631 subfertile Chinese men

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between lipids in both serum and seminal plasma and male infertility. Methods Six hundred and thirty-one men were enrolled in this study. Their obesity-associated markers were measured, and semen parameters were analyzed. Also, seminal plasma and serum TC, TG, HDL and LDL and serum FFA levels were detected. Results Seminal plasma and serum TG, TC and LDL levels were positively related to age. Serum TC, TG and LDL were positively related to obesity-associated markers (P<0.001), while only seminal plasma TG was positively related to them (P<0.05). For lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma, only TG level had slightly positive correlation between them (r=0.081, P=0.042). There was hardly any correlation between serum lipids levels and semen parameters. However, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels were negatively related to one or several semen parameters, including semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility, progressive motility and total normal-progressively motile sperm counts. Moreover, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels in patients with oligospermatism, asthenospermia and teratozoospermia were higher than corresponding normal groups. Conclusions The metabolism abnormality of lipids in male reproductive system may affect male fertility.

  19. Seminal plasma improves cryopreservation of Iberian red deer epididymal sperm.

    PubMed

    Martnez-Pastor, Felipe; Anel, Luis; Guerra, Camino; Alvarez, Mercedes; Soler, Ana J; Garde, J Julin; Chamorro, Csar; de Paz, Paulino

    2006-11-01

    We tested the protective action of seminal plasma on epididymal spermatozoa from Iberian red deer, especially considering cryopreservation, as a means for germplasm banking improvement. We obtained seminal plasma by centrifuging electroejaculated semen, and part of it was thermically inactivated (denatured plasma; 55 degrees C 30 min). Epididymal samples (always at 5 degrees C) were obtained from genitalia harvested after regulated hunting, and pooled for each assay (five in total). We tested three seminal plasma treatments (mixing seminal plasma with samples 2:1): no plasma, untreated plasma and denatured plasma; and four incubation treatments: 32 degrees C 15 min, 5 degrees C 15 min, 5 degrees C 2h and 5 degrees C 6h. After each incubation, samples were diluted 1:1 with extender: Tes-Tris-Fructose, 10% egg yolk, 4% glycerol; equilibrated for 2h at 5 degrees C, extended down to 10(8) spz./mL and frozen. Sperm quality was evaluated before 1:1 dilution, before freezing and after thawing the samples, assessing motility (CASA) and viability (percentage of viable and acrosome-intact spermatozoa; PI/PNA-FITC and fluorescent microscopy). Plasma treatment, both untreated and denatured, rendered higher viability before freezing and higher results for most parameters after thawing. The improvement was irrespective of incubation treatment, except for viability, which rendered slightly different results for untreated and denatured plasma. This may be due to the presence of thermolabile components. We still have to determine the underlying mechanisms involved in this protection. These results might help to improve the design of cryopreservation extenders for red deer epididymal sperm. PMID:16790268

  20. Proteomic Characterization of Zinc-Binding Proteins of Canine Seminal Plasma.

    PubMed

    Mogielnicka-Brzozowska, M; Kowalska, N; Fraser, L; Kordan, W

    2015-12-01

    The zinc-binding proteins (ZnBPs) of the seminal plasma are implicated in different processes related to sperm-egg fusion. The aim of this study was to characterize the ZnBPs of canine seminal plasma using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and mass spectrometry. The ZnBPs were isolated from the ejaculates of five dogs by affinity chromatography and subjected to 2D-PAGE analysis. The acquired spots, detected across the gels, were analysed by mass spectrometry. Using 2D-PAGE analysis, it was shown that canine seminal plasma comprised about 46-57 zinc-binding polypeptides, with molecular mass ranging from 9.3 to 138.7 kDa and pI at pH 5.2-10.0. It was found that zinc-binding polypeptides of low molecular masses (9.3-19.0 kDa and pI at pH 6.1-10.0) were predominant in the seminal plasma, and seven polypeptides, with molecular masses ranging from 11.7 to 15.4 kDa and pI at pH 6.8-8.7, were characterized by high optical density values. In addition, analysis with mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS/MS) revealed that the identified seven polypeptides are canine prostate-specific esterase (CPSE), which is the main proteolytic enzyme of the seminal plasma. The findings of this study indicate an important regulatory role of seminal plasma zinc ions in the functional activity of CPSE, which is of great significance for maintaining the normal function of canine prostate and the spermatozoa functions. PMID:26482538

  1. Identification of calcium-binding proteins in fish seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Mariola A; Nynca, Joanna; Westfalewicz, Błażej; Karol, Halina; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2011-09-01

    Calcium ions play an important role in the activation of fish sperm movement. The mechanism of their binding in semen is still unknown. The goal of this study was the development of a method for identifying calcium-binding proteins in fish seminal plasma. Two methods of calcium-binding proteins detection were tested with the use of Quin2 and Stains-all dyes. The first method was useful for the identification of calcium-binding proteins of fish seminal plasma. It consisted of proteins separation using SDS-PAGE, transfer on PVDF membrane, incubation with CaCl₂, staining with Quin2 and illumination with UV light to reveal calcium-binding protein bands. Using Quin2 allowed the detection of calcium-binding proteins with low and high molecular weight. Electrophoretic species-specific profiles of calcium-binding proteins were identified in the seminal plasma of carp, whitefish, roach, brook trout, brown trout and rainbow trout. Staining of calcium-binding proteins with Quin2 is a quick and safe method, allowing the identification of calcium-binding proteins in fish semen. PMID:21042848

  2. Trace elements in seminal plasma of men from infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Szynkowska, Małgorzata I.; Motak-Pochrzęst, Hanna; Pawlaczyk, Aleksandra; Sypniewski, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An analysis of lead, zinc, cadmium and other trace elements in semen of men from infertile couples was performed to determine the association between abnormal semen parameters and enviromental or occupational exposure to some trace metals. Material and methods Presence of manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and lead was measured in seminal plasma of 34 men from infertile couples using spectrometry with time-of-flight analysis. Correlations among sperm parameters and trace metals were determined using cluster analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Abnormally high concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc and cobalt were found in 23 seminal plasma of men from infertile couples. The most consistent evidence was determined for an association between high cadmium concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count, motility and morphology below reference limits (p < 0.01). A correlation of significantly increased tin level and reduced sperm count in semen of men with limited fertility potential was observed (p = 0.04). Conclusions In our study we observed a correlation of tin level with sperm count in semen of men with limited fertility potential. PMID:26170853

  3. Zinc levels in seminal plasma and their correlation with male infertility: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Long, Zhou; Wang, Liang; Liu, Qian; Sun, Bishao; Wang, Qingqing; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace mineral for the normal functioning of the male reproductive system. Current studies have investigated the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library for studies that examined the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility, as well as the effects of zinc supplementation on sperm parameters. Twenty studies were identified, including 2,600 cases and 867 controls. Our meta-analysis results indicated that the seminal plasma zinc concentrations from infertile males were significantly lower than those from normal controls (SMD (standard mean differences) [95% CI] -0.64 [-1.01, -0.28]). Zinc supplementation was found to significantly increase the semen volume, sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm morphology (SMD [95% CI]: -0.99 [-1.60, -0.38], -1.82 [-2.63, -1.01], and -0.75 [-1.37, -0.14], respectively). The present study showed that the zinc level in the seminal plasma of infertile males was significantly lower than that of normal males. Zinc supplementation could significantly increase the sperm quality of infertile males. However, further studies are needed to better elucidate the correlation between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility. PMID:26932683

  4. Zinc levels in seminal plasma and their correlation with male infertility: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Long, Zhou; Wang, Liang; Liu, Qian; Sun, Bishao; Wang, Qingqing; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace mineral for the normal functioning of the male reproductive system. Current studies have investigated the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library for studies that examined the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility, as well as the effects of zinc supplementation on sperm parameters. Twenty studies were identified, including 2,600 cases and 867 controls. Our meta-analysis results indicated that the seminal plasma zinc concentrations from infertile males were significantly lower than those from normal controls (SMD (standard mean differences) [95% CI] −0.64 [−1.01, −0.28]). Zinc supplementation was found to significantly increase the semen volume, sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm morphology (SMD [95% CI]: −0.99 [−1.60, −0.38], −1.82 [−2.63, −1.01], and −0.75 [−1.37, −0.14], respectively). The present study showed that the zinc level in the seminal plasma of infertile males was significantly lower than that of normal males. Zinc supplementation could significantly increase the sperm quality of infertile males. However, further studies are needed to better elucidate the correlation between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility. PMID:26932683

  5. Proteomic identification of camel seminal plasma: purification of β-nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Vinay Kumar; Singh, Sudhuman; Hariprasad, Guru Rao; Mal, Gorakh; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Yadav, Savita

    2013-01-30

    The camel seminal plasma contains a diverse array of components including lipids, carbohydrates, peptides, ions and proteins. These are essential for maintaining normal physiology of spermatozoa and are secreted mainly from the prostrate, epidydimis and bulbo-urethral glands of reproductive system. The protein profiles of camel seminal plasma were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). The majority of the protein was found in acidic regions below pI 7.0 and the 19 brightly stained proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. On the basis of proteomic profiles, β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) was purified by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography and identified by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. It was further confirmed by western blotting experiments using rabbit anti-β-NGF primary antibody. PMID:23206437

  6. Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity in seminal plasma from the bull, stallion, rabbit, and rooster.

    PubMed

    Hough, S R; Parks, J E

    1994-04-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase, which inactivates PAF, has been detected in human and bovine seminal plasma and may represent a mechanism for regulating sperm-derived PAF. This study was designed to characterize further PAF acetylhydrolase in seminal plasma from domestic animal species. Sperm-free seminal plasma from the bull, stallion, rabbit, and rooster was assayed for acetylhydrolase activity based on the release of [3H]acetate from PAF. As reported previously for bull seminal plasma, activity in stallion, rabbit, and rooster seminal plasma was linear with both time and protein concentration, with specific activities of 97.4, 1.2, and 0.33 nmol PAF hydrolyzed/mg protein/min, respectively. Activity in seminal plasma from the bull, rabbit, and rooster was calcium-independent whereas activity in stallion seminal plasma increased with added calcium (p < 0.01). Addition of EDTA partially inhibited acetylhydrolase activity in stallion seminal plasma but increased the specific activity in rabbit seminal plasma (p < 0.01). Enzyme activity in bull seminal plasma was nondialyzable (50,000 molecular weight cutoff), stable at pH 5.0, and heat-labile (> or = 60 degrees C). Very little activity was associated with bull seminal plasma lipoproteins isolated by KBr flotation or by precipitation with polyanions. These results demonstrate that PAF acetylhydrolase activity is present in seminal plasma from different species, with large differences in specific activity among species. These differences may be related to species differences in the physiological role of PAF and its regulation in sperm and male tract fluids. PMID:8199270

  7. A Pilot Comparative Study of 26 Biochemical Markers in Seminal Plasma and Serum in Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Rui-Xiang; Lu, Jin-Chun; Zhang, Hong-Ye; Lü, Nian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The relationships of the biochemical components in seminal plasma and serum, and their origins and physiological effects in male reproductive system have been poorly understood. Methods. Based on the calibration and quality control measures, 26 biochemical markers, in seminal plasma and serum samples from 36 male infertility patients with nonazoospermia were detected and compared. Results. Only PA was undetectable in all seminal plasma samples. There were significant differences of all other 24 biochemical markers in seminal plasma and serum (P < 0.05) except for UA (P = 0.214). There were rich proteins in seminal plasma, and globulin accounted for about 90%. There were also abundant enzymes in seminal plasma, and the activities of ALT, AST, AKP, GGT, LDH, CK, and αHBDH in seminal plasma were significantly higher than those in serum while ADA was inversely lower. There were relatively low levels of Glu, TG, TC, and hsCRP in seminal plasma, but Glu was undetectable in 8 of 36 cases. Conclusions. The differences of the levels of biochemical markers in seminal plasma and serum might be associated with the selective secretion of testis, epididymis and male accessory glands, and the specific environment needed for sperm metabolism and function maintenance. PMID:26539526

  8. Elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels in men with normal seminal fluid analyses.

    PubMed

    Karpas, A E; Matsumoto, A M; Paulsen, C A; Bremner, W J

    1983-03-01

    Three men who volunteered as normal subjects were found to have abnormally high levels of serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) despite having normal seminal fluid analyses and fertility. Two of the men had a history of previous orchitis, and one had an atrophic testis. Serum luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels were normal. These cases appear to represent compensated primary testicular disease, with normal sperm counts and fertility maintained at the expense of chronically elevated FSH levels. These results imply that in certain situations, the measurement of serum FSH levels may be a more sensitive index of testicular disease than the performance of seminal fluid analyses. PMID:6402388

  9. Ovulation-inducing factor in seminal plasma: a review.

    PubMed

    Adams, Gregg P; Ratto, Marcelo H

    2013-01-10

    Ovulation in mammals involves pulsatile release of GnRH from the hypothalamus into the hypophyseal portal system with subsequent release of LH from the anterior pituitary into systemic circulation. Elevated circulating concentrations of LH induce a cascade of events within the mature follicle, culminating in follicle rupture and evacuation. The broad classification of species as either spontaneous or induced ovulators is based on the type of stimulus responsible for eliciting GnRH release from the hypothalamus. In spontaneously ovulating species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs), release of GnRH from the hypothalamus is triggered when, in the absence of progesterone, systemic estradiol concentrations exceed a threshold. In induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, camelids), release of GnRH is contingent upon copulatory stimuli; hence, ovulation is not a regular cyclic event. Since a classic 1970 Peruvian study, dogma has maintained that physical stimulation of the genitalia during copulation is the primary trigger for inducing ovulation in alpacas and llamas. Exciting results of recent studies, however, provide direct evidence for the existence of an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in semen, and compel us to re-examine the mechanism of ovulation in both induced and spontaneous ovulators. Ovulation-inducing factor in seminal plasma is a potent stimulant of LH secretion, ovulation and luteal gland development, and acts via a systemic rather than a local route. OIF is a protein molecule that is resistant to heat and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K. It has a molecular mass of 14kDa, and may be part of a larger protein complex or pro-hormone. The effect of OIF is dose-related and evident at physiologically relevant doses (i.e., as little as 1/100th that present in the ejaculate), and is mediated, in whole or in part, at the level of the hypothalamus in vivo. The factor exists in the seminal plasma of every species in which it has been examined thus far, including Bactrian camels, alpacas, llamas, cattle, horses, pigs, and koalas. Seminal plasma OIF does not appear to be a phylogenetic vestige in spontaneous ovulators since it (1) induced ovulation in pre-pubertal mice, (2) altered ovarian follicular wave dynamics in cows, and (3) elicited LH release in vitro from primary pituitary cell cultures of rats, mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, llamas and cows. PMID:23141951

  10. Seminal Plasma Promotes Lesion Development in a Xenograft Model of Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    McGuane, Jonathan T; Watson, Katherine M; Zhang, Jamie; Johan, M Zahied; Wang, Zhao; Kuo, Gabriel; Sharkey, David J; Robertson, Sarah A; Hull, M Louise

    2015-05-01

    The factors that predispose one-tenth of reproductive-aged women to endometriosis are poorly understood. We determined that genetic deficiency in transforming growth factor ?1 impairs endometriosis-like lesion growth in mice. Given that seminal plasma is an abundant source of transforming growth factor ?, we evaluated the effect of exposure to seminal plasma on the growth of endometrial lesions. Human endometrial explants were exposed to seminal plasma or to control medium before transfer to Prkdc(scid)-mutant (severe combined immunodeficient) mice. Xenografts exposed to seminal plasma showed an eightfold increase in volume and a 4.3-fold increase in weight after 14 days. These increases were associated with increased proliferation of endometrial epithelial cells and enhanced survival and proliferation of human stromal cells compared with those in control lesions, in which human stromal cell persistence was negligible. Although the distribution of macrophages was altered, their number and activation status did not change in response to seminal plasma. Seminal plasma stimulated the production of a variety of cytokines in endometrial tissue, including growth-regulated oncogene, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and IL-1?. These data suggest that seminal plasma enhances the formation of endometriosis-like lesion via a direct effect on endometrial cell survival and proliferation, rather than via macrophage-mediated mechanisms. These findings raise the possibility that endometrial exposure to seminal plasma could contribute to endometriotic disease progression in women. PMID:25907757

  11. The quantification of lipid and protein oxidation in stallion spermatozoa and seminal plasma: seasonal distinctions and correlations with DNA strand breaks, classical seminal parameters and stallion fertility.

    PubMed

    Morte, Maria Inês; Rodrigues, Ana Margarida; Soares, Diana; Rodrigues, Ana Sofia; Gamboa, Sandra; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2008-06-01

    The goal of this work was to correlate oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage with classic semen parameters in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of fertile and subfertile stallions. Oxidation was measured in both lipids and proteins, using the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) assay and the DNPH carbonyl groups assay, respectively. Sperm DNA damage was monitored using the TUNEL assay. These parameters were monitored in samples obtained during the breeding and the non-breeding seasons. In general, fertile stallions showed better classical semen parameters, and those parameters improved from the non-breeding to the breeding season, although an increase in sperm production was accompanied by a decrease in the semen quality from subfertile stallions in the breeding season. In terms of oxidation levels we found that there were clear differences whether lipids or proteins were considered. In the breeding season there seemed to be a tendency towards normalizing lipid oxidation in spermatozoa and seminal plasma, and protein oxidation in the seminal plasma, of both fertile and subfertile animals. Thus, differences monitored in the non-breeding season were no longer visible. Interestingly, a higher level of protein oxidation was found in the sperm of fertile animals in the breeding season. Considering that there were positive correlations between sperm protein oxidation and sperm motility and vitality, these results suggests that the oxidation of semen proteins may be important for sperm function. On the other hand, lipid oxidation in the seminal plasma seemed to be a general indicator for sperm damage. In the non-breeding season positive correlations between lipid and protein oxidation levels in both sperm and seminal plasma and several defects in sperm function were found, but only for subfertile animals, thus suggesting that lipid and protein oxidation may aid in the identification of subfertile stallions during the non-breeding season. Levels of ROS production never seemed to result in compromised sperm DNA integrity, indicating that measurements were within physiological levels and/or that there is an efficient antioxidant activity in stallion sperm cells. PMID:17451892

  12. Association between the presence of protein bands in ram seminal plasma and sperm tolerance to freezing.

    PubMed

    Goularte, K L; Gastal, G D A; Schiavon, R S; Gonçalves, A O; Schneider, J R; Corcini, C D; Lucia, T

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated associations between the presence of protein bands in ram seminal plasma and the quality of sperm frozen with distinct extenders. Ejaculates were frozen in a Tris-egg yolk based extender, including either 5% glycerol or 100mM trehalose. Seminal plasma samples were submitted to unidimensional electrophoresis. Pre-freezing and post-thawing sperm quality was similar between extenders (P>0.05). A total of 26 bands were identified in ram seminal plasma. Pre-freezing sperm motility was increased when the 15, 19 and 80kDa bands were present in seminal plasma (P<0.05). The presence of an 11kDa band in seminal plasma was associated with reduced pre-freezing membrane integrity (P<0.05). After thawing, both sperm motility and membrane integrity were reduced when a 24kDa band was present in seminal plasma (P<0.05). Post-thawing acrosome integrity was greater in the presence of a 31kDa band in seminal plasma (P<0.05). Regardless of the cryoprotectant included in the freezing extender, these six bands may be potential markers for ram sperm tolerance to freezing. PMID:24725536

  13. Improvement of cryopreserved ram sperm heterogeneity and viability by addition of seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Ollero, M; Cebrian-Perez, J A; Muiño-Blanco, T

    1997-01-01

    The effect of seminal plasma, as well as some seminal plasma fractions, on the heterogeneity and viability of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa was studied. Fresh and frozen sperm samples were simultaneously assessed by a routine semen-quality assay and centrifugal countercurrent distribution (CCCD) in an aqueous two-phase system analysis. All samples used for this study were obtained from Salz rams by an artificial vagina and frozen according to the Fiser method. Sperm samples, consisting of either raw or washed semen, were frozen in the presence of either whole ram seminal plasma (RSP) or > 10 kDa seminal plasma fraction. Two control samples were considered: one diluted in Fiser's extender and an undiluted sample. Cell-membrane integrity (viability), hypoosmotic swelling (HOS) test, and sperm motility were assessed in all cases after collection, before freezing (at 5 degrees C), after thawing, and after removing the diluent before CCCD analysis. Our results show that sperm cell partition behavior was dependent on the sperm treatment and that the freezing-thawing process accounted for a clear loss of sperm heterogeneity and membrane integrity. These losses were less apparent when seminal plasma had been removed from semen samples before freezing. In addition, washed semen frozen in the presence of either > 10 kDa seminal plasma fraction or whole re-added seminal plasma maintained a higher rate of sperm heterogeneity and viability. PMID:9432147

  14. Seminal plasma as a diagnostic fluid for male reproductive system disorders.

    PubMed

    Drabovich, Andrei P; Saraon, Punit; Jarvi, Keith; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2014-05-01

    Molecular biomarkers hold promise to advance the noninvasive diagnosis of male reproductive system disorders and facilitate the identification and management of these conditions through screening, early diagnosis and more accurate prognosis. Seminal plasma has great potential as a proximal fluid for protein biomarker discovery and as a clinical sample for noninvasive diagnostics. The seminal plasma proteome contains thousands of proteins and includes a large number of tissue-specific proteins that might accurately indicate a pathological process in the tissue of origin. Potential protein biomarkers for male reproductive system disorders are more abundant in seminal plasma than in blood serum or urine, and, therefore, are more easily identified and quantified in semen by mass spectrometry and other techniques. These methods have enabled elaboration of the composition of the seminal plasma proteome and the tissue specificity of seminal plasma proteins. Strategies have been developed to discover protein biomarkers in seminal plasma through integrated 'omics' approaches. Biomarkers of male infertility and prostate cancer are now emerging, and it is evident that seminal plasma has the potential to complement other diagnostic tools available in urology clinics. PMID:24709963

  15. Seminal plasma aids the survival and cervical transit of epididymal ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Rickard, J P; Pini, T; Soleilhavoup, C; Cognie, J; Bathgate, R; Lynch, G W; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C; Druart, X; de Graaf, S P

    2014-11-01

    Seminal plasma purportedly plays a critical role in reproduction, but epididymal spermatozoa are capable of fertilisation following deposition in the uterus, calling into question the biological requirement of this substance. Through a combination of direct observation of spermatozoa in utero using probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy, in vivo assessment of sperm fertility and in vitro analysis of various sperm functional parameters, this study investigated the role of seminal plasma in spermatozoa transit through the cervix of the ewe. Following deposition in the cervical os, epididymal spermatozoa previously exposed to seminal plasma displayed an enhanced ability to traverse the cervix as evidenced by both significantly higher pregnancy rates and numbers of spermatozoa observed at the utero-tubal junction when compared with epididymal spermatozoa not previously exposed to seminal plasma. The beneficial effect of seminal plasma on sperm transport was clearly localised to transit through the cervix as pregnancy rates of spermatozoa deposited directly into the uterus were unaffected by exposure to seminal plasma. This phenomenon was not explained by changes to sperm motion characteristics, as seminal plasma had no effect on the motility, kinematic parameters or mitochondrial membrane potential of spermatozoa. Rather, in vitro testing revealed that seminal plasma improved the ability of epididymal spermatozoa to penetrate cervical mucus recovered from ewes in oestrus. These results demonstrate that the survival and transport of ram spermatozoa through the cervix of the ewe is not linked to their motility or velocity but rather the presence of some cervical penetration trait conferred by exposure to seminal plasma. PMID:25118301

  16. Local versus systemic effect of ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas

    PubMed Central

    Ratto, Marcelo H; Huanca, Wilfredo; Singh, Jaswant; Adams, Gregg P

    2005-01-01

    Background Camelids are induced (reflex) ovulators. We have recently documented the presence of an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas. The objective was to test the hypothesis that OIF exerts its effect via a systemic rather than a local route and that endometrial curettage will enhance the ovulatory response to intrauterine deposition of seminal plasma in alpacas. Methods Female alpacas were assigned randomly to 6 groups (n = 15 to 17 per group) in a 2 × 3 factorial design to test the effect of seminal plasma versus phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) given by intramuscular injection, by intrauterine infusion, or by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage. Specifically, alpacas in the respective groups were given 1) 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma intramuscularly, 2) 2 ml of PBS intramuscularly (negative control group), 3) 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma by intrauterine infusion, 4) 2 ml of PBS by intrauterine infusion (negative control group), 5) 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage, or 6) 2 ml of PBS by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage (negative control group). The alpacas were examined by transrectal ultrasonography to detect ovulation and measure follicular and luteal diameters. Results Intramuscular administration of seminal plasma resulted in a higher ovulation rate than intrauterine administration of seminal plasma (93% versus 41%; P < 0.01), while intrauterine seminal plasma after endometrial curettage was intermediate (67%). None of the saline-treated controls ovulated. The diameter of the CL after treatment-induced ovulation was not affected by the route of administration of seminal plasma. Conclusion We conclude that 1) OIF in seminal plasma effects ovulation via a systemic rather than a local route, 2) disruption of the endometrial mucosa by curettage facilitated the absorption of OIF and increased the ovulatory effect of seminal plasma, and 3) ovulation in alpacas is not associated with a physical stimulation of the genital tract, and 4) the alpaca represents an excellent biological model to evaluate the bioactivity of OIF. PMID:16018817

  17. Comparative analysis of the seminal plasma proteomes of oligoasthenozoospermic and normozoospermic men.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Elisa; Ura, Blendi; Giolo, Elena; Luppi, Stefania; Martinelli, Monica; Garcia, Rodolfo C; Ricci, Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    A comparative proteomic study of oligoasthenozoospermic and normozoospermic seminal plasmas was conducted to establish differences in protein expression. Oligoasthenozoospermia (when semen presents with a low concentration and reduced motility of spermatozoa) is common in male infertility. Two-dimensional protein maps from seminal plasma samples from 10 men with normozoospermia and 10 men with idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermia were obtained by isoelectric focusing followed by sodium dodecyl-sulphate polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Map images were analysed using dedicated software involving normalization, spot-to-spot volume comparison and statistical treatment of the results to establish the significance of differences between normal and oligoasthenozoospermic samples. Six out of 1028 spots showed over 1.5-fold relative intensity differences (P < 0.05, analysis of variance). Four proteins were identified by nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry of their tryptic peptides and database searches. Two proteins were more than three-fold under-expressed in oligoasthenozoospermia, namely epididymal secretory protein E1 and galectin-3-binding protein; the other (lipocalin-1 and a prolactin-inducible protein form) were over-expressed. The identity and differential expression of epididymal secretory protein E1 was verified by Western-blotting. The statistically significant differential expression of these four proteins in oligoasthenozoospermia compared with normozoospermia provides a molecular basis for further investigations into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermia. PMID:25779018

  18. Seminal plasma protein profiles of ejaculates obtained by internal artificial vagina and electroejaculation in Brahman bulls.

    PubMed

    Rego, J P A; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; McGowan, M R; Boe-Hansen, G B

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate if differences exist in the seminal plasma protein profile from mature Brahman bulls using two methods of semen collection: internal artificial vagina (IAV) and electroejaculation (EEJ). Semen was collected four times from three bulls on the same day and parameters were assessed immediately post-collection. Seminal plasma proteins were evaluated by 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. Semen volume was greater (P < 0.05) for EEJ (4.6 0.35 mL) than for IAV (1.86 0.24 mL) but sperm concentration was greater in IAV (1505 189 10(6) sperm/mL) than in EEJ samples (344 87 10(6) sperm/mL). Sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm were not different between treatments. Total concentration of seminal plasma proteins was greater for samples collected by IAV as compared to EEJ (19.3 0.9 compared with 13.0 1.8 mg/mL, P < 0.05; respectively). Based on 2-D gels, 22 spots had a greater volume (P < 0.05) in gels derived from IAV samples, corresponding to 21 proteins identified as transferrin, albumin, epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase, among others. Thirty-three spots, corresponding to 26 proteins, had a greater volume (P < 0.05) in gels derived from EEJ samples. These proteins were identified as spermadhesin-1, Bovine Sperm Protin 1, 3 and 5 isoforms, angiogenin-1, alpha-1B-glycoprotein, clusterin, nucleobindin-1, cathepsins, spermadhesin Z13, annexins, among others. Thus, proteins in greater amounts in samples obtained by IAV and EEJ were mainly of epididymal origin and accessory sex glands, respectively. PMID:26282524

  19. Electroejaculation increases low molecular weight proteins in seminal plasma modifying sperm quality in Corriedale rams.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, A; Manes, J; Cesari, A; Alberio, R; Hozbor, F

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of seminal collection method (artificial vagina or electroejaculation) on the protein composition of seminal plasma and sperm quality parameters in Corriedale rams. To address this question, we assessed the effect of seminal collection method on motility, plasma membrane integrity and functionality, mitochondrial functionality and the decondensation state of nuclear chromatin in sperm cells. Volume, pH, osmolarity, protein concentration, total protein content and protein profile using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and 2-D polyacrylamide electrophoresis of seminal plasma collected with artificial vagina and electroejaculation were also analysed. The main findings from this study were that ejaculates obtained with electroejaculation had (i) a higher number of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane and functional mitochondria and (ii) a higher proportion of seminal plasma, total protein content and relative abundance of low molecular weight proteins than ejaculates obtained with artificial vagina. Five of these proteins were identified by mass spectrometry: binder of sperm 5 precursor; RSVP14; RSVP22; epididymal secretory protein E1 and clusterin. One protein spot with molecular weight of approximately 31 kDa and isoelectric point of 4.8 was only found in the seminal plasma from electroejaculation. PMID:24494601

  20. Characterization of the seminal plasma proteome in men with prostatitis by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland which affects approximately 10% of men. Despite its frequency, diagnosing prostatitis and monitoring patient response to treatment remains frustrating. As the prostate contributes a substantial percentage of proteins to seminal plasma, we hypothesized that a protein biomarker of prostatitis might be found by comparing the seminal plasma proteome of patients with and without prostatitis. Results Using mass spectrometry, we identified 1708 proteins in the pooled seminal plasma of 5 prostatitis patients. Comparing this list to a previously published list of seminal plasma proteins in the pooled seminal plasma of 5 healthy, fertile controls yielded 1464 proteins in common, 413 found only in the control group, and 254 found only in the prostatitis group. Applying a set of criteria to this dataset, we generated a high-confidence list of 59 candidate prostatitis biomarkers, 33 of which were significantly increased in prostatitis as compared to control, and 26 of which were decreased. The candidates were analyzed using Gene Ontology and Ingenuity Pathway analysis to delineate their subcellular localizations and functions. Conclusions Thus, in this study, we identified 59 putative biomarkers in seminal plasma that need further validation for diagnosis and monitoring of prostatitis. PMID:22309592

  1. Proteomic analysis of white and yellow seminal plasma in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    PubMed

    Słowińska, M; Kozłowski, K; Jankowski, J; Ciereszko, A

    2015-06-01

    Yellow semen syndrome (YSS) is endemic within domestic turkey populations. Yellow semen is of lower quality and, when used for insemination, results in reduced fertility and hatchability. Little is known about the etiology of YSS. The aim of this study was to compare the proteome of white and yellow seminal plasma of turkeys using 1) 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to quantify seminal plasma proteins and 2) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to identify the proteins that are differentially abundant in white and yellow seminal plasma. A total of 49 protein spots (30 upregulated and 19 downregulated) were differentially expressed in yellow seminal plasma compared with white seminal plasma. Transthyretin and serum albumin-like showed a 3-fold increase in seminal plasma from males with YSS, and the latter was validated using Western blot analysis. A 3-fold increase was observed for hemopexin-like and immunoglobulin light chain V-J-C region. Pantetheinase-like showed a 1.3-fold increase. Ovotransferrin, hepatocyte growth factor activator, cysteine-rich secretory protein 3-like, and ferritin heavy chain-like showed a significant decrease (at least a 1.3-fold decrease) in yellow semen. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the precise function of the above-mentioned proteins in YSS and to establish quality markers of turkey semen to predict the reproductive potential of individual turkeys. PMID:26115266

  2. Differential protein expression in seminal plasma from fertile and infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Cadavid J, Angela P.; Alvarez, Angela; Markert, Udo R.; Maya, Walter Cardona

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze human seminal plasma proteins in association with male fertility status using the proteomic mass spectrometry technology Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (SELDI-TOF-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen analysis was performed using conventional methods. Protein profiles of the seminal plasma were obtained by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry over a strong anion exchanger, ProteinChip® Q10 array. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant differences in motility and sperm count between fertile and infertile men. In addition, we observed ten seminal proteins that are significantly up-regulated in the infertile group. In conclusion, comparison of seminal plasma proteome in fertile and infertile men provides new aspects in the physiology of male fertility and might help in identifying novel markers of male infertility. PMID:25395747

  3. Factor H in Porcine Seminal Plasma Protects Sperm against Complement Attack in Genital Tracts*

    PubMed Central

    Sakaue, Tomohisa; Takeuchi, Keisuke; Maeda, Toshinaga; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Nishi, Katsuji; Ohkubo, Iwao

    2010-01-01

    We found that factor H (FH) exists in porcine seminal plasma. Purified FH strongly inhibited serum alternative pathway complement activation against lipopolysaccharide. The molecular weight, pI, and heparin-binding activity of the purified protein were different from those of purified FH from porcine serum. The complement regulatory activity of seminal plasma FH was ∼2-fold stronger than that of serum FH. Treatment of purified serum FH with sialidase and N-glycosidase F gave almost the same results as those of seminal plasma FH. The deletion of sialic acid from the carbohydrate chains of both FHs contributed to heparin-binding and complement regulatory activities. Results of reverse transcriptase-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry showed that seminal plasma FH is mainly secreted from epithelial cells of the seminal vesicle in male genital tracts. FH was also detected in the outer acrosomal region of ejaculated sperm by immunofluorescence staining, and found that the purified FH from the sperm membrane has the same complement regulatory activity as that of seminal plasma FH. The ejaculated sperm possessing FH in the outer acrosomal region considerably evaded complement attack. We also found that there is strong complement activity in fluids from female genital tract ducts. These findings indicate that FH bound to the outer acrosomal region and soluble FH play important roles in protecting sperm against complement attack in male and female genital tracts. PMID:19920146

  4. Ovulation-inducing factor: a protein component of llama seminal plasma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previously, we documented the presence of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma of llamas and alpacas. The purpose of the study was to define the biochemical characteristics of the molecule(s) in seminal plasma responsible for inducing ovulation. Methods In Experiment 1, llama seminal plasma was centrifuged using filtration devices with nominal molecular mass cut-offs of 30, 10 and 5 kDa. Female llamas (n = 9 per group) were treated i.m. with whole seminal plasma (positive control), phosphate-buffered saline (negative control), or the fraction of seminal plasma equal or higher than 30 kDa, 10 to 30 kDa, 5 to 10 kDa, or < 5 kDa. In Experiment 2, female llamas (n = 7 per group) were given an i.m. dose of seminal plasma treated previously by: 1) enzymatic digestion with proteinase-K, 2) incubation with charcoal-dextran, 3) heating to 65°C, or 4) untreated (control). In Experiment 3, female llamas (n = 10 per group) were given an i.m. dose of pronase-treated or non-treated (control) seminal plasma. In all experiments, llamas were examined by transrectal ultrasonography to detect ovulation and CL formation. Ovulation rate was compared among groups by Fisher's exact test and follicle and CL diameters were compared among groups by analyses of variance or student's t-tests. Results In Experiment 1, all llamas in the equal or higher than 30 kDa and positive control groups ovulated (9/9 in each), but none ovulated in the other groups (P < 0.001). In Experiment 2, ovulations were detected in all llamas in each treatment group; i.e., respective treatments of seminal plasma failed to inactivate the ovulation-inducing factor. In Experiment 3, ovulations were detected in 0/10 llamas given pronase-treated seminal plasma and in 9/10 controls (P < 0.01). Conclusions We conclude that ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in llama seminal plasma is a protein molecule that is resistant to heat and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K, and has a molecular mass of approximately equal or higher than 30 kDa. PMID:20462434

  5. Inclusion of seminal plasma in sperm cryopreservation of Iberian pig.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Fernández, José; Gómez-Izquierdo, Emilio; Tomás, Cristina; González-Bulnes, Antonio; Sánchez-Sánchez, Raúl; de Mercado, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the inclusion of seminal plasma (SP) in the freezing extender, trying to preserve as much as possible of SP with spermatozoa from Iberian pigs, thus improving the conservation of animal genetic resources of this breed. Experiment 1, evaluated the effect of substituting water with SP as diluent in the freezing media in different proportions (0%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%), over pre-freezing (at 10°C and 5°C) and post-thawing sperm quality. The results showed that over 50% of SP in the extender, significantly decreased sperm quality in comparison to the control sample (0% SP) and the samples with 10% and 25% of SP (P<0.05). No significant differences were found between the control sample and the samples with 10% and 25% SP (P>0.05), but treatment with 25% did not show significant differences between the time of incubation at 37°C after thawing (P>0.05), showing greater sperm quality resistance over time. Experiment 2, evaluated the effect of prolonged incubation period, until 480min (simulating the lifespan of sperm in the female genital tract), of sperm samples with 0%, 10% and 25% of SP. Treatment with 25% of SP maintained better sperm quality over time, compared to control sample. Significant differences were observed especially in the parameters of motility analysis (TMS, total motile spermatozoa; PMS: progressive motility spermatozoa. P<0.05). In Experiment 3, the effect of the presence of SP was evaluated during the thawing process. Although some differences were observed between treatments, these differences were not as clear as the previous experiments. In conclusion, replacement of 25% of the water by SP as diluent in the freezing extender could be considered the maximum percentage of inclusion, without harmful effects to the sperm. In addition, this proportion of SP maintained Iberian sperm quality for longer time when it was present during the freezing and thawing process. PMID:22266249

  6. Influence of boar breeds or hybrid genetic composition on semen quality and seminal plasma biochemical variables.

    PubMed

    Žaja, Ivona Žura; Samardžija, Marko; Vince, Silvijo; Majić-Balić, Ivanka; Vilić, Marinko; Đuričić, Dražen; Milinković-Tur, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme concentrations of seminal plasma are important for spermatozoa metabolism and function in boars. The need has arisen for introducing a biochemical evaluation of semen, along with the usual standard semen analyses. There are no data on the influence of boar breeds on the seminal plasma biochemical variables investigated in this study. Therefore, the objective was to determine the influence of breed and hybrid genetic composition of boars on semen quality and seminal plasma biochemical variables. Semen samples of 27 boars (Swedish Landrace, German Landrace, Large White, Pietrain and Pig Improvement Company hybrid-PIC-hybrid), aged between 1.5 and 3 years, were collected. After evaluation of semen quality, the seminal plasma was separated from the spermatozoa by centrifugation of semen. The seminal plasma was subjected to spectrophotometric analysis to determine alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and to atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis to measure the concentration of calcium and magnesium. Conventional semen quality variables differed depending on breed and PIC-hybrid genetic composition, though these differences were typically insignificant. In the seminal plasma, significant differences were determined in enzyme activity (ALP, GGT, CK and LDH) and in calcium concentration among boars of different breeds. There are, therefore, differences in semen quality and significant differences in the seminal plasma biochemical variables among boars of different breeds and PIC-hybrid genetic composition. The data and differences in semen variables detected in the present study provide knowledge for enhancing evaluation and monitoring of boar reproductive potential, semen quality and explain the potential causes of boar infertility. PMID:26692346

  7. Substrate specificity of proteolytic activity in the testes fluid and seminal plasma of the common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Cejko, B I; Słowińska, M; Judycka, S; Kowalski, R K

    2016-05-01

    Substrate specificity in the seminal plasma and testes fluids of the common carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using gelatin, casein, albumin and haemoglobin. Proteolytic profiles of the testes and seminal plasma were compared. Different ranges of pH (5·5-9·5) and temperature (4-37° C) were used during incubations of seminal plasma proteinases. Differences in proteolytic activity between testes and seminal plasma may reflect specific functions of the testes and sperm ducts in semen production. Seminal plasma metalloproteinases were characterized by higher substrate specificity than were serine proteinases. Zymography optimization for seminal plasma indicated that pH 7·5 and 22° C were the optimal conditions for gel incubations. PMID:27001550

  8. Seasonal variation in the protective effect of seminal plasma on frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Leahy, T; Marti, J I; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2010-05-01

    The response of ram spermatozoa to seminal plasma is highly variable, in part due to the presence of both stimulatory and inhibitory factors. The aim of this study was to assess variation in the protection of ram spermatozoa during freezing by seminal plasma. The seminal plasma variables studied were season of collection, fractionation and method of supplementation. Spermatozoa were supplemented before freezing with 4 mg of seminal plasma proteins (SPPs) per 10(8) cells, and their motility and viability were assessed during post-thaw incubation (37 degrees C). In Experiment 1, semen was (a) frozen with no supplementation (Control) (b) extended with a Tris-based diluent (C + TRIS), or (c) supplemented with seminal plasma collected throughout the year (in the Southern Hemisphere) and pooled for January-March, April-June, July-August and October-December, and either fractionated to produce a concentrated >10 kDa seminal plasma protein retentate (>10 kDa SPP), or kept as crude seminal plasma (CP). There was no effect of season or seminal plasma type (CP or >10 kDa SPP) on motility of spermatozoa. CP and >10 kDa SPP improved the viability of spermatozoa when collected from January-September compared to Control. Supplementation with >10 kDa SPP increased viability of spermatozoa, compared to CP, when collected from January to July. In Experiment 2, >10 kDa SPP were either added directly to the spermatozoa or included in the cryodiluent or >10 kDa SPP were not supplemented (Control). Both supplementation methods improved the motility and the proportion of viable, acrosome-intact spermatozoa but direct supplementation resulted in more viable, acrosome-intact spermatozoa compared with supplementation of the cryodiluent. These results show that supplementation of ram spermatozoa with CP, or its protein component (>10 kDa SPP), before freezing protects them from freeze-thaw damage. The protective effect is greatest when seminal plasma is collected during the breeding season, fractionated with >10 kDa filters and added directly to the spermatozoa. PMID:20089374

  9. Systematic characterization of seminal plasma piRNAs as molecular biomarkers for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yeting; Wang, Cheng; Fu, Zheng; Liang, Hongwei; Zhang, Suyang; Lu, Meiling; Sun, Wu; Ye, Chao; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke; Shi, Liang; Zhang, Chunni; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Although piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis, little is known about piRNAs in the seminal plasma of infertile males. In this study, we systematically investigated the profiles of seminal plasma piRNAs in infertile males to identify piRNAs that are altered during infertility and evaluate their diagnostic value. Seminal plasma samples were obtained from 211 infertile patients (asthenozoospermia and azoospermia) and 91 fertile controls. High-throughput sequencing technology was employed to screen piRNA profiles in seminal plasma samples pooled from healthy controls and infertile patients. The results identified 61 markedly altered piRNAs in infertile patient groups compared with control group. Next, a quantitative RT-PCR assay was conducted in the training and validation sets to measure and confirm the concentrations of altered piRNAs. The results identified a panel of 5 piRNAs that were significantly decreased in seminal plasma of infertile patients compared with healthy controls. ROC curve analysis and risk score analysis revealed that the diagnostic potential of these 5 piRNAs to distinguish asthenozoospermic and azoospermic individuals from healthy controls was high. In summary, this study identifies a panel of piRNAs that can accurately distinguish fertile from infertile males. This finding may provide pathophysiological clues about the development of infertility. PMID:27068805

  10. Exploring the Human Seminal Plasma Proteome: An Unexplored Gold Mine of Biomarker for Male Infertility and Male Reproduction Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gilany, Kambiz; Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Savadi-Shiraz, Elham; Rezadoost, Hassan; Lakpour, Niknam

    2015-01-01

    Background The human seminal fluid is a complex body fluid. It is not known how many proteins are expressed in the seminal plasma; however in analog with the blood it is possible up to 10,000 proteins are expressed in the seminal plasma. The human seminal fluid is a rich source of potential biomarkers for male infertility and reproduction disorder. Methods In this review, the ongoing list of proteins identified from the human seminal fluid was collected. To date, 4188 redundant proteins of the seminal fluid are identified using different proteomics technology, including 2-DE, SDS-PAGE-LC-MS/MS, MudPIT. However, this was reduced to a database of 2168 non-redundant protein using UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot reviewed database. Results The core concept of proteome were analyzed including pI, MW, Amino Acids, Chromosome and PTM distribution in the human seminal plasma proteome. Additionally, the biological process, molecular function and KEGG pathway were investigated using DAVID software. Finally, the biomarker identified in different male reproductive system disorder was investigated using proteomics platforms so far. Conclusion In this study, an attempt was made to update the human seminal plasma proteome database. Our finding showed that human seminal plasma studies used to date seem to have converged on a set of proteins that are repeatedly identified in many studies and that represent only a small fraction of the entire human seminal plasma proteome. PMID:25927022

  11. Biochemical isolation and purification of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in seminal plasma of llamas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to isolate and purify the protein fraction(s) of llama seminal plasma responsible for the ovulation-inducing effect of the ejaculate. Methods Semen collected from male llamas by artificial vagina was centrifuged and the seminal plasma was harvested and stored frozen. Seminal plasma was thawed and loaded onto a Type 1 macro-prep ceramic hydroxylapatite column and elution was carried out using a lineal gradient with 350 mM sodium phosphate. Three protein fractions were identified clearly (Fractions A, B, and C), where a prominent protein band with a mass of 14 kDa was identified in Fraction C. Fraction C was loaded into a sephacryl gel filtration column for further purification using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Isocratic elution resulted in 2 distinct protein fractions (Fractions C1 and C2). An in vivo bioassay (n = 10 to 11 llamas per group) was used to determine the ovarian effect of each fraction involving treatment with saline (negative control), whole seminal plasma (positive control), or seminal plasma Fractions A, B or C2. Ultrasonography was done to detect ovulation and CL formation, and blood samples were taken to measure plasma progesterone and LH concentrations. Results Ovulation and CL formation was detected in 0/10, 10/11, 0/10, 2/11, and 10/11 llamas treated with saline, whole seminal plasma, Fractions A, B and C2 respectively (P < 0.001). A surge in circulating concentrations of LH was detected within 2 hours only in llamas treated with either whole seminal plasma or Fraction C2. Plasma progesterone concentration and CL diameter profiles were greatest (P < 0.05) in llamas treated with Fraction C2. Conclusion Ovulation-inducing factor was isolated from llama seminal plasma as a 14 kDa protein molecule that elicits a preovulatory LH surge followed by ovulation and CL formation in llamas, suggesting an endocrine effect at the level of the hypothalamus (release of GnRH) or the pituitary (gonadotrophs). PMID:21310078

  12. Can the Genetic Origin Affect Rabbit Seminal Plasma Protein Profile along the Year?

    PubMed

    Casares-Crespo, L; Talaván, A M; Viudes-de-Castro, M P

    2016-04-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the influence of genetic origin on rabbit seminal plasma protein profile variation along the year. Seminal plasma of rabbits from line A (maternal line) and R (paternal line) collected during a natural year was subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The electrophoretic profile of rabbit seminal plasma resulted in multiple protein bands of different intensity ranging from 9 to 240 kDa. Results showed that seven protein bands were significantly different between genetic lines, and among these, three protein bands were significantly different between seasons. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF or LC-MS/MS analysis and were the following ones: FAM115E-like (220, 113 and 59 kDa), ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3 isoform X2 (72 kDa), annexin A5 (32 kDa), lipocalin allergen Ory c 4 precursor (19 kDa), and haemoglobin subunit zetalike (13 kDa) between genetic lines and FAM115E-like (113 kDa), haemoglobin subunit zetalike (13 kDa) and β-nerve growth factor (12 kDa) between seasons. These results indicate that proteins from rabbit seminal plasma are under both seasonal control and genetic control. Furthermore, the differential presence of these proteins could be one of the causes explaining the differences observed in fertility and seminal parameters between these two lines in earlier studies. PMID:26936775

  13. Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in the seminal plasma and human semen parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, S.; Makino, T.; Iizuka, R.

    1985-04-01

    A luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH)-like substance has been detected in human seminal plasma by a radioimmunoassay (RIA) with a highly specific anti-LH-RH antiserum. The seminal samples - not only the plasma itself but also the sample extracted by an acid/alcohol method - showed satisfactory displacement curves in our RIA system. The relationship between fertility and the LH-RH values in the seminal plasma was studied by comparing the peptide levels with sperm concentration and motility. By these two parameters, 103 samples were divided into four groups. In the low-concentration groups (oligozoospermic patients), the hormonal concentrations differed significantly between those specimens demonstrating good and poor motility. These data suggest that this immunoreactive LH-RH may play a role in human spermatogenesis.

  14. Oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot seminal plasma and their effects on sperm quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Mingming; Ding, Fuhong; Meng, Zhen; Lei, Jilin

    2015-08-01

    In this research, the concentration and activity of oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot semen, and their effects on sperm quality were studied. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), uric acid, vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) were more abundant in seminal plasma than in spermatozoa. The variation for each of them was specific. In seminal plasma, the activity of SOD and GR increased from November 15, November 30 to December 15, and then decreased on December 30. The concentrations of both VC and uric acid decreased during the first 3 sampling times and increased on December 30. The oxidants in seminal plasma accumulated to the highest on December 30. Lactic acid (LA) and ATP levels decreased to the lowest on December 30. The correlation analysis showed that GR had the significant positive relevance to sperm motility and VSL/VCL, while ·OH had negative relevance to them.

  15. Differential proteomics of human seminal plasma: A potential target for searching male infertility marker proteins.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Anil Kumar; Sooch, Balwinder Singh; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2012-04-01

    The clinical fertility tests, available in the market, fail to define the exact cause of male infertility in almost half of the cases and point toward a crucial need of developing better ways of infertility investigations. The protein biomarkers may help us toward better understanding of unknown cases of male infertility that, in turn, can guide us to find better therapeutic solutions. Many clinical attempts have been made to identify biomarkers of male infertility in sperm proteome but only few studies have targeted seminal plasma. Human seminal plasma is a rich source of proteins that are essentially required for development of sperm and successful fertilization. This viewpoint article highlights the importance of human seminal plasma proteome in reproductive physiology and suggests that differential proteomics integrated with functional analysis may help us in searching potential biomarkers of male infertility. PMID:22532450

  16. Effect of dialysis of dog semen on sperm characteristics and some biochemical components of seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Strzeżek, R; Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Kiełczewski, K; Kordan, W

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dog semen dialysis on sperm characteristics and some biochemical components of seminal plasma. Whole ejaculates were dialyzed against Tris-citrate-fructose extender for a 5 h period at room temperature (using semi-permeable cellulose tubing of 12-14 kDa molecular weight cut-off). It has been demonstrated that the long-term dialysis of dog semen causes a significant decrease in sperm quality parameters and disrupts the biochemical properties of seminal plasma. This procedure requires further improvement. PMID:26172197

  17. TRIS(DICHLOROPROPYL)PHOSHATE, A MUTAGENIC FLAME RETARDANT: FREQUENT OCCURRENCE IN HUMAN SEMINAL PLASMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Negative-chemical-ionization mass spectral screening of extracts of human seminal plasma has revealed a presence of a Cl7 ion cluster at a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 463 in a significant number of the samples examined (34 out of 123). Experiments with different gases used to g...

  18. Biomarkers of in vivo fertility in sperm and seminal plasma of fertile stallions.

    PubMed

    Novak, S; Smith, T A; Paradis, F; Burwash, L; Dyck, M K; Foxcroft, G R; Dixon, W T

    2010-10-01

    The global proteome of sperm and seminal plasma of fertile stallions was investigated to determine whether associations with relative in vivo fertility exist. Seven stallions at stud in a commercial breeding station were collected throughout the breeding season and bred to a total of 164 mares to determine conception rates. On three occasions during the breeding season, raw semen was obtained from a regular collection for proteomic analysis using two-dimensional electrophoresis and also assessed for routine semen quality end points. First cycle conception rate was negatively related to ejaculate volume (r = -0.43, P = 0.05) and total IGF1 content (ng) per ejaculate (r = -0.58, P = 0.006), whereas overall pregnancy rate was positively related to sperm concentration (r = 0.56, P = 0.01). The abundance of three proteins known to be involved in carbohydrate metabolism in sperm was positively related to fertility. Furthermore, the abundance of four seminal plasma proteins were identified as being negatively related to fertility; these were identified as kallikrein-1E2 (KLK2), clusterin, and seminal plasma proteins 1 (SP1) and 2 (SP2). Abundance of cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP3) was positively related to first cycle conception rate (r = 0.495, P = 0.027) and may provide a good marker of fertility. Based on stepwise regression analysis, clusterin and SP1 in seminal plasma together with sperm citrate synthase were predictive of fertility (r = 0.77, P < 0.0001). This study identified proteins within sperm and seminal plasma that could serve as biomarkers of semen quality and fertility in stallions. PMID:20580075

  19. Characterization of alkaline phosphatase activity in seminal plasma and in fresh and frozen-thawed stallion spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Diego; Giaretta, Elisa; Spinaci, Marcella; Rizzato, Giovanni; Isani, Gloria; Mislei, Beatrice; Mari, Gaetano; Tamanini, Carlo; Galeati, Giovanna

    2016-01-15

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) has been studied in several situations to elucidate its role in reproductive biology of the male from different mammalian species; at present, its role in horse sperm physiology is not clear. The aim of the present work was to measure AP activity in seminal plasma and sperm extracts from freshly ejaculated as well as in frozen-thawed stallion spermatozoa and to verify whether relationship exists between AP activity and sperm quality parameters. Our data on 40 freshly ejaculated samples from 10 different stallions demonstrate that the main source of AP activity is seminal plasma, whereas sperm extracts contribution is very low. In addition, we found that AP activity at physiological pH (7.0) is significantly lower than that observed at pH 8.0, including the optimal AP pH (pH 10.0). Alkaline phosphatase did not exert any effect on sperm-oocyte interaction assessed by heterologous oocyte binding assay. Additionally, we observed a thermal stability of seminal plasma AP, concluding that it is similar to that of bone isoforms. Positive correlations were found between seminal plasma AP activity and sperm concentration, whereas a negative correlation was present between both spermatozoa extracts and seminal plasma AP activity and seminal plasma protein content. A significant decrease in sperm extract AP activity was found in frozen-thawed samples compared with freshly ejaculated ones (n = 21), concomitantly with the decrease in sperm quality parameters. The positive correlation between seminal plasma AP activity measured at pH 10 and viability of frozen-thawed spermatozoa suggests that seminal plasma AP activity could be used as an additional predictive parameter for stallion sperm freezability. In conclusion, we provide some insights into AP activity in both seminal plasma and sperm extracts and describe a decrease in AP after freezing and thawing. PMID:26433714

  20. Isolation and characterization of gelatin-binding proteins from goat seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Villemure, Michle; Lazure, Claude; Manjunath, Puttaswamy

    2003-04-28

    A family of proteins designated BSP-A1, BSP-A2, BSP-A3 and BSP-30 kDa (collectively called BSP proteins for Bovine Seminal Plasma proteins) constitute the major protein fraction in the bull seminal plasma. These proteins interact with choline phospholipids on the sperm surface and play a role in the membrane stabilization (decapacitation) and destabilization (capacitation) process. Homologous proteins have been isolated from boar and stallion seminal plasma. In the current study we report the isolation and preliminary characterization of homologous proteins from goat seminal plasma. Frozen semen (-80 degrees C) was thawed and centrifuged to remove sperm. The proteins in the supernatant were precipitated by the addition of cold ethanol. The precipitates were dissolved in ammonium bicarbonate and lyophilised. The lyophilised proteins were dissolved in phosphate buffer and loaded onto a gelatin-agarose column, which was previously equilibrated with the same buffer. The column was successively washed with phosphate buffer, with phosphate buffer saline and with 0.5 M urea in phosphate buffer saline to remove unadsorbed proteins, and the adsorbed proteins were eluted with 5 M urea in phosphate buffer saline. Analysis of pooled, dialysed and lyophilised gelatin-agarose adsorbed protein fraction by SDS-PAGE indicated the presence of four protein bands that were designated GSP-14 kDa, GSP-15 kDa, GSP-20 kDa and GSP-22 kDa (GSP, Goat Seminal Plasma proteins). Heparin-affinity chromatography was then used for the separation of GSP-20 and -22 kDa from GSP-14 and -15 kDa. Finally, HPLC separation permitted further isolation of each one from the other. Amino acid sequence analysis of these proteins indicated that they are homologous to BSP proteins. In addition, these BSP homologs bind to hen's egg-yolk low-density lipoproteins. These results together with our previous data indicate that BSP family proteins are ubiquitous in mammalian seminal plasma, exist in several forms in each species and possibly play a common biological role. PMID:12737634

  1. Seminal plasma and serum fertility biomarkers in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Waheed, M M; Ghoneim, I M; Alhaider, A K

    2015-03-01

    Eight healthy fertile (control) and 11 infertile male dromedaries were used to investigate whether specific seminal plasma and serum fertility biomarkers could be related to their in vivo fertility. Eight fertility biomarkers and testosterone were determined in both seminal plasma and serum of all studied camels during the rutting season using commercial kits. Results revealed a significant (P < 0.01) difference in semen parameters between the control and infertile camels. There was a significant (P < 0.01) difference between the control and infertile dromedaries in seminal plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (15.04 ± 1.14 vs. 4.55 ± 0.96 nmol/min/mL, respectively) and both phospholipase A2 (sPLA2; 50.66 ± 6.28 vs. 23.56 ± 4.29 pg/mL, respectively) and testosterone concentrations (732.14 ± 57.12 vs. 396.36 ± 79.34 pg/mL, respectively). A significant (P < 0.05) difference was found between the control and infertile camels in seminal plasma concentrations of osteopontin, cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP3), and prostaglandin D synthase (lipocalcin-type). There was a significant (P < 0.01) difference between the fertile and infertile camels in serum GPx activity 67.81 ± 12.41 vs. 21.31 ± 4.63 nmol/min/mL, respectively) and both testosterone (599.57 ± 110.90 vs. 176.09 ± 24.05 pg/mL, respectively) and clusterin concentrations (137.29 ± 14.15 vs. 253.00 ± 17.14 ng/mL, respectively). A significant (P < 0.05) difference existed between the control and infertile male dromedaries in serum concentrations of sPLA2, CRISP3, malonialdehyde, and insulinlike growth factor 1. In conclusion, CRISP3, sPLA2, GPx, and testosterone are fertility-associated biomarkers in both seminal plasma and serum of dromedary camels. Seminal plasma osteopontin is positively correlated and prostaglandin D synthase (lipocalcin-type) is negatively correlated with camels' fertility. Serum malonialdehyde, insulinlike growth factor 1, and clusterin are negatively correlated with fertility of male dromedary camels. PMID:25434775

  2. Presence of membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma: ultrastructural characteristics, protein profile and enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Polisca, A; Troisi, A; Minelli, A; Bellezza, I; Fontbonne, A; Zelli, R

    2015-02-01

    This study sought to verify the presence of membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma by means of transmission electron microscopy and to identify protein profile and some of the enzymatic activities associated with these particles. The transmission electron microscopy observations showed the existence of different sized vesicular membranous structures of more or less spherical shape. These vesicles were surrounded by single-, double- or multiple-layered laminar membranes. The vesicle diameters ranged from 16.3 to 387.4 nm, with a mean of 116.5 ± 70.7 nm. Enzyme activity determinations showed the presence of dipeptilpeptidase IV, aminopeptidase, alkaline and acid phosphatase. To our knowledge, this is the first report that identifies and characterizes the membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma. However, further studies are necessary to identify the exact site of production of these membranous vesicles in the cat male genital tract and to determine their specific roles in the reproductive events of this species. PMID:25414137

  3. Toxic metals in seminal plasma and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keewan; Bloom, Michael S; Kruger, Pamela C; Parsons, Patrick J; Arnason, John G; Byun, Youjung; Goins, Stephen; Fujimoto, Victor Y

    2014-08-01

    We measured toxic metals in seminal plasma collected from 30 men using vitro fertilization (IVF), to evaluate associations with semen quality and IVF outcomes. A doubling in Hg-adjusted Pb concentration was associated with 47% lower total motile sperm. Positive associations were suggested for Hg with pregnancy and live birth, adjusted for Cd or Pb. A negative association was suggested for Hg-adjusted Cd with pregnancy. These data add to evidence indicating that toxic metals impact IVF. PMID:25019469

  4. Protein profile of the seminal plasma of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Santos, E A A; Sousa, P C; Martins, J A M; Moreira, R A; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreno, F B M B; Oliveira, M F; Moura, A A; Silva, A R

    2014-06-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the major proteins of the peccary seminal plasma, based on the semen samples collected from nine adult and reproductively sound animals. Our approach included the use of two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by Coomassie blue staining and analysis of polypeptide maps with PDQuest Software (Bio-Rad). Proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We detected 179 protein spots per gel and 98 spots were identified by mass spectrometry, corresponding to 23 different proteins. The combined intensity of those spots accounted for 56.2±6% of the intensities of all spots and 60.9% of the intensities of spots presented in every protein map. Protein spots identified as clusterin represented 19.7±8.3% of the integrated optical densities of all spots detected in the seminal plasma maps. There was a negative association (r=-0.87; P<0.05) between the intensity of a clusterin spot and the percentage of sperm with functional membrane. Spermadhesin porcine seminal plasma protein 1 and bodhesin 2 comprised 5.4±1.9 and 8.8±3.9% of the total intensity of all spots respectively. Many proteins appeared in a polymorphic pattern, such as clusterin (27 spots), epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase (ten spots), inter-α-trypsin inhibitor (12 spots), and IgG-binding protein (ten spots), among others. In conclusion, we presently describe the major seminal plasma proteome of the peccary, which exhibits a distinct high expression of clusterin isoforms. Knowledge of wild species reproductive biology is crucial for an understanding of their survival strategies and adaptation in a changing environment. PMID:24516176

  5. Seminal plasma composition from ejaculates collected by artificial vagina and electroejaculation in Guirra ram.

    PubMed

    Marco-Jiménez, F; Vicente, J S; Viudes-de-Castro, M P

    2008-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate changes in ram seminal plasma composition from ejaculates obtained using artificial vagina (AV) and electroejaculation (EE). To address this question, we assessed the effect of semen collection method on volume, sperm concentration, sodium concentration, potassium concentration, sodium/potassium ratio, total protein content and protein profile using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The main findings from this study were: (i) similar volume was obtained, while sperm concentration was significantly lower for EE method; (ii) potassium and sodium/potassium concentration ratio were not influenced by recovery method, while sodium concentration increased significantly when semen was recovered using EE; (iii) approximately 80% of the total relative seminal plasma protein is represented by four protein fractions of molecular weights around 15, 21, 24 and 50 kDa and there were not differences and (iv) focussing the two-dimensional SDS-PAGE gel on the 10-25 kDa rank, the IMAGE ANALYSIS software detected around 22 spots with isoelectric points ranging from 5.1 to 6.1. Two protein spots (15 kDa and 5.5 and 22 kDa and 5.2 for molecular weight and isoelectric point respectively) increased significantly when semen was recovered using EE. One spot protein with molecular weight around 25 kDa and isoelectric point of 5.2 were only found in the seminal plasma from the semen recovery by AV. As it was demonstrated, ejaculates obtained with EE modify the sodium concentration, alter two proteins concentration and induced the loss of one protein in seminal plasma. PMID:18226020

  6. Computational analysis of Concanavalin A binding glycoproteins of human seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Anil Kumar; Sooch, Balwinder Singh; Yadav, Savita

    2011-01-01

    Glycoproteins have immense clinical importance and comparative glycoproteomics has become a powerful tool for biomarker discovery and disease diagnosis. Seminal plasma glycoproteins participate in fertility related processes including sperm-egg recognition, modulation of capacitation and acrosome reaction inhibition. Affinity chromatography using broad specificity lectin such as Con A is widely applied for glycoproteins enrichment. More notably, Con A-interacting fraction of human seminal plasma has decapacitating activity which makes this fraction critically important. In our previous study, we isolated Con A-interacting glycoproteins from human seminal plasma and subsequently identified them by mass spectrometry. Here, we report the computational analysis of these proteins using bioinformatics tools. The analysis includes: prediction of glycosylation sites using sequence information (NetNGlyc 1.0), functional annotations to cluster these proteins into various functional groups (InterProScan and Blast2GO) and identification of protein interaction networks (STRING database). The results indicate that these proteins are involved in various biological processes including transport, morphogenesis, metabolic processes, cell differentiation and homeostasis. The clusters illustrate two major molecular functions - hydrolase activity (6) and protein (4)/carbohydrate (1)/lipid binding (1). The large interactomes of proteins point towards their versatile roles in wide range of biological processes. PMID:21938208

  7. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya; Challapalli, Srinivas; Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao; Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-07-15

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in αt value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. - Highlights: • Seminal plasma antioxidants were measured in men occupationally exposed to radiation. • Sperm chromatin integrity was significantly affected in the exposed group. • Glutathione and total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in exposed group. • Sperm DNA damage in exposed subjects affected seminal plasma antioxidant level.

