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Sample records for normal seminal plasma

  1. Seminal plasma hexosaminidase in patients with normal and abnormal spermograms

    PubMed Central

    Menendez-Helman, Renata Julia; Sanjurjo, Claudia; Miranda, Patricia Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glycosidases profusion in male reproductive fluids suggests a possible relationship with sperm function. Although Hexosaminidase (Hex) is the most active glycosidase in epididymal fluid and seminal plasma, as well as in spermatozoa, Glucosidase is considered a marker for epididymal function and azoospermia. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine Hex activity in seminal plasma from patients with normal and abnormal spermograms and analyze its correlation with seminal parameters. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, seminal plasma from azoospermic, asthenozoospermic, teratozoospermic, and normozoospermic patients was analyzed for the activity of: total Hex, HexA isoform, and glucosidase. Besides, hexosamine levels were determined, and the amount of Hex was quantified by immunoblot with a specific antibody. Correlation of Hex activity with seminal parameters was also analyzed. Results: Hex activity, like glucosidase, was significantly reduced in azoospermic samples (44, 49, and 60% reduction for total Hex, HexA and glucosidase, respectively). A reduced amount of Hex in azoospermic samples was confirmed by western immunoblot. Hex activity was negatively correlated with round cells in azoospermic samples and positively correlated with motility in asthenozoospermic ones. Conclusion: The results suggested that Hex activity was reduced in azoospermic samples and this was due to a lower amount of enzyme. The correlation to seminal parameters related to particular pathologies suggests a possible relationship of Hex with fertilizing capacity. PMID:26568758

  2. Seminal plasma androgen-binding protein activity in turkeys with normal white or abnormal yellow semen.

    PubMed

    Hess, R A; Birrenkott, G P; Thurston, R J

    1984-07-01

    Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) binding activity of normal white and abnormal yellow turkey semen was quantitated by disc-gel electrophoresis in the presence of [3H]DHT. White seminal plasma had three peaks of activity (Rf = 0.3, 0.5 and 0.8). Yellow seminal plasma had a greater protein concentration and [3H]DHT binding activity averaging 32.5 +/- 7.93 pmol DHT/ml compared with 1.45 +/- 0.3 pmol DHT/ml for white seminal plasma. The majority of [3H]DHT binding was localized at Rf = 0.5 for the yellow seminal plasma. When labelled samples were separated by electrophoresis on unlabelled gels, the only peak of activity was at Rf = 0.5. Blood serum contained 3 peaks of activity (Rf = 0.4, 0.5, and 0.8). We conclude that a seminal plasma androgen-binding protein is present in the domestic turkey, and in males with yellow semen syndrome androgen-binding activity is increased. PMID:6540307

  3. Protein, cholesterol, acid phosphatase and aspartate aminotransaminase in the seminal plasma of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) producing normal white or abnormal yellow semen.

    PubMed

    Hess, R A; Thurston, R J

    1984-09-01

    Turkeys which produce yellow semen have abnormal ductuli efferentes' epithelial morphology, with blebbing of cytoplasmic material into the ductal lumen. This could possibly increase the activity or concentration of seminal plasma components. In the present study, seminal plasma from 270 Large White breeder turkeys was evaluated for protein and cholesterol concentrations and the activities of acid phosphatase and asparate aminotransaminase. In a separate experiment, protein concentrations of turkey seminal plasma were estimated by biuret or Bradford methods. Bradford estimates were 46.6% less than those obtained with the biuret assay, using bovine serum albumin as the standard. Estimates of seminal plasma protein concentration in the main study were obtained using the Bradford method, and should be adjusted accordingly when compared with other studies using the biuret technique. Abnormal yellow seminal plasma, compared to normal white seminal plasma, had elevated levels of total protein and cholesterol and increased activities of acid phosphatase and aspartate aminotransaminase. Overall means were: 14.3 mg/ml, 38.9 mg/dl, 232.6 IU/ml, 81.0 IU/ml, respectively. Correlation coefficients for cholesterol concentration, acid phosphatase and aminotransaminase activity with protein concentration were +0.65, 0.70 and 0.50 (P less than 0.0001), respectively. Specific activities of both enzymes showed a significant reduction as seminal plasma protein increased, indicating a disproportionate increase in proteins other than these enzymes in yellow seminal plasma. PMID:6478012

  4. Seminal plasma proteins and their relationship with percentage of morphologically normal sperm in 2-year-old Brahman (Bos indicus) bulls.

    PubMed

    Boe-Hansen, G B; Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Burns, B M; McGowan, M R

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to determine the relationship between seminal plasma proteins and sperm morphology in Bos indicus bulls of the Brahman breed. Fifty-six 24-month-old Australian Brahman bulls were electroejaculated and samples were examined to determine the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (PNS24) and the seminal plasma protein composition was identified and quantified by 2-D gel electrophoresis. The total integrated optical density of 152 seminal plasma protein spots (SPPs) across all gels was determined using the PDQuest software version 8.0 (Bio Rad, USA). Using a single regression mixed model with the density of individual spots as a covariate for PNS24, 17 SPPs were significantly associated with PNS24 (p<0.05). A multiple regression analyses of these SPPs, using three models; non-parametric Tree Model, Generalized Additive Model, and a step-wise selection method were conducted, and 6 SPPs could be used to predict PNS24; four SPPs had positive and two had negative association with PNS24. Together these spots explained 35% of the phenotypic variation in PNS24. Using mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF and TripleToF-MS) the SPPs with positive relationship contained mainly apolipoprotein A-I (1310), protein DJ-1 and glutathione peroxidase 3 (2308), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (6402) and apolipoprotein A-I and secretoglobin family 1D member (8008). The SPPs inversely associated with PNS24 were clusterin/seminal plasma protein A3 (1411) and epididymal secretory protein E1 (8108). This is the first comprehensive report on the association between seminal plasma protein composition in Bos indicus Brahman bulls and sperm morphology. PMID:26417650

  5. Analysis and differentiation of seminal plasma via polarized SERS spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiwen; Huang, Zufang; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Jinhua; Wang, Lan; Lu, Peng; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong

    2012-01-01

    Polarized surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy was applied for obtaining biochemical information about the seminal plasma. The effect of different laser polarizations (nonpolarized, linear-polarized, right-handed circularly polarized, and left-handed circularly polarized) on seminal plasma SERS spectroscopy was explored for the first time. The diagnostic performance in differentiating abnormal seminal plasma (n = 37) from normal seminal plasma (n = 24) was evaluated. A combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was employed to develop diagnostic algorithms. Classification results of different laser polarizations demonstrated different diagnostic sensitivities and specificities, among which, left-handed circularly polarized laser excitation showed the best diagnostic result (95.8% sensitivity and 64.9% specificity). Our exploratory study demonstrated that SERS spectroscopy with left-handed circularly polarized laser excitation has the potential for becoming a new diagnostic method in semen-quality assessment. PMID:23269870

  6. Seminal plasma induces the expression of IL-1? in normal and neoplastic cervical cells via EP2/EGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is a chronic inflammatory disease of multifactorial etiology usually presenting in sexually active women. Exposure of neoplastic cervical epithelial cells to seminal plasma (SP) has been shown to promote the growth of cancer cells in vitro and tumors in vivo by inducing the expression of inflammatory mediators including pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-1? is a pleotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine induced in several human cancers and has been associated with virulent tumor phenotype and poorer prognosis. Here we investigated the expression of IL-1? in cervical cancer, the role of SP in the regulation of IL-1? in neoplastic cervical epithelial cells and the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation. Methods and results Real-time quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the elevated expression of IL-1? mRNA in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma tissue explants, compared with normal cervix. Using immunohistochemistry, IL-1? was localized to the neoplastically transformed squamous, columnar and glandular epithelium in all cases of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinomas explants studied. We found that SP induced the expression of IL-? in both normal and neoplastic cervical tissue explants. Employing HeLa (adenocarcinoma) cell line as a model system we identified PGE2 and EGF as possible ligands responsible for SP-mediated induction of IL-1? in these neoplastic cells. In addition, we showed that SP activates EP2/EGFR/PI3kinase-Akt signaling to induce IL-1? mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in normal cervical tissue explants the induction of IL-1? by SP is via the activation of EP2/EGFR/PI3 kinase-Akt signaling. Conclusion SP-mediated induction of IL-1? in normal and neoplastic cervical epithelial cells suggests that SP may promote cervical inflammation as well as progression of cervical cancer in sexually active women. PMID:25237386

  7. Human Seminal Plasma Proteome Study: A Search for Male Infertility Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Davalieva, K; Kiprijanovska, S; Noveski, P; Plaseski, T; Kocevska, B; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2012-01-01

    Seminal plasma is a potential source of biomarkers for many disorders of the male reproductive system including male infertility. Knowledge of the peptide and protein components of seminal fluid is accumulating especially with the appearance of high-throughput MS-based techniques. Of special interest in the field of male infertility biomarkers, is the identification and characterization of differentially expressed proteins in seminal plasma of men with normal and impaired spermatogenesis. However, the data obtained until now is still quite heterogeneous and with small percentage of overlap between independent studies. Extensive comparative analysis of seminal plasma proteome is still needed in order to establish a potential link between seminal plasma proteins and male infertility. PMID:24052741