  8. Proteomic profile of seminal plasma in adolescents and adults with treated and untreated varicocele.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Mariana; Intasqui, Paula; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele, the most important treatable cause of male infertility, is present in 15% of adult males, 35% of men with primary infertility, and 80% of men with secondary infertility. On the other hand, 80% of these men will not present infertility. Therefore, there is a need to differentiate a varicocele that is exerting a deleterious effect that is treatable from a "silent" varicocele. Despite the growing evidence of the cellular effects of varicocele, its underlying molecular mechanisms are still eluding. Proteomics has become a promising area to determine the reproductive biology of semen as well as to improve diagnosis of male infertility. This review aims to discuss the state-of-art in seminal plasma proteomics in patients with varicocele to discuss the challenges in undertaking these studies, as well as the future outlook derived from the growing body of evidence on the seminal proteome. PMID:26643563

  9. Proteomic profile of seminal plasma in adolescents and adults with treated and untreated varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Mariana; Intasqui, Paula; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele, the most important treatable cause of male infertility, is present in 15% of adult males, 35% of men with primary infertility, and 80% of men with secondary infertility. On the other hand, 80% of these men will not present infertility. Therefore, there is a need to differentiate a varicocele that is exerting a deleterious effect that is treatable from a “silent” varicocele. Despite the growing evidence of the cellular effects of varicocele, its underlying molecular mechanisms are still eluding. Proteomics has become a promising area to determine the reproductive biology of semen as well as to improve diagnosis of male infertility. This review aims to discuss the state-of-art in seminal plasma proteomics in patients with varicocele to discuss the challenges in undertaking these studies, as well as the future outlook derived from the growing body of evidence on the seminal proteome. PMID:26643563

  10. Semen characteristics and selected biochemical markers of canine seminal plasma in various seasons of the year.

    PubMed

    Strzeżek, R; Szemplińska, K; Filipowicz, K; Kordan, W

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of season on selected qualitative semen characteristics and biochemical markers of canine seminal plasma. Whole ejaculates were collected from 5 crossbred dogs aged 2-8 years. The study covered a period of one year divided into four seasons: spring (March, April, May), summer (June, July, August), autumn (September, October, November) and winter (December, January, February). Semen samples were subjected to macroscopic and microscopic analyses to determine semen volume, total sperm counts and sperm morphology parameters. The study also involved the determination of sperm motility parameters (CASA system), sperm plasma membrane integrity (SPMI, fluorescent staining SYBR-14/PI), sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, fluorescent staining JC-1/PI) and the ATP content of sperm cells. Total protein content (TPC) and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) were determined in biochemical analyses of seminal plasma. No significant differences in ejaculate volume, SMPI or ATP content of sperm cells were observed between seasons. The highest total sperm counts were reported in ejaculates acquired in summer and autumn. The lowest MMP values were determined in summer ejaculates. No significant differences in sperm motility (MOT) were observed throughout the experiment, but ejaculates collected in autumn and winter were characterized by the highest progressive motility (PMOT). AP activity and TPC were not significantly affected by season. However, AcP activity levels were significantly lower in autumn than in the remaining seasons. Seasonal variations in the analyzed macroscopic and microscopic parameters of ejaculates and biochemical markers of seminal plasma did not exert a clear negative effect on the quality of canine semen. PMID:25928905

  11. Seminal Plasma pH, Inorganic Phosphate, Total and Ionized Calcium Concentrations In The Assessment of Human Spermatozoa Function

    PubMed Central

    Banjoko, S. Olatunbosun; Adeseolu, Fasiu O.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Fertilization in humans is dependent on viability of the male spermatozoa among other factors and there have been conflicting reports on the role of pH, calcium and phosphate concentrations in sperm function. This study therefore aimed to investigate seminal plasma pH, inorganic phosphate, total and ionized calcium concentrations relative to spermatozoa function. Material and Methods: Seminal plasma concentrations of pH, total calcium, ionized calcium (Ca++); inorganic phosphate, motility and spermatozoa count were determined in 80 males by standard methods. Results: Forty-nine of the subjects had normal spermatozoa motility (> 60%) and 31 had hypomotility (< 60%). The hypomotility group exhibited lower calcium ion (Ca2+) concentrations; 0.19+0.01mmol/L compared with normal motility group; 0.24+0.01mmol/L (p<0.001) the latter also had significantly higher inorganic phosphate; 7.83+1.27 while the former had 5.64+1.62mmol/L (p= 0.004). The mean spermatozoa counts for hypomotility and normal motility group were 42.0 ± 13 x 106 , 72.35 + 20 x 106 respectively (p< 0.001). No significant differences were observed in pH, volume of ejaculate and total calcium concentration between the hypomotility and normal motility groups The mean concentrations of pH were 7.51 ± 0.02 and 7.54 ± 0.03 respectively (p= 0.21) and total calcium; 3.10 ± 0.12 and 3.36 ± 0.14mmol/L respectively (p= 0.16 ). There was a significant difference in percentage of abnormal forms in both groups with hypomotile group having 36% compared to mormal motility group with 5% (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Correlations were observed between seminal concentrations of calcium ions, inorganic phosphate, spermatozoa count and motility but not with total calcium concentrations and pH and therefore should be considered in understanding male infertility and preparation of media for sperm preservation for in vitro fertilization. PMID:24392378

  12. β-Microseminoprotein endows post coital seminal plasma with potent candidacidal activity by a calcium- and pH-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Edström Hägerwall, Anneli M L; Rydengård, Victoria; Fernlund, Per; Mörgelin, Matthias; Baumgarten, Maria; Cole, Alexander M; Malmsten, Martin; Kragelund, Birthe B; Sørensen, Ole E

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune factors controlling Candida albicans are mostly unknown. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is common in women and affects approximately 70-75% of all women at least once. Despite the propensity of Candida to colonize the vagina, transmission of Candida albicans following sexual intercourse is very rare. This prompted us to investigate whether the post coital vaginal milieu contained factors active against C. albicans. By CFU assays, we found prominent candidacidal activity of post coital seminal plasma at both neutral and the acid vaginal pH. In contrast, normal seminal plasma did not display candidacidal activity prior to acidification. By antifungal gel overlay assay, one clearing zone corresponding to a protein band was found in both post coital and normal seminal plasma, which was subsequently identified as β-microseminoprotein. At neutral pH, the fungicidal activity of β-microseminoprotein and seminal plasma was inhibited by calcium. By NMR spectroscopy, amino acid residue E(71) was shown to be critical for the calcium coordination. The acidic vaginal milieu unleashed the fungicidal activity by decreasing the inhibitory effect of calcium. The candidacidal activity of β-microseminoprotein was mapped to a fragment of the C-terminal domain with no structural similarity to other known proteins. A homologous fragment from porcine β-microseminoprotein demonstrated calcium-dependent fungicidal activity in a CFU assay, suggesting this may be a common feature for members of the β-microseminoprotein family. By electron microscopy, β-microseminoprotein was found to cause lysis of Candida. Liposome experiments demonstrated that β-microseminoprotein was active towards ergosterol-containing liposomes that mimic fungal membranes, offering an explanation for the selectivity against fungi. These data identify β-microseminoprotein as an important innate immune factor active against C. albicans and may help explain the low sexual transmission rate of Candida. PMID:22496651

  13. Assessment of post-thawed ram sperm viability after incubation with seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Rovegno, Mariana; Feitosa, Weber Beringui; Rocha, Andre Monteiro; Mendes, Camilla Mota; Visintin, Jose Antonio; D'Avila Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz

    2013-06-01

    A suggested alternative to improve post-thawed ram semen quality is the addition of seminal plasma (SP). This is thought to be capable of improving sperm resistance to thermal shock, reverting cryocapacitation and helping sperm survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of frozen-thawed ram semen incubation with SP on mitochondrial activity, acrosomal membrane integrity, necrosis and apoptosis. Frozen/thawed semen was divided into two groups: the SP Group and the control group. After 0, 30 and 60 min, fluorescent probes were added to aliquots from each treatment group and evaluated using flow cytometry. There was no difference between treatment groups in almost all viability parameters evaluated, with exception of the apoptosis, which was found increased in SP group. The increase in incubation period resulted in a decreased percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential and acrosomal membrane integrity and an increased percentage of necrotic and apoptotic sperm cells. In conclusion, the present study showed that addition of seminal plasma after thawing cryopreserved ram sperm had no identifiable beneficial effect on sperm quality. PMID:22661118

  14. Characterization of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in seminal plasma of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Sastry, K V H; Pandey, N K; Shit, N; Agrawal, R; Singh, K B; Mohan, Jag; Saxena, V K; Moudgal, R P

    2011-02-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme present in quail seminal plasma has been characterized. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequently with LDH specific staining of seminal plasma revealed a single isozyme in quail semen. Studies on substrate inhibition, pH for optimum activity and inhibitor (urea) indicated the isozyme present in the quail semen has catalytic properties like LDH-1 viz. H-type. Furthermore, unlike other mammalian species, electrophoretic and kinetic investigations did not support the existence of semen specific LDH-X isozyme in quail semen. The effect of exogenous lactate and pyruvate on sperm metabolic activity was also studied. The addition of 1 mM lactate or pyruvate to quail semen increased sperm metabolic activity. Our results suggested that both pyruvate and lactate could be used by quail spermatozoa to maintain their basic functions. Since the H-type isozyme is important for conversion of lactate to pyruvate under anaerobic conditions it was postulated that exogenous lactate being converted into pyruvate via LDH present in semen may be used by sperm mitochondria to generate ATP. During conversion of lactate to pyruvate NADH is being generated that may be useful for maintaining sperm mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:21074838

  15. Terminal Mannose Residues in Seminal Plasma Glycoproteins of Infertile Men Compared to Fertile Donors

    PubMed Central

    Olejnik, Beata; Jarząb, Anna; Kratz, Ewa M.; Zimmer, Mariusz; Gamian, Andrzej; Ferens-Sieczkowska, Mirosława

    2015-01-01

    The impact of seminal plasma components on the fertilization outcomes in humans is still under question. The increasing number of couples facing problems with conception raises the need for predictive biomarkers. Detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms accompanying fertilization remains another challenge. Carbohydrate–protein recognition may be of key importance in this complex field. In this study, we analyzed the unique glycosylation pattern of seminal plasma proteins, the display of high-mannose and hybrid-type oligosaccharides, by means of their reactivity with mannose-specific Galanthus nivalis lectin. Normozoospermic infertile subjects presented decreased amounts of lectin-reactive glycoepitopes compared to fertile donors and infertile patients with abnormal semen parameters. Glycoproteins containing unveiled mannose were isolated in affinity chromatography, and 17 glycoproteins were identified in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. The N-glycome of the isolated glycoproteins was examined in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Eleven out of 27 identified oligosaccharides expressed terminal mannose residues, responsible for lectin binding. We suggest that lowered content of high-mannose and hybrid type glycans in normozoospermic infertile patients may be associated with impaired sperm protection from preterm capacitation and should be considered in the search for new infertility markers. PMID:26147424

  16. Metabolomics Analysis of Seminal Plasma in Infertile Males with Kidney-Yang Deficiency: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang; Hu, Chao; Dai, Jican; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important treatment for male infertility, and its application to therapy is dependent on differentiation of TCM syndromes. This study aims to investigate the changes in metabolites and metabolic pathways in infertile males with Kidney-Yang Deficiency syndrome (KYDS) via metabolomics approaches. Seminal plasma samples were collected from 18 infertile males with KYDS and 18 fertile males. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to characterize metabolomics profiles. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA), and pathway analysis were used for pattern recognition and metabolite identification. PCA and PLS-DA results differentiated the two groups of patients. Forty-one discriminating metabolites (18 in positive mode and 23 in negative mode) were identified. Seven metabolites were related to five potential metabolic pathways associated with biosynthesis and metabolism of aromatic amino acids, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and sphingolipid metabolism. The changes in metabolic pathways may play an important role in the origin of KYDS-associated male infertility. Metabolomics analysis of seminal plasma may be used to differentiate TCM syndromes of infertile males, but further research must be conducted. PMID:25945117

  17. Prostasomes of canine seminal plasma - zinc-binding ability and effects on motility characteristics and plasma membrane integrity of spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Mogielnicka-Brzozowska, M; Strzeżek, R; Wasilewska, K; Kordan, W

    2015-06-01

    Prostasomes are small lipid membrane-confined vesicles that are involved in various fertilization-related processes. The aim of this study was to demonstrate canine seminal plasma prostasomes' ability to bind zinc ions, as well as examining their effects on sperm motility characteristics and plasma membrane integrity during cold storage. Ejaculates, collected from five cross-bred dogs (n = 50), were subjected to ultracentrifugation followed by gel filtration (GF) on a Superose 6 column. Prostasomes appeared as a single fraction in the elution profile. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of canine prostasomes revealed the presence of membrane vesicles with diameters ranging from 20.3 to 301 nm. The zinc-affinity chromatography on a Chelating Sepharose Fast Flow - Zn(2 +) showed that from 93 to 100% of the prostasome proteins bind zinc ions (P(+) Zn). SDS-PAGE revealed that canine P(+) Zn comprised four protein bands, with low molecular weights (10.2-12 kDa). We have also shown a positive effect of prostasomes (p < 0.05), especially variant B (2% of total seminal plasma protein) on canine sperm motility parameters after 2 h storage at 5°C (TMOT%, 44.75 ± 5.18) and PMOT%, 12.42 ± 1.59) and VAP, VSL, VCL, when compared with Control (TMOT%, 7.30 ± 1.41 and PMOT%, 1.70 ± 0.42). Higher percentage of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane (SYBR/PI dual staining) and intact acrosome (Giemsa stained), after 2 h storage at 5°C, was showed, in variant A (1.5% of total seminal plasma protein) and B, when compared with Control and variant C (2.5% of total seminal plasma protein). The prostasomes' effect on motility and plasma membrane integrity of canine cold-stored spermatozoa may be related to their ability to bind zinc ions and regulate their availability to the sperm. PMID:25809561

  18. Quantitative analysis of anandamide and related acylethanolamides in human seminal plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Amoako, Akwasi A; Marczylo, Timothy H; Lam, Patricia M W; Willets, Jonathon M; Derry, Amanda; Elson, Janine; Konje, Justin C

    2010-12-01

    The endocannabinoids anandamide, palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide have been detected in human seminal plasma and are bioactive lipids implicated in regulation of sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction. Several methods exist for endocannabinoid quantification but none have been validated for measurement in human seminal plasma. We describe sensitive, robust, reproducible solid phase and isotope-dilution UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS methods for the extraction and quantification of anandamide, palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide in human seminal plasma. Precision and accuracy were evaluated using pooled seminal plasma over a 4 day period. For all analytes, the inter- and intraday precision (CV%) was between 6.6-17.7% and 6.3-12.5%, respectively. Analyses were linear over the range 0.237-19nM for anandamide and oleoylethanolamide and 0.9-76nM for PEA. Limits of detection (signal-to-noise >3) were 50, 100 and 100fmol/mL and limits of quantification (signal-to-noise >10) were 100, 200 and 200fmol/mL, respectively for anandamide, palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide. Anandamide and oleoylethanolamide were stable at -80°C for up to 4 weeks, but palmitoylethanolamide declined significantly. We assessed seminal plasma from 40 human donors with normozoospermia and found mean (inter-quartile range) concentrations of 0.21nM (0.09-0.27), 1.785nM (0.48-2.32) and 15.54nM (7.05-16.31) for anandamide, oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide, respectively. Consequently, this UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method represents a rapid, reliable and reproducible technique for the analysis of these endocannabinoids in fresh seminal plasma. PMID:21056015

  19. Effect of seminal plasma on post-thaw quality and functionality of corriedale ram sperm obtained by electroejaculation and artificial vagina.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, A; Manes, J; Ríos, G; Aller, J; Cesari, A; Alberio, R; Hozbor, F

    2015-06-01

    We have already shown that seminal collection method affects seminal plasma composition and sperm quality in Corriedale rams. In this study, we evaluated the effect of seminal plasma collected by electroejaculation or artificial vagina on sperm resistance to cryodamage. Seminal plasma of five rams of the Corriedale breed collected by artificial vagina or electroejaculation was added before freezing to sperm cells collected by the two methods, and post-thaw quality parameters were evaluated. We found that seminal plasma has no effect on sperm resistance to cryodamage. However, we observed significantly higher percentages of sperm with intact and functional plasma membrane, intact acrosome and greater fertilizing potential after thawing in samples obtained by electroejaculation. This study demonstrates that sperm collected by electroejaculation are more resistant to damage caused by cryopreservation than those collected by artificial vagina. PMID:25684063

  20. Investigation of Galectin-3 Function in the Reproductive Tract by Identification of Binding Ligands in Human Seminal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kovak, Matthew R.; Saraswati, Sarika; Schoen, David J.; Diekman, Alan B.

    2014-01-01

    Problem Galectin-3 is a ?-galactoside binding protein with immunomodulatory properties and exerts its extracellular functions via interactions with glycoconjugate ligands. Therefore, to elucidate the function of galectin-3, binding ligands in human seminal plasma were investigated. Method of Study Galectin-3 binding proteins were isolated from seminal plasma by affinity chromatography, and candidate ligands were identified by MS/MS. Biochemical methods were used to characterize the ability of galectin-3 to bind its ligands. Results Identified galectin-3 ligands included CD13, MUC6, PAP, PSA and ZAG. 1D and 2D electrophoretic analysis of seminal plasma demonstrated that CD13, PAP, PSA, and ZAG immunoreactivity co-migrated with galectin-3-reactive protein bands and spots at expected molecular weights and pIs. Inhibition assays indicated that CD13, PSA, PAP, and ZAG, interact with galectin-3 in a protein-carbohydrate manner. Conclusion The galectin-3 binding ligands identified in this study indicate multiple roles for galectin-3 in the reproductive and immunological functions of seminal plasma. PMID:24863808

  1. Seminal plasma concentrations of Anti-Müllerian hormone and inhibin B predict motile sperm recovery from cryopreserved semen in asthenozoospermic men: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nery, S F; Vieira, M A F; Dela Cruz, C; Lobach, V N M; Del Puerto, H L; Torres, P B; Rocha, A L L; Reis, A B; Reis, F M

    2014-11-01

    The rate of motile sperm recovery after cryopreservation is very variable and difficult to predict. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin B are produced by Sertoli cells and released into the seminal plasma, where they could be functional markers of spermatogenesis and sperm resistance to thermal stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether seminal plasma levels of AMH and inhibin B predict sperm recovery after cryopreservation. The study included 153 men enrolled prospectively during a semen analysis. The cohort was stratified by the fresh semen characteristics into: normal (n = 52), high sperm count (n = 55), asthenozoospermia (n = 23), and oligozoospermia (n = 23). The main outcome measure was motile sperm recovery rate, defined as post-thaw total motile sperm count × 100/pre-freezing total motile sperm count. In men with asthenozoospermia there was a significant correlation between motile sperm recovery rate and the pre-freezing concentrations of AMH (r = 0.522, p < 0.05) and inhibin B (0.471, p < 0.05). In this group, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of AMH and inhibin B for prediction of ≥50% motile sperm recovery after cryopreservation were, respectively, 0.808 and 0.638. AMH was particularly useful, with sensitivity of 0.85, specificity of 0.80, positive predictive value of 0.84 and negative predictive value of 0.80. The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of inhibin B for the same outcome were, respectively, 0.62, 0.60, 0.67, and 0.55. The median motile sperm recovery rate was 83% when seminal plasma AMH concentration was ≥0.84 ng/mL, vs. 27% when AMH concentration was <0.84 ng/mL (p < 0.05). In other patient groups, there was no correlation between the two hormone levels in seminal plasma and the motile sperm recovery rate. In conclusion, seminal plasma AMH and inhibin B concentrations correlate with and can be used to predict motile sperm recovery after semen cryopreservation in asthenozoospermic men. PMID:25269872

  2. Viability and membrane integrity of spermatozoa after dilution and flow cytometric sorting in the presence or absence of seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, W M; Welch, G R; Johnson, L A

    1996-01-01

    Boar, bull and ram spermatozoa were examined after staining with the DNA-permeant Hoechst 33342 fluorochrome and flow cytometric sorting in the presence or absence of seminal plasma. Spermatozoa were assessed for viability with flow cytometry using the live cell nucleic acid stain SYBR-14 and propidium iodide (PI), and for membrane integrity using fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Pisum sativum (FITC-PSA) and PI; motility and acrosome integrity were estimated by microscopy. Flow cytometric sorting was compared with pipette dilution of boar and bull spermatozoa into: (1) medium [boar: Test buffer containing 2% yolk (TY) or Beltsville thawing solution (BTS); bull: TY or HEPES buffer containing 0.1% bovine serum albumin (HEPES-BSA)] with or without 10% (v/v) seminal plasma; or (2) an empty tube containing no medium. Sorted spermatozoa were either not centrifuged or centrifuged before assessment during a 4-h holding period. The viability, motility and membrane integrity of boar, bull and ram spermatozoa centrifuged after sorting were also examined when seminal plasma was present or absent from the staining extender and/or the TY collection medium. The results indicate that the viability and membrane integrity of spermatozoa in vitro would be improved if: (1) seminal plasma (10%) was routinely included in the BTS and HEPES-BSA staining extenders for boar spermatozoa and ram spermatozoa, respectively, when used in preparation for flow cytometric sorting; and (2) 10% and 50% seminal plasma were included in the TY collection medium for boar or bull spermatozoa and ram spermatozoa respectively. PMID:8981641

  3. Isolation of ovulation-inducing factors in the seminal plasma of Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) by DEAE-cellulose chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X X; Li, X L; Chen, B X

    2001-08-01

    Ovulation in the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) depends upon the ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma; however, little research has been conducted to isolate and identify the factor. The current study attempts to isolate and identify the bioactive fractions from the seminal plasma of Bactrian camel. The seminal plasma was fractionated by diethylamino-ethylcellulose (DEAE)-cellulose chromatography and five protein fractions were obtained. The bioactive of each fraction was estimated by rat pituitary tissue culture in vitro and by the intramuscular injection of the bioactive fraction to the female camels in vivo. The concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary culture media before and 6 h after the addition of each fraction and in the peripheral blood plasma collected from the camel immediately before and hourly after the injection of the active fraction were measured by radioimmunoassay. The results demonstrated that the third fraction (L3) had the bioactive potential to stimulate the release of LH in vitro from 11.82 +/- 1.77 to 25.63 +/- 3.84 mIU/ml after the addition of L3 to the culture media. The in vivo concentrations of LH in the blood plasma of the camel increased from 6.43 +/- 0.14 before to 15.50 +/- 2.64 ng/ml 6 h after injection of L3. However, the concentrations of FSH did not show any significant changes either in vitro or in vivo. The results clearly demonstrated the existence of LH-releasing associated fractions in the seminal plasma that appears to be separated by DEAE-cellulose matrix and the isolated L3 fraction might be the ovulation-inducing factor or one of its components. PMID:11555365

  4. Bioactivity of ovulation inducing factor (or nerve growth factor) in bovine seminal plasma and its effects on ovarian function in cattle.

    PubMed

    Tribulo, P; Bogle, O; Mapletoft, R J; Adams, G P

    2015-06-01

    To understand the role of ovulation-inducing factor (or nerve growth factor) (OIF [NGF]) in bovine seminal plasma, we (1) used an in vivo llama bioassay to test the hypothesis that bovine seminal plasma induces ovulation and CL development in llamas similar to that of llama seminal plasma when the dose of seminal plasma is adjusted to ovulation-inducing factor content (experiment 1) and (2) determined the effect of bovine seminal plasma on the interval to ovulation and luteal development in heifers (experiment 2). Within species, seminal plasma was pooled (n = 160 bulls, n = 4 llamas), and the volume of seminal plasma used for treatment was adjusted to a total dose of 250 μg of ovulation-inducing factor. In experiment 1, mature female llamas were assigned randomly to four groups and treated intramuscularly with either 10 mL of PBS (negative control, n = 5), 50-μg GnRH (positive control, n = 5), 6-mL of llama seminal plasma (n = 6), or 12 mL of bull seminal plasma (n = 6). Ovulation and CL development were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. In experiment 2, beef heifers were given a luteolytic dose of prostaglandin followed by 25-mg porcine LH (pLH) 12 hours later to induce ovulation. Heifers were assigned randomly to three groups and given 12 mL bovine seminal plasma intramuscularly 12 hours after pLH treatment (n = 10), within 4 hours after ovulation (n = 9), or no treatment (control, n = 10). Ovulation was monitored by ultrasonography every 4 hours, and the CL development was monitored daily until the next ovulation. In experiment 1, ovulation was detected in 0/5, 4/5, 4/6, 4/6 llamas in the PBS, GnRH, llama seminal plasma, and bovine seminal plasma groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Luteal development was not different among groups. In experiment 2, the interval to ovulation was more synchronous (range: 4 vs. 22 hours; P < 0.0001) in heifers treated with seminal plasma before ovulation compared with the other groups. Luteal development was not different among groups; however, plasma progesterone concentrations tended to be greater in the postovulation treatment group compared with other groups. In summary, results confirmed the presence of bioactive ovulation-inducing factor in bull seminal plasma and supported the hypothesis that bovine and llama seminal plasma have similar ovulatory effects, using a llama bioassay. Treatment with bovine seminal plasma resulted in greater synchrony of ovulation in heifers pretreated with pLH. Plasma progesterone concentration tended to be higher in heifers given bovine seminal plasma within 4 hours after ovulation, suggesting that bovine ovulation-inducing factor is luteotrophic. PMID:25796284

  5. New insights into the mechanisms of ram sperm protection by seminal plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Noelia; Casao, Adriana; Pérez-Pé, Rosaura; Cebrián-Pérez, José A; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa

    2013-06-01

    To provide new insights into the mechanisms through which seminal plasma proteins (SPP) are able to protect spermatozoa, we tested the hypothesis that apoptosis can contribute to the negative effect of refrigeration on ram spermatozoa, and that SPP prevent this damage. Having proved the presence of key constituents of apoptosis-related pathways in ram sperm protein extracts, we carried out a comparative analysis of the effects of the addition of SPP before refrigeration (15 °C, 30 min) and induced-apoptosis with betulinic acid or fibroblast-associated receptor ligand, assessing sperm quality parameters and apoptotic markers. The protective effect of SPP on plasma membrane integrity and potential, motility and mitochondrial inner membrane potential, and surface (cardiolipin content) was evidenced in refrigerated and induced-apoptosis samples. The addition of SPP resulted in lower values of phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA damage, and caspase activity. Therefore, apoptosis in fresh or refrigerated ram spermatozoa can occur due to activation of both the extrinsic and the intrinsic mediated pathway, and SPP might interfere with both pathways. The addition of SPP also resulted in higher proportions of viable, noncapacitated sperm and fertilizing ability (ZBA rate). This report demonstrates that SPP support survival of ram spermatozoa acting not only at the plasma membrane but also by inhibition of capacitation, and proposes the possibility that SPP might interfere with the extrinsic and the intrinsic apoptotic pathways. This opens new, interesting perspectives for the study of cellular regulatory mechanisms in spermatozoa that could be crucial for the improvement of ram semen preservation protocols. PMID:23636812

  6. Suppression of natural and activated human antitumour cytotoxicity by human seminal plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Rees, R C; Vallely, P; Clegg, A; Potter, C W

    1986-01-01

    The influence of human seminal plasma (SP) and whole semen (S) on the expression of natural cytotoxicity by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) was examined. Marked suppression of natural cytotoxicity against K562 targets was observed when effectors were pre-treated for 1 h with SP or S diluted up to 1:400. Abrogation of cytolytic activity by SP was not the result of direct lymphotoxicity, although a reduction of approximately 50% in the number of target binding cells was observed. In addition, the cytotoxicity of interferon (alpha-IFN, beta-IFN, gamma-IFN) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) activated human PBMNC was suppressed by components present in human SP, although IL-2 activated human PBMC were relatively resistant to suppression compared with other effector (spontaneous or activated) populations. Following 1 h exposure to SP, PBMNC failed to recover more than 25% of their initial cytotoxic potential upon further in vitro incubation (18 h) in the absence of SP. However, both interferon and IL-2 caused an increase in the cytotoxicity of these populations, in some instances to the level obtained with control, IFN or IL-2 activated PBMNC. The biological significance of SP as an inhibitor of immune function under experimentally defined conditions is discussed in relation to its possible role in vivo. PMID:2423280

  7. Sequestration of bovine seminal plasma proteins by different assemblies of phosphatidylcholine: A new technical approach.

    PubMed

    Le Guillou, J; Ropers, M-H; Gaillard, C; David-Briand, E; van Leeuwen-Ibarrola, J; Desherces, S; Schmitt, E; Bencharif, D; Amirat-Briand, L; Anton, M; Tainturier, D

    2016-04-01

    Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins, the main proteins from bovine seminal plasma, are known to partially intercalate into the outer leaflet of the spermatozoa membrane and bind to choline-containing lipids being present therein. This insertion generates a negative effect on semen quality after cryopreservation by inducing an early-stage capacitation of spermatozoa. The assumption of surface properties exhibited by BSP proteins was checked by tensiometry measurements: BSP proteins are highly surface active. This suggests that BSP proteins can reach the interface covered by phospholipids not only by interactions between one and each other but also due to their own surface activity. The insertion of BSP proteins into the lipid domains outer leaflet of spermatozoa was reproduced on a biomimetic system such as Langmuir monolayers. The insertion of BSP proteins can be performed in the compressible fluid domains which contain choline-bearing lipids. Monolayer films were used as well to study the complexation of BSP proteins by two phospholipid assemblies: low density lipoprotein (LDLs) from egg yolk or liposomes produced from egg phospholipids. Irrespective of the phospholipid structure (lipoprotein or liposome), BSP was hindered to alter the structure of the membrane. Only the overall ratio BSP proteins:phosphatidylcholine was important. The difference between the two sequestering agents lies on their surface properties: LDL have a strong tendency to merge with the outer layer whereas liposomes mainly remain in the bulk on the same time scale. PMID:26628332

  8. Proteomics of boar seminal plasma - current studies and possibility of their application in biotechnology of animal reproduction.

    PubMed

    Strzeżek, Jerzy; Wysocki, Paweł; Kordan, Władysław; Kuklińska, Magdalena; Mogielnicka, Marzena; Soliwoda, Daniel; Fraser, Leyland

    2005-11-01

    Proteomics is critical to identify the properties and functions of proteins involved in the mechanism regulating the male reproductive tract function. This approach is important in male fertility assessment and clinical diagnosis of the physiological state of individual reproductive organs. Proteomics also provides a tool to understand the interactions of seminal plasma proteins with spermatozoa, which could provide a useful model for studying ligand-cell interaction occurring at the sperm cell surface. This review covers a selection of advances in the realm of functional proteomics of boar seminal plasma proteins and is focused on some fundamental proteomic technologies. Also, this review explores key themes in proteomics and their application in animal reproductive techniques. PMID:16372045

  9. Seminal plasma induces inflammation in the uterus through the γδ T/IL-17 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhi-Hui; Li, Zhong-Yin; Li, Dan-Dan; Fang, Wen-Ning; Liu, Hai-Yan; Yang, Dan-Dan; Meng, Chao-Yang; Yang, Ying; Peng, Jing-Pian

    2016-01-01

    After insemination, a large number of leukocytes migrate into the uterus, which is accompanied by intense inflammation. However, the details of how seminal plasma interacts with the uterus are still not very clear. Here, we present that neutrophils migrate and accumulate around the uterine epithelium following insemination, which is accompanied by an increase in interleukin (IL) 17A levels. Additionally, we find that γδ T cells are the major source of IL-17A, and the seminal plasma could induce the γδ T cells to secret IL-17A. Blocking IL-17A could reduce the number of neutrophils in the uterus and prevent them from migrating to the epithelium by decreasing the chemokines CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL5. Blocking IL-17A did not affect the Th1/Th2 balance but actually diminished the inflammation in the uterus by reducing the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α. In summary, we found a new mechanism by which seminal plasma could influence the inflammation in the uterus through the γδ T/IL-17 pathway to regulate the expression of various chemokines and cytokines. PMID:27109934

  10. Separation and purification of ovulation-inducing factors in the seminal plasma of the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).

    PubMed

    Li, Xilong; Zhao, Xinxu

    2004-04-01

    Ovulation in the Bactrian camel depends upon ovulation-inducing factors in the seminal plasma. The present study was conducted to isolate and purify the bioactive fractions from the seminal plasma of these camels. The seminal plasma was fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, and six fractions were obtained. The bioactive potential of each fraction was estimated from its effect on rat pituitary tissue cultured in vitro and by the effect of an intramuscular injection of the fraction into female camels in vivo. Both the third fraction (F3) and the fifth fraction (F5) stimulated the release of LH in vitro and in vivo. In addition, female camels ovulated within 48 h after intramuscular injection of F3. However, neither F3 nor F5 had any significant effect on the secretion of FSH, either in vitro or in vivo. When F3 was further fractionated into four subfractions, the third subfraction (F3-3) still stimulated the in vitro release of LH, but not of FSH. An attempt to further purify the ovulation-inducing factors in F3-3 failed owing to the similarity of the molecular characters. PMID:15074769

  11. Parameters of the reproductive tract, spermatogenesis, daily sperm production and major seminal plasma proteins of tropically adapted morada nova rams.

    PubMed

    Sousa, F M L; Lobo, C H; Menezes, E S B; Rego, J P A; Oliveira, R V; Lima-Souza, A C; Fioramonte, M; Gozzo, F C; Pompeu, R C F F; Cândido, M J D; Oliveira, J T; Moura, A A

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the reproductive parameters of Morada Nova rams, a breed of hair sheep from Brazil and with unique adaption to tropical environments. At 42 weeks of age, 15 rams were subjected to semen collection and, 1 week later, animals were slaughtered for collection of testes, epididymis and accessory sex glands. We conducted 2-D electrophoresis of seminal plasma proteins and major spots of stained gels were identified by LC-MS/MS. Total RNA was isolated from testis, epididymis and vesicular glands and subjected to qPCR. At slaughter, scrotal circumference and testicular weight were 27.5 ± 0.5 cm and 109.5 ± 6.0 g, respectively. Seminiferous tubule (ST) diameter was 188.3 ± 4.0 μm and each testis contained 1.9 ± 0.1 Sertoli cells (×10(9) ). Each Sertoli cell supported 0.1 ± 0.01 A spermatogonia, 3.0 ± 0.2 pachytene spermatocytes and 7.7 ± 0.5 round spermatids/tubule cross section. Daily sperm production reached 5.6 × 10(6)  cells/g of testis parenchyma. Testis size appeared as indicative of ST diameter and associated with epididymal measurements, as well as with the population of round spermatids and Sertoli cells/testis. Rams with heavier testes had greater daily sperm production and more Sertoli cells/testis. We detected 90.9 ± 9.6 spots per 2-D gel of seminal plasma. Major seminal proteins were identified as ram seminal vesicle proteins at 14 and 22 kDa, representing 16.2% and 12.8% of the total intensity of valid spots in the gels, respectively. Expression of both genes was greater in the vesicular glands as compared to testis and epididymis. Pixel intensity for those proteins in the 2-D gels was significantly correlated with seminal vesicle weight. This is the first description of the basic reproductive aspects of Morada Nova rams, including protein profiles of their seminal plasma. These findings will allow a better understanding of their reproductive physiology. PMID:24716618

  12. Identification of putative fertility markers in seminal plasma of crossbred bulls through differential proteomics.

    PubMed

    Aslam, M K Muhammad; Kumaresan, A; Sharma, Vinay K; Tajmul, Md; Chhillar, Shivani; Chakravarty, A K; Manimaran, A; Mohanty, T K; Srinivasan, A; Yadav, Savita

    2014-12-01

    Sub-fertility is a major problem in crossbred bulls leading to disintegration of breeding systems and huge economic loss. Identification of some potential biomarkers to determine the latent fertility of bulls accurately has long been the interest of researchers. In this study, we analyzed the proteome of seminal plasma (SP) from bulls with varying fertility to identify the fertility-associated proteins. The proteomic profile of high- and low-fertile bulls was compared by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and differentially expressed proteins were identified through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight/mass spectrometry. Out of the 18 differentially expressed proteins (P < 0.05), 9 were overexpressed in SP of high-fertile bulls and 9 were overexpressed in SP of low-fertile bulls. The differential expressions ranged from 1.5- to 5.5-fold between the two groups, where protection of telomeres-1 protein (POT1) was highly overexpressed (2.9-fold) in high-fertile group and prostaglandin E2 receptor EP3 (PTGER3) was highly abundant (5.5-fold) in low-fertile group. The protein interaction network was elucidated using STRING software tool, and the functional bioinformatics analysis was done using Blast2Go software. Most of the differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cellular processes and biological regulation with binding and catalytic function. It is inferred that the expression of certain proteins in the SP varied with bull fertility, and concurrent appraisal of their expression along with other fertility assays may help in determining bull fertility. PMID:25258256

  13. Ram seminal plasma proteins contribute to sperm capacitation and modulate sperm-zona pellucida interaction.

    PubMed

    Luna, C; Colás, C; Casao, A; Serrano, E; Domingo, J; Pérez-Pé, R; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Muiño-Blanco, T

    2015-03-01

    Incubation of ram spermatozoa in capacitating conditions with cAMP-elevating agents promotes a progressive time-dependent increase in the capacitated sperm subpopulation. In this study, the fertilizing capacity of ram spermatozoa (ability to bind to the zona pellucida, ZBA rate) capacitated in these conditions was determined. The results showed an increase (P < 0.001) in ZBA rate related to control samples in basal medium that contained BSA, calcium, and bicarbonate (1.97 ± 0.19 vs. 1.31 ± 0.09 sperm bound/oocyte, respectively). A significant correlation between protein tyrosine phosphorylation and ZBA rate (P < 0.05, r = 0.501) corroborated that incubation in a "high-cAMP" environment improves the fertilizing ability of ram spermatozoa. Likewise, the presence of two seminal plasma (SP) proteins able to protect sperm against cold shock (RSVP14 and RSVP20) was evidenced in both SP and the ram sperm surface, and their influence in the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa capacitated in basal medium or with cAMP-elevating agents was determined. The results verified that RSVP14 and RSVP20 act as decapacitating factors given that their addition to SP-free sperm samples previously to capacitation maintained high proportions of the noncapacitated sperm pattern with no increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation. However, the obtained ZBA rate in the high-cAMP-containing samples was increased in the presence of RSVP20 (P < 0.05). These findings would indicate that the stimulating effect exerted by this protein on the sperm-oocyte binding occurs downstream from the cAMP generation and that the mechanisms by which RSVP20 promotes the zona pellucida binding might be independent of protein tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID:25515364

  14. Effect of heterologous and homologous seminal plasma on stallion sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Morrell, J M; Georgakas, A; Lundeheim, N; Nash, D; Davies Morel, M C G; Johannisson, A

    2014-07-01

    Removing most of the seminal plasma (SP) from stallion semen has been shown to improve survival during cooled storage, yet adding small quantities of SP may improve pregnancy rates or cryosurvival. Furthermore, there is considerable controversy about whether the stallion's own SP or heterologous SP produces the best effect, possibly because of the variation between stallions in SP proteins or because some homologous SP remained in the sperm preparation. The SP is removed completely from stallion spermatozoa prepared by colloid centrifugation. Thus, the aim of the present study was (1) to investigate the effect of adding back SP to colloid centrifuged spermatozoa to determine its effect on spermatozoa; and (2) to investigate whether the stallion's own SP had a greater or lesser effect than heterologous SP. Conventional semen doses were sent from a stud overnight to the laboratory using standard transport conditions. Once at the laboratory, the semen samples were used for single layer centrifugation with Androcoll-E, and the resulting sperm preparations were treated with heterologous SP. Adding SP had a small but significant effect on sperm motility but no effect on the proportion of spermatozoa that had acrosome reacted. There were significant increases in hydrogen peroxide production and chromatin damage (P < 0.001). When homologous and heterologous SP were compared, considerable variation was observed between stallions, so that it was not possible to predict whether homologous or heterologous SP, or no SP, will produce the best motility for spermatozoa from any given stallion. Therefore, it is necessary to test different combinations of spermatozoa and SP to find the optimal effect on motility. The SP from most stallions increased reactive oxygen species and chromatin damage. In conclusion, the interaction between SP and spermatozoa depends on the origin of both SP and spermatozoa. If it is desirable to add SP to stallion sperm samples, it should be done directly before insemination rather than before storage, because of increased hydrogen peroxide production and sperm chromatin damage. PMID:24768057

  15. Quantification of leptin in seminal plasma of buffalo bulls and its correlation with antioxidant status, conventional and computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) semen variables.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Saini, Monika; Kumar, Dharmendra; Jan, M H; Swami, Dheer Singh; Sharma, R K

    2016-03-01

    The present study is the first to quantify leptin in seminal plasma of buffalo and investigate its relationship with seminal attributes. Ten ejaculates each from 10 Murrah buffalo bulls were collected. Semen quality variables such as semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm abnormalities, membrane integrity, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as well as sperm kinetics and motility variables were evaluated. The leptin concentration in serum and seminal plasma were estimated by the ELISA method. Bulls were classified in two groups on the basis of sperm concentration with Group I having >800 million sperm/mL and Group II <500 million sperm/mL. Greater (P<0.05) mean sperm abnormalities, seminal leptin concentrations and MDA concentrations were recorded in Group II than Group I. The seminal leptin was positively correlated with sperm abnormalities and MDA concentration while being negatively correlated with sperm concentration, but there was no correlation with sperm kinetic and motility variables, sperm membrane integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant enzyme activity. Thus, the data suggest that seminal leptin has a role in spermatogenesis and can be used as a marker for spermatogenesis to predict the capacity of buffalo bulls for semen production. PMID:26796919

  16. Seminal plasma lead, cadmium and zinc in relation to tobacco consumption.

    PubMed

    Oldereid, N B; Thomassen, Y; Purvis, K

    1994-02-01

    The total quantity of zinc in the ejaculates of smokers was significantly lower than in non-smokers. This was not related to a significant increase in the quantities of seminal cadmium or lead, or to a decrease in sperm quality in the smoking group. It appears that tobacco consumption may have to exceed 20 cigarettes/day before a noticeable increase in seminal cadmium can be recorded. It is suggested that this reduction in zinc secretion may jeopardize the content of chromatin zinc, and thereby the stability of the sperm chromatin. This may then contribute to reproductive failure or have consequences for fetal development. PMID:8005705

  17. The concentrations of LH, FSH, oestradiol-17beta and progesterone in the blood plasma of the female Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) before and after intramuscular injection of seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Li, X L; Zhang, Y; Chen, B X; Zhao, X X

    2002-10-01

    The concentrations of LH, FSH, oestradiol-17beta and progesterone in the blood plasma of the female Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) before and after intramuscular injection of seminal plasma. PMID:12416872

  18. Therapeutic effects of vitamin E supplementation in 4 dogs with poor semen quality and low superoxide dismutase activity in seminal plasma

    PubMed Central

    KAWAKAMI, Eiichi; KOBAYASHI, Masanori; HORI, Tatsuya; KANEDA, Takeharu

    2015-01-01

    Four dogs with poor semen quality, low seminal plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and low blood plasma testosterone (T) levels were orally administered one vitamin E tablet containing 50 mg α-tocopheryl acetate per dog daily for 4 weeks. The mean values of semen quality were temporarily improved after the start of vitamin E treatment and the values of 4, and 5 weeks after that were significantly different from those before the treatment (P<0.05–0.001). The mean blood plasma T and seminal plasma SOD activity values slightly increased in the 4 dogs after the treatment. The results of the present study indicate that poor semen quality in dogs with low seminal plasma SOD can be improved by vitamin E treatment. PMID:26234739

  19. Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with higher levels in the breeding season. The yearly pattern of GRD and catalase was close to that of melatonin, and GRD showed a significant seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with a higher activity during the breeding season. Linear regression analysis between the studied hormones and antioxidant enzymes showed a significant correlation between melatonin and testosterone, GRD, SOD and catalase. Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system. PMID:20540737

  20. Characterization of the cDNA and in vitro expression of the ram seminal plasma protein RSVP14.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Edith; Prez-P, Rosaura; Calleja, Luca; Guilln, Natalia; Casao, Adriana; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramn; Muio-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrin-Prez, Jos A

    2013-05-01

    In previous studies we have shown that seminal plasma (SP) proteins can prevent and repair cold-shock membrane damage to ram spermatozoa. Three proteins of approximately 14, 20 and 22kDa, mainly responsible for this protective ability, were identified in ram SP. They are exclusively synthesized in the seminal vesicles and, consequently, named RSVP14, RSVP20 and RSVP22. The aim of this study is to characterize and express the RSVP14 gene to provide new insights into the mechanisms through which SP proteins are able to protect spermatozoa. Additionally, a first approach has been made to the recombinant protein production. The cDNA sequence obtained encodes a 129 amino acid chain and presents a 25-amino acid signal peptide, one potential O-linked glycosylation site and seven phosphorylation sites on tyrosine, serine and threonine residues. The sequence contains two FN-2 domains, the signature characteristic of the bovine seminal plasma (BSP) protein family and related proteins of different species. More interestingly, it was shown that RSVP14 contains four disulphide bonds and a cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC) domain, also found in BSP and similar proteins. Analysis of the relationships between RSVP14 and other mammalian SP proteins revealed a 76-85% identity, particularly with the BSP protein family. The recombinant protein was obtained in insect cell extracts and in Escherichia coli in which RSVP14 was detected in both the pellet and the supernatant. The results obtained corroborate the role of RSVP14 in capacitation and might explain its protective effect against cold-shock injury to the membranes of ram spermatozoa. Furthermore, the biochemical and functional similarities between RSVP14 and BSP proteins suggest that it might play a similar role in sperm functionality. PMID:23462333

  1. Isothermal Titration Calorimetric Studies on the Interaction of the Major Bovine Seminal Plasma Protein, PDC-109 with Phospholipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Anbazhagan, V.; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Swamy, Musti J.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of the major bovine seminal plasma protein, PDC-109 with lipid membranes was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Binding of the protein to model membranes made up of diacyl phospholipids was found to be endothermic, with positive values of binding enthalpy and entropy, and could be analyzed in terms of a single type of binding sites on the protein. Enthalpies and entropies for binding to diacylphosphatidylcholine membranes increased with increase in temperature, although a clear-cut linear dependence was not observed. The entropically driven binding process indicates that hydrophobic interactions play a major role in the overall binding process. Binding of PDC-109 with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine membranes containing 25 mol% cholesterol showed an initial increase in the association constant as well as enthalpy and entropy of binding with increase in temperature, whereas the values decreased with further increase in temperature. The affinity of PDC-109 for phosphatidylcholine increased at higher pH, which is physiologically relevant in view of the basic nature of the seminal plasma. Binding of PDC-109 to Lyso-PC could be best analysed in terms of two types of binding interactions, a high affinity interaction with Lyso-PC micelles and a low-affinity interaction with the monomeric lipid. Enthalpy-entropy compensation was observed for the interaction of PDC-109 with phospholipid membranes, suggesting that water structure plays an important role in the binding process. PMID:22022488

  2. Isolation and purification of the ovulation-inducing factor from seminal plasma in the bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).

    PubMed

    Pan, G; Chen, Z; Liu, X; Li, D; Xie, Q; Ling, F; Fang, L

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to extract, identify and partially characterize a newly found ovulation-inducing factor, and thus gain our understanding of induced ovulation in biology. In our preliminary research, an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) was isolated and purified from seminal plasma of the bactrian camel by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, HPLC and reverse-phase HPLC. The OIF is a peptide with 74 residues and GnRH-like bioactivity, which is heat-stable in camel seminal plasma because the OIF is wrapped up in several protein layers with different properties. However, purified OIF is degraded when it is exposed to oxygen or is heated in water. According to the analysis of amino acid components and partial amino acid sequence aminated N-terminus, and its molecular weight, the OIF is completely different from the native-LHRH, LH, HCG, PMSG and PGF-2alpha. The OIF is a novel ovulation hormone in the bactrian camel, but is similar to that reported in the bull. PMID:11414491

  3. Comparison of Before and After Varicocelectomy Levels of Trace Elements, Nitric Oxide, Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Malondialdehyde in the Seminal Plasma and Peripheral and Spermatic Veins.

    PubMed

    Kiziler, Ali Riza; Aydemir, Birsen; Guzel, Savas; Yazici, Cenk Murat; Gulyasar, Tevfik; Malkoc, Ercan; Acar, Ayse

    2015-10-01

    Increased oxidative damage has been suggested to play an important role in the spermatogenesis and sperm function changes in patients with varicocele. However, changes in levels of nitric oxide (NO), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), malondialdehyde (MDA), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in blood and seminal plasma, and semen quality, are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the NO, ADMA, Fe, Cu, Zn and MDA levels from seminal plasma and peripheral and spermatic vein blood samples of patients with varicocele before and after varicocelectomy. In this before and after comparative study, 29 consecutive patients attending a training hospital in Tekirdag, Turkey, were recruited. MDA and NO levels were determined by spectrophotometric methods. The levels of ADMA were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Trace element level was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The levels of MDA in the seminal plasma and peripheral and spermatic vein samples were observed to decrease significantly in the comparison of before and after phases of the study group (p = 0.022, p = 0.001 and p = 0.034, respectively). Also, the levels of NO in the seminal plasma and spermatic vein samples decreased significantly in the comparison of before and after phases of the study group (p = 0.025 and p = 0.001, respectively), while the levels of ADMA in seminal plasma and spermatic vein samples increased significantly in the comparison of before and after phases of the study group (p = 0.003 and p = 0.001, respectively). There were no significant differences in the levels of trace elements and sperm count (p > 0.05). Oxidative stress is significantly higher in the spermatic vein and seminal plasma samples of patients with varicocele before varicocelectomy. In conclusion, these events may be evaluated accordingly for the potentially beneficial treatment methods. PMID:25787826

  4. HSP-1/2, a major horse seminal plasma protein, acts as a chaperone against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C Sudheer; Swamy, Musti J

    2016-05-13

    The major protein of equine seminal plasma, HSP-1/2 exhibits chaperone-like activity and protects a variety of target proteins against thermal and chemical stress conditions. Here, we show that HSP-1/2 is able to protect enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase against H2O2 induced stress, clearly demonstrating that HSP-1/2 acts as a chaperone against oxidative stress. Further, the present studies show that HSP-1/2 also inhibits lipid (linoleic acid) peroxidation by hydroxyl radicals in vitro. These results are of great significance considering that so far limited or no antioxidative mechanism has been reported to be present in the mammalian spermatozoa that prevents lipid peroxidation which is detrimental to the motility and functioning of spermatozoa. PMID:27059138

  5. Protein analysis of boar seminal plasma proteins with protective effect during low-temperature storage of spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Daskalova, Denica; Kukov, Alexander; Kirilova, Irina; Ivanova-Kicheva, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different seminal plasma proteins (SPPs) on boar spermatozoa functional characteristics. We investigated the putative protective effect of SSPs on sperm cells motility and velocity, as well as on the integrity of the plasma membrane (PM) during low-temperature storage at 4 °C. SPPs fractions were obtained and purified by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Nine fractions of SPPs were obtained and further characterized by 12% sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Sperm computer analysis (SCA) after incubation of spermatozoa with separated proteins revealed that fraction 6 consisting of low molecular weight (MW) proteins could preserve spermatozoa motility and velocity better when compared to those with higher MW. Two-dimensional (2D) elecrtophoretic analysis showed that fraction 6 contained proteins with the following MW and isoelectric point (pI): 16 kDa and pI 7.35, 18 kDa and pI 5.20, 19 kDa and pI 7.35, 26 kDa and pI 4.50, 26 kDa and pI 4.30, 29 kDa and pI 5.85. PMID:26740772

  6. Effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on sperm parameters, seminal plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress in men.

    PubMed

    Rao, Meng; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Yang, Jing; Hu, Shi-Fu; Lei, Hui; Xia, Wei; Zhu, Chang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this experimental prospective study, we aimed to analyze the effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on the male reproductive organs, from the perspective of sperm parameters, semen plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress, to evaluate whether different frequencies of heat exposure cause different degrees of damage to spermatogenesis. Two groups of volunteers (10 per group) received testicular warming in a 43°C water bath 10 times, for 30 min each time: group 1: 10 consecutive days; group 2: once every 3 days. Sperm parameters, epididymis and accessory sex gland function, semen plasma oxidative stress and serum sex hormones were tested before treatment and in the 16-week recovery period after treatment. At last, we found an obvious reversible decrease in sperm concentration (P = 0.005 for Group 1 and P= 0.008 for Group 2 when the minimums were compared with baseline levels, the same below), motility (P = 0.009 and 0.021, respectively), the hypoosmotic swelling test score (P = 0.007 and 0.008, respectively), total acrosin activity (P = 0.018 and 0.009, respectively), and an increase in the seminal plasma malondialdehyde concentration (P = 0.005 and 0.017, respectively). The decrease of sperm concentration was greater for Group 2 than for Group 1 (P = 0.031). We concluded that transient scrotal hyperthermia seriously, but reversibly, negatively affected the spermatogenesis, oxidative stress may be involved in this process. In addition, intermittent heat exposure more seriously suppresses the spermatogenesis compared to consecutive heat exposure. This may be indicative for clinical infertility etiology analysis and the design of contraceptive methods based on heat stress. PMID:25652627

  7. Effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on sperm parameters, seminal plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress in men

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Meng; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Yang, Jing; Hu, Shi-Fu; Lei, Hui; Xia, Wei; Zhu, Chang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this experimental prospective study, we aimed to analyze the effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on the male reproductive organs, from the perspective of sperm parameters, semen plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress, to evaluate whether different frequencies of heat exposure cause different degrees of damage to spermatogenesis. Two groups of volunteers (10 per group) received testicular warming in a 43°C water bath 10 times, for 30 min each time: group 1: 10 consecutive days; group 2: once every 3 days. Sperm parameters, epididymis and accessory sex gland function, semen plasma oxidative stress and serum sex hormones were tested before treatment and in the 16-week recovery period after treatment. At last, we found an obvious reversible decrease in sperm concentration (P = 0.005 for Group 1 and P= 0.008 for Group 2 when the minimums were compared with baseline levels, the same below), motility (P = 0.009 and 0.021, respectively), the hypoosmotic swelling test score (P = 0.007 and 0.008, respectively), total acrosin activity (P = 0.018 and 0.009, respectively), and an increase in the seminal plasma malondialdehyde concentration (P = 0.005 and 0.017, respectively). The decrease of sperm concentration was greater for Group 2 than for Group 1 (P = 0.031). We concluded that transient scrotal hyperthermia seriously, but reversibly, negatively affected the spermatogenesis, oxidative stress may be involved in this process. In addition, intermittent heat exposure more seriously suppresses the spermatogenesis compared to consecutive heat exposure. This may be indicative for clinical infertility etiology analysis and the design of contraceptive methods based on heat stress. PMID:25652627

  8. Growth, testis size, spermatogenesis, semen parameters and seminal plasma and sperm membrane protein profile during the reproductive development of male goats supplemented with de-oiled castor cake.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C H A; Silva, A M; Silva, L M; van Tilburg, M F; Fernandes, C C L; Velho, A L M C; Moura, A A; Moreno, F B M B; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreira, R A; Lima, I M T; Rondina, D

    2015-06-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of de-oiled castor cake on reproductive traits of crossbreed goats. Fourteen males were grouped into two lots (n = 7/group), as described: group without de-oiled castor cake (WCC) and group fed with de-oiled castor cake (CC). Goats received two diets containing a mixture of Bermudagrass hay and concentrates with the same energy (73% total digestive nutrients) and protein content (15% crude protein) during 150 days, corresponding to ages from 40 (puberty) to 60 weeks. Blood plasma concentrations of urea, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and testosterone were determined. We also evaluated scrotal circumference, sperm parameters, quantitative aspects of spermatogenesis and daily sperm production (DSP), as well as the proteome of seminal plasma and sperm membrane. Seminal fluid and sperm proteins were analyzed by 2D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. After 150 days of castor cake feeding, animals had no changes in the biochemical composition of blood plasma, suggesting the absence of intoxication by ingestion of ricin. There were no alterations in dry mater intake, weight gain, testis size, peripheral concentrations of testosterone, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. Sertoli and germ cell populations in the testis and DSP were not affected either. However, there were significant variations in the expression of five seminal plasma proteins and four sperm membrane proteins. In conclusion, the replacement of soybean meal by castor cake (with ricin concentrations of 50mg/kg) did not interfere with the growth and core reproductive development of male goats. However, the diet with ricin altered the expression of certain seminal plasma and sperm membrane proteins, which play roles in sperm function and fertilization. Lower expression of these proteins may impair the ricin-fed animals to perform as high-fertility sires. PMID:25883025

  9. Isolation and identification of fetuin-B-like protein from rainbow trout seminal plasma and its localization in the reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Nynca, Joanna; Słowińska, Mariola; Dietrich, Mariola A; Bilińska, Barbara; Kotula-Balak, Małgorzata; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Seminal plasma of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmonidae) contains an inhibitory system consisting of three fractions (I-III) characterized by different electrophoretic migration rates. Using a two-step isolation procedure we purified (20- and 43-fold to homogeneity) and characterized the two subforms of inhibitor I (Ia and Ib). On the basis of the homology alignment of the amino acid sequences, inhibitor I was classified to the family of cysteine proteinase inhibitors - fetuins. The molecular masses were determined to be 61,146.5Da and 63,096.0Da, and the isoelectric points were estimated to be 6.04 and 6.22 for inhibitor Ia and Ib. Both inhibitors were glycoproteins with a carbohydrate content about 13% for inhibitor Ia and 19% for inhibitor Ib. The equilibrium association constant of inhibitor Ib with cod trypsin was determined to be 7.1×10(8)M(-1). Except for the cod trypsin inhibition, the inhibitor Ib effectively inhibited papain belonging to the cysteine proteainases. Comparative studies of the distribution of inhibitor I and the previously described inhibitor II were performed. The presence of inhibitor I in the seminal plasma was a common feature of several Salmoniformes, which was contrary to inhibitor II detected in seminal plasma of other fish families. Inhibitors I and II showed different expression patterns in the testes and spermatic duct of the rainbow trout. PMID:20959146

  10. LH release and ovulatory response after intramuscular, intravenous, and intrauterine administration of β-nerve growth factor of seminal plasma origin in female llamas.

    PubMed

    Silva, M; Fernández, A; Ulloa-Leal, C; Adams, G P; Berland, M A; Ratto, M H

    2015-10-15

    The objective of the study was to compare the pituitary and ovarian responses after intramuscular, intravenous, or intrauterine administration of β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) of seminal plasma origin (SP-NGF) in llamas. In experiment 1, mature female llamas with a growing follicle of 7 mm or greater were assigned randomly to four groups (n = 7/group) and given 2 mg of purified SP-NGF in a volume of 2 mL by (1) intramuscular administration, (2) intravenous administration, and (3) intrauterine infusion, or (4) intrauterine infusion of 2 mL of PBS (negative control). Because ovulations were not detected after intrauterine infusion in experiment 1, a second experiment was done to determine if a higher dose of SP-NGF given by intrauterine infusion, similar to a natural dose during copulation, will elicit an ovulatory response. In experiment 2, llamas with a growing follicle of 7 mm or greater were assigned randomly to three groups (n = 6/per group) given an intrauterine infusion of (1) 4 mL of raw seminal plasma, (2) 4 mL of PBS containing 20 mg of purified llama SP-NGF, or 3) 4 mL of PBS (negative control). In both experiments, the ovaries were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography using a B-mode scanner and power Doppler mode to detect ovulation and to monitor CL growth, regression, and vascularization. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma LH and progesterone concentrations. In experiment 1, only llamas treated by intramuscular or intravenous administration of SP-NGF ovulated (7 of 7 and 6 of 7, respectively). Plasma LH concentration did not differ between the intramuscular and intravenous SP-NGF-treated groups, nor did CL diameter, CL vascularization, or plasma progesterone concentration profiles. In experiment 2, the ovulation rate was 100% for llamas treated by intrauterine infusion of raw seminal plasma or llama SP-NFG, whereas no ovulations were detected in females treated with PBS. Plasma LH concentrations did not differ between groups that ovulated, nor did CL diameter, CL vascularization, or plasma progesterone concentration profiles. We conclude that β-NGF from llama seminal plasma origin elicits a preovulatory LH surge, followed by ovulation and the development of a functional CL, regardless of the route of administration. However, the dose required to elicit pituitary and ovarian responses is higher when administered by intrauterine infusion than by intramuscular or intravenous routes. PMID:26164804

  11. High total antioxidant capacity of the porcine seminal plasma (SP-TAC) relates to sperm survival and fertility

    PubMed Central

    Barranco, Isabel; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Ceron, Jose J.; Martinez, Emilio A.; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The study attempted to clarify the role of total antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma (SP-TAC) on boar sperm survival and fertility after artificial insemination (AI). SP-TAC differed (P < 0.001) among boars (n° = 15) and, to a lesser degree, among ejaculates within male (4 ejaculates/boar). SP-TAC also differed (P < 0.001) among ejaculate fractions (43 ejaculates and 3 fractions per ejaculate), of which the sperm-peak portion of the sperm rich ejaculate fraction (SRF) had the highest SP-TAC. SP-TAC was not correlated with sperm quality (motility and viability) or functionality (intracellular ROS generation and lipid peroxidation) of liquid AI-semen samples stored at 17 °C for 72 h (90 AI-samples), but the decline in sperm quality was larger (P < 0.05) in ejaculates with low, compared with high SP-TAC (hierarchically grouped). The SP-TAC differences among ejaculate portions agree with sperm cryosurvival rates (14 ejaculates from 7 boars), showing sperm from sperm-peak portion better (P < 0.01) post-thaw quality and functionality than those from the entire ejaculate (mainly post-SRF). Boars (n° = 18) with high SP-TAC (hierarchically grouped) had higher (P < 0.05) fertility outcomes (5,546 AI-sows) than those with low SP-TAC. Measurement of SP-TAC ought to be a discriminative tool to prognosis fertility in breeding boars. PMID:26688188

  12. High total antioxidant capacity of the porcine seminal plasma (SP-TAC) relates to sperm survival and fertility.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Isabel; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Ceron, Jose J; Martinez, Emilio A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The study attempted to clarify the role of total antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma (SP-TAC) on boar sperm survival and fertility after artificial insemination (AI). SP-TAC differed (P < 0.001) among boars (n° = 15) and, to a lesser degree, among ejaculates within male (4 ejaculates/boar). SP-TAC also differed (P < 0.001) among ejaculate fractions (43 ejaculates and 3 fractions per ejaculate), of which the sperm-peak portion of the sperm rich ejaculate fraction (SRF) had the highest SP-TAC. SP-TAC was not correlated with sperm quality (motility and viability) or functionality (intracellular ROS generation and lipid peroxidation) of liquid AI-semen samples stored at 17 °C for 72 h (90 AI-samples), but the decline in sperm quality was larger (P < 0.05) in ejaculates with low, compared with high SP-TAC (hierarchically grouped). The SP-TAC differences among ejaculate portions agree with sperm cryosurvival rates (14 ejaculates from 7 boars), showing sperm from sperm-peak portion better (P < 0.01) post-thaw quality and functionality than those from the entire ejaculate (mainly post-SRF). Boars (n° = 18) with high SP-TAC (hierarchically grouped) had higher (P < 0.05) fertility outcomes (5,546 AI-sows) than those with low SP-TAC. Measurement of SP-TAC ought to be a discriminative tool to prognosis fertility in breeding boars. PMID:26688188

  13. Effect of seminal plasma vesicular structures in canine frozen-thawed semen.

    PubMed

    Goericke-Pesch, S; Hauck, S; Failing, K; Wehrend, A

    2015-12-01

    Membrane vesicles (MVs) in the ejaculate have been identified in various species and are considered to affect membrane fluidity due to their characteristic molecular composition. Addition of MV to human frozen semen has been shown to improve post-thaw motility. Similarly, a beneficial effect has been suggested for frozen equine semen. As post-thaw canine semen quality varies widely between dogs, the aim of our study was to test for the effect of addition of canine MV on post-thaw semen quality in dogs. Semen samples from 10 male dogs were purified from MV and prepared for freezing. In experiment 1, three groups were compared: sperm frozen (1) with MV (S1); (2) without MV, but MV added immediately after thawing (S2); and (3) without MV (C). Semen analysis included computer-assisted sperm analysis of motility parameters immediately after thawing (t0), after 10 (t10) and 30 minutes (t30), % living sperm, % membrane intact, % morphologically normal sperm (all t0 and t30). Computer-assisted sperm analysis motility distance and velocity parameters (all P < 0.05) and % living sperm (P < 0.001) were significantly affected by treatment with a temporary increase of distance and velocity parameters at t0 to t10, but a significant decrease of the aforementioned parameters at t30 in samples with MV. In experiment 2, different MV protein concentrations added after thawing were compared: 0.05 mg, 0.1 mg, and 0.2 mg/mL. Computer-assisted sperm motility analysis was performed at t0, t10, and t30. No differences between MV concentrations were identified, only a significant interaction between effect of treatment and time for progressive motility (P < 0.01). Our study identified a short-term beneficial effect of canine MV on post-thaw distance and velocity parameters, whereas at t30 progressive motility, motility parameters and % living sperm were reduced in samples with MV compared to C. The results point to species-specific differences regarding the MV effect on frozen semen and indicate the need for further studies using different semen and MV purification protocols and more frequent analyses. At the moment, addition of MV is not an option to improve post-thaw semen quality in dogs. PMID:26296522

  14. Characterization of adiponectin concentrations and molecular weight forms in serum, seminal plasma, and ovarian follicular fluid from cattle.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Johanna F L; Singh, Shiva P; Janowitz, Ulrich; Hoelker, Michael; Tesfaye, Dawit; Schellander, Karl; Sauerwein, Helga

    2015-02-01

    Adiponectin (AdipoQ), an adipocyte-derived hormone, is one of the most abundant adipokines in the blood circulation. Adiponectin has various metabolic functions, such as improving insulin sensitivity in humans and rodents. The role of AdipoQ in reproduction is not yet fully understood, but the expression of AdipoQ in reproductive tissues has been observed in various animals and humans, including chicken testis, bovine ovary, and human placenta. The objective of this study was to characterize AdipoQ in the bovine body fluids related to reproduction. Therefore, we evaluated the seminal plasma (SP) from breeding bulls (n = 29) and follicular fluid (FF) from heifers (n = 14), and we also collected blood samples from these animals. In addition, blood samples from other bulls (n = 30) and heifers (n = 14) were assayed for AdipoQ. The concentrations were assessed using a bovine-specific ELISA, and the molecular weight (MW) pattern of the AdipoQ protein was estimated by the Western blot analysis. The SP AdipoQ concentrations were approximately 180-fold lower compared with that in the serum concentrations. Furthermore, the AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP were positively correlated. The MW patterns of AdipoQ in the serum and SP were different such that the high MW form of AdipoQ was more abundant in the SP than serum. The AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP also increased with age: old bulls (>6 years) had higher AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP than bulls aged 24 months or lesser (P < 0.05). In the FF, the AdipoQ concentrations were 1.6-fold lower than those in the corresponding serum samples, and the concentrations in the serum and FF were not correlated (P > 0.1). In the FF, only the middle MW forms of AdipoQ were detectable by Western blotting. The MW pattern in the serum did not differ between the sexes. Our data provide both the AdipoQ concentration and the MW patterns for bovine body fluids related to reproduction. PMID:25468552

  15. Detection of haptoglobin in seminal plasma of Awassi rams and the relation with its level in serum and some semen parameters

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Dhafer M.; Ahmad, Ahmad K.

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to detect haptoglobin in seminal plasma (SP-Hp) of Awassi rams and the effect of the breeding season on its concentration, along with determining the correlation with its concentration in serum (S-Hp) and main semen variables. Pre-warmed artificial vagina was used to collect semen samples biweekly from five Awassi rams. Semen samples were evaluated for volume, concentration and sperm motility. Blood samples were collected 10–30 min after semen collection. The concentration of serum and seminal plasma Hp was determined using ELISA. The mean ± SESP-Hp concentrations ranged from 0.25 ± 0.05 to 0.81 ± 0.44 μg/ml, whereas those of S-Hp-ranged from 0.99 ± 0.29 to 2.99 ± 0.18 mg/ml. There was a significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation (r = 0.329) between SP-Hp and S-Hp concentrations. Both SP-Hp and S-Hp concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in winter as compared with the other seasons. The concentrations of SP-Hp and S-Hp during the breeding season were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those of the out season period. SP-Hp concentration negatively correlated with semen volume and sperm concentration (r = −0.164 and −0.121), whereas sperm concentration positively correlated with individual sperm motility (r = 0.100). No significant correlation was detected between SP-Hp and semen parameters. It can be concluded that, Hp is present in ram seminal plasma and its concentration was about 2000 folds lower than that of the serum, and Hp concentration was lower during the breeding season, but its concentration in seminal plasma has no significant correlation with semen parameters. PMID:25685465

  16. Seminal Plasma Characteristics and Expression of ATP-binding Cassette Transporter A1 (ABCA1) in Canine Spermatozoa from Ejaculates with Good and Bad Freezability.

    PubMed

    Schäfer-Somi, S; Palme, N

    2016-04-01

    The composition of seminal plasma and the localization of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in spermatozoa from good and bad freezers were compared to frozen-thawed spermatozoa from the same dog. Ejaculates were obtained from 31 stud dogs, and the sperm-rich fraction (SRF) was kept for analysis. One aliquot was used for the analysis of concentration, progressive motility (P; CASA), viability (V; CASA) and leucocyte count, and the analysis was performed by flow cytometry (FITC-PNA/PI), SCSA and HOST. In seminal plasma, concentration of albumin, cholesterol, calcium, inorganic phosphate, sodium, potassium, zinc and copper was measured. Semen smears were prepared and evaluated for the expression of ABCA1. The remainder of each ejaculate was frozen. After thawing, the quality assessment was repeated and further smears were prepared. According to post-thaw semen quality, dogs were assigned to good freezers (n = 20) or bad freezers (n = 11), the latter were defined as < 50% progressive motility and/or > 40% morphologically abnormal sperm and/or < 50% viability. Bad freezers were older than good freezers (5.3 vs 3.4 years, p < 0.05). In bad freezers, the percentage of sperm with ABCA1 signal in the acrosome was lower (26.3% vs 35.7%, p < 0.01) and the percentage of sperm with complete loss of ABCA1 signal higher (46.7% vs 30%, p < 0.01); the percentage of dead spermatozoa was higher (36.1% vs 25.5%, p < 0.05), and the concentration of cholesterol and sodium in seminal plasma was lower than in good freezers (p < 0.05). We conclude that in thawed bad freezer sperm, an increase in acrosome damages coincided with an increased loss of cholesterol transporters and cell death, and a lower cholesterol concentration in seminal plasma. Follow-up studies revealed whether a relation exists between these findings. PMID:26848092

  17. Pregnancy outcome in dairy and beef cattle after artificial insemination and treatment with seminal plasma or transforming growth factor beta-1.

    PubMed

    Odhiambo, J F; Poole, D H; Hughes, L; Dejarnette, J M; Inskeep, E K; Dailey, R A

    2009-09-01

    Reduced capability of the uterus to support pregnancy in the absence of its interaction with secretions from male accessory glands has been demonstrated in rodents and to some extent in pigs. However, in cattle, the role of postmating inflammatory response on pregnancy success has not been studied. The current study examined the influence of uterine presensitization with seminal antigens at breeding on pregnancy outcome in cows. Lactating beef (n=1090) and dairy (n=800) cows received 0.5 mL seminal plasma (SP), 40 ng recombinant human transforming growth factor-beta1 (rhTGF-beta1), or 0.5 mL bovine serum albumin (BSA), or were left untreated before or at insemination. Semen was deposited into the anterior cervix using a second insemination gun. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 35 to 40 d postinsemination by transrectal ultrasonography or from records of calves born the subsequent calving season. Pregnancy rates in beef cows did not differ among treatments but differed among trials (69.8%, 52.5% vs. 40.3%; P<0.05). In trials where average pregnancy rates were below 50%, treatments with TGF-beta1 but not SP tended (P<0.07) to increase pregnancy rates in beef cows. In dairy cows, SP and TGF-beta1 improved pregnancy outcome by 10 percentage points, but these increments did not achieve statistical significance. In conclusion, this study did not find any conclusive evidence for the effect of TGF-beta1 or seminal plasma on pregnancy outcome in lactating dairy or beef cows but realized marginal improvements when pregnancy rates were below 50% (compromised fertility). PMID:19501392

  18. [Analysis of cytokines in seminal plasma and blood sera of patients with chronic prostatitis during immunotherapy with natural complex of cytokines and antimicrobial peptides].

    PubMed

    Koval'chuk, L V; Gankovskaia, L V; Mazo, E B; Viriasov, A V

    2007-01-01

    Levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) were studied in blood sera and seminal plasma of healthy volunteers and patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) or chronic abacterial prostatitis (CABP). Assessment of effect of immunotropic drug Superlymph with direct antimicrobial action for treatment of mentioned groups of patients was performed. It was shown that seminal plasma of patients with CBP and CABP contained higher levels of IL-6 compared with healthy subjects. IL-8 level was increased in small part of patients with CBP and CABP. Changes in cytokine status of patients with CBP and CABP that occurred during treatment and manifested in decrease of proinflammatory cytokines levels (IL-6 and IL-8) and increase of antiinflammatory cytokine level (IL-10) point to reduction of inflammatory process in prostate. Clinical effect of complex treatment in patients with CBP considering eradication of pathogen and shortening of duration of antibacterial treatment amounted 95%. Monotherapy of patients with CABP with Superlymph was effective in 72%. PMID:18038549

  19. Seminal plasma did not influence the presence of transforming growth factor-β1, interleukine-10 and interleukin-6 in porcine follicles shortly after insemination

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of seminal plasma on the presence of the cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-6 in ovarian follicles and follicular fluid were studied shortly after insemination in gilts. Ovaries from gilts were sampled 5–6 h after insemination with either seminal plasma (SP), fresh semen in extender (Beltsville thawing solution, BTS), spermatozoa in extender (Spz), or only BTS (control). Results Immunohistochemical (IHC) labeling of TGF-β1, IL-10 and IL-6 was evident in the ovarian oocytes and granulosa cells independent of stage of follicular development (antral follicles). Theca interna cells were labeled to a high degree in mature follicles. No consistent differences between treatment groups could be observed for any of the cytokines. In follicular fluid, high concentrations of TGF-β1 were found while the levels of IL-10 and IL-6 were low. There were no differences between treatment groups. Conclusions Our results show a presence of the cytokines TGF-β1, IL-6 and IL-10 in oocytes, granulosa and theca cells, as well as in the fluid of mature follicles suggesting a role of these cytokines in intra-ovarian cell communication. However, treatment (SP, fresh semen in BTS, spermatozoa in BTS or BTS) did not influence the IHC-labeling pattern or the levels of these cytokines in follicular fluid shortly after insemination. PMID:24020676

  20. Electrostatic normal modes in nonneutral plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Book, David L.

    1995-04-01

    A fluid description is employed to derive the dispersion relation for modes near the cyclotron frequency Ω in a nonuniform cylindrical nonneutral plasma of radius R with finite temperature confined by a uniform magnetic field B=B0ez. In contrast to the theory of Gould and LaPointe, the model includes the diamagnetic drift but omits finite-Larmor-radius effects. The eigenfrequencies for high-frequency electrostatic modes with wavevectors satisfying k ṡ B=0 (Bernstein modes) are found in the form ω=-Ω+Δω. Solutions are obtained and compared with experiment and the theory of Gould and LaPointe. The present theory predicts that at a given temperature modes with m≳1 propagate only when the density is less than a critical value that increases with m, and that Δω normalized by the diocotron frequency depends only on the ratio of the Debye length to the plasma radius and hence is independent of B and the particle mass.