  8. Elevated seminal plasma protein: a characteristic of Yellow turkey semen.

    PubMed

    Thurston, R J; Hess, R A; Froman, D P; Biellier, H V

    1982-09-01

    Semen volume, seminal plasma color, protein concentration, and subfractions from 8 white semen (WS) and 8 yellow semen (YS) Large White turkeys were measured for 15 weeks. Average volume was .29 +/- .01 ml for WS and .32 +/- .02 ml for YS males. Plasma from WS was white and averaged 1.84 +/- .07 g/100 ml protein, whereas YS seminal plasma was yellow with 7.03 +/- .5 g/100 ml protein. Protein subfractions in WS and YS seminal plasma were qualitatively similar and consisted of prealbumin, albumin, alpha-1 and -2, beta-1, -2, and -3, and postbeta (gamma). The alpha proteins were more frequently seen in YS seminal plasma. The elevated protein of YS seminal plasma was due to an increased concentration of all proteins, with the possible exception of beta-3, with albumin contributing the most. Except for prealbumin and beta-3, the seminal proteins had the same electrophoretic mobility as counterpart blood proteins. Blood and seminal plasma protein concentrations were poorly correlated (+ .039; P less than or equal to .75). Blood protein concentrations from 68 toms ranged from 3.3 to 5.7 g/100 ml and averaged 4.2 g/100 ml; seminal plasma protein concentrations ranged from .93 to 12.8 g/100 ml. Nineteen percent of the males had YS with seminal plasma protein greater than 4.0 g/100 ml. The high correlation between intensity of the yellow color in YS seminal plasma and protein concentration (+ .76; P less than or equal to .01) indicates that semen quality of turkey breeders could be improved by selection on the basis of low seminal plasma protein concentration. PMID:7134145

  9. Glycoprotein fucosylation is increased in seminal plasma of subfertile men

    PubMed Central

    Olejnik, Beata; Kratz, Ewa M; Zimmer, Mariusz; Ferens-Sieczkowska, Miros?awa

    2015-01-01

    Fucose, the monosaccharide frequent in N- and O-glycans, is a part of Lewis-type antigens that are known to mediate direct sperm binding to the zona pellucida. Such interaction was found to be inhibited in vitro by fucose-containing oligo- and polysaccharides, as well as neoglycoproteins. The objective of this study was to screen seminal plasma proteins of infertile/subfertile men for the content and density of fucosylated glycoepitopes, and compare them to samples of fertile normozoospermic subjects. Seminal proteins were separated in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and blotted onto nitrocellulose membrane and probed with fucose-specific Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL). Twelve electrophoretic bands were selected for quantitative densitometric analysis. It was found that the content, and especially the density of fucosylated glycans, were higher in glycoproteins present in seminal plasma of subfertile men. No profound differences in fucosylation density were found among the groups of normozoospermic, oligozoospermic, asthenozoospermic, and oligoasthenozoospermic subfertile men. According to the antibody probing, AAL-reactive bands can be attributed to male reproductive tract glycoproteins, including prostate-specific antigen, prostatic acid phosphatase, glycodelin and chorionic gonadotropin. Fibronectin, ?1-acid glycoprotein, ?1-antitrypsin, immunoglobulin G and antithrombin III may also contribute to this high fucosylation. It is suggested that the abundant fucosylated glycans in the sperm environment could interfere with the sperm surface and disturb the normal course of the fertilization cascade. PMID:25248658

  10. Oral zinc supplementation restore high molecular weight seminal zinc binding protein to normal value in Iraqi infertile men

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zinc in human seminal plasma is divided into three types of ligands which are high (HMW), intermediate (IMW), and low molecular weight ligands (LMW). The present study was aimed to study the effect of Zn supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen along with Zinc Binding Protein levels in the seminal plasma in asthenozoospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 37 fertile and 37 asthenozoospermic infertile men with matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate, every participant took two capsules per day for three months (each one 220mg). Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. For determination of the amount of zinc binding proteins, the gel filtration of seminal plasma on Sephadex G-75 was performed. All the fractions were investigated for protein and for zinc concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Evaluation of chromatograms was made directly from the zinc concentration in each fraction. Results A significant high molecular weight zinc binding ligands percentage (HMW-Zn %) was observed in seminal plasma of fertile males compared with subfertile males. However, seminal low molecular weight ligands (LMW-Zn) have opposite behavior. The mean value of semen volume, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc sulfate supplementation. Conclusions Zinc supplementation restores HMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to normal value. Zinc supplementation elevates LMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to more than normal value. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01612403 PMID:23145537

  11. Lactotransferrin in Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Seminal Plasma Correlates with Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kiso, Wendy K.; Selvaraj, Vimal; Nagashima, Jennifer; Asano, Atsushi; Brown, Janine L.; Schmitt, Dennis L.; Leszyk, John; Travis, Alexander J.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.

    2013-01-01

    Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have highly variable ejaculate quality within individuals, greatly reducing the efficacy of artificial insemination and making it difficult to devise a sperm cryopreservation protocol for this endangered species. Because seminal plasma influences sperm function and physiology, including sperm motility, the objectives of this study were to characterize the chemistry and protein profiles of Asian elephant seminal plasma and to determine the relationships between seminal plasma components and semen quality. Ejaculates exhibiting good sperm motility (?65%) expressed higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology (80.3±13.0 vs. 44.9±30.8%) and positive Spermac staining (51.9±14.5 vs. 7.5±14.4%), in addition to higher total volume (135.1±89.6 vs. 88.8±73.1 ml) and lower sperm concentration (473.0±511.2 vs. 1313.8±764.7×106 cells ml?1) compared to ejaculates exhibiting poor sperm motility (?10%; P<0.05). Comparison of seminal plasma from ejaculates with good versus poor sperm motility revealed significant differences in concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and glucose. These observations suggest seminal plasma influences semen quality in elephants. One- and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis revealed largely similar compositional profiles of seminal plasma proteins between good and poor motility ejaculates. However, a protein of ?80 kDa was abundant in 85% of ejaculates with good motility, and was absent in 90% of poor motility ejaculates (P<0.05). We used mass spectrometry to identify this protein as lactotransferrin, and immunoblot analysis to confirm this identification. Together, these findings lay a functional foundation for understanding the contributions of seminal plasma in the regulation of Asian elephant sperm motility, and for improving semen collection and storage in this endangered species. PMID:23976974

  12. Studies of chemical components of Angora goat seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, G; White, I G; Chow, P

    1989-09-01

    Ejaculates were collected by artificial vagina from 11 Angora goats, once or twice weekly, between April and July in two successive years. The mean +/- SEM ejaculate volumes each year were 0.8 +/- 0.30 and 0.98 +/- 0.52 ml; the sperm concentrations were 3.33 +/- 0.49 and 2.94 +/- 0.45 x 10(9)/ml, and the pH values were 7.01 +/- 0.34 and 7.20 +/- 0.17. The concentrations (mg/100ml) of fructose (875 +/- 97) and lactic acid (73 +/- 17) in goat seminal plasma were sufficiently high to be important substrates for maintenance of sperm motility. Only trace amounts of glucose were present in seminal plasma. The glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC) concentration of seminal plasma (809 +/- 154 mg 100 ml ) was correlated with whole semen sperm concentration (P < 0.001), indicating that GPC is of epididymal origin. Goat sperm are not likely to utilize GPC as a substrate and its metabolizable derivatives, glycerophosphate (3.3 +/- 1.1 mg 100 ml ) and glycerol (1.8 +/- 1.0 mg 100 ml ), were not present in sufficiently high concentrations to be significant as energy sources for the sperm. The mean concentration of citric acid was 331 mg 100 ml seminal plasma. Colored semen was consistently produced by eight bucks, and in yellow, light yellow and white ejaculates, the seminal plasma riboflavin (mug/ml) concentrations were 5.38 +/- 2.89, 3.09 +/- 0.85 and 1.73 +/- 0.88, respectively. This suggests that the color is due to riboflavin, which is probably produced by the vesicular glands since the concentration of riboflavin in the seminal plasma was correlated with fructose and citric acid levels. PMID:16726692

  13. Proteomic Characterization of Zinc-Binding Proteins of Canine Seminal Plasma.

    PubMed

    Mogielnicka-Brzozowska, M; Kowalska, N; Fraser, L; Kordan, W

    2015-12-01

    The zinc-binding proteins (ZnBPs) of the seminal plasma are implicated in different processes related to sperm-egg fusion. The aim of this study was to characterize the ZnBPs of canine seminal plasma using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and mass spectrometry. The ZnBPs were isolated from the ejaculates of five dogs by affinity chromatography and subjected to 2D-PAGE analysis. The acquired spots, detected across the gels, were analysed by mass spectrometry. Using 2D-PAGE analysis, it was shown that canine seminal plasma comprised about 46-57 zinc-binding polypeptides, with molecular mass ranging from 9.3 to 138.7 kDa and pI at pH 5.2-10.0. It was found that zinc-binding polypeptides of low molecular masses (9.3-19.0 kDa and pI at pH 6.1-10.0) were predominant in the seminal plasma, and seven polypeptides, with molecular masses ranging from 11.7 to 15.4 kDa and pI at pH 6.8-8.7, were characterized by high optical density values. In addition, analysis with mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS/MS) revealed that the identified seven polypeptides are canine prostate-specific esterase (CPSE), which is the main proteolytic enzyme of the seminal plasma. The findings of this study indicate an important regulatory role of seminal plasma zinc ions in the functional activity of CPSE, which is of great significance for maintaining the normal function of canine prostate and the spermatozoa functions. PMID:26482538

  14. Trace elements in seminal plasma of men from infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Szynkowska, Ma?gorzata I.; Motak-Pochrz?st, Hanna; Pawlaczyk, Aleksandra; Sypniewski, Stanis?aw

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An analysis of lead, zinc, cadmium and other trace elements in semen of men from infertile couples was performed to determine the association between abnormal semen parameters and enviromental or occupational exposure to some trace metals. Material and methods Presence of manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and lead was measured in seminal plasma of 34 men from infertile couples using spectrometry with time-of-flight analysis. Correlations among sperm parameters and trace metals were determined using cluster analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Abnormally high concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc and cobalt were found in 23 seminal plasma of men from infertile couples. The most consistent evidence was determined for an association between high cadmium concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count, motility and morphology below reference limits (p < 0.01). A correlation of significantly increased tin level and reduced sperm count in semen of men with limited fertility potential was observed (p = 0.04). Conclusions In our study we observed a correlation of tin level with sperm count in semen of men with limited fertility potential. PMID:26170853

  15. Effect of increased testicular temperature on seminal plasma proteome of the ram.

    PubMed

    Rocha, David R; Martins, Jorge André M; van Tilburg, Mauricio F; Oliveira, Rodrigo V; Moreno, Frederico B; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O; Moreira, Renato A; Araújo, Airton A; Moura, Arlindo A

    2015-11-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of heat stress on the ram seminal plasma proteome. Six Morada Nova rams were scrotal insulated for 8 days. Scrotal circumference, sperm parameters, and seminal fluid proteins were evaluated before (Day 0) and twice during scrotal insulation (Days 4 and 8), and weekly until semen parameters returned to preinsulation values (normal). Seminal proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Scrotal circumference decreased from 30 ± 0.4 cm on Day 0 to 22.6 ± 0.6 cm on Day 36 (P < 0.05) and became equivalent to preinsulation values on Day 71. Motile sperm became nearly absent from Day 8 to Day 64 but returned to normal on Day 113. Percentage of normal sperm changed similarly and returned to normal on Day 106. Rams were azoospermic between Days 29 and 64, and sperm concentration came back to normal on Day 92. The number of spots/two-dimensional gel reduced from 256 ± 31 on Day 0 to 104 ± 14 on Day 29 (when rams were azoospermic) and then increased to 183 ± 9 on Day 113 (P < 0.05), similar to spot counts before insulation. The intensities of 24 spots, referring to 17 seminal plasma proteins, were affected by treatment (P < 0.05). After insulation, seminal plasma had greater expression of actin (two isoforms), albumin, heat shock protein 70 kDa, protein DJ-1, HRPE773-like, C-reactive protein precursor, bodhesin-2 (one isoform), spermadhesins. Most protein spots had the greatest intensity between Days 8 and 29, returning to preinsulation values on Day 113 (when many sperm criteria returned to normal). Proteins downregulated after scrotal insulation included dipeptidyl peptidase 3, isoforms of heat shock protein 90 kDa, RSVP22, MMP2 and of Bdh2. In this case, RSVP22 was reduced on Day 113 and all others, on Day 134. Expression of MMP2 and HSP90.1 was reduced throughout the study. Integrin ?5, V-type H(+)-ATPase subunit A, ZBTB 42-like protein, isoforms of Bdh2, PSP-I, and RSVP22 were upregulated after testis insulation. Intensities of these spots were maximum (P < 0.05) 8 days after insulation started or on Day 29. Expression of most of such proteins returned to normal on Day 113. In conclusion, scrotal insulation affected testis and sperm parameters of rams, indicating alterations in both spermatogenesis and sperm maturation. Changes of seminal plasma proteome were coincidental with variations in semen parameters. Proteins affected by heat challenge are potentially involved in sperm protection, maturation, and fertilization. PMID:26318231

  16. Molecular heterogeneity of gelatin-binding proteins from human seminal plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kosanovi?, Maja M.; Jankovi?, Miroslava M.

    2010-01-01

    Defining the molecular characteristics of seminal plasma proteins is essential for understanding their function in physiological and pathological conditions. Starting from the predicted importance of human seminal plasma gelatin-binding proteins, comprising fibronectin (FN) and FN-related molecules, for male fertility, this study aims at gaining insight into their immuno-glycobiochemical properties. Human seminal plasma from subjects with normal semen parameters were separated on a gelatin–Sepharose column and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting using antibodies against distinct FN forms. Heterogeneity of the isolated molecular species was examined by protein chip arrays combined with surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, on normal, metal and hydrophobic surfaces. Carbohydrate composition was investigated using mannose-, fucose- and sialic acid-specific plant lectins and galectin-1. The results obtained indicated a pattern of isolated proteins corresponding to that of known FN fragments, as confirmed by immunoreactivity. Among them heparin-binding ability was preferentially associated with low molecular mass species. As for posttranslational modifications, phosphorylation and glycosylation of distinct fragments were revealed. Lectin binding to fragments containing the gelatin-binding domain, particularly with Ricinus communis agglutinin I, was stronger than to fragments containing the cell-binding site of FN. A low level of sialylation and distinctive concanavalin A- and Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive species were also observed. Galectin-1 did not interact with the isolated preparation. Resolving the molecular heterogeneity of normal human seminal plasma FN and gaining initial insight into possible similarities/differences with known FN molecular species may be considered a prerequisite step preceding challenging the clinical usefulness of these molecular properties. PMID:20173767

  17. Purification of plasminogen activators from human seminal plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Propping, D; Zaneveld, L J; Tauber, P F; Schumacher, G F

    1978-01-01

    Two plasminogen activators (1 and 2) were isolated from human seminal plasma by hiigh-speed centrifugation, Sephadex-gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The activators were shown to be homogeneous by polyacrylamide-disc -gel electrophoresis at pH 8.3 and 4.5, and by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The molecular weights of activators 1 and 2 were estimated as 69 000 and 74 000. Their amino acid compositions are very similar, both being high in aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine and leucine, and low in methionine, tryptophan, tyrosine, isoleucine and histidine. Activators 1 and 2 each possess 16 cysteine residues. Both activators have isoelectric points of approx. 7.0, are stable over a wide pH range at temperatures up to 60 degrees C, but lose activity at higher temperatures, particularly under very basic or acidic conditions. They are not inhibited by EDTA, Mg2+ and Ca2+ at 10 mM concentrations, but their activity decreases on addition of 10 mM-cysteine or Fe2+ and 6-aminohexanoate or sera from pregnant women. The precipitin band formed between urokinase and its antiserum is continuous with the precipitin bands formed between the seminal plasminogen activators and the urokinase antiserum. Antisera to urokinase inhibit both the activity of urokinase and the seminal plasminogen activators. Images Fig. 3. PLATE 1 PMID:26336

  18. A Pilot Comparative Study of 26 Biochemical Markers in Seminal Plasma and Serum in Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Rui-Xiang; Lu, Jin-Chun; Zhang, Hong-Ye; Lü, Nian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The relationships of the biochemical components in seminal plasma and serum, and their origins and physiological effects in male reproductive system have been poorly understood. Methods. Based on the calibration and quality control measures, 26 biochemical markers, in seminal plasma and serum samples from 36 male infertility patients with nonazoospermia were detected and compared. Results. Only PA was undetectable in all seminal plasma samples. There were significant differences of all other 24 biochemical markers in seminal plasma and serum (P < 0.05) except for UA (P = 0.214). There were rich proteins in seminal plasma, and globulin accounted for about 90%. There were also abundant enzymes in seminal plasma, and the activities of ALT, AST, AKP, GGT, LDH, CK, and ?HBDH in seminal plasma were significantly higher than those in serum while ADA was inversely lower. There were relatively low levels of Glu, TG, TC, and hsCRP in seminal plasma, but Glu was undetectable in 8 of 36 cases. Conclusions. The differences of the levels of biochemical markers in seminal plasma and serum might be associated with the selective secretion of testis, epididymis and male accessory glands, and the specific environment needed for sperm metabolism and function maintenance. PMID:26539526

  19. Localization and characterization of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in boar accessory sex glands, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa and activity of GPx in boar semen.