  1. Electrostatic normal modes in nonneutral plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Book, David L.

    1995-04-15

    A fluid description is employed to derive the dispersion relation for modes near the cyclotron frequency {omega} in a nonuniform cylindrical nonneutral plasma of radius R with finite temperature confined by a uniform magnetic field B=B0ez. In contrast to the theory of Gould and LaPointe, the model includes the diamagnetic drift but omits finite-Larmor-radius effects. The eigenfrequencies for high-frequency electrostatic modes with wavevectors satisfying k {center_dot} B=0 (Bernstein modes) are found in the form {omega}=-{omega}+{delta}{omega}. Solutions are obtained and compared with experiment and the theory of Gould and LaPointe. The present theory predicts that at a given temperature modes with m > or approx.1 propagate only when the density is less than a critical value that increases with m, and that {delta}{omega} normalized by the diocotron frequency depends only on the ratio of the Debye length to the plasma radius and hence is independent of B and the particle mass.

  2. On a matter of seminal importance

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, Lisa A.; Suarez, Susan S.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2015-01-01

    Egg and sperm have, understandably, been the “stars” of mammalian fertilization biology, particularly because artificial reproductive technologies allow for fertilization to occur outside of the female reproductive tract without other apparent contributions from either sex. Yet, recent research, including an exciting new paper, reveals unexpected and important contributions of seminal plasma to fertility. For example, seminal plasma proteins play critical roles in modulating female reproductive physiology, and a new study in mice demonstrates that effects of some of these proteins on the female can even affect the health of her progeny. Furthermore, although several actions of seminal plasma have been conserved across taxa, male accessory glands and their products are diverse — even among mammals. Taken together, these studies suggest that the actions of seminal plasma components are important to understand, and also to consider in future development of assisted reproductive technologies for humans, farm species, and endangered species of mammals. PMID:25379987

  3. Maternal tract factors contribute to paternal seminal fluid impact on metabolic phenotype in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bromfield, John J.; Schjenken, John E.; Chin, Peck Y.; Care, Alison S.; Jasper, Melinda J.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Paternal characteristics and exposures influence physiology and disease risks in progeny, but the mechanisms are mostly unknown. Seminal fluid, which affects female reproductive tract gene expression as well as sperm survival and integrity, provides one potential pathway. We evaluated in mice the consequences for offspring of ablating the plasma fraction of seminal fluid by surgical excision of the seminal vesicle gland. Conception was substantially impaired and, when pregnancy did occur, placental hypertrophy was evident in late gestation. After birth, the growth trajectory and metabolic parameters of progeny were altered, most profoundly in males, which exhibited obesity, distorted metabolic hormones, reduced glucose tolerance, and hypertension. Altered offspring phenotype was partly attributable to sperm damage and partly to an effect of seminal fluid deficiency on the female tract, because increased adiposity was also evident in adult male progeny when normal two-cell embryos were transferred to females mated with seminal vesicle-excised males. Moreover, embryos developed in female tracts not exposed to seminal plasma were abnormal from the early cleavage stages, but culture in vitro partly alleviated this. Absence of seminal plasma was accompanied by down-regulation of the embryotrophic factors Lif, Csf2, Il6, and Egf and up-regulation of the apoptosis-inducing factor Trail in the oviduct. These findings show that paternal seminal fluid composition affects the growth and health of male offspring, and reveal that its impact on the periconception environment involves not only sperm protection but also indirect effects on preimplantation embryos via oviduct expression of embryotrophic cytokines. PMID:24469827

  4. Seminal plasma induces global transcriptomic changes associated with cell migration, proliferation and viability in endometrial epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joseph C.; Johnson, Brittni A.; Erikson, David W.; Piltonen, Terhi T.; Barragan, Fatima; Chu, Simon; Kohgadai, Nargis; Irwin, Juan C.; Greene, Warner C.; Giudice, Linda C.; Roan, Nadia R.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How does seminal plasma (SP) affect the transcriptome of human primary endometrial epithelial cells (eEC) and stromal fibroblasts (eSF)? SUMMARY ANSWER Exposure of eEC and eSF to SP in vitro increases expression of genes and secreted proteins associated with cellular migration, proliferation, viability and inhibition of cell death. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Studies in both humans and animals suggest that SP can access and induce physiological changes in the upper female reproductive tract (FRT), which may participate in promoting reproductive success. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This is a cross sectional study involving control samples versus treatment. SP (pooled from twenty donors) was first tested for dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects on eEC and eSF (n = 4). As exposure of eEC or eSF to 1% SP for 6 h proved to be non-toxic, a second set of eEC/eSF samples (n = 4) was treated under these conditions for transcriptome, protein and functional analysis. With a third set of samples (n = 3), we further compared the transcriptional response of the cells to SP versus fresh semen. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS eEC and eSF were isolated from endometrial biopsies from women of reproductive age undergoing benign gynecologic procedures and maintained in vitro. RNA was isolated and processed for microarray studies to analyze global transcriptomic changes. Secreted factors in conditioned media from SP-treated cells were analyzed by Luminex and for the ability to stimulate migration of CD14+ monocytes and CD4+ T cells. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Pathway identifications were determined using the Z-scoring system in Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (Z scores ≥|1.5|). SP induced transcriptomic changes (P < 0.05) associated with promoting leukocyte and endothelial cell recruitment, and proliferation of eEC and eSF. Cell viability pathways were induced, while those associated with cell death were suppressed (P < 0.05). SP and fresh semen induced similar sets of pathways, suggesting that SP can model the signaling effects of semen in the endometrium. SP also induced secretion of pro-inflammatory and pro-chemotactic cytokines, as well as pro-angiogenic and proliferative growth factors (P < 0.05) in both eEC and eSF. Finally, functional assays revealed that conditioned media from SP-treated eEC and eSF significantly increased (P < 0.05) chemotaxis of CD14+ monocytes and CD4+ T cells. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION This study is limited to in vitro analyses of the effects of SP on endometrial cells. In addition, the measured response to SP was conducted in the absence of the ovarian hormones estradiol and progesterone, as well as epithelial-stromal paracrine signaling. While this study focused on establishing the baseline cellular response of endometrial cells to SP, future work should assess how hormone signaling in the presence of appropriate paracrine interactions affects SP-induced genes in these cells. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The results of this study support previous findings that SP and semen contain bioactive factors capable of eliciting chemotactic responses in the uterus, which can lead to recruitment of leukocytes to the endometrium. Future directions will explore if similar changes in gene expression do indeed occur after coitus in vivo, and how the signaling cascades initiated by SP in the endometrium can affect reproductive success, female reproductive health and susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases. The gene list provided by the transcriptome analysis reported here should prove a valuable resource for understanding the response of the upper FRT to SP exposure. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This project was supported by NIH AI083050-04 (W.C.G./L.C.G.); NIH U54HD 055764 (L.C.G.); NIH 1F32HD074423-02 (J.C.C.); DOD W81XWH-11-1-0562 (W.C.G.); NIH 5K12-DK083021-04, NIH 1K99AI104262-01A1, The UCSF Hellman Award (N.R.R.). The authors have nothing to disclose. PMID:24626806

  5. Fluorescence investigations on choline phospholipid binding and chemical unfolding of HSP-1/2, a major protein of horse seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C Sudheer; Sivaramakrishna, D; Ravi, Sanjay K; Swamy, Musti J

    2016-05-01

    Seminal fibronectin type-II (Fn-II) proteins interact with choline phospholipids present on the sperm plasma membrane and play a crucial role in sperm capacitation. Crystal structure of phosphorylcholine (PrC) complex of PDC-109, the major bovine Fn-II protein, together with fluorescence spectroscopic studies has shown that tryptophan residues are crucial for its specific interaction with choline phospholipids. In the present study, the heterogeneity and microenvironment of tryptophan residues in HSP-1/2, a major protein of horse seminal plasma (which is homologous to PDC-109) were investigated in the native state, in the presence of PrC and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) with short (valeryl, C-5) and long (myristoyl, C-14) chains, and upon denaturation using fluorescence quenching, time-resolved fluorescence and red-edge excitation shift (REES) measurements. The results obtained show that the environment of tryptophan residues in HSP-1/2 is more heterogeneous as compared to that in PDC-109. Binding of choline containing ligands afforded a protection to the tryptophan residues with the shielding order being: PrC≤divalaroyl PC

  6. Decreased activity of superoxide dismutase in the seminal plasma of infertile men correlates with increased sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation during the first hours after sperm donation.

    PubMed

    Wdowiak, Artur; Bakalczuk, Szymon; Bakalczuk, Grzegorz

    2015-07-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation varies between individuals and is more pronounced with increased patient age and time after sperm donation. The intensification of DNA fragmentation depends on the balance of the oxidoreductive system, which is regulated mainly by two enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation dynamics, fertility and seminal SOD and catalase activity. The study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at the Non-Public Health Care Unit 'Ovum Reproduction and Andrology' in Lublin, Lublin, Poland, and covered 218 men aged 25-35 (85 fertile and 133 patients treated for infertility). Percentage of fragmented DNA was measured in a modified chromatin dispersion test at four time points after sperm donation (t = 0, 3, 6, 12 h). SOD and catalase activities were determined spectrophotometrically. We confirmed that the activity of SOD in the seminal plasma of men with reproductive disorders was lower compared with fertile men. Conversely, no significant correlations were found between fertility and catalase activity. Sperm DNA of infertile males was initially more fragmented than fertile male sperm DNA. SOD and catalase activity did not correlate with the degree of DNA fragmentation in fertile men. In men with reproductive disorders, the rate of DNA fragmentation was slow within first 3 h after sperm donation and then increased between 6 and 12 h. In this group of infertile men, those with higher SOD activity had a lower DNA fragmentation index (DFI) after 12 h, and a reduced rate of intensity of fragmentation from 6 to 12 h. Alternatively, higher catalase activity among men treated for infertility was accompanied by higher initial DFI and higher rate of DNA fragmentation from 6 to 12 h. These results highlight the importance of determining a proper time window between sperm donation and procedures of assisted reproductive technology. PMID:26198800

  7. Seminal plasma induces prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS) 2 expression in immortalized human vaginal cells: involvement of semen prostaglandin E2 in PTGS2 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Theresa; Zalenskaya, Irina A; Sawyer, Lyn C; Chandra, Neelima; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation of the cervicovaginal mucosa is considered a risk factor for HIV infection in heterosexual transmission. In this context, seminal plasma (SP) may play an important role that is not limited to being the main carrier for the virions. It is known that SP induces an inflammatory reaction in the cervix called postcoital leukocytic reaction, which has been associated with promotion of fertility. The mechanisms by which SP triggers this reaction, however, have not been clearly established. Previously we reported the expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), also known as cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), in human vaginal cells in response to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and other proinflammatory stimuli. In this study, we demonstrate that SP induces transcriptional and translational increase of COX-2 expression in human vaginal cells and cervicovaginal tissue explants. Furthermore, SP potentiates vaginal PTGS2 expression induced by other proinflammatory stimulants, such as TLR ligands and a vaginal mucosal irritant (nonoxynol-9) in a synergistic manner. SP-induced PTGS2 expression is mediated by intracellular signaling pathways involving MAPKs and NF-κB. Using fractionation and functional analysis, seminal prostaglandin (PG)-E(2) was identified as a one of the major factors in PTGS2 induction. Given the critical role of this PG-producing enzyme in mucosal inflammatory processes, the finding that SP induces and potentiates the expression of PTGS2 in cervicovaginal cells and tissues has mechanistic implications for the role of SP in fertility-associated mucosal leukocytic reaction and its potential HIV infection-enhancing effect. PMID:23153564

  8. Cryosurvival and in vitro fertilizing capacity postthaw is improved when boar spermatozoa are frozen in the presence of seminal plasma from good freezer boars.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Marta; Roca, Jordi; Calvete, Juan J; Sanz, Libia; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José A; Vázquez, Juan M; Martínez, Emilio A

    2007-01-01

    The study evaluated the protective effect of seminal plasma (SP) added to freezing extender against cryopreservation injuries to boar spermatozoa. Pooled sperm-rich fractions collected from 9 fertile boars were frozen in 0.5-mL straws after being extended in a conventional freezing extender either alone or supplemented with 5% of SPs (SP1-SP4) collected from the sperm-rich fractions (diluted 1:1, vol/vol, in Beltsville Thawing Solution extender) from 4 boars (1-4) with known sperm cryosurvival (poor, moderate, and good sperm freezers). Cryopreservation injuries were assessed in terms of postthaw sperm motility (assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis), viability (plasma membrane and acrosome integrity assessed simultaneously by flow cytometry), membrane lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA] production), and the ability of thawed spermatozoa to fertilize in vitro-matured homologous oocytes. The addition of SP from good sperm freezers (SP3 and SP4) improved (P < .01) the motility and viability of thawed spermatozoa without any influence on MDA production. Moreover, SP from good sperm freezers also increased (P < .05) the percentage of penetrated (SP3) and polyspermic oocytes (SP4) with respect to the control. Neither the total amount of SP proteins, protein profiles, nor antioxidant capacity of the different SPs were related to the various cryosurvival/fertilizing capacities of the processed spermatozoa. PMID:17460094

  9. Comparison of the Effect of Heterologous and Homologous Seminal Plasma on Motility and Chromatin Integrity of Stallion Spermatozoa Selected by Single Layer Centrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, J. M.; Johannisson, A.

    2014-01-01

    The effect on sperm motility and chromatin integrity of adding homologous or heterologous equine seminal plasma (SP) to fresh stallion spermatozoa selected by single layer centrifugation (SLC) was studied. No statistical difference in mean progressive motility was seen after adding SP at time 0 h, although there were differences for individual stallions. The proportion of spermatozoa with high velocity was increased compared to untreated SLC-selected spermatozoa (P < 0.05), with significant differences between individuals (P < 0.01). When the SLC samples were stored for 24 h before adding SP, a significant increase in mean progressive motility was seen for SLC + homologous SP (P < 0.01) and for SLC + heterologous SP (P < 0.056). Whether homologous SP or heterologous SP had a greater effect on progressive motility depended on the individual. Adding either type of SP caused a significant increase in chromatin damage compared to SLC after storage for 24 h (homologous SP, P < 0.05; heterologous SP, P < 0.01). These preliminary data showed that storage of SLC-spermatozoa mixed with SP should be avoided because of the risk of increased chromatin damage. If SP is to be added to take advantage of a transient increase in progressive motility for a particular individual stallion, different combinations of SP and spermatozoa should be tested first to optimize the effect. PMID:26464926

  10. Blood and Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Levels among HIV-1-infected Injecting Drug Users Participating in the AIDSVAX B/E Efficacy Trial in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kittikraisak, Wanitchaya; van Griensven, Frits; Martin, Michael; McNicholl, Janet; Gilbert, Peter B.; Chuachoowong, Rutt; Vanichseni, Suphak; Sutthent, Reungpung; Tappero, Jordan W.; Mastro, Timothy D.; Hu, Dale J.; Gurwith, Marc; Kitayaporn, Dwip; Sangkum, Udomsak; Choopanya, Kachit

    2009-01-01

    Background We investigated effects of vaccination with AIDSVAX B/E HIV-1 candidate vaccine on blood and seminal plasma HIV-1 ribonucleic acid viral load (BVL and SVL, respectively) in vaccine recipients (VR) and placebo recipients (PR) who acquired infection. Methods Linear mixed models were fitted for repeated measurements of BVL. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the difference in SVL detectability between VR and PR. Results A total of 196 participants became HIV-1 infected during the trial. Thirty-two (16%) became infected with HIV-1 subtype B and 164 (84%) with HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE. Per protocol-specified analysis, there were no differences in BVL levels between VR and PR. When stratified by HIV-1-infecting subtype, vaccination with AIDSVAX B/E was initially associated with higher BVL among HIV-1 CRF01_AE-infected VR compared to HIV-1 CRF01_AE-infected PR, however, this difference did not persist over time. HIV-1 subtype B-infected VR had slightly higher BVL levels and were more likely to have detectable SVL during the follow-up period than HIV-1 subtype B-infected PR. Conclusions Subtle differences in BVL and SVL were detected between VR and PR. These results may help to further understand the dynamics between HIV-1 vaccination, HIV-1-infecting subtypes, and subsequent viral expression in different body compartments. PMID:19430307

  11. Correlation of Membrane Binding and Hydrophobicity to the Chaperone-Like Activity of PDC-109, the Major Protein of Bovine Seminal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Damai, Rajani S.; Swamy, Musti J.

    2011-01-01

    The major protein of bovine seminal plasma, PDC-109 binds to choline phospholipids present on the sperm plasma membrane upon ejaculation and plays a crucial role in the subsequent events leading to fertilization. PDC-109 also shares significant similarities with small heat shock proteins and exhibits chaperone-like activity (CLA). Although the polydisperse nature of this protein has been shown to be important for its CLA, knowledge of other factors responsible for such an activity is scarce. Since surface exposure of hydrophobic residues is known to be an important factor which modulates the CLA of chaperone proteins, in the present study we have probed the surface hydrophobicity of PDC-109 using bisANS and ANS. Further, effect of phospholipids on the structure and chaperone-like activity of PDC-109 was studied. Presence of DMPC was found to increase the CLA of PDC-109 significantly, which could be due to the considerable exposure of hydrophobic regions on the lipid-protein recombinants, which can interact productively with the nonnative structures of target proteins, resulting in their protection. However, inclusion of DMPG instead of DMPC did not significantly alter the CLA of PDC-109, which could be due to the lower specificity of PDC-109 for DMPG as compared to DMPC. Cholesterol incorporation into DMPC membranes led to a decrease in the CLA of PDC-109-lipid recombinants, which could be attributed to reduced accessibility of hydrophobic surfaces to the substrate protein(s). These results underscore the relevance of phospholipid binding and hydrophobicity to the chaperone-like activity of PDC-109. PMID:21408153

  12. Factors affecting the removal of low-molecular-weight fractions (LMWF) from egg yolk and seminal plasma in extended semen by dialysis: effect on post-thaw sperm survival.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M A; Graham, E F

    1987-10-01

    Three factors affecting dialysis of bovine semen were studied. These factors were (1) dialysis rates of egg yolk, seminal plasma, and glycerol, (2) temperature (37 degrees C, 5 degrees C, and while cooling from 37 to 5 degrees C), and (3) dialysis ratios between retentate and dialysate (1:1, 1:10, 1:20, 1:50, and 1:100). Ninety percent of the low-molecular-weight fraction (LMWF) from seminal plasma, egg yolk, and glycerol was removed from the retentate in a 2-hr period at 5 degrees C, and only slight changes were detected after the third hour of dialysis. Temperature affected dialysis and was faster at 37 degrees C. It was also found that a 1:20 dialysis ratio was sufficient to obtain 90% clearance of the LMWF. The effect of sperm dilution ratio, dialysis ratio, and exchange of the LMWF from egg yolk and/or seminal plasma for buffer systems was also studied. An improvement in post-thaw motility of spermatozoa (P less than 0.05) was obtained when the LMWF from both seminal plasma and egg yolk were replaced. A third experiment was conducted to study the effect of different combinations between the buffer systems, TEST and Na citrate, in the dialysate. The results indicated that a 1:1 combination of iso-osmotic solutions (320-325 mOsm/Kg, pH 7.0) between these two buffers, with 5% glycerol (v/v), yielded significant (P less than 0.05) sperm post-thaw motility as compared with the individual use of TEST-glycerol or Na citrate-glycerol. Dialyzed samples also yielded sperm post-thaw motility higher than that of the nondialyzed samples. Colloidal materials in the dialysate did not affect survival of spermatozoa. PMID:3652724

  13. Cetrorelix suppresses the preovulatory LH surge and ovulation induced by ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) present in llama seminal plasma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to determine if the effect of llama OIF on LH secretion is mediated by stimulation of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. Methods Using a 2-by-2 factorial design to examine the effects of OIF vs GnRH with or without a GnRH antagonist, llamas with a growing ovarian follicle greater than or equal to 8 mm were assigned randomly to four groups (n = 7 per group) and a) pre-treated with 1.5 mg of GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix acetate) followed by 1 mg of purified llama OIF, b) pre-treated with 1.5 mg of cetrorelix followed by 50 micrograms of GnRH, c) pre-treated with a placebo (2 ml of saline) followed by 1 mg of purified llama OIF or d) pre-treated with a placebo (2 ml of saline) followed by 50 micrograms of GnRH. Pre-treatment with cetrorelix or saline was given as a single slow intravenous dose 2 hours before intramuscular administration of either GnRH or OIF. Blood samples for LH measurement were taken every 15 minutes from 1.5 hours before to 8 hours after treatment. The ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to detect ovulation and CL formation. Blood samples for progesterone measurement were taken every-other-day from Day 0 (day of treatment) to Day 16. Results Ovulation rate was not different (P = 0.89) between placebo+GnRH (86%) and placebo+OIF groups (100%); however, no ovulations were detected in llamas pre-treated with cetrorelix. Plasma LH concentrations surged (P < 0.01) after treatment in both placebo+OIF and placebo+GnRH groups, but not in the cetrorelix groups. Maximum plasma LH concentrations and CL diameter profiles did not differ between the placebo-treated groups, but plasma progesterone concentrations were higher (P < 0.05), on days 6, 8 and 12 after treatment, in the OIF- vs GnRH-treated group. Conclusion Cetrorelix (GnRH antagonist) inhibited the preovulatory LH surge induced by OIF in llamas suggesting that LH secretion is modulated by a direct or indirect effect of OIF on GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus. PMID:21624125

  14. Enhancement of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection by seminal plasma and semen amyloids implicates a new target for the prevention of HSV infection.

    PubMed

    Torres, Lilith; Ortiz, Tatiana; Tang, Qiyi

    2015-04-01

    Human herpesviruses cause different infectious diseases, resulting in world-wide health problems. Sexual transmission is a major route for the spread of both herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and -2. Semen plays an important role in carrying the viral particle that invades the vaginal or rectal mucosa and, thereby, initiates viral replication. Previously, we demonstrated that the amyloid fibrils semenogelin (SEM) and semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI), and seminal plasma (SP) augment cytomegalovirus infection (Tang et al., J. Virol 2013). Whether SEM or SEVI amyloids or SP could also enhance other herpesvirus infections has not been examined. In this study, we found that the two amyloids as well as SP strongly enhance both HSV-1 and -2 infections in cell culture. Along with SP, SEM and SEVI amyloids enhanced viral entry and increased infection rates by more than 10-fold, as assessed by flow cytometry assay and fluorescence microscopy. Viral replication was increased by about 50- to 100-fold. Moreover, viral growth curve assays showed that SEM and SEVI amyloids, as well as SP, sped up the kinetics of HSV replication such that the virus reached its replicative peak more quickly. The interactions of SEM, SEVI, and SP with HSVs are direct. Furthermore, we discovered that the enhancing effects of SP, SEM, and SEVI can be significantly reduced by heparin, a sulfated polysaccharide with an anionic charge. It is probable that heparin abrogates said enhancing effects by interfering with the interaction of the viral particle and the amyloids, which interaction results in the binding of the viral particles and both SEM and SEVI. PMID:25903833

  15. Maturation of spermatozoa from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sex-reversed females using artificial seminal plasma or glucose-methanol extender.

    PubMed

    Ciereszko, Andrzej; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Nynca, Joanna; Dobosz, Stefan; Krom, Janusz

    2015-04-15

    Masculinized females (sex-reversed females) produce only homogametic spermatozoa (X) for fertilization which is desired for the production of all-female rainbow trout populations. The milt of sex-reversed females is of low quality and must be matured through extension in maturation solutions. The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of glucose-methanol (GM) extender with artificial seminal plasma (ASP) extender for the maturation of milt of sex-reversed female rainbow trout. Milt suspensions were incubated at 4 °C for either 15 minutes (GM extender) or 120 minutes (ASP extender). Incubation of milt diluted in either the GM or ASP extender caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the percentage of sperm motility to 76.1 ± 10.9% and 74.7 ± 18.6% for GM and ASP, respectively, but no differences between both the extenders were found. Incubation also increased the average path velocity, straight line velocity, and linearity values of spermatozoa diluted with the GM extender; at the same time, none of the other parameters changed for ASP suspensions. Sperm diluted with ASP was characterized by higher curvilinear velocity and lateral head displacement values. Percentage of eyed embryos produced by fertilization using milt diluted in the GM extender amounted to 63.6 ± 16.4% and 67.2 ± 11.9% for sperm-to-egg ratio of 300,000:1 or 600,000:1, respectively and was lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of ASP extender (79.5 ± 5.8% and 80.3 ± 4.7% for sperm-to-egg ratio of 300,000:1 or 600,000:1, respectively). The results of our study clearly report that the mechanism of sperm maturation by the GM extender differs from that based on ASP. PMID:25638350

  16. Inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation by normal plasma

    PubMed Central

    Nossel, H. L.; Wilner, G. D.; Drillings, M.

    1971-01-01

    Normal plasma has been found to inhibit the platelet aggregation-inducing effect of collagen in a time consuming reaction independent of temperature. Collagen treated with serum and washed has reduced reactivity which can be restored to normal by treatment with 1.5 M sodium chloride. On the basis of this result, it is suggested that inhibition results from adsorption to collagen of a plasma component. The inhibitory plasma component is destroyed at 56°C, is unstable below pH 7, and migrates with the alpha globulins on starch block electrophoresis at pH 8.6. On the basis of ultrafiltration and sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation studies, a molecular weight in the range of 330,000 is suggested and there may be an additional component of considerably greater size. Partial purification can be achieved by ion exchange chromatography. The purified fraction was completely inactivated by incubation with trypsin. Partially purified fractions inhibit cationic platelet aggregators such as collagen, polylysine, and hexadimethrine but do not affect anionic aggregators such as succinylated collagen and sodium stearate. Normal plasma and serum inhibit succinylated collagen and stearate. Stearate is inhibited by crystalline albumin and Cohn fraction IV-4. It is suggested that plasma proteins may regulate platelet adhesion to collagen and other vessel wall materials. Images PMID:4107268

  17. Recombinant human LCAT normalizes plasma lipoprotein profile in LCAT deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simonelli, Sara; Tinti, Cristina; Salvini, Laura; Tinti, Laura; Ossoli, Alice; Vitali, Cecilia; Sousa, Vitor; Orsini, Gaetano; Nolli, Maria Luisa; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura

    2013-11-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is the enzyme responsible for cholesterol esterification in plasma. Mutations in the LCAT gene leads to two rare disorders, familial LCAT deficiency and fish-eye disease, both characterized by severe hypoalphalipoproteinemia associated with several lipoprotein abnormalities. No specific treatment is presently available for genetic LCAT deficiency. In the present study, recombinant human LCAT was expressed and tested for its ability to correct the lipoprotein profile in LCAT deficient plasma. The results show that rhLCAT efficiently reduces the amount of unesterified cholesterol (-30%) and promotes the production of plasma cholesteryl esters (+210%) in LCAT deficient plasma. rhLCAT induces a marked increase in HDL-C levels (+89%) and induces the maturation of small preβ-HDL into alpha-migrating particles. Moreover, the abnormal phospholipid-rich particles migrating in the LDL region were converted in normally sized LDL. PMID:24140107

  18. Physiologic relevance of the membrane attack complex inhibitory protein CD59 in human seminal plasma: CD59 is present on extracellular organelles (prostasomes), binds cell membranes, and inhibits complement- mediated lysis

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We demonstrate here that CD59, an inhibitor of the membrane attack complex (MAC) of the complement system, is present in cell-free seminal plasma (SP) at a concentration of at least 20 micrograms/ml. Analyses by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, and Edman degradation indicated that this protein, SP CD59, was similar, if not identical, to CD59 isolated from erythrocyte (E) membranes (E CD59). Like purified E CD59, SP CD59 also possesses a glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor and incorporates into the membranes of heterologous cells where it inhibits lysis by the human MAC. This phenomenon could be demonstrated not only if cells were incubated with purified SP CD59 but also if unfractionated SP were used. Further, CD59 in unfractionated SP bound to washed spermatozoa, increasing their membrane content of the protein. The mechanism by which this protein retains its GPI anchor while apparently present in the fluid phase is of interest and was further investigated. Using the techniques of high-speed centrifugation, fast performance liquid chromatography fractionation, and electron microscopy, we found that all detectable SP CD59 was associated with vesicular extracellular organelles. These organelles, named "prostasomes," were previously known to be present in SP and to interact with spermatozoa, although their function was uncertain. Interaction of heterologous E with prostasomes rendered the cells more resistant to lysis by human MACs. We propose that these organelles represent a pool of CD59 from which protein lost from spermatozoa, perhaps as a result of low level complement attack or of normal membrane turnover, can be replenished. PMID:7683035

  19. Seminal nanotechnology literature: a review.

    PubMed

    Kostoff, Ronald N; Koytcheff, Raymond G; Lau, Clifford G Y

    2009-11-01

    This paper uses complementary text mining techniques to identify and retrieve the high impact (seminal) nanotechnology literature over a span of time. Following a brief scientometric analysis of the seminal articles retrieved, these seminal articles are then used as a basis for a comprehensive literature survey of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The paper ends with a global analysis of the relation of seminal nanotechnology document production to total nanotechnology document production. PMID:19908521

  20. Electromagnetic fluctuations and normal modes of a drifting relativistic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ruyer, C.; Gremillet, L.; Bénisti, D.; Bonnaud, G.

    2013-11-15

    We present an exact calculation of the power spectrum of the electromagnetic fluctuations in a relativistic equilibrium plasma described by Maxwell-Jüttner distribution functions. We consider the cases of wave vectors parallel or normal to the plasma mean velocity. The relative contributions of the subluminal and supraluminal fluctuations are evaluated. Analytical expressions of the spatial fluctuation spectra are derived in each case. These theoretical results are compared to particle-in-cell simulations, showing a good reproduction of the subluminal fluctuation spectra.

  1. Protective effect of esterified glucomannan on aflatoxin-induced changes in testicular function, sperm quality, and seminal plasma biochemistry in rams.

    PubMed

    Ataman, Mehmet Bozkurt; Dönmez, Hasan Hüseyin; Dönmez, Nurcan; Sur, Emrah; Bucak, Mustafa Numan; Coyan, Kenan

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of aflatoxin (AF) on spermatologic, biochemical, and testis parameters in rams, and the protective efficiency of esterified glucomannan (EG) co-administered with AF. Thirty-two Merino rams (12-14 months old) were used. The experimental design consisted of four dietary treatments. The control group was fed commercial feed. The AF group was fed with commercial feed plus 250 μg/d of total AF. The EG group received commercial feed plus 2 g/d of EG. The AF + EG group was given commercial feed plus 250 μg/d of total AF and 2 g/d of EG. There were treatment, time, and treatment-by-time interaction effects on sperm motility, abnormal spermatozoa, damaged acrosome, and dead spermatozoa (P < 0.01). The percentage of motile sperm was lower and the percentages of abnormal sperm, sperm with damaged acrosomes, and dead sperm were greater in the AF group than in the control, AF+EG, and EG groups, as from week 3 until the end of week 12 (P < 0.05). As from week 3, hyaluronidase activity in the seminal plasma increased significantly in the AF group, compared with the control. The co-administration of AF+EG was found to be effective in preventing the increase in hyaluronidase activity. As week 4, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly higher in the AF group compared with the control. The combined administration of AF+EG was found to be effective in lowering the MDA levels, increased by AF, to the levels measured in the control (P < 0.05). Although glutathione (GSH) levels were determined to have significantly decreased in the AF group in comparison to the control, it was observed that, in the group co-administered with AF and EG, particularly after week 7, the GSH levels, which had decreased owing to AF, were largely ameliorated (P < 0.05). In conclusion, AF adversely affected spermatologic, biochemical, and testis parameters, and the combined administration of EG with AF reversibly eliminated these adverse effects in rams. PMID:24210915

  2. Effects of water immersion on plasma catecholamines in normal humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Johnson, G.; Denunzio, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in order to determine whether water immersion to the neck (NI) alters plasma catecholamines in normal humans. Eight normal subjects were studied during a seated control study (C) and during 4 hr of NI, and the levels of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) as determined by radioenzymatic assay were measured hourly. Results show that despite the induction of a marked natriuresis and diuresis indicating significant central hypervolemia, NI failed to alter plasma NE or E levels compared with those of either C or the corresponding prestudy 1.5 hr. In addition, the diuresis and natriuresis was found to vary independently of NE. These results indicate that the response of the sympathetic nervous system to acute volume alteration may differ from the reported response to chronic volume expansion.

  3. Restoration of Normal Prothrombin Time/International Normalized Ratio With Fresh Frozen Plasma in Hypocoagulable Patients.

    PubMed

    Only, Arthur J; DeChristopher, Phillip J; Iqal, Omer; Fareed, Jawed

    2016-01-01

    Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is an effective reversal agent for hypocoagulable patients. Its proven efficacy continues to prompt its usage as both a prophylactic and a therapeutic therapy. Although published guidelines encouraging the appropriate administration of FFP exist, overutilization continues. The purpose of these ex vivo studies was to determine the effects of succeeding volumes of FFP supplementation on hypocoagulable plasma prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR). By analyzing the decline in PT/INR with varying volumes of FFP, a minimal required volume of FFP could be identified representing the optimal volume to administer while still providing therapeutic effect. A total of 497 plasma samples were screened for elevated PT/INR values and 50 samples were selected for inclusion in this experiment. The initial PTs/INRs ranged from 12.5 to 43.4 seconds/1.42 to 4.91. Subsequent declines in PT/INR values were analyzed following addition of 50, 100, and 150 µL of FFP to a fixed volume of 250 µL of plasma (26.4 ± 5.318 seconds/2.99 ± 0.603, 13.3 ± 1.077 seconds/1.51 ± 0.122, 11.2 ± 0.712 seconds/1.27 ± 0.081, and 10.3 ± 0.533 seconds/1.16 ± 0.06, respectively). A nonlinear relationship between decline in INR values and percentage of FFP supplementation was demonstrated. The greatest effect on INR was obtained after supplementation with 50 µL (49%). Doubling and tripling the volume of FFP lead to significantly lower declines in INR (16% and 8%, respectively). Analysis of variance indicated a statistical significance with subsequent volume supplementation of FFP, but marginal clinical benefits exist between the PTs/INRs obtainable with increased FFP volume administration. PMID:25294634

  4. Evaluating the Relationships Between Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability and the Portion of Seminal Vesicles Included in the Clinical Target Volume in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gluck, Iris Vineberg, Karen A.; Haken, Randall K. ten; Sandler, Howard M.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: To compare dose-volume consequences of the inclusion of various portions of the seminal vesicles (SVs) in the clinical target volume (CTV) in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: For 10 patients with prostate cancer, three matched IMRT plans were generated, including 1 cm, 2 cm, or the entire SVs (SV1, SV2, or SVtotal, respectively) in the CTV. Prescription dose (79.2 Gy) and IMRT planning were according to the high-dose arm of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0126 protocol. We compared plans for percentage of rectal volume receiving minimum doses of 60-80 Gy and for rectal normal tissue complication probability (NTCP[R]). Results: There was a detectable increase in rectal dose in SV2 and SVtotal compared with SV1. The magnitude of difference between plans was modest in the high-dose range. In 2 patients, there was underdosing of the planning target volume (PTV) because of constraints on rectal dose in the SVtotal plans. All other plans were compliant with RTOG 0126 protocol requirements. Mean NTCP(R) increased from 14% to 17% and 18% for SV1, SV2, and SV total, respectively. The NTCP(R) correlated with the size of PTV-rectum volume overlap (Pearson's r = 0.86; p < 0.0001), but not with SV volume. Conclusions: Doubling (1 to 2 cm) or comprehensively increasing (1 cm to full SVs) SV volume included in the CTV for patients with prostate IMRT is achievable in the majority of cases without exceeding RTOG dose-volume limits or underdosing the PTV and results in only a moderate increase in NTCP(R)

  5. Onset of normal and inverse homoclinic bifurcation in a double plasma system near a plasma fireball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Vramori; Sarma, Bornali; Sarma, Arun; Janaki, M. S.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    Plasma fireballs are generated due to a localized discharge and appear as a luminous glow with a sharp boundary, which suggests the presence of a localized electric field such as electrical sheath or double layer structure. The present work reports the observation of normal and inverse homoclinic bifurcation phenomena in plasma oscillations that are excited in the presence of fireball in a double plasma device. The controlling parameters for these observations are the ratio of target to source chamber (nT/nS) densities and applied electrode voltage. Homoclinic bifurcation is noticed in the plasma potential fluctuations as the system evolves from narrow to long time period oscillations and vice versa with the change of control parameter. The dynamical transition in plasma fireball is demonstrated by spectral analysis, recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), and statistical measures, viz., skewness and kurtosis. The increasing trend of normalized variance reflects that enhancing nT/nS induces irregularity in plasma dynamics. The exponential growth of the time period is strongly indicative of homoclinic bifurcation in the system. The gradual decrease of skewness and increase of kurtosis with the increase of nT/nS also reflect growing complexity in the system. The visual change of recurrence plot and gradual enhancement of RQA variables DET, Lmax, and ENT reflects the bifurcation behavior in the dynamics. The combination of RQA and spectral analysis is a clear evidence that homoclinic bifurcation occurs due to the presence of plasma fireball with different density ratios. However, inverse bifurcation takes place due to the change of fireball voltage. Some of the features observed in the experiment are consistent with a model that describes the dynamics of ionization instabilities.

  6. Proteomic analysis of seminal fluid from men exhibiting oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Seminal plasma serves as a natural reservoir of antioxidants. It helps to remove excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and consequently, reduce oxidative stress. Proteomic profiling of seminal plasma proteins is important to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress and sperm dysfunction in infertile men. Methods This prospective study consisted of 52 subjects: 32 infertile men and 20 healthy donors. Once semen and oxidative stress parameters were assessed (ROS, antioxidant concentration and DNA damage), the subjects were categorized into ROS positive (ROS+) or ROS negative (ROS-). Seminal plasma from each group was pooled and subjected to proteomics analysis. In-solution digestion and protein identification with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), followed by bioinformatics analyses was used to identify and characterize potential biomarker proteins. Results A total of 14 proteins were identified in this analysis with 7 of these common and unique proteins were identified in both the ROS+ and ROS- groups through MASCOT and SEQUEST analyses, respectively. Prolactin-induced protein was found to be more abundantly present in men with increased levels of ROS. Gene ontology annotations showed extracellular distribution of proteins with a major role in antioxidative activity and regulatory processes. Conclusions We have identified proteins that help protect against oxidative stress and are uniquely present in the seminal plasma of the ROS- men. Men exhibiting high levels of ROS in their seminal ejaculate are likely to exhibit proteins that are either downregulated or oxidatively modified, and these could potentially contribute to male infertility. PMID:24004880

  7. On Constructing Seminal Paper Genealogy.

    PubMed

    Bae, Duck-Ho; Hwang, Se-Mi; Kim, Sang-Wook; Faloutsos, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Let us consider that someone is starting a research on a topic that is unfamiliar to them. Which seminal papers have influenced the topic the most? What is the genealogy of the seminal papers in this topic? These are the questions that they can raise, which we try to answer in this paper. First, we propose an algorithm that finds a set of seminal papers on a given topic. We also address the performance and scalability issues of this sophisticated algorithm. Next, we discuss the measures to decide how much a paper is influenced by another paper. Then, we propose an algorithm that constructs a genealogy of the seminal papers by using the influence measure and citation information. Finally, through extensive experiments with a large volume of a real-world academic literature data, we show the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach. PMID:23757533

  8. Factors affecting glycosaminoglycan concentration in normal human plasma.

    PubMed

    Muraca, U; Vinci, R; Ferlazzo, A M; Muraca, G; Calatroni, A

    1992-01-01

    Acid Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were measured, in terms of hexuronic acid, following alkaline treatment and Ecteola chromatography, in plasma obtained from healthy volunteers, blood-donors, amateur soccer players and university students, and from hospitalized subjects at the end of their convalescence. Diurnal variations of plasma GAG concentration, with significant decrease during the morning, were obtained in students and patients, suggesting hormonal influences. Furthermore, moderate modifications of plasma GAG concentration were observed in students following cyclo ergometer exercise which were consistent in each subject with cortisol mediated changes. However, the absolute value of plasma GAG concentration appears to be depending on the physical training of the subject, being significantly higher in the soccer players and in the blood-donors than in the other groups of subjects, chiefly composed of sedentary individuals. The intramuscular connective tissue is then suggested to represent a main site of origin of plasma GAGs. PMID:1500281

  9. Effect of different seasons on concentration of plasma luteinizing hormone and seminal quality vis-à-vis freezability of buffalo bulls ( Bubalus bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahga, C. S.; Khokar, B. S.

    1991-12-01

    Seasonal variations in semen quality, freezability and plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were studied between summer and spring. Semen volume, density and initial sperm motility did not differ significantly between different seasons. Plasma LH decreased between summer and spring but the differences were, however, not significant. Pre-freezing motility did not differ significantly but post-freezing motility varied significantly ( P<0.01) between seasons. Post-freezing motility was lowest during summer and highest during winter. It can be concluded that summer spermatozoa may be fragile and cannot withstand freezing stress. To increase reproductive efficiency in buffalo during summer, semen should be frozen during winter and spring and used during hot weather conditions. Seasonal variations in plasma LH levels were insignificant.

  10. Seminal cyclooxygenase relationship with oxidative stress in infertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men with varicocele.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, T; Rashed, L; Taymour, M

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the relation of seminal cyclooxygenase COX-1, COX-2 with oxidative stress in infertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men with varicocele (Vx). In all, 128 men were allocated into fertile men, fertile men with Vx, infertile OAT men without Vx and infertile OAT men with Vx. They were subjected to history taking, clinical examination and semen analysis. Also, seminal COX-1, COX-2, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were estimated. Mean levels of seminal COX-1, COX-2 were over-expressed, the mean level of seminal MDA was significantly increased, and the mean level of seminal GPx was significantly decreased in infertile OAT men with Vx compared with other groups. Seminal COX-1 and COX-2 were over-expressed in cases with Vx grade III compared with Vx grades I, II cases and in cases with bilateral Vx compared with unilateral Vx. There was significant negative correlation between seminal COX-1 and COX-2 with sperm concentration, sperm motility, sperm normal morphology, seminal GPx and significant positive correlation with seminal MDA. It is concluded that seminal COX-1 and COX-2 are over-expressed in infertile OAT men with Vx compared with fertile men with/without and infertile OAT men without Vx being associated with oxidative stress, Vx grade and Vx laterality. PMID:25906828

  11. Effect of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) seminal plasma on the post-thaw quality of ram semen cryopreserved in a soybean lecithin-based or egg yolk-based extender.

    PubMed

    Ustuner, Burcu; Alcay, Selim; Toker, M Berk; Nur, Zekariya; Gokce, Elif; Sonat, Fusun Ak; Gul, Zulfiye; Duman, Muhammed; Ceniz, Cafer; Uslu, Aydın; Sagirkaya, Hakan; Soylu, M Kemal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of rainbow trout seminal plasma (RTSP) (0.1%, 1% and 10%) in extenders containing either egg yolk or lecithin for use in Awassi ram semen cryopreservation. Pooled sperm were diluted in a two-step dilution method to a final concentration of 1/5 (semen/extender) in egg yolk or lecithin extender containing no RTSP, 0.1%, 1% or 10% RTSP (v/v). Semen samples were assessed for sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity [hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) and Hoechst 33258] and defective acrosomes [FITC-conjugated Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA-FITC)] at the following five time points: after dilution with extender A; after equilibration; and post-thaw at 0h, 3h and 5h. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was examined only after thawing. Freezing and thawing procedures (dilution, equilibration and post-thaw incubation at 0h, 3h and 5h) negatively affected the motility (P<0.001) and acrosome integrity (P<0.001). Additionally, freezing and thawing negatively affected the plasma membrane integrity, as determined by the HOST and Hoechst 33258 (P<0.001). The extender group affected the motility (P<0.001) and the HOST results (P<0.001). Levels of MDA in the egg yolk extender with 1% RTSP group were significantly lower than in the lecithin control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the egg yolk extender groups that were supplemented with 10% and 1% RTSP provided greater cryoprotective effects for semen survivability during 5h incubation than the other extender groups. PMID:26685096

  12. Seminal vesicle schwannoma presenting with left hydroureteronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Gopalakrishnan; Chakraborti, Shrijeet; Rai, Santosh; Prabhu, Gurupur Guni Laxman

    2014-01-01

    We report a very rare case of seminal vesicle schwannoma in a 50-year-old male, with left hydroureteronephrosis. Only five cases of seminal vesicle schwannomas have been reported in medical literature until date. PMID:25371618

  13. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels in some birds of prey.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, J A; Garbett, R; Morzenti, A

    1978-10-01

    Blood samples taken from five great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), eight red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), four marsh hawks (Circus cyaneus), two prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), five golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and five white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) that had been fasted for 24 h were used to determine plasma levels of glucose by the glucose oxidase method. The mean plasma glucose levels were: great horned owls 374.6 mg/100 ml, red-tailed hawks 346.5 mg/00 ml, marsh hawks 369.3 mg/100 ml, prairie falcons 414.5 mg/100 ml, golden eagles 368.4 mg/100 ml, and white Leghorn chickens 218.2 mg/100 ml. The plasma glucose levels obtained for the raptorial birds in this study were considerably higher than those found for the chickens. These values are discussed in relation to the carnivorous food habits of raptors. PMID:739587

  14. AB156. Seminal plasma protein in renal cell carcinoma: expression of semenogelin I is a predictor for cancer progression and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shengli; Fang, Jianzheng; Zhang, Xiangxiang; Deng, Yunfei; Song, Zhen; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Zengjun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been steadily rising each year. There are currently few recognized biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of RCC. Methods We investigated semenogelin I (Sg I) expression and its clinical significance in patients with RCC. The expression levels of Sg I and its protein were measured by qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the protein expression of Sg I in RCC and normal renal tissue from 53 patients. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used to evaluate the data. Results By qRCR (P<0.01) and Western blot, the level of Sg I expression in benign tissues was higher than that in RCC tissues. Expression of Sg I was observed in 30 (57%) RCC cases, which was significantly lower than that observed in benign renal tissues from the same patients [Sg I positive in 53 (100%) cases (P<0.0001)] by immunohistochemistry. There was an inverse relation between Sg I expression and clinical stage (pT1-2 vs. pT3-4, P<0.0001). Patients with Sg I-negative tumor had a significantly higher risk of recurrence (Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests, P<0.0001). There was low Sg I expression in RCC. Conclusions Sg I expression has potential value in predicting cancer progression and prognosis. These findings support the use of Sg I as a novel biomarker for RCC.

  15. Clinical signs of normal plasma volume expansion during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Goodlin, R C; Dobry, C A; Anderson, J C; Woods, R E; Quaife, M

    1983-04-15

    A majority of cases of pregnancy complications are associated with a relative maternal hypovolemia. The records of 200 pregnant women who had had plasma volume determinations were reviewed in hopes of finding indicators of relative maternal hypovolemia other than the pregnancy complication itself. The signs of relative hypovolemia in pregnant women include those of decreased uterine growth, absence of a maternal systolic flow murmur, and absence of significant dependent ankle edema. Laboratory tests indicative of maternal hypovolemia include failure to develop a decline in maternal hematocrit, serum blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio greater than 15, a decreased creatinine clearance, abnormal platelet function, elevated serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, ultrasonic evidence of oligohydramnios and/or decreased maternal heart size, and absence of hypervolemia on chest x-ray film. These findings and tests are only relative indicators of maternal hypovolemia, and it is suggested that, for an accurate defining of pregnant women who are at risk, the actual plasma volume determination has to be performed frequently in the pregnant population. PMID:6837676

  16. ADAMTS13 phenotype in plasma from normal individuals and patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

    PubMed Central

    Manea, Minola; Kristoffersson, AnnCharlotte; Tsai, Han-Mou; Zhou, Wenhua; Winqvist, Ingemar; Oldaeus, Göran; Billström, Rolf; Björk, Peter; Holmberg, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The activity of ADAMTS13, the von Willebrand factor cleaving protease, is deficient in patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). In the present study, the phenotype of ADAMTS13 in TTP and in normal plasma was demonstrated by immunoblotting. Normal plasma (n = 20) revealed a single band at 190 kD under reducing conditions using a polyclonal antibody, and a single band at 150 kD under non-reducing conditions using a monoclonal antibody. ADAMTS13 was not detected in the plasma from patients with congenital TTP (n = 5) by either antibody, whereas patients with acquired TTP (n = 2) presented the normal phenotype. Following immunoadsorption of immunoglobulins, the ADAMTS13 band was removed from the plasma of the patients with acquired TTP, but not from that of normal individuals. This indicates that ADAMTS13 is complexed with immunoglobulin in these patients. The lack of ADAMTS13 expression in the plasma from patients with hereditary TTP may indicate defective synthesis, impaired cellular secretion, or enhanced degradation in the circulation. This study differentiated between normal and TTP plasma, as well as between congenital and acquired TTP. This method may, therefore, be used as a complement in the diagnosis of TTP. PMID:17187257

  17. How to normalize Maxwell-Boltzmann electrons in transient plasma models

    SciTech Connect

    Hagelaar, G.J.M.

    2007-12-10

    Proper normalization of a Maxwell-Boltzmann electron distribution in transient plasma models requires the self-consistent calculation of a reference density from a global electron conservation equation. This calculation tends to produce numerical oscillations in the time evolution of the plasma, in particular during the formation of the plasma sheath. The present paper proposes a simple numerical scheme to prevent these oscillations by artificial critical damping, which makes it possible to simulate transient plasma phenomena without electron-related time step conditions.

  18. The seminal literature of anthrax research.

    PubMed

    Kostoff, Ronald N; Morse, Stephen A; Oncu, Serkan

    2007-01-01

    A chronically weak area in research papers, reports, and reviews is the complete identification of seminal background documents that formed the building blocks for these papers. A method for systematically determining these seminal references is presented. Citation-Assisted Background (CAB) is based on the assumption that seminal documents tend to be highly cited. Application of CAB to the field of Anthrax research is presented. While CAB is a highly systematic approach for identifying seminal references, it is not a substitute for the judgment of the researchers, and serves as a supplement. PMID:17653986

  19. Qualitative and quantitative studies of heparin and chondroitin sulfates in normal human plasma.

    PubMed

    Volpi, N; Cusmano, M; Venturelli, T

    1995-01-18

    Heparin was extracted and purified from normal human plasma, and full characterization of its structure and physico-chemical properties was achieved for the first time. Plasma was submitted to exhaustive proteolytic treatment with papain, trypsin, chymotrypsin, collagenase and pepsin, anion-exchange chromatography and precipitation with organic solvents. By this procedure, we recovered heparin (about 0.7 mg/100 ml of plasma) and chondroitin sulfate (about 0.1 mg/100 ml of plasma). Chondroitin sulfate has a peak molecular mass of about 15,630, and it is composed of about 60% nonsulfated disaccharide, 3.5% disaccharide 6-monosulfate and about 40% disaccharide 4-monosulfate, with a sulfate-to-carboxyl ratio of 0.41. Heparin, identified by agarose-gel electrophoresis, is constituted by about 40% slow-moving component and about 60% fast-moving species. This glycosaminoglycan had a peak molecular mass of about 7000, and was identified as 'typical' heparin by its constituent disaccharide composition. About 70% of disaccharides were identified as trisulfated disaccharide, and about 18% as disulfated disaccharides, 3% as monosulfated disaccharides and 10% as nonsulfated disaccharide. Heparin extracted from normal human plasma has a high sulfate-to-carboxyl ratio (2.47) and in vitro anticoagulant activity of about 70 I.U. A more quantitative and statistical analysis performed on 10 ml of plasma obtained from 10 human healthy volunteers revealed a heparin level of 0.54 +/- 0.17 mg/100 ml plasma (mean +/- standard deviation) with a coefficient of variation of about +/- 32%. These findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of heparin molecules in normal human plasma and confirm the importance of adequate extraction processes to purify a molecule that strongly interacts with plasma protein components. This is discussed in light of other authors that described a polysaccharide molecule named heparan sulfate in human plasma. PMID:7827107

  20. Environmental exposure to lead induces oxidative stress and modulates the function of the antioxidant defense system and the immune system in the semen of males with normal semen profile

    SciTech Connect

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Dobrakowski, Michał; Czuba, Zenon P.; Horak, Stanisław; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the associations between environmental exposure to lead and a repertoire of cytokines in seminal plasma of males with normal semen profile according to the WHO criteria. Based on the median lead concentration in seminal plasma, 65 samples were divided into two groups: low (LE) and high exposure to lead (HE). Differences in semen volume and the pH, count, motility and morphology of sperm cells were not observed between the examined groups. The total oxidant status value and the level of protein sulfhydryl groups as well as the activities of manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly higher in the HE group, whereas the total antioxidant capacity value and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase were depressed. IL-7, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the HE group compared with the LE group. Environmental exposure to lead is sufficient to induce oxidative stress in seminal plasma and to modulate antioxidant defense system. - Highlights: • Lead induces oxidative stress in seminal plasma in human. • Lead modulates antioxidant defense system in seminal plasma in human. • Lead does not change a Th1/Th2 imbalance in seminal plasma in human.

  1. Cold atmospheric plasma jet-generated RONS and their selective effects on normal and carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T H

    2016-01-01

    Cold atmospheric helium plasma jets were fabricated and utilized for plasma-cell interactions. The effect of operating parameters and jet design on the generation of specific reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) within cells and cellular response were investigated. It was found that plasma treatment induced the overproduction of RONS in various cancer cell lines selectively. The plasma under a relatively low applied voltage induced the detachment of cells, a reduction in cell viability, and apoptosis, while the plasma under higher applied voltage led to cellular necrosis in our case. To determine whether plasma-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation occurs through interfering with mitochondria-related cellular response, we examined the plasma effects on ROS generation in both parental A549 cells and A549 ρ(0) cells. It was observed that cancer cells were more susceptible to plasma-induced RONS (especially nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2(-)) radicals) than normal cells, and consequently, plasma induced apoptotic cell responses mainly in cancer cells. PMID:26838306

  2. Seminal Fluid and Mate Choice: New Predictions.

    PubMed

    Crean, Angela J; Adler, Margo I; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2016-04-01

    Recent evidence shows that seminal fluid can affect females and offspring independently of fertilisation in species lacking conventional 'nuptial gifts'. We argue that a hypothesis from paternal investment systems - that selection can favour changing female preferences that maximise both sperm-borne and seminal fluid-borne benefits - could therefore apply much more broadly. PMID:26948861

  3. Cold atmospheric plasma jet-generated RONS and their selective effects on normal and carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T. H.

    2016-01-01

    Cold atmospheric helium plasma jets were fabricated and utilized for plasma–cell interactions. The effect of operating parameters and jet design on the generation of specific reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) within cells and cellular response were investigated. It was found that plasma treatment induced the overproduction of RONS in various cancer cell lines selectively. The plasma under a relatively low applied voltage induced the detachment of cells, a reduction in cell viability, and apoptosis, while the plasma under higher applied voltage led to cellular necrosis in our case. To determine whether plasma-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation occurs through interfering with mitochondria-related cellular response, we examined the plasma effects on ROS generation in both parental A549 cells and A549 ρ0 cells. It was observed that cancer cells were more susceptible to plasma-induced RONS (especially nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2−) radicals) than normal cells, and consequently, plasma induced apoptotic cell responses mainly in cancer cells. PMID:26838306

  4. Measurement of plasma histamine: description of an improved method and normal values

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, J.; Warren, K.; Merlin, S.; Metcalfe, D.D.; Kaliner, M.

    1982-08-01

    The single isotopic-enzymatic assay of histamine was modified to increase its sensitivity and to facilitate measurement of plasma histamine levels. The modification involved extracting /sup 3/H-1-methylhistamine (generated by the enzyme N-methyltransferase acting on histamine in the presence of S-(methyl-/sup 3/H)-adenosyl-L-methionine) into chloroform and isolating the /sup 3/H-1-methylhistamine by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The TLC was developed in acetone:ammonium hydroxide (95:10), and the methylhistamine spot (Rf . 0.50) was identified with an o-phthalaldehyde spray, scraped from the plate, and assayed in a scintillation counter. The assay in plasma demonstrated a linear relationship from 200 to 5000 pg histamine/ml. Plasma always had higher readings than buffer, and dialysis of plasma returned these values to the same level as buffer, suggesting that the baseline elevations might be attributable to histamine. However, all histamine standard curves were run in dialyzed plasma to negate any additional influences plasma might exert on the assay. The arithmetic mean (+/- SEM) in normal plasma histamine was 318.4 +/- 25 pg/ml (n . 51), and the geometric mean was 280 +/- 35 pg/ml. Plasma histamine was significantly elevated by infusion of histamine at 0.05 to 1.0 micrograms/kg/min or by cold immersion of the hand of a cold-urticaria patient. Therefore this modified isotopic-enzymatic assay of histamine is extremely sensitive, capable of measuring fluctuations in plasma histamine levels within the normal range, and potentially useful in analysis of the role histamine plays in human physiology.

  5. Keyhole and weld shapes for plasma arc welding under normal and zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keanini, R. G.; Rubinsky, B.

    1990-01-01

    A first order study of the interfacial (keyhole) shape between a penetrating argon plasma arc jet and a stationary liquid metal weld pool is presented. The interface is determined using the Young-Laplace equation by assuming that the plasma jet behaves as a one-dimensional ideal gas flow and by neglecting flow within the weld pool. The solution for the keyhole shape allows an approximate determination of the liquid-solid metal phase boundary location based on the assumption that the liquid melt is a stagnant thermal boundary layer. Parametric studies examine the effect of plasma mass flow rate, initial plasma enthalpy, liquid metal surface tension, and jet shear on weldment shape under both normal and zero gravity. Among the more important findings of this study is that keyhole and weld geometries are minimally affected by gravity, suggesting that data gathered under gravity can be used in planning in-space welding.

  6. Comparison of serum iohexol clearance and plasma creatinine clearance in clinically normal horses.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Katherine E; Wilcke, Jeff R; Crisman, Mark V; Ward, Daniel L; McKenzie, Harold C; Scarratt, W Kent

    2009-12-01

    Objective-To determine whether a limited sampling time method based on serum iohexol clearance (Cl(iohexol)) would yield estimates of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in clinically normal horses similar to those for plasma creatinine clearance (Cl(creatinine)). Animals-10 clinically normal adult horses. Procedures-A bolus of iohexol (150 mg/kg) was administered IV, and serum samples were obtained 5, 20, 40, 60, 120, 240, and 360 minutes after injection. Urinary clearance of exogenous creatinine was measured during three 20-minute periods. The GFR determined by use of serum Cl(iohexol) and plasma Cl(creatinine) was compared with limits of agreement plots. Results-Values obtained for plasma Cl(creatinine) ranged from 1.68 to 2.69 mL/min/kg (mean, 2.11 mL/min/kg). Mean serum Cl(iohexol) was 2.38 mL/min/kg (range, 1.95 to 3.33 mL/min/kg). Limits of agreement plots indicated good agreement between the methods. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Use of serum Cl(iohexol) yielded estimates of GFR in clinically normal adult horses similar to those for plasma Cl(creatinine). This study was the first step in the evaluation of the use of serum Cl(iohexol) for estimating GFR in adult horses. PMID:19951127

  7. Plasma antibodies to Abeta40 and Abeta42 in patients with Alzheimer's disease and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wuhua; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Matsubara, Etsuro; Deguchi, Kentaro; Murakami, Tetsuro; Harigaya, Yasuo; Ikeda, Masaki; Amari, Masakuni; Kuwano, Ryozo; Abe, Koji; Shoji, Mikio

    2008-07-11

    Antibodies to amyloid beta protein (Abeta) are present naturally or after Abeta vaccine therapy in human plasma. To clarify their clinical role, we examined plasma samples from 113 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 205 normal controls using the tissue amyloid plaque immunoreactivity (TAPIR) assay. A high positive rate of TAPIR was revealed in AD (45.1%) and age-matched controls (41.2%), however, no significance was observed. No significant difference was observed in the MMS score or disease duration between TAPIR-positive and negative samples. TAPIR-positive plasma reacted with the Abeta40 monomer and dimer, and the Abeta42 monomer weakly, but not with the Abeta42 dimer. TAPIR was even detected in samples from young normal subjects and young Tg2576 transgenic mice. Although the Abeta40 level and Abeta40/42 ratio increased, and Abeta42 was significantly decreased in plasma from AD groups when compared to controls, no significant correlations were revealed between plasma Abeta levels and TAPIR grading. Thus an immune response to Abeta40 and immune tolerance to Abeta42 occurred naturally in humans without a close relationship to the Abeta burden in the brain. Clarification of the mechanism of the immune response to Abeta42 is necessary for realization of an immunotherapy for AD. PMID:18534566

  8. Nonlinear surface plasma wave induced target normal sheath acceleration of protons

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C. S.; Tripathi, V. K. Shao, Xi; Liu, T. C.

    2015-02-15

    The mode structure of a large amplitude surface plasma wave (SPW) over a vacuum–plasma interface, including relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities, is deduced. It is shown that the SPW excited by a p-polarized laser on a rippled thin foil target can have larger amplitude than the transmitted laser amplitude and cause stronger target normal sheath acceleration of protons as reported in a recent experiment. Substantial enhancement in proton number also occurs due to the larger surface area covered by the SPW.

  9. Note: A novel normalization scheme for laser-based plasma x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, B. B.; Sun, D. R.; Tao, Y.; Sun, S. S.

    2014-09-15

    A kHz repetition rate laser pump-X-ray probe system for ultrafast X-ray diffraction is set up based on a laser-driven plasma X-ray source. A simple and reliable normalization approach has been developed to minimize the impact of large X-ray pulse intensity fluctuation on data quality. It utilizes one single X-ray area detector to record both sample and reference signals simultaneously. Performance of this novel normalization method is demonstrated in reflectivity oscillation measurement of a superlattice sample at sub-ps resolution.

  10. Ontogenetic changes in seminal fluid gene expression and the protein composition of cricket seminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W; Beveridge, Maxine; Li, Lei; Li, Lie; Tan, Yew-Foon; Millar, A Harvey

    2014-03-01

    The ejaculates of most internally fertilizing species consists of both sperm and seminal fluid proteins. Seminal fluid proteins have been studied largely in relation to their post-mating effects on female reproductive physiology, and predominantly in genomically well-characterized species. Seminal fluids can also play important roles in sperm maturation and performance. In the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus the viability of ejaculated sperm increases as males age, as does their competitive fertilization success. Here, using quantitative proteomics and quantitative real-time PCR, we document ontogenetic changes in seminal fluid protein abundance and in seminal fluid gene expression. We identified at least nine proteins that changed in abundance in the seminal fluid of crickets as they aged. Gene expression was quantified for five seminal fluid protein genes, and in four of these gene expression changed as males aged. These ontogenetic changes were associated with a general increase in the size of the male accessory glands. Several of the seminal fluid proteins that we have identified are novel, and some have BLAST matches to proteins implicated in sperm function. Our data suggest that age related changes in competitive fertilization success may be dependent on seminal fluid chemistry. PMID:24617989

  11. Pervasive Adaptive Evolution in Primate Seminal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Seminal fluid proteins show striking effects on reproduction, involving manipulation of female behavior and physiology, mechanisms of sperm competition, and pathogen defense. Strong adaptive pressures are expected for such manifestations of sexual selection and host defense, but the extent of positive selection in seminal fluid proteins from divergent taxa is unknown. We identified adaptive evolution in primate seminal proteins using genomic resources in a tissue-specific study. We found extensive signatures of positive selection when comparing 161 human seminal fluid proteins and 2,858 prostate-expressed genes to those in chimpanzee. Seven of eight outstanding genes yielded statistically significant evidence of positive selection when analyzed in divergent primates. Functional clues were gained through divergent analysis, including several cases of species-specific loss of function in copulatory plug genes, and statistically significant spatial clustering of positively selected sites near the active site of kallikrein 2. This study reveals previously unidentified positive selection in seven primate seminal proteins, and when considered with findings in Drosophila, indicates that extensive positive selection is found in seminal fluid across divergent taxonomic groups. PMID:16170411

  12. Forearm mineral content in normal men: relationship to weight, height and plasma testosterone concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    McElduff, A.; Wilkinson, M.; Ward, P.; Posen, S.

    1988-01-01

    We measured forearm bone mineral content by single photon absorptiometry together with height, weight and the plasma concentrations of testosterone, free testosterone and sex steroid binding globulin in 66 normal Caucasian males aged 29-46 years. Multiple regression analysis suggests that bone mineral content in either the dominant or the nondominant arm is correlated with weight and sex steroid binding globulin (p less than 0.05 for both parameters). The partial negative correlation of bone mineral content (corrected for weight and sex steroid binding globulin) with plasma testosterone failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.07). The parsimonious regression equation which best explained the bone mineral content measurements in the nondominant forearm in these men was bone mineral content = 29.1-0.374 (plasma testosterone) + 0.383 (weight) + 0.220 (sex steroid binding globulin) with an R2 value of 29.7%. A similar equation was generated for the dominant arm.

  13. DNA damage in oral cancer and normal cells induced by nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Kapaldo, James; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M. Sharon; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) have been shown to effectively induce DNA double strand breaks in SCC25 oral cancer cells. The APPJ source constructed in our laboratory operates based on dielectric barrier discharge. It consists of two copper electrodes alternatively wrapping around a fused silica tube with nitrogen as a feed gas. It is generally more challenging to ignite plasma in N2 atmosphere than in noble gases. However, N2 provides additional advantages such as lower costs compared to noble gases, thus this design can be beneficial for the future long-term clinical use. To compare the effects of plasma on cancer cells (SCC25) and normal cells (OKF), the cells from both types were treated at the same experimental condition for various treatment times. The effective area with different damage levels after the treatment was visualized as 3D maps. The delayed damage effects were also explored by varying the incubation times after the treatment. All of these studies are critical for a better understanding of the damage responses of cellular systems exposed to the plasma radiation, thus are useful for the development of the advanced plasma cancer therapy. The research described herein was supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, United States Department of Energy through Grant No. DE-FC02-04ER15533.

  14. Seminal fluid and immune adaptation for pregnancy--comparative biology in mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Schjenken, J E; Robertson, S A

    2014-09-01

    Seminal fluid delivered to the female reproductive tract at coitus not only promotes the survival and fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa, but also contains potent signalling agents that influence female reproductive physiology to improve the chances of conception and reproductive success. Male to female seminal fluid signalling occurs in rodents, domestic and livestock animals, and all other mammals examined to date. Seminal plasma is instrumental in eliciting the female response, by provision of cytokines and prostaglandins synthesized in the male accessory glands. These agents bind to receptors on target cells in the cervix and uterus, activating changes in gene expression leading to functional adaptations in the female tissues. Sperm also interact with female tract cells, although the molecular basis of this interaction is not yet defined. The consequences are increased sperm survival and fertilization rates, conditioning of the female immune response to tolerate semen and the conceptus, and molecular and cellular changes in the endometrium that facilitate embryo development and implantation. Studies in porcine, equine, bovine, ovine and canine species all show evidence of male-female signalling function for seminal fluid. There are variations between species that relate to their different reproductive strategies and behaviours, particularly the site of seminal fluid deposition and female reproductive tract anatomy. Although the details of the molecular mechanisms require more study, the available data are consistent with both the sperm and plasma fractions of seminal fluid acting in a synergistic fashion to activate inflammation-like responses and downstream female tract changes in each of these species. Insight into the biological function and molecular basis of seminal fluid signalling in the female will inform new interventions and management practices to support optimal reproductive outcomes in domestic, livestock and endangered animal species. PMID:25220746

  15. Kinetic Analysis of Plasma Insulin Disappearance in Nonketotic Diabetic Patients and in Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Navalesi, Renzo; Pilo, Alessandro; Ferrannini, Eleuterio; Cecchetti, Paolo; Masoni, Antonio

    1978-01-01

    The studies so far reported on the metabolic clearance rate of insulin in human diabetes mellitus have given conflicting results, probably because they have been conducted on few patients and have used a variety of experimental techniques and data treatments. We investigated the kinetics of insulin distribution and degradation in 35 normal subjects and in 42 nonketotic, nonobese, overtly diabetic patients, of whom 26 were above 40 yr old and 16 were 40 yr old or less at diagnosis. The design of the study combined (a) the use of a tracer to perturb minimally the steady state and to avoid glucose infusion; (b) the preparation of purified [125I]-monoiodoinsulin, which has a metabolic behavior similar to that of native insulin; and (c) noncompartmental analysis of the plasma immunoprecipitable 125I-insulin disappearance curves, which were recorded for 2 h after pulse i.v. injection of the tracer. Metabolic clearance rate was found to be similar in diabetics (404±18 ml/min·m2, mean±SEM) and in normals (420±14), although the latter-onset patients had slightly, if not significantly, lower metabolic clearance rate values than the earlier-onset diabetics (385±19 and 443±36, respectively). The initial distribution volume of the hormone also did not significantly differ in diabetics and normals and was similar to plasma volume. The reentry rate into the initial distribution volume of the hormone and the total, plasma-equivalent distribution volume of insulin were both significantly raised in diabetics (251±12 ml/min·m2 and 10.3±0.5 liters/m2) in comparison with normals (195±8 and 7.5±0.3). The posthepatic delivery rate of insulin was found to be slightly raised in later-onset diabetics (194±20 mU/h·m2), but somewhat reduced in earlier-onset diabetics (133±15) in comparison with normals (172±14); these differences reflected the different basal plasma insulin concentrations in these three groups. Chronic treatment with oral hypoglycemic drugs, age, duration of the disease, and degree of metabolic control appeared to have only little effect on the kinetics of insulin. On the basis of these results, we conclude that insulin-independent adult diabetics show, already in the fasting state, a combination of insulin resistance and insulin deficiency and a derangement in insulin distribution, the precise significance of which is uncertain. PMID:338630

  16. Power source effects of soft plasma jet and the differential response of skin cancer and normal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Nathaniel; Dobrynin, Danil; Fridman, Alexander; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-10-01

    The effects of pulsed power direct current energy sources were compared using an indirect discharge plasma jet applied to treat cancerous and normal skin cells. Two power supplies with different voltage and current profiles were compared and optimized through the measurement of physical parameters and evaluated through the treatment of skin cells using an atmospheric pressure nitrogen gas plasma jet. Plasma density and temperature, power output, gas output temperature, and reactive species production were measured. Cell morphology, viability, and ROS generation were investigated using staining. A differential response has been shown between the normal and cancerous cell lines. The cancer cells viability reduced while normal cells did not over the same treatment time.

  17. Modeling the effect of anisotropic pressure on tokamak plasmas normal modes and continuum using fluid approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Z. S.; Hole, M. J.; Fitzgerald, M.

    2015-09-01

    Extending the ideal MHD stability code MISHKA, a new code, MISHKA-A, is developed to study the impact of pressure anisotropy on plasma stability. Based on full anisotropic equilibrium and geometry, the code can provide normal mode analysis with three fluid closure models: the single adiabatic model (SA), the double adiabatic model (CGL) and the incompressible model. A study on the plasma continuous spectrum shows that in low beta, large aspect ratio plasma, the main impact of anisotropy lies in the modification of the BAE gap and the sound frequency, if the q profile is conserved. The SA model preserves the BAE gap structure as ideal MHD, while in CGL the lowest frequency branch does not touch zero frequency at the resonant flux surface where m   +   nq   =   0, inducing a gap at very low frequency. Also, the BAE gap frequency with bi-Maxwellian distribution in both model becomes higher if {{p}\\bot} \\gt {{p}\\parallel} with a q profile dependency. As a benchmark of the code, we study the m/n   =   1/1 internal kink mode. Numerical calculation of the marginal stability boundary with bi-Maxwellian distribution shows a good agreement with the generalized incompressible Bussac criterion (Mikhailovskii 1983 Sov. J. Plasma Phys. 9 190): the mode is stabilized(destabilized) if {{p}\\parallel}\\lt {{p}\\bot} ({{p}\\parallel}\\gt{{p}\\bot} ).

  18. Factors Regulating Immunoglobulin Production by Normal and Disease-Associated Plasma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, David A.; Elsawa, Sherine F.

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins are molecules produced by activated B cells and plasma cells in response to exposure to antigens. Upon antigen exposure, these molecules are secreted allowing the immune system to recognize and effectively respond to a myriad of pathogens. Immunoglobulin or antibody secreting cells are the mature form of B lymphocytes, which during their development undergo gene rearrangements and selection in the bone marrow ultimately leading to the generation of B cells, each expressing a single antigen-specific receptor/immunoglobulin molecule. Each individual immunoglobulin molecule has an affinity for a unique motif, or epitope, found on a given antigen. When presented with an antigen, activated B cells differentiate into either plasma cells (which secrete large amounts of antibody that is specific for the inducing antigen), or memory B cells (which are long-lived and elicit a stronger and faster response if the host is re-exposed to the same antigen). The secreted form of immunoglobulin, when bound to an antigen, serves as an effector molecule that directs other cells of the immune system to facilitate the neutralization of soluble antigen or the eradication of the antigen-expressing pathogen. This review will focus on the regulation of secreted immunoglobulin by long-lived normal or disease-associated plasma cells. Specifically, the focus will be on signaling and transcriptional events that regulate the development and homeostasis of long-lived immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells. PMID:25615546

  19. [Effect of captopril on the plasma aldosterone response to metoclopramide in normal subjects].

    PubMed

    Zachariéva, S; Koev, D; Tcharaktchiev, D; Moskov, M; Andonova, K

    1989-01-01

    The effect of captopril on the response of plasma aldosterone (PA) and plasma renin activity (PRA) to 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. was studied in 9 normal subjects. In the same conditions the prolactine response was studied in 6 healthy males. Metoclopramide induced a significant increase of PA during control study, as well as after treatment with captopril. The maximal increase of PA was of similar magnitude and occurred 15 mn after injection of metoclopramide on both occasions. PRA did not change appreciably after metoclopramide neither during control study nor during captopril. The prolactin response to metoclopramide was blunted by treatment with captopril. In conclusion, captopril did not alter the aldosterone response to metoclopramide, which suggests that dopaminergic control of aldosterone secretion is independent of modifications in the renin-angiotensin system. PMID:2683976

  20. Plasma and urine diketopiperazine concentrations in normal adults ingesting large quantities of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Cho, E S; Coon, J D; Stegink, L D

    1987-07-01

    In aqueous solution, aspartame can cyclicize to form its corresponding diketopiperazine (3-carboxymethyl-6-benzyl-2,5-diketopiperazine; DKP) and methanol. We measured plasma and urinary concentrations of DKP in samples obtained from six normal adult subjects ingesting 2.2 mg DKP/kg body weight. The DKP was administered as part of a dose of 200 mg aspartame/kg body weight. DKP concentrations in plasma were below the detection limit (less than 1 microgram/ml) of the high-pressure liquid chromatographic method at each time interval after ingestion at which they were measured. Mean (+/- SD) total urinary DKP excreted during the first 24-hr period after dosing was 6.68 +/- 1.30 mg (4.83 +/- 0.23% of the ingested DKP dose). Approximately 44% of the total DKP excreted was excreted in the first 4 hr after dosing. PMID:3623338

  1. Seminal CD38 Enhances Human Sperm Capacitation through Its Interaction with CD31

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Ju; Park, Dae-Ryoung; Nam, Tae-Sik; Lee, Seo Ho; Kim, Uh-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Human sperm have to undergo a maturational process called capacitation in the female reproductive tract. Capacitation confers upon the sperm an ability to gain hypermotility and undergo acrosome reaction. Previous studies have suggested that seminal plasma proteins induce the capacitation of sperm in the female reproductive tract for the successful fertilization of the oocyte. However, the function of seminal plasma proteins in capacitation remains largely unclear. To the end, we found that soluble CD38 (sCD38) in seminal plasma increases the capacitation of sperm via specific interactions between sCD38 and the CD31 on the sperm. Upon the association of sCD38 with CD31, tyrosine kinase Src phosphorylates CD31, a process blocked by Src inhibitors. Shc, SHP-2, Grb2, and SOS, as well as Src kinase were found to associate with the phosphorylated CD31. The sCD38-induced phosphorylation of CD31 initiates a cascade reaction through the phosphorylation of Erk1/2, which results in the acrosome reaction, and sperm hypermotility. These processes were prevented by Src, Ras and MEK inhibitors. Taken together, these data indicate that the sCD38 present in seminal plasma plays a critical role in the capacitation of sperm. PMID:26407101

  2. Normal chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum cells with a depolarized plasma membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Van Duijn, B; Vogelzang, S A; Ypey, D L; Van der Molen, L G; Van Haastert, P J

    1990-01-01

    We examined a possible role for the plasma membrane potential in signal transduction during cyclic AMP-induced chemotaxis in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Chemotaxis, cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP responses in cells with a depolarized membrane potential were measured. Cells can be completely depolarized by two different methods: (1) by treatment with azide; this probably causes inhibition of the electrogenic proton pump, which was shown earlier to regulate plasma membrane potential in D. discoideum. (2) By electroporation, which causes the formation of large non-ion-selective pores in the plasma membrane. It was found that in depolarized cells the cyclic AMP-mediated cyclic AMP accumulation was inhibited. In contrast, chemotaxis to a cyclic AMP source was normal; the cyclic AMP-induced accumulation of cyclic GMP, which is known to mediate the chemotactic response, was also not affected. We conclude that membrane-potential-regulated processes, such as voltage-gated ion channels, do not play an essential role in chemotaxis in D. discoideum. PMID:2161858

  3. Maternal plasma levels of complement Factor H in miscarriage and in normal pregnancy: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Savaris, Ricardo Francalacci; Becker, Caroline; Guedes Neto, Ernesto de Paula

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of clinically recognizable miscarriage in general population is up to 15%. It has been shown that complement Factor H (CFH) mRNA levels were increased in endometrium of women during early pregnancy, compared to non-pregnant women. We hypothesized that patients with miscarriage could have lower protein levels of CFH. The objectives of this prospective cohort is to measure plasma levels of Factor H in pregnancies up to 20 weeks, and to investigated whether there is an association between CFH and miscarriage. Plasma levels of CFH were measured in a cohort of pregnant women, ranging from 3 to 19.6 weeks who attended a gynecologic emergency unit in Brazil. Subjects had a blood sample obtained at the first consultation and were followed up to 24 weeks. After reaching outcome, subjects were divided into 4 groups: (1) miscarriage at entry the study, (2) normal pregnancy, (3) those that evolved to miscarriage, and (4) a control group of 6 non-pregnant, fertile proven women. Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. From 193 eligible women, 4 were excluded due technical problems and 33 were lost to follow-up. Median levels (range) of CFH were 989.2μg/mL (372-1644) n=64; 1042μg/mL (600.7-1915) n=74; 1089μg/mL (813.7-1250) n=12; 1004μg/mL (901.7-1335) n=6 in groups 1-3 and control, respectively; p=0.46-Kruskal-Wallis; post-hoc power (1-β)=31.6%. Therefore, median plasma levels of CFH are not different between women with miscarriage or normal pregnancy up to 19.6 weeks. PMID:26828816

  4. Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle.

    PubMed

    Tarján, M; Ottlecz, I; Tot, T

    2009-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinomas of the seminal vesicle (SVC) are very rare and poorly understood neoplasms with only somewhat more than 50 histologically confirmed cases reported in the literature. We demonstrate a case of SVC and discuss the problems related to diagnosis in this tumor. PMID:19468449

  5. Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle

    PubMed Central

    Tarján, M.; Ottlecz, I.; Tot, T.

    2009-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinomas of the seminal vesicle (SVC) are very rare and poorly understood neoplasms with only somewhat more than 50 histologically confirmed cases reported in the literature. We demonstrate a case of SVC and discuss the problems related to diagnosis in this tumor. PMID:19468449

  6. The Regulation of Inflammatory Pathways and Infectious Disease of the Cervix by Seminal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Arieh Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The connection between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the consequent sequelae which establishes cervical neoplastic transformation and invasive cervical cancer has redefined many aspects of cervical cancer research. However there is still much that we do not know. In particular, the impact of external factors, like seminal fluid in sexually active women, on pathways that regulate cervical inflammation and tumorigenesis, have yet to be fully understood. HPV infection is regarded as the initiating noninflammatory cause of the disease; however emerging evidence points to resident HPV infections as drivers of inflammatory pathways that play important roles in tumorigenesis as well as in the susceptibility to other infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Moreover there is emerging evidence to support a role for seminal fluid, in particular, the inflammatory bioactive lipids, and prostaglandins which are present in vast quantities in seminal fluid in regulating pathways that can exacerbate inflammation of the cervix, speed up tumorigenesis, and enhance susceptibility to HIV infection. This review will highlight some of our current knowledge of the role of seminal fluid as a potent driver of inflammatory and tumorigenic pathways in the cervix and will provide some evidence to propose a role for seminal plasma prostaglandins in HIV infection and AIDS-related cancer. PMID:25180120

  7. [Localized amyloidosis of the seminal vesicle: a case report].

    PubMed

    Kono, Masanori; Kurokawa, Tetsuyuki; Takata, Masayuki; Komatsu, Kazuto; Tsukahara, Kenji; Kurose, Nozomu

    2011-02-01

    Primary amyloidosis of the seminal vesicle is a rare disease entity. We report here a case of localized seminal vesicle amyloidosis with hematospermia. A 66-year-old man visited our hospital with a chief complaint of hematospermia. T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a hypointensity mass in the left seminal vesicle. Needle biopsy revealed amyloidosis of the seminal vesicle. Without any specific treatment, the mass lesion disappeared on MRI, and hematospermia was improved. PMID:21412044

  8. Wave Normal and Poynting Vector Calculations using the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hospodarsky, G. B.; Averkamp, T. F.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Dougherty, M.; Inan, Umran; Wood, Troy

    2001-01-01

    Wave normal and Poynting vector measurements from the Cassini radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWS) are used to examine the propagation characteristics of various plasma waves during the Earth flyby on August 18, 1999. Using the five-channel waveform receiver (WFR), the wave normal vector is determined using the Means method for a lightning-induced whistler, equatorial chorus, and a series of low-frequency emissions observed while Cassini was in the magnetosheath. The Poynting vector for these emissions is also calculated from the five components measured by the WFR. The propagation characteristics of the lightning-induced whistler were found to be consistent with the whistler wave mode of propagation, with propagation antiparallel to the magnetic field (southward) at Cassini. The sferic associated with this whistler was observed by both Cassini and the Stanford VLF group at the Palmer Station in Antarctica. Analysis of the arrival direction of the sferic at the Palmer Station suggests that the lightning stroke is in the same sector as Cassini. Chorus was observed very close (within a few degrees) to the magnetic equator during the flyby. The chorus was found to propagate primarily away from the magnetic equator and was observed to change direction as Cassini crossed the magnetic equator. This suggests that the source region of the chorus is very near the magnetic equator. The low-frequency emission in the magnetosheath has many of the characteristics of lion roars. The average value of the angle between the wave normal vector and the local magnetic field was found to be 16 degrees, and the emissions ranged in frequency from 0. 19 to 0.75 f(sub ce), where f(sub ce) is the electron cyclotron frequency. The wave normal vectors of these waves were primarily in one direction for each individual burst (either parallel or antiparallel to the local field) but varied in direction throughout the magnetosheath. This suggests that the sources of the emissions are far from the spacecraft and that there are multiple source regions.

  9. Linear Technique to Understand Non-Normal Turbulence Applied to a Magnetized Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, B.; Carter, T. A.

    2014-07-01

    In nonlinear dynamical systems with highly nonorthogonal linear eigenvectors, linear nonmodal analysis is more useful than normal mode analysis in predicting turbulent properties. However, the nontrivial time evolution of nonmodal structures makes quantitative understanding and prediction difficult. We present a technique to overcome this difficulty by modeling the effect that the advective nonlinearities have on spatial turbulent structures. The nonlinearities are taken as a periodic randomizing force with time scale consistent with critical balance arguments. We apply this technique to a model of drift wave turbulence in the Large Plasma Device [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991), 10.1063/1.1142175], where nonmodal effects dominate the turbulence. We compare the resulting growth rate spectra to the spectra obtained from a nonlinear simulation, showing good qualitative agreement, especially in comparison to the eigenmode growth rate spectra.

  10. Effects of positive acceleration /+Gz/ on renal function and plasma renin in normal man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Shubrooks, S. J., Jr.; Fishman, L. M.; Duncan, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of positive radial centrifugation (+Gz) on plasma resin activity (PRA) and renal function were assessed in 15 normal male subjects under carefully controlled conditions of Na, K, and water intake. Twenty minutes of +2.0 Gz resulted in significant decreases in the mean rate of sodium excretion and creatine clearance and in a doubling of PRA in seven sodium-depleted subjects (10 meq Na intake). In eight sodium-replete subjects (200 mq Na intake), 30 min of +2.0 Gz was also associated with a decrease in the mean rate of sodium excretion. As a consequence of a concurrent decrease in creatine clearance, the fractional excretion of sodium during centrifugation did not differ from control, suggesting that the changes in Na excretion were mediated primarily by renal hemodynamic factors, although enhanced renal tubular sodium reabsorption may also have played a role.

  11. Normal and abnormal evolution of argon metastable density in high-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; You, S. J.

    2015-05-15

    A controversial problem on the evolution of Ar metastable density as a function of electron density (increasing trend versus decreasing trend) was resolved by discovering the anomalous evolution of the argon metastable density with increasing electron density (discharge power), including both trends of the metastable density [Daltrini et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Later, by virtue of an adequate physical explanation based on a simple global model, both evolutions of the metastable density were comprehensively understood as part of the abnormal evolution occurring at low- and high-density regimes, respectively, and thus the physics behind the metastable evolution has seemed to be clearly disclosed. In this study, however, a remarkable result for the metastable density behavior with increasing electron density was observed: even in the same electron density regime, there are both normal and abnormal evolutions of metastable-state density with electron density depending on the measurement position: The metastable density increases with increasing electron density at a position far from the inductively coupled plasma antenna but decreases at a position close to the antenna. The effect of electron temperature, which is spatially nonuniform in the plasma, on the electron population and depopulation processes of Argon metastable atoms with increasing electron density is a clue to understanding the results. The calculated results of the global model, including multistep ionization for the argon metastable state and measured electron temperature, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Seminal Corynebacterium strains in infertile men with and without leucocytospermia.

    PubMed

    Mashaly, M; Masallat, D T; Elkholy, A A; Abdel-Hamid, I A; Mostafa, T

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to identify seminal Corynebacterium strains in infertile men with and without leucocytospermia. Semen samples from 60 infertile men were allocated into two equal groups: semen samples with leucocytospermia and semen samples without leucocytospermia. Semen culture for Corynebacterium species was carried out on Columbia agar medium confirmed by Gram-stained film and biochemical tests followed by analytical profile index biotyping and antibiotic susceptibility. Bacterial isolates were detected in 20/60 semen cultures (33.3%) as Corynebacteria, Staphylococci, Alpha haemolytic streptococci and E. coli. In all, 12/60 (20%) had Corynebacterium positive semen culture, whereas C. seminal was the major isolated species followed by C. amycolatum, C. jekium and C. urealyticum. There was nonsignificant difference between patients with/without Corynebacterium positive culture regarding sperm concentration and normal sperm morphology; however, in positive cultures sperm motility was significantly lower compared with negative cultures. Antimicrobial sensitivity among Corynebacteria strains was highest for vancomycin, rifampicin then imipenem, ampicillin + sulbactam, ciprofloxacin. It is concluded that positive semen cultures for different Corynebacteria species were demonstrated in infertile men, whereas Corynebacterium seminale was the most common isolated species. Vancomycin, rifampicin then imipenem and ampicillin + sulbactam are recommended as sensitive antibiotics. PMID:26228802

  13. Marked delay in indocyanine green plasma clearance with a near-normal bromosulphophthalein retention test: a constitutional abnormality?

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, K; Ohkubo, H; Musha, H; Kotoda, K; Abe, H; Tanikawa, K

    1976-01-01

    Five patients showing a normal to near-normal BSP test and a marked delay in ICG plasma clearance, and two families with clustering of the same abnormality, are described. Two had Gilbert's syndrome, one was convalescing from acute hepatitis, and the other two had no detectable liver abnormality. Measured indices of ICG metabolism indicated a marked reduction in the hepatic uptake, storage capacity, biliary transport maximum, and an increased reflux into plasma. Biochemical studies on the binding of ICG by plasma proteins failed to demonstrate any difference from normal controls. Thus, the primary defect seems to be in the transport of ICG by the hepatocyte. Although the relationship of the defect in ICG metabolism to other constitutional hyperbilirubinaemias is not clear, it is possible that the defect in these patients is a constitutional one involving some steps in the hepatic disposal of organic anions. PMID:976796

  14. Inactivation of Bacterial Spore, Endotoxin, Lipid A, Normal Prion and Abnormal Prion by Exposures to Several Sorts of Gases Plasma.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Hideharu

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the application of several sorts of non-equilibrium gas plasma discharges for sterilization and disinfection treatments against spores or bioburden on/in the healthcare products or biological indicators. The basic properties of electrical discharges are briefly reviewed and thereafter the paper discusses the interactions of gas plasma with several sorts of biological systems such as bacteria, bacterial spores, endotoxins, lipid A and normal and abnormal prion proteins. PMID:27009504

  15. Inhibiting effect of plasma from normal and tumour bearing mice on the mitotic rate of regenerating liver.

    PubMed

    Echave Llanos, J M; Moreno, F R; Badrán, A F

    1986-01-01

    Plasma from normal mice and from mice bearing the ES2 transplantable malignant tumour was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.01 ml/g body weight in partially hepatectomized mice. Control animals were injected with a solution of sodium citrate in saline. The recipients were killed at the first (14:00 hours/48 h). These times are the time of day and the number of h after partial hepatectomy and second (14:00 hours/72 h) peak times after partial hepatectomy. The number of colchicine metaphases per 1000 nuclei was determined for hepatocytes and litoral cells. A different effect was obtained with plasma from tumour-bearing compared with normal mice. Plasma from both sources when injected 26 h after partial hepatectomy (16:00 hours/26 h) inhibited the mitotic activity of hepatocytes at the next peak of regenerative activity (14:00 hours/48 h). The plasma from tumour-bearing mice also inhibited the peak on the following day (14:00 hours/72 h), whereas plasma from normal mice had no inhibitory effect and, indeed, a compensatory wave was observed at this time. Furthermore, plasma from tumour-bearing mice also showed an inhibitory effect at the first peak (14:00 hours/48 h) when injected at the time of partial hepatectomy (14:00 hours/00 h) or at 22 h before partial hepatectomy (16:00 hours/-22 h) whereas the injection of plasma from normal mice at these times had no inhibitory effect. In the litoral cells the injection of plasma from tumour-bearing mice made 22 h before hepatectomy (16:00 hours/-22 h) led to a stimulation of mitotic activity which was controlled at 14:00 hours/48 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2881395

  16. Identification of Suitable Endogenous Normalizers for qRT-PCR Analysis of Plasma microRNA Expression in Essential Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Solayman, Mohamed Hassan M; Langaee, Taimour; Patel, Archanakumari; El-Wakeel, Lamia; El-Hamamsy, Manal; Badary, Osama; Johnson, Julie A

    2016-03-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers for many diseases. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a gold standard for miRNA expression profiling that requires proper data normalization. Since there is no universal normalizer, it is recommended to evaluate normalizers under every experimental condition. This study describes the identification of suitable endogenous normalizer(s) (ENs) for plasma miRNA expression in essential hypertension. Expression levels of 5 candidate ENs and 2 plasma quality markers were determined by qRT-PCR in plasma samples from 18 hypertensive patients and 10 healthy controls. NormFinder, GeNorm, and DataAssist software programs were used to select the best EN(s). Expression levels of the 5 candidate ENs were also analyzed in urine samples from hypertensive patients and compared to the plasma samples of the hypertensive patients. Among the analyzed candidates, hsa-miR-92a-3p was identified as the best EN, and hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-16-5p as the next best. Moreover, hsa-miR-92a-3p showed the most consistent expression between plasma and urine. In conclusion, this study showed that hsa-miR-92a-3p, hsa-miR-21-5p, and hsa-miR-16-5p may be used as normalizers for plasma miRNA expression data in essential hypertension studies. PMID:26798072

  17. Isolation and characterization of gelatin-binding bison seminal vesicle secretory proteins.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Mlanie; Bergeron, Annick; Lazure, Claude; Manjunath, Puttaswamy

    2004-03-01

    Bovine seminal plasma (BSP) contains a family of major proteins designated BSP-A1/A2, BSP-A3, and BSP-30kDa (collectively called BSP proteins) that bind to sperm at ejaculation and potentiate sperm capacitation. Homologous proteins have been identified in stallion, boar, goat, and ram seminal plasma. We report here the isolation and characterization of homologous proteins from bison seminal vesicle secretions. Seminal vesicle secretory proteins were precipitated by adding cold ethanol and recovered by centrifugation. The precipitates were resuspended in ammonium bicarbonate, dialyzed, and lyophilized. Lyophilized proteins were dissolved in 0.05 M phosphate buffer (PB) and loaded onto a gelatin-agarose column. The unadsorbed proteins and adsorbed proteins were eluted with PB and 5 M urea in PB, respectively. The gelatin-adsorbed fraction was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and revealed the presence of four major proteins designated BiSV-16kDa, BiSV-17kDa, BiSV-18kDa, and BiSV-28kDa (BiSV: bison seminal vesicle proteins). Heparin-Sepharose chromatography allowed the separation of BiSV-16kDa, which did not bind heparin from other BiSV proteins, which bound heparin. Immunoblotting revealed that BiSV-16kDa cross-reacted with BSP-A3 antibodies, BiSV-17kDa and BiSV-18kDa cross-reacted with BSP-A1/-A2 antibodies, and BiSV-28kDa cross-reacted with BSP-30kDa antibodies. Radioimmunoassays indicated that approximately 25% of bison seminal vesicle total proteins are related to BSP proteins. The amino-terminal sequencing indicated that BiSV proteins share almost 100% sequence identity with BSP proteins. In addition, BiSV proteins bind to low-density lipoproteins isolated from hen's egg yolk. These results confirm that BSP protein homologs are present in mammalian seminal plasma and they may share the same biological role. PMID:14585808

  18. TRY-5 Is a Sperm-Activating Protease in Caenorhabditis elegans Seminal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joseph R.; Stanfield, Gillian M.

    2011-01-01

    Seminal fluid proteins have been shown to play important roles in male reproductive success, but the mechanisms for this regulation remain largely unknown. In Caenorhabditis elegans, sperm differentiate from immature spermatids into mature, motile spermatozoa during a process termed sperm activation. For C. elegans males, sperm activation occurs during insemination of the hermaphrodite and is thought to be mediated by seminal fluid, but the molecular nature of this activity has not been previously identified. Here we show that TRY-5 is a seminal fluid protease that is required in C. elegans for male-mediated sperm activation. We observed that TRY-5::GFP is expressed in the male somatic gonad and is transferred along with sperm to hermaphrodites during mating. In the absence of TRY-5, male seminal fluid loses its potency to transactivate hermaphrodite sperm. However, TRY-5 is not required for either hermaphrodite or male fertility, suggesting that hermaphrodite sperm are normally activated by a distinct hermaphrodite-specific activator to which male sperm are also competent to respond. Within males, TRY-5::GFP localization within the seminal vesicle is antagonized by the protease inhibitor SWM-1. Together, these data suggest that TRY-5 functions as an extracellular activator of C. elegans sperm. The presence of TRY-5 within the seminal fluid couples the timing of sperm activation to that of transfer of sperm into the hermaphrodite uterus, where motility must be rapidly acquired. Our results provide insight into how C. elegans has adopted sex-specific regulation of sperm motility to accommodate its male-hermaphrodite mode of reproduction. PMID:22125495

  19. Genetic studies in varicocele infertility: I: pedigree, nuclear sex and seminal nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, K Z; Hafeiz, A R; Salam, E A; El Kerdasi, Z; Aiad, F

    1983-01-01

    The hereditary predisposition of varicocele men to develop infertility was investigated in a controlled study involving 30 infertile varicocele patients. Analysis of the pedigree charts, determination of sex chromatin constitution, and biochemical measurement of seminal nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) were undertaken. Sibs and Kins of infertile varicocele patients showed various developmental anomalies particularly of the genito-crural area. cocele formation while the gonads develop in the normal line. Such condition may be represented in fertile men with clinically detectable varicocele. In addition, the postulated defective gene in VI patients may interfere as well with the normal development of the mesenchyme-derived interstitial cells of Leydig. Defective testicular steroid hormone biosynthesis thus obtained may explain the reported decrease in androgen level in peripheral blood, sexual impotentia and accessory genital gland dysfunction (Raboch and Starka - 1971; Comhaire and Vermeulen - 1975). Moreover, being androgen dependent (Lacy - 1973), spermatogenesis may display abnormal patterns due to lowered intratesticular androgen concentration (Rodriguez-Rigau et al. - 1978). The outcome and severity of spermatogenic derangement may depend partially on the severity of disordered androgen biosynthesis. The present work showed significant decrease in sperm count, motility, normal forms and nucleic acid content (DNA and RNA) of the seminal fluid in VI patients. The decrease in the amount of DNA per millilitre of seminal fluid in VI patients may be explained by the decrease in sperm population (oligozoospermia). The decrease in the amount of RNA per millilitre of seminal fluid in VI patients may be due to the total decrease in cellular content of the seminal fluid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6198939

  20. Increased insulin binding by hepatic plasma membranes from diabetic rats: normalization by insulin therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, M B; Kaplan, S A

    1977-01-01

    Hepatic plasma membranes prepared from rats rendered diabetic by streptozotocin bound approximately twice as much insulin per 50 mug protein as control membranes. Glucagon binding of diabetic and control membranes was virtually identical. This increased insulin binding was not due to a nonspecific effect of streptozotocin, decreased degradation of insulin slower dissociation from its receptor, or a selective higher yield of membranes prepared from the diabetic livers. Diabetic and control membranes both showed negative cooperativity. Scatchard analysis suggested that the difference in binding was due to an enhanced binding capacity of the diabetic membranes rather than increased affinity of the binding sites. Increased insulin binding of diabetic membranes was returned to normal by insulin treatment. These data are consistent with the postulate that there is an inverse relationship between circulating insulin levels and insulin binding and that insulin may modulate its own receptor. However, since it has been reported that fat, muscle, and hepatic tissue from rats made diabetic by alloxan administration are insensitive to insulin, the capacity for binding can not be the sole factor determining the response to insulin in diabetes mellitus. Therefore, sensitivity of the diabetic liver to insulin is determined, at least in part, by events subsequent to the binding of insulin to its receptor. PMID:137248

  1. Plasma metabolomic profiles enhance precision medicine for volunteers of normal health

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lining; Milburn, Michael V.; Ryals, John A.; Lonergan, Shaun C.; Mitchell, Matthew W.; Wulff, Jacob E.; Alexander, Danny C.; Evans, Anne M.; Bridgewater, Brandi; Miller, Luke; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; Caskey, C. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Precision medicine, taking account of human individuality in genes, environment, and lifestyle for early disease diagnosis and individualized therapy, has shown great promise to transform medical care. Nontargeted metabolomics, with the ability to detect broad classes of biochemicals, can provide a comprehensive functional phenotype integrating clinical phenotypes with genetic and nongenetic factors. To test the application of metabolomics in individual diagnosis, we conducted a metabolomics analysis on plasma samples collected from 80 volunteers of normal health with complete medical records and three-generation pedigrees. Using a broad-spectrum metabolomics platform consisting of liquid chromatography and GC coupled with MS, we profiled nearly 600 metabolites covering 72 biochemical pathways in all major branches of biosynthesis, catabolism, gut microbiome activities, and xenobiotics. Statistical analysis revealed a considerable range of variation and potential metabolic abnormalities across the individuals in this cohort. Examination of the convergence of metabolomics profiles with whole-exon sequences (WESs) provided an effective approach to assess and interpret clinical significance of genetic mutations, as shown in a number of cases, including fructose intolerance, xanthinuria, and carnitine deficiency. Metabolic abnormalities consistent with early indications of diabetes, liver dysfunction, and disruption of gut microbiome homeostasis were identified in several volunteers. Additionally, diverse metabolic responses to medications among the volunteers may assist to identify therapeutic effects and sensitivity to toxicity. The results of this study demonstrate that metabolomics could be an effective approach to complement next generation sequencing (NGS) for disease risk analysis, disease monitoring, and drug management in our goal toward precision care. PMID:26283345

  2. Simultaneous evaluation of vitamins A and E in human plasma by normal phase HPLC.

    PubMed

    Belisario, M A; Azar, G; Oriani, G; Pizzuti, G P; Sacchetti, L

    1993-10-01

    The production of toxic oxidants such as H2O2; OH. and O2.- which follows aerobic metabolism is highly enhanced in aging, alcohol consumption and in a variety of degenerative diseases including neoplasias. Among the different antioxidant agents that in human organisms counterbalance the oxidative stress, which damages lipid, protein and DNA, are included beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, glutathione, ascorbate, ubiquinol and specific enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. In particular, vitamins A and E are the most important lipid-soluble antioxidants in human tissues protecting polyunsaturated fatty acid from peroxidation. In this paper we report an improved method, obtained after modification of a normal phase HPLC method, which allows the simple and rapid simultaneous evaluation of vitamins A and E in plasma. The separation of vitamins is achieved by eluting the HPLC column with a linear gradient from 1 to 5% isopropanol in n-hexane. The eluate is simultaneously monitored by U.V. and fluorescence detection to identify and quantify vitamins A and E, respectively. PMID:8198806

  3. Intercorrelations among plasma high density lipoprotein, obesity and triglycerides in a normal population

    SciTech Connect

    Albrink, M.J.; Krauss, R.M.; Lindgren, F.T.; von der Groeben, J.; Pan, S.; Wood, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    The interrelationships among fatness measures, plasma triglycerides and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were examined in 131 normal adult subjects: 38 men aged 27 to 46, 50 men aged 47 to 66, 29 women aged 27 to 46 and 24 women aged 47 to 66. None of the women were taking estrogens or oral contraceptive medication. The HDL concentration was subdivided into HDL/sub 2b/, HDL/sub 2a/ and HDL by a computerized fitting of the total schileren pattern to reference schlieren patterns. Anthropometric measures employed included skinfolds at 3 sites, 2 weight/height indices and 2 girth measurements. A high correlation was found among the various fatness measures. These measures were negatively correlated with total HDL, reflecting the negative correlation between fatness measures and HDL/sub 2/ (as the sum of HDL/sub 2a/ and /sub 2b/). Fatness measures showed no relationship to HDL/sub 3/. There was also an inverse correlation between triglyceride concentration and HDL/sub 2/. No particular fatness measure was better than any other for demonstrating the inverse correlation with HDL but multiple correlations using all of the measures of obesity improved the correlations. Partial correlations controlling for fatness did not reduce any of the significnt correlations between triglycerides and HDL/sub 2/ to insignificance. The weak correlation between fatness and triglycerides was reduced to insigifnicance when controlled for HDL/sub 2/.

  4. Insect Seminal Fluid Proteins: Identification and Function

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Frank W.; Sirot, Laura K.; LaFlamme, Brooke A.; Rubinstein, C. Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2014-01-01

    Seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) produced in reproductive tract tissues of male insects and transferred to females during mating induce numerous physiological and behavioral post-mating changes in females. These changes include decreasing receptivity to re-mating, affecting sperm storage parameters, increasing egg production, modulating sperm competition, feeding behaviors, and mating plug formation. In addition, SFPs also have anti-microbial functions and induce expression of anti-microbial peptides in at least some insects. Here, we review recent identification of insect SFPs and discuss the multiple roles these proteins play in the post-mating processes of female insects. PMID:20868282

  5. Anaplastic plasmacytomas: relationships to normal memory B cells and plasma cell neoplasms of immunodeficient and autoimmune mice.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chen-Feng; Shin, Dong-Mi; Li, Zhaoyang; Wang, Hongsheng; Feng, Jianxum; Hartley, Janet W; Fredrickson, Torgny N; Kovalchuk, Alexander L; Morse, Herbert C

    2010-05-01

    Anaplastic plasmacytomas (APCTs) from NFS.V(+) congenic mice and pristane-induced plasmacytic PCTs from BALB/c mice were previously shown to be histologically and molecularly distinct subsets of plasma cell neoplasms (PCNs). Here we extended these comparisons, contrasting primary APCTs and PCTs by gene expression profiling in relation to the expression profiles of normal naïve, germinal centre, and memory B cells and plasma cells. We also sequenced immunoglobulin genes from APCT and APCT-derived cell lines and defined surface phenotypes and chromosomal features of the cell lines by flow cytometry and by spectral karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The results indicate that APCTs share many features with normal memory cells and the plasma cell-related neoplasms (PLs) of FASL-deficient mice, suggesting that APCTs and PLs are related and that both derive from memory B cells. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:20217872

  6. The antioxidant system of seminal fluid during in vitro storage of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus sperm.

    PubMed

    Dzyuba, Viktoriya; Cosson, Jacky; Dzyuba, Borys; Yamaner, Gunes; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar

    2016-04-01

    The role of the seminal fluid antioxidant system in protection against damage to spermatozoa during in vitro sperm storage is unclear. This study investigated the effect of in vitro storage of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus spermatozoa together with seminal fluid for 36 h at 4 °C on spermatozoon motility rate and curvilinear velocity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance level, and components of enzyme and non-enzyme antioxidant system (superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and uric acid concentration) in seminal fluid. Spermatozoon motility parameters after sperm storage were significantly decreased, while the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and uric acid concentration did not change. Our findings suggest that the antioxidant system of sterlet seminal fluid is effective in preventing oxidative stress during short-term sperm storage and prompt future investigations of changes in spermatozoon homeostasis and in spermatozoon plasma membrane structure which are other possible reasons of spermatozoon motility deterioration upon sperm storage. PMID:26559692

  7. Transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of persistent or recurrent hemospermia: a single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Yong; Sun, Ying-Hao; Xu, Chuan-Liang; Hou, Jian-Guo; Gao, Xu; Lu, Xin; Ye, Hua-Mao; Wang, Lin-Hui; Gao, Xiao-Feng

    2009-09-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of hemospermia presents significant difficulty, especially if it persists or recurs. In this retrospective study, we assessed whether transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy is feasible and effective in the diagnosis and treatment of hemospermia. To address this complex condition, we report our experience in a population of patients treated with transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy. From February 2006 to July 2008, 72 hemospermic patients underwent transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy examination and treatment at our urology center. Transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy was performed by a 7-F or 8-F rigid ureteroscope. The endoscopic procedure was conducted through the normal anatomic route of the seminal tracts. In this series, the mean follow-up period was 21.7 months. Definite diagnosis was made for 93.1% patients, and 94.4% patients were cured or showed a decrease in their symptoms. Postoperative complications were not observed in the study. Our study proves that transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy is effective in the diagnosis and treatment of hemospermia with minimal complication. PMID:19701221

  8. Transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of persistent or recurrent hemospermia: a single-institution experience

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Yong; Sun, Ying-Hao; Xu, Chuan-Liang; Hou, Jian-Guo; Gao, Xu; Lu, Xin; Ye, Hua-Mao; Wang, Lin-Hui; Gao, Xiao-Feng

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of hemospermia presents significant difficulty, especially if it persists or recurs. In this retrospective study, we assessed whether transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy is feasible and effective in the diagnosis and treatment of hemospermia. To address this complex condition, we report our experience in a population of patients treated with transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy. From February 2006 to July 2008, 72 hemospermic patients underwent transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy examination and treatment at our urology center. Transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy was performed by a 7-F or 8-F rigid ureteroscope. The endoscopic procedure was conducted through the normal anatomic route of the seminal tracts. In this series, the mean follow-up period was 21.7 months. Definite diagnosis was made for 93.1% patients, and 94.4% patients were cured or showed a decrease in their symptoms. Postoperative complications were not observed in the study. Our study proves that transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy is effective in the diagnosis and treatment of hemospermia with minimal complication. PMID:19701221

  9. Obesity is associated with increased seminal insulin and leptin alongside reduced fertility parameters in a controlled male cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity appears to be associated with male reproductive dysfunction and infertility, although this has been inconsistent and inconclusive. Insulin and leptin are known mediators and modulators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testes axis, contributing to the regulation of male reproductive potential and overall wellbeing. These hormones are also present in semen influencing sperm functions. Although abdominal obesity is closely associated with insulin resistance (hyperinsulinaemia), hyperleptinaemia and glucose dysfunction, changes in seminal plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin and glucose in obese males has not previously been investigated. Methods This small case controlled study assessed serum and seminal concentrations of insulin, leptin and glucose in obese (BMI > =30; n = 23) and non-obese (BMI < 30; n = 19) males. Following a detailed medical history and examination, participants meeting the inclusion criteria were entered for data analysis. Body parameters such as BMI, waist and hip circumference and the waist hip ratio were measured. Serum and semen samples were collected and assayed for insulin, leptin and glucose. Semen samples also underwent a standard semen analysis, with sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and DNA fragmentation (DF). Results Obesity was associated with increased serum and seminal insulin and leptin, with no significant difference in seminal glucose. Serum and seminal concentrations of insulin and leptin were positively correlated. Furthermore, obesity was associated with decreased sperm concentration, sperm vitality and increased MMP and DF, with a non-significant impact on motility and morphology. Conclusions Hyperinsulinaemia and hyperleptinaemia are associated with increased seminal insulin and leptin concentrations, which may negatively impact male reproductive function in obesity. Insulin was also found to be highly concentrated in the seminal plasma of both groups. This data will contribute to the contradictive information available in the literature on the impact of obesity and male reproduction. PMID:24885899

  10. The influence of potassium administration and of potassium deprivation on plasma renin in normal and hypertensive subjects

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Hans R.; Baer, Leslie; Sealey, Jean E.; Ledingham, John G. G.; Laragh, John H.

    1970-01-01

    The effect of potassium administration and of dietary potassium deprivation on plasma renin activity and aldosterone excretion has been studied in 10 normal subjects and in 12 hypertensive patients maintained on a constant dietary regimen. Potassium administration reduced plasma renin activity in 18 of 28 studies of both normal and hypertensive subjects. Suppression of renin often occurred despite sodium diuresis induced by potassium administration. The renin suppression was related to induced changes in plasma potassium concentration and urinary potassium excretion. The failure of suppression of plasma renin in 10 studies could be accounted for by the smaller amounts of potassium administered to these subjects, together with a possibly overriding influence of an induced sodium diuresis. In six studies potassium deprivation invariably increased plasma renin activity even though a tendency for sodium retention often accompanied this procedure. The data indicate that both the suppression of plasma renin activity induced by potassium administration and the stimulation of renin activity which follows potassium depletion occur independently of associated changes in either aldosterone secretion or in sodium balance. However, the results do suggest that in various situations, the influence of potassium on plasma renin activity may be either amplified or preempted by changes in sodium balance. These interactions between potassium and plasma renin could be mediated by an ill-defined extrarenal pathway. But the findings are more consistent with an intrarenal action of potassium ions to modify renin release. Potassium might modify renin secretion directly by acting on the juxtaglomerular cells or by a change in its tubular reabsorption or secretion. The effects of potassium ions on renin secretion might also be mediated indirectly via an induced change in tubular sodium transport. PMID:4319970

  11. PTK6/BRK is expressed in the normal mammary gland and activated at the plasma membrane in breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Maoyu; Emmadi, Rajyasree; Wang, Zebin; Wiley, Elizabeth L.; Gann, Peter H.; Khan, Seema A.; Banerji, Nilanjana; McDonald, William; Asztalos, Szilard; Pham, Thao N.D.; Tonetti, Debra A.; Tyner, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    Protein Tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6/BRK) is overexpressed in the majority of human breast tumors and breast tumor cell lines. It is also expressed in normal epithelial linings of the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and prostate. To date, expression of PTK6 has not been extensively examined in the normal human mammary gland. We detected PTK6 mRNA and protein expression in the immortalized normal MCF-10A human mammary gland epithelial cell line, and examined PTK6 expression and activation in a normal human breast tissue microarray, as well as in human breast tumors. Phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 342 in the PTK6 activation loop corresponds with its activation. Similar to findings in the prostate, we detect nuclear and cytoplasmic PTK6 in normal mammary gland epithelial cells, but no phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 342. However, in human breast tumors, striking PTK6 expression and phosphorylation of tyrosine 342 is observed at the plasma membrane. PTK6 is expressed in the normal human mammary gland, but does not appear to be active and may have kinase-independent functions that are distinct from its cancer promoting activities at the membrane. Understanding consequences of PTK6 activation at the plasma membrane may have implications for developing novel targeted therapies against this kinase. PMID:25153721

  12. Age-related change in plasma concentration of 7B2(a novel pituitary polypeptide) in normal humans

    SciTech Connect

    Natori, S.; Iguchi, H.; Nawata, H.; Kato, K.; Ibayashi, H.; Chretian, M.

    1987-08-24

    Using a specific radioimmunoassay, the authors measured concentrations of plasma 7B2(a novel pituitary polypeptide) immunoreactivity(7B2-IR) in normal human subjects, patients with chronic renal failure and those with liver cirrhosis. Mean(+/-SEM) values of plasma 7B2-IR in normal healthy men and women were 55.8 +/- 1.2 pg/ml (n=266) and 56.1 +/- 0.9 pg/ml (n = 408), respectively. The elevation of plasma 7B2-IR showed a relationship with age of the subjects, in both men(r=0.39, t = 6.86, p < 0.001) and women (r=0.35, t=7.44, p < 0.001). Plasma 7B2-IR concentrations were elevated in patients with chronic renal failure (536 +/- 45 pg/ml, Mean +/- SEM, n = 10) as well as those in liver cirrhosis (95 +/- 10 pg/ml, Mean +/- SEM, n = 15) compared to values in normal subjects, suggesting that 7B2 is mainly eliminated through the kidney and is partly metabolized in the liver. 10 references, 4 figures.

  13. Coefficient of Friction Measured from Nano- to Macro-Normal Loads on Plasma Sprayed Nanostructured Cermet Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, A. K.; Celis, J.-P.; Vardavoulias, M.; Matteazzi, P.

    2014-02-01

    Alumina dispersed FeCuAl-based nanostructured cermet coatings were deposited from nanostructured powders by atmospheric plasma spraying on low carbon steel substrates. Nanostructuring was retained in the deposited coatings which exhibit up to four distinctive phases as revealed by electron microscopy. In this study, the friction behavior of the distinctive phases at nano-normal load scale was investigated alongside their contribution to the overall friction behavior at macro-normal load scale. Friction behavior at nano-normal load scale was investigated by lateral force microscopy, whereas conventional tribometers were used for investigations at micro and macro-normal loads. It appeared that, the friction measured at nano-normal loads on individual phases is dictated by both composition and hardness of the corresponding phases, and thus influences the overall friction behavior of the coatings at macro-normal loads. Moreover, the coefficient of friction at macro-normal loads differs from the one at nano-normal loads, and deviates from Amonton's friction law.

  14. Influence of the normalized ion flux on the constitution of alumina films deposited by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kurapov, Denis; Reiss, Jennifer; Trinh, David H.; Hultman, Lars; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2007-07-15

    Alumina thin films were deposited onto tempered hot working steel substrates from an AlCl{sub 3}-O{sub 2}-Ar-H{sub 2} gas mixture by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The normalized ion flux was varied during deposition through changes in precursor content while keeping the cathode voltage and the total pressure constant. As the precursor content in the total gas mixture was increased from 0.8% to 5.8%, the deposition rate increased 12-fold, while the normalized ion flux decreased by approximately 90%. The constitution, morphology, impurity incorporation, and the elastic properties of the alumina thin films were found to depend on the normalized ion flux. These changes in structure, composition, and properties induced by normalized ion flux may be understood by considering mechanisms related to surface and bulk diffusion.

  15. Miller’s seminal studies on the role of thymus in immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ribatti, D; Crivellato, E; Vacca, A

    2006-01-01

    The thymus is one of the two primary lymphoid organs. It is responsible for the provision of T lymphocytes to the entire body, and provides a unique microenvironment in which T cell precursors (thymocytes) undergo development, differentiation and clonal expansion. This review article summarizes the seminal work of the Australian scientist Francis Albert Pierre Miller concerning the description for the first time of the crucial role of the thymus for normal development of the immune system. PMID:16734604

  16. Schwannoma, a rare tumor of the seminal vesicle

    PubMed Central

    Carrasquinho, Eduardo; Ferreira, Marco; Afonso, Ana; Ferrito, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We present a rare case of a schwannoma of the seminal vesicle that occurred in a 43-year-old male with symptoms of the lower urinary tract. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging documented a solid mass in the patient's left seminal vesicle. A transvesical approach with a transtrigonal midline incision was successfully performed. The microscopic aspect was compatible with schwannoma. PMID:24578861

  17. Wheat germ policosanol failed to lower plasma cholesterol in subjects with normal to mildly elevated cholesterol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuguang; Rudrum, Mike; van der Wielen, Reggy P J; Trautwein, Elke A; McNeill, Gerald; Sierksma, Aafje; Meijer, Gert W

    2004-10-01

    Sugar cane policosanol, a mixture of long-chain primary alcohols (approximately 67% as octacosanol), has been reported to lower plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. We investigated the effect of wheat germ policosanol (WGP) on plasma lipid profiles in 58 adults (30 men and 28 women, aged 49 +/- 11 years) with normal to mildly elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations in a double-blind, randomized, parallel placebo-controlled study. Subjects consumed chocolate pellets with or without 20 mg/d WGP for 4 weeks. Plasma lipid concentrations, routine blood chemistry and hematology were determined at the start and the end of the study. The initial plasma total, LDL-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol concentrations in the WGP and the control groups were identical. Over the 4 weeks, neither the WGP nor the control treatment significantly changed plasma total cholesterol, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, or triacylglycerol concentrations when compared to baseline values. In addition, there was no significant difference in plasma lipid profiles between the WGP and the control groups at the end of the study. WGP did not result in any adverse effects as indicated by plasma activities of L-gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT), ALT, AST, bilirubin concentrations, and blood cell profiles. Chemical analysis showed that WGP consists of 8% hexacosanol, 67% octacosanol, 12% triacosanol, and 13% other long-chain alcohols, which is similar to the composition of sugar cane policosanol. In conclusion, WGP at 20 mg/d had no beneficial effects on blood lipid profiles. It therefore seems unlikely that the long chain (C24-34) alcohols have any cholesterol-lowering activity. PMID:15375787

  18. Seminal vesicle cyst and ipsilateral renal agenesis: laparoscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Han, Ping; Dong, Qiang; Shi, Ming; Yang, Yu-Ru; Wei, Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Seminal vesicle cysts with ipsilateral renal agenesis is rare. When the patient is symptomatic, surgical treatment may be necessary. However, the seminal vesicle is difficult to access surgically, and current transurethral or open surgical approaches have inherent shortcomings. The laparoscopic techniques developed in the last decade may overcome the difficulties in the surgical treatment of seminal vesicle pathology. In this study we report a patient diagnosed with left seminal vesicle cyst and ipsilateral renal agenesis who was managed successfully through the laparoscopic approach. The patient was a 41-year-old who suffered from perineal pain and intermittent hemospermia for 20 years. Ultrasonography and computerized tomography, CT, indicated a cyst of the left seminal vesicle and an absent left kidney. The total laparoscopic operation time was 90 minutes and the estimated blood loss was 80 ml. With a follow-up of 13 months, the patient had total relief of his preoperative symptoms without complication. PMID:18309901

  19. Human sperm and other seminal constituents in male infertile patients from arsenic and cadmium rich areas of Southern Assam.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mahuya; Deb, Ishita; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Kar, Kushal Kumar

    2013-08-01

    In the present study the occurrence of two heavy metals, arsenic and cadmium, have been reported in the drinking water and seminal plasma of infertile male patients as compared to a control group. The study originated from a survey of geogenic groundwater contamination with the heavy metals arsenic and cadmium in Southern Assam, India as an increase in the incidence of male infertility was being reported from these areas. According to WHO protocol, patients with sperm concentration < 20 x 10(6)/ml were selected as cases (oligozoospermic and azoospermic), and those with > 20 x 10(6)/ml, without any extreme pathological disorders and having fathered a child within 1-2 years of marriage were the control (normozoospermic) group. The study reports an inverse relationship between total sperm count and heavy metal content in drinking water as well as seminal plasma of the subjects. Moreover, a high correlation between altered semenological parameters and lower expression of accessory sex gland markers like fructose, acid phosphatase, and neutral α-glucosidase in the seminal plasma of patients is reported. The study also highlights significant differences of the sperm function parameters like hypo-osmotic swelling, acrosome reaction, and nuclear chromatin decondensation in the patient group as compared to controls. These findings are significant as they address a likely association between heavy metal stress and altered sperm function as well as seminal enzyme inhibition. PMID:23651453

  20. Dependence of plasma rotation braking on ion temperature and non-axisymmetric magnetic field spectra in high normalized beta KSTAR plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Berkery, J. W.; Bialek, J. M.; Ko, W. H.; Jeon, Y. M.; Bak, J. G.; Hahn, S. H.; Kim, J.; Lee, S. G.; Jardin, S.; Choi, M. J.; Yun, G. S.; Park, H. K.

    2014-10-01

    H-mode plasma operation of KSTAR has surpassed the ideal MHD n = 1 no-wall limit by achieving high normalized beta up to 2.8 while reducing plasma internal inductance to near 0.7. Non-axisymmetric fields were applied using in-vessel control coils with varied n = 2 field spectra, ECH, and supersonic molecular beam injection to alter the plasma toroidal rotation profile in high beta H-mode plasmas and to analyze their distinct effects on the rotation. The rotation profile was significantly altered in a self-similar fashion with rotation level reduced by more than 60% without tearing activity or mode locking using the full range of techniques. Changes in the steady-state rotation profiles are analyzed to determine the physical aspects of NTV. The NTV scaling with ?B2 shows good agreement with the measured profile change. The NTV coefficient scales as Ti2 . 27 , in general agreement with the low collisionality ``1/ ?'' regime scaling of NTV theory. Resistive tearing stability determined by examining the classical tearing stability index is discussed, and the result is compared with two-fluid resistive MHD solutions from the M3D-C1 code. The effect of plasma rotation profile on tearing stability is examined using the M3D-C1 analyses. Supported by U.S. DOE grant DE-FG02-99ER54524.

  1. Cross-presentation of male seminal fluid antigens elicits T cell activation to initiate the female immune response to pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Moldenhauer, Lachlan M; Diener, Kerrilyn R; Thring, Dougal M; Brown, Michael P; Hayball, John D; Robertson, Sarah A

    2009-06-15

    The events that generate T cell-mediated immune tolerance in early pregnancy are ill-defined. To investigate the significance of seminal fluid Ags in activating maternal T cells, and define the underlying Ag presentation pathways, OVA-specific T cells were adoptively transferred to female mice inseminated by males ubiquitously expressing membrane-bound OVA. OVA-reactive CD8(+) OT-I and CD4(+) OT-II T cells transferred to mated recipients expressed activation markers CD25 and CD69 and proliferated vigorously in the para-aortic lymph nodes, but not in distal lymph nodes or spleen, and OT-I T cells expressed IFN-gamma and IL-2. In contrast, OT-I T cells transferred later in pregnancy or up to 10 days postpartum expressed CD25 and CD69 and proliferated in all peripheral lymphoid tissues examined. OVA Ag was present predominantly in the plasma fraction of seminal fluid, and seminal plasma, but not sperm, was necessary for T cell proliferation. Female H-2K(b) bone marrow-derived cells expressing TAP were essential for OT-I T cell proliferation, but responses were not elicited by OVA Ag presented by paternal MHC in seminal fluid or associated with placental cells. This study shows that at conception, seminal fluid drives activation and expansion of paternal Ag-reactive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell populations, and female APCs have an essential role in cross-presenting Ag to CD8(+) T cells via a TAP-dependent pathway. Delivery of paternal Ags and immune-deviating cytokines by seminal fluid at conception may activate Ag-dependent CD4(+) and CD8(+) regulatory T cells mediating tolerance of pregnancy. PMID:19494334

  2. Plasma mineral profiles and hormonal activities of normal cycling and repeat breeding crossbred cows: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Barui, Abhijit; Batabyal, Subhasis; Ghosh, Sarbaswarup; Saha, Debjani; Chattopadhyay, Saibal

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to compare the associated role of micro minerals and hormones in repeat breeding animals with the normal crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 10 normal cycling and 10 repeat breeding crossbred cows of Ramakrishna Mission Ashram, Narendrapur to study the plasma mineral profile and hormonal activities. Results: Zn was found to be highly significant (p<0.01) between the two groups. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and progesterone showed significant (p<0.05) difference in repeat breeding animal from the normal cyclic animal, whereas no significant differences were observed in Ca, P, Cu, Se, Co, luteinizing hormone and estradiol level. Conclusion: It may conclude that repeat breeding condition of crossbred cows in farm condition is mainly due to the low level of progesterone, FSH and zinc. PMID:27046994

  3. Procoagulant tissue factor-exposing vesicles in human seminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Franz, C; Böing, A N; Hau, C M; Montag, M; Strowitzki, T; Nieuwland, R; Toth, B

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that various types of vesicles, like microparticles (MP) and exosomes, are present in blood, saliva, bone marrow, urine and synovial fluid. These vesicles, which are released upon activation or shear stress, are thought to play a role in coagulation, neovascularisation, inflammation and intercellular signalling. Seminal fluid is a cell-, sperm- and protein-rich suspension. Although seminal fluid is known to contain vesicles like prostasomes, MP and exosomes have never been characterised. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyse and characterise vesicles in seminal fluid in male partners of patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF/ICSI. MP from seminal fluid of patients during routine IVF/ICSI procedures were detected and analysed with flow cytometry (FACS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), using antibodies against tissue factor (TF), CD10, CD13, CD26 and annexin V. The coagulant properties of vesicles were studied using a fibrin generation test. MP were detected in human seminal fluid by both flow cytometry and TEM. Seminal fluid-derived MP expressed CD10, CD13, CD26 and TF, which was highly procoagulant and a powerful trigger of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. The extent to which the procoagulant activity of MP in seminal fluid contributes to the implantation process itself and therefore affects human reproduction needs to be further elucidated. PMID:23578769

  4. Modulation of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase expression in catfish seminal vesicles by thyroid disrupting agents and hormones.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasulu, Gunti; Pavani, Ayinampudi; Sudhakumari, Cheni-Chery; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2013-11-01

    Thyroid hormones play crucial role in several biological processes including reproduction. Disruption of normal thyroid status by environmental contaminants can cause severe impairment in reproductive functions. In our previous study, we reported down-regulation of a protein in seminal vesicular fluid of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus during experimentally induced hyperthyroidism. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis followed by search in sequence database denoted it to be lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (ptgds-b). In the present study, we cloned full-length cDNA of ptgds-b based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence. Surprisingly, Northern blot as well as RT-PCR analysis demonstrated the presence of ptgds-b transcript predominantly in seminal vesicles and developing testis. Further, ptgds-b mRNA significantly decreased in seminal vesicles following L-thyroxine overdose while there was an increased expression of ptgds-b after depletion of thyroid hormone by thiourea and withdrawal of the treatments reverted this effect. Treatment of catfish with human chorionic gonadotropin and estradiol significantly reduced ptgds-b expression. Taken together, we report ptgds-b as a thyroid hormone regulated protein in the seminal vesicles in addition to gonadotropin and estradiol. Further studies might explain the exclusive presence of ptgds-b in seminal vesicles and developing testis yet present data evaluated it as a putative biomarker for thyroid hormone disruption. PMID:23973827

  5. Management of Zinner's Syndrome Associated with Contralateral Seminal Vesicle Hypoplasia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kardoust Parizi, Mehdi; Shakhssalim, Nasser

    2013-01-01

    A 27-year-old man presented with chronic hematospermia, painful ejaculation, and primary infertility. Physical examination, transrectal ultrasonography, and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated left seminal vesicle cyst, left renal agenesia, and contralateral seminal vesicle hypoplasia. Hormone workup (LH, FSH, prolactin, and testosterone) was normal. Sperm analysis showed oligoasthenozoospermia and low ejaculate volume. We performed transurethral resection of the ejaculatory duct (TUR-ED) using methylene blue vasography guidance without surgical-related complications. Hematospermia and painful ejaculation completely improved at 2-month followup, and the patient's wife experienced a missed abortion thereafter. This patient was considered as a rare variant of Zinner's syndrome and was managed effectively with a less invasive treatment modality (TUR-ED). PMID:23401842

  6. Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Normalized Plasma Pressure on RMP ELM Suppression in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, D. M.; Moyer, R.A.; Evans, T. E.; Mordijck, S.; Osborne, T. H.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Snyder, P. B.; Unterberg, Ezekial A

    2010-01-01

    The effect of normalized plasma pressure as characterized by normalized pressure parameter (beta(N)) on the suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs) using resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is studied in low-collisionality (nu* <= 0.2) H-mode plasmas with low-triangularity ( = 0.25) and ITER similar shapes ( = 0.51). Experimental results have suggested that ELM suppression by RMPs requires a minimum threshold in plasma pressure as characterized by beta(N). The variations in the vacuum field topology with beta(N) due to safety factor profile and island overlap changes caused by variation of the Shafranov shift and pedestal bootstrap current are examined numerically with the field line integration code TRIP3D. The results show very small differences in the vacuum field structure in terms of the Chirikov (magnetic island overlap) parameter, Poincare sections and field line loss fractions. These differences do not appear to explain the observed threshold in beta(N) for ELM suppression. Linear peeling-ballooning stability analysis with the ELITE code suggests that the ELMs which persist during the RMPs when beta(N) is below the observed threshold are not type I ELMs, because the pedestal conditions are deep within the stable regime for peeling-ballooning modes. These ELMs have similarities to type III ELMs or low density ELMs.

  7. KSTAR stability and rotation control results for high normalized beta plasmas exceeding the ideal MHD no-wall stability limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Jeon, Y. M.; Lee, S. G.; Ko, W. H.; Hahn, S. H.; Bak, J. G.; You, K.-I.; Park, J. K.; Choi, M. J.; Yun, G. S.; Park, H. K.

    2013-10-01

    Plasma stability parameters in KSTAR have reached and exceeded the n = 1 ideal no-wall limit computed for H-mode profiles. Normalized beta up to 2.9 has been achieved and sustained with plasma internal inductance near 0.75. The ratio ?N/li has exceeded 3.6 (an 80% increase over the prior year). Plasma stored energy has exceeded 0.5 MJ. Non-axisymmetric field spectra with dominant n = 2 component were applied to alter the plasma rotation profile by non-resonant neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV). The rotation profile was significantly altered without tearing activity or mode locking. Changing the in-vessel control coil current in steps altered rotation in a controlled fashion without hysteresis. The core rotation was lowered by 50% as measured by charge exchange spectroscopy, x-ray crystal spectrometer, and supported by magnetic diagnostics. H-mode energy confinement was maintained at reduced rotation while the resultant profile was peaked, as found in L-mode. Tearing mode onset conditions and mode locking criteria due to the applied n = 1, 2 applied fields were investigated. Additionally, ELMs were mitigated using sufficient n = 2 field strength by using midplane coils alone. Advances from the recent run campaign will be reported. Supported by U.S. DOE grant DE-FG02-99ER54524.

  8. Investigation of complexity dynamics of inverse and normal homoclinic bifurcation in a glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Debajyoti Kumar Shaw, Pankaj; Janaki, M. S.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.; Ghosh, Sabuj; Mitra, Vramori Michael Wharton, Alpha

    2014-03-15

    Order-chaos-order was observed in the relaxation oscillations of a glow discharge plasma with variation in the discharge voltage. The first transition exhibits an inverse homoclinic bifurcation followed by a homoclinic bifurcation in the second transition. For the two regimes of observations, a detailed analysis of correlation dimension, Lyapunov exponent, and Renyi entropy was carried out to explore the complex dynamics of the system.

  9. Congenital Seminal Vesicle Cyst Associated with Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hun Soo; Rim, Joung Sik

    2009-01-01

    Purpose A seminal vesicle cyst in combination with ipsilateral renal agenesis is rarely encountered. We present cases of this disease entity with symptoms, which were treated with a laparoscopic approach as a minimally invasive surgical treatment. Materials and Methods We experienced 4 patients with seminal vesicle cysts and ipsilateral renal agenesis. The mean age was 45.8 years. Chief complaints were perineal pain and hematospermia. Seminal vesicle cysts and remnant ureters were excised by laparoscopic surgery with transperitoneal approaches. Results The mean operative time was 133.8 minutes. The mean hospital stay was 6.8 days. There were no operative complications or transfusions. Conclusion In our report, patients of congenital seminal vesicle cyst associated with renal agenesis are presented. Laparoscopy is considered a minimal invasive management of these combined anomalies, providing a good image and an easy approach. PMID:19718406

  10. A short study of the seminal colliculus in some mammals.

    PubMed

    Shehata, R

    1980-01-01

    The seminal colliculus is completely absent in the donkey. It is fibroglandular in the males of camel, ox, buffalo and pig. Prostatic acini are richly found in its depth. They are lined by cubical or low columnar epithelium, are separated from each other by trabeculae of connective tissue and smooth muscle, and separated from the deeper prostrate gland by the striated muscle of the urethra. A rare type of seminal colliculus was once encountered in the ox. This type is muscular with autonomic ganglia and complete absence of glandular acini. It seems that the seminal colliculus shares the prostate in its glandular functions and prevents oozing of semen from the seminal ducts. PMID:7386162

  11. Maternal plasma concentrations of magnesium, calcium, zinc and copper in normal and pathological pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Borella, P; Szilagyi, A; Than, G; Csaba, I; Giardino, A; Facchinetti, F

    1990-12-01

    In this study, plasma levels of magnesium, calcium, zinc and copper were simultaneously determined in pregnancies complicated by either abortion, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), diabetes or EPH (edema, proteinuria, hypertension) gestosis. The levels of the four cations in non-pregnant women and in healthy, pregnant women were also determined. Compared with controls, a significant decrease in magnesium, with increase of the Ca/Mg ratio, was found in spontaneous abortions, but not when patients had a successful continuation of pregnancy. In EPH gestosis, total calcium was reduced, with a significant decrease of the plasma Ca/Mg ratio. A slight, but significant, increase in plasma zinc was observed in women affected by either diabetes or IUGR, probably as a result of reduced zinc uptake by the fetus. In addition, higher copper levels were found in the pathologies studied, with the exception of missed abortions. The possible role of an altered Ca/Mg ratio homeostasis in relation to gestational pathologies is discussed. PMID:2270473

  12. The interaction of atmospheric pressure plasma jets with cancer and normal cells: generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and changes of the cell proliferation and cell cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Tae Hun; Joh, Hea Min; Kim, Sun Ja; Leem, Sun Hee

    2013-09-01

    The possibility of atmospheric pressure plasmas is emerging as a candidate in cancer therapy. The primary role is played by reactive oxygen species (ROS), UV photons, charged particles and electric fields. Among them, intracellular ROS induced by plasma are considered to be the key constituents that induce cellular changes and apoptosis. In this study, the effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on cancer cells (human lung carcinoma cells) and normal cells (embryonic kidney cells and bronchial epithelial cells) were investigated. The plasma treatment was performed under different working gases, applied voltages, gas flow rates, and with and without additive oxygen flow. Using a detection dye, we observed that plasma exposure leads to the increase of the intracellular ROS and that the intracellular ROS production can be controlled by plasma parameters. A significant ROS generation was induced by plasma exposure on cancer cells and the overproduction of ROS contributes to the reduced cell proliferation. Normal cells were observed to be less affected by the plasma-mediated ROS and cell proliferation was less changed. The plasma treatment also resulted in the alteration of the cell cycle that contributes to the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. The selective effect on cancer and normal cells provides a promising prospect of cold plasma as cancer therapy. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea under Contract No. 2012R1A1A2002591 and 2012R1A1A3010213.

  13. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and change of cell viability induced by atmospheric pressure plasma in normal and cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ja Kim, Sun; Min Joh, Hea; Chung, T. H.

    2013-10-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on cancer cells (human lung carcinoma cells) and normal cells (embryonic kidney cells and bronchial epithelial cells) were investigated. Using a detection dye, the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found to be increased in plasma-treated cells compared to non-treated and gas flow-treated cells. A significant overproduction of ROS and a reduction in cell viability were induced by plasma exposure on cancer cells. Normal cells were observed to be less affected by the plasma-mediated ROS, and cell viability was less changed. The selective effect on cancer and normal cells provides a promising prospect of cold plasma as a cancer therapy.