    PubMed

    Jelezarsky, L; Vaisberg, Ch; Chaushev, T; Sapundjiev, E

    2008-01-15

    Boar ejaculate owes its characteristic large volume mainly to accessory sex gland (ASG) secretions. These are main contributors to the protective functions of seminal plasma, especially against oxidative damage. Numerous antioxidants have been detected in ASG secretions, and, respectively, in seminal plasma. However, as regards one key antioxidant protector -- the Se-dependent enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) -- there is no agreement yet among researchers as to its presence in boar seminal plasma. Nevertheless, the beneficial effect of dietary Se supplementation on male fertility has been widely recognized. The aim of the present study was to investigate the localization and characterization of GPx in boar ASGs, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa, as well as to evaluate GPx activity in boar semen. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated GPx presence in the epithelial cells, vacuole membranes, and vascular endothelium of boar seminal vesicle, prostate and bulbourethral glands. Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of a monomer form of GPx with MW 20 kDa in lysates from seminal vesicle, prostate, bulbourethral glands, and spermatozoa, but not in seminal plasma. Surprisingly, peroxidase activity detected in seminal plasma from normal ejaculates was nearly three times as high as in spermatozoa. Our findings confirmed the presence of immunoreactive GPx in the boar reproductive tract, while further investigation is still warranted to uncover the exact protein forms involved and their function. PMID:17964641

  20. Functional proteomic analysis of seminal plasma proteins in men with various semen parameters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alterations at the molecular level in spermatozoa and seminal plasma can affect male fertility. The objective of this study was to determine if analysis of differential expression of proteins in varying semen parameters can serve as potential biomarkers for male infertility. Methods The differential expression of proteins in the seminal plasma of men based on sperm count and morphology were examined utilizing proteomic tools. Subjects were categorized based on sperm concentration and morphology into 4 groups: 1) normal sperm count and normal morphology (NN); 2) normal sperm count and abnormal morphology (NA); 3) oligozoospermia and normal morphology (ON); and 4) oligozoospermia and abnormal morphology (OA). Proteomic analysis was performed by LC-MS/MS followed by functional bioinformatics analysis. Protein distribution in the NA, ON and OA groups was compared with that of the NN group. Results Twenty proteins were differentially expressed among the 4 groups. Among the unique proteins identified, 3 were downregulated in the NA group, 1 in the ON group and 1 in the OA group while 2 were upregulated in the ON and OA groups. The functional analysis 1) identified biological regulation as the major processes affected and 2) determined that most of the identified proteins were of extracellular origin. Conclusions We have identified proteins that are over-or underexpressed in the seminal plasma of men with poor sperm quality. The distinct presence of some of the proteins may serve as potential biomarkers and provide insight into the mechanistic role played by these proteins in male infertility. Further studies using Western Blot analysis are required to validate these findings. PMID:23663294

  1. Monthly variations in ovine seminal plasma proteins analyzed by two-dimensional

    E-print Network

    Zaragoza, Universidad de

    Monthly variations in ovine seminal plasma proteins analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel.A. Cebria´n-Pe´rez a a Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary This study was conducted to evaluate monthly changes in the ram seminal plasma protein profile using two

  2. Gelatinases and serine proteinase inhibitors of seminal plasma and the reproductive tract of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    PubMed

    Kot?owska, M; Kowalski, R; Glogowski, J; Jankowski, J; Ciereszko, A

    2005-04-01

    This study examined proteolytic enzymes and serine proteinase inhibitors in turkey seminal plasma with relation to their distribution within the reproductive tract and to yellow semen syndrome (YSS). Proteases of blood plasma, extracts from the reproductive tract, and seminal plasma were analyzed by gelatin zymography. We found a clear regional distribution of proteolytic enzymes in the turkey reproductive tract. Each part was characterized by a unique profile of serine proteolytic enzymes of molecular weights ranging from 29 to 88 kDa. The ductus deferens was found to be a site of very intense proteolytic activity. Two metalloproteases of 58 and 66 kDa were detected in all parts of the reproductive tract and seminal plasma. Using electrophoretic methods for detection of anti-trypsin activity, we found three serine proteinase inhibitors in turkey seminal plasma. Two inhibitors were found in the testis and epididymis and a third in the ductus deferens and seminal plasma. Blood plasma was characterized by the presence of two metalloproteinases and one serine proteinase inhibitor (of low migration rate) that were also detected in the reproductive tract. Amidase and anti-trypsin activities (expressed per gram of protein) differed for yellow and white seminal plasma. We concluded that turkey seminal plasma contains metalloproteases, serine proteinases, and serine proteinase inhibitors. The metalloproteases and one proteinase inhibitor are related to blood proteinases but the other two inhibitors and serine proteinases seem to be unique for the reproductive tract. PMID:15763110

  3. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of Bali bull (Bos javanicus) seminal plasma proteins and their relationship with semen quality.

    PubMed

    Sarsaifi, Kazhal; Haron, Abd Wahid; Vejayan, Jaya; Yusoff, Rosnina; Hani, Homayoun; Omar, Mohamed Ariff; Hong, Lai Wei; Yimer, Nurhusien; Ju, Tan Ying; Othman, Abas-Mazni

    2015-10-01

    The present study evaluated the relationship between Bali bull (Bos javanicus) seminal plasma proteins and different semen quality parameters. Semen samples from 10 mature Bali bulls were evaluated for conventional semen parameters (general motility, viability, and normal morphology), sperm functionality (acrosome reaction, sperm penetration rate, sperm penetration index), sperm kinetics (computer-assisted semen analysis parameters such as sperm velocity), and sperm morphology (acrosome and membrane integrity). Frozen-thawed semen with higher sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity, and membrane integrity (P < 0.05) are consistently higher in acrosome reaction and sperm penetration assay. Three bulls showed the highest, four bulls displayed the medium, and the remaining three bulls showed the lowest for all sperm parameters and SPA. The proteome maps of seminal plasma from high-quality and low-quality Bali bulls were also established. Seminal plasma of both high-quality and low-quality Bali bulls was subjected to two-dimensional SDS-PAGE with isoelectric point ranged from 3 to 10 and molecular weight from 10 to 250 kDa. Approximately 116 spots were detected with Blue Silver stain, and of these spots, 29 were selected and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS. A majority of the proteins visualized in the seminal plasma two-dimensional maps was successfully identified. An essential group of the identified spots represented binder of sperm 1 (BSP1), clusterin, spermadhesin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2), and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Other proteins found in high abundance included seminal ribonuclease, serum albumin, cationic trypsin, and peptide similar to ?2 microglobulin. Thus, a reference map of Bali bull seminal plasma proteins has been generated for the very first time and can be used to relate protein pattern changes to physiopathologic events that may influence Bali bull reproductive performance. PMID:26119476

  4. Seminal plasma protein profiles of ejaculates obtained by internal artificial vagina and electroejaculation in Brahman bulls.

    PubMed

    Rego, J P A; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; McGowan, M R; Boe-Hansen, G B

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate if differences exist in the seminal plasma protein profile from mature Brahman bulls using two methods of semen collection: internal artificial vagina (IAV) and electroejaculation (EEJ). Semen was collected four times from three bulls on the same day and parameters were assessed immediately post-collection. Seminal plasma proteins were evaluated by 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. Semen volume was greater (P < 0.05) for EEJ (4.6 ± 0.35 mL) than for IAV (1.86 ± 0.24 mL) but sperm concentration was greater in IAV (1505 ± 189 × 10(6) sperm/mL) than in EEJ samples (344 ± 87 × 10(6) sperm/mL). Sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm were not different between treatments. Total concentration of seminal plasma proteins was greater for samples collected by IAV as compared to EEJ (19.3 ± 0.9 compared with 13.0 ± 1.8 mg/mL, P < 0.05; respectively). Based on 2-D gels, 22 spots had a greater volume (P < 0.05) in gels derived from IAV samples, corresponding to 21 proteins identified as transferrin, albumin, epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase, among others. Thirty-three spots, corresponding to 26 proteins, had a greater volume (P < 0.05) in gels derived from EEJ samples. These proteins were identified as spermadhesin-1, Bovine Sperm Protin 1, 3 and 5 isoforms, angiogenin-1, alpha-1B-glycoprotein, clusterin, nucleobindin-1, cathepsins, spermadhesin Z13, annexins, among others. Thus, proteins in greater amounts in samples obtained by IAV and EEJ were mainly of epididymal origin and accessory sex glands, respectively. PMID:26282524

  5. Effect of Seminal Plasma on Equine Sperm Quality: Preparation and Storage Techniques 

    E-print Network

    Whigham, Alison R

    2013-09-03

    This study had four experimental aims. We investigated whether fresh (unfrozen) or snap-frozen homologous seminal plasma yielded similar sperm quality in cool-stored semen. We compared sperm quality following exposure to homologous versus...