  14. Imbalance in Seminal Fluid MIF Indicates Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Aljabari, Bayan; Calogero, Aldo E; Perdichizzi, Anna; Vicari, Enzo; Karaki, Raja; Lahloub, Tarek; Zatari, Rashed; El-Abed, Khaleel; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Miller, Edmund J; Pavlov, Valentin A; Al-Abed, Yousef

    2007-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a ubiquitous cytokine that functions in reproduction and plays an important role in sperm maturation and motility. Here we reveal a correlation between MIF levels in human seminal fluid and fertility status. We identify an abnormal biphasic profile of MIF in the seminal fluid of patients with impaired sperm parameters. Our findings may be of interest for the development of a diagnostic method for fertility status. PMID:17592555

  15. L-4F Alters Hyperlipidemic (but not Normal) Mouse Plasma to Reduce Platelet Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Buga, Georgette M.; Navab, Mohamad; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Yekta, Babak; Hough, Greg; Chanslor, Shawn; Anantharamaiah, G.M.; Fogelman, Alan M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Hyperlipidemia is associated with platelet hyper-reactivity. We hypothesized that L-4F, an apoA-I mimetic peptide, would inhibit platelet aggregation in hyperlipidemic mice. Methods and Results Injecting L-4F into apoE null and LDL receptor null mice resulted in a significant reduction in platelet aggregation in response to agonists but there was no reduction in platelet aggregation after injection of L-4F into wild-type (WT) mice. Consistent with these results, injection of L-4F into apoE null mice prolonged bleeding time but not in WT mice. Incubating L-4F in vitro with apoE null platelet rich plasma also resulted in decreased platelet aggregation. However, incubating washed platelets from either apoE null or WT mice with L-4F did not alter aggregation. Compared to wild-type mice, unstimulated platelets from apoE null mice contained significantly more 12-HETE, thromboxane A2 (TXA2), prostaglandins D2 (PGD2) and E2 (PGE2). In response to agonists, platelets from L-4F treated apoE null mice formed significantly less TXA2, PGD2 PGE2, and 12-HETE. Conclusions By binding plasma oxidized lipids that cause platelet hyper-reactivity in hyperlipidemic mice, L-4F decreases platelet aggregation. PMID:19965777

  16. Metabolomics of Human Amniotic Fluid and Maternal Plasma during Normal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Deja, Stanislaw; Hirnle, Lidia; Zabek, Adam; Mlynarz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic profiles of amniotic fluid and maternal blood are sources of valuable information about fetus development and can be potentially useful in diagnosis of pregnancy disorders. In this study, we applied 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling to track metabolic changes occurring in amniotic fluid (AF) and plasma (PL) of healthy mothers over the course of pregnancy. AF and PL samples were collected in the 2nd (T2) and 3rd (T3) trimester, prolonged pregnancy (PP) until time of delivery (TD). A multivariate data analysis of both biofluids reviled a metabolic switch-like transition between 2nd and 3rd trimester, which was followed by metabolic stabilization throughout the rest of pregnancy probably reflecting the stabilization of fetal maturation and development. The differences were further tested using univariate statistics at α = 0.001. In plasma the progression from T2 to T3 was related to increasing levels of glycerol, choline and ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) while pyruvate concentration was significantly decreased. In amniotic fluid, T2 to T3 transition was associated with decreasing levels of glucose, carnitine, amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine, alanine, methionine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine) and increasing levels of creatinine, succinate, pyruvate, choline, N,N-dimethylglycine and urocanate. Lactate to pyruvate ratio was decreased in AF and conversely increased in PL. The results of our study, show that metabolomics profiling can be used to better understand physiological changes of the complex interdependencies of the mother, the placenta and the fetus during pregnancy. In the future, these results might be a useful reference point for analysis of complicated pregnancies. PMID:27070784

  17. Plasma 3 alpha-androstanediol glucuronide in normal children and in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lopes, L A; Catzeflis, C; Cicotti, I; Rey, C; Sizonenko, P C

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring therapy for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase is difficult, although plasma determinations of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), delta 4-androstenedione (delta 4A) and testosterone are helpful. We have studied the usefulness of monitoring plasma 3 alpha-androstanediol glucuronide (3 alpha-AG) in group of 24 CAH patients aged from birth to 18 years. For comparison, normal values for age and pubertal stage were determined in a control group of 115 girls and 118 boys. Mean plasma levels were higher during the first year of life, decreased to a nadir between 1 and 4 years, and increased steadily thereafter, there was also a significant increase with pubertal stage. In 24 pairs of blood samples obtained at the time of venopuncture and 2 h after, 3 alpha-AG levels did not change (p > 0.05) demonstrating that 3 alpha-AG levels were not affected by stress. In the patients with CAH, positive correlations between plasma 3 alpha-AG and delta 4A (females, r = 0.73; males, r = 0.98), 17OHP (females, r = 0.58; males, r = 0.84) and testosterone (females, r = 0.83; males, r = 0.97) were observed. Concordance between 3 alpha-AG and delta 4A was observed in 90% of all samples, and in 91% between 3 alpha-AG and testosterone. Our study demonstrates that 3 alpha-AG is a valid marker of control and its determination appears to be a reliable tool to monitor CAH. PMID:9195208

  18. Effect of season on seminal traits and serum hormone concentrations in captive male Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Byers, A P; Hunter, A G; Seal, U S; Graham, E F; Tilson, R L

    1990-09-01

    Electroejaculates and serum samples were collected throughout the year from 5 male Siberian tigers. Semen quality, seminal plasma chemistry and serum hormone concentrations were evaluated and analysed as a function of season. Semen volume, concentration, motility, viability and morphology were not influenced by season. The ability of spermatozoa to undergo capacitation and penetrate zona-free hamster eggs did not differ due to season. Season had no influence on seminal plasma concentrations of acid phosphatase, calcium, glucose, potassium and phosphorus. Serum values of thyroxine and triiodothyronine were lowest (P = 0.002 and P = 0.03, respectively) during the summer months while cortisol showed no seasonal variation. Serum testosterone concentrations were higher in fall and early winter (P less than 0.001) than at other times of the year but were not correlated with semen quality. These results demonstrate that season has no effect on the semen production and quality of captive male Siberian tigers. PMID:2231534

  19. Seminal vesicle abscess after acute prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Sinues Ojas, Bryan A; Garrido Abad, Pablo; Herranz Fernández, Luis Miguel; Fernández Arjona, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    A 45 year old male was referred to our clinic after an episode of acute prostatitis six weeks before, treated with ciprofloxacin for one month. Genital examination was normal with prostate slightly painful on DRE. PMID:26677472

  20. The Application of Pediatric Ureteroscope for Seminal Vesiculoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shulin; Xie, Donghua; He, Xiangfei; Du, Chuance; Zhu, Lunfeng; Deng, Xiaolin; Yang, Zhongsheng

    2015-01-01

    To describe a novel technique of transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy using a pediatric ureteroscope in the diagnosis and management of persistent hematospermia, a retrospective study was carried out for 20 patients with recurrent hematospermia whom we evaluated and treated using a 6–7.5F (6F front end and 7.5F rear end) pediatric ureteroscope from August 2009 to September 2013. For the 20 patients, the age ranges from 25 to 48 years with a mean age of 36 years. The duration of the hematospermia ranges from 6 to 48 months with a mean duration of 18 months. Transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy was successfully performed in the 20 cases and the mean operative time was 35 min (ranges from 25 to 90 min). Among the 20 patients, 11 patients were found to have seminal vesiculitis, five were with seminal vesicle stone, one was with prostatic utricle stone, one was with prostate cyst, and one was with ejaculatory duct obstruction. The mean follow-up period was 7 months (ranged from 6 to 12 months). Hematospermia in 19 cases disappeared after the surgery and only in one patient the hematospermia recurred 6 months after the surgery. The cure rate was 95%. This study indicated that transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy could be performed easily using a semirigid pediatric ureteroscope with few complications and is an effective therapeutic approach for persistent hematospermia. PMID:26576299

  1. 4D tracking of clinical seminal samples for quantitative characterization of motility parameters

    PubMed Central

    Di Caprio, Giuseppe; El Mallahi, Ahmed; Ferraro, Pietro; Dale, Roberta; Coppola, Gianfranco; Dale, Brian; Coppola, Giuseppe; Dubois, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of a digital holographic microscope, with partial spatial coherent illumination, for the automated detection and tracking of spermatozoa. This in vitro technique for the analysis of quantitative parameters is useful for assessment of semen quality. In fact, thanks to the capabilities of digital holography, the developed algorithm allows us to resolve in-focus amplitude and phase maps of the cells under study, independently of focal plane of the sample image. We have characterized cell motility on clinical samples of seminal fluid. In particular, anomalous sperm cells were characterized and the quantitative motility parameters were compared to those of normal sperm. PMID:24688806

  2. Differential expression of SLAMS and other modulatory molecules by human plasma cells during normal maturation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bayona, Beatriz; Ramos-Amaya, Ana; Brieva, José A

    2011-01-30

    Plasma cells (PCs) are specialized in antibody (Ab) production and they are, therefore, responsible for maintaining humoral immune responses. The human PC compartment is heterogeneous. PCs from inductive secondary lymphoid organs and from peripheral blood (PB) show less capability for prolonged survival and Ab production than bone marrow (BM) PCs, a pool consisting of fully mature cells. The HLDA9 workshop has allowed the use of labeled-monoclonal Abs (moAbs) recognizing a variety of recently identified lymphocyte modulatory surface receptors. In this study, flow cytometry analysis has been used to define the presence of these receptors on human PCs obtained from human tonsil (as an example of inductive organ), from PB and from BM. It was found that human PCs commonly expressed SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), SLAMF3 (CD229), SLAMF6 (CD352) and SLAMF7 (CD319), but not SLAMF4 (CD244). In addition, PCs distinctively showed a low level of SLAMF5 (CD84) and a very high level of SLAMF7 expression in comparison with earlier stages of B cell maturation. All PC subsets exhibited a similar pattern of expression of SLAMF receptors suggesting a stage-dependent role for these proteins. In addition, most circulating PCs clearly expressed TNFRSF14 (CD270), BTLA (CD272), B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86), and a substantial fraction of them were also positive for TNFRSF18 (CD357), FCRL1 (CD307a) and LAIR-1 (CD305). In contrast, tonsil and BM PCs only exhibited partial expression of TNFRSF14 and B7-2, a pattern of molecular expression similar to that detected on germinal center (GC) B cells. Present results indicate that human PCs exhibit a common pattern of SLAMF proteins, but differ in the rest of the receptors examined; this difference might be associated with their distinctive homing and functional requirements. PMID:20923684

  3. Predicting hydrogen isotope inventory in plasma-facing components during normal and abnormal operations in fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Alice; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen isotope behavior and inventory in plasma-facing components (PFCs) of fusion devices are key concerns for safe, reliable, and economical operation. To accurately estimate hydrogen isotope retention and recovery in tungsten (the current leading candidate as a PFC), we have developed a model that was recently benchmarked against isotope depth profile and retention level in a tungsten target under various conditions and compared with both experimental data and simulation results. In this research, we have extended the model to include details of transient events. Therefore, one can use this model to estimate hydrogen isotope retention behavior in tungsten and potential other PFC candidates during normal operational pulse, effects of edge-localized modes (ELMs), and a possible cleaning processes scenario.

  4. The effect of protein or carbohydrate breakfasts on subsequent plasma amino acid levels, satiety and nutrient selection in normal males.

    PubMed

    Teff, K L; Young, S N; Blundell, J E

    1989-12-01

    Normal subjects were fed protein or carbohydrate breakfasts. Both meals were in the form of a chocolate pudding and had similar sensory qualities. At lunchtime subjects were allowed to select from a buffet. The protein breakfast had a greater satiating power than the carbohydrate breakfast, but there was no difference in overall selection of protein or carbohydrate at lunchtime. However, the carbohydrate breakfast did decrease selection of apple, the only pure carbohydrate food available at lunchtime. In a second experiment changes in plasma amino acid levels were studied after subjects received carbohydrate breakfasts containing 0, 4, 8 or 12% protein, or a danish pastry. Only the 0% protein breakfast increased tryptophan availability to the brain. These experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that alterations in brain 5-hydroxytryptamine, brought about by dietary alterations in brain tryptophan, regulate selection of protein and carbohydrate. The results suggest that this mechanism was not operating in our experiments. PMID:2623036

  5. Euglena plasma membrane during normal and vitamin B12 starvation growth.

    PubMed

    Lefort-Tran, M; Bre, M H; Ranck, J L; Pouphile, M

    1980-02-01

    Freeze-fracture and optical diffraction techniques were used to study the organization of the Euglena pellicle during the normal and replicative stages of the cell cycle and during vitamin B12 starvation. It was shown that the diffuse layer underlying the tripartite structure has a fibrillar structure. Despite the absence of homology in the 2 fracture faces of the pellicle, the EF striated and the PF particulate ones appear complementary as shown by optical diffraction studies; it must therefore be considered as a true membrane. The grooves are free from such particles and striations. They appear as a specific pattern of the cortex, different from the ridges in their structural organization and their replicative capacity as observed during vitamin B12 starvation. This notion is confirmed by the mode of pellicular growth which is characterized by 2 steps. The first occurs during the early replicative stage (pre-mitotic phase of the cell cycle) when the formation of a new ridge is correlated with the appearance of the 'minor' orientation of a 2-dimensional lattice on the EF and the PF faces and the spread of the particles over the PF face of the space between the old ridges. The second takes place during the lengthening of the ridges from the initiating posterior side (non-replicative stage). During this second step, the 'major' orientation of the lattice is preferentially observed in control cells and exclusively in starved cells. The striking differences between the grooves and the ridges is discussed, as well as the 2 modes of growth and their significance in morphogenesis. PMID:6767733

  6. CD44 isoforms distinguish between bone marrow plasma cells from normal individuals and patients with multiple myeloma at different stages of disease.

    PubMed

    van Driel, M; Günthert, U; Stauder, R; Joling, P; Lokhorst, H M; Bloem, A C

    1998-11-01

    CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v) have been shown to be important factors in adverse prognosis in hematological malignancies. To investigate whether CD44 expression is associated with malignant transformation in multiple myeloma, RNA and protein expression of CD44 standard (CD44s) and CD44v4, v6, v9, v10 containing isoforms was compared on bone marrow plasma cells from normal individuals and myeloma patients at different stages of disease. CD44s protein expression is strongly decreased on myeloma plasma cells and non-malignant B cells in affected bone marrow of myeloma patients, while no differences in CD44s expression were found between blood B cells from normal individuals and myeloma patients. CD44v isoforms were expressed on plasma cells in the majority of normal and myeloma samples analyzed. CD44v9 and v10 containing isoforms were differentially expressed on bone marrow plasma cells from normal individuals (predominantly CD44v9+v10+) and myeloma patients with stable (predominantly CD44v9-v10+) or progressive (predominantly CD44v9+v10- disease. Normal and myeloma plasma cells contained CD44 mRNA transcripts consisting of multiple CD44v exons. In addition, CD44v9 positive myeloma cells carried large CD44 transcripts. These results imply that detection of CD44v isoforms may be a valuable diagnostic tool for monitoring myeloma disease progression and response to treatment. PMID:9823960

  7. Effect of mode of birth on purine and malondialdehyde in umbilical arterial plasma in normal term newborns

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, TC; Wu, W; Rawson, RA; Sakala, EP; Sowers, LC; Boskovic, DS; Angeles, DM

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of mode of birth on plasma purine and malondialdehyde levels in normal term infants. Study Design Umbilical arterial cord blood was obtained immediately after birth from a convenience sample of 119 normal term newborns born by vaginal delivery, with or without oxytocin augmentation or by elective cesarean delivery. Plasma was analyzed for purine and/or malondialdehyde levels. Numeric data were analyzed utilizing independent samples t-test and ordinal data were analyzed using Mann–Whitney test. Correlation coefficients were obtained using Spearman’s ρ. Result Uric acid levels were significantly elevated (P<0.001) in neonates undergoing vaginal birth, compared to neonates born by elective cesarean delivery. When the effect of oxytocin and length of labor was analyzed, neonates born to mothers on oxytocin had lower hypoxanthine, significantly lower xanthine (P = 0.05) and higher uric acid levels. In addition, malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher (P<0.006) in neonates born to mothers who received oxytocin compared to neonates born to mothers without oxytocin augmentation. We also found significant correlations between malondialdehyde (MDA) and hypoxanthine (r = −0.465, P< 0.039) and between MDA and xanthine (r = −0.753, P = 0.003) in neonates born via oxytocin-augmented birth. Mode of birth had no statistically significant effect on clinical outcomes, although infants born by elective cesarean had higher incidence of acute respiratory distress and transient tachypnea of the newborn compared to those born vaginally. Conclusion Neonates born by elective cesarean had the lowest purine levels in cord blood compared to neonates born vaginally. Oxytocin augmentation is associated with some degree of uterine hyperstimulation which may enhance the ATP degradation pathway resulting in the rapid conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid. Significantly higher MDA levels in neonates whose mothers received oxytocin as well as significant correlation between MDA and the purines hypoxanthine and xanthine, suggest free-radical production, most likely due to xanthine oxidase activation. However, despite differences in plasma purine and malondialdehyde levels, no significant differences were seen in neonatal outcome. Further studies are required to fully characterize the effect of mode of birth on purine metabolism and free-radical production. PMID:18368062

  8. Postcoital Hemorrhage of a Recurrent Seminal Vesicle Cyst Requiring Embolization☆

    PubMed Central

    Royston, Eric; Walker, Marc; Ching, Brian; Morilla, Daniel; Sterbis, Joseph; McMann, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Herein is a case of a 23-year-old man with recurrence of a seminal vesicle cyst after percutaneous drainage and laparoscopic excision complicated by hemorrhage requiring embolization. He presented to the emergency department for pain after ejaculation. Computed tomographic scan of his pelvis revealed extravasation of contrast near his cyst and pelvic fluid collection suspicious for a hematoma. The patient had steadily decreasing hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. An interventional radiologist performed an embolization of the left seminal vesicle cystic arteries. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values improved and he was discharged. Hemorrhage resolved with embolization procedure and pain dissipated over the course of follow up care. PMID:26958478

  9. Postcoital Hemorrhage of a Recurrent Seminal Vesicle Cyst Requiring Embolization.

    PubMed

    Royston, Eric; Walker, Marc; Ching, Brian; Morilla, Daniel; Sterbis, Joseph; McMann, Leah

    2014-09-01

    Herein is a case of a 23-year-old man with recurrence of a seminal vesicle cyst after percutaneous drainage and laparoscopic excision complicated by hemorrhage requiring embolization. He presented to the emergency department for pain after ejaculation. Computed tomographic scan of his pelvis revealed extravasation of contrast near his cyst and pelvic fluid collection suspicious for a hematoma. The patient had steadily decreasing hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. An interventional radiologist performed an embolization of the left seminal vesicle cystic arteries. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values improved and he was discharged. Hemorrhage resolved with embolization procedure and pain dissipated over the course of follow up care. PMID:26958478

  10. Cytochrome P450-2D6*4 polymorphism seminal relationship in infertile men.

    PubMed

    Zalata, A; El-Samanoudy, A Z; Osman, G; Elhanbly, S; Nada, H A; Mostafa, T

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to assess cytochrome (CY) P450-2D6*4 polymorphism relationship with semen variables in infertile men. In all, 308 men were included; fertile normozoospermia (N) (n = 77), asthenozoospermia (A) (n = 70), asthenoteratozoospermia (AT) (n = 75) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) (n = 86). They were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, semen analysis, sperm acrosin activity, seminal malondialdehyde (MDA) and CYP450-2D6*4 genotyping. CYP450-2D6*4 wild-type allele was represented in 76.5% of N, 70% of A, 66.7% of AT and 57.7% of OAT men where homozygous gene mutation was present in 5.9% of N, 20% of A, 26.6% of AT and 26.9% of OAT men, respectively. Sperm acrosin activity, sperm concentration, sperm motility, linear sperm velocity and sperm normal forms were significantly higher, and seminal MDA level was significantly lower in men with CYP450-2D6*4 wild-type allele compared with men with homozygous mutation. It is concluded that CYP450-2D6*4 wild-type allele has higher frequency where homozygous-type allele has lower frequency in N men compared with A, AT and OAT men. Sperm acrosin activity index, sperm concentration, sperm motility, linear sperm velocity and sperm normal forms were significantly higher, and seminal MDA level was significantly lower in men with CYP450-2D6*4 wild-type allele compared with men with homozygous mutation. PMID:24865344

  11. Studies on Mechanisms of Cerebral Edema in Diabetic Comas. EFFECTS OF HYPERGLYCEMIA AND RAPID LOWERING OF PLASMA GLUCOSE IN NORMAL RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Arieff, Allen I.; Kleeman, Charles R.

    1973-01-01

    To investigate the pathophysiology of cerebral edema occurring during treatment of diabetic coma, the effects of hyperglycemia and rapid lowering of plasma glucose were evaluated in normal rabbits. During 2 h of hyperglycemia (plasma glucose=61 mM), both brain (cerebral cortex) and muscle initially lost about 10% of water content. After 4 h of hyperglycemia, skeletal muscle water content remained low but that of brain was normal. Brain osmolality (Osm) (343 mosmol/kg H2O) was similar to that of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (340 mosmol/kg), but increases in the concentration of Na+, K+, Cl-, glucose, sorbitol, lactate, urea, myoinositol, and amino acids accounted for only about half of this increase. The unidentified solute was designated “idiogenic osmoles”. When plasma glucose was rapidly lowered to normal with insulin, there was gross brain edema, increases in brain content of water, Na+, K+, Cl- and idiogenic osmoles, and a significant osmotic gradient from brain (326 mosmol/kg H2O) to plasma (287 mosmol/kg). By similarly lowering plasma glucose with peritoneal dialysis, increases in brain Na+, K+, Cl-, and water were significantly less, idiogenic osmoles were not present, and brain and plasma Osm were not different. It is concluded that during sustained hyperglycemia, the cerebral cortex adapts to extracellular hyperosmolality primarily by accumulation of idiogenic osmoles rather than loss of water or gain in solute. When plasma glucose is rapidly lowered with insulin, an osmotic gradient develops from brain to plasma. Despite the brain to plasma osmotic gradient, there is no net movement of water into brain until plasma glucose has fallen to at least 14 mM, at which time cerebral edema occurs. Images PMID:4685082

  12. High normalized beta plasmas exceeding the ideal stability limit and projected RWM active stabilization performance using newly installed feedback sensors in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Berkery, J. W.; Bialek, J. M.; Yoon, S. W.; Jeon, Y. M.; Bak, J. G.; Ko, W. H.; Hahn, S. H.; Bae, C.; Bae, Y. S.; in, Y. K.; Kim, J.; Lee, S. G.; Kwak, J. G.; Oh, Y. K.; Park, H. K.; Choi, M. J.; Yun, G. S.

    2015-11-01

    H-mode plasma operation of KSTAR has been expanded to significantly surpass the ideal MHD no-wall beta limit by achieving normalized beta up to 4.3 while reducing plasma internal inductance to near 0.7 exceeding the computed n = 1 ideal no-wall limit by a factor of 1.6. These high normalized beta values have been achieved in discharges having BT in the range 0.9-1.1 T after the plasma reached flattop current of 0.35-0.4 MA, with the highest neutral beam heating power of 4 MW. A significant conclusion of the analysis of these plasmas is that low- n global kink/ballooning or RWMs were not detected, and therefore were not the cause of the plasma termination. Advances from the 2015 run campaign aiming to achieve prolonged pulse duration at maximum normalized beta and to subsequently investigate the MHD stability of these plasmas will be reported. As KSTAR H-mode operation can now routinely surpass the ideal no-wall stability limit, n = 1 RWM active control is planned for the device. RWM active feedback using a newly installed set of poloidal magnetic field sensors mounted on the passive stabilizer plates and designed for optimal performance is analyzed using the VALEN-3D code. The advantages of the new sensors over other device sensors for RWM active control are discussed. Supported by U.S. DOE grant DE-FG02-99ER54524.

  13. Mated Drosophila melanogaster females require a seminal fluid protein, Acp36DE, to store sperm efficiently.

    PubMed Central

    Neubaum, D M; Wolfner, M F

    1999-01-01

    Mated females of many animal species store sperm. Sperm storage profoundly influences the number, timing, and paternity of the female's progeny. To investigate mechanisms for sperm storage in Drosophila melanogaster, we generated and analyzed mutations in Acp36DE. Acp36DE is a male seminal fluid protein whose localization in mated females suggested a role in sperm storage. We report that male-derived Acp36DE is essential for efficient sperm storage by females. Acp36DE(1) (null) mutant males produced and transferred normal amounts of sperm and seminal fluid proteins. However, mates of Acp36DE(1) males stored only 15% as many sperm and produced 10% as many adult progeny as control-mated females. Moreover, without Acp36DE, mated females failed to maintain an elevated egg-laying rate and decreased receptivity, behaviors whose persistence (but not initiation) normally depends on the presence of stored sperm. Previous studies suggested that a barrier in the oviduct confines sperm and Acp36DE to a limited area near the storage organs. We show that Acp36DE is not required for barrier formation, but both Acp36DE and the barrier are required for maximal sperm storage. Acp36DE associates tightly with sperm. Our results indicate that Acp36DE is essential for the initial storage of sperm, and that it may also influence the arrangement and retention of stored sperm. PMID:10511562

  14. Pathway-Based Genome-Wide Association Studies for Plasma Triglycerides in Obese Females and Normal-Weight Controls

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Struan F. A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Price, R. Arlen; Li, Wei-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Pathway-based analysis as an alternative approach can provide complementary information to single-marker genome-wide association studies (GWASs), which always ignore the epistasis and does not have sufficient power to find rare variants. In this study, using genotypes from a genome-wide association study (GWAS), pathway-based association studies were carried out by a modified Gene Set Enrichment Algorithm (GSEA) method (GenGen) for triglyceride in 1028 unrelated European-American extremely obese females (BMI≥35kg/m2) and normal-weight controls (BMI<25kg/m2), and another pathway association analysis (ICSNPathway) was also used to verify the GenGen result in the same data. The GO0009110 pathway (vitamin anabolism) was among the strongest associations with triglyceride (empirical P<0.001); the result remained significant after FDR correction (P = 0.022). MMAB, an obesity-related locus, included in this pathway. The ABCG1 and BCL6 gene was found in several triglyceride-related pathways (empirical P<0.05), which were also replicated by ICSNPathway (empirical P<0.05, FDR<0.05). We also performed single-marked GWAS using PLINK for TG levels (log-transformed). Significant associations were found between ASTN2 gene SNPs and plasma triglyceride levels (rs7035794, P = 2.24×10−10). Our study suggested that vitamin anabolism pathway, BCL6 gene pathways and ASTN2 gene may contribute to the genetic variation of plasma triglyceride concentrations. PMID:26308950

  15. Effects of Soy-derived diets on plasma and liver lipids, glucose tolerance, and longevity in normal, long-lived and short-lived mice.

    PubMed

    Bartke, A; Peluso, M R; Moretz, N; Wright, C; Bonkowski, M; Winters, T A; Shanahan, M F; Kopchick, J J; Banz, W J

    2004-08-01

    We examined the effects of diets based on a low isoflavone or a high isoflavone soy protein isolates in normal, growth-hormone receptor knockout and Ames dwarf, and Prop 1 (df) mice that are hypoinsulinemic, insulin-sensitive, and exceptionally long-lived, as well as in growth hormone transgenic mice that are hyperinsulinemic, insulin-resistant, dyslipidemic, and short-lived. Soybean diets tended to normalize plasma cholesterol levels in dwarf and transgenic mice, while low isoflavone diet reduced plasma triglycerides in most of the examined genotypes. The effects of low isoflavone and high isoflavone diets on the levels of free and esterified cholesterol in the liver were strongly genotype-dependent. Fasting blood glucose levels were reduced and glucose tolerance improved by both low isoflavone and high isoflavone diets in growth hormone-transgenic mice and in their normal siblings. Glucose tolerance was also improved by high-isoflavone diet in growth hormone receptor knockout mice. Lifespan was increased by low isoflavone diet in normal mice from two of the examined stocks. High isoflavone diet increased lifespan in normal animals from one line, but reduced lifespan of normal mice from a different line. We conclude that dietary soy protein intake can improve plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, reduce fasting glucose, enhance capacity for glucose tolerance, and prolong life, but all of these effects are strongly genotype-dependent. PMID:15326565

  16. 21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. 866.5800 Section 866.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. 866.5800 Section 866.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid...

  18. An unusual cause of hematospermia: Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle

    PubMed Central

    Eken, Alper; Izol, Volkan; Aridogan, I. Atilla; Erdogan, Seyda; Acıkalın, Arbil; Tansug, Zuhtu

    2012-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles is one of the rare causes of hematospermia. Primary seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose due to frequent invasion of adenocarcinomas of the surrounding organs, especially the prostate. In the present study, a case of a primary seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma will be discussed in the light of the current literature. PMID:23283099

  19. A comparison of high performance gel permeation chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the analysis of plasma from normal subjects and cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Chmurny, G.N.; Mellini, M.L.; Halverson, D.; Issaq, H.J.; Muschik, G.M.; Urba, W.J.; McGregor, G.N.; Hilton, B.D.; Caporaso, N.; Smith, I.C.P.

    1988-01-01

    High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) was evaluated as an alternative to the more expensive Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy technique for cancer detection using human plasma. These two techniques show a biphasic relationship which can be explained on the basis of the relative amounts of the lipoprotein levels present in the plasma and a good correlation with total triglyceride concentrations obtained from standard blood tests. The major difference in the GPC elution profiles (254 nm) of plasma from normal individuals and that from cancer patients occurred in the peak eluting at the void volume. This peak has a retention time consistent with very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and is elevated in most cancer patients and in normal patients with triglyceride levels greater than 200 mg/ml. The use of these techniques as a screening test for cancer in an asymptomatic population needs further evaluation.

  20. Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, S.; Tanaka, K.; Kumagae, M.; Takeda, F.; Morio, K.; Kogure, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Watabe, T.; Miyabe, S.

    1988-01-01

    SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 ..mu..g of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values.

  1. Normally-off AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor on Si(111) by recessed gate and fluorine plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jyun-Hao; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Lai, Chao-Hsing; Su, Yan-Kuin

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the efficiency of using both recessed gate and fluorine plasma treatment to achieve normally-off high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT). It is found that, by a simple recess process, one cannot achieve normally off device with high drain current because of gate leakage problem after inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching for recessed structure. The proper method is adding fluorine treatment based on recess gate. The normally off GaN HEMTs with recess gate and fluorine treatment show very good performance. It is found that the threshold voltages can be shifted to +1.1 V, and the drain current at VGS - Vth = 2 V and VDS = 20 V was 218 mA/mm.

  2. Electron microscopic observations on the epithelium of ram seminal vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Plöen, L

    1980-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the secretory cells of the ram seminal vesicle was studied on material fixed by immersion or by vascular perfusion. The signs of apocrine secretion seen after immersion fixation did not appear after perfusion fixation and are therefore interpreted as artefacts. Instead, vacuoles with a granule in them were seen. Such vacuoles were observed in the Golgi apparatus and in the apical cytoplasm. Further indications of merocrine secretion were also found. It therefore appears that protein secretion in the ram seminal vesicle follows the typical pattern of serous glands. The possibility that fructose is extruded with the protein as the vacuoles open at the luminal cell surface is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7410195

  3. Seminal quality in the first fraction of ejaculate.

    PubMed

    Hebles, María; Dorado, Monica; Gallardo, Miguel; González-Martínez, Mercedes; Sánchez-Martín, Pacual

    2015-04-01

    Semen samples from 40 patients were collected in consecutive fractions. The variability in semen quality of each fraction was then determined. The first ejaculated fraction (FEF) primarily contained prostatic secretions, while the second ejaculate fraction (SEF) held the majority of the spermatozoa suspended in the secretions from the seminal vesicle. Differences in sperm quality were observed when the FEF was compared to the SEF and the total ejaculate fraction (TEF). These included the seminal parameters (volume, sperm concentration, motility) and sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF). When compared to TEF and SEF, the FEF presented a lower volume, higher sperm concentration, higher motility rates, and lower SDF. The data suggest that the first fraction renders an improved subpopulation of spermatozoa, with lower SDF. Spermatozoa from this fraction and hence their use for ART may have a positive effect on fertilization and embryo development. PMID:25547665

  4. Seminal biomarkers for the evaluation of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Bieniek, Jared M; Drabovich, Andrei P; Lo, Kirk C

    2016-01-01

    For men struggling to conceive with their partners, diagnostic tools are limited and often consist of only a standard semen analysis. This baseline test serves as a crude estimation of male fertility, leaving patients and clinicians in need of additional diagnostic biomarkers. Seminal fluid contains the highest concentration of molecules from the male reproductive glands, therefore, this review focuses on current and novel seminal biomarkers in certain male infertility scenarios, including natural fertility, differentiating azoospermia etiologies, and predicting assisted reproductive technique success. Currently available tests include antisperm antibody assays, DNA fragmentation index, sperm fluorescence in situ hybridization, and other historical sperm functional tests. The poor diagnostic ability of current assays has led to continued efforts to find more predictive biomarkers. Emerging research in the fields of genomics, epigenetics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics holds promise for the development of novel male infertility biomarkers. Seminal protein-based assays of TEX101, ECM1, and ACRV1 are already available or under final development for clinical use. Additional panels of DNA, RNA, proteins, or metabolites are being explored as we attempt to understand the pathophysiologic processes of male infertility. Future ventures will need to continue data integration and validation for the development of clinically useful infertility biomarkers to aid in male infertility diagnosis, treatment, and counseling. PMID:26975492

  5. Seminal biomarkers for the evaluation of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Bieniek, Jared M; Drabovich, Andrei P; Lo, Kirk C

    2016-01-01

    For men struggling to conceive with their partners, diagnostic tools are limited and often consist of only a standard semen analysis. This baseline test serves as a crude estimation of male fertility, leaving patients and clinicians in need of additional diagnostic biomarkers. Seminal fluid contains the highest concentration of molecules from the male reproductive glands, therefore, this review focuses on current and novel seminal biomarkers in certain male infertility scenarios, including natural fertility, differentiating azoospermia etiologies, and predicting assisted reproductive technique success. Currently available tests include antisperm antibody assays, DNA fragmentation index, sperm fluorescence in situ hybridization, and other historical sperm functional tests. The poor diagnostic ability of current assays has led to continued efforts to find more predictive biomarkers. Emerging research in the fields of genomics, epigenetics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics holds promise for the development of novel male infertility biomarkers. Seminal protein-based assays of TEX101, ECM1, and ACRV1 are already available or under final development for clinical use. Additional panels of DNA, RNA, proteins, or metabolites are being explored as we attempt to understand the pathophysiologic processes of male infertility. Future ventures will need to continue data integration and validation for the development of clinically useful infertility biomarkers to aid in male infertility diagnosis, treatment, and counseling. PMID:26975492

  6. AB218. The size of seminal vesicles on ultrasound is related with premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Myriad biological factors have been proposed to explain premature ejaculation (PE). However, data correlating PE with seminal vesicles (SV) are sparse. The study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the size of SV on ultrasound and PE and to explore the potential mechanism of the relationship. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted that included 44 PE outpatients and another 44 male volunteers without PE. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), the International Index of Erectile Function-15 (IIEF) and the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) were used for assessment of symptoms. The size of SV and other ultrasound figures were compared between PE group and control group. Tandem mass tag (TMT) method followed by mass spectrometry analysis was used to compare the relative expression levels of seminal plasma proteins between PE group and control group. Results Compared to the control group, the PE group had significantly higher mean anterior-posterior diameter (APD) of SV. The optimal mean APD of SV cutoff level as identified by the maximal Youden index was 9.25 mm for PE. In the PE group, PEDT was also higher with mean APD of SV >9.25 mm compared with mean APD of SV <9.25 mm. PEDT was significantly correlated with mean APD of SV, even after adjusting for age, IIEF-15 erectile function score and NIH-CPSI pain domain and voiding domain score. Compared to the matched six control subjects, 102 proteins were at least 1.5-fold up- or down-regulated in seminal plasma of six PE patients. Among them, GGT1, LAMC1 and APP were significantly higher in the PE group. Conclusions Our results indicated that men with larger mean APD of SV might have a higher PEDT score. Transrectal ultrasound of SV should be considered in the clinical evaluation of patients with PE. The changes of SV might be associated with the higher expressed GGT1, LAMC1 and APP, which might further result in PE.

  7. The soluble form of Alzheimer's amyloid beta protein is complexed to high density lipoprotein 3 and very high density lipoprotein in normal human plasma.

    PubMed

    Koudinov, A; Matsubara, E; Frangione, B; Ghiso, J

    1994-12-15

    The amyloid fibrils of Alzheimer's neuritic plaques and cerebral blood vessels are mainly composed of aggregated forms of a 39 to 44 amino acids peptide, named amyloid beta (A beta). A similar although soluble form of A beta (sA beta) has been identified in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and cell culture supernatants, indicating that it is produced under physiologic conditions. We report here that sA beta in normal human plasma is associated with lipoprotein particles, in particular to the HDL3 and VHDL fractions where it is complexed to ApoJ and, to a lesser extent, to ApoAI. This was assessed by immunoprecipitation experiments of purified plasma lipoproteins and lipoprotein-depleted plasma and confirmed by means of amino acid sequence analysis. Moreover, biotinylated synthetic peptide A beta 1-40 was traced in normal human plasma in in vitro experiments. As in the case of sA beta, biotinylated A beta 1-40 was specifically recovered in the HDL3 and VHDL fractions. This data together with the previous demonstration that A beta 1-40 is taken up into the brain via a specific mechanism and possibly as an A beta 1-40-ApoJ complex indicate a role for HDL3- and VHDL-containing ApoJ in the transport of the peptide in circulation and suggest their involvement in the delivery of sA beta across the blood-brain barrier. PMID:7802646

  8. Metabolic control mechanisms in mammalian systems. Hormonal regulation of phosphofructokinase in the rat prostate and seminal vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Radhey L.; Valadares, J. R. E.

    1968-01-01

    1. The hormonal regulation of phosphofructokinase was investigated in the accessory reproductive organs of the orchidectomized rat. 2. Phosphofructokinase activities declined to 51% and 47% in the prostate and 9% and 6% of the normal values in seminal vesicles 4 and 8 weeks after castration respectively. Administration of testosterone (100μg./100g. body wt.) for 3 days reversed substantially the effects of orchidectomy, and phosphofructokinase activity increased to 173% in the prostate and 536% in seminal vesicles as compared with the values of castrated controls. 3. Time-course studies demonstrated that after a single injection of testosterone (5mg./100g. body wt.) phosphofructokinase activity was maximally elevated to 236% in the prostate and 342% in seminal vesicles at 24hr. 4. Dose–response studies revealed that 2·5mg. of testosterone propionate/100g. body wt. was the minimal amount necessary to induce significant increases in enzyme activity in both accessory sex organs; maximal increases were obtained with a dose of 5mg./100g. body wt. 5. The observed enzyme increases induced by testosterone were inhibited by the simultaneous administration of oestradiol-17β, and phosphofructokinase activity in this group of rats remained at 97% in the prostate and 137% of the control values in seminal vesicles. Oestradiol-17β by itself failed to produce any significant effect on enzyme activity in either of these secondary sexual tissues. 6. The nature of the testosterone-induced increases in phosphofructokinase activity was studied by using a variety of inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis. Cycloheximide, 5-fluorouracil and ethionine largely blocked the androgen-stimulated rise in enzyme activity observed 24hr. after steroid injection. The inhibitory effect of ethionine was completely reversed by the simultaneous administration of methionine. 7. Actinomycin, which is known to inhibit the synthesis of messenger RNA as well as the synthesis of other cellular RNA fractions, when given simultaneously with the hormone, also inhibited the testosterone-induced increases in prostatic and seminal-vesicular phosphofructokinase. However, when the antibiotic was given 6 or 12hr. after injection of the steroid, practically no inhibition of phosphofructokinase induction was obtained. This indicates that, once the enzyme-forming machinery is turned on and allowed to operate for a few hours, actinomycin is incapable of reversing the hormone-induced enzyme responses. 8. The results presented suggest that new RNA and protein synthesis may be involved in the observed androgen-induced increases in phosphofructokinase activity in the prostate and seminal vesicles of the orchidectomized rat. PMID:4178702

  9. Subsequent influences of feeding intact green seaweed Ulva lactuca to growing lambs on the seminal and testicular characteristics in rams.

    PubMed

    Samara, E M; Okab, A B; Abdoun, K A; El-Waziry, A M; Al-Haidary, A A

    2013-12-01

    The present experiment was designed to investigate the subsequent influences of supplementing different levels of intact green seaweed Ulva lactuca (0%, 3%, and 5% DM) to growing sexually immature lambs during the growth period (74 d) on the seminal and testicular characteristics of sexually mature rams. Ulva lactuca was manually collected, adequately prepared, and then incorporated into lambs' diets. Eighteen male 3-mo-old lambs of the Awassi breed with a mean BW of 22.57 kg (SD = 1.08) were randomly assigned into treatments. The obtained results indicate that offering Ulva lactuca at the level of 3% or 5% DM to lambs during the growth period had no subsequent impacts (P > 0.05) on liver and kidney functions as well as blood water balance in rams, thereby suggesting that Ulva lactuca can be safely supplemented to lambs during growing. However, our findings point out that feeding a lamb diet supplemented with intact Ulva lactuca failed to demonstrate any subsequent benefit (P > 0.05) on the growth performance, thermoregulatory responses, and plasma oxidative status in rams. Above all, it was clearly evident that supplementing intact Ulva lactuca to lambs had demonstrated subsequent negative influences (P < 0.05) on seminal and testicular characteristics of rams, more noticeably observed at the 5% DM inclusion rate than at 3%. These results were manifested by the inferior (P < 0.05) seminal quality, reduced (P < 0.05) testicular morphometry, changes (P < 0.05) in testicular histopathology, defective (P < 0.05) endocrine signaling, and increased (P < 0.05) seminal oxidative stress in rams fed diets supplemented with Ulva lactuca during the growth period compared to control rams. The deleterious impacts of feeding intact Ulva lactuca on spermatogenesis and germ cell loss were proven to be attributed to the dysfunction of Sertoli cells. Collectively, these results provide novel insights on the subsequent influences of dietary supplementation of intact Ulva lactuca to lambs. The consistent evidence of profound negative impacts on seminal and testicular characteristics as well as the resulting data of no improvement of subsequent growth, thermoregulation, and plasma oxidative status in rams prompts us to tentatively recommend the avoidance of feeding intact Ulva lactuca to lambs. PMID:24146153

  10. Free amino acids in semen: measurement and significance in normal and oligozoospermic men.

    PubMed

    Silvestroni, L; Morisi, G; Malandrino, F; Frajese, G

    1979-05-01

    Measurement of free amino acids in seminal plasma from fertile and infertile oligozoospermic subjects revealed a quantitative reduction of these molecules in infertile patients. Study of the effect of acidic media on seminal plasma appears to suggest the primary role of free amino acids in the "protection" of spermatozoa in the vagina, and the failure of sperm progression in the female genital tract may be due to a decrease of these molecules in semen of infertile patients. PMID:485649

  11. θ-Defensin RTD-1 improves insulin action and normalizes plasma glucose and FFA levels in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Tran, Dat; Buchanan, Thomas A; Selsted, Michael E; Youn, Jang H

    2015-07-15

    Inflammation is implicated in metabolic abnormalities in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because θ-defensins have anti-inflammatory activities, we tested whether RTD-1, a θ-defensin, improves metabolic conditions in diet-induced obesity (DIO). DIO was induced by high-fat feeding in obese-prone CD rats from 4 wk of age. Starting at age 10 wk, the DIO rats were treated with saline or RTD-1 for 4 or 8 wk. DIO rats gained more weight than low-fat-fed controls. RTD-1 treatment did not alter body weight or calorie intake in DIO rats. Plasma glucose, FFA, triglyceride (TG), and insulin levels increased in DIO rats; RTD-1 normalized plasma glucose and FFA levels and showed tendencies to lower plasma insulin and TG levels. Hepatic and skeletal muscle TG contents increased in DIO rats; RTD-1 decreased muscle, but not hepatic, TG content. Insulin sensitivity, estimated using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and the glucose clamp technique, decreased in DIO rats, but this change was markedly reversed by RTD-1. RTD-1 had no significant effects on plasma cytokine/chemokine levels or IL-1β and TNF-α expression in liver or adipose tissues. RTD-1 treatment decreased hepatic expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase, suggesting that the effect of RTD-1 on plasma glucose (or insulin action) might be mediated by its effect to decrease hepatic gluconeogenesis. Thus, RTD-1 ameliorated insulin resistance and normalized plasma glucose and FFA levels in DIO rats, supporting the potential of RTD-1 as a novel therapeutic agent for insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, or type 2 diabetes. PMID:25991648

  12. PLASMA CHOLINE IN NORMAL NEWBORNS, INFANTS, TODDLERS, AND IN VERY-LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT NEONATES REQUIRING TOTAL PARENTERAL NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Choline deficiency is associated with hepatic abnormalities in adult volunteers and patients administered total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Preliminary investigation has suggested that plasma-free choline concentration (PFCh) is greater in neonatal animals, including humans, than in adults. The aims...

  13. Seminal profile of subjects with testicular microlithiasis and testicular calcifications.

    PubMed

    Mazzilli, Fernando; Delfino, Michele; Imbrogno, Norina; Elia, Jlenia; Spinosa, Vincenzo; Di Nardo, Raffaella

    2005-07-01

    Two hundred eighty-one male partners of infertile couples were studied to determine the prevalence of subjects with testicular microlithiasis (TM) or testicular calcifications (TC) to define the seminal profile of this population and to initiate a longitudinal study to evaluate the significance of TM and TC as predictive markers of cancer. The prevalence found was 4.6% and 3.9%, respectively, which is sufficiently high to merit careful research attention, although TM and TC do not appear to be pathogenic factors of dyspermia. PMID:16009194

  14. Lesions of the Seminal Vesicles and their MRI Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Mahati N; Verma, Sadhna

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, MRI of the prostate has made great strides in improving cancer detection and is being embraced by more clinicians each day. This article aims to review the imaging characteristics of common and uncommon, but consequential lesions involving the seminal vesicles (SV), as seen predominantly on MRI. Many of these findings are seen incidentally during imaging of the prostate. Anatomy and embryology of the SV will be described which will help illustrate the associations of abnormalities seen. Congenital, infectious, neoplastic, and tumor mimics will be explored in detail, with discussion on clinical presentation and treatment strategies. PMID:25396077

  15. Microbiota of the seminal fluid from healthy and infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Dongsheng; Zhou, Xia; Zhong, Xue; Settles, Matt; Herring, Jessica; Wang, Li; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J.; Xu, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore potential causes of male infertility by determining the composition and structure of commensal bacterial communities in seminal fluids. Design: Microscopy of gram stained semen samples and classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences to determine the species composition of semen bacterial communities. Setting(s): Clinical andrology laboratory and academic research laboratories. Patient(s): 19 sperm donors and 58 infertility patients. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences, clustering of seminal microbial communities, and multiple statistical tests. Result(s): High numbers of diverse kinds of bacteria were present in most samples of both sperm donors and infertility patients. The bacterial communities varied widely between subjects, but they could be clustered into six groups based on similarities in composition and the rank abundances of taxa. Overall there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients. However, multiple statistical tests showed a significant negative association between sperm quality and the presence of Anaerococcus. The results also indicated that many of the bacterial taxa identified in semen also occur in the vaginal communities of some women, especially those with bacterial vaginosis, which suggests heterosexual sex partners may share bacteria. Conclusion(s): Diverse kinds of bacteria were present in the human semen, there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients, The presence of Anaerococcus might be a biomarker for low sperm quality. PMID:23993888

  16. Seminal Fluid Regulation of Female Sexual Attractiveness in Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tram, Uyen; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    1998-03-01

    Finding a willing and suitable mate is critical for sexual reproduction. Visual, auditory, and chemical cues aid in locating and/or attracting partners. After mating, females from many insect species become less attractive. This is caused by changes in the quantity and/or quality of pheromones synthesized by the female and to changes in the female's behavior. For example, female insects may stop releasing pheromones, assume a mate refusal posture, or move less in response to males. Many postmating changes in female insects are triggered by seminal fluid proteins from the male's accessory gland proteins (Acps) and by sperm. To determine the role of seminal fluid components in mediating changes in attractiveness, we measured the attractiveness of Drosophila melanogaster females that had been mated to genetically altered males that lack sperm and/or Acps. We found that the drop in female attractiveness occurs in two phases. A short-term drop in attractiveness is triggered independent of the receipt of sperm and Acps. Maintenance of lowered attractiveness is dependent upon sperm.

  17. Seminal Vesicle Leiomyoma Mimicking Extra-prostatic Extension of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Stacy J.; Lin, Frank C.; Eldersveld, Jordan M.; Phung, Michael C.; Walker, Jonathan R.; Nguyen, Tan T.

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas are common smooth muscle neoplasms; however, leiomyomas of the seminal vesicles are extremely rare. We report a case of seminal vesicle leiomyoma in a 55-year-old African American male who underwent robot assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) for Gleason 8 (4 + 4) adenocarcinoma. An incidental nodule arising from the left seminal vesicle was discovered during surgery, complicating the surgical dissection and suggesting extra-prostatic extension. The histologic findings in this case raised the possibility that this seminal vesicle leiomyoma may have arisen from a remnant of the mid-portion of the Müllerian duct; however, a thorough immunohistochemical (IHC) workup disproved this theory. PMID:27169020

  18. Seminal Vesicle Leiomyoma Mimicking Extra-prostatic Extension of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Stacy J; Lin, Frank C; Eldersveld, Jordan M; Phung, Michael C; Walker, Jonathan R; Nguyen, Tan T

    2016-05-01

    Leiomyomas are common smooth muscle neoplasms; however, leiomyomas of the seminal vesicles are extremely rare. We report a case of seminal vesicle leiomyoma in a 55-year-old African American male who underwent robot assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) for Gleason 8 (4 + 4) adenocarcinoma. An incidental nodule arising from the left seminal vesicle was discovered during surgery, complicating the surgical dissection and suggesting extra-prostatic extension. The histologic findings in this case raised the possibility that this seminal vesicle leiomyoma may have arisen from a remnant of the mid-portion of the Müllerian duct; however, a thorough immunohistochemical (IHC) workup disproved this theory. PMID:27169020

  19. Prebeta-migrating high density lipoprotein: quantitation in normal and hyperlipidemic plasma by solid phase radioimmunoassay following electrophoretic transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, B.Y.; Frolich, J.; Fielding, C.J.

    1987-07-01

    A quantitative solid phase immunoassay has been developed for the determination of the mass of electrophoretically separated prebeta apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in human plasma. Conditions have been identified for the quantitative transfer and immunoblotting of the apolipoprotein in the absence of organic solvents or detergents. In normolipidemic plasma, the prebeta-migrating fraction of apoA-I represented 4.2 +/- 1.8% of total apoA-I (61 +/- 26 micrograms of apoA-I per ml of plasma). Significantly higher levels were found in hypercholesterolemia of genetic origin, in primary and secondary hypertriglyceridemia, and in congenital lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency. In all cases prebeta-migrating apoA-I consisted in large part of low molecular weight lipoprotein species, compared to the size of the major, alpha-migrating apoA-I fraction.

  20. Physiologic concentrations of normal human plasma lipoproteins inhibit the immortalization of peripheral B lymphocytes by the Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Chisari, F V; Curtiss, L K; Jensen, F C

    1981-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced immortalization of adult human B lymphocytes is suppressed by physiologic concentrations of human plasma lipoproteins. Several inhibitory mechanisms appear to be operative. First, low density lipoproteins (LDL) directly reduce the ability of EBV to transform human B cells. Second, LDL as well as intermediate and very low density lipoproteins modulate early inductive events rendering the B cell refractory to transforming signals from EBV. Third, LDL also selectively inhibit an EBV-inducible step that occurs within 24 h after transformation. Finally, very low density lipoproteins can abrogate the ongoing, cellular proliferation of EBV-transformed, established B cell lines. The plasma lipoproteins may therefore prevent the emergence of EBV-transformed malignant B cell clones in vivo. Conceivably, on this basis, environmental and genetic influences on plasma lipoprotein concentrations may affect the global distribution of Burkitt's lymphoma, a lymphoid malignancy putatively caused by EBV. PMID:6267100

  1. Failure of sodium pentobarbital anesthesia to alter 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin-induced elevations of plasma factor VIII/ von Willebrand factor in normal dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, I B; Crane, S

    1988-01-01

    The vasopressin analog 1-desamino-8-D-arginine stimulates elevations in plasma Factor VIII/ von Willebrand factor in normal dogs. In order to study the effects of general anesthesia on this response, six dogs were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital or given an equivalent amount of saline then challenged with an intravenous dose of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine (0.6 micrograms/kg body weight). Factor VIII coagulant activity, von Willebrand factor antigen, and ristocetin cofactor activity were quantitated before anesthesia (or saline infusion), 20 min after induction (pre-1-desamino-8-D-arginine), and at 30 and 60 min post-1-desamino-8-D-arginine. Anesthesia did not significantly affect the elevations in plasma Factor VIII/ von Willebrand factor induced by 1-desamino-8-D-arginine. Sodium pentobarbital appeared however to prevent the rise in Factor VIII coagulant activity seen following saline treatment. The results of this study suggest that when 1-desamino-8-D-arginine is to be used in normal dogs to boost basal plasma von Willebrand factor levels, it is not necessary to administer it prior to induction of general anesthesia with sodium pentobarbital. PMID:3143477

  2. On the presence of prostatic secretion protein in rat seminal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Borgstroem, E.; Pousette, A.; Bjoerk, P.; Hoegberg, B.; Carlstroem, K.; Sundelin, B.; Gustafsson, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The copulating plug collected from the tip of the penis from rats immediately after decapitation contains a protein very similar and probably identical to PSP (prostatic secretion protein); this protein has earlier been purified from rat prostatic cytosol and characterized. The protein present in the copulating plug interacts with (3H)estramustine and binds to the antibody raised against rat PSP. The concentration of the protein in the copulating plug is 400 ng/mg of total protein, when measured using the radioimmunoassay technique developed earlier for measurement of PSP in rat prostate. The (3H)estramustine-protein complex formed in a preparation of the copulating plug has an apparent molecular weight of about 50,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of about 3S when analyzed using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The complex was retained on Concanavalin-A Sepharose indicating that the protein is a glycoprotein. Binding of the complex was also observed on hydroxylapatite and DEAE-Sephadex columns, from which it was eluted at 0.18 M KCl. Light microscope autoradiograms of rat sperms incubated with 125I-labeled PSP indicated that PSP is bound to all parts of the sperms. A macromolecule interacting with the PSP-antibodies is also present in human seminal fluid but at a concentration considerably lower than in rat seminal fluid. The present study shows that a macromolecule probably identical to prostatic secretion protein is present in the copulating plug from the rat. The biological role of this protein in normal male fertility is discussed.

  3. Preferential induction of apoptotic cell death in melanoma cells as compared with normal keratinocytes using a non-thermal plasma torch

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Shoshanna N.; Zirnheld, Jennifer; Bagati, Archis; DiSanto, Thomas M.; Des Soye, Benjamin; Wawrzyniak, Joseph A.; Etemadi, Kasra; Nikiforov, Mikhail; Berezney, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Selective induction of apoptosis in melanoma cells is optimal for therapeutic development. To achieve this goal, a non-thermal helium plasma torch was modified for use on cultured cells in a temperature-controlled environment. Melanoma cells were targeted with this torch (1) in parallel cultures with keratinocytes, (2) in co-culture with keratinocytes and (3) in a soft agar matrix. Melanoma cells displayed high sensitivity to reactive oxygen species generated by the torch and showed a 6-fold increase in cell death compared with keratinocytes. The extent of cell death was compared between melanoma cells and normal human keratinocytes in both short-term (5 min) co-culture experiments and longer assessments of apoptotic cell death (1824 h). Following a 10 sec plasma exposure there was a 4.9-fold increase in the cell death of melanoma vs. keratinocytes as measured after 24 h at the target site of the plasma beam. When the treatment time was increased to 30 sec, a 98% cell death was reported for melanoma cells, which was 6-fold greater than the extent of cell death in keratinocytes. Our observations further indicate that this preferential cell death is largely due to apoptosis.. In addition, we report that this non-thermal plasma torch kills melanoma cells growing in soft agar, suggesting that the plasma torch is capable of inducing melanoma cell death in 3D settings. We demonstrate that the presence of gap junctions may increase the area of cell death, likely due to the bystander effect of passing apoptotic signals between cells. Our findings provide a basis for further development of this non-invasive plasma torch as a potential treatment for melanoma. PMID:22895073

  4. Competition between clonal plasma cells and normal cells for potentially overlapping bone marrow niches is associated with a progressively altered cellular distribution in MGUS vs myeloma.

    PubMed

    Paiva, B; Pérez-Andrés, M; Vídriales, M-B; Almeida, J; de las Heras, N; Mateos, M-V; López-Corral, L; Gutiérrez, N C; Blanco, J; Oriol, A; Hernández, M T; de Arriba, F; de Coca, A G; Terol, M-J; de la Rubia, J; González, Y; Martín, A; Sureda, A; Schmidt-Hieber, M; Schmitz, A; Johnsen, H E; Lahuerta, J-J; Bladé, J; San-Miguel, J F; Orfao, A

    2011-04-01

    Disappearance of normal bone marrow (BM) plasma cells (PC) predicts malignant transformation of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering myeloma (SMM) into symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM). The homing, behavior and survival of normal PC, but also CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), B-cell precursors, and clonal PC largely depends on their interaction with stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) expressing, potentially overlapping BM stromal cell niches. Here, we investigate the distribution, phenotypic characteristics and competitive migration capacity of these cell populations in patients with MGUS, SMM and MM vs healthy adults (HA) aged >60 years. Our results show that BM and peripheral blood (PB) clonal PC progressively increase from MGUS to MM, the latter showing a slightly more immature immunophenotype. Of note, such increased number of clonal PC is associated with progressive depletion of normal PC, B-cell precursors and CD34(+) HSC in the BM, also with a parallel increase in PB. In an ex vivo model, normal PC, B-cell precursors and CD34(+) HSC from MGUS and SMM, but not MM patients, were able to abrogate the migration of clonal PC into serial concentrations of SDF-1. Overall, our results show that progressive competition and replacement of normal BM cells by clonal PC is associated with more advanced disease in patients with MGUS, SMM and MM. PMID:21252988

  5. Bacterial Communities in Semen from Men of Infertile Couples: Metagenomic Sequencing Reveals Relationships of Seminal Microbiota to Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shun-Long; Chiu, Chih-Min; Lin, Feng-Mao; Huang, Wei-Chih; Liang, Chao; Yang, Ting; Yang, Tzu-Ling; Liu, Chia-Yu; Wu, Wei-Yun; Chang, Yi-An; Chang, Tzu-Hao; Huang, Hsien-Da

    2014-01-01

    Some previous studies have identified bacteria in semen as being a potential factor in male infertility. However, only few types of bacteria were taken into consideration while using PCR-based or culturing methods. Here we present an analysis approach using next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics analysis to investigate the associations between bacterial communities and semen quality. Ninety-six semen samples collected were examined for bacterial communities, measuring seven clinical criteria for semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, Kruger's strict morphology, antisperm antibody (IgA), Atypical, and leukocytes). Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) was also performed. Results showed that the most abundant genera among all samples were Lactobacillus (19.9%), Pseudomonas (9.85%), Prevotella (8.51%) and Gardnerella (4.21%). The proportion of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella was significantly higher in the normal samples, while that of Prevotella was significantly higher in the low quality samples. Unsupervised clustering analysis demonstrated that the seminal bacterial communities were clustered into three main groups: Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, and Prevotella predominant group. Remarkably, most normal samples (80.6%) were clustered in Lactobacillus predominant group. The analysis results showed seminal bacteria community types were highly associated with semen health. Lactobacillus might not only be a potential probiotic for semen quality maintenance, but also might be helpful in countering the negative influence of Prevotella and Pseudomonas. In this study, we investigated whole seminal bacterial communities and provided the most comprehensive analysis of the association between bacterial community and semen quality. The study significantly contributes to the current understanding of the etiology of male fertility. PMID:25340531

  6. A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo study of plasma-induced damage of normal incidence collector optics used in extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Wieggers, R. C.; Goedheer, W. J.; Akdim, M. R.; Bijkerk, F.; Zegeling, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    We present a kinetic simulation of the plasma formed by photoionization in the intense flux of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) light source. The model is based on the particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo approach. The photoelectric effect and ionization by electron collisions are included. The time evolution of the low density argon plasma is simulated during and after the EUV pulse and the ion-induced sputtering of the coating material of a normal incidence collector mirror is computed. The relation between the time and position at which the ions are created and their final energy is studied, revealing how the evolution and the properties of the sheath influence the amount of sputtered material. The influence of the gas pressure and the source intensity is studied, evaluating the behavior of Ar{sup +} and Ar{sup 2+} ions. A way to reduce the damage to the collector mirror is presented.

  7. The seminal symphony: how to compose an ejaculate.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jennifer C; Sirot, Laura; Wigby, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    Ejaculates are fundamental to fitness in sexually reproducing animals: males gain all their direct fitness via the ejaculate and females require ejaculates to reproduce. Both sperm and non-sperm components of the ejaculate (including parasperm, seminal proteins, water, and macromolecules) play vital roles in postcopulatory sexual selection and conflict, processes that can potentially drive rapid evolutionary change and reproductive isolation. Here, we assess the increasing evidence that considering ejaculate composition as a whole (and potential trade-offs among ejaculate components) has important consequences for predictions about male reproductive investment and female responses to ejaculates. We review current theory and empirical work, and detail how social and environmental effects on ejaculate composition have potentially far-reaching fitness consequences for both sexes. PMID:23582755

  8. Selective activation of functional suppressor cells by human seminal fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Witkin, S S

    1986-01-01

    The ability of seminal fluid (SF) to induce suppressor cell activity from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMN) was examined. PBMN were incubated with SF for 48 h, washed to remove SF components, treated with mitomycin C (mit C) and co-cultured with Raji cells, a lymphoblastoid cell line. Raji cell proliferation was inhibited by SF-treated PBMN proportionally to SF concentration. SF (50-200 micrograms), mit C-treated Raji cells or mit C-treated PBMN pre-incubated with phytohaemagglutinin were without effect on Raji cell growth. Suppressor T lymphocytes generated by incubation of PBMN with concanavalin A inhibited Raji cells to the same extent as did SF-treated PBMN. All activity was lost following heating at 56 degrees C for 30 min; freezing and thawing reduced the ability of SF to induce suppression by 50%. Dialysis of SF or treatment with antibody to prostaglandin E2 led to a 50% reduction in suppression. PMID:2943541

  9. Suspected seminal vesiculitis in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Kilburn, Jennifer J; Velguth, Karen E; Backues, Kay A

    2011-09-01

    A 32-year-old male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) underwent routine transrectal stimulation for semen collection as part of an artificial insemination program. The procedure consisted of a preinsemination semen collection followed by two consecutive days of semen collections for artificial insemination. The second day's sample contained large numbers of inflammatory cells, intracellular bacteria, and phagocytized sperm. Semen was submitted for culture and sensitivity. Culture revealed Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staphylococcus intermedius, Kocuria roseus, and an unidentified gram-positive organism. Empirical antibiotic therapy with trimethoprim sulfa was initiated and then changed to enrofloxacin based on sensitivity panel results for a total of 28 days of treatment. Diagnostic semen collections were performed during treatment and 2 wk posttreatment to determine the success of therapy. Posttreatment collections revealed resolution of the inflammation. The origin of the infection was suspected to be the seminal vesicles. PMID:22950323

  10. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infects Human Seminal Vesicles in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Deleage, Claire; Moreau, Marina; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Ruffault, Annick; Jégou, Bernard; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Semen represents the main vector of HIV dissemination worldwide, yet the origin of HIV in semen remains unclear. Viral populations distinct from those found in blood have been observed in semen, indicating local viral replication within the male genital tract. The seminal vesicles, the secretions of which constitute more than 60% of the seminal fluid, could represent a major source of virus in semen. This study is the first to investigate the susceptibility of human seminal vesicles to HIV infection both in vitro and in vivo. We developed and characterized an organotypic culture of human seminal vesicles to test for target cells and HIV infection, and, in parallel, analyzed the seminal vesicle tissues from HIV-infected donors. In vitro, in contrast to HIV-1 X4, HIV-1 R5 exposure induced productive infection. Infected cells consisted primarily of resident CD163+ macrophages, often located close to the lumen. In vivo, HIV protein and RNA were also detected primarily in seminal vesicle macrophages in seven of nine HIV-infected donors, some of whom were receiving prolonged suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy. These results demonstrate that human seminal vesicles support HIV infection in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, have the potential to contribute virus to semen. The presence of infected cells in the seminal vesicles of treated men with undetectable viremia suggests that this organ could constitute a reservoir for HIV. PMID:21925468

  11. Hominoid seminal protein evolution and ancestral mating behavior.

    PubMed

    Carnahan, Sarah J; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I

    2008-10-01

    Hominoid mating systems show extensive variation among species. The degree of sexual dimorphism in body size and canine size varies among primates in accordance with their mating system, as does the testes size and the consistency of ejaculated semen, in response to differing levels of sperm competition. To investigate patterns of evolution at hominoid seminal proteins and to make inferences regarding the mating systems of extinct taxa, we sequenced the entire coding region of the prostate-specific transglutaminase (TGM4) gene in human, chimpanzee, bonobo, western lowland gorilla, eastern lowland gorilla, orangutan, and siamang, including multiple humans, chimps, and gorillas. Partial DNA sequence of the coding regions was also obtained for one eastern lowland gorilla at the semenogelin genes (SEMG1 and SEMG2), which code for the predominant proteins in semen. Patterns of nucleotide variation and inferred protein sequence change were evaluated within and between species. Combining the present data with previous studies demonstrates a high rate of amino acid substitutions, and low intraspecific variation, at seminal proteins in Pan, presumably driven by strong sperm competition. Both gorilla species apparently possess nonfunctional TGM4, SEMG1, and SEMG2 genes, suggesting that gorillas have had low sperm competition, and therefore their current polygynous mating system, for a long time before their divergence. Similarly, orangutans show longstanding stasis at TGM4, which may be interpreted as evidence for an unchanging mating system for most of their evolution after their divergence from African apes. In contrast to the great apes, the data from humans could be interpreted as evidence of fluctuations between different mating systems or alternatively as a relaxed functional constraint in these proteins. It is our hope that this study is a first step toward developing a model to predict ancestral mating systems from extant molecular data to complement interpretations from the fossil record. PMID:18561295

  12. Normalization of elevated cardiac, kidney, and hemolysis plasma markers within 48 h in Mexican Tarahumara runners following a 78 km race at moderate altitude

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Dirk L; Espino, Diana; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío; Brage, Soren; Terzic, Dijana; Goetze, Jens P; Kjaergaard, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine to what extent extreme endurance exercise results in changes of plasma markers associated with cardiac and renal damage, as well as hemolysis in male, Mexican Tarahumara runners. Methods Ten Tarahumara runners (mean (sd) age of 38 (12) years) participated in a 78 km race in Chihuahua, Mexico at 2,400 m above sea level. Cardiac, kidney, and hematology plasma markers were measured pre-race and <5 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h post-race. Anthropometry, blood pressure, pulse rate, electrocardiography, HbA1c, hemoglobin and VO2max (estimated from heart rate following step test) were assessed pre-race, while physical activity energy expenditure and intensity were estimated during the race, and oxygen partial pressure saturation (SpO2) <30 min post-race. Results Estimated mean VO2max was 48 (9) mLO2 min−1 kg−1 and relative intensity during the race was 68 (11)%VO2max. Mean SpO2 was 92 (3)% <30 min post-race. Plasma concentrations of especially total creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB isoform, and haptoglobin changed significantly from pre-race values (P < 0.001) up to 24 h post-race, but had returned to pre-race values after 48 h. The plasma concentrations of mid-regional proatrial natiuretic peptide and copeptin returned to pre-race concentrations after 1 and 6 h, respectively. Conclusions Altered cardiac, renal, and hemolysis plasma markers were normalized after 48 h following 78 km of running, suggesting that the impact of exercise-induced cardiac and kidney damage as well as hemolysis in the Mexican Tarahumara is low. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 26:836–843, 2014. © 2014 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25145663

  13. Effects of re-stripping on the seminal characteristics of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) during the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Kuradomi, Rafael Y; De Souza, Thiago G; Foresti, Fausto; Schulz, Rüdiger W; Bogerd, Jan; Moreira, Renata G; Furlan, Luiz R; Almeida, Eduardo A; Maschio, Lucilene R; Batlouni, Sergio R

    2016-01-01

    Seminal characteristics in teleost fish with an annual reproductive period, such as pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), may vary during the breeding season. The sperm formed before the beginning of the spawning period may be stored for a long time, causing damage to the cells. Therefore, re-stripping may be an important way to eliminate the "old" and allow for the collection of "new" spermatozoids. In this study, we analyzed the seminal characteristics of hormonally induced pacu at the beginning, middle and end of the breeding season, and we analyzed samples from re-stripped males (stripped first at the beginning, re-stripped in the middle, and re-stripped again at the end of the season) during two breeding seasons. The sperm density, ionic composition, pH, and osmolality were similar among the groups. The semen volume, seminal plasma protein concentration and incidence of morphologically anomalous sperm increased over time. In addition, some parameters that are associated with good-quality semen decreased, such as sperm motility, viability and DNA integrity. Moreover, we observed a positive association among motility, viability and DNA integrity for sperm with elevated 11-ketotestosterone, but there was no such association for fshb or lhb mRNA levels in the pituitary. The semen that was obtained earlier (at the beginning) or from re-stripped males exhibited better characteristics than the other samples collected. In conclusion, collecting semen from pacu at the end of breeding season should be avoided; it is preferable to strip early and then re-strip later in the season, and this approach may be used for diverse aquaculture purposes. PMID:26095224

  14. Exhaustive exercise-induced tissue hypoxia does not change endothelin and big endothelin plasma levels in normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lenz, T; Nadansky, M; Gossmann, J; Oremek, G; Geiger, H

    1998-08-01

    Chronic hypoxia has been shown to increase plasma endothelin levels. The current study was undertaken to examine the effect of exercise-induced tissue hypoxia on plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and its precursor big endothelin-1 (Big-ET-1). After approval by the local ethical committee an incremental dynamic exercise test was performed in 12 physically trained volunteers (aged 20 to 40 years), using an electrically braked bicycle ergometer. The protocol included a step-wise increase of the workload until a heart rate of 130/min was reached, followed by a maintenance period of 25 min, and a further step-wise increase until exhaustion. Blood was drawn before, at several time points during, and 5 min after termination of the study for determination of ET-1, Big-ET-1, plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), norepinephrine, epinephrine, and lactate. Lactate levels at baseline were 14.5 +/- 1.6 mg/dL (mean +/- SEM), which increased to 76.5 +/- 4.8 mg/dL at the time of exhaustion (P < .01). Baseline values for ET-1 and Big-ET-1 were 0.264 +/- 0.061 and 0.637 +/- 0.130 fmol/ml, respectively, which remained essentially unaltered throughout the exercise test. PRA was 1.46 +/- 0.45 ng/mL/h before exercise and increased to 3.55 +/- 0.96 ng/mL/h at exhaustion (P < .001). Norepinephrine and epinephrine were also increased at exhaustion. The study demonstrates that exhaustive physical exercise with acute development of pronounced tissue hypoxia--in contrast to chronic hypoxia--does not influence the release of ET-1 or Big-ET-1 or the conversion of the precursor to the active compound. Unlike endothelin, circulating renin and the catecholamines were markedly stimulated by this maneuver. PMID:9715798

  15. Application of the Ureteroscope for Diagnosis and Treatment of the Seminal Vesicle Diseases.

    PubMed

    Song, Yalin; Zhao, Jianwen; Dong, Yao

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to apply the transurethral endoscopic technique with the ureteroscope for diagnosis and treatment of the seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct disorders. At present there is no special equipment designed to enter directly into the seminal vesicle cavity under direct vision. Sixty patients with disorders of the seminal vesicle were included in this study. A 6.5 F rigid ureteroscope (Richard Wolf GmbH, Knittlingen, Germany) was inserted into the posterior urethra to find the verumontanum. Then a 3F catheter (Shanghai Kangge JJMC, Shanghai, China) was inserted into the verumontanum. After that the 6.5 F ureteroscope was introduced into the ejaculatory duct and seminal vesicle to examine them under direct observation. A total of 55 patients were diagnosed and cured successfully with the ureteroscope; 42 (76.4%) patients were discovered to have hemospermia. They were given an anti-inflammatory and seminal vesicle washing. Eight (14.5%) patients who had small stones in the seminal vesicle were offered the operation of the stones removal. Five (9.1%) patients were found to have seminal vesicle gland cysts. The orifices of ejaculatory duct were not found in 3 patients among 5 who were operated unsuccessfully. The ureteroscope failed to enter the seminal vesicle in 2 patients. Some diseases of the seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct can be easily diagnosed and treated in the clinical practice using a ureteroscope. Transurethral endoscopy technique with the ureteroscope for diagnosis and therapy of the seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct disorders is safe and practicable. PMID:26595499

  16. Laparoscopic Removal of a Congenital Seminal Vesicle Cyst in Zinner's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Listopadzki, S?awomir; Kowalski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Seminal vesicle cysts are rarely diagnosed, but symptomatic congenital seminal vesicle cysts are reported in the literature describing Zinner syndrome. Case Description: We present the case of a 26-year-old patient admitted to the urology department because of abdominal pain. A left seminal vesicle cyst and left kidney agenesis were found on examination, and the patient qualified for laparoscopic removal of the left seminal vesicle cyst. The procedure was performed with transperitoneal access using 5 trocars. The peritoneum was incised between the bladder and the rectum to reveal the left seminal vesicle, which was resected from the surrounding tissue. A TachoSil (Takeda Pharmaceuticals, Zurich, Switzerland) hemostatic sponge was placed in the ledge after cutting the base of the seminal vesicle. Discussion: The aim of this study was to evaluate usefulness of the laparoscopic technique to remove a cystic seminal vesicle. The procedure lasted 180 minutes, and the estimated blood loss was 50 mL. We did not record any intra- or postoperative complications. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the third postoperative day and remains symptom-free after 12 months. Histopathologic examination confirmed the presence of a seminal vesicle cyst, and renal agenesis and stenosis of the vas deferens suggests Zinner syndrome. Symptomatic seminal vesicle cysts are a good indication for the application of a laparoscopic technique and, in our opinion, this is better than the open technique because of the view into the surgical area. Therefore, it should be used as the method of choice in treating seminal vesicle defects. PMID:24960509

  17. α-Defensins Induce a Post-translational Modification of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) That Promotes Atherosclerosis at Normal Levels of Plasma Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Abu-Fanne, Rami; Maraga, Emad; Abd-Elrahman, Ihab; Hankin, Aviel; Blum, Galia; Abdeen, Suhair; Hijazi, Nuha; Cines, Douglas B; Higazi, Abd Al-Roof

    2016-02-01

    Approximately one-half of the patients who develop clinical atherosclerosis have normal or only modest elevations in plasma lipids, indicating that additional mechanisms contribute to pathogenesis. In view of increasing evidence that inflammation contributes to atherogenesis, we studied the effect of human neutrophil α-defensins on low density lipoprotein (LDL) trafficking, metabolism, vascular deposition, and atherogenesis using transgenic mice expressing human α-defensins in their polymorphonuclear leukocytes (Def(+/+)). Accelerated Def(+/+) mice developed α-defensin·LDL complexes that accelerate the clearance of LDL from the circulation accompanied by enhanced vascular deposition and retention of LDL, induction of endothelial cathepsins, increased endothelial permeability to LDL, and the development of lipid streaks in the aortic roots when fed a regular diet and at normal plasma levels of LDL. Transplantation of bone marrow from Def(+/+) to WT mice increased LDL clearance, increased vascular permeability, and increased vascular deposition of LDL, whereas transplantation of WT bone marrow to Def(+/+) mice prevented these outcomes. The same outcome was obtained by treating Def(+/+) mice with colchicine to inhibit the release of α-defensins. These studies identify a potential new link between inflammation and the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:26518877

  18. Cognitive Function, Plasma MnSOD Activity, and MnSOD Ala-9Val Polymorphism in Patients With Schizophrenia and Normal Controls

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang Y.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive reactive oxygen species are thought to produce oxidative damage that underlies neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment in several disorders including schizophrenia. The functional Ala-9Val polymorphism of the mitochondrial enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), which detoxifies superoxide radicals to hydrogen peroxide, has been associated with schizophrenia. However, no study has reported its role in cognitive deficits of schizophrenia as mediated through MnSOD activity. We recruited 923 schizophrenic inpatients and 566 healthy controls and compared them on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), plasma MnSOD activity, and the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism. We assessed patient psychopathology using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. We showed that the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism may not contribute directly to the susceptibility to schizophrenia. The Ala variant was associated with worse attention performance among chronic schizophrenic patients but not among normal controls. Plasma MnSOD activity was significantly decreased in patients compared with that in normal controls. Moreover, MnSOD activity among the schizophrenic Ala allele carriers was correlated with the degree of cognitive impairments, especially attention and RBANS total score. We demonstrated an association between the MnSOD Ala-9Val variant and poor attention in schizophrenia. The association between higher MnSOD activity and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is dependent on the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism. PMID:23588476

  19. Four-way self-weighted alternating normalized residue fitting algorithm with application for the analysis of serotonin in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Juan; Wu, Hai-Long; Kang, Chao; Gu, Hui-Wen; Nie, Jin-Fang; Li, Shan-Shan; Su, Zhi-Yi; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2012-01-01

    A novel algorithm, four-way self-weighted alternating normalized residue fitting (SWANRF), which is an extension of its three-way form, for the decomposition of quadrilinear data with new weight factors, was proposed and applied to the quantitative analysis of serotonin contents in plasma samples. It was observed that the third-order calibration could not only retain a "second-order advantage" and but also obtain other advantages. The introduction of a fourth mode can relieve the serious problem of collinearity, which seems to be one of the "third-order advantages". The proposed algorithm shows great potential as a promising alternative for the third-order calibration of a four-way data array by contrasting with four-way parallel factor analysis (four-way PARAFAC). Furthermore, both algorithms mentioned above were utilized to analyze the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) contents in plasma samples by obtaining four-way array (excitation-emission-pH-sample) data, and produced satisfactory results. The serotonin contents in plasma samples obtained by using four-way SWANRF and four-way PARAFAC were 0.324 ± 0.005 and 0.348 ± 0.006 nmol mL(-1), respectively. PMID:23149611

  20. Comparative responses of plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide following ingestion of isocaloric glucose, a modified urban Saudi breakfast and dates in normal Saudi persons.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M; Al-Othaimeen, A; De Vol, E; Bold, A

    1991-07-01

    Diabetic patients are commonly advised without scientific basis to avoid ingestion of dates. Prior to undertaking studies in diabetic persons, we considered it important to establish the metabolic consequences of date ingestion in normal Saudi subjects. Nineteen normal subjects, 11 males and 8 females, aged 29.4 +/- 1.5 (mean +/- SEM) with a body mass index (BMI) of 22.1 +/- 0.5 were fed in a random order: a) a date meal (DM) consisting of approximately 300 calories (Carbohydrates - CHO 74.5 g, proteins 3.7 g and fats 0.66 g), b) a modified urban Saudi breakfast (SBF) 300 calories (oral glucose tolerance test - OGTT), on 3 different days at least 1 week apart. Plasma glucose (G), insulin (I) and C-peptide (C) values were determined at -30,0 and then every 30 minutes for 180 minutes. Glycemic indices for DM and SBF were also determined. G, I and C area profiles were not different between DM and SBF but were when compared with OGTT. This is the first documentation of the glycemic index for dates. For the "Khalas" variety it was found to be 57.7 +/- 8.5 and was significantly lower than that for SBF which was 79.0. Contrary to the usual belief, this study refutes the notion that ingestion of date adversely affects glucose tolerance compared with SBF in normal subjects. Similar results are observed in preliminary studies in diabetic subjects in our laboratory. PMID:17590758

  1. Crystal structure of the dimeric unswapped form of bovine seminal ribonuclease.

    PubMed

    Berisio, R; Sica, F; De Lorenzo, C; Di Fiore, A; Piccoli, R; Zagari, A; Mazzarella, L

    2003-11-01

    Bovine seminal ribonuclease is a unique case of protein dimorphism, since it exists in two dimeric forms, with different biological and kinetic behavior, which interconvert into one another through three-dimensional swapping. Here we report the crystal structure, at 2.2 A resolution, of the unswapped form of bovine seminal ribonuclease. Besides completing the structural definition of bovine seminal ribonuclease conformational dimorphism, this study provides the structural basis to explain the dependence of the enzyme cooperative effects on its swapping state. PMID:14596923

  2. A unique scrotal extratesticular epidermod cyst attached to the seminal vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Sağlam, Hasan Salih; Kumsar, Şükrü; Köse, Osman; Adsan, Oztuğ

    2013-01-01

    A 46-year-old man was admitted with a scrotal long standing painless mass. The workup included physical examination, alpha-fetoprotein (αFP) and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) analyses, scrotal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and urethrocystoscopy. Surgical exploration revealed a separate mass between the testes extending superiorly with a thin stalk. It was dissected easily to the anterior aspect of the seminal vesicles and removed from the junction to the seminal vesicles. Pathology reported an epidermoid cyst. To our knowledge this is the first case of a scrotal extratesticular epidermoid cyst attached to the seminal vesicles. PMID:23671535

  3. Cypermethrin effects on the adult mice seminal glands.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, H; Tamayo, C; Inostroza, J; Soto, C; Bustos-Obregón, E; Paniagua, R

    2009-02-01

    The insecticide cypermethrin acts upon the sodium channels. Their effects over animal health are not understood. Here, the effects of cypermethrin on the seminal glands (SGs) are studied (1/5 DL50 i.p.). Forty-five adult mice (CF1) were distributed in three groups: (1) untreated, (2) vehicle (oil), and (3) experimental (cypermethrin in oil). The animals were sacrificed at 1 and each 8.6 days. The SGs were processed for histology: Haematoxylin/P.A.S, Thyonin (0.6%) and Immunohistochemistry (Ki-67). In the SGs was quantified: the epithelium height, mastocytes, and cell proliferation. In the results, cypermethrin exerts an intense effect on epithelium height and cell proliferation. A net increase of both parameters was observed at 24 h (p0.05). However, the mastocytes increased drastically and progressively during the experimental period (p0.05). Then, the effects have acute manifestations, which would be responsible for the potential changes in the male's reproductive potentiality. PMID:18490057

  4. Multiple advanced surgical techniques to treat acquired seminal duct obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong-Tao; Yuan, Qian; Liu, Yu; Liu, Zeng-Qin; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Xiao, Ke-Feng; Yang, Jiang-Gen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of multiple advanced surgical treatments (i.e. microsurgery, laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic surgery) for acquired obstructive azoospermia. We analyzed the surgical outcomes of 51 patients with suspected acquired obstructive azoospermia consecutively who enrolled at our center between January 2009 and May 2013. Modified vasoepididymostomy, laparoscopically assisted vasovasostomy and transurethral incision of the ejaculatory duct with holmium laser were chosen and performed based on the different obstruction sites. The mean postoperative follow-up time was 22 months (range: 9 months to 52 months). Semen analyses were initiated at four postoperative weeks, followed by trimonthly (months 3, 6, 9 and 12) semen analyses, until no sperm was found at 12 months or until pregnancy was achieved. Patency was defined as >10,000 sperm ml−1 of semen. The obstruction sites, postoperative patency and natural pregnancy rate were recorded. Of 51 patients, 47 underwent bilateral or unilateral surgical reconstruction; the other four patients were unable to be treated with surgical reconstruction because of pelvic vas or intratesticular tubules obstruction. The reconstruction rate was 92.2% (47/51), and the patency rate and natural pregnancy rate were 89.4% (42/47) and 38.1% (16/42), respectively. No severe complications were observed. Using multiple advanced surgical techniques, more extensive range of seminal duct obstruction was accessible and correctable; thus, a favorable patency and pregnancy rate can be achieved. PMID:25337841

  5. Measurement of canine gastric vascular permeability to plasma proteins in the normal and protein-losing states

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.G.; Davenport, H.W.

    1982-04-01

    An isolated segment of the greater curvature of a dog's stomach was perfused at constant flow through a single cannulated artery with donor blood containing 131I-albumin, 125I-fibrinogen, and papaverine. Perfusion pressure was 30-50 mmHg, and venous pressure was set at 15 mmHg. Venous blood was collected in 1-min samples for 60 min. Filtration of fluid and loss of labeled proteins were calculated as the difference between measured arterial inflow and venous outflow. Permeability-surface area products (PS) were calculated for the proteins, and reflection coefficients (sigma) were calculated from solute flux and filtration. Intraarterial infusion of histamine (1.6-1.9 microgram . ml-1) increased filtration and PS and decreased sigma for albumin but not fibrinogen. When protein-losing was established by topical irrigation with 10 mM dithiothreitol in neutral solution, filtration and PS increased, and sigma for albumin but not fibrinogen decreased. Irrigation of the mucosa with 10 mM salicylic acid in 100 mN HCl caused bleeding that was quantitated by addition of 51Cr-erythrocytes to perfusing blood. Filtration and PS increased, and sigma for albumin but not fibrinogen decreased. Hematocrit of blood lost remained low during extensive mucosal damage. Effects of histamine infusion were attenuated or abolished by cimetidine (4 mg . kg-1 loading, 1.4 mg . kg-1 . h-1 continuous infusion) or by pyrilamine maleate (5 mg . kg-1 bolus injection at beginning of irrigation, repeated at 40-50 min). Pyrilamine attenuated or abolished effects of topical dithiothreitol or salicylic acid. We conclude that during protein loss caused by dithiothreitol or salicylic acid, histamine released within the mucosa causes increased vascular permeability for plasma proteins.

  6. Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles. A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Katafigiotis, Ioannis; Sfoungaristos, Stavros; Duvdevani, Mordechai; Mitsos, Panagiotis; Roumelioti, Eleni; Stravodimos, Konstantinos; Anastasiou, Ioannis; Constantinides, Constantinos A

    2016-03-01

    Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles (SV) are extremely rare and approximately only 60 cases have been reported in the literature. Due to the lack of specific symptoms the patients often present in an advanced stage of their disease. The only clinical examination that can indicate the presence of a neoplasm in the SVs is the digital rectal examination (DRE). Serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and prostate specific acid phosphatase (PAP) are usually normal in patients with primary adenocarcinoma of the SV and only CA-125 can be proved a useful blood biomarker contributing to the diagnosis and the follow up of the SV adenocarcinoma. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FDG-PET/CT have been used for the diagnosis and the staging of the SV adenocarcinoma. Various combinations of radical surgery, radiotherapy androgen deprivation therapy and chemotherapy have been proposed for the management of the disease but the prognosis is poor and the mean survival is two years after the diagnosis. PMID:27072175

  7. Studies on Liquefaction Time and Proteins Involved in the Improvement of Seminal Characteristics in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Mal, Gorakh; Vyas, Sumant; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Patil, Nitin Vasant Rao; Pathak, Krishan Murari Lal

    2016-01-01

    Semen was collected from six dromedary camels using artificial vagina during rutting season. Liquefaction of the viscous semen occurred in 23.89 ± 1.49 h. During liquefaction, proteins with molecular masses of 24.55 kDa and 22.07 kDa appeared in conjunction with the disappearance of intact 26.00 kDa protein after 18-24 h. These proteins were identified as β-nerve growth factors (β-NGFs) in liquefied camel semen. Guanidine-HCL improves the rheological characteristics of dromedary camel semen along with significant (P < 0.01) increase in sperm motility. No significant differences were found in viability of spermatozoa indicating no visible detrimental effects on spermatozoa. The cause of semen viscosity, as well as proteins that are present in liquefied dromedary camel seminal plasma, is described for the first time. PMID:27022505

  8. Studies on Liquefaction Time and Proteins Involved in the Improvement of Seminal Characteristics in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius)

    PubMed Central

    Mal, Gorakh; Vyas, Sumant; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Patil, Nitin Vasant Rao; Pathak, Krishan Murari Lal

    2016-01-01

    Semen was collected from six dromedary camels using artificial vagina during rutting season. Liquefaction of the viscous semen occurred in 23.89 ± 1.49 h. During liquefaction, proteins with molecular masses of 24.55 kDa and 22.07 kDa appeared in conjunction with the disappearance of intact 26.00 kDa protein after 18–24 h. These proteins were identified as β-nerve growth factors (β-NGFs) in liquefied camel semen. Guanidine-HCL improves the rheological characteristics of dromedary camel semen along with significant (P < 0.01) increase in sperm motility. No significant differences were found in viability of spermatozoa indicating no visible detrimental effects on spermatozoa. The cause of semen viscosity, as well as proteins that are present in liquefied dromedary camel seminal plasma, is described for the first time. PMID:27022505

  9. [Changes in N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase activity in the maternal plasma and utero-placental tissues during normal pregnancy and parturition].

    PubMed

    Soga, H; Takenaka, A; Sudo, T; Kasahara, K; Yoshida, Y; Shimoyama, N

    1988-09-01

    In the ripening of the uterine cervix during parturition, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in the cervical extracellular matrix has been reported to undergo drastic changes i.e. the increase in hyaluronic acid, and the decrease in dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate. N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG; EC3.2.1.30), one of marker enzymes of lysosome, may also degrade extracellular GAG in the uterine cervix. This study is undertaken to determine if NAG plays a role in the ripening of the cervix during parturition. The maternal plasma were collected from 252 women with normal pregnancy (5-41 weeks gestation). Amnion, chorion and parietal decidua were obtained from 20 patients at more than 36 gestational weeks who had undergone cesarean section (CS) prior to labor, and from 24 who had undergone CS after the onset of labor. NAG activity in the maternal plasma gradually increased with the advance of gestation, and increased drastically after the onset of labor. The activity in the amnion and decidua, but not in the chorion, decreased significantly in the women who had undergone CS after the onset of labor compared with those who had undergone CS prior to labor. It is concluded that NAG is released into the maternal circulation from lysosomes in amnion and decidua, and it is also estimated that NAG plays a role in the ripening of the uterine cervix during parturition by degrading GAG in the cervical extracellular matrix. PMID:3171269

  10. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the seminal vesicle: A case report

    PubMed Central

    TANG, KAIFA; SUN, FA; TIAN, YUAN; XIAO, YUEHAI; SUN, CHAO; WANG, PENGFEI

    2016-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is extremely rare in the seminal vesicle. A 26-year-old male patient presented with complaints of difficulty in urination for 10 years and gross hematuria for 7 months. Ultrasonography and computed tomography imaging demonstrated a large mixed solid/cystic mass lesions in the rectovesical pouch. The mass was completely resected with the open approach and was verified as a primary SCC of the seminal vesicle by post-surgical histopathological examination. Pelvic metastases were detected 28 months after the surgery. This is the third reported case of primary SCC of the seminal vesicle, and the first one in a young patient. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for primary SCC of the seminal vesicle.

  11. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle is exceedingly rare. Case Presentation We report a case of a 59-year-old man with tumour detected by rectal symptoms and ultrasonography. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging suggested an origin in the right seminal vesicle. Transperineal biopsy of the tumour revealed leiomyosarcoma. A radical vesiculo-prostactectomy with bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed a grade 2 leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy. He developed distant metastases 29 months after diagnosis, and received chemotherapy. Metastatic disease was controlled by second-line gemcitabine-docetaxel combination. Fifty-one months after diagnosis of the primary tumour, and 22 months after the first metastases, the patient is alive with excellent performance status, and multiple asymptomatic stable lung and liver lesions. Conclusions We report the eighth case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle and the first one with a so long follow-up. PMID:21801386

  12. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Lamivudine and Zidovudine Triphosphates Predicts Differential Pharmacokinetics in Seminal Mononuclear Cells and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kuo H.; Kendrick, Racheal; Reddy, Y. Sunila; Kashuba, Angela D. M.; Troiani, Luigi; Bridges, Arlene S.; Fiscus, Susan A.; Forrest, Alan; Cohen, Myron S.

    2015-01-01

    The male genital tract is a potential site of viral persistence. Therefore, adequate concentrations of antiretrovirals are required to eliminate HIV replication in the genital tract. Despite higher zidovudine (ZDV) and lamivudine (3TC) concentrations in seminal plasma (SP) than in blood plasma (BP) (SP/BP drug concentration ratios of 2.3 and 6.7, respectively), we have previously reported lower relative intracellular concentrations of their active metabolites, zidovudine triphosphate (ZDV-TP) and lamivudine triphosphate (3TC-TP), in seminal mononuclear cells (SMCs) than in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (SMC/PBMC drug concentration ratios of 0.36 and 1.0, respectively). Here, we use population pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling-based methods to simultaneously describe parent and intracellular metabolite PK in blood, semen, and PBMCs and SMCs. From this model, the time to steady state in each matrix was estimated, and the results indicate that the PK of 3TC-TP and ZDV-TP in PBMCs are different from the PK of the two in SMCs and different for the two triphosphates. We found that steady-state conditions in PBMCs were achieved within 2 days for ZDV-TP and 3 days for 3TC-TP. However, steady-state conditions in SMCs were achieved within 2 days for ZDV-TP and 2 weeks for 3TC-TP. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, ZDV-TP in SMCs does not achieve the surrogate 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) (as established for PBMCs, assuming SMC IC50 = PBMC IC50) at the standard 300-mg twice-daily dosing. Mechanistic studies are needed to understand these differences and to explore intracellular metabolite behavior in SMCs for other nucleoside analogues used in HIV prevention, treatment, and cure. PMID:26239974

  13. Maintenance of a normal meal-induced decrease in plasma ghrelin levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, C; Rigamonti, A E; Giannone, G; Berardinelli, R; Cella, S G; Cappa, M; Müller, E E

    2004-03-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide recently identified in the stomach as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a). Ghrelin is a potent stimulator of GH secretion. It was recently shown that circulating ghrelin levels in humans rise shortly before and fall shortly after every meal, and that ghrelin administration increases voluntary food intake. The hypothesis that ghrelin hypersecretion might contribute to genetic obesity has never been investigated. In this context, Prader-Willi syndrome is the most common form of human syndromic obesity. As ghrelin affects appetite as well as GH secretion and both are abnormal in PWS, it has been surmised that these alterations might be due to ghrelin dysregulation. The aim of the study was to investigate whether ghrelin is suppressed by the meals differently in PWS children than in PWS adults. Overnight circulating fasting ghrelin levels and ghrelin levels 120 min after breakfast were assayed in 7 PWS children (10.2 +/- 1.7 yr), 7 subjects with morbid obesity (10.3 +/- 1.3 yr), and 5 normal controls (8.4 +/- 1.4 yr). Because of the data spread, no statistical difference was observed in fasting ghrelin levels between PWS and control children (p = NS); anyway, fasting ghrelin levels were significantly lower in obese children than in the other groups (p < 0.05 vs. control and PWS children). Ghrelin levels were slightly suppressed by the meal in control subjects (mean fasting ghrelin: 160.2 +/- 82 pg/ml; after the meal, 141.2 +/- 57 pg/ml, p = NS); the meal failed to suppress ghrelin levels in obese children (mean fasting ghrelin: 126.4 +/- 8.5 pg/ml; after the meal, 119.1 +/- 8.3 pg/ml, p = NS). Interestingly, the meal markedly suppressed ghrelin levels in PWS children (mean fasting ghrelin: 229.5 +/- 70.4 pg/ml; after the meal, 155.8 +/- 34.2 pg/ml, p < 0.01). In conclusion, since a lack of decrease in circulating ghrelin induced by the meal was previously reported in PWS adults, the finding of a meal-induced decrease in ghrelin levels in our population of young PWS would imply that the regulation of the ghrelin system involved in the orexigenic effects of the peptide is operative during childhood, although it progressively deteriorates and is absent in adulthood when hyperphagia and obesity progressively worsen. PMID:15057669

  14. [Haemospermia due to seminal vesicle amyloidosis. Treatment by laparoscopic vesiculectomy. A case report].

    PubMed

    Vandwalle, Jérôme; Dugardin, Fabrice; Petit, Thomas; Surga, Nicolas; Paul, Alexandre; Petit, Jacques

    2007-11-01

    Amyloidosis of the seminal vesicles is a rare cause of haemospermia. The authors report the case of a 42-year-old patient with recurrent haemospermia over a period of 2 years and abnormalities of one seminal vesicle on ultrasonography and MRI, justifying laparoscopic resection. Histological examination demonstrated localized amyloidosis, secondary to inflammation. No recurrence was observed with a follow-up of one. PMID:18271428

  15. Shedding Light on the Nature of Seminal Round Cells

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Gianpiero D.; Neri, Queenie V.; Cozzubbo, Tyler; Cheung, Stephanie; Pereira, Nigel; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In this investigation we assess the incidence of round cells (RCs) in semen samples in our infertile patient population and their significance on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle outcomes. We also evaluate the usefulness of RCs as indicators of bacterial infection and highlight the origin of this cell-type, as well as its role in the human ejaculate. Patients and Methods In a prospective fashion, a total of 4,810 ejaculated samples were included in the study during a period of 24 months. RCs were characterized for white blood cell (WBC) components versus exfoliated germ cells by testing for multiple markers of ploidy as well as protamine assays. Cases displaying ≥ 2 x 106/ml RCs were screened for bacteria. Raw specimens containing RC were processed by peroxidase and other leukocyte assays, specific stains for protamines were used to identify spermiogenic stage, aneuploidy (FISH) assessment was carried out, and the presence of various Sertoli-cell cytoplasmic remnants was analyzed to identify and characterize immature germ cells. The effect of RC on clinical outcome was assessed in specimens used for ICSI. Results The average age of the men involved was 39.2 ± 7 years. Semen samples had a mean concentration of 40.7 ± 31 x 106/ml, motility of 42.6 ± 35%, and morphology of 2.3 ± 2%. RCs were identified in 261 specimens, representing a proportion of 5.4%. Men with RCs had comparable age but lower sperm concentration and morphology than the control group (P<0.001). The aneuploidy rate of 4.3% in RCs group was remarkably higher than the control group (2.3%; P<0.001). Sperm aneuploidy rate positively correlated with the number of RCs (P<0.001). Of 44 men, 17 of them in 18 cycles had up to 1.9 x 106/ml RCs without affecting fertilization and clinical pregnancy rates when compared to controls (n = 365 cycles). In 27 men undergoing 33 ICSI cycles with ≥ 2 x 106/ml RCs, the fertilization rate trended lower and the miscarriage rate was significantly increased (P = 0.05). There was lack of correlation between RC and bacteriological growth. Specific markers indicated that seminal RCs are mostly immature germ cells encased in the remnants of Sertoli cell cytoplasm. Moreover, their modest protamine content and their haploid status confirm that they are post-meiotic. Sequential observation in the same man showed that RC episodes were followed by an amelioration of semen parameters, and interestingly, the episodic occurrence of RCs often coincides with flu season peaks. Conclusions Seminal RCs are not a marker of infectiousness but rather a transient indicator of spermatogenic insult that possibly occurs in most men following a mild and transient ailment such as the flu. PMID:26982590

  16. Diverse nitrogen sources in seminal fluid act in synergy to induce filamentous growth of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Francisco J; Ryman, Kicki; Hooijmaijers, Cornelis; Bulone, Vincent; Ljungdahl, Per O

    2015-04-01

    The pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is the leading cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). VVC represents a major quality-of-life issue for women during their reproductive years, a stage of life where the vaginal epithelium is subject to periodic hormonally induced changes associated with menstruation and concomitant exposure to serum as well as potential intermittent contact with seminal fluid. Seminal fluid potently triggers Candida albicans to switch from yeastlike to filamentous modes of growth, a developmental response tightly linked to virulence. Conversely, vaginal fluid inhibits filamentation. Here, we used artificial formulations of seminal and vaginal fluids that faithfully mimic genuine fluids to assess the contribution of individual components within these fluids to filamentation. The high levels of albumin, amino acids, and N-acetylglucosamine in seminal fluid act synergistically as potent inducers of filamentous growth, even at atmospheric levels of CO2 and reduced temperatures (30 °C). Using a simplified in vitro model that mimics the natural introduction of seminal fluid into the vulvovaginal environment, a pulse of artificial seminal fluid (ASF) was found to exert an enduring potential to overcome the inhibitory efficacy of artificial vaginal fluid (AVF) on filamentation. These findings suggest that a transient but substantial change in the nutrient levels within the vulvovaginal environment during unprotected coitus can induce resident C. albicans cells to engage developmental programs associated with virulent growth. PMID:25662979

  17. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  18. Diverse Nitrogen Sources in Seminal Fluid Act in Synergy To Induce Filamentous Growth of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Francisco J.; Ryman, Kicki; Hooijmaijers, Cornelis; Bulone, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is the leading cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). VVC represents a major quality-of-life issue for women during their reproductive years, a stage of life where the vaginal epithelium is subject to periodic hormonally induced changes associated with menstruation and concomitant exposure to serum as well as potential intermittent contact with seminal fluid. Seminal fluid potently triggers Candida albicans to switch from yeastlike to filamentous modes of growth, a developmental response tightly linked to virulence. Conversely, vaginal fluid inhibits filamentation. Here, we used artificial formulations of seminal and vaginal fluids that faithfully mimic genuine fluids to assess the contribution of individual components within these fluids to filamentation. The high levels of albumin, amino acids, and N-acetylglucosamine in seminal fluid act synergistically as potent inducers of filamentous growth, even at atmospheric levels of CO2 and reduced temperatures (30°C). Using a simplified in vitro model that mimics the natural introduction of seminal fluid into the vulvovaginal environment, a pulse of artificial seminal fluid (ASF) was found to exert an enduring potential to overcome the inhibitory efficacy of artificial vaginal fluid (AVF) on filamentation. These findings suggest that a transient but substantial change in the nutrient levels within the vulvovaginal environment during unprotected coitus can induce resident C. albicans cells to engage developmental programs associated with virulent growth. PMID:25662979

  19. Male Seminal Fluid Substances Affect Sperm Competition Success and Female Reproductive Behavior in a Seed Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Takashi; Goenaga, Julieta; Rönn, Johanna Liljestrand; Arnqvist, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Male seminal fluid proteins are known to affect female reproductive behavior and physiology by reducing mating receptivity and by increasing egg production rates. Such substances are also though to increase the competitive fertilization success of males, but the empirical foundation for this tenet is restricted. Here, we examined the effects of injections of size-fractioned protein extracts from male reproductive organs on both male competitive fertilization success (i.e., P2 in double mating experiments) and female reproduction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We found that extracts of male seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 1 day after the females’ initial mating, while extracts from accessory glands and testes increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 2 days after the females’ initial mating. Moreover, different size fractions of seminal fluid proteins had distinct and partly antagonistic effects on male competitive fertilization success. Collectively, our experiments show that several different seminal fluid proteins, deriving from different parts in the male reproductive tract and of different molecular weight, affect male competitive fertilization success in C. maculatus. Our results highlight the diverse effects of seminal fluid proteins and show that the function of such proteins can be contingent upon female mating status. We also document effects of different size fractions on female mating receptivity and egg laying rates, which can serve as a basis for future efforts to identify the molecular identity of seminal fluid proteins and their function in this model species. PMID:25893888

  20. Effect of androgen deprivation on the expression of aquaporins in rat prostate and seminal vesicles.

    PubMed

    Tian, J C; Xia, J Y; Jiang, J; Jiang, R; He, Y Z; Lin, H

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of secretions of prostate and seminal vesicles and its association with the expression of AQP0, 1, 4, 5, 6 and 8 in castrated rats. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 18) were randomly divided into control group, castrated rats group and castrated followed testosterone replacement group. Four weeks after surgery, the secretions and expression of AQP0, 1, 4, 5, 6 and 8 of prostate and seminal vesicles were determined. Serum testosterone was significantly lower in castrated groups than in control and testosterone replacement groups (P < 0.05). The level of prostate and seminal vesicle secretions and the expressions of AQP0, 1, 4, 5, 6 and 8 in prostate and seminal vesicles were significantly lower in castrated group than in control and castrated followed testosterone replacement groups (P < 0.05). The decreased prostatic and seminal vesicle secretions in castrated rats may be related to the decrease in AQP0, 1, 4, 5, 6 and 8 in prostatic tissue and seminal vesicles. PMID:26011465

  1. Prekallikrein deficiency in a kindred with kininogen deficiency and Fitzgerald trait clotting defect. Evidence that high molecular weight kininogen and prekallikrein exist as a complex in normal human plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, V H; Kleniewski, J; Saito, H; Sayed, J K

    1977-01-01

    Plasma from an individual with a hereditary deficiency of kininogens is deficient in kininogen antigens; heterozygous relatives are partially deficient in plasma kininogen antigens. In addition, plasma from the proband is partially deficient in functional and antigenic properties of a plasma prekallikrein, and the relatives heterozygous for kininogen deficiency are also partially deficient in the plasma prekallikrein. It is possible that the defects are both inherited and that the inheritance of a deficiency of prekallikrein is genetically linked to the inheritance of a deficiency of kininogen. Alternatively, it is possible that the deficiency of prekallikrein may be due to its hypercatabolism which could be a consequence of a deficiency of high molecular weight kininogen that may stabilize the prekallikrein in plasma. Evidence to support this possibility is presented by the fact that prekallikrein and high molecular weight kininogen apparently exist as a complex in normal plasma, because monospecific antiserum to kininogen removed both high molecular weight kininogen and prekallikrein from plasma, and vice versa. Moreover, prekallikrein was not adsorbed from kininogen-deficient plasma by antiserum to kininogen unless high molecular weight kininogen was first added to the plasma. Low molecular weight kininogen did not participate in these reactions. Images PMID:893663

  2. plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. Y.; Jin, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Ye, C.; Zhuge, L. J.; Wu, X. M.

    2014-12-01

    As-deposited HfO2 films were modified by CHF3, C4F8, and mixed C4F8/O2 plasmas in a dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasma chamber driven by radio frequency generators of 60 MHz as the high frequency (HF) source and 2 MHz as the low frequency source (60/2 MHz). The influences of various surface plasma treatments under CHF3, C4F8, and C4F8/O2 were investigated in order to understand the chemical and structural changes in thin-film systems, as well as their influence on the electrical properties. Fluorine atoms were incorporated into the HfO2 films by either CHF3 or C4F8 plasma treatment; meanwhile, the C/F films were formed on the surface of the HfO2 films. The formation of C/F layers decreased the k value of the gate stacks because of its low dielectric constant. However, the addition of O2 gas in the discharge gases suppressed the formation of C/F layers. After thermal annealing, tetragonal HfO2 phase was investigated in both samples treated with CHF3 and C4F8 plasmas. However, the samples treated with O-rich plasmas showed monoclinic phase, which indicated that the addition of O plasmas could influence the Hf/O ratio of the HfO2 films. The mechanism of the t-HfO2 formation was attributed to oxygen insufficiency generated by the incorporation of F atoms. The capacitors treated with C4F8/O2 plasmas displayed the highest k value, which ascribed that the C/F layers were suppressed and the tetragonal phase of HfO2 was formed. Good electrical properties, especially on the hysteresis voltage and frequency dispersion, were obtained because the bulk traps were passivated by the incorporation of F atoms. However, the H-related traps were generated during the CHF3 plasma treatments, which caused the performance degradation. All the treated samples showed lower leakage current density than the as-deposited HfO2 films at negative bias due to the reduced trap-assisted tunneling by the incorporation of F to block the electrons transferring from metal electrode to the trap level.

  3. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody to a conserved epitope on human seminal vesicle-specific peptides: a novel probe/marker system for semen identification.

    PubMed

    Herr, J C; Summers, T A; McGee, R S; Sutherland, W M; Sigman, M; Evans, R J

    1986-10-01

    A novel sperm-coating antigen from the human seminal vesicles was discovered. We identified a monoclonal antibody MHS-5, recognizing an epitope with characteristics of a forensic semen marker: conservation in all vasectomized or normal semen samples tested (421); absence in all human tissues or biological fluids other than semen; and immunolocalization on the surface of ejaculated sperm. Western blots of ejaculates allowed to liquefy for 5 min demonstrated the MHS-5 epitope to be located on peptides of a wide range of molecular masses from 69 to 8 kDa. After 15 h of semen liquefaction, immunoreaction peptides of higher molecular mass were undetectable in semen, while peptides of lower molecular mass from 8 to 21 kDa retained antigenicity. Three peptides of 10, 11.9, and 13.7 kDa were the most immunoreactive species in semen liquified for 15 h. Using the MHS-5 monoclonal, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed sensitive to 1 ng of seminal protein. This assay showed that the MHS-5 antigen was undetectable in semen of common domestic animals and monkeys but was present in chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan semen. ELISA of homogenates from human organs and reproductive tissues demonstrated the antigen only in samples of seminal vesicles. Epididymal sperm obtained at vasovasostomy lacked the MHS-5 epitope, a fact that, together with immunolocalization on ejaculated sperm, demonstrated that the MHS-5 antigen functions as a "sperm-coating antigen." The MHS-5 monoclonal detected semen in sexual-assault evidence obtained six months previously and in mixtures of semen with vaginal or cervical fluid. Assay systems employing the MHS-5 monoclonal may be useful for identification of semen in sexual-assault casework. The MHS-5 epitope resides on novel seminal vesicle-specific peptides whose functions, aside from sperm coating, are uncharacterized. PMID:2431723

  4. Mixed epithelial-stromal tumor (MEST) of seminal vesicle: a proposal for unified nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Reikie, Brian A; Yilmaz, Asli; Medlicott, Shaun; Trpkov, Kiril

    2015-03-01

    In contrast to the common tumors of the prostate, seminal vesicle demonstrates low potential for neoplastic proliferation. Of the rare primary seminal vesicle tumors, adenocarcinoma is the most common, but there are also rare seminal vesicle neoplasms which demonstrate epithelial and stromal components. These neoplasms have been described in the literature under various names, including "epithelial-stromal tumor," "cystic epithelial-stromal tumor," "cystadenoma," "cystomyoma," "mesenchymoma," "Müllerian adenosarcoma-like tumor," "phyllodes tumor," and "cystosarcoma phyllodes." The spectrum of reported mixed epithelial-stromal tumors (MEST) of seminal vesicle encompasses low, intermediate and high-grade tumors, but the precise distinction and nomenclature for these tumors remain unsettled. We propose a common nomenclature for these tumors, based on the review of published cases and 2 index cases from our practice, which represent the low-grade category. The first patient was 46 years old and presented with seminal vesicle neoplasm detected on routine rectal examination. The neoplasm measured 4 cm in greatest dimension, and completely replaced the left seminal vesicle. The tumor was circumscribed and consisted of multiple cysts separated by spindle-cell stroma. The second patient was a 60-year-old man, who had an incidental seminal vesicle neoplasm, which was discovered when he underwent a radical prostatectomy for a prostatic adenocarcinoma, (Gleason score 3+4, stage 3a). Both neoplasms contained hypercellular stroma, which was composed of uniform spindle cells, arranged in fascicles and interspersed between the glands. Both tumors lacked worrisome morphology, such as infiltrative borders, cell atypia, increased mitotic activity, hemorrhage, and necrosis. The stromal cells were reactive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, and desmin. The cysts and dilated glands were lined by epithelial cells, which were positive for cytokeratin 7 and were negative for prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific acid phosphatase. The first patient underwent prostatectomy and was alive and without evidence of disease recurrence or progression after 11 years of follow-up. Similarly, the second patient had no evidence of disease recurrence or progression after 8 months of follow-up. We propose that term seminal vesicle "mixed epithelial-stromal tumor" be used to designate the tumors of the seminal vesicle containing epithelial and stromal components, with a distinction of grade based on the histologic features and the biological behavior. Histologic features to be evaluated for grade separation include stromal atypia, mitotic activity, nuclear pleomorphism, and tumor necrosis. Designations "low-grade MEST," "intermediate-grade MEST (uncertain malignant potential)," and "high-grade MEST" of seminal vesicle can be applied to these tumors to better characterize and study them in the future. PMID:25664946

  5. Growth hormone (GH) therapy markedly increases the motility of spermatozoa and the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I in seminal vesicle fluid in the male GH-deficient dwarf rat.

    PubMed

    Breier, B H; Vickers, M H; Gravance, C G; Casey, P J

    1996-09-01

    There is increasing evidence for an important role of the somatotropic axis in male reproductive function. We investigated the effect of recombinant bovine GH (rbGH) treatment for 21 days on semen characteristics in post-pubertal GH-deficient dwarf (dw/dw) rats. Male dw/dw rats at an age of 75-80 days were divided into two groups (n = 10 per group) and injected twice per day with either rbGH (2 micrograms/g/day) or saline. While the concentration (96.4 +/- 51.3 x 10(6) per ml) and morphology of spermatozoa (spermatozoa with normal morphology 73.5 +/- 6.3%) in the dw/dw rat were within the normal range, the motility of spermatozoa was very low (27.5 +/- 11.7%), establishing a state of sub-fertility. The rbGH treatment markedly increased (p < 0.01) motility of spermatozoa (44.5 +/- 10.7%) but did not change the concentration (144 +/- 80.3 x 10(6) per ml) and morphology (spermatozoa with normal morphology 79.5 +/- 6.0%). The rbGH treatment also significantly increased the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in blood plasma (control 389.1 +/- 65 ng/ml, rbGH 813.9 ng/ml, p < 0.001) and in seminal vesicle fluid (control 11.3 +/- 3.0 ng/ml, rbGH 16.1 +/- 5.4 ng/ml, p < 0.05). We conclude that rbGH therapy markedly increases motility of spermatozoa in sub-fertile male GH-deficient dw/dw rats. Thus, GH therapy may offer considerable potential for the treatment of impaired male reproductive performance. PMID:8756586

  6. Physiological routes from intra-uterine seminal contents to advancement of ovulation

    PubMed Central

    Waberski, Dagmar; Döhring, Anke; Ardón, Florencia; Ritter, Nadine; Zerbe, Holm; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Weitze, Karl Fritz; Hunter, Ronald HF

    2006-01-01

    Whole boar semen or seminal plasma has been demonstrated to advance the time of ovulation in gilts. As a means of clarifying this influence, the contribution of uterine lymphatics and their white cell populations has been examined. After duct visualisation with Evan's blue, lymph was sampled from a mesometrial vessel in eight pre-ovulatory gilts whose uterine lumen was infused simultaneously with whole semen in one ligated horn and saline in the contralateral ligated horn. Lymph was collected from cannulated vessels for periods of up to four hours under general anaesthesia. Thereafter, mesometrial lymph nodes, utero-tubal junction and uterine wall tissues were sampled. The proportion of nucleated cells in the sampled lymph increased towards the end of the collection period, but erythrocytes were found in all instances preventing a meaningful differentiation and identification of leukocytes. Prominent uterine lymph nodes were present in the mesometrium on both sides of the reproductive tract in 7 of 10 gilts. Differences in cellular contents were demonstrated between the side of the tract infused with semen and that infused with saline control. Two of 4 gilts had lower values for CD4 (Cluster Differentiation) and 3 of 6 gilts higher values for MHC II (Major Histocompatibility Complex) markers on the side challenged with semen. In contrast, values remained constant for CD8 but ranged widely for CD18. Immunohistochemical analysis of uterine tissue samples for MHC II+ cells revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) between the control and semen-treated ligated portions of the horns, as well as between the tissue sample of uterine wall and that from the utero-tubal junction, but there were no significant differences for CD4+ cells. It therefore remains plausible that semen-induced cytokines in the uterine lymph undergo counter-current transfer to the ipsilateral ovary and accelerate the final maturation of pre-ovulatory Graafian follicles. PMID:16987392

  7. Fresh Frozen Plasma Resuscitation Provides Neuroprotection Compared to Normal Saline in a Large Animal Model of Traumatic Brain Injury and Polytrauma

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Ayesha; Jin, Guang; Sillesen, Martin; Dekker, Simone E.; Bambakidis, Ted; Hwabejire, John O.; Jepsen, Cecilie H.; Halaweish, Ihab

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We have previously shown that early treatment with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is neuroprotective in a swine model of hemorrhagic shock (HS) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, it remains unknown whether this strategy would be beneficial in a more clinical polytrauma model. Yorkshire swine (42–50 kg) were instrumented to measure hemodynamic parameters, brain oxygenation, and intracranial pressure (ICP) and subjected to computer-controlled TBI and multi-system trauma (rib fracture, soft-tissue damage, and liver injury) as well as combined free and controlled hemorrhage (40% blood volume). After 2 h of shock (mean arterial pressure, 30–35 mm Hg), animals were resuscitated with normal saline (NS; 3×volume) or FFP (1×volume; n=6/group). Six hours postresuscitation, brains were harvested and lesion size and swelling were evaluated. Levels of endothelial-derived vasodilator endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) were also measured. FFP resuscitation was associated with reduced brain lesion size (1005.8 vs. 2081.9 mm3; p=0.01) as well as swelling (11.5% vs. 19.4%; p=0.02). Further, FFP-resuscitated animals had higher brain oxygenation as well as cerebral perfusion pressures. Levels of cerebral eNOS were higher in the FFP-treated group (852.9 vs. 816.4 ng/mL; p=0.03), but no differences in brain levels of ET-1 were observed. Early administration of FFP is neuroprotective in a complex, large animal model of polytrauma, hemorrhage, and TBI. This is associated with a favorable brain oxygenation and cerebral perfusion pressure profile as well as higher levels of endothelial-derived vasodilator eNOS, compared to normal saline resuscitation. PMID:25153180

  8. Interaction of PDC-109, the major secretory protein from bull seminal vesicles, with bovine sperm membrane Ca2+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Luengo, Silvia; Aumüller, Gerhard; Albrecht, Martin; Sen, Parimal C; Röhm, Karlheinrich; Wilhelm, Beate

    2004-01-01

    PDC-109 is the prevalent secretory protein from bovine seminal vesicles that binds to the midpiece of sperm once they pass the ampulla of the vas deferens during emission. Thereby, the protein changes biophysical membrane properties, eventually resulting in increased sperm motility. To elucidate the underlying biochemical mechanism, we have studied the ion-pumping activity (Ca(2+)-ATPase) in membrane preparations of bovine spermatozoa following in vitro incubation with the protein and analyzed whether PDC-109 influences sperm motility. PDC-109 was purified to homogeneity from bull seminal vesicle extracts using a newly described method. The effect of PDC-109 on sperm motility was analyzed using the CASA-method. These experiments clearly demonstrated that PDC-109 significantly increases sperm motility. Calcium-pumping mechanisms were analyzed by monitoring the effect of PDC-109 on various parameters of enzyme activity of Ca(2+)-ATPase in epididymal sperm plasma membranes and were compared with Ca(2+)-ATPase activities from other organs and from epididymal sperm of different species, respectively. Specificity studies were performed using different Ca(2+)-antagonists. Enzyme activities of both Mg(2+)-dependent and Mg(2+)-independent Ca(2+)-ATPases increased in a dose-dependent manner following the addition of the PDC-109 (range 5-20 microg). Preincubation of PDC-109 at temperatures above 37 degrees C and pHs ranging from below 6.5 and above 8.5 led to the loss of the stimulatory effect. An analysis of enzyme kinetics pointed to irreversible, cooperative interaction of PDC-109 with the enzyme. The effect was organ-specific, that is, restricted to sperm ATPases, but it was not species-specific, as it could be elicited also in rat sperm. PMID:14760009

  9. [A primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles. Case report of a rare malignancy].

    PubMed

    Möhring, C; Bach, P; Kosciesza, S; Goepel, M

    2008-05-01

    Primary malignancies of the seminal vesicles are extremely rare. They must be strictly differentiated from surrounding malignancies that may infiltrate the seminal vesicles from outside (e.g. prostate, rectum, and bladder carcinoma). MEDLINE and CANCERLIT review showed about 50 documented cases of primary seminal vesicle carcinoma so far worldwide in men between 19 and 90 years of age. Early diagnosis may be difficult due to lack of specific symptoms. Especially with a history of voiding dysfunction, haemospermia and/or haematuria, investigators should consider it. Primary diagnostic steps include digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and transrectal biopsy of the tumour. Additionally, CT and MRT scans show tumour masses corresponding to the seminal vesicles. Adenocarcinoma of seminal vesicles shows no expression of prostate-specific antigen or prostate-specific acid phosphatase, but there may be expression of carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen 125. Radical surgery including radical prostatectomy and/or cystoprostatectomy including pelvic lymph node dissection offers a curative treatment pathway. Adjuvant or inductive medical treatment is of unproven worth, but a combination of hormonal deprivation and radiotherapy seems to be more effective than any chemotherapy. PMID:18231770

  10. Dietary inclusion of dried tomato pomace improves the seminal characteristics in Iranian native roosters.

    PubMed

    Saemi, F; Zamiri, M J; Akhlaghi, A; Niakousari, M; Dadpasand, M; Ommati, M M

    2012-09-01

    Because of a paucity of information on the effect of tomato pomace in male chickens, a study was undertaken to determine the influence of dietary inclusion of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on seminal characteristics in Iranian native breeder roosters. Fifty-four roosters (24 wk old) were randomly allotted to 3 treatment groups and received either a basal diet without DTP (T(0)), or a diet containing 15% (T(15)) or 30% (T(30)) DTP for an 8-wk-long experimental period. Semen samples were obtained weekly by abdominal massage to evaluate the seminal characteristics. Dietary inclusion of DTP increased sperm concentration, accompanied by a decreased seminal volume (P ≤ 0.05). The percentage of live sperm in ejaculate was increased in T(15) and T(30) groups, but sperm forward motility was not affected by DTP inclusion. A decreased percentage of abnormal sperm and improved membrane integrity (as determined by the hypoosmotic swelling test) were observed in T(15) and T(30) groups. Lower concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (as an index of sperm membrane lipid peroxidation) was recorded in roosters fed DTP. A diet × time (wk) interaction was also found for most of seminal characteristics, except for the sperm forward motility (P ≤ 0.05). The results indicated that dietary inclusion of DTP up to 30% improved seminal quality attributes within 4 to 5 wk in roosters; however, the underlying mechanism(s) warrants further study. PMID:22912468

  11. Gender and single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2R, and SCARB1 are significant predictors of plasma homocysteine normalized by RBC folate in healthy adults.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using linear regression models, we studied the main and two-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma homocysteine normalized by red blood cell...

  12. A case of seminal vesicle cyst associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis diagnosed during an investigation of urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Coşkun, Burhan; Dalkılıç, Ayhan; Sönmez, Nurettin Cem; Arısan, Serdar; Ofluoğlu, Yılmaz; Ergenekon, Erbil

    2013-01-01

    Seminal vesicle cysts are rare and usually associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis. The diagnosis of seminal vesicle cysts may be delayed or missed because of the non-specific symptoms of this condition. In this study, we aimed to discuss the diagnosis and treatment of a left seminal vesicle cyst that was associated ipsilateral agenesis in a 24-year-old patient who presented to our outpatient department with urinary incontinence. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a seminal vesicle cyst measuring 40×45 mm in diameter. Although the patient’s symptoms were relieved with cyst aspiration via transrectal ultrasonography, the symptoms recurred 6 months later. PMID:26328079

  13. Primary yolk sac tumor of seminal vesicle: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor) is a rare malignant germ cell tumor arising in the testis or ovary. Extragonadal yolk sac tumor is even rarer and has only been described in case reports. Due to the rarity of the tumors, the appropriately optimal treatment remains unclear. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the seminal vesicle. Case A 38-year-old Asian male presented with gross hematuria and hemospermia. Transrectal ultrasound scan showed a solid mass in the left seminal vesicle and the scrotal sonography showed no abnormalities. Bilateral seminal vesicles were resected, and histopathological examination showed a typical pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST). The patient responded poorly to comprehensive treatment of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgeries, developed systemic multiple metastases, and died of cachexia one and half years after diagnosis. PMID:22978485

  14. A comparison of CKD-EPI estimated glomerular filtration rate and measured creatinine clearance in recently admitted critically ill patients with normal plasma creatinine concentrations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) has been widely integrated into clinical practice. Although useful in screening for CKD, its’ application in critically ill patients with normal plasma creatinine concentrations remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of CKD-EPI eGFR in comparison to creatinine clearance (CLCR) in this setting. Methods This prospective observational study was performed in a tertiary level, university affiliated intensive care unit (ICU). Study participants had to have an expected ICU length of stay > 24 hours, a plasma creatinine concentration < 121 μmol/L, and no history of prior renal replacement therapy or CKD. CKD-EPI eGFR was compared against 8-hour measured urinary CLCR. Data capture occurred within 48 hours of admission. Results One hundred and ten patients (n = 110) were enrolled in the study. 63.6% were male, the mean age was 50.9 (16.9) years, 57.3% received invasive mechanical ventilation, and 30% required vasopressor support. The mean CLCR was 125 (45.1) ml/min/1.73 m2, compared to a CKD-EPI eGFR of 101 (23.7) ml/min/1.73 m2 (P < 0.001). Moderate correlation was evident (r = 0.72), although there was significant bias and imprecision (24.4 +/− 32.5 ml/min/1.73 m2). In those patients with a CKD-EPI eGFR between 60–119 ml/min/1.73 m2 (n = 77), 41.6% displayed augmented renal clearance (CLCR ≥ 130 ml/min/1.73 m2), while 7.8% had a CLCR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Conclusions These data suggest CKD-EPI eGFR and measured CLCR produce significantly disparate results when estimating renal function in this population. Clinicians should consider carefully which value they employ in clinical practice, particularly drug dose modification. PMID:24225349

  15. Seminal vesicle metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma: An unusual and challenging presentation.

    PubMed

    Foahom Kamwa, Alain D; Mateus, Christine; Thanigasalam, Ruban; Boulay-Coletta, Isabelle; Duchatelle, Véronique; Triller, Marie; Robert, Caroline; Baumert, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a tumour, which usually involves skin melanocytes. Involvement of the male genitourinary (GU) system by melanoma is an uncommon and challenging diagnosis. We report the first case of seminal vesicle metastasis from a primary cutaneous melanoma in a 58-year-old man, with hemospermia as the only clinical sign. This case highlights the role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, as a more sensitive assessment to early detect metastatic melanoma in the GU system. The patient underwent a robot-assisted laparoscopic bilateral seminal vesiculectomy, which had good functional and oncological results and is still in complete remission at the 1-year follow-up. PMID:26085885

  16. Seminal vesicle metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma: An unusual and challenging presentation

    PubMed Central

    Foahom Kamwa, Alain D.; Mateus, Christine; Thanigasalam, Ruban; Boulay-Coletta, Isabelle; Duchatelle, Véronique; Triller, Marie; Robert, Caroline; Baumert, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a tumour, which usually involves skin melanocytes. Involvement of the male genitourinary (GU) system by melanoma is an uncommon and challenging diagnosis. We report the first case of seminal vesicle metastasis from a primary cutaneous melanoma in a 58-year-old man, with hemospermia as the only clinical sign. This case highlights the role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, as a more sensitive assessment to early detect metastatic melanoma in the GU system. The patient underwent a robot-assisted laparoscopic bilateral seminal vesiculectomy, which had good functional and oncological results and is still in complete remission at the 1-year follow-up. PMID:26085885

  17. Approximating Multivariate Normal Orthant Probabilities. ONR Technical Report. [Biometric Lab Report No. 90-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Robert D.; And Others

    The probability integral of the multivariate normal distribution (ND) has received considerable attention since W. F. Sheppard's (1900) and K. Pearson's (1901) seminal work on the bivariate ND. This paper evaluates the formula that represents the "n x n" correlation matrix of the "chi(sub i)" and the standardized multivariate normal density…

  18. The impact force acting on a flat plate exposed normally to a rarefied plasma plume issuing from an annular or circular nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi

    2010-08-01

    With the indirect thrust measurement of electric thrusters working at a low vacuum chamber pressure as the research background, this paper analyses the impact force acting on a flat plate exposed normally to a rarefied plasma plume issuing from a thruster with an annular or circular exit section for the free-molecule flow regime (at large Knudsen numbers). The constraint relation proposed by Cai and Boyd (2007 J. Spacecr. Rockets 44 619, 1326) about the velocity components of gas particles leaving a location on the nozzle exit section and arriving at a given spatial point outside the nozzle has been employed here to derive the analytical expressions for calculating the impact force. Sample calculation results show that if the flat plate is sufficiently large, the impact force acting on the flat plate calculated for the case without accounting for gas particle reflection at the plate surface agrees well with the axial momentum flux calculated at the thruster exit or the theoretical thrust force of the studied thruster, while accounting for the contribution of gas particles reflected from the plate surface to the impact force production may significantly increase the calculated impact force acting on the flat plate. For a Hall-effect thruster in which the thrust force is dominantly produced by the ions with high directional kinetic energy and the ions are not directly reflected from the plate surface, the contribution to the impact force production of atom species and of gas particles reflected from the plate surface is negligibly small and thus the measured axial impact force acting on a sufficiently large plate can well represent the thrust force of the thruster. On the other hand, if the contribution of the gas particles reflected from the plate surface to the impact force production cannot be neglected (e.g. for the electric thrusters with comparatively low thruster exit temperatures), appreciable error would appear in the indirect thrust measurement.

  19. Origin of the catalytic activity of bovine seminal ribonuclease against double-stranded RNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opitz, J. G.; Ciglic, M. I.; Haugg, M.; Trautwein-Fritz, K.; Raillard, S. A.; Jermann, T. M.; Benner, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    Bovine seminal ribonuclease (RNase) binds, melts, and (in the case of RNA) catalyzes the hydrolysis of double-stranded nucleic acid 30-fold better under physiological conditions than its pancreatic homologue, the well-known RNase A. Reported here are site-directed mutagenesis experiments that identify the sequence determinants of this enhanced catalytic activity. These experiments have been guided in part by experimental reconstructions of ancestral RNases from extinct organisms that were intermediates in the evolution of the RNase superfamily. It is shown that the enhanced interactions between bovine seminal RNase and double-stranded nucleic acid do not arise from the increased number of basic residues carried by the seminal enzyme. Rather, a combination of a dimeric structure and the introduction of two glycine residues at positions 38 and 111 on the periphery of the active site confers the full catalytic activity of bovine seminal RNase against duplex RNA. A structural model is presented to explain these data, the use of evolutionary reconstructions to guide protein engineering experiments is discussed, and a new variant of RNase A, A(Q28L K31C S32C D38G E111G), which contains all of the elements identified in these experiments as being important for duplex activity, is prepared. This is the most powerful catalyst within this subfamily yet observed, some 46-fold more active against duplex RNA than RNase A.

  20. 21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. 866.5800 Section 866.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... rape and other sex-related crimes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

  1. Primary Seminal Vesicle Adenocarcinoma Presenting With Bilateral Orbital Metastasis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Matthew E.; Kovell, Robert C.; Jaffe, William I.

    2016-01-01

    Seminal vesicle (SV) adenocarcinoma is a rare and poorly understood malignancy. Symptoms are non-specific and prognosis is extremely poor. Herein we present a case report of a primary SV clear cell adenocarcinoma with bilateral orbital metastases at the time of initial presentation treated with multimodal therapy including radiotherapy and multi-drug chemotherapy. PMID:27175340

  2. Melatonin promotes seminal root elongation and root growth in transgenic rice after germination.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangkyu; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2012-11-01

    The effect of melatonin on root growth after germination was examined in transgenic rice seedlings expressing sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT). Enhanced melatonin levels were found in T(3) homozygous seedlings because of the ectopic overexpression of sheep NAT, which is believed to be the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis in animals. Compared with wild-type rice seeds, the transgenic rice seeds showed enhanced seminal root growth and an analogous number of adventitious roots 4 and 10 days after seeding on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium. The enhanced initial seminal root growth in the transgenic seedlings matched their increased root biomass well. We also found that treatment with 0.5 and 1 μM melatonin promoted seminal root growth of the wild type under continuous light. These results indicate that melatonin plays an important role in regulating both seminal root length and root growth after germination in monocotyledonous rice plants. This is the first report on the effects of melatonin on root growth in gain-of-function mutant plants that produce high levels of melatonin. PMID:22640001

  3. Robot-assisted excision of seminal vesicle cyst associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis.

    PubMed

    Scarcia, Marcello; Maselli, Francesco Paolo; Cardo, Giuseppe; Pagliarulo, Giovanni; Ludovico, Giuseppe Mario

    2015-12-01

    Seminal vesicle cysts (SVCs) associated with other genitourologic abnormalities are rare. Often associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis in a symptomatic patient. In symptomatic patients open surgical excision is the treatment of choice. The laparoscopic approach is a less invasive option. Recently robot-assisted management has gained a primary role for the treatment of this condition. PMID:26766807

  4. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids and vitamin C are better correlated with dietary intake in normal weight than overweight and obese elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Vioque, Jesús; Weinbrenner, Tanja; Asensio, Laura; Castelló, Adela; Young, Ian S; Fletcher, Astrid

    2007-05-01

    Carotenoid and vitamin C intakes, assessed by FFQ, have been positively associated with plasma concentrations in different populations. However, the influence of BMI on these associations has not been explored in detail. We explored in a cross-sectional study the relation between dietary carotenoid and vitamin C intakes, using a 135-item FFQ, with their plasma concentrations by BMI categories in 252 men and 293 women, 65 years and older. For men and women combined, significant (P < 0.05) Pearson correlations were observed between energy-adjusted dietary intakes and plasma concentrations (carotenoids adjusted for cholesterol) for: alpha-carotene 0.21, beta-carotene 0.19, lycopene 0.18, beta-cryptoxanthin 0.20 and vitamin C 0.36. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the intake of carotenoids and vitamin C were significant predictors of their respective plasma concentration (P<0.01), and that BMI was inversely associated with plasma concentration of carotenoids (P< or =0.01) but not with plasma vitamin C. In addition, we observed significant interactions between BMI and the intakes of alpha-carotene and lutein + zeaxanthin, and to a lower extent beta-carotene, suggesting that these intakes in subjects with high BMI were not good predictors of their plasma concentration. The present data suggest that plasma carotenoids and vitamin C may be good markers of dietary intake in elderly subjects, but not so for alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and lutein + zeaxanthin in obese subjects. PMID:17408529

  5. Comparative proteomics reveals evidence for evolutionary diversification of rodent seminal fluid and its functional significance in sperm competition.

    PubMed

    Ramm, Steven A; McDonald, Lucy; Hurst, Jane L; Beynon, Robert J; Stockley, Paula

    2009-01-01

    During insemination, males of internally fertilizing species transfer a complex array of seminal fluid proteins to the female reproductive tract. These proteins can have profound effects on female reproductive physiology and behavior and are thought to mediate postcopulatory sexual selection and intersexual conflict. Such selection may cause seminal fluid to evolve rapidly, with potentially important consequences for speciation. Here we investigate the evolution of seminal fluid proteins in a major mammalian radiation, the muroid rodents, by quantifying diversity in seminal fluid proteome composition for the first time across a broad range of closely related species. Using comparative proteomics techniques to identify and cross-match proteins, we demonstrate that rodent seminal fluid is highly diverse at the level of both proteomes and individual proteins. The striking interspecific heterogeneity in seminal fluid composition revealed by our survey far exceeds that seen in a second proteome of comparable complexity, skeletal muscle, indicating that the complement of proteins expressed in seminal fluid may be subject to rapid diversification. We further show that orthologous seminal fluid proteins exhibit substantial interspecific variation in molecular mass. Because this variation cannot be attributed to differential glycosylation or radical differences in termination sites, it is strongly suggestive of rapid amino acid divergence. Sperm competition is implicated in generating such divergence for at least one major seminal fluid protein in our study, SVS II, which is responsible for copulatory plug formation via transglutaminase-catalyzed cross-linking after insemination. We show that the molecular mass of SVS II is positively correlated with relative testis size across species, which could be explained by selection for an increased number of cross-linking sites involved in the formation of the copulatory plug under sperm competition. PMID:18931385

  6. Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery (LESS) for Excision of a Seminal Vesicle Cyst Associated with Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ki Don; Choi, Kyung Hwa; Yang, Seung Choul; Jang, Won Sik; Jang, Ji Young

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) for a symptomatic left seminal vesicular cyst and ipsilateral renal agenesis. A 49-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of severe irritation upon voiding and intractable, recurrent hematospermia. A computed tomography scan showed a 68×41×38 mm sized left seminal vesicular cyst with ipsilateral renal agenesis. LESS was performed successfully to treat the seminal vesicle cyst. The total operative time was 125 minutes, and blood loss was minimal. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the second postoperative day. PMID:21755023

  7. Persistent painless hemospermia due to metastatic melanoma of the right seminal vesicle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metastatic melanoma of the seminal vesicles is a very rare clinical entity and has been reported only once until today in a patient suffering from concomitant HIV infection 12 years ago. Case presentation We report a case of persistent, painless hemospermia in a young Caucasian caused by metastatic malignant melanoma of the right seminal vesicle. The diagnosis was established by magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. In the subsequent diagnostic workup the primary location of the tumor remained unknown but concomitant pulmonary, hepatic and supraclavicular lymph node metastases have been detected. Despite immediate chemotherapy initiation the patient finally succumbed to his progressive disease six months later. Conclusions Malignant melanoma should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis of hemospermia after common causes have been ruled out. PMID:24006885

  8. Perceptual effects of linguistic category priming: the Stapel and Semin (2007) paradigm revisited in twelve experiments.

    PubMed

    IJzerman, Hans; Regenberg, Nina F E; Saddlemyer, Justin; Koole, Sander L

    2015-05-01

    Linguistic category priming is a novel paradigm to examine automatic influences of language on cognition (Semin, 2008). An initial article reported that priming abstract linguistic categories (adjectives) led to more global perceptual processing, whereas priming concrete linguistic categories (verbs) led to more local perceptual processing (Stapel & Semin, 2007). However, this report was compromised by data fabrication by the first author, so that it remains unclear whether or not linguistic category priming influences perceptual processing. To fill this gap in the literature, the present article reports 12 studies among Dutch and US samples examining the perceptual effects of linguistic category priming. The results yielded no evidence of linguistic category priming effects. These findings are discussed in relation to other research showing cultural variations in linguistic category priming effects (IJzerman, Saddlemyer, & Koole, 2014). The authors conclude by highlighting the importance of conducting and publishing replication research for achieving scientific progress. PMID:25703607

  9. Receipt of seminal fluid proteins causes reduction of male investment in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.

    PubMed

    Nakadera, Yumi; Swart, Elferra M; Hoffer, Jeroen N A; den Boon, Onno; Ellers, Jacintha; Koene, Joris M

    2014-04-14

    Mating partners often have conflicting interests when copulating. One of the major agents affecting female mating partners is seminal fluid, transferred along with sperm. The role of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) in reproductive success is well studied in separate-sexed animals but is much less so in simultaneous hermaphrodites. The latter potentially have a unique target to exploit for the sperm donor's own benefit: the male function of their mating partners. Here we show that, in the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, receipt of specific SFPs reduces both sperm transfer and paternity success in a subsequent insemination event. Lowering investment in the mating partner's male function constitutes a novel role for SFPs. This demonstrates for the first time that hermaphrodites alter their mates' male as well as female reproductive output. Although it remains to be tested whether this represents mate manipulation or an adaptive response of recipients, our findings identify male investment as a new target for postcopulatory sexual selection. PMID:24684934

  10. Role of prosaposin in the male reproductive system: effect of prosaposin inactivation on the testis, epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicles.

    PubMed

    Morales, C R; Zhao, Q; Lefrancois, S; Ham, D

    2000-01-01

    SGP-1/prosaposin can be secreted or targeted to the lysosomes where it is processed into smaller saposins (A, B, C, and D) required for the hydrolysis of glycosphingolipids. The deficiency of saposins B and C results in variant forms of metachromatic leukodystrophy and Gaucher's disease, respectively, which are characterized by lysosomal storage of undegraded glycosphingolipids. In the nervous system, prosaposin presents trophic activity. A mouse model was recently developed by creating a null allele in embryonic stem cells through gene targeting to investigate the phenotypic diversity of prosaposin mutations and the involvement of this protein in lysosomal storage diseases, and for the development of therapeutic approaches. Mice homozygous mutants die at the age of 35-40 days and neurological disorders contribute to the early demise of the mutant mice. The male reproductive organs in homozygous mutants show several abnormalities, such as a decrease in testis size with reduced spermiogenesis and an involution of the prostate, seminal vesicles, and epididymis. In these animals, the blood levels of testosterone remain normal. In the prostate of homozygous mutants, only the basal epithelial cells appear to be present, while the secretory cells are absent. These findings suggest that prosaposin may be involved in the development and maintenance of the male reproductive organs, as well as, in cellular differentiation. PMID:10864364

  11. Primary isolated echinococcal cyst of the seminal vesicle: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaque, Majid; Mir, Mohammad Farooq; Nazir, Parvez; Khan, Parwez Sajad

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid disease of the organs other than liver and lung is extremely rare. Although hydatid disease is endemic in India, we report a rare case of hydatid cyst in a young male primarily involving the seminal vesicle and aim to highlight the management of such cases. A 23 year old male farmer diagnosed with primary isolated echinococcal cyst of the seminal vesicle has been presented. Thorough investigations with radiological methods such as ultrasonography (abdominal and trans-rectal), and magnetic resonance imaging were carried out to aid in the diagnosis. Surgical excision of the lesion was carried out with careful removal of the cyst to prevent any bursting and spillage, leaving the seminal vesicle preserved. The cystic lesion was subjected to histopathological examination. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid disease. Postoperative period was uncomplicated and patient was discharged on seventh postoperative day. Patient was put on albendazole (10 mg/kg/day) for three cycles of 21 days each with a gap of one week between each cycle. There was no evidence of recurrence or development of cysts elsewhere in the body during the 2 year follow-up. Hydatid cyst of seminal vesicle is rare and should be kept in differential diagnosis of a cystic lesion in pelvis especially in regions where hydatid disease is endemic. Proper surgical and medical management to avoid any recurrences, and a regular follow-up, are of utmost importance to detect any late complications such as local recurrence of the disease and development of hydatidosis at the primary sites. PMID:22629014

  12. Female Drosophila melanogaster suffer reduced defense against infection due to seminal fluid components

    PubMed Central

    Short, Sarah M.; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Lazzaro, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    Reduced defense against infection is commonly observed as a consequence of reproductive activity, but little is known about how post-mating immunosuppression occurs. In this work, we use Drosophila melanogaster as a model to test the role of seminal fluid components and egg production in suppressing post-mating immune defense. We also evaluate whether systemic immune system activity is altered during infection in mated females. We find that post-mating reduction in female defense depends critically on male transfer of sperm and seminal fluid proteins, including the accessory gland protein known as sex peptide. However, the effect of these male factors is dependent on the presence of the female germline. We find that mated females have lower antimicrobial peptide gene expression than virgin females in response to systemic infection, and that this lower expression correlates with higher systemic bacterial loads. We conclude that, upon receipt of sperm and seminal fluid proteins, females experience a germline-dependent physiological shift that directly or indirectly reduces their overall ability to defend against infection, at least in part through alteration of humoral immune system activity. PMID:22698822

  13. Multi-scale feature learning on pixels and super-pixels for seminal vesicles MRI segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qinquan; Asthana, Akshay; Tong, Tong; Rueckert, Daniel; Edwards, Philip "Eddie"

    2014-03-01

    We propose a learning-based approach to segment the seminal vesicles (SV) via random forest classifiers. The proposed discriminative approach relies on the decision forest using high-dimensional multi-scale context-aware spatial, textual and descriptor-based features at both pixel and super-pixel level. After affine transformation to a template space, the relevant high-dimensional multi-scale features are extracted and random forest classifiers are learned based on the masked region of the seminal vesicles from the most similar atlases. Using these classifiers, an intermediate probabilistic segmentation is obtained for the test images. Then, a graph-cut based refinement is applied to this intermediate probabilistic representation of each voxel to get the final segmentation. We apply this approach to segment the seminal vesicles from 30 MRI T2 training images of the prostate, which presents a particularly challenging segmentation task. The results show that the multi-scale approach and the augmentation of the pixel based features with the super-pixel based features enhances the discriminative power of the learnt classifier which leads to a better quality segmentation in some very difficult cases. The results are compared to the radiologist labeled ground truth using leave-one-out cross-validation. Overall, the Dice metric of 0:7249 and Hausdorff surface distance of 7:0803 mm are achieved for this difficult task.