  6. Proteomic analysis of white and yellow seminal plasma in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    PubMed

    S?owi?ska, M; Koz?owski, K; Jankowski, J; Ciereszko, A

    2015-06-01

    Yellow semen syndrome (YSS) is endemic within domestic turkey populations. Yellow semen is of lower quality and, when used for insemination, results in reduced fertility and hatchability. Little is known about the etiology of YSS. The aim of this study was to compare the proteome of white and yellow seminal plasma of turkeys using 1) 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to quantify seminal plasma proteins and 2) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to identify the proteins that are differentially abundant in white and yellow seminal plasma. A total of 49 protein spots (30 upregulated and 19 downregulated) were differentially expressed in yellow seminal plasma compared with white seminal plasma. Transthyretin and serum albumin-like showed a 3-fold increase in seminal plasma from males with YSS, and the latter was validated using Western blot analysis. A 3-fold increase was observed for hemopexin-like and immunoglobulin light chain V-J-C region. Pantetheinase-like showed a 1.3-fold increase. Ovotransferrin, hepatocyte growth factor activator, cysteine-rich secretory protein 3-like, and ferritin heavy chain-like showed a significant decrease (at least a 1.3-fold decrease) in yellow semen. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the precise function of the above-mentioned proteins in YSS and to establish quality markers of turkey semen to predict the reproductive potential of individual turkeys. PMID:26115266

  7. Characterization of the seminal plasma proteome in men with prostatitis by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland which affects approximately 10% of men. Despite its frequency, diagnosing prostatitis and monitoring patient response to treatment remains frustrating. As the prostate contributes a substantial percentage of proteins to seminal plasma, we hypothesized that a protein biomarker of prostatitis might be found by comparing the seminal plasma proteome of patients with and without prostatitis. Results Using mass spectrometry, we identified 1708 proteins in the pooled seminal plasma of 5 prostatitis patients. Comparing this list to a previously published list of seminal plasma proteins in the pooled seminal plasma of 5 healthy, fertile controls yielded 1464 proteins in common, 413 found only in the control group, and 254 found only in the prostatitis group. Applying a set of criteria to this dataset, we generated a high-confidence list of 59 candidate prostatitis biomarkers, 33 of which were significantly increased in prostatitis as compared to control, and 26 of which were decreased. The candidates were analyzed using Gene Ontology and Ingenuity Pathway analysis to delineate their subcellular localizations and functions. Conclusions Thus, in this study, we identified 59 putative biomarkers in seminal plasma that need further validation for diagnosis and monitoring of prostatitis. PMID:22309592

  8. Differential protein expression in seminal plasma from fertile and infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Cadavid J, Angela P.; Alvarez, Angela; Markert, Udo R.; Maya, Walter Cardona

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze human seminal plasma proteins in association with male fertility status using the proteomic mass spectrometry technology Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (SELDI-TOF-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen analysis was performed using conventional methods. Protein profiles of the seminal plasma were obtained by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry over a strong anion exchanger, ProteinChip® Q10 array. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant differences in motility and sperm count between fertile and infertile men. In addition, we observed ten seminal proteins that are significantly up-regulated in the infertile group. In conclusion, comparison of seminal plasma proteome in fertile and infertile men provides new aspects in the physiology of male fertility and might help in identifying novel markers of male infertility. PMID:25395747

  9. Seminal plasma reactive oxygen species-antioxidants relationship with varicocele grade.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, T; Anis, T; El Nashar, A; Imam, H; Osman, I

    2012-02-01

    This work aimed to assess seminal plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS)-antioxidants relationship with varicocele grade in infertile men with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT). The study included 89 infertile OAT men with varicocele divided into grade I (n = 22) and grade II (n = 43), grade III (n = 24) and compared with 20 healthy fertile controls. In their seminal plasma, two ROS parameters (malondialdehyde [MDA], hydrogen peroxide [H(2) O(2) ]) and four antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [Cat], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], vit.C) were estimated. There was significant increase in seminal MDA, H(2) O(2) and significant decrease in seminal SOD, Cat, GPx, vit.C in varicocele-associated OAT cases when compared with the controls. Compared with grade I cases, varicocele cases with grades II, III demonstrated significant increase in estimated seminal MDA, H(2) O(2) and significant decrease in seminal SOD, Cat, GPx, vit.C. It is concluded that seminal oxidative stress (OS) is related to increased varicocele grade in infertile OAT men associated with varicocele. PMID:21651600

  10. Influence of boar breeds or hybrid genetic composition on semen quality and seminal plasma biochemical variables.

    PubMed

    Žaja, Ivona Žura; Samardžija, Marko; Vince, Silvijo; Maji?-Bali?, Ivanka; Vili?, Marinko; ?uri?i?, Dražen; Milinkovi?-Tur, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme concentrations of seminal plasma are important for spermatozoa metabolism and function in boars. The need has arisen for introducing a biochemical evaluation of semen, along with the usual standard semen analyses. There are no data on the influence of boar breeds on the seminal plasma biochemical variables investigated in this study. Therefore, the objective was to determine the influence of breed and hybrid genetic composition of boars on semen quality and seminal plasma biochemical variables. Semen samples of 27 boars (Swedish Landrace, German Landrace, Large White, Pietrain and Pig Improvement Company hybrid-PIC-hybrid), aged between 1.5 and 3 years, were collected. After evaluation of semen quality, the seminal plasma was separated from the spermatozoa by centrifugation of semen. The seminal plasma was subjected to spectrophotometric analysis to determine alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and to atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis to measure the concentration of calcium and magnesium. Conventional semen quality variables differed depending on breed and PIC-hybrid genetic composition, though these differences were typically insignificant. In the seminal plasma, significant differences were determined in enzyme activity (ALP, GGT, CK and LDH) and in calcium concentration among boars of differnt breeds. There are, therefore, differences in semen quality and significant differences in the seminal plasma biochemical variables among boars of different breeds and PIC-hybrid genetic composition. The data and differences in semen variables detected in the present study provide knowledge for enhancing evaluation and monitoring of boar reproductive potential, semen quality and explain the potential causes of boar infertility. PMID:26692346

  11. Seminal plasma leptin and spermatozoon apoptosis in patients with varicocele and leucocytospermia.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Lv, Y; Hu, K; Feng, T; Jin, Y; Wang, Y; Huang, Y; Chen, B

    2015-08-01

    Excessive apoptotic spermatozoon death is associated with male infertility. Leptin regulates apoptosis in several cell types. We prospectively investigated if seminal plasma leptin mediates spermatozoon apoptosis in 74 varicocele (VC) patients and 70 leucocytospermia patients. Spermatozoa from 40 normospermic men were used as controls. Routine semen analysis, spermatozoon apoptosis rate, seminal plasma leptin, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) levels were measured. In VC and leucocytospermia patients, seminal plasma leptin levels and spermatozoon apoptosis rates were significantly higher compared with controls. In the VC group, seminal plasma ROS levels were significantly higher compared with controls; there were no significant differences in TNF-? levels. In the leucocytospermia group, both ROS and TNF-? levels were significantly higher compared with controls. In both the VC and leucocytospermia groups, there was a significant positive correlation between the spermatozoon apoptosis rate and leptin levels and ROS and leptin levels. There was a significant correlation between leptin and TNF-? levels in the leucocytospermia group. Seminal plasma leptin levels correlate significantly with spermatozoon apoptosis rate, and leptin may be a spermatozoon pro-apoptotic factors. The generation of ROS is a possible mechanism. Leptin may induce apoptosis via TNF-? in leucocytospermia patients. PMID:25081128

  12. Exploring the Human Seminal Plasma Proteome: An Unexplored Gold Mine of Biomarker for Male Infertility and Male Reproduction Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gilany, Kambiz; Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Savadi-Shiraz, Elham; Rezadoost, Hassan; Lakpour, Niknam

    2015-01-01

    Background The human seminal fluid is a complex body fluid. It is not known how many proteins are expressed in the seminal plasma; however in analog with the blood it is possible up to 10,000 proteins are expressed in the seminal plasma. The human seminal fluid is a rich source of potential biomarkers for male infertility and reproduction disorder. Methods In this review, the ongoing list of proteins identified from the human seminal fluid was collected. To date, 4188 redundant proteins of the seminal fluid are identified using different proteomics technology, including 2-DE, SDS-PAGE-LC-MS/MS, MudPIT. However, this was reduced to a database of 2168 non-redundant protein using UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot reviewed database. Results The core concept of proteome were analyzed including pI, MW, Amino Acids, Chromosome and PTM distribution in the human seminal plasma proteome. Additionally, the biological process, molecular function and KEGG pathway were investigated using DAVID software. Finally, the biomarker identified in different male reproductive system disorder was investigated using proteomics platforms so far. Conclusion In this study, an attempt was made to update the human seminal plasma proteome database. Our finding showed that human seminal plasma studies used to date seem to have converged on a set of proteins that are repeatedly identified in many studies and that represent only a small fraction of the entire human seminal plasma proteome. PMID:25927022

  13. Oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot seminal plasma and their effects on sperm quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Mingming; Ding, Fuhong; Meng, Zhen; Lei, Jilin

    2015-08-01

    In this research, the concentration and activity of oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot semen, and their effects on sperm quality were studied. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), uric acid, vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) were more abundant in seminal plasma than in spermatozoa. The variation for each of them was specific. In seminal plasma, the activity of SOD and GR increased from November 15, November 30 to December 15, and then decreased on December 30. The concentrations of both VC and uric acid decreased during the first 3 sampling times and increased on December 30. The oxidants in seminal plasma accumulated to the highest on December 30. Lactic acid (LA) and ATP levels decreased to the lowest on December 30. The correlation analysis showed that GR had the significant positive relevance to sperm motility and VSL/VCL, while ·OH had negative relevance to them.