  14. The seminal receptacle and implications for reproductive processes in the invasive gastropod Crepidula fornicata.

    PubMed

    Beninger, Peter G; Valdizan, Alexandra; Pennec, Gaël Le

    2016-02-01

    The calyptraeid gastropod Crepidula fornicata is the object of considerable research attention, due to its invasive status in the North-Eastern Atlantic, its introduction to habitats throughout the Northern hemisphere, and its scientific interest as a model organism for the study of developmental and reproductive processes in the Metazoa. Since the knowledge concerning the structural foundations for its reproductive processes is surprisingly weak, we investigated the seminal receptacle, a key structure in the reproductive biology of other metazoans, using histology, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The seminal receptacle consists of 9-11 lobes, each subdivided into small, narrow lobules. The inner epithelium of the lobules appears to be highly dynamic, characterised by the perforation and attachment of received spermatozoa, the progressive degeneration of this epithelium, and the concomitant detachment of the spermatozoa. The allocation of spermatozoa to many different lobules, in different phases, may explain the extended reproductive season of C. fornicata, and thereby contribute to its colonizing and invasive success. The same compartmentalisation, as well as the complete covering of the inner epithelium of the lobules by spermatozoa and the large amount of spermatozoan debris in the lumina, suggest that the C. fornicata seminal receptacle may be a site of sperm competition in this polyandrous species. PMID:26429525

  15. UFLC-Q-TOF/MS based screening and identification of the metabolites in plasma, bile, urine and feces of normal and blood stasis rats after oral administration of hydroxysafflor yellow A.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi; Wu, Liang; Tang, Yuping; Cao, Yujie; Li, Shujiao; Shen, Juan; Yue, Shijun; Qu, Cheng; Shan, Chenxiao; Cui, Xiaobing; Zhang, Li; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2016-02-15

    The dried flower of Carthamus tinctorius L. (honghua) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine in clinics to treat coronary heart disease, hypertension, and cerebrovascular disease due to its functions of ameliorating circulation and removing blood stasis. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is an active marker component of honghua. In this paper, ultra-flow liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (UFLC-Q-TOF/MS) was established and successfully applied to the detection and identification of the metabolites in bile, urine, plasma and feces samples of normal and model rats with orally administrated HSYA. A total of 8 metabolites were observed in normal rats, while 7 metabolites were detected in model rats. The distribution of metabolites in the plasma, bile, urine and feces of normal and model rats had obvious differences. The major in vivo metabolic pathways for HSYA included hydroxylation, hydroxylation+methylation, acetylation and glucuronidation, and there were also dehydration, hydrogenation, hydration, and hydroxylation+glucuronidation. All of these metabolites were reported for the first time, and these results are valuable and important for the understanding of the metabolic process and therapeutic mechanism of HSYA and some other pigments in honghua. PMID:26827279

  16. Seminal fluid of honeybees contains multiple mechanisms to combat infections of the sexually transmitted pathogen Nosema apis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yan; Grassl, Julia; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

    2016-01-27

    The societies of ants, bees and wasps are genetically closed systems where queens only mate during a brief mating episode prior to their eusocial life and males therefore provide queens with a lifetime supply of high-quality sperm. These ejaculates also contain a number of defence proteins that have been detected in the seminal fluid but their function and efficiency have never been investigated in great detail. Here, we used the honeybee Apis mellifera and quantified whether seminal fluid is able to combat infections of the fungal pathogen Nosema apis, a widespread honeybee parasite that is also sexually transmitted. We provide the first empirical evidence that seminal fluid has a remarkable antimicrobial activity against N. apis spores and that antimicrobial seminal fluid components kill spores in multiple ways. The protein fraction of seminal fluid induces extracellular spore germination, which disrupts the life cycle of N. apis, whereas the non-protein fraction of seminal fluid induces a direct viability loss of intact spores. We conclude that males provide their ejaculates with efficient antimicrobial molecules that are able to kill N. apis spores and thereby reduce the risk of disease transmission during mating. Our findings could be of broader significance to master honeybee diseases in managed honeybee stock in the future. PMID:26791609

  17. A UFLC-MS/MS method with a switching ionization mode for simultaneous quantitation of polygalaxanthone III, four ginsenosides and tumulosic acid in rat plasma: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and Alzheimer's disease rats.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chunxiao; Li, Qing; Zhang, Yaowen; Sui, Zhenyu; He, Bosai; Xu, Huarong; Yin, Yidi; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2013-08-01

    A fast, sensitive and reliable ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of polygalaxanthone III (POL), ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), ginsenoside Rd (GRd), ginsenoside Re (GRe), ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1) and tumulosic acid (TUM) in rat plasma after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San, which plays an important role for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The plasma samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate-isopropanol (1:1, v/v) with salidrdoside as internal standard (IS). Good chromatographic separation was achieved using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.01% acetic acid in water. The tandem mass spectrometric detection was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode on 4000Q UFLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in a negative and positive switching ionization mode. The lower limits of quantification were 0.2-1.5 ng/ml for all the analytes. Both intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of analytes were well within acceptance criteria (±15%). The mean absolute extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rat plasma were all more than 60.0%. The validated method has been successfully applied to comparing pharmacokinetic profiles of analytes in normal and AD rat plasma. The results indicated that no significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of GRe, GRg1 and TUM were observed between the two groups, while the absorption of POL and GRd in AD group were significantly higher than those in normal group; moreover, the GRb1 absorbed more rapidly in model group. The different characters of pharmacokinetics might be caused by pharmacological effects of the analytes. PMID:23893636

  18. Development and validation of a sensitive method for hydromorphone in human plasma by normal phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naidong, W; Jiang, X; Newland, K; Coe, R; Lin, P; Lee, J

    2000-09-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed for the quantitation of hydromorphone (HYD), an opiate analgesic, in human plasma. A simple liquid-liquid extraction was used to extract the analyte and its deuterated internal standard (d3-HYD). Chromatographic separation of hydromorphone from its metabolite hydromorphone-3-glucuronide (H3G) was necessary because of the significant H3G fragmentation to HYD before Ql of the mass spectrometer, which could result in false detection as HYD in the multiple reaction mode (MRM). This separation was achieved using a 50 x 2 mm, I.D. silica column (5 microm) and a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water formic acid (80:20:1, v/v/v). The method was validated in the concentration range 0.05-10 ng ml(-1) in plasma and met the acceptance criteria of industry guidelines for accuracy, precision, and stability. PMID:10975245

  19. Normal plasma FGF23 levels kinetic in tenofovir-related hypophosphatemic osteomalacia in an HIV-infected patient with von Recklinghausen disease.

    PubMed

    Saidenberg-Kermanac'h, Nathalie; Souabni, Leila; Prendki, Virginie; Prie, Dominique; Boissier, Marie-Christophe

    2011-05-01

    The antiretroviral agent tenofovir can cause hypophosphatemic osteomalacia due to renal phosphate wasting. The potential role for Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF23), a phosphaturic hormone is unknown. We evaluated FGF23 plasma concentrations in an HIV-positive patient with neurofibromatosis in whom hypophosphatemia developed during tenofovir therapy. This patient presented with diffuse pain, hypophosphatemia and tubular dysfunction with inadequate phosphate reabsorption. The full recovery after tenofovir discontinuation indicates that the hypophosphatemia was related to tenofovir and not to von Recklinghausen disease. Our data argue against a role for FGF23 in tenofovir-induced hypophosphatemia nor in the regulation of hypophosphatemia in this situation. PMID:21185214

  20. The negative effects of exogenous DNA binding on porcine spermatozoa are caused by removal of seminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Kang, J H; Hakimov, H; Ruiz, A; Friendship, R M; Buhr, M; Golovan, S P

    2008-11-01

    Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) might become the most efficient and cost effective technique to generate transgenic animals, which will significantly increase their application in biomedical research and in commercial production. Despite some successes, the technique has remained controversial for almost 20 years and despite number of studies the reasons for poor reproducibility of this promising technology has not been understood. We suggest that the reason for poor reproducibility is the presence of natural defences against exogenous DNA invasion acting in spermatozoa or in embryo. Based on previous reports we have investigated the effect of foreign DNA binding on spermatozoa by monitoring motility, viability and genomic DNA damage. Evaluation of DNA binding in sperm collected from 16 boars demonstrated that 28-45% of the added pEGFP plasmid was bound to spermatozoa with 9-32% being internalized in sperm nucleus. In agreement with previous reports, our results demonstrated that the pEGFP-treated sperm show an average a 2-fold decrease in motility (p<0.05), 5-fold decrease in progressive motility (p<0.05), and 1.4-fold increase in number of sperm with highly damaged DNA (p<0.05) as detected by Comet assay. In contrast with previous reports, we demonstrate that all such changes were associated with the removal of seminal plasma during the washing step and not with foreign DNA binding per se. We suggest that poor reproducibility of SMGT most likely result from selection against DNA-loaded sperm at later stages of fertilization. PMID:18653226

  1. Multiple effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and on vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility

    SciTech Connect

    Nojimoto, Fernanda D.; Piffer, Renata C.; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo de A.; Lameu, Claudiana; Camargo, Antonio C.M. de; Pupo, Andre S.

    2009-09-15

    Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine and 5-HT reuptake largely used in the management of obesity. Although a fairly safe drug, postmarketing adverse effects of sibutramine were reported including abnormal ejaculation in men. This study investigates the effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility. Adult male rats received sibutramine (5; 20; or 50 mg kg{sup -1}, ip) and after 60 min were exposed to receptive females for determination of ejaculation parameters. The vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles of untreated rats were mounted in isolated organ baths for recording of isometric contractions and HEK293 cells loaded with fluorescent calcium indicator were used to measure intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transients. Sibutramine 5 and 20 mg kg{sup -1} reduced ejaculation latency whereas 50 mg kg{sup -1} increased ejaculation latency. Sibutramine 3 to 30 {mu}M greatly increased the sensitivity of the seminal vesicle and vas deferens to norepinephrine, but at concentrations higher than 10 {mu}M there were striking depressions of maximal contractions induced by norepinephrine, carbachol and CaCl{sub 2}. In HEK293 cells, sibutramine 10 to 100 {mu}M inhibited intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transients induced by carbachol. Depending on the doses, sibutramine either facilitates or inhibits ejaculation. Apart from its actions in the central nervous system, facilitation of ejaculation may result from augmented sensitivity of smooth muscles to norepinephrine while reductions of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} may be involved in the delayed ejaculation observed with high doses of sibutramine.

  2. Multivariate normality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, H. L.; Falls, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    Sets of experimentally determined or routinely observed data provide information about the past, present and, hopefully, future sets of similarly produced data. An infinite set of statistical models exists which may be used to describe the data sets. The normal distribution is one model. If it serves at all, it serves well. If a data set, or a transformation of the set, representative of a larger population can be described by the normal distribution, then valid statistical inferences can be drawn. There are several tests which may be applied to a data set to determine whether the univariate normal model adequately describes the set. The chi-square test based on Pearson's work in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is often used. Like all tests, it has some weaknesses which are discussed in elementary texts. Extension of the chi-square test to the multivariate normal model is provided. Tables and graphs permit easier application of the test in the higher dimensions. Several examples, using recorded data, illustrate the procedures. Tests of maximum absolute differences, mean sum of squares of residuals, runs and changes of sign are included in these tests. Dimensions one through five with selected sample sizes 11 to 101 are used to illustrate the statistical tests developed.

  3. Radiotherapy Treatment Plans With RapidArc for Prostate Cancer Involving Seminal Vesicles and Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Sua; Wu, Q. Jackie; Lee, W. Robert; Yin Fangfang

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: Dosimetric results and treatment delivery efficiency of RapidArc plans to those of conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were compared using the Eclipse treatment planning system for high-risk prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: This study included 10 patients. The primary planning target volume (PTV{sub P}) contained prostate, seminal vesicles, and pelvic lymph nodes with a margin. The boost PTV (PTV{sub B}) contained prostate and seminal vesicles with a margin. The total prescription dose was 75.6 Gy (46.8 Gy to PTV{sub P} and an additional 28.8 Gy to PTV{sub B}; 1.8 Gy/fraction). Three plans were generated for each PTV: Multiple-field IMRT, one-arc RapidArc (1ARC), and two-arc RapidArc (2ARC). Results: In the primary IMRT with PTV{sub P}, average mean doses to bladder, rectum and small bowel were lower by 5.9%, 7.7% and 4.3%, respectively, than in the primary 1ARC and by 3.6%, 4.8% and 3.1%, respectively, than in the primary 2ARC. In the boost IMRT with PTV{sub B}, average mean doses to bladder and rectum were lower by 2.6% and 4.8% than with the boost 1ARC and were higher by 0.6% and 0.2% than with the boost 2ARC. Integral doses were 7% to 9% higher with RapidArc than with IMRT for both primary and boost plans. Treatment delivery time was reduced by 2-7 minutes using RapidArc. Conclusion: For PTVs including prostate, seminal vesicles, and lymph nodes, IMRT performed better in dose sparing for bladder, rectum, and small bowel than did RapidArc. For PTVs including prostate and seminal vesicles, RapidArc with two arcs provided plans comparable to those for IMRT. The treatment delivery is more efficient with RapidArc.

  4. Alterations of seminal and hormonal parameters: An extrahepatic manifestation of HCV infection?

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Marilena; Premoli, Alberto; Bisceglie, Cataldo Di; Bertagna, Angela; Fagà, Emanuela; Biroli, Giampaolo; Manieri, Chiara; Bo, Simona; Pagano, Gianfranco

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the possible influences of HCV infection and relative antiviral treatment on seminal parameters and reproductive hormonal serum levels. METHODS: Ten male patients with HCV-related chronic hepatitis and 16 healthy male volunteers were studied. In all subjects seminal parameters (nemaspermic concentration, progressive motility, morphology) and hormonal levels were determined. Seminal parameters and inhibin B, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, total and free testosterone, estradiol, prolactine in patients were measured after six and twelve months of antiviral combined (interferon + ribavirin) treatment. RESULTS: Patients before treatment showed a significantly lower nemaspermic motility and morphology as well as lower inhibin B and free testosterone levels than controls. Inhibin B levels in cases were improved six and 12 mo after treatment in five responders (161.9 ± 52.8 pg/mL versus 101.7 ± 47.0 pg/mL and 143.4 ± 46.1 pg/mL versus 95.4 ± 55.6 pg/mL, respectively). Hormonal pattern of patients did not significantly change after treatment, with the exception of estradiol levels with an initial reduction and an overall subsequent increment (19.7 ± 6.4 pg/mL versus 13.6 ± 5.0 pg/mL versus 17.3 ± 5.7 pg/mL). However in 1-year responders a significant increment of free testosterone (14.2 ± 2.54 pg/mL versus 17.1 ± 2.58 pg/mL) occurred. An impairment of nemaspermic morphology occurred, while other seminal parameters did not change significantly during antiviral treatment. CONCLUSION: Patients with HCV infection show worse spermatic parameters than controls, suggesting a possible negative influence of virus on spermatogenesis, with further mild impairment during antiviral treatment. However therapy could improve the spermatic function, as suggested by the increased inhibin B levels and improved hormonal pattern in responders. Further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary intriguing results. PMID:16718790

  5. Anaplastic, plasmablastic, and plasmacytic plasmacytomas of mice: relationships to human plasma cell neoplasms and late-stage differentiation of normal B cells.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chen-Feng; Zhou, Jeff X; Lee, Chang Hoon; Naghashfar, Zohreh; Xiang, Shao; Kovalchuk, Alexander L; Fredrickson, Torgny N; Hartley, Janet W; Roopenian, Derry C; Davidson, Wendy F; Janz, Siegfried; Morse, Herbert C

    2007-03-15

    We have compared histologic features and gene expression profiles of newly identified plasmacytomas from NFS.V(+) congenic mice with plasmacytomas of IL6 transgenic, Fasl mutant, and SJL-beta2M(-/-) mice. NFS.V(+) tumors comprised an overlapping morphologic spectrum of high-grade/anaplastic, intermediate-grade/plasmablastic, and low-grade/plasmacytic cases with similarities to subsets of human multiple myeloma and plasmacytoma. Microarray and immunohistochemical analyses of genes expressed by the most prevalent tumors, plasmablastic plasmacytomas, showed them to be most closely related to immunoblastic lymphomas, less so to plasmacytomas of Fasl mutant and SJL mice, and least to plasmacytic plasmacytomas of IL6 transgenic mice. Plasmablastic tumors seemed to develop in an inflammatory environment associated with gene signatures of T cells, natural killer cells, and macrophages not seen with plasmacytic plasmacytomas. Plasmablastic plasmacytomas from NFS.V(+) and SJL-beta2M(-/-) mice did not have structural alterations in Myc or T(12;15) translocations and did not express Myc at high levels, regular features of transgenic and pristane-induced plasmacytomas. These findings imply that, as for human multiple myeloma, Myc-independent routes of transformation contribute to the pathogenesis of these tumors. These findings suggest that plasma cell neoplasms of mice and humans exhibit similar degrees of complexity. Mouse plasmacytomas, previously considered to be homogeneous, may thus be as diverse as their human counterparts with respect to oncogenic mechanisms of plasma cell transformation. Selecting specific types of mouse plasmacytomas that relate most closely to subtypes of human multiple myeloma may provide new opportunities for preclinical testing of drugs for treatment of the human disease. PMID:17363561

  6. Spinal manipulation and beta-endorphin: a controlled study of the effect of a spinal manipulation on plasma beta-endorphin levels in normal males.

    PubMed

    Vernon, H T; Dhami, M S; Howley, T P; Annett, R

    1986-06-01

    The role of spinal manipulation in the relief of pain is becoming clearer and more demonstrable as time passes. One approach to this study is the effect of manipulation on the neurochemical mechanisms of antinociception. Chief among these is beta-endorphin, which has been found to produce a wide range of beneficial effects, especially analgesia. The intent of our study was to demonstrate the effect of spinal manipulation on plasma beta-endorphin levels. Three groups of male subjects were randomly created: the experimental, sham and control groups. All three groups were screened for symptomatology, present use of medications and the present use of innocuous stimulants, such as nicotine and caffeine. A standard protocol involving a 20-min pretest resting period, an intervention and a 40-min test period ensued. The experimental group received a manipulation in the region of the cervical spine; the placebo group received a sham maneuver with no dynamic thrust; the control group received no intervention. Samples were taken by venipuncture at -20, -5, +5, +10 and +30 min. The data were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance and by Scheffe's post-hoc multiple comparison tests. Plasma beta-endorphin levels were assessed by radioimmune assay technique (according to the method described by Harber and Sutton in 1984). The results of our study demonstrated a small, but statistically significant, increase in serum beta-endorphin levels in the experimental group at the 5-min postintervention point. The levels in the placebo and control groups demonstrated a steady decrease that was distinct from the response in the experimental group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2942618

  7. Morphology and MMP-9, AR and IGFR-1 responses of the seminal vesicle in TRAMP mice model.

    PubMed

    Dal Pozzo, Caroline Fernanda Sanches; Kido, Larissa Akemi; Montico, Fabio; Gonçalves, Mariana Piccoli; Cagnon, Valéria Helena Alves

    2016-06-01

    Seminal vesicles are important hormone-dependent accessory sex glands. Transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model has been used to evaluate malignant diseases in the prostate and in other sexual glands. The aim of this study was to characterize structural and molecular features of the seminal vesicle in different life periods of the TRAMP mice. Groups: Control Group (5 FVB/12 week old mice), TRAMP 12 and 22 Groups (10 TRAMP 12 and 22 week old mice, respectively). Seminal vesicles were evaluated by morphological and immunohistochemical parameters; androgenic receptor (AR), Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGFR-1) and metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). The TRAMP mice showed frequent epithelial proliferation, including cellular stromal invasion, especially in the TRAMP 22 group. Intense AR reactivity was seen in both stroma and epithelial regions in the TRAMP 22 group. Intense IGFR-1 and MMP-9 stromal immunolabeling was identified in both TRAMP groups. Thus, there were structural and molecular changes in the seminal vesicle in TRAMP mice, compromising not only the structure but also the stromal signaling, damaging thus the function and leading to glandular lesions. TRAMP mice could be indicated as a good model to study alterations of the seminal vesicle in association to prostate cancer. PMID:27036326

  8. An Odorant-Binding Protein Is Abundantly Expressed in the Nose and in the Seminal Fluid of the Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Niccolini, Alberto; Serra, Andrea; Gazzano, Angelo; Scaloni, Andrea; Pelosi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    We have purified an abundant lipocalin from the seminal fluid of the rabbit, which shows significant similarity with the sub-class of pheromone carriers “urinary” and “salivary” and presents an N-terminal sequence identical with that of an odorant-binding protein (rabOBP3) expressed in the nasal tissue of the same species. This protein is synthesised in the prostate and found in the seminal fluid, but not in sperm cells. The same protein is also expressed in the nasal epithelium of both sexes, but is completely absent in female reproductive organs. It presents four cysteines, among which two are arranged to form a disulphide bridge, and is glycosylated. This is the first report of an OBP identified at the protein level in the seminal fluid of a vertebrate species. The protein purified from seminal fluid is bound to some organic chemicals whose structure is currently under investigation. We reasonably speculate that, like urinary and salivary proteins reported in other species of mammals, this lipocalin performs a dual role, as carrier of semiochemicals in the seminal fluid and as detector of chemical signals in the nose. PMID:25391153

  9. Enhancement of seminal stains using background correction algorithm with colour filters.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wee Chuen; Khoo, Bee Ee; Abdullah, Ahmad Fahmi Lim

    2016-06-01

    Evidence in crime scenes available in the form of biological stains which cannot be visualized during naked eye examination can be detected by imaging their fluorescence using a combination of excitation lights and suitable filters. These combinations selectively allow the passage of fluorescence light emitted from the targeted stains. However, interference from the fluorescence generated by many of the surface materials bearing the stains often renders it difficult to visualize the stains during forensic photography. This report describes the use of background correction algorithm (BCA) to enhance the visibility of seminal stain, a biological evidence that fluoresces. While earlier reports described the use of narrow band-pass filters for other fluorescing evidences, here, we utilize BCA to enhance images captured using commonly available colour filters, yellow, orange and red. Mean-based contrast adjustment was incorporated into BCA to adjust the background brightness for achieving similarity of images' background appearance, a crucial step for ensuring success while implementing BCA. Experiment results demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed colour filters' approach using the improved BCA in enhancing the visibility of seminal stains in varying dilutions on selected surfaces. PMID:27061146

  10. Discovery of a Novel Seminal Fluid Microbiome and Influence of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Genetic Status

    PubMed Central

    Javurek, Angela B.; Spollen, William G.; Ali, Amber M. Mann; Johnson, Sarah A.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Bivens, Nathan J.; Bromert, Karen H.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Givan, Scott A.; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria harbored in the male reproductive system may influence reproductive function and health of the male and result in developmental origins of adult health and disease (DOHaD) effects in his offspring. Such effects could be due to the seminal fluid, which is slightly basic and enriched with carbohydrates; thereby, creating an ideal habitat for microbes or a potential seminal fluid microbiome (SFM). Using wild-type (WT) and estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1) knockout (KO) male mice, we describe a unique SFM whose inhabitants differ from gut microbes. The bacterial composition of the SFM is influenced according to whether mice have functional Esr1 genes. Propionibacterium acnes, causative agent of chronic prostatitis possibly culminating in prostate cancer, is reduced in SFM of ESR1 KO compared to WT mice (P ≤ 0.0007). In certain genetic backgrounds, WT mice show a greater incidence of prostate cancer than ESR1 KO, which may be due to increased abundance of P. acnes. Additionally, select gut microbiome residents in ESR1 KO males, such as Lachnospiraceae and Christensenellaceae, might contribute to previously identified phenotypes, especially obesity, in these mutant mice. Understanding how genetics and environmental factors influence the SFM may provide the next frontier in male reproductive disorders and possibly paternal-based DOHaD diseases. PMID:26971397

  11. Morphological changes in the seminal receptacle during ovarian development in the speckled swimming crab Arenaeus cribrarius.

    PubMed

    Zara, Fernando Jose; Raggi Pereira, Gerson Rodrigues; Sant'anna, Bruno Sampaio

    2014-08-01

    To understand sperm plug dissolution and spermatophore dehiscence in Portunidae, histological and ultrastructural changes in the seminal receptacle (SR) of Arenaeus cribrarius were investigated during ovarian development. In juvenile females the SR was filled with acid polysaccharides and the dorsal epithelium was stratified. Mated females with rudimentary ovaries showed a large SR filled by a glycoprotein sperm plug. This plug was present until the developing-ovary stage, when spermatophore dehiscence and intense holocrine secretions in the dorsal dense layer occurred. The plug was absent after the intermediate stage, and the SR became flaccid. The secretion produced moved the spermatophores into the ventral region. The modified dorsal epithelium in the transition between the dorsal and ventral regions released acid polysaccharides, which were found among the sperm, by exocytosis. The morphological changes of the SR in A. cribrarius, including the presence of the sperm plug, followed the macroscopic pattern observed in other members of Portunidae, such as blue crabs. However, in this species dissolution of the sperm plug was synchronized with ovarian development and occurred simultaneously with spermatophore dehiscence, showing the evolutionary relationship of the seminal receptacle and the female reproductive system to the storage of spermatophores and spermatozoa. PMID:25216499

  12. Discovery of a Novel Seminal Fluid Microbiome and Influence of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Genetic Status.

    PubMed

    Javurek, Angela B; Spollen, William G; Ali, Amber M Mann; Johnson, Sarah A; Lubahn, Dennis B; Bivens, Nathan J; Bromert, Karen H; Ellersieck, Mark R; Givan, Scott A; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria harbored in the male reproductive system may influence reproductive function and health of the male and result in developmental origins of adult health and disease (DOHaD) effects in his offspring. Such effects could be due to the seminal fluid, which is slightly basic and enriched with carbohydrates; thereby, creating an ideal habitat for microbes or a potential seminal fluid microbiome (SFM). Using wild-type (WT) and estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1) knockout (KO) male mice, we describe a unique SFM whose inhabitants differ from gut microbes. The bacterial composition of the SFM is influenced according to whether mice have functional Esr1 genes. Propionibacterium acnes, causative agent of chronic prostatitis possibly culminating in prostate cancer, is reduced in SFM of ESR1 KO compared to WT mice (P ≤ 0.0007). In certain genetic backgrounds, WT mice show a greater incidence of prostate cancer than ESR1 KO, which may be due to increased abundance of P. acnes. Additionally, select gut microbiome residents in ESR1 KO males, such as Lachnospiraceae and Christensenellaceae, might contribute to previously identified phenotypes, especially obesity, in these mutant mice. Understanding how genetics and environmental factors influence the SFM may provide the next frontier in male reproductive disorders and possibly paternal-based DOHaD diseases. PMID:26971397

  13. Ion transport in seminal and adventitious roots of cereals during O2 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Colmer, Timothy David; Greenway, Hank

    2011-01-01

    O(2) deficiency during soil waterlogging inhibits respiration in roots, resulting in severe energy deficits. Decreased root-to-shoot ratio and suboptimal functioning of the roots, result in nutrient deficiencies in the shoots. In N(2)-flushed nutrient solutions, wheat seminal roots cease growth, while newly formed adventitious roots develop aerenchyma, and grow, albeit to a restricted length. When reliant on an internal O(2) supply from the shoot, nutrient uptake by adventitious roots was inhibited less than in seminal roots. Epidermal and cortical cells are likely to receive sufficient O(2) for oxidative phosphorylation and ion transport. By contrast, stelar hypoxia-anoxia can develop so that H(+)-ATPases in the xylem parenchyma would be inhibited; the diminished H(+) gradients and depolarized membranes inhibit secondary energy-dependent ion transport and channel conductances. Thus, the presence of two transport steps, one in the epidermis and cortex to accumulate ions from the solution and another in the stele to load ions into the xylem, is important for understanding the inhibitory effects of root zone hypoxia on nutrient acquisition and xylem transport, as well as the regulation of delivery to the shoots of unwanted ions, such as Na(+). Improvement of waterlogging tolerance in wheat will require an increased capacity for root growth, and more efficient root functioning, when in anaerobic media. PMID:20847100

  14. Normal endothelium.

    PubMed

    Pries, A R; Kuebler, W M

    2006-01-01

    In recent decades, it has become evident that the endothelium is by no means a passive inner lining of blood vessels. This 'organ' with a large surface (approximately 350 m2) and a comparatively small total mass (approximately 110 g) is actively involved in vital functions of the cardiovascular system, including regulation of perfusion, fluid and solute exchange, haemostasis and coagulation, inflammatory responses, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. The present chapter focusses on two central aspects of endothelial structure and function: (1) the heterogeneity in endothelial properties between species, organs, vessel classes and even within individual vessels and (2) the composition and role of the molecular layer on the luminal surface of endothelial cells. The endothelial lining of blood vessels in different organs differs with respect to morphology and permeability and is classified as 'continuous', 'fenestrated' or 'discontinuous'. Furthermore, the mediator release, antigen presentation or stress responses of endothelial cells vary between species, different organs and vessel classes. Finally there are relevant differences even between adjacent endothelial cells, with some cells exhibiting specific functional properties, e.g. as pacemaker cells for intercellular calcium signals. Organ-specific structural and functional properties of the endothelium are marked in the vascular beds of the lung and the brain. Pulmonary endothelium exhibits a high constitutive expression of adhesion molecules which may contribute to the margination of the large intravascular pool of leucocytes in the lung. Furthermore, the pulmonary microcirculation is less permeable to protein and water flux as compared to large pulmonary vessels. Endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier exhibit a specialised phenotype with no fenestrations, extensive tight junctions and sparse pinocytotic vesicular transport. This barrier allows a strict control of exchange of solutes and circulating cells between the plasma and the interstitial space. It was observed that average haematocrit levels in muscle capillaries are much lower as compared to systemic haematocrit, and that flow resistance of microvascular beds is higher than expected from in vitro studies of blood rheology. This evidence stimulated the concept of a substantial layer on the luminal endothelial surface (endothelial surface layer, ESL) with a thickness in the range of 0.5-1 microm. In comparison, the typical thickness of the glycocalyx directly anchored in the endothelial plasma membrane, as seen in electron micrographs, amounts to only about 50-100 microm. Therefore it is assumed that additional components, e.g. adsorbed plasma proteins or hyaluronan, are essential in constituting the ESL. Functional consequences of the ESL presence are not yet sufficiently understood and acknowledged. However, it is evident that the thick endothelial surface layer significantly impacts haemodynamic conditions, mechanical stresses acting on red cells in microvessels, oxygen transport, vascular control, coagulation, inflammation and atherosclerosis. PMID:16999215

  15. Normalizing Rejection.

    PubMed

    Conn, Vicki S; Zerwic, Julie; Jefferson, Urmeka; Anderson, Cindy M; Killion, Cheryl M; Smith, Carol E; Cohen, Marlene Z; Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Herrick, Linda; Topp, Robert; Benefield, Lazelle E; Loya, Julio

    2016-02-01

    Getting turned down for grant funding or having a manuscript rejected is an uncomfortable but not unusual occurrence during the course of a nurse researcher's professional life. Rejection can evoke an emotional response akin to the grieving process that can slow or even undermine productivity. Only by "normalizing" rejection, that is, by accepting it as an integral part of the scientific process, can researchers more quickly overcome negative emotions and instead use rejection to refine and advance their scientific programs. This article provides practical advice for coming to emotional terms with rejection and delineates methods for working constructively to address reviewer comments. PMID:26041785

  16. Intraluminal occlusion of the seminal duct by laser and Histoacryl: Two non-invasive alternatives for vasectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, B.; Sroka, R.; Koelle, S.; Becker, A. J.; Khoder, W.; Pongratz, T.; Stief, C. G.; Trottmann, M.

    2014-03-01

    Introduction and objective: Vasectomy is a well-established method in family control. Even though it is a safe and low risk operation, this surgery is invasive and difficult to reverse. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate new non-invasive methods for occlusion of the seminal duct. Material and Methods: Seminal duct tissue was obtained from patients (n=30) suffering from prostate cancer and therefore undergoing prostatectomy. In a first set of experiments, the seminal duct was occluded by intraluminal application of Histoacryl® (Braun Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany). In a 2nd set of experiments, endoluminal laser induced occlusion was performed. Four different laser wavelengths (1940nm, 1470nm, 1064nm, 940nm) and different sets of laser parameters (e.g. power, exposure duration, fibre diameter, energy applied) were compared. Effectiveness of occlusion of the seminal duct was proven by post-treatment irrigation flow measurement, as well as by morphological analyses. To evaluate a potential damage of the surrounding tissue, external temperature was measured using a thermometer during laser application. Results: Intraluminal application of Histoacryl® induced an immediate and complete occlusion of the seminal duct. The underlying connective tissue maintained its functional integrity after this treatment. By laser light application to a Histoacryl® block, a hole could be created into the block thus indicating the possibility of recanalization. Treatment with laser energy resulted in shrinkage of the ductal lumen. The laser application generally caused necrosis in the epithelium and induced formation of vacuoles in the underlying connective tissue. As described for endoluminal varicose treatment, this distinct local reaction might result in an intense inflammation leading to a functional occlusion of the vas deferens. Conclusions: Both laser-induced occlusion and application of Histoacryl® are fast and simple techniques which may be able to achieve a functional occlusion of the seminal duct. The application of Histoacryl® additionally may be easily reversible by laser treatment.

  17. Effect of method of seminal collection on the retrograde flow of spermatozoa into the urinary bladder of rams.

    PubMed

    Pineda, M H; Dooley, M P

    1991-02-01

    The effects of method of seminal collection and a diuretic on retrograde flow of spermatozoa into the urinary bladder of rams were examined. In experiment 1, semen and urine were collected from 8 rams during the non-breeding season. Prior to seminal collection, all rams were given furosemide and a sample of urine was obtained during micturition. Semen was then collected from each ram with an artificial vagina or by electroejaculation in alternate weeks for 4 weeks, and the urine released during the first postseminal collection micturition was collected in 4 consecutive samples. The volume of electroejaculates was larger (P less than 0.0001) than the volume of ejaculates, but the total number of spermatozoa in the electroejaculate or in the ejaculate were not different (P greater than 0.1). Urine obtained before seminal collection was azoospermic or contained few, nonmotile spermatozoa (mean +/- SD = 0.053 +/- 0.114 x 10(6)/ml). The adjusted spermatozoal concentration (mean +/- SD = 1.630 +/- 2.258 x 10(6)/ml) in the urine collected after seminal collection was 31 times higher (P less than 0.0001) and there were motile spermatozoa in most (97%) of the samples. The spermatozoal concentration in sequential samples of urine was not different (P greater than 0.1) between samples and was not affected (P greater than 0.1) by the method of seminal collection. There was a trend, approaching significance (P = 0.052), for an effect of method of seminal collection on the percentage of retrograde flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2012342

  18. A UFLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantitation of spinosin, mangiferin and ferulic acid in rat plasma: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and insomnic rats.

    PubMed

    He, Bosai; Li, Qing; Jia, Ying; Zhao, Longshan; Xiao, Feng; Lv, Chunxiao; Xu, Huarong; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2012-10-01

    Suan-Zao-Ren (SZR) decoction, consisting of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Poria, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, is a Traditional Chinese Medicine prescription, clinically used for the treatment of insomnia. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and reliable UFLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantitation of spinosin, mangiferin and ferulic acid, the main active ingredients in SZR decoction, and to compare the pharmacokinetics of these active ingredients in normal and insomnic rats orally administrated with the prescription. Analytes and IS were separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODS column (75 mm × 3.0 mm, 2.2 µm particles) using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The detection of the analytes was performed on 4000Q UFLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in the negative ion and multiple reaction-monitoring mode. The lower limits of quantification were 1, 6 and 1 ng/mL for spinosin, mangiferin and ferulic acid, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of analytes were well within acceptance criteria (15%). The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rats plasma were all more than 85.0%. The validated method has been successfully applied to comparing pharmacokinetic profiles of analytes in rat plasma. The results indicated that no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters of ferulic acid was observed between two groups, while absorptions of spinosin and mangiferin in insomnic group were significantly lower than those in normal group. PMID:23019165

  19. Giant seminal vesicle cyst: an unusual site for a malignant extragastrointestinal stromal tumour.

    PubMed

    Boaz, Ranil Johann; George, Arun Philip; Manoj Kumar, Ramani; Devasia, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal tumours with clinicopathological and molecular profiles similar to gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are, on occasion, found in extragastrointestinal locations. Extra GIST (EGIST) is a singular occurrence in the genitourinary tract. A 30-year-old man, catheterised following urinary retention, was found to have a complex pelvic retrovesical cyst on imaging. At operation, origin from the right seminal vesicle was evident with histopathology confirming a GIST. The patient received adjuvant therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitor and is currently disease free at 2 years. This is only the second report of an EGIST at this anatomic locale. The current literature presents significant uncertainty in defining the true origin of EGISTs, particularly those in the pelvis. We propose the designation origin indeterminate stromal tumour (OIST), to facilitate disambiguation and advance accurate profiling of EGIST; a subject in evolution. PMID:26935954

  20. Applicability of the ParaDNA(®) Screening System to Seminal Samples.

    PubMed

    Tribble, Nicholas D; Miller, Jamie A D; Dawnay, Nick; Duxbury, Nicola J

    2015-05-01

    Seminal fluid represents a common biological material recovered from sexual assault crime scenes. Such samples can be prescreened using different techniques to determine cell type and relative amount before submitting for full STR profiling. The ParaDNA(®) Screening System is a novel forensic test which identifies the presence of DNA through amplification and detection of two common STR loci (D16S539 and TH01) and the Amelogenin marker. The detection of the Y allele in samples could provide a useful tool in the triage and submission of sexual assault samples by enforcement authorities. Male template material was detected on a range of common sexual assault evidence items including cotton pillow cases, condoms, swab heads and glass surfaces and shows a detection limit of 1 in 1000 dilution of neat semen. These data indicate this technology has the potential to be a useful tool for the detection of male donor DNA in sexual assault casework. PMID:25739746

  1. AB011. Long-term outcomes of a novel therapeutic procedure for persistent or recurrent hemospermia by transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy: a single-institution experience

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Heng-Jun; Yan, Wei-Xin; Chen, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Jun; Gao, Xin; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the long-term follow-up outcomes of a novel diagnostic and therapeutic procedure for persistent or recurrent hemospermia by transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy. Methods A total of 269 patients with persistent or recurrent hemospermia in our single clinic were successfully performed by transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy through ejaculatory ducts with a slender ureteroscope from September 2008 to December 2015. In our 269 patients, the mean age was 31 years (range, 16–69 years). The course of persistent or recurrent hemospermia was 6 months to 19 years (mean 27 months). All the patients with persistent or recurrent hemospermia were not cured by medical treatment or any other physical therapy. The definite urogenital malignancy of persistent hemospermia were excluded by physical examination including digital rectal examination, blood PSA and clotting time, and further imaging investigation such as TRUS, CT or MRI. The ejaculatory duct and seminal vesicle were conducted to observe under direct vision through the distal seminal tracts using a 4.5/6.5F rigid ureteroscope. Results All the patients with persistent or recurrent hemospermia were confirmed by transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy (162 chronic seminal vesiculitis and 108 seminal calculi secondary to them, 42 Mullerian duct cysts, 16 cysts of seminal vesicle and 3 cysts of ejaculatory duct, 12 benign prostatic hyperplasia). The mean operative time was 21 min (range, 5–90 min). There were no complications including injury of urethra and seminal vesicle and postoperative discomforts in the perineal region. In those 269 cases, 11 patients were out of follow-up. The mean follow-up period was 24 months (range, 3–72 months). Hematospermia in 235 cases disappeared and 23 patients respectively recurred in 5 to 60 months after receiving transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy. Of those 23 cases with postoperatively recurrent hemospermia, 12 cases were cured by re-transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy. Conclusions The aetiologies of persistent or recurrent hemospermia are mostly associated with seminal vesiculitis and seminal stone secondary to vesiculitis or ejaculatory ducts obstruction incompletely. Our long-term follow-up results suggest that transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy is effective in the diagnosis and treatment of hemospermia with minimal complication.

  2. Premature Ejaculation – Dose and Duration Dependent Effect of Fluoxetine: A Histological Study on Seminal Vesicle of Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jethani, SL; Rohatagi, RK; Kalra, Juhi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fluoxetine is a prototype drug of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Its active demethylated metabolite has a half life of 7-10 d. Fluoxetine is used to treat depression and is also prescribed in premature ejaculation. Aim: In the present study dose and duration dependent effects of Fluoxetine on histology of seminal vesicle of the albino rats were observed. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 36 adult male albino rats. Fluoxetine was administered intraperitoneally for 2 wk, 4 wk and 12 wk with mild (10mg/kg/day), moderate (20mg/kg/day) and severe doses (40mg/kg/day). Histological slides of Seminal vesicle were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Results: On examination through the light microscope, the proliferation of primary, secondary and tertiary villi, increased crypt/alveoli, increased thickness of lamina propria, decreased epithelial cell height, metaplasia, changes in the amount of luminal eosinophilic secretory material in the form of scanty secretion in lumen of seminal vesicle. Conclusion: Low doses for long duration and high doses for short duration of Fluoxetine produce histological changes in seminal vesicle of albino rats. PMID:25386416

  3. Immunohistochemical and biomolecular identification of orphanin FQ, eNOS, atrial natriuretic factor and oxytocin in rat seminal vesicles.

    PubMed

    Mauro, A; Buscemi, M; Cappello, F; Uzzo, M L; Farina-Lipari, E; Martorana, A; Gerbino, A

    2009-11-01

    In previous studies performed on rodents, we detected the presence of adreno-cholinergic and peptidergic innervation in seminal vesicles and other organs of the male genital system, such as prostate and deferent duct, in which we also investigated the expression of NOS and NADPH-diaphorase. During this project, we focused our attention on the expression of some peptides involved in local control of smooth muscle relaxation, contractility, vasodilatation and control of blood flow in rat seminal vesicles. We investigated, through immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR, the presence of four peptides: orphanin, eNOS, ANF and oxytocin. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the presence of the proteins, whereas RT-PCR analysis confirmed gene expression of orphanin, eNOS and ANF, but not oxytocin. In our opinion, orphanin, eNOS and ANF could have paracrine effects regulating the function of seminal vesicles, whereas oxytocin, which may reach this anatomical district through the blood flow, may have a hormonal action. This is a pilot study that, with further investigation, may allow to better clarify the role of these molecules in the control of seminal vesicle tissues' homeostasis. PMID:19754859

  4. Technology and the Deep Play of Intercultural Teacher Education: A Reflection on Two Seminal Writings of Clifford Geertz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdig, Richard E.; Dawson, Kara

    2005-01-01

    The selection of a seminal piece on intercultural issues in technology and teacher education was challenging. Researchers interested in the field come from numerous fields of study, including education, anthropology, sociology, psychology, economics, business, international relations, and communication. The two essays by Cliffort Gertz (1973a, b)…

  5. Technology and the Deep Play of Intercultural Teacher Education: A Reflection on Two Seminal Writings of Clifford Geertz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdig, Richard E.; Dawson, Kara

    2005-01-01

    The selection of a seminal piece on intercultural issues in technology and teacher education was challenging. Researchers interested in the field come from numerous fields of study, including education, anthropology, sociology, psychology, economics, business, international relations, and communication. The two essays by Cliffort Gertz (1973a, b)

  6. Sperm and seminal fluid proteomes of the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus: identification of novel proteins transferred to females at mating.

    PubMed

    Simmons, L W; Tan, Y-F; Millar, A H

    2013-02-01

    Reproductive proteins are amongst the most evolutionarily divergent proteins known, and research on genetically well-characterized species suggests that postcopulatory sexual selection might be important in their evolution; however, we lack the taxonomic breadth of information on reproductive proteins that is required to determine the general importance of sexual selection for their evolution. We used transcriptome sequencing and proteomics to characterize the sperm and seminal fluid proteins of a cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, that has been widely used in the study of postcopulatory sexual selection. We identified 57 proteins from the sperm of these crickets. Many of these had predicted function in glycolysis and metabolism, or were structural, and had sequence similarity to sperm proteins found across taxa ranging from flies to humans. We identified 21 seminal fluid proteins, some of which resemble those found to be involved in postmating changes to female reproduction in other species. Some 27% of sperm proteins and 48% of seminal fluid proteins were of unknown function. The characterization of seminal fluid proteins in this species will allow us to explore their adaptive significance, and to contribute comparative data that will facilitate a general appreciation of the evolution of reproductive proteins within and among animal taxa. PMID:23211034

  7. Adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles complicated by antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles is a very rare malignancy, with less than 100 cases reported worldwide. It is documented to have a poor prognosis, with the majority of patients developing metastatic disease, most commonly in the prostate, bladder and rectum. Currently there is no standard treatment for metastatic disease and the limited reports of treatment with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal (anti-androgenic) therapy show that they are generally of modest benefit. The association between malignancy and an increased risk of autoimmune vasculitis has been demonstrated in a number of malignancies, but to date there have been no documented cases of adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis. Case presentation In this report we describe the case of a 55-year-old Caucasian man with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles. He previously had received chemotherapy treatment for advanced testicular cancer and later presented with hemospermia. He subsequently developed c-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis requiring intensive immunosuppression and renal dialysis. Conclusion Adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles is a rare diagnosis and our case is more unusual in that our patient previously had chemotherapy treatment for advanced testicular cancer and went on to develop severe antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis when diagnosed with metastatic seminal vesicle cancer. This case illustrates that autoimmune vasculitis can occur in any patient with malignancy and an early referral to the renal team combined with renal biopsy can assist in the earlier diagnosis and more successful management of these rare events. This case should be of interest to oncologists, renal physicians, urologists and general physicians who encounter patients presenting with hemospermia or vasculitis. PMID:23452402

  8. Dimensions of human ejaculated spermatozoa in Papanicolaou-stained seminal and swim-up smears obtained from the Integrated Semen Analysis System (ISAS®)

    PubMed Central

    Bellastella, Giuseppe; Cooper, Trevor G.; Battaglia, Marina; Ströse, Anda; Torres, Inma; Hellenkemper, Barbara; Soler, Carles; Sinisi, Antonio A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective measurements are required for computer-aided sperm morphometric analysis (CASMA) machines to distinguish normal from abnormal sperm heads. The morphometric characteristics of spermatozoa in 72 samples of semen and of spermatozoa from 72 other semen samples after swim-up were quantified by the semi-automated Integrated Sperm Analysis System (ISAS) computer-aided system, which measured the sperm head parameters length (L), width (W), area (A), perimeter (P), acrosomal area (Ac), and the derived values L/W and P/A. For each man a homogeneous population of distributions characterized seminal spermatozoa (7 942 cells: median values L 4.4 μm, W 2.8 μm, A 9.8 μm2, P 12.5 μm, Ac 47.5%, L/W 1.57, P/A 1.27), and there was no significant difference in within- and among-individual variation. Different men could have spermatozoa of significantly different dimensions. Head dimensions for swim-up spermatozoa from different men (4 812 cells) were similar to those in semen, differing only by 2%–5%. The values of L, W and L/W fell within the limits given by the World Health Organization (WHO). Although these samples were not biologically matched, linear mixed-effects statistical analyses permitted valid comparison of the groups. A subpopulation of 404 spermatozoa considered to fit the stringent criteria of WHO 'normal' seminal spermatozoa from both semen and swim-up were characterized by median values (and 95% confidence intervals) of L, 4.3 μm (3.8–4.9), W, 2.9 μm (2.6–3.3), A, 10.2 μm2 (8.5–12.2), P, 12.4 μm (11.3–13.9), Ac, 49% (36–60), L/W, 1.49 (1.32–1.67) and P/A, 1.22 (1.11–1.35). These median values fall within the 95th centile confidence limits given by WHO, but the confidence intervals for L and W were larger. Although these differences in head dimensions among men and after swim-up could be detected by CASMA, the small differences make it unlikely that technicians would be able to distinguish them. The values could be used as default sperm head values for the CASMA machine used here. PMID:20852650

  9. Gender and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2, CETP, and SCARB1 Are Significant Predictors of Plasma Homocysteine Normalized by RBC Folate in Healthy Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Andrew J.; Chen, Kehui; McWade, Laura; Rincon, Gonzalo; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Holstege, Dirk M.; Owens, Janel E.; Liu, Bitao; Müller, Hans-Georg; Medrano, Juan F.; Fadel, James G.; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Baer, David J.; Novotny, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    Using linear regression models, we studied the main and 2-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine (Hcy)/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma Hcy normalized by RBC folate measurements (nHcy) in 373 healthy Caucasian adults (50% women). Variable selection was conducted by stepwise Akaike information criterion or least angle regression and both methods led to the same final model. Significant predictors (where P values were adjusted for false discovery rate) included type of blood sample [whole blood (WB) vs. plasma-depleted WB; P < 0.001] used for folate analysis, gender (P < 0.001), and SNP in genes SPTLC1 (rs11790991; P = 0.040), CRBP2 (rs2118981; P < 0.001), BHMT (rs3733890; P = 0.019), and CETP (rs5882; P = 0.017). Significant 2-way interaction effects included gender × MTHFR (rs1801131; P = 0.012), gender × CRBP2 (rs2118981; P = 0.011), and gender × SCARB1 (rs83882; P = 0.003). The relation of nHcy concentrations with the significant SNP (SPTLC1, BHMT, CETP, CRBP2, MTHFR, and SCARB1) is of interest, especially because we surveyed the main and interaction effects in healthy adults, but it is an important area for future study. As discussed, understanding Hcy and genetic regulation is important, because Hcy may be related to inflammation, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus. We conclude that gender and SNP significantly affect nHcy. PMID:22833659

  10. Testosterone regulates levels of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, adenylate cyclase, and cAMP in the seminal vesicles of orchidectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Nur Siti Khadijah; Giribabu, Nelli; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2016-01-15

    Secretions of chloride (Cl(-))- and bicarbonate (HCO3(-))-rich fluid by the seminal vesicles could involve cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), which activity can be stimulated by cAMP generated from the reaction involving adenylate cyclase (AC). In this study, we investigated levels of CFTR, AC, and cAMP in the seminal vesicles under testosterone influence. Orchidectomized adult male rats received 7-day treatment with 125 or 250 μg/kg/day of testosterone with or without flutamide or finasteride. At the end of the treatment, animals were sacrificed and seminal vesicles were harvested for analyses of CFTR and AC protein expression level by Western blotting. Distribution of CFTR and AC in seminal vesicles was observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of cAMP and dihydrotestosterone in seminal vesicle homogenates were measured by ELISA. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, AC, and cAMP levels increased with increasing doses of testosterone (P < 0.05 compared to nontreated orchidectomized rats). Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator and AC were expressed at the apical membrane of the epithelium lining the seminal vesicle lumen with higher expression levels observed in testosterone-treated rats than in non-treated orchidectomized rats (P < 0.05). The inhibitory effects of flutamide or finasteride on these parameters were greater in 250 μg/kg/day testosterone-treated rats than their effects in 125 μg/kg/day testosterone-treated rats. Higher dihydrotestosterone levels were observed in seminal vesicle homogenates after treatment with 250 μg/kg/day than with 125 μg/kg/day of testosterone (P < 0.05). Increased levels of CFTR, AC, and cAMP in seminal vesicles might contribute toward an increase in Cl(-) and HCO3(-) concentrations in the seminal fluid as reported under testosterone influence. PMID:26483308

  11. Molecular Social Interactions: Drosophila melanogaster Seminal Fluid Proteins as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Sirot, Laura K.; LaFlamme, Brooke A.; Sitnik, Jessica L.; Rubinstein, C. Dustin; Avila, Frank W.; Chow, Clement Y.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of social behavior generally focus on interactions between two or more individual animals. However, these interactions are not simply between whole animals, but also occur between molecules that were produced by the interacting individuals. Such “molecular social interactions” can both influence and be influenced by the organismal-level social interactions. We illustrate this by reviewing the roles played by seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) in molecular social interactions between males and females of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Sfps, which are produced by males and transferred to females during mating, are involved in inherently social interactions with female-derived molecules, and they influence social interactions between males and females and between a female’s past and potential future mates. Here, we explore four examples of molecular social interactions involving D. melanogaster Sfps: processes that influence mating, sperm storage, ovulation, and ejaculate transfer. We consider the molecular and organismal players involved in each interaction and the consequences of their interplay for the reproductive success of both sexes. We conclude with a discussion of the ways in which Sfps can both shape and be shaped by (in an evolutionary sense) the molecular social interactions in which they are involved. PMID:20109658

  12. Ribonuclease-sensitive DNA-synthesizing complex in human sperm heads and seminal fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Witkin, S S; Korngold, G C; Bendich, A

    1975-01-01

    An endogenous DNA-synthesizing complex sensitive to ribonuclease has been found in purified preparations of swollen human sperm heads. Incorporation of [3H]dTTP into acid-precipitable material occurred in the presence of actinomycin D and required addition of dGTP, dCTP, dATP, plus Mg++. Polymerization was sensitive to pretreatment of the complex with pancreatic RNase A or Triton X-100. Exogenous activity was elicited by the synthetic template (dT)12--18-(rA)n but not by (dT)12--18-(dA)n or (dT)10. The complex sedimented from a 10,000 X g supernatant by centrifugation at 165,000 X g for 60 min and banded in sucrose at a density of 1.21--1.25 g/cm3. Endogenous RNase-sensitive DNA polymerase activity from cell-free seminal fluid was also detected in a fraction in sucrose at a density of 1.22 g/cm3. This activity was labile to freezing and stimulated by 0.04% Triton X-100, and thus differed from that of sperm heads. Images PMID:1059111

  13. The influence of short-term exposure to tropical sunlight on boar seminal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egbunike, G. N.; Dede, T. I.

    1980-06-01

    The seminal characteristics of 4 Large White boars exposed to direct tropical sunlight 45 min daily for three days were compared to those of their mates that were maintained under shade in the barn. During the period of exposure, both respiratory rate and rectal temperature increased significantly by 276.84 and 5.13% respectively in the exposed over the unexposed boars, thus indicating a high degree of hyperthermia. Although libido, as judged from the reaction time, was unaffected, the ejaculation time appeared to be longer for the stressed than unstressed animals. Gel mass, semen volume and pH appeared to be stable inspite of the treatment, unlike sperm motility and concentration which deteriorated. Also, the dehydrogenase activity of the semen was inferior in the stressed animals. Sperm output per ejaculate dropped drastically only in the week following exposure from 58.22 to 28.42 billion sperm as compared to corresponding values of 54.83 and 47.87 by the unexposed boars. Similarly, the frequency of sperm abnormality was higher in the stressed boars in this period after which the animals appeared to have recovered.

  14. Identification and Characterization of Seminal Fluid Proteins in the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Boes, Kathryn E.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Wong, Alex; Harrington, Laura C.; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Sirot, Laura K.

    2014-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is an important vector for pathogens that affect human health, including the viruses that cause dengue and Chikungunya fevers. It is also one of the world's fastest-spreading invasive species. For these reasons, it is crucial to identify strategies for controlling the reproduction and spread of this mosquito. During mating, seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) are transferred from male mosquitoes to females, and these Sfps modulate female behavior and physiology in ways that influence reproduction. Despite the importance of Sfps on female reproductive behavior in mosquitoes and other insects, the identity of Sfps in Ae. albopictus has not previously been reported. We used transcriptomics and proteomics to identify 198 Sfps in Ae. albopictus. We discuss possible functions of these Sfps in relation to Ae. albopictus reproduction-related biology. We additionally compare the sequences of these Sfps with proteins (including reported Sfps) in several other species, including Ae. aegypti. While only 72 (36.4%) of Ae. albopictus Sfps have putative orthologs in Ae. aegypti, suggesting low conservation of the complement of Sfps in these species, we find no evidence for an elevated rate of evolution or positive selection in the Sfps that are shared between the two Aedes species, suggesting high sequence conservation of those shared Sfps. Our results provide a foundation for future studies to investigate the roles of individual Sfps on feeding and reproduction in this mosquito. Functional analysis of these Sfps could inform strategies for managing the rate of pathogen transmission by Ae. albopictus. PMID:24945155

  15. ‘Semen Contains Vitality and Heredity, Not Germs’: Seminal Discourse in the AIDS Era

    PubMed Central

    Hudson-Rodd, Nancy; Saggers, Sherry; Bhuiyan, Mahbubul Islam; Bhuiya, Abbas; Karim, Syed Afzalul; Rauyajin, Oratai

    2006-01-01

    Perspectives of public health generally ignore culture-bound sexual health concerns, such as semen loss, and primarily attempt to eradicate sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Like in many other countries, sexual health concerns of men in Bangladesh have also received less attention compared to STIs in the era of AIDS. This paper describes the meanings of non-STI sexual health concerns, particularly semen loss, in the masculinity framework. In a qualitative study on male sexuality, 50 men, aged 18–55 years, from diverse sociodemographic backgrounds and 10 healthcare practitioners were interviewed. Men considered semen the most powerful and vital body fluid representing their sexual performance and reproductive ability. Rather than recognizing the vulnerability to transmission of STIs, concerns about semen were grounded in the desire of men to preserve and nourish seminal vitality. Traditional practitioners supported semen loss as a major sexual health concern where male heritage configures male sexuality in a patriarchal society. Currently, operating HIV interventions in the framework of disease and death may not ensure participation of men in reproductive and sexual health programmes and is, therefore, less likely to improve the quality of sexual life of men and women. PMID:17591339

  16. The applicability of a seminal professional development theory to creative arts therapies students.

    PubMed

    Orkibi, Hod

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to test the extent to which a seminal theory of the professional development of counsellors and therapists is applicable to the particular experiences of creative arts therapies graduate students who learn how to use the arts in psychotherapy. Nevertheless, readers may consider the results of the present study transferable to other healthcare disciplines. Questionnaires for each developmental phase were used for data collection, and analysis included data quantification, assessment of inter-rater agreement and theory derivation procedure. Results indicate that creative arts therapies students were concerned about translating theory into practice, learning how experienced therapists concretely function in practice, and reducing cognitive dissonance upon realization that their pre-training lay conceptions of helping were no longer valid. Stress and anxiety drove students to adopt easily mastered techniques that were implemented creatively in practicum. The results confirm that students who were older and had undergraduate human-service education and/or considerable life experience were less concerned about their suitability to the profession, were more acquainted with a professional working style and searched for their individual way of becoming therapists. Finally, recommendations for future research are suggested, and implications for practice are offered. PMID:23733240

  17. Importance of an Early Diagnosis in Primary Adenocarcinoma of the Seminal Vesicle

    PubMed Central

    Dell’Atti, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of seminal vesicle (SV) adenocarcinoma is often poor due to delayed diagnosis. About 95% of the patients die in less than 3 years. Diagnosis is difficult due to the absence of early clinical signs as hematuria, hematospermia and/or dysuria. We present the case of a 61-year-old Caucasian man with a left SV mass detected by transrectal ultrasound. SV ultrasound-guided biopsy showed an adenocarcinoma. The tumor was uniformly strongly immunoreactive for cytokeratin-7 and carcinoembryonic antigen. There was no immunoreactivity for prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP) and CK-20. These tumors have been reported to be also positive for CA-125. Therefore a combination of positive staining for CK-7, CEA and CA-125; with negative staining for CK-20, PSA and PSAP is the pattern of immunohistochemical findings noted for this rare tumor. The computed tomography of the abdomen-pelvis and chest X-ray was negative for metastases. The patient underwent a radical prostatectomy and lymphadenectomy. The prostate, rectum, bladder and lymph nodes were free from tumor involvement. The patient did not receive any adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation; and remains free of disease 3 years post-surgery. PMID:27134716

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of the Maize Primary, Crown and Seminal Root in Response to Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiangbo; Li, Cuiling; Tian, Huiyu; Ding, Zhaojun

    2015-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to crop growth and yield. The primary and lateral roots of Arabidopsis thaliana are known to respond differentially to a number of environmental stresses, including salinity. Although the maize root system as a whole is known to be sensitive to salinity, whether or not different structural root systems show differential growth responses to salinity stress has not yet been investigated. The maize primary root (PR) was more tolerant of salinity stress than either the crown root (CR) or the seminal root (SR). To understand the molecular mechanism of these differential growth responses, RNA-Seq analysis was conducted on cDNA prepared from the PR, CR and SR of plants either non-stressed or exposed to 100 mM NaCl for 24 h. A set of 444 genes were shown to be regulated by salinity stress, and the transcription pattern of a number of genes associated with the plant salinity stress response differed markedly between the various types of root. The pattern of transcription of the salinity-regulated genes was shown to be very diverse in the various root types. The differential transcription of these genes such as transcription factors, and the accumulation of compatible solutes such as soluble sugars probably underlie the differential growth responses to salinity stress of the three types of roots in maize. PMID:25803026

  19. Identification and characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Boes, Kathryn E; Ribeiro, José M C; Wong, Alex; Harrington, Laura C; Wolfner, Mariana F; Sirot, Laura K

    2014-06-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is an important vector for pathogens that affect human health, including the viruses that cause dengue and Chikungunya fevers. It is also one of the world's fastest-spreading invasive species. For these reasons, it is crucial to identify strategies for controlling the reproduction and spread of this mosquito. During mating, seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) are transferred from male mosquitoes to females, and these Sfps modulate female behavior and physiology in ways that influence reproduction. Despite the importance of Sfps on female reproductive behavior in mosquitoes and other insects, the identity of Sfps in Ae. albopictus has not previously been reported. We used transcriptomics and proteomics to identify 198 Sfps in Ae. albopictus. We discuss possible functions of these Sfps in relation to Ae. albopictus reproduction-related biology. We additionally compare the sequences of these Sfps with proteins (including reported Sfps) in several other species, including Ae. aegypti. While only 72 (36.4%) of Ae. albopictus Sfps have putative orthologs in Ae. aegypti, suggesting low conservation of the complement of Sfps in these species, we find no evidence for an elevated rate of evolution or positive selection in the Sfps that are shared between the two Aedes species, suggesting high sequence conservation of those shared Sfps. Our results provide a foundation for future studies to investigate the roles of individual Sfps on feeding and reproduction in this mosquito. Functional analysis of these Sfps could inform strategies for managing the rate of pathogen transmission by Ae. albopictus. PMID:24945155

  20. Keratinocyte growth factor functions in epithelial induction during seminal vesicle development.

    PubMed Central

    Alarid, E T; Rubin, J S; Young, P; Chedid, M; Ron, D; Aaronson, S A; Cunha, G R

    1994-01-01

    Development of the seminal vesicle (SV) is elicited by androgens and is dependent on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Androgenic signal transmission from the androgen-receptor-positive mesenchyme to the epithelium has been postulated to involve paracrine factors. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), a member of the fibroblast growth factor family, is produced by stromal/mesenchymal cells and acts specifically on epithelial cells. The KGF transcript was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in newborn mouse SVs and by Northern blot analysis of RNA from cultured neonatal SV mesenchymal cells. Newborn SVs placed in organ culture undergo androgen-dependent growth and differentiation. Addition of a KGF-neutralizing monoclonal antibody to this system caused striking inhibition of both SV growth and branching morphogenesis. This inhibition was due to a decline in epithelial proliferation and differentiation, as the mesenchymal layer was not affected by anti-KGF treatment. When KGF (100 ng/ml) was substituted for testosterone in the culture medium, SV growth was approximately 50% that observed with an optimal dose of testosterone (10(-7) M). All of these findings suggest that KGF is present during a time of active SV morphogenesis and functions as an important mediator of androgen-dependent development. Images PMID:8302834

  1. Heterogeneity in mouse seminal vesicle epithelial cells responding to androgen as evaluated by incorporation of (/sup 125/I)iododeoxyuridine

    SciTech Connect

    Terada, N.; Ogasawara, Y.; Yamane, T.; Matsumoto, K.; Kitamura, Y.

    1985-04-01

    When the uptake of 5-(/sup 125/I)iodo-2'-deoxyuridine ((/sup 125/I)IdUrd) into the seminal vesicle of castrated mice was measured 3 days after starting injections of various doses of testosterone propionate (TP), logarithmic values of (/sup 125/I)IdUrd uptake were proportional to the logarithmic doses of TP in the range of 0.04-2 micrograms/g BW. The (/sup 125/I)IdUrd uptake values correlated well with the labeling and mitotic indices of epithelial cells. Since daily injections of 0.4 microgram TP/g BW did not increase significantly the weight or DNA content or protein content of the seminal vesicle, the (/sup 125/I)IdUrd uptake is a sensitive index of androgen action. Moreover, this suggests that low doses of androgen induce division of epithelial cells without resulting in the increase in cell number. The (/sup 125/I)IdUrd radioactivity in the seminal vesicle was measured 2-15 days after the injection of (/sup 125/I)IdUrd, since the value represented the fraction of surviving cells synthesizing DNA at the time of (/sup 125/I)IdUrd injection. When injections of 4 micrograms TP/g BW were continued, the incorporated radioactivity was retained. In contrast, continuous injections of 0.2 microgram TP/g BW did not maintain the radioactivity, of which incorporation was induced by the same dose of TP. Thus, the present result suggests the presence of heterogeneity in androgen-responsive epithelial cells of the seminal vesicle.

  2. Seasonal changes in breeding activity, testicular size, testosterone concentration and seminal characteristics in rams with long or short breeding season.

    PubMed

    Dufour, J J; Fahmy, M H; Minvielle, F

    1984-02-01

    Breeding activity (libido), testicular size, testosterone levels and seminal characteristics of 10 DLS adult rams (a population of 1/2 Dorset, 1/4 Leicester and 1/4 Suffolk selected for extended breeding season) were compared with those of 10 adult Suffolk rams. The study lasted 18 mo during which the data were recorded over 30 collection periods. All characteristics varied significantly with the season of the year, being lowest during the summer and highest during the fall. Suffolk rams had higher libido but lower testosterone levels than the DLS rams throughout the study. Testosterone increased earlier and decreased later in the breeding season in DLS compared with Suffolk rams, the interaction breed X period being significant. Testosterone concentration was highly associated with testicular size and libido, accounting for 65 and 28% of the variation in the Suffolk and 37 and 18% in the DLS rams, respectively. Seminal output and quality (motility and percentage of live spermatozoa) were highest in October and November and lowest in April and May. Rams within breeds differed significantly in the seminal characteristics studied. Results of the study showed that selecting the DLS ewes for extended breeding season may have altered the reproductive performance of the rams of that breed. PMID:6706874

  3. Detection of seminal fluid proteins in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, K; Wong, C H; Georgiou, A S

    2009-03-01

    The global increase of the human parasite, the common bed bug Cimex lectularius, calls for specific pest control target sites. The bed bug is also a model species for sexual conflict theory which suggests that seminal fluids may be highly diverse. The species has a highly unusual sperm biology and seminal proteins may have unique functions. One-dimensional PAGE gels showed 40-50% band sharing between C. lectularius and another cimicid species, Afrocimex constrictus. However, adult, sexually rested C. lectularius males were found to store 5-7 microg of seminal protein and with only 60 microg of protein we obtained informative 2-D PAGE gels. These showed 79% shared protein spots between 2 laboratory populations, and more than half of the shared protein spots were detected in the mated female. Further analysis using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry revealed that 26.5% of the proteins had matches among arthropods in databases and 14.5% matched Drosophila proteins. These included ubiquitous proteins but also those more closely associated with reproduction such as moj 29, ubiquitin, the stress-related elongation factor EF-1 alpha, a protein disulfide isomerase and an antioxidant, Peroxiredoxin 6. PMID:19091156

  4. Extrapulmonary Small Cell Carcinoma of the Seminal Vesicles and Prostate Demonstrated on 18F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizipour, Amir Iravani; Shen, Lily; Mansberg, Robert; Chuong, Bui

    2016-01-01

    Extrapulmonary primary small cell carcinomas arising from the urogenital tract is infrequent. It can rarely arise from the prostate and even more rarely from the seminal vesicles. We present a 79-year-old male who was admitted due to acute renal failure with a history of radical radiotherapy for prostate adenocarcinoma 13 years ago. The prostate specific antigen level was not elevated. An abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan showed markedly enlarged seminal vesicles causing bilateral ureteral obstruction and a mildly enlarged prostate. Further evaluation with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (0F-FDG) positron emission tomography/CT demonstrated extensive 18F-FDG uptake in the pelvis with diffuse involvement of both seminal vesicles and the prostate without pathologic uptake in the lungs or elsewhere in the body. Core biopsies of the prostate and both seminal vesicles revealed diffuse involvement by small cell carcinoma. Therapy could not be instituted due to a rapid deterioration in the patient’s clinical condition.

  5. Transamidase Reactions Involved in the Enzymic Coagulation of Semen: Isolation of γ-Glutamyl-ε-Lysine Dipeptide from Clotted Secretion Protein of Guinea Pig Seminal Vesicle

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Ashman, H. G.; Notides, A. C.; Pabalan, S. S.; Lorand, L.

    1972-01-01

    New supportive evidence is advanced in favor of the hypothesis that the enzymic coagulation of guinea pig semen involves transamidase reactions that result in the formation of γ-glutamyl-ε-lysine intermolecular cross linkages between molecules of a basic protein in seminal vesicle secretion. The dipeptide γ-glutamyl-ε-lysine was isolated in large quantities from proteolytic digests of the coagulated basic vesicular secretion protein that comprises the seminal clot. Images PMID:4506101

  6. Control of impurities in toroidal plasma devices

    DOEpatents

    Ohkawa, Tihiro

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for plasma impurity control in closed flux plasma systems such as Tokamak reactors is disclosed. Local axisymmetrical injection of hydrogen gas is employed to reverse the normally inward flow of impurities into the plasma.