  14. Motility of liquid stored ram spermatozoa is altered by dilution rate independent of seminal plasma concentration.

    PubMed

    Mata-Campuzano, M; Soleilhavoup, C; Tsikis, G; Martinez-Pastor, F; de Graaf, S P; Druart, X

    2015-11-01

    The fertility after use of liquid stored ram semen following cervical AI rapidly decreases if semen is stored beyond 12h. The dilution of seminal plasma is often cited as a key contributor to the diminished motility and fertility of ram spermatozoa subjected to liquid preservation. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of spermatozoa concentration (i.e. dilution rate) and percentage of seminal plasma on the motility and viability of liquid stored ram spermatozoa. In Experiment 1, semen was diluted to one of seven concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 1.4×10(9)spermatozoa/ml with milk and assessed for motility after 3 or 24h of storage at 15°C. In Experiment 2, semen was collected and washed to remove seminal plasma before re-dilution to 0.2-1.4×10(9)spermatozoa/ml with milk containing 0%, 20% or 40% (final v/v ratio) seminal plasma and assessed for viability and motility after 3 or 24h of storage at 15°C. Whereas motility was not affected by spermatozoa concentration after 3h of storage, the proportion of progressive spermatozoa decreased after 24h of storage when spermatozoa concentration was greater than 1.0×10(9)spermatozoa/ml. The duration of preservation and the spermatozoa concentration affected spermatozoa motility but had no impact on spermatozoa viability. This negative effect of greater spermatozoa concentrations on motility was independent of the presence and the concentration of seminal plasma. The seminal plasma at both concentrations (20% and 40%) had a protective effect on spermatozoa motility after 24h of storage. These findings have the potential to improve the efficiency of cervical AI with liquid stored ram semen. PMID:26421370

  15. TRIS(DICHLOROPROPYL)PHOSHATE, A MUTAGENIC FLAME RETARDANT: FREQUENT OCCURRENCE IN HUMAN SEMINAL PLASMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Negative-chemical-ionization mass spectral screening of extracts of human seminal plasma has revealed a presence of a Cl7 ion cluster at a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 463 in a significant number of the samples examined (34 out of 123). Experiments with different gases used to g...

  16. Characterization of alkaline phosphatase activity in seminal plasma and in fresh and frozen-thawed stallion spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Diego; Giaretta, Elisa; Spinaci, Marcella; Rizzato, Giovanni; Isani, Gloria; Mislei, Beatrice; Mari, Gaetano; Tamanini, Carlo; Galeati, Giovanna

    2016-01-15

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) has been studied in several situations to elucidate its role in reproductive biology of the male from different mammalian species; at present, its role in horse sperm physiology is not clear. The aim of the present work was to measure AP activity in seminal plasma and sperm extracts from freshly ejaculated as well as in frozen-thawed stallion spermatozoa and to verify whether relationship exists between AP activity and sperm quality parameters. Our data on 40 freshly ejaculated samples from 10 different stallions demonstrate that the main source of AP activity is seminal plasma, whereas sperm extracts contribution is very low. In addition, we found that AP activity at physiological pH (7.0) is significantly lower than that observed at pH 8.0, including the optimal AP pH (pH 10.0). Alkaline phosphatase did not exert any effect on sperm-oocyte interaction assessed by heterologous oocyte binding assay. Additionally, we observed a thermal stability of seminal plasma AP, concluding that it is similar to that of bone isoforms. Positive correlations were found between seminal plasma AP activity and sperm concentration, whereas a negative correlation was present between both spermatozoa extracts and seminal plasma AP activity and seminal plasma protein content. A significant decrease in sperm extract AP activity was found in frozen-thawed samples compared with freshly ejaculated ones (n = 21), concomitantly with the decrease in sperm quality parameters. The positive correlation between seminal plasma AP activity measured at pH 10 and viability of frozen-thawed spermatozoa suggests that seminal plasma AP activity could be used as an additional predictive parameter for stallion sperm freezability. In conclusion, we provide some insights into AP activity in both seminal plasma and sperm extracts and describe a decrease in AP after freezing and thawing. PMID:26433714

  17. Large-scale and high-confidence proteomic analysis of human seminal plasma

    PubMed Central

    Pilch, Bartosz; Mann, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Background The development of mass spectrometric (MS) techniques now allows the investigation of very complex protein mixtures ranging from subcellular structures to tissues. Body fluids are also popular targets of proteomic analysis because of their potential for biomarker discovery. Seminal plasma has not yet received much attention from the proteomics community but its characterization could provide a future reference for virtually all studies involving human sperm. The fluid is essential for the survival of spermatozoa and their successful journey through the female reproductive tract. Results Here we report the high-confidence identification of 923 proteins in seminal fluid from a single individual. Fourier transform MS enabled parts per million mass accuracy, and two consecutive stages of MS fragmentation allowed confident identification of proteins even by single peptides. Analysis with GoMiner annotated two-thirds of the seminal fluid proteome and revealed a large number of extracellular proteins including many proteases. Other proteins originated from male accessory glands and have important roles in spermatozoan survival. Conclusion This high-confidence characterization of seminal plasma content provides an inventory of proteins with potential roles in fertilization. When combined with quantitative proteomics methodologies, it should be useful for studies of fertilization, male infertility, and prostatic and testicular cancers. PMID:16709260

  18. Seminal plasma and serum fertility biomarkers in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Waheed, M M; Ghoneim, I M; Alhaider, A K

    2015-03-01

    Eight healthy fertile (control) and 11 infertile male dromedaries were used to investigate whether specific seminal plasma and serum fertility biomarkers could be related to their in vivo fertility. Eight fertility biomarkers and testosterone were determined in both seminal plasma and serum of all studied camels during the rutting season using commercial kits. Results revealed a significant (P < 0.01) difference in semen parameters between the control and infertile camels. There was a significant (P < 0.01) difference between the control and infertile dromedaries in seminal plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (15.04 ± 1.14 vs. 4.55 ± 0.96 nmol/min/mL, respectively) and both phospholipase A2 (sPLA2; 50.66 ± 6.28 vs. 23.56 ± 4.29 pg/mL, respectively) and testosterone concentrations (732.14 ± 57.12 vs. 396.36 ± 79.34 pg/mL, respectively). A significant (P < 0.05) difference was found between the control and infertile camels in seminal plasma concentrations of osteopontin, cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP3), and prostaglandin D synthase (lipocalcin-type). There was a significant (P < 0.01) difference between the fertile and infertile camels in serum GPx activity 67.81 ± 12.41 vs. 21.31 ± 4.63 nmol/min/mL, respectively) and both testosterone (599.57 ± 110.90 vs. 176.09 ± 24.05 pg/mL, respectively) and clusterin concentrations (137.29 ± 14.15 vs. 253.00 ± 17.14 ng/mL, respectively). A significant (P < 0.05) difference existed between the control and infertile male dromedaries in serum concentrations of sPLA2, CRISP3, malonialdehyde, and insulinlike growth factor 1. In conclusion, CRISP3, sPLA2, GPx, and testosterone are fertility-associated biomarkers in both seminal plasma and serum of dromedary camels. Seminal plasma osteopontin is positively correlated and prostaglandin D synthase (lipocalcin-type) is negatively correlated with camels' fertility. Serum malonialdehyde, insulinlike growth factor 1, and clusterin are negatively correlated with fertility of male dromedary camels. PMID:25434775

  19. Semen quality, testosterone, seminal plasma biochemical and antioxidant profiles of rabbit bucks fed diets supplemented with different concentrations of soybean lecithin.

    PubMed

    Attia, Y A; Kamel, K I

    2012-05-01

    A total of 28 adult V-line rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% soybean lecithin (SL) for 12 weeks. Bucks that received 0.5%, 1.0% or 1.5% dietary SL had a higher ejaculate volume, mass motility, sperm concentration, total sperm output and total motile sperm. Dietary SL reduced the percentage of dead sperm and increased the normal sperm, and this concurred with an increase in blood testosterone concentration. Blood and seminal plasma total lipid, acid phosphatase and seminal plasma alkaline phosphatase were significantly increased because of inclusion of SL. Interestingly, SL reduced blood and seminal plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances while increasing blood and seminal plasma glutathione content, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity. Conception rate and litter size at birth and weaning were also significantly improved. Practically, it could be suggested that SL is a suitable supplement for improving semen quality, antioxidant status, reproductive traits and the economic efficiency of V-line rabbit bucks and 1% is an adequate concentration. PMID:22558930