  7. Hybrid Registration of Prostate and Seminal Vesicles for Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, Johan de; Herk, Marcel van; Pos, Floris J.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Fiducial markers are a good surrogate for the prostate but provide little information on the position and orientation of the seminal vesicles (SVs). Therefore, a more advanced localization method is warranted if the SVs are part of the target volume. The purpose of this study was to develop a hybrid registration technique for the localization of the prostate and SVs. Methods and Materials: Twenty prostate patients implanted with 2 or 3 elongated fiducial markers had cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans acquired at every fraction. The first step of the hybrid registration was to localize the prostate by CBCT-to-planning-CT alignment of the fiducial markers, allowing both translations and rotations. Using this marker registration as a starting point, the SVs were registered based on gray values, allowing only rotations around the lateral axis. We analyzed the differential rotation between the prostate and SVs and compared the required SV margins for 3 correction strategies. Results: The SV registration had a precision of 2.7° (1 standard deviation) and was successful for 96% of the scans. Mean (M), systematic (Σ), and random (σ) differences between the orientation of the prostate and SV were M = −0.4°, Σ = 7.2°, and σ = 6.4°. Daily marker-based corrections required an SV margin of 11.4 mm (translations only) and 11.6 mm (translations + rotations). Rotation corrections of the SVs reduced the required margin to 8.2 mm. Conclusions: We found substantial differences between the orientation of the prostate and SVs. The hybrid registration technique can accurately detect these rotations during treatment. Rotation correction of the SVs allows for margin reduction for the SVs.

  8. Transcriptomic and anatomical complexity of primary, seminal, and crown roots highlight root type-specific functional diversity in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Tai, Huanhuan; Lu, Xin; Opitz, Nina; Marcon, Caroline; Paschold, Anja; Lithio, Andrew; Nettleton, Dan; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Maize develops a complex root system composed of embryonic and post-embryonic roots. Spatio-temporal differences in the formation of these root types imply specific functions during maize development. A comparative transcriptomic study of embryonic primary and seminal, and post-embryonic crown roots of the maize inbred line B73 by RNA sequencing along with anatomical studies were conducted early in development. Seminal roots displayed unique anatomical features, whereas the organization of primary and crown roots was similar. For instance, seminal roots displayed fewer cortical cell files and their stele contained more meta-xylem vessels. Global expression profiling revealed diverse patterns of gene activity across all root types and highlighted the unique transcriptome of seminal roots. While functions in cell remodeling and cell wall formation were prominent in primary and crown roots, stress-related genes and transcriptional regulators were over-represented in seminal roots, suggesting functional specialization of the different root types. Dynamic expression of lignin biosynthesis genes and histochemical staining suggested diversification of cell wall lignification among the three root types. Our findings highlight a cost-efficient anatomical structure and a unique expression profile of seminal roots of the maize inbred line B73 different from primary and crown roots. PMID:26628518

  9. Transcriptomic and anatomical complexity of primary, seminal, and crown roots highlight root type-specific functional diversity in maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Huanhuan; Lu, Xin; Opitz, Nina; Marcon, Caroline; Paschold, Anja; Lithio, Andrew; Nettleton, Dan; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Maize develops a complex root system composed of embryonic and post-embryonic roots. Spatio-temporal differences in the formation of these root types imply specific functions during maize development. A comparative transcriptomic study of embryonic primary and seminal, and post-embryonic crown roots of the maize inbred line B73 by RNA sequencing along with anatomical studies were conducted early in development. Seminal roots displayed unique anatomical features, whereas the organization of primary and crown roots was similar. For instance, seminal roots displayed fewer cortical cell files and their stele contained more meta-xylem vessels. Global expression profiling revealed diverse patterns of gene activity across all root types and highlighted the unique transcriptome of seminal roots. While functions in cell remodeling and cell wall formation were prominent in primary and crown roots, stress-related genes and transcriptional regulators were over-represented in seminal roots, suggesting functional specialization of the different root types. Dynamic expression of lignin biosynthesis genes and histochemical staining suggested diversification of cell wall lignification among the three root types. Our findings highlight a cost-efficient anatomical structure and a unique expression profile of seminal roots of the maize inbred line B73 different from primary and crown roots. PMID:26628518

  10. Association between Seminal Vesicle Invasion and Prostate Cancer Detection Location after Transrectal Systemic Biopsy among Men Who Underwent Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Ik; Lee, Hak Min; Jo, Jung Ki; Lee, Sangchul; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun; Oh, Jong Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Our hypothesis is that the location of the seminal vesicles near the base of the prostate, the more positive cores are detected in the base, the greater the risk of seminal vesicle invasion. Therefore we investigate the clinical outcomes of base dominant prostate cancer (BDPC) in transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) -guided biopsies compared with anteromiddle dominant prostate cancer (AMPC). Methods From November 2003 to June 2014, a total of 990 intermediate and high risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) were enrolled and stratified into two groups according to proportion of positive cores–BDPC group had ≥ 33.3% ratio of positive cores from the prostate base among all positive cores and AMPC group < 33.3% in systemic biopsy. Between two groups, we compared the rate of pathologic outcomes and biochemical recurrence (BCR). We performed multivariate logistic regression model to confirm the significance of BDPC to seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) and Cox proportional hazard analysis to BCR. Results Among these 990 PCa patients, the 487 patients in BDPC group had more advanced clinical stage (p<0.001), a higher biopsy GS (p = 0.002), and a higher rate of extracapsular extension (ECE), SVI and BCR (all p<0.001) than AMPC group. The patients in BDPC group had poor BCR free survival rate via Kaplan-meier analysis (p<0.001). The ratio of the base positive cores was a significant predictor to SVI in multivariate analysis (p < 0.001) and significant predictor of BCR in multivariate Cox proportional analysis (hazard ratio: 1.466, p = 0.004). Conclusions BDPC in TRUS-guided prostate biopsies was significantly associated with SVI and BCR after adjusting for other clinical factors. Therefore, BDPC should be considered to be a more aggressive tumor despite an otherwise similar cancer profile. PMID:26848747

  11. Incidental seminal vesicle amyloidosis observed in diagnostic prostate biopsies—are routine investigations for systemic amyloidosis warranted?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zichu; Laird, Alexander; Monaghan, Ashley; Seywright, Morag; Ahmad, Imran; Leung, Hing Y

    2013-01-01

    Seminal vesicle (SV) amyloidosis is a well-documented histological entity, but it is observed infrequently. Its incidence is on the rise, which is probably related to the increasing use of prostate biopsies to investigate patients with elevated serum prostate-specific antigen levels. Here, we report seven cases of incidental SV amyloidosis over a 3-year period and consider their relationship to the previously suggested aetiological factors. Based on our series, we conclude that incidental localized SV amyloidosis observed in diagnostic prostate biopsies does not warrant formal investigations for systemic amyloidosis. PMID:23223033

  12. Semiclassical gravitoelectromagnetic inflation in a Lorentz gauge: Seminal inflaton fluctuations and electromagnetic fields from a 5D vacuum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Membiela, Federico Agustín; Bellini, Mauricio

    2010-02-01

    Using a semiclassical approach to Gravitoelectromagnetic Inflation (GEMI), we study the origin and evolution of seminal inflaton and electromagnetic fields in the early inflationary universe from a 5D vacuum state. The difference with other previous works is that in this one we use a Lorentz gauge. Our formalism is naturally not conformal invariant on the effective 4D de Sitter metric, which make possible the super adiabatic amplification of magnetic field modes during the early inflationary epoch of the universe on cosmological scales.

  13. Plasma Cell Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) Multiple Myeloma Macroglobulinemia Heavy Chain Diseases Plasma cell disorders are uncommon. They begin ... antibody produced is incomplete, consisting of only light chains or heavy chains (functional antibodies normally consist of ...

  14. Light-mediated modulation of helix angle and rate of seminal root tip movement determines root morphology of young rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiang-Wen; Shao, Ko-Hsuan; Wang, Shu-Jen

    2016-02-01

    Seminal root growth is one of the factors to determine rice seedling establishment. Our previous reports showed light can induce Z-type wavy root and coiling root morphology in several rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties, and the regulated Z-type and unregulated coil seminal roots were resulted by different circumnutational trajectories. Moreover, the light-induced seminal root waving was conducted by an NO-dependent signaling pathway. In order to further reveal the difference of root tip movement between straight and wavy seminal roots; here, the root tip movement trajectories of Tainung 67 variety (TNG67; presented straight root in light conditions) and Taichung Native 1 (TCN1; presented Z-type wavy root in light) were recorded and analyzed in both white light and dark (dim far-red light was applied in dark for taking time-lapse photography) conditions. The results showed the root tip movement of both rice varieties in low intensity of dim far-red light conditions were followed the circumnutation path. However, the stimuli of high intensity of white light would increase the root helix angle in TCN1 seedlings but not in TNG67. In addition, slowing down the rate of root helix was induced by white light treatment in TCN1 but not in TNG67 seedlings. In conclusion, changes of TCN1 rice seminal root morphology from straight to wavy type stimulated by light was resulted by both helix angle increasing and circumnutation rate slowing of root tip movement. PMID:26829414

  15. Evaluation of thermal comfort, physiological, hematological, and seminal features of buffalo bulls in an artificial insemination station in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Barros, Daniel Vale; Silva, Lilian Kátia Ximenes; de Brito Lourenço, José; da Silva, Aluizio Otávio Almeida; E Silva, André Guimarães Maciel; Franco, Irving Montanar; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; Tholon, Patrícia; Martorano, Lucieta Guerreiro; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation over time in thermal comfort indices and the behavior of physiological parameters related to thermolysis, blood parameters, and semen in natura of buffalo bulls reared in tropical climate. The study was carried out in an artificial insemination station under a humid tropical climate (Afi according to Köppen). Ten water buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) were used during the 5 months (April to August) of study. The environmental Temperature Humidity Index (THId) and the pen microclimate Temperature Humidity Index (THIp) were calculated. Every 25 days, respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (RT), and Benezra's thermal comfort index (BTCI) were assessed in the morning and in the afternoon. A blood assay was performed every month, while semen was collected weekly. THIp did not vary over the months (P > 0.05) and was higher in the afternoon than in the morning (77.7 ± 2.6 versus 81.8 ± 2.1, P < 0.05). RR, HR, and BTCI significantly increased over the months and were different between the periods of the day (P > 0.05) but within the physiological limits. RT varied between the periods of the day and decreased over the months, being the lowest in August (37.8 ± 0.7 °C), time-impacted hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, hemoglobin levels, and spermatic gross motility and vigor (P < 0.05). Thus, buffalo bulls reared under a humid tropical climate may have variations in thermal comfort during the hotter periods but are able to efficiently activate thermoregulatory mechanisms and maintain homeothermy, hence preserving their physiological and seminal parameters at normal levels. PMID:25801015

  16. Relationship between expression of sex steroid receptors and structure of the seminal vesicles after neonatal treatment of rats with potent or weak estrogens.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, K; Fisher, J S; Turner, K J; McKinnell, C; Saunders, P T; Sharpe, R M

    2001-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of manipulating the estrogen and androgen environment of the neonatal male rat on subsequent immunoexpression of sex steroid receptors in the seminal vesicles (SVs) at age 18 days. The aim was to establish to what extent such changes were associated with and predictive of changes in SV structure/composition. Treatments were either diethylstilbestrol (DES; 10, 1, or 0.1 microg/injection), ethinyl estradiol (EE; 10 microg/injection), tamoxifen (2 mg/kg/day), flutamide (50 mg/kg), a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRHa; 10 mg/kg), genistein (4 mg/kg/day), octylphenol (2 mg/injection), or bisphenol A (0.5 mg/injection). Compared with controls, treatment with DES (10 microg) induced loss of epithelial and stromal androgen receptor (AR) immunoexpression coincident with induction of stromal progesterone receptor (PR) immunoexpression and upregulation of stromal immunoexpression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha). These changes were associated with gross distortion (increase) of the normal stromal:epithelial tissue proportions in the SVs. DES (1 microg) and EE induced similar but less pronounced changes, and DES (0.1 microg) had no noticeable effect. Tamoxifen and flutamide induced PR and slightly upregulated ERalpha immunoexpression but had only a minor or no effect on AR expression and the stromal:epithelial ratio, though flutamide retarded normal development of the SVs. The latter was also evident in GnRHa-treated males, but otherwise this treatment had no effect on AR and PR immunoexpression. None of the foregoing treatments had any detectable effect on the immunoexpression of ERss in stromal or epithelial cells. The major treatment-induced changes in immunoexpression of AR, PR, and ERalpha and lack of change in ERss were confirmed by Western blots of SV protein extracts. None of the three weak (environmental) estrogens tested caused any detectable change in sex steroid receptor immunoexpression or SV tissue composition. We conclude that treatment-induced loss of AR is a prerequisite for altered stromal:epithelial proportions in the SVs and that such loss is always associated with induction of PR and upregulation of ERalpha; the latter two changes are insufficient on their own to bring about such a change. Nevertheless, induction of PR expression was always associated with altered SV development and is a potentially useful marker because it is not normally expressed in male reproductive tissues. PMID:11748029

  17. Water uptake by seminal and adventitious roots in relation to whole-plant water flow in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Knipfer, Thorsten; Fricke, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Prior to an assessment of the role of aquaporins in root water uptake, the main path of water movement in different types of root and driving forces during day and night need to be known. In the present study on hydroponically grown barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) the two main root types of 14- to 17-d-old plants were analysed for hydraulic conductivity in dependence of the main driving force (hydrostatic, osmotic). Seminal roots contributed 92% and adventitious roots 8% to plant water uptake. The lower contribution of adventitious compared with seminal roots was associated with a smaller surface area and number of roots per plant and a lower axial hydraulic conductance, and occurred despite a less-developed endodermis. The radial hydraulic conductivity of the two types of root was similar and depended little on the prevailing driving force, suggesting that water uptake occurred along a pathway that involved crossing of membrane(s). Exudation experiments showed that osmotic forces were sufficient to support night-time transpiration, yet transpiration experiments and cuticle permeance data questioned the significance of osmotic forces. During the day, 90% of water uptake was driven by a tension of about -0.15 MPa. PMID:20974734

  18. Water uptake by seminal and adventitious roots in relation to whole-plant water flow in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Knipfer, Thorsten; Fricke, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Prior to an assessment of the role of aquaporins in root water uptake, the main path of water movement in different types of root and driving forces during day and night need to be known. In the present study on hydroponically grown barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) the two main root types of 14- to 17-d-old plants were analysed for hydraulic conductivity in dependence of the main driving force (hydrostatic, osmotic). Seminal roots contributed 92% and adventitious roots 8% to plant water uptake. The lower contribution of adventitious compared with seminal roots was associated with a smaller surface area and number of roots per plant and a lower axial hydraulic conductance, and occurred despite a less-developed endodermis. The radial hydraulic conductivity of the two types of root was similar and depended little on the prevailing driving force, suggesting that water uptake occurred along a pathway that involved crossing of membrane(s). Exudation experiments showed that osmotic forces were sufficient to support night-time transpiration, yet transpiration experiments and cuticle permeance data questioned the significance of osmotic forces. During the day, 90% of water uptake was driven by a tension of about –0.15 MPa. PMID:20974734

  19. Light and electron microscopic studies on the intrinsic innervation of the guinea-pig seminal vesicle following selective axotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zuhair, A G; Gosling, J A; Dixon, J S

    1977-01-01

    Selected peripheral autonomic nerves have been surgically divided or removed and the seminal vesicles subsequently examined using neurohistochemical and electron microscopic techniques. Following bilateral hypogastric anf pelvic nerve transection, the arrangement and distribution of intramural axons 14 days after operation were similar to those in control specimens. In contrast, removal of the pelvic plexus was accompanied by a gradual reduction of catecholamine and acetylcholinesterase so that by the seventh post-operative day nerves were not observed light microscopically in the muscle coat or the submucosa. These observations have been endorsed using electron microscopy, and the fine structure of intramural autonomic nerves in response to axotomy has been monitored during the post-operative period. It has been concluded that the cell bodies of axons which supply the wall of the seminal vesicles are located within the pelvic plexus and do not extend proximal to the sites of division of the hypogastric and pelvic nerves. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:604331

  20. Neuroendocrine effects of caffeine in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Spindel, E R; Wurtman, R J; McCall, A; Carr, D B; Conlay, L; Griffith, L; Arnold, M A

    1984-09-01

    In double-blind crossover experiments, we examined the effects of oral caffeine (250 or 500 mg) added to decaffeinated coffee on plasma hormone levels in adults who normally consume one to three cups of coffee a day. In one experiment, 250 mg (about 4 mg/kg) caffeine was given to men; in two other experiments, 500 mg (8 mg/kg) was given to both sexes. Caffeine, 500 mg, elevated plasma levels of beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity in both men and women but had no significant effect on plasma levels of cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, prolactin, or triiodothyronine in men nor on plasma levels of prolactin or cortisol in women. The 250-mg dose induced no significant changes in plasma levels of any of the hormones measured. We conclude that the threshold for caffeine's endocrine effects is higher than that for its behavioral effects. PMID:6467801

  1. A Comparison of Seminal Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA Levels During Recent and Chronic HCV Infection in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Daniel; Lamoury, Francois; Catlett, Beth; Applegate, Tanya L.; Mcallister, John; Dore, Gregory J.; Matthews, Gail V.; Danta, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background. We aimed to characterize seminal hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive men with acute HCV infection given its potential role in sexual transmission of HCV. Methods. Men with acute HCV infection (duration, ≤12 months) or chronic HCV infection (duration, >12 months) were prospectively recruited. Paired semen and blood samples were assayed for HCV RNA levels. Results were analyzed using χ2, Fisher exact, Mann–Whitney U, and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results. Eighteen men (27.3%) had acute HCV and HIV coinfection, 22 (33.3%) had chronic HCV infection and HIV coinfection, and 26 (39.4%) had chronic HCV monoinfection. HCV RNA was detected in semen specimens from 29 of 66 men (43.9%). The median HCV RNA level in blood was 4.0 log IU/mL higher than that in semen. HCV RNA levels were correlated in semen and blood (r2 = 0.142). Neither HIV positivity nor acute HCV infection was associated with an increased frequency of seminal HCV RNA detection. Among men with acute HCV and HIV coinfection, the median HCV RNA level in blood specimens from those with seminal HCV RNA was higher than that in blood specimens from those without seminal HCV RNA (P = .001). Seminal HCV RNA was detected in ≥1 sample for 26 of 35 men (74.3%) attending follow up. Conclusions. HCV RNA was detected in semen during both acute and chronic HCV infection. This was unaffected by HIV positivity or the phase of HCV infection. Elevated seminal HCV RNA levels could contribute to sexual transmission of HCV, but other factors, including high-risk behaviors, may be the main drivers for HCV transmission in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:25293369

  2. Ultracold neutral plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolston, Steven L.

    2008-07-01

    Plasmas are normally thought of as high temperature ionized gases or fluids, such as those in the sun's corona or those found in controlled nuclear fusion experiments. Many interesting plasma phenomena can occur, however, in plasmas at low temperature. With the help of laser trapping and cooling, atoms can be photoionized to form neutral plasmas at extremely low temperatures. These plasmas may exist in the so-called strong coupling regime, where the energy of the Coulomb interactions between particles is larger than their thermal energy. In addition to providing a test bed for studying the strongly coupled plasmas such as those found in Jovian planets and white dwarfs, ultracold plasmas play a critical role in understanding the formation of antihydrogen.

  3. Mating, seminal fluid components, and sperm cause changes in vesicle release in the Drosophila female reproductive tract

    PubMed Central

    Heifetz, Yael; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2004-01-01

    Mating induces changes in female insects, including in egg production, ovulation and laying, sperm storage, and behavior. Several molecules and effects that induce these changes have been identified, but their proximate effects on females remain unexplored. We examined whether vesicle release occurs as a consequence of mating; we used transgenic Drosophila that allow monitoring of secretory granule release at nerve termini. Changes in release occur at specific times postmating in different regions of the female reproductive tract: soon after mating in the lower reproductive tract, and later in the upper reproductive tract. Some changes are triggered by receipt of sperm, others by male seminal proteins, and still others by the act of mating itself (or other unidentified effectors). Our findings indicate that the female reproductive tract is a multi-organ system whose regions are modulated separately by mating and mating components. This modulation could create an environment conducive to increased reproductive capacity. PMID:15071179

  4. Characterization of basal seminal traits and reproductive endocrine profiles in North American river otters and Asian small-clawed otters.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Helen L; Bond, Jennifer B; Campbell, Mark; Barrie, Michael; Riggs, Gary; Snyder, Barb; Swanson, William F

    2009-03-01

    In this study, fecal samples were collected from 24 North American river (NARO) and 17 Asian small-clawed otters (ASCO) for 6-36 months and semen collected seasonally from NARO males (n=4/season) via electroejaculation. Our main objectives were to: (1) characterize endocrine parameters by longitudinal monitoring of fecal hormone metabolites and (2) investigate semen collection and basal seminal traits in NARO. NARO demonstrated a distinct seasonality in the spring, with females having a monoestrual estrogen elevation lasting 15.33+/-1.98 (mean+/-SEM) days and males peaking in testosterone production for 25.50+/-7.51 days. Pregnancy was characterized by 7-9 months of basal fecal progesterone, presumably corresponding to embryonic diapause, followed by a rapid increase over the final 68-73 days to term. Pseudopregnancy exhibited a similar late winter progesterone peak of 68-72 days, which could not be differentiated from pregnancy. Geographic latitude possibly influenced the timing of increased testosterone in males and increased progesterone in pregnant/pseudopregnant females. In ASCO, monitoring of fecal estrogens did not allow consistent detection of peak values associated with behavioral estrus. Both pregnancy and pseudopregnancy were characterized by a moderate rise in fecal progesterone for 14-16 days postovulation followed by a marked increase. Total gestation length was 67-77 days compared with 62-84 days for pseudopregnancy. In NARO, optimal sperm recovery and quality occurred only in the spring, corresponding with seasonal increases in testicular volume and fecal testosterone. These findings represent the first comprehensive information on normative endocrine and seminal traits in freshwater otter species. PMID:19367624

  5. Is My Penis Normal?

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Is My Penis Normal? KidsHealth > For Teens > Is My Penis Normal? Print A A A Text Size en ... any guy who's ever worried about whether his penis is a normal size. There's a fairly wide ...

  6. Forty Years of "Pastoral Care": An Appraisal of Michael Marland's Seminal Book and Its Significance for Pastoral Care in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Michael Marland's seminal book: "Pastoral Care" was published 40 years ago this year. The thesis of the book--that pastoral care is the central task of the school, and must be planned and institutionalized through pastoral roles and structures--is explored against the background of the social, cultural and educational developments…

  7. SV-IV Peptide1-16 reduces coagulant power in normal Factor V and Factor V Leiden.

    PubMed

    Di Micco, Biagio; Lepretti, Marilena; Rota, Lidia; Quaglia, Ilaria; Ferrazzi, Paola; Di Micco, Gianluca; Di Micco, Pierpaolo

    2007-01-01

    Native Factor V is an anticoagulant, but when activated by thrombin, Factor X or platelet proteases, it becomes a procoagulant. Due to these double properties, Factor V plays a crucial role in the regulation of coagulation/anticoagulation balance. Factor V Leiden (FVL) disorder may lead to thrombophilia. Whether a reduction in the activation of Factor V or Factor V Leiden may correct the disposition to thrombophilia is unknown. Therefore we tested SV-IV Peptide 1-16 (i.e. a peptide derived by seminal protein vescicle number IV, SV-IV) to assess its capacity to inhibit the procoagulant activity of normal clotting factor V or Factor V Leiden (FVL). We found that SV-IV protein has potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties and also exerts procoagulant activity. In the present work we show that the SV-IV Peptide 1-16, incubated with plasma containing normal Factor V or FVL plasma for 5 minutes reduces the procoagulant capacity of both substances. This is an anticoagulant effect whereas SV-IV protein is a procoagulant. This activity is effective both in terms of the coagulation tests, where coagulation times are increased, and in terms of biochemical tests conducted with purified molecules, where Factor X activation is reduced. Peptide 1-16 was, in the pure molecule system, first incubated for 5 minutes with purified Factor V then it was added to the mix of phosphatidylserine, Ca2+, Factor X and its chromogenic molecule Chromozym X. We observed a more than 50% reduction in lysis of chromogenic molecule Chromozym X by Factor Xa, compared to the sample without Peptide 1-16. Such reduction in Chromozym X lysis, is explained with the reduced activation of Factor X by partial inactivation of Factor V by Peptide 1-16. Thus our study demonstrates that Peptide 1-16 reduces the coagulation capacity of Factor V and Factor V Leiden in vitro, and, in turn, causes factor X reduced activation. PMID:18154667

  8. Two major quantitative trait loci controlling the number of seminal roots in maize co-map with the root developmental genes rtcs and rum1.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Silvio; Giuliani, Silvia; Ricciolini, Claudia; Carraro, Nicola; Maccaferri, Marco; Presterl, Thomas; Ouzunova, Milena; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    The genetic dissection of root architecture and functions allows for a more effective and informed design of novel root ideotypes and paves the way to evaluate their effects on crop resilience to a number of abiotic stresses. In maize, limited attention has been devoted to the genetic analysis of root architecture diversity at the early stage. The difference in embryonic (including seminal and primary) root architecture between the maize reference line B73 (which mostly develops three seminal roots) and the landrace Gaspé Flint (with virtually no seminal roots) was genetically dissected using a collection of introgression lines grown in paper rolls and pots. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified three QTLs controlling seminal root number (SRN) on chromosome bins 1.02, 3.07, and 8.04-8.05, which collectively explained 66% of the phenotypic variation. In all three cases, Gaspé Flint contributed the allele for lower SRN. Primary root dry weight was negatively correlated with SRN (r= -0.52), and QTLs for primary root size co-mapped with SRN QTLs, suggesting a pleiotropic effect of SRN QTLs on the primary root, most probably caused by competition for seed resources. Interestingly, two out of three SRN QTLs co-mapped with the only two known maize genes (rtcs and rum1) affecting the number of seminal roots. The strong additive effect of the three QTLs and the development of near isogenic lines for each QTL in the elite B73 background provide unique opportunities to characterize functionally the genes involved in root development and to evaluate how root architecture affects seedling establishment, early development, and eventually yield in maize. PMID:26880748

  9. Two major quantitative trait loci controlling the number of seminal roots in maize co-map with the root developmental genes rtcs and rum1

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Silvio; Giuliani, Silvia; Ricciolini, Claudia; Carraro, Nicola; Maccaferri, Marco; Presterl, Thomas; Ouzunova, Milena; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The genetic dissection of root architecture and functions allows for a more effective and informed design of novel root ideotypes and paves the way to evaluate their effects on crop resilience to a number of abiotic stresses. In maize, limited attention has been devoted to the genetic analysis of root architecture diversity at the early stage. The difference in embryonic (including seminal and primary) root architecture between the maize reference line B73 (which mostly develops three seminal roots) and the landrace Gaspé Flint (with virtually no seminal roots) was genetically dissected using a collection of introgression lines grown in paper rolls and pots. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified three QTLs controlling seminal root number (SRN) on chromosome bins 1.02, 3.07, and 8.04–8.05, which collectively explained 66% of the phenotypic variation. In all three cases, Gaspé Flint contributed the allele for lower SRN. Primary root dry weight was negatively correlated with SRN (r= −0.52), and QTLs for primary root size co-mapped with SRN QTLs, suggesting a pleiotropic effect of SRN QTLs on the primary root, most probably caused by competition for seed resources. Interestingly, two out of three SRN QTLs co-mapped with the only two known maize genes (rtcs and rum1) affecting the number of seminal roots. The strong additive effect of the three QTLs and the development of near isogenic lines for each QTL in the elite B73 background provide unique opportunities to characterize functionally the genes involved in root development and to evaluate how root architecture affects seedling establishment, early development, and eventually yield in maize. PMID:26880748

  10. Perspectives on Normalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, S. Kenneth; Fiorelli, Joseph S.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the principle of normalization for developmentally disabled persons from five viewpoints: empirical approaches, social integration, specialization and congregation, cultural norms, and prevention. (Author/CL)

  11. Tubular reabsorption in normal renal function.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, W J

    1984-01-01

    The purpose here is to examine in relation to normal renal function three factors which might affect tubular reabsorption: (1) The reabsorption of SO4, PO4, K, Cl, HCO3 and water are all linked to the reabsorption of Na. This would amount to the reabsorption by the tubules of a net reabsorbate of a composition similar to Locke's fluid. Fixed linkage of the reabsorption of a substance to the reabsorption of Na would be a very effective way of maintaining its plasma concentration within a narrow range. The substance would be retained unless its plasma concentration exceeds a threshold value and then small increase in plasma concentration determines its excretion. (2) The rate of reabsorption of Na and substances linked to it is increased when the volume of the intraluminal fluid is increased. This would explain why there is only a small increase in the excretion of Na and other electrolytes when glomerular filtration rate is increased after a meal of meat. (3) Plasma protein concentration affects tubular reabsorption. This would explain why fall in plasma protein is a main agent determining Na excretion in normal animals. Trying to see 'how far the observed facts can be brought into accord with a theory' reveals the difficulty of applying critical tests. On the one hand, the theories are not stated quantitatively in reference to the small changes of normal life; rather the evidence is from experiments with large changes. On the other hand, the small changes within the range of normal function, while themselves statistically significant, are too small for effective investigation of circumstances which may modify them. In the examples discussed here, we cannot say more than that the theories could explain the facts and their participation cannot be excluded. PMID:6473894

  12. The Normalized Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Kathleen H.

    1997-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the normalized child, the ultimate goal of Montessori education. First outlines children's basic needs, then describes traits of the normalized child, including love of order, work, silence and working alone; mutual aid and cooperation; profound spontaneous concentration; obedience; independence and initiative;…

  13. Simultaneous determination of three alkaloids, four ginsenosides and limonin in the plasma of normal and headache rats after oral administration of Wu-Zhu-Yu decoction by a novel ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method: application to a comparative pharmacokinetics and ethological study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huarong; Li, Qing; Yin, Yidi; Lv, Chunxiao; Sun, Wanyang; He, Bosai; Liu, Ran; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2013-04-01

    A novel, sensitive and reliable ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of eight main active ingredients (evodiamine, rutaecarpine, dehydroevodiamine, limonin, ginsenoside Rb1, Rd, Re and Rg1) in rat plasma after oral administration of Wu-Zhu-Yu (WZY) decoction, which is a celebrated and widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine formula for the treatment of headache. The analytes and internal standard (IS) were separated on a SHIM-PACK XR-ODS II column, and the detection was performed on a UFLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source. The lower limits of quantification were 1.5, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 and 0.2 ng ml(-1) for evodiamine, rutaecarpine, dehydroevodiamine, limonin, gensenoside Rb1, Rd, Re and Rg1, respectively. Linearity, accuracy, precision and absolute recoveries of the eight analytes were all within satisfaction. The IS-normalized matrix factor was adopted for assessing the matrix effect and accompanied with a satisfactory result. The validated method has been successfully applied to compare pharmacokinetic profiles of the eight active ingredients in rat plasma between normal and headache rats after administration. Exact pharmaceutical effect of WZY decoction on headache was demonstrated by the ethological response of headache rats induced by nitric oxide donor after administration. The results indicated that the absorption of evodiamine, rutaecarpine, gensenoside Rb1, Re and Rg1 in headache group were significantly higher than those in normal group with similar concentration-time curves while no significant differences existed in limonin and ginsenoside Rd between the two groups. PMID:23584945

  14. Pelvic Normal Tissue Contouring Guidelines for Radiation Therapy: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, Hiram A.; Barthold, H. Joseph; O'Meara, Elizabeth; Bosch, Walter R.; El Naqa, Issam; Al-Lozi, Rawan; Rosenthal, Seth A.; Lawton, Colleen; Lee, W. Robert; Sandler, Howard; Zietman, Anthony; Myerson, Robert; Dawson, Laura A.; Willett, Christopher; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Jhingran, Anuja; Portelance, Lorraine; Ryu, Janice; and others

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To define a male and female pelvic normal tissue contouring atlas for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials. Methods and Materials: One male pelvis computed tomography (CT) data set and one female pelvis CT data set were shared via the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center. A total of 16 radiation oncologists participated. The following organs at risk were contoured in both CT sets: anus, anorectum, rectum (gastrointestinal and genitourinary definitions), bowel NOS (not otherwise specified), small bowel, large bowel, and proximal femurs. The following were contoured in the male set only: bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, and penile bulb. The following were contoured in the female set only: uterus, cervix, and ovaries. A computer program used the binomial distribution to generate 95% group consensus contours. These contours and definitions were then reviewed by the group and modified. Results: The panel achieved consensus definitions for pelvic normal tissue contouring in RTOG trials with these standardized names: Rectum, AnoRectum, SmallBowel, Colon, BowelBag, Bladder, UteroCervix, Adnexa{sub R}, Adnexa{sub L}, Prostate, SeminalVesc, PenileBulb, Femur{sub R}, and Femur{sub L}. Two additional normal structures whose purpose is to serve as targets in anal and rectal cancer were defined: AnoRectumSig and Mesorectum. Detailed target volume contouring guidelines and images are discussed. Conclusions: Consensus guidelines for pelvic normal tissue contouring were reached and are available as a CT image atlas on the RTOG Web site. This will allow uniformity in defining normal tissues for clinical trials delivering pelvic radiation and will facilitate future normal tissue complication research.

  15. SEMINAL PROTEINS BUT NOT SPERM INDUCE MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT DURING SPERM STORAGE

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Erika M.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2007-01-01

    In most insects, sperm transferred by the male to the female during mating are stored within the female reproductive tract for subsequent use in fertilization. In Drosophila melanogaster, male accessory gland proteins (Acps) within the seminal fluid are required for efficient transfer and subsequent accumulation of sperm in the female's sperm storage organs. To determine the events within the female reproductive tract that occur during sperm storage, and the role that Acps and sperm play in these events, we identified morphological changes that take place during sperm storage in females mated to wild-type, Acp-deficient or sperm-deficient males. A reproducible set of morphological changes occurs in a wild-type mating. These were categorized into 10 stereotypic stages. Sperm are not needed for progression through these stages in females, but receipt of Acps is essential for progression beyond the first few stages of morphological changes. Furthermore, females that received small quantities of Acps reached slightly later stages than females that received no Acps. Our results suggest that timely morphological changes in the female reproductive tract, possibly muscular in nature, may be needed for successful sperm storage, and that Acps from the male are needed in order for these changes to occur. PMID:17276455

  16. Genome-wide promoter methylation profile of human testis and epididymis: identified from cell-free seminal DNA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background DNA methylation analysis is useful for investigation of male fertility in mammals, whereas the reliance on tissues limits the research on human. We have previously found the presence of high concentration of cell-free seminal DNA (cfsDNA) in human semen. We proposed that some testis and epididymis-specific methylated promoters could be detected in human cfsDNA, and thus hold promise as noninvasive epigenetic biomarkers for male infertility, of which most cases are caused by defects in testicular sperm production or epididymal sperm maturation. Results The ejaculate of successfully vasectomized men does not contain any secretion from testis and epididymis. Here we compared genome-wide promoter methylation profiles in cfsDNA between health donors and post-vasectomy men. Promoters of 367 testis and epididymis-specific hypomethylated genes and 134 hypermethylated genes were identified. Subsequent validation by Methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation and MethyLight analysis confirmed the result of promoter microarray. Gene Ontology analysis revealed many genes involved in male reproduction. Conclusion We detected the testis and epididymis-specific methylated promoters in human cfsDNA, which may be used for noninvasive epigenetic biomarkers for the study and diagnosis of male infertility. PMID:23622456

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetic study of two boswellic acids in normal and arthritic rat plasma after oral administration of Boswellia serrata extract or Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Chenning; Wu, Yun; Ai, Yu; Lee, David Y-W; Dai, Ronghua

    2014-10-01

    Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), a Chinese herbal formula composed of 11 different herbs, has been used traditionally for the treatment of arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the pharmacokinetic profile of its anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds has not been elucidated. Boswellic acids are the bioactive compounds with potent anti-inflammatory activity isolated from Boswellia serrate which is one of the 11 herbs of HLXLD. The objective of the study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of the two bioactive bowsellic acids: 11-keto-?-boswellic acid and 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic following oral administration of HLXLD or Boswellia serrata extract alone in normal and arthritic rats. An LC-MS method was developed and validated for the determination of 11-keto-?-boswellic acid and 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic in the comparative pharmacokinetic study. The results showed that there were significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between normal and arthritic groups. Interestingly, the absorptions of two boswellic acids were significantly higher in HLXLD than Boswellia serrata extract alone, indicating the synergistic effect of other herbal ingredients in HLXLD. This comparative pharmacokinetic study provided direct evidence supporting the notion that the efficacy of a complex mixture such as HLXLD is better than that of single components in treating human diseases. PMID:24806456

  18. Seminal Levels of Pro-inflammatory (CXCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10) and Homeostatic (CXCL12) Chemokines in Men With Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hakimi, Hamid; Zainodini, Nahid; Khorramdelazad, Hossein; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chemokines play important roles in immune system activation against microbial infections. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate seminal levels of CXC chemokines CXCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL12 in Chlamydia trachomatis infected patients. Materials and Methods: The C. trachomatis infection was determined employing Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based methods. Seminal concentrations of CXCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL12 were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: The current study results demonstrated that the semen levels of CXCL1 and CXCL9, but not CXCL10 and CXCL12, significantly increased in C. trachomatis infected patients compared to the healthy controls. Conclusions: Based on the current study results, it may be concluded that both CXCL1 and CXCL9 play more important roles than CXCL10 and CXCL12 in induction of immune responses against C. trachomatis and could possibly be considered as future targets for immunotherapy of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:25741424

  19. Normality in analytical psychology.

    PubMed

    Myers, Steve

    2013-12-01

    Although C.G. Jung's interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault's criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung's work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault's own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung's disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  20. Normal Functioning Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Turn ... simple answer, since there can be such broad definitions of the term normal. Still, there are several ...

  1. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stewart Apololipoprotein-E4 & Cognitive Function in Retired Boxers 1993 David A. Harris Processing and Trafficking of Normal and Mutant Mammalian Prion Proteins 1993 Karen Ashe Aging and Neurodegeneration in Familial Prion ...

  2. Dynamic bivariate normal copula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xin; Peng, Liang; Peng, ZuoXiang; Zheng, YanTing

    2016-05-01

    Normal copula with a correlation coefficient between $-1$ and $1$ is tail independent and so it severely underestimates extreme probabilities. By letting the correlation coefficient in a normal copula depend on the sample size, H\\"usler and Reiss (1989) showed that the tail can become asymptotically dependent. In this paper, we extend this result by deriving the limit of the normalized maximum of $n$ independent observations, where the $i$-th observation follows from a normal copula with its correlation coefficient being either a parametric or a nonparametric function of $i/n$. Furthermore, both parametric and nonparametric inference for this unknown function are studied, which can be employed to test the condition in H\\"usler and Reiss (1989). A simulation study and real data analysis are presented too.

  3. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  4. Adaptive multispectral normalization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler-Covell, Mary R.; West, Karen F.; Kiefer, Michael W.; Officer, Sarah M.; Price, Michael J.

    1996-06-01

    A multispectral normalization processing system has been developed to produce percent reflectance maps from multispectral imagery (MSI) in the .4 to 2.5 micron wavelength range. It is adaptive to multiple spatial resolutions, supporting resolutions in the .25 meter to 30 meter range. The normalization process takes advantage of known naturally occurring and man-made materials in the image to remove the effects of atmospheric haze and sensor gain contributions for each multispectral band. The output product is a percent reflectance map for each multispectral band. Although the normalization technique is well known, the MSI normalization system (MSINS) provides a simple, adaptive, robust graphical user interface for normalizing multispectral imagery from various sensor platforms. Over 130 different surface material spectra have been collected from reputable sources in literature and other spectral material libraries and installed in the MSINS Materials Spectral Information Database (MSID). The MSID has been designed to allow the addition of new material spectra into the system via a menu interface. A neural-net-based region grower has been developed to minimize user interaction and increase the robustness and repeatability of the normalization. New multispectral sensor platforms can be introduced into the system quickly via a menu interface. The current system was developed and tested using Landsat Thematic Mapper, Erim M7 Mapper, Positive Systems ADAR 5500, and ITRES casi multispectral imagery.

  5. Spun Almost Normal Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paullin, Katherine L.

    Many of a 3-manifold's properties are determined by the surfaces they contain, and this knowledge leads to the foundation of decision algorithms for 3- manifolds. Popular work influencing the work of 3-manifold algorithms has it's roots in normal surface theory. In a triangulated 3-manifold, Haken and Kneser showed that we could put any incompressible surface into normal form. Expanding on those techniques, Rubinstein and Stocking later showed we could put any strongly irreducible surface into almost normal form. Walsh has more recently shown that in an ideal triangulation of a hyperbolic manifold many surfaces can be spun normalized. One unsolved problem in 3-manifold algorithms is studying the complexity of Lens Space Recognition. Spun almost normalization appears to be a part of solving this larger problem. In this dissertation, I will first discuss a nontraditional technique using graphs of equivalence classes of compressing disks that allows us to take a combinatorial approach to generalize the result of Walsh's to nonhyperbolic manifolds. Using that method, I'll also explore the conditions needed to show that a surface can be spun almost normalized.

  6. Melatonin administration induced reactivation in the seminal gland of the soay rams during non-breeding season: An ultrastructural and morphometrical study.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Doaa M; Abd-Elhafeez, Hanan H; Abou-Elmagd, Ahmed; Hassan, Ahmed H S

    2016-02-01

    Fifteen adult Soay rams were used in this experiment. Eight animals were given subcutaneous implants containing melatonin, while the other seven animals were used as control. After 11 weeks, the rams were killed and the seminal vesicles were examined by light and electron microscope. In contrast to the control grouped animals, the melatonin treated rams showed morphological, morphometrical, and ultrastructural changes as a result of reactivation of the glandular tissues of the seminal glands. The ratio of interstitial connective tissues to glandular tissues was reduced in the treated group. Melatonin induced an evident significant increase in number and height of principal cells that showed signs of increased secretory activity; apical cytoplasmic protrusions became well developed and covering the inner surface of the glandular end-pieces, also, the basal cells were significantly increased in number. The main cytological alteration in the principal cells of the seminal vesicles in treated animals was prominent increase in the concentrically arranged membranes of sER, secretory vacuoles and glycogen granules and appearance of numerous lysosomes and multivesicular bodies. Interstitial Cajal- like cells were significantly increased in number and formed a network around the epithelium and between smooth muscle cells in the treated group. The main components of these cells were mitochondria, rER, sER, and many caveolae. The cytological alterations were accompanied by subepithelial and intraepithelial nonmyelinated nerve terminals in the treated animals. The results support the view that melatonin activates and increases the secretory activity of seminal gland in sheep. J. Morphol. 277:231-243, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26611365

  7. Plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, W.; Hu, G.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.

  8. Ethics and "normal birth".

    PubMed

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "normal birth" has been promoted as ideal by several international organizations, although debate about its meaning is ongoing. In this article, I examine the concept of normalcy to explore its ethical implications and raise a trio of concerns. First, in its emphasis on nonuse of technology as a goal, the concept of normalcy may marginalize women for whom medical intervention is necessary or beneficial. Second, in its emphasis on birth as a socially meaningful event, the mantra of normalcy may unintentionally avert attention to meaning in medically complicated births. Third, the emphasis on birth as a normal and healthy event may be a contributor to the long-standing tolerance for the dearth of evidence guiding the treatment of illness during pregnancy and the failure to responsibly and productively engage pregnant women in health research. Given these concerns, it is worth debating not just what "normal birth" means, but whether the term as an ideal earns its keep. PMID:23281952

  9. PLASMA GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Foster, J.S. Jr.

    1958-03-11

    This patent describes apparatus for producing an electricity neutral ionized gas discharge, termed a plasma, substantially free from contamination with neutral gas particles. The plasma generator of the present invention comprises a plasma chamber wherein gas introduced into the chamber is ionized by a radiofrequency source. A magnetic field is used to focus the plasma in line with an exit. This magnetic field cooperates with a differential pressure created across the exit to draw a uniform and uncontaminated plasma from the plasma chamber.

  10. Dosimetric implications of residual seminal vesicle motion in fiducial-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stenmark, Matthew H.; Vineberg, Karen; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Feng, Mary

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether residual interfraction seminal vesicle (SV) displacement necessitates specific planning target volume (PTV) margins during fiducial-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate. A planning computed tomography (CT) scan and 2 subsequent CT scans were prospectively obtained for 20 prostate cancer patients with intraprostatic fiducial markers. After CT registration, SV displacement relative to the prostate was quantified as a function of margin size for both the proximal (1 cm) SV (PSV) and the full SV (FSV). Two IMRT plans were simulated for each patient (prostate + PSV and prostate + FSV) both with a uniform 5-mm PTV margin. Minimum clinical target volume (CTV) dose (D{sub min}) and the volume of SV receiving 95% of the prescription dose (V{sub 95%}) were assessed during treatment and compared with the initial plan. In all cases, SV displacement with respect to the prostate was greater for the FSV compared with the PSV. To ensure at least 95% geometrical coverage of the CTV for 90% of patients, margins of 5 and 8 mm were required for the PSV and FSV, respectively. Dosimetrically, residual SV displacement had minimal impact on PSV coverage compared with FSV coverage. For the PSV D{sub min} was {>=}95% of the prescribed dose in 90% of patients with an overall mean V{sub 95%} of 99.6 {+-} 0.8%; for the FSV D{sub min} was {>=}95% of the prescribed dose in only 45% of patients with a mean V{sub 95%} of 97.9 {+-} 2.4%. The SVs move differentially from the prostate and exhibit greater variation with increasing distance from the prostate. For plans targeting just the prostate and PSVs, 5-mm PTV expansions are adequate. However, despite daily localization of the prostate, larger PTV margins are required for cases where the intent is to completely cover the FSV.

  11. Dosimetric implications of residual seminal vesicle motion in fiducial-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Stenmark, Matthew H; Vineberg, Karen; Ten Haken, Randall K; Hamstra, Daniel A; Feng, Mary

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether residual interfraction seminal vesicle (SV) displacement necessitates specific planning target volume (PTV) margins during fiducial-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate. A planning computed tomography (CT) scan and 2 subsequent CT scans were prospectively obtained for 20 prostate cancer patients with intraprostatic fiducial markers. After CT registration, SV displacement relative to the prostate was quantified as a function of margin size for both the proximal (1 cm) SV (PSV) and the full SV (FSV). Two IMRT plans were simulated for each patient (prostate + PSV and prostate + FSV) both with a uniform 5-mm PTV margin. Minimum clinical target volume (CTV) dose (D(min)) and the volume of SV receiving 95% of the prescription dose (V(95%)) were assessed during treatment and compared with the initial plan. In all cases, SV displacement with respect to the prostate was greater for the FSV compared with the PSV. To ensure at least 95% geometrical coverage of the CTV for 90% of patients, margins of 5 and 8 mm were required for the PSV and FSV, respectively. Dosimetrically, residual SV displacement had minimal impact on PSV coverage compared with FSV coverage. For the PSV D(min) was ≥95% of the prescribed dose in 90% of patients with an overall mean V(95%) of 99.6 ± 0.8%; for the FSV D(min) was ≥95% of the prescribed dose in only 45% of patients with a mean V(95%) of 97.9 ± 2.4%. The SVs move differentially from the prostate and exhibit greater variation with increasing distance from the prostate. For plans targeting just the prostate and PSVs, 5-mm PTV expansions are adequate. However, despite daily localization of the prostate, larger PTV margins are required for cases where the intent is to completely cover the FSV. PMID:22189029

  12. Microwave interactions with plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstrom, D. J.; Vidmar, R. J.; Stalder, K. R.

    1992-04-01

    Microwave interactions with a cold, collisional plasma having gradual density gradients were studied. The plasma was created by the photoionization of tetrakisdimethylaminoethylene (TMAE) vapor seeded into atmospheric pressure helium. Photoionization was provided primarily by sparkboard Spatial scans of the absorption of a microwave probe beam along chords across the plasma, with subsequent Abel inversion. Three-dimensional plasma density profiles were obtained that showed a gradual decrease in the peak plasma density versus distance away from the sparkboard. When a 58cm-diameter reflector was illuminated with 10-GHz microwaves in an anechoic chamber, the plasma sorbed as much as 28 dB in direct reflection, with similar attenuation of the normally weak side-scattered and cross-polarized radiation. The attenuation was compared with model predictions. Detailed analysis of the temporal and spatial dependence of the electron density following ionization indicated that both recombination and attachment processes influenced the plasma decay. The recombination rate of TMAE was found to be (9.0 +/- 1.1) x 10(exp -6) cm3 s(exp -1) for 300 K electrons. This work confirms the effectiveness of a cold, collisional plasma as a broadband, switchable wave absorber.

  13. Immunology of normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Aagaard-Tillery, Kjersti M; Silver, Robert; Dalton, Jess

    2006-10-01

    Since Medawar's initial contemplations in 1953 on the mechanisms of immune evasion allowing for the survival of the allogeneic conceptus in an immunologically competent mother, physicians and immunologists alike have struggled to understand the immunological paradox of pregnancy. Ultimately, our attempts to define the immunology of normal pregnancy have broadened our appreciation of the myriad mechanisms at play that enable the promotion of implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. In this review, we summarise what is known regarding the immunology of normal pregnancy, with special emphasis on the relation to common disorders of pregnancy. PMID:16784908

  14. Electronegative Plasma Instabilities in Pulsed Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribyl, Patrick; Gekelman, Walter

    2015-09-01

    Modern inductively coupled plasma reactors can all be operated in unstable configurations, although in many cases normal precautions result in quiescent stable operation. However, electronegative gases that are important for etch processes have a series of instabilities that occur at process relevant conditions. These have been studied since the 1990s, but are becoming a much more important today as plasma reactors are being pushed to produce ever finer features, and tight control of the etch process is becoming crucial. A device at UCLA was designed to simulate industrial reactors used in semiconductor processing. Various gas mixtures are programmable (Ar, SF6, O2). ICP coils in different configurations are driven by pulsed RF generators operating separately from 400 kHz to 40 MHz. A stainless steel ``chuck'' assembly can be positioned at a variable height, either with a wafer and RF bias, or with direct DC bias to directly program sheath voltage. A computer controlled automated probe drive can access the entire volume above the substrate. The probe can be a Langmuir probe, a ``Bdot'' probe, or an emissive probe the latter used for more accurate determination of plasma potential. A microwave interferometer is available to measure line-averaged electron density. Optical emission can be diagnosed using a half or 1 meter spectrometer. We describe work with electronegative gases to characterize and potentially stabilize the plasma against ionization instabilities using pulsed plasmas. Work supported by NSF and done at the Basic Plasma Science Facility.

  15. Normal Birth: Two Stories

    PubMed Central

    Scaer, Roberta M.

    2002-01-01

    The author shares two stories: one of a normal birth that took place in a hospital with a nurse-midwife in attendance and another of a home birth unexpectedly shared by many colleagues. Both are told with the goal to inform, inspire, and educate. PMID:17273292

  16. Normal Psychosexual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    1971-01-01

    Normal sexual development is reviewed with respect to physical maturation, sexual interests, sex drive", psychosexual competence and maturity, gender role, object choice, children's concepts of sexual differences, sex role preference and standards, and psychosexual stages. Biologic, psychoanalytic and psychosocial theories are briefly considered.…

  17. Normals to a Parabola

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Given a parabola in the standard form y[superscript 2] = 4ax, corresponding to three points on the parabola, such that the normals at these three points P, Q, R concur at a point M = (h, k), the equation of the circumscribing circle through the three points P, Q, and R provides a tremendous opportunity to illustrate "The Art of Algebraic…

  18. Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, M.; Kong, M. G.; Morfill, G.; Stolz, W.

    2012-05-01

    Foreword R. Satava and R. J. Barker; Part I. Introduction to Non-equilibrium Plasma, Cell Biology, and Contamination: 1. Introduction M. Laroussi; 2. Fundamentals of non-equilibrium plasmas M. Kushner and M. Kong; 3. Non-equilibrium plasma sources M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 4. Basic cell biology L. Greene and G. Shama; 5. Contamination G. Shama and B. Ahlfeld; Part II. Plasma Biology and Plasma Medicine: 6. Common healthcare challenges G. Isbary and W. Stolz; 7. Plasma decontamination of surfaces M. Kong and M. Laroussi; 8. Plasma decontamination of gases and liquids A. Fridman; 9. Plasma-cell interaction: prokaryotes M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 10. Plasma-cell interaction: eukaryotes G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 11. Plasma based wound healing G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 12. Plasma ablation, surgery, and dental applications K. Stalder, J. Woloszko, S. Kalghatgi, G. McCombs, M. Darby and M. Laroussi; Index.

  19. Wrong but seminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeman, Jeffrey I.; Cantrill, Stuart

    2016-03-01

    Publishing the wrong interpretation of experimental data can result in an immediate horde of chemists feeding on the error like vultures. On rare occasions, this phenomenon can open up an entire new field of science -- and the structure of ferrocene is a case in point.

  20. Normal and Malignant Megakaryopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Qiang; Goldenson, Benjamin; Crispino, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Megakaryopoiesis is the process by which bone marrow progenitor cells develop into mature megakaryocytes (MKs), which in turn produce platelets required for normal hemostasis. Over the past decade, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to MK development and differentiation have begun to be elucidated. In this review, we provide an overview of megakaryopoiesis and summarize the latest developments in this field. Specially, we focus on polyploidization, a unique form of the cell cycle that allows MKs to increase their DNA content, and the genes that regulate this process. In addition, since megakaryocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL) and a subset of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), including essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF), we discuss the biology and genetics of these disorders. We anticipate that an increased understanding of normal megakaryocyte differentiation will provide new insights into novel therapeutic approaches that will directly benefit patients. PMID:22018018

  1. Normal-reflection image

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.; Fehler, Michael C.

    2003-01-01

    Common-angle wave-equation migration using the double-square-root is generally less accurate than the common-shot migration because the wavefield continuation equation for thc former involves additional approximations compared to that for the latter. We present a common-angle wave-equation migration that has the same accuracy as common-shot wave-equation migration. An image obtained from common-angle migration is a four- to five-dimensional output volume for 3D cases. We propose a normal-reflection imaging condition for common-angle migration to produce a 3D output volume for 3D migration. The image is closely related to the normal-reflection coefficients at interfaces. This imaging condition will allow amplitude-preserving migration to generate an image with clear physical meaning.

  2. Giving birth normally.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In March 1996, the World Health Organization convened a Technical Working Group (TWG) to define the parameters of a "normal" birth, including the interventions which have become routine in various parts of the world. The TWG defined a normal birth as one in which labor is spontaneous and low-risk at 37-42 completed weeks of pregnancy with the infant in the vertex position. It is expected that 70-80% of all births are normal in this sense and that delivery care should only include those interventions which are necessary. This paper summarizes the report of the TWG beginning with a discussion of what constitutes a normal birth, the responsibilities of the health care worker, and the midwife as the most appropriate birth attendant. General care during labor is then described with attention paid to routine procedures, provision of food and drink to women in labor, place of birth, company and privacy, pain relief, fetal monitoring, and hygiene. The third section of the paper follows the progress of labor by describing its first stage; ways to identify onset of its second stage, which includes delivery; and its third stage during which the placenta separates. Emphasis is placed on the danger of administering intramuscular oxytocin before the birth and on the fact that routine use of an episiotomy may provide no benefit and may, in fact, be harmful. The paper ends by considering the care which should be given to the mother and newborn after the birth. It is also noted that the TWG report classifies common childbirth practices as 1) demonstrably useful, 2) clearly harmful or ineffective, 3) to be used with caution, and 4) often used inappropriately. PMID:12347547

  3. Advancing Normal Birth

    PubMed Central

    Lothian, Judith

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this column, the associate editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education provides an overview of research on the benefits of promoting and protecting the normal, physiologic processes of childbirth and the risks of interfering with those processes without clear medical indication. The associate editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote, support, and protect natural, safe, and healthy birth.

  4. Neuroethics beyond Normal.

    PubMed

    Shook, John R; Giordano, James

    2016-01-01

    An integrated and principled neuroethics offers ethical guidelines able to transcend conventional and medical reliance on normality standards. Elsewhere we have proposed four principles for wise guidance on human transformations. Principles like these are already urgently needed, as bio- and cyberenhancements are rapidly emerging. Context matters. Neither "treatments" nor "enhancements" are objectively identifiable apart from performance expectations, social contexts, and civic orders. Lessons learned from disability studies about enablement and inclusion suggest a fresh way to categorize modifications to the body and its performance. The term "enhancement" should be broken apart to permit recognition of enablements and augmentations, and kinds of radical augmentation for specialized performance. Augmentations affecting the self, self-worth, and self-identity of persons require heightened ethical scrutiny. Reversibility becomes the core problem, not the easy answer, as augmented persons may not cooperate with either decommissioning or displacement into unaccommodating societies. We conclude by indicating how our four principles of self-creativity, nonobsolescence, empowerment, and citizenship establish a neuroethics beyond normal that is better prepared for a future in which humans and their societies are going so far beyond normal. PMID:26788953

  5. Normalization of chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipsen, R. H. H. M.; Maduskar, P.; Hogeweg, L.; van Ginneken, B.

    2013-02-01

    The clinical use of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems is increasing. A possible limitation of CAD systems is that they are typically trained on data from a small number of sources and as a result, they may not perform optimally on data from different sources. In particular for chest radiographs, it is known that acquisition settings, detector technology, proprietary post-processing and, in the case of analog images, digitization, can all influence the appearance and statistical properties of the image. In this work we investigate if a simple energy normalization procedure is sufficient to increase the robustness of CAD in chest radiography. We evaluate the performance of a supervised lung segmentation algorithm, trained with data from one type of machine, on twenty images each from five different sources. The results, expressed in terms of Jaccard index, increase from 0.530 +/- 0.290 to 0.914 +/- 0.041 when energy normalization is omitted or applied, respectively. We conclude that energy normalization is an effective way to make the performance of lung segmentation satisfactory on data from different sources.

  6. Effects of atipamezole and medetomidine administration on seminal variables and functions of erection and ejaculation of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) after electroejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alpha adrenergic drugs are usually used in the treatment of erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction in humans. The influence of such drugs on the seminal characteristics of wild animals has not been verified; whereas their impact on the seminal characteristics and erectile and ejaculatory functions of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) has already been determined. This study aimed at investigating and comparing the effects of medetomidine and atipamezole on the seminal variables of collared peccaries undergoing electroejaculation as well as at determining whether these drugs affected the erectile and ejaculatory functions of this species. Results A statistically significant difference in sperm concentration was observed between AP (100.0 ± 26.0 × 106 sperm/ml) and MP (220.2 ± 49.8 × 106 sperm/ml); however, both these treatments did not differ from P treatment (180.0 ± 50.7 × 106 sperm/ml). No statistically significant difference was observed among all treatments with regard to erectile function. With regard to ejaculation time, no significant difference was observed between the MP and AP treatments; however, when compared with the P treatment, AP exhibited a significantly higher difference. Conclusions When collared peccaries were anesthetized with propofol, neither medetomidine nor atipamezole significantly affected the characteristics of the semen or the erectile function, despite the fact that the AP treatment increased ejaculation time. Therefore, the data indicate that using propofol alone is an effective anesthetic protocol for collecting semen in collared peccaries. Other non-injectable anesthetic drugs, such as inhaled anesthetics, may be used in future research to collect semen from peccaries. PMID:25103781

  7. Low-level laser therapy to recovery testicular degeneration in rams: effects on seminal characteristics, scrotal temperature, plasma testosterone concentration, and testes histopathology.

    PubMed

    Alves, Maíra Bianchi Rodrigues; de Arruda, Rubens Paes; Batissaco, Leonardo; Florez-Rodriguez, Shirley Andrea; de Oliveira, Bruna Marcele Martins; Torres, Mariana Andrade; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Lançoni, Renata; de Almeida, Tamie Guibu; Storillo, Vanessa Martins; Vellone, Vinicius Silva; Franci, Celso Rodrigues; Thomé, Helder Esteves; Canella, Carolina Luz; De Andrade, André Furugen Cesar; Celeghini, Eneiva Carla Carvalho

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) to recovery testicular degeneration in rams. In the first study, rams were induced to testicular degeneration by scrotal insulation, and then, they were treated using LLLT at 28 J/cm(2) (INS28) or 56 J/cm(2) (INS56) energy densities. Sperm kinetics, morphology, and membranes integrity as well as proportion of lumen area in seminiferous tubule were assessed. In the second study, rams were submitted or not to scrotal insulation and treated or not by the best protocol of LLLT defined by experiment 1 (INS28). In this study were evaluated sperm kinetics, morphology, membranes integrity, ROS production, and DNA integrity. Testosterone serum concentration and proportion of lumen area in seminiferous tubule were also analyzed. Insulation was effective in promoting sperm injuries in both experiments. Biostimulatory effect was observed in experiment 1: INS28 presented smaller proportion of lumen area (P = 0.0001) and less degeneration degree (P = 0.0002). However, in experiment 2, there was no difference between the groups (P = 0.17). In addition, LLLT did not improve sperm quality, and there was a decreasing for total and progressive motility (P = 0.02) and integrity of sperm membranes (P = 0.01) in LLLT-treated groups. Moreover, testosterone concentration was not improved by LLLT (P = 0.37). Stimulation of aerobic phosphorylation by LLLT may have led to a deregulated increase in ROS leading to sperm damages. Thus, LLLT at energy of 28 J/cm(2) (808 nm of wavelength and 30 mW of power output) can induce sperm damages and increase the quantity of cells in seminiferous tubule in rams. PMID:26914685

  8. Investigation of the structure of anti-human seminal plasma protein single-chain antibody and its association with linker peptide length

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, XIN; ZHAI, JUN; SONG, DONGKUI; QU, QINGSHAN; LI, MING; XING, LI; MIAO, SHUZHAI

    2015-01-01

    To enhance the activity of seminoprotein single-chain variable fragment (γ-Sm-ScFv) antibodies, modulation of the length of the linker peptide, which connects the variable region of the heavy chain (VH) and the light chain (VL) of single-chain antibodies, was performed in the present study. Homologous modeling of single VH and VL were performed, respectively. Subsequently, modeling of the whole ScFv sequence, which was previously modified with added linkers of different lengths was also performed, and the (Gly4Ser)n peptide chain structure was used as the linker. The similarities between VH and VL prior to and following the addition of the linker were compared by applying the algorithm of protein similarity, based on spherical coordinates layering. In addition, changes in the fore and aft distance, and diffusion radius were calculated using a MATLAB tool, based on which changes in structural stability were analyzed. Finally, the single-chain antibody was assessed in a nude mouse model. When n=3 or n=6, the similarity between the original distance and VH and VL were the highest, and the fore and aft distance and diffusion radius were relatively close. In addition, the nude mouse model indicated that, when n=3 or n=6, the inhibitory rate of the single-chain antibody against tumor cells was significantly higher, compared with the other linker peptides of different lengths. The effect of structural changes of the linker peptides in the single-chain antibodies on the whole antibody molecule was examined at different levels using a combination of mathematical modeling, bioinformatics methods and biological experiments. The findings of the present study may provide a foundation for further investigation into the preparation of single-chain antibodies. PMID:26099852

  9. Investigation of the structure of anti-human seminal plasma protein single-chain antibody and its association with linker peptide length.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xin; Zhai, Jun; Song, Dongkui; Qu, Qingshan; Li, Ming; Xing, Li; Miao, Shuzhai

    2015-09-01

    To enhance the activity of seminoprotein single‑chain variable fragment (γ‑Sm‑ScFv) antibodies, modulation of the length of the linker peptide, which connects the variable region of the heavy chain (VH) and the light chain (VL) of single‑chain antibodies, was performed in the present study. Homologous modeling of single VH and VL were performed, respectively. Subsequently, modeling of the whole ScFv sequence, which was previously modified with added linkers of different lengths was also performed, and the (Gly4Ser)n peptide chain structure was used as the linker. The similarities between VH and VL prior to and following the addition of the linker were compared by applying the algorithm of protein similarity, based on spherical coordinates layering. In addition, changes in the fore and aft distance, and diffusion radius were calculated using a MATLAB tool, based on which changes in structural stability were analyzed. Finally, the single‑chain antibody was assessed in a nude mouse model. When n=3 or n=6, the similarity between the original distance and VH and VL were the highest, and the fore and aft distance and diffusion radius were relatively close. In addition, the nude mouse model indicated that, when n=3 or n=6, the inhibitory rate of the single‑chain antibody against tumor cells was significantly higher, compared with the other linker peptides of different lengths. The effect of structural changes of the linker peptides in the single‑chain antibodies on the whole antibody molecule was examined at different levels using a combination of mathematical modeling, bioinformatics methods and biological experiments. The findings of the present study may provide a foundation for further investigation into the preparation of single‑chain antibodies. PMID:26099852

  10. Serum copper, follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, spermatic count, viability, progression and seminal zinc correlations in a human (male) infertility study

    SciTech Connect

    Sella, G.E.; Cunnane, S.C.; McInnes, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    The role of copper and its correlations to other parameters has been investigated in a male-fertility pilot study at a University infertility clinic in Montreal. Serum and semen Cu concentrations were determined in 100 men (age 25 to 54 years) referred to the clinic for infertility evaluation. The results of the significant correlations between serum Cu concentrations and male fertility parameters such as (1) the serum concentrations of the hormones FSH, LH and prolactin; (2) spermatozoal count, viability and progression and (3) seminal zinc concentrations are reported.

  11. Normal black kidney

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohamadi, Aliasghar; Rezayat, Ali Reza Akhavan; Memar, Bahram; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Cand, PhD

    2014-01-01

    A black kidney has 3 major differential diagnoses: hemosiderosis, lipofuscin pigment and melanotic renal cell carcinoma. Excluding lipofuscin, the other 2 are accompanied by an abnormal renal function. We report on a 25-year-old man who intended to donate a kidney to his cousin. On the operating room table when we incised the left flank region and exposed the kidney, we found a firm and black kidney so the operation was cancelled due to potential vascular injuries. Days after the incomplete procedure, we reviewed the donor’s biochemistry and imaging to reassess his renal function, but the results showed quite normal renal function again. The result of Ham test was also negative. Two weeks later, we began the operation, removed the same left kidney and found that it was in the same conditions as it was before. We took the opportunity to send needle biopsies of the kidney for histopathologic analysis. The analysis showed a melanotic kidney without pathological changes in glomeruli and interstitium and vessels. A black kidney may result in hemosiderin, lipofuscin or melanin deposits in the kidney, which can confirm the diagnosis; however, special tests for underlying disease and renal function should be considered. Some causes of black kidney lead to abnormal function, but our patients’s kidney returned to normal. PMID:24839502

  12. Analytical model of a normal mode capacitive discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisovskiy, Valeriy; Yegorenkov, Vladimir

    2011-10-01

    This paper develops an analytical model describing onset conditions and characteristics for a normal mode of a low pressure capacitive discharge. The model assumes that conductivity current in the plasma volume and displacement current in near-electrode sheaths are equal as well as the ambipolar ion flux out of the plasma and drift ion flux with charge exchange in the sheaths (described by the collisional Child-Langmuir law). The normal current density is found to be proportional to gas pressure and rf field frequency squared, i.e., Jn ~ p ?2. Calculation results match well with registered data for a number of gases.

  13. Normal Untreated Jurkat Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. The objective of the research was to define a way to differentiate between effects due to microgravity and those due to possible stress from non-optimal spaceflight conditions. These Jurkat cells, a human acute T-cell leukemia was obtained to evaluate three types of potential experimental stressors: a) Temperature elevation; b) Serum starvation; and c) Centrifugal force. The data from previous spaceflight experiments showed that actin filaments and cell shape are significantly different for the control. These normal cells serve as the baseline for future spaceflight experiments.

  14. Pornography, normalization, and empowerment.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Martin S; Williams, Colin J; Kleiner, Sibyl; Irizarry, Yasmiyn

    2010-12-01

    Opponents and proponents of erotic representations (referred to hereafter as "pornography") have described the effects of pornography from their perspective. Little, however, has been done in the way of research to investigate these claims from the consumer's point of view. This especially has been so regarding the positive impact of such consumption on a person's sex life. Using a study group of 245 college students, we examined this question in a framework of scripting theory. We wanted to see whether viewing pornography appeared to expand sexual horizons through normalization and facilitate a willingness to explore new sexual behaviors and sexual relationships through empowerment. The data supported this viewpoint and further showed the effects to be mediated by gender and sexual preference identity. They suggested, however, that established scripts were extended rather than abandoned. We conclude with connections between our findings and the widespread viewing of pornography in contemporary society. PMID:20127507

  15. Normal State vs. Superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, David O.

    1999-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a tremendous expansion in the knowledge of the classes of materials which exhibit what is generally called ''metallic behavior'' and in the subclasses of these which exhibit superconductivity. In fact, it is not a trivial matter to define what constitutes a ''metal'', given that a number of organic compounds with structures which contain various low-dimension features, doped C{sub 60} fullerenes, a wide variety of intermetallic compounds, many ceramic oxides, and even suitably-doped liquid ammonia, are now considered to be metallic in character and even normally gaseous elements such as iodine and hydrogen have been made to become metallic at high pressures. A working definition of ''metallic behavior'' is that the electrical resistivity (or at least one element of the resistivity tensor in anisotropic materials) remains finite, or falls to zero in the case of superconductors, as the temperature approaches absolute zero. At the turn of the twentieth century the behavior of ''good metals'', such as Cu, Ag, Al, etc., began to be explained in terms of the behavior of independent, non-interacting ''free'' electrons by Drude and Lorentz, although these pioneering efforts were hampered by the necessity of using classical Boltzmann statistics. In the 1930s, the then-new quantum mechanics, and their attendant Fermic-Dirac statistics, were used with great success by Sommerfeld, Bloch, Wilson, and Brillouin to shed great illumination on what constituted semiconductors, metals, and insulators. This state of understanding was well-described in the classic work of Mott and Jones, ''The Theory of the Properties of Metals and Alloys'', originally published in 1936, is still in print, and is still well worth consulting even today for a cogent introduction to the normal-state properties of simple metals, transition metals and their alloys.

  16. Transfer and fate of seminal fluid molecules in the beetle, Diaprepes abbreviatus: implications for the reproductive biology of a pest speci