  20. Effect of donkey seminal plasma on sperm movement and sperm-polymorphonuclear neutrophils attachment in vitro.

    PubMed

    Miró, Jordi; Vilés, Karina; García, Wilber; Jordana, Jordi; Yeste, Marc

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of seminal plasma in endometrial inflammation in donkeys, samples from fresh pure, fresh diluted and frozen-thawed semen of three different jackasses were co-incubated in water bath at 37°C with uterine Jennie's secretions collected 6h after artificial insemination with frozen-thawed donkey semen. Individual sperm movement parameters using the computerised sperm analysis system (CASA) and sperm-polymorphonuclear neutrophils (sperm-PMN) attachment observed in Diff-Quick stained smears were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4h of co-incubation. Controls consisted of incubating diluted or frozen-thawed sperm in the absence of uterine secretions. For data analyses, a repeated measures ANOVA was performed with incubation time as intra-subject factor and with treatment and donkey as inter-subject factor, followed by a post-hoc Bonferroni's test. Greater values (P<0.05) of sperm-PMN percentages and a loss of progressive motility were observed in frozen-thawed semen compared with pure and diluted fresh semen samples throughout the incubation time. In addition, the presence of seminal plasma in fresh and diluted semen samples reduced the inflammatory response of polymorphonuclear neutrophils produced after insemination by suppressing the sperm-PMN attachment in vitro. Motility sperm parameters analysed by CASA were also less affected than those in frozen-thawed semen samples. In conclusion, seminal plasma in jennies appears to have a modulation on the endometrial response after artificial insemination with frozen-thawed donkey semen. As a result, spermatozoa with the greater motility characteristics are selected. PMID:23891218

  1. Proteomic analysis of seminal plasma from asthenozoospermia patients reveals proteins that affect oxidative stress responses and semen quality

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Hua-Rong; Shi, Hui-Juan; Ma, Duan; Zhao, Hong-Xin; Lin, Biaoyang; Li, Run-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Asthenozoospermia (AS) is a common cause of human male infertility. In one study, more than 80% of the samples from infertile men had reduced sperm motility. Seminal plasma is a mixture of secretions from the testis, epididymis and several male accessory glands, including the prostate, seminal vesicles and Cowper's gland. Studies have shown that seminal plasma contains proteins that are important for sperm motility. To further explore the pathophysiological character of AS, we separated the seminal plasma proteins from AS patients and healthy donors using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in-gel digestion, and then subjected the proteins to liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. A total of 741 proteins were identified in the seminal plasma, with a false discovery rate of 3.3%. Using spectral counting, we found that 45 proteins were threefold upregulated and 56 proteins were threefold downregulated in the AS group when compared with the control. Most of these proteins originated from the epididymis and prostate. This study identified a rich source of biomarker candidates for male infertility and indicates that functional abnormalities of the epididymis and prostate can contribute to AS. We identified DJ-1—a protein that has been shown elsewhere to be involved in the control of oxidative stress (OS)—as a downregulated protein in AS seminal plasma. The levels of DJ-1 in AS seminal plasma were about half of those in the control samples. In addition, the levels of reactive oxygen species were 3.3-fold higher in the AS samples than in the controls. Taken together, these data suggest that downregulation of DJ-1 is involved in OS in semen, and therefore affects the quality of the semen. PMID:19448646

  2. Blood serum and seminal plasma selenium, total antioxidant capacity and coenzyme q10 levels in relation to semen parameters in men with idiopathic infertility.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Mustafa; Sahin, Sadik; Durukan, Birol; Ozakpinar, Ozlem Bingol; Erdinc, Nese; Turkgeldi, Lale; Sofuoglu, Kenan; Karateke, Ates

    2014-06-01

    In this case-control study, we aimed to evaluate the serum and seminal plasma levels of Selenium (Se), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ-10) and determine their relationship with sperm concentration, motility, and morphology in men with idiopathic infertility. A total of 59 subjects were enrolled in the study. Forty four patients were diagnosed with idiopathic male infertility and had abnormal sperm parameters, and 15 subjects had normal sperm parameters with proven fertility. Serum Se, semen Se, and semen TAC levels were significantly different in the fertile and infertile groups (p<0.01, p<0.001, and p<0.001, respectively). However, serum TAC, serum, and seminal plasma CoQ-10 levels did not differ between fertile and infertile groups. When the levels of the measured parameters were compared in serum and seminal plasma, serum levels of Se were found to be correlated positively with the semen levels in all subjects included into the study (N=59) (r=0.46, p<0.01). A relationship was found between neither serum and semen levels of TAC nor between serum and semen levels of CoQ-10. Correlations among measured serum and semen parameters with sperm parameters demonstrated that both the serum and semen levels of Se were correlated positively with spermatozoa concentration, motility, and morphology. Additionally, seminal plasma levels of TAC correlated positively with all these sperm parameters. On the other hand, seminal plasma levels of CoQ-10 correlated only with sperm morphology but not with concentration or motility. No relationship was observed between serum levels of TAC or serum levels of CoQ-10 and sperm parameters. In conclusion, serum and seminal plasma Se deficiency may be a prominent determinant of abnormal sperm parameters and idiopathic male infertility. Measurement of serum Se levels may help determine nutritional status and antioxidant capacity in infertile patients, which may help distinguish those patients who will benefit from supplementation therapy. PMID:24752972

  3. Metabolomics Analysis of Seminal Plasma in Infertile Males with Kidney-Yang Deficiency: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang; Hu, Chao; Dai, Jican; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important treatment for male infertility, and its application to therapy is dependent on differentiation of TCM syndromes. This study aims to investigate the changes in metabolites and metabolic pathways in infertile males with Kidney-Yang Deficiency syndrome (KYDS) via metabolomics approaches. Seminal plasma samples were collected from 18 infertile males with KYDS and 18 fertile males. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to characterize metabolomics profiles. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA), and pathway analysis were used for pattern recognition and metabolite identification. PCA and PLS-DA results differentiated the two groups of patients. Forty-one discriminating metabolites (18 in positive mode and 23 in negative mode) were identified. Seven metabolites were related to five potential metabolic pathways associated with biosynthesis and metabolism of aromatic amino acids, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and sphingolipid metabolism. The changes in metabolic pathways may play an important role in the origin of KYDS-associated male infertility. Metabolomics analysis of seminal plasma may be used to differentiate TCM syndromes of infertile males, but further research must be conducted. PMID:25945117

  4. Terminal Mannose Residues in Seminal Plasma Glycoproteins of Infertile Men Compared to Fertile Donors

    PubMed Central

    Olejnik, Beata; Jarz?b, Anna; Kratz, Ewa M.; Zimmer, Mariusz; Gamian, Andrzej; Ferens-Sieczkowska, Miros?awa

    2015-01-01

    The impact of seminal plasma components on the fertilization outcomes in humans is still under question. The increasing number of couples facing problems with conception raises the need for predictive biomarkers. Detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms accompanying fertilization remains another challenge. Carbohydrate–protein recognition may be of key importance in this complex field. In this study, we analyzed the unique glycosylation pattern of seminal plasma proteins, the display of high-mannose and hybrid-type oligosaccharides, by means of their reactivity with mannose-specific Galanthus nivalis lectin. Normozoospermic infertile subjects presented decreased amounts of lectin-reactive glycoepitopes compared to fertile donors and infertile patients with abnormal semen parameters. Glycoproteins containing unveiled mannose were isolated in affinity chromatography, and 17 glycoproteins were identified in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. The N-glycome of the isolated glycoproteins was examined in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Eleven out of 27 identified oligosaccharides expressed terminal mannose residues, responsible for lectin binding. We suggest that lowered content of high-mannose and hybrid type glycans in normozoospermic infertile patients may be associated with impaired sperm protection from preterm capacitation and should be considered in the search for new infertility markers. PMID:26147424

  5. Terminal Mannose Residues in Seminal Plasma Glycoproteins of Infertile Men Compared to Fertile Donors.

    PubMed

    Olejnik, Beata; Jarz?b, Anna; Kratz, Ewa M; Zimmer, Mariusz; Gamian, Andrzej; Ferens-Sieczkowska, Miros?awa

    2015-01-01

    The impact of seminal plasma components on the fertilization outcomes in humans is still under question. The increasing number of couples facing problems with conception raises the need for predictive biomarkers. Detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms accompanying fertilization remains another challenge. Carbohydrate-protein recognition may be of key importance in this complex field. In this study, we analyzed the unique glycosylation pattern of seminal plasma proteins, the display of high-mannose and hybrid-type oligosaccharides, by means of their reactivity with mannose-specific Galanthus nivalis lectin. Normozoospermic infertile subjects presented decreased amounts of lectin-reactive glycoepitopes compared to fertile donors and infertile patients with abnormal semen parameters. Glycoproteins containing unveiled mannose were isolated in affinity chromatography, and 17 glycoproteins were identified in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. The N-glycome of the isolated glycoproteins was examined in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Eleven out of 27 identified oligosaccharides expressed terminal mannose residues, responsible for lectin binding. We suggest that lowered content of high-mannose and hybrid type glycans in normozoospermic infertile patients may be associated with impaired sperm protection from preterm capacitation and should be considered in the search for new infertility markers. PMID:26147424

  6. The Analysis of Sialylation, N-Glycan Branching, and Expression of O-Glycans in Seminal Plasma of Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Ewa M.; Ka?u?a, Anna; Zimmer, Mariusz; Ferens-Sieczkowska, Miros?awa

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrates are known to mediate some events involved in successful fertilization. Although some studies on the glycosylation of seminal plasma proteins are available, the total glycan profile was rarely analyzed as a feature influencing fertilization potential. In this work we aimed to compare some glycosylation traits in seminal plasma glycoproteins of fertile and infertile men. The following findings emerge from our studies: (1) in human seminal plasma the presence and alterations of O-linked glycans were observed; (2) the expression of SNA-reactive sialic acid significantly differs between asthenozoospermia and both normozoospermic (fertile and infertile) groups; (3) the expression of PHA-L-reactive highly branched N-glycans was significantly lower in oligozoospermic patients than in both normozoospermic groups. Indication of the appropriate lectins that would enable the possibly precise determination of the glycan profile seems to be a good supplement to mass spectrum analysis. Extension of the lectin panel is useful for the further research. PMID:25892842

  7. Ger/1/ cells allSEMINAL PLASMA EFFECT ON RAM SPERMATOZOA STUDIED BY PARTITIONING IN AN AQUEOUS

    E-print Network

    Zaragoza, Universidad de

    BY PARTITIONING IN AN AQUEOUS TWO-PHASE SYSTEM Mario OLLERO, Rosaura PEREZ-PE, Teresa MUliliO-BLANCO and Jose spermatozoa heterogeneity (20, 22, 23) and that the acquis~ion of adsorbed seminal plasma proteins the effect of seminal plasma proteins on the distribution behaviour of fresh ram spermatozoa, as well

  8. Effect of seminal plasma on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) sperm vitrification.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, E; Merino, O; Risopatrón, J; Isachenko, V; Sánchez, R; Effer, B; Isachenko, E; Farias, J G; Valdebenito, I

    2015-01-15

    This study was designed to test a vitrification method in Atlantic salmon spermatozoa and determine the capacity of seminal plasma (SP) to protect these cells from cryoinjuries. The vitrification medium consisted of a standard buffer for fish spermatozoa (Cortland medium) + 10% DMSO + 2% BSA + 0.13-M sucrose + SP at concentrations of 30% (G30), 40% (G40), or 50% (G50). Fresh sperm was used as a control. To freeze the samples, 30-?L suspensions of spermatozoa from each group were dropped directly into liquid nitrogen. The resulting spheres were placed in cryotubes for storage in liquid nitrogen. The cryotubes with the vitrified spermatozoa were thawed by placing them in a water bath at 37 °C for 45 seconds. After thawing, the following sperm quality parameters were determined by flow cytometry: DNA fragmentation (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling), plasma membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI, staining technique), and mitochondrial membrane potential (JC-1 staining). An optical microscope was used to assess subjectively sperm motility, whereas fertility was determined by the presence of neurulation using five replicates per treatment in a sample of 30 eggs. Spermatozoa quality variables were preserved best when the highest concentration of SP (50%) was used (DNA fragmentation, 9.2%; plasma membrane integrity, 98.6%; mitochondrial membrane integrity, 47.2%; motility, 44.1%; and fertility, 46.2%). PMID:25442390

  9. [Some chemical and serological properties of non-dialysable fractions of human seminal plasmas].

    PubMed

    Ohyama, K; Yanagi, K; Yamakawa, T; Ohkuma, S; Uchida, Y; Shinozuka, T; Yanagida, J

    1989-11-01

    Some chemical and serological properties of water-soluble and undialysable fraction (WSF) and water-insoluble and undialysable fraction (WISF) of human seminal plasmas were studied. Both of the fractions contained proteins as the main components and also carbohydrates as minor components, and each fraction gave 9 bands which were stained with the Periodate-Schiff and/or Coomassie brilliant blue reagents on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide slub gel electrophoresis. WSF reacted with 17 of 19 hemagglutinins, whereas WISF reacted with 12 of them. Although WSF and WISF did not react with anti-M and -N sera respectively, both of the fractions reacted with the anti-N lectins of Vicia graminea and V. unijuga and also with Arachis hypogaea anti-T (Thomsen-Friedenreich) lectin. Perchloric acid-soluble fractions separated from a large number of human intact organ tissues and serum did not react with the above-mentioned 5 hemagglutinins. In double immuno-diffusion, both of the fractions interacted with rabbit anti-WSF serum to form 4 precipitation lines. PMID:2515272

  10. Basic arginine esterase from human seminal plasma: purification and some properties.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Park, J Y; Matsuda, Y; Hara, I; Kaneko, S; Oshio, S; Akihama, S; Fujimoto, Y

    1991-01-01

    Basic arginine esterase (amidase) with a specific activity of 3.2 mumol N-alpha-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester (Tos-Arg-Me) esterolysis per A280 was purified about 230-fold from a CM-cellulose absorbed preparation of human seminal plasma. The purified enzyme was a single band with an apparent molecular weight of 3.4-4.1 x 10(4). The amidolytic activity of this enzyme was suppressed by aprotinin, soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), leupeptin, and antipain, while alpha 1-antitrypsin, ovomucoid trypsin inhibitor (OTI), EDTA, and chymostatin had no or weak effect. This enzyme hydrolyzed synthetic basic amino acid derivatives and N-alpha-tosyl-glycyl-L-prolyl-arginine-p-nitroanilide (Tos-Gly-Pro-Arg-pNA) and N-alpha-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-L-leucyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilid e (Boc-Leu-Pro-Arg-pNA) were the best substrates. The enzymatic characteristics of present enzyme were clearly different from tissue kallikrein, acrosin, and seminin in human semen. PMID:1759884

  11. Relevance of seminal plasma nitric oxide levels and the efficacy of SSRI treatment on lifelong premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Kirecci, S L; Simsek, A; Yuksel, A; Gurdal, H; Gurbuz, Z G; Usanmaz, S

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relevance of seminal plasma nitric oxide (NO) levels and the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment on premature ejaculation. A total of 16 men (aged 32.18 ± 3.32) with lifelong premature ejaculation [intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) <1 min] and 11 healthy men (control group) were included in this study. The healthy men formed Group 1, and the patients were randomly categorised into two groups. Group 2 patients received 20 mg day(-1) of paroxetine, and Group 3 patients received 50 mg day(-1) of sertraline for 4 weeks. Baseline and post-treatment findings were compared among the three groups. Mean baseline seminal NO levels in men with premature ejaculation were significantly higher than in the healthy control group (32.24 ± 5.61 ?m l(-1) versus 19.71 ± 3.50 ?m l(-1) , respectively) (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the sertraline and paroxetine groups in terms of IIEF scores, IELT scores and NO levels. At the end of the first month, the mean IELT scores of the paroxetine and sertraline groups showed a significant improvement compared with the baseline values (P < 0.001). After treatment with paroxetine and sertraline, NO levels dec-reased from baseline. Our study indicates that premature ejaculation is significantly related with a higher level of seminal NO. Baseline seminal plasma NO values obtained in patients with premature ejaculation were significantly higher than in the healthy control group. After treatment with SSRIs, decreased seminal NO may retard ejaculation. Further studies are needed to confirm this suggestion and the role of NO in the pathophysiology and treatment of premature ejaculation. PMID:24354496

  12. Comparative analysis of boar seminal plasma proteome from different freezability ejaculates and identification of Fibronectin 1 as sperm freezability marker.

    PubMed

    Vilagran, I; Yeste, M; Sancho, S; Castillo, J; Oliva, R; Bonet, S

    2015-03-01

    Variation in boar sperm freezability (i.e. capacity to withstand cryopreservation) between ejaculates is a limitation largely reported in the literature. Prediction of sperm freezability and classification of boar ejaculates into good (GFEs) and poor freezability ejaculates (PFEs) before cryopreservation takes place may increase the use of frozen-thawed spermatozoa. While markers of boar sperm freezability have been found from sperm cell extracts, little attention has been paid to seminal plasma. On this basis, the present study compared the fresh seminal plasma proteome of 9 GFEs and 9 PFEs through two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The ejaculates were previously classified as GFE or PFE upon their sperm viability and progressive motility assessments at 30 and 240 min post thawing. From a total of 51 spots, four were found to significantly (p < 0.05) differ between GFEs and PFEs, and two were identified as fibronectin-1 (FN1) and glutathione peroxidase 5 (GPX5). These two potential markers were further studied by western blot and correlation analysis between protein relative abundances in fresh seminal plasma and regression factors from principal component analyses (PCA) run using post-thawing sperm quality parameters. Results confirmed that FN1 is a reliable marker of boar sperm freezability, because GFEs presented significantly (p < 0.05) higher FN1-amounts than PFEs and FN1 was found to be correlated with the first PCA component at 240 min post thawing. In contrast, GPX5 was not validated as a boar sperm freezability marker. We can thus conclude that levels of FN1 in fresh seminal plasma from boar semen may be used as a sperm freezability marker, thereby facilitating the use of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. PMID:25678437

  13. The major proteins of bovine seminal plasma interact with caseins and whey proteins of milk extender.

    PubMed

    Lusignan, Marie-France; Bergeron, Annick; Lafleur, Michel; Manjunath, Puttaswamy

    2011-09-01

    Milk has been used routinely as an extender for sperm preservation. Caseins, the major proteins in milk, are proposed to be the protective constituents of milk during sperm preservation. It is unclear whether the whey proteins in milk are also implicated in the protection of sperm. Our previous studies have shown that the major proteins of bovine seminal plasma (recently named as binder of sperm or BSP, which comprises BSP1, BSP3, and BSP5 proteins) mediate a continuous phospholipid and cholesterol efflux from the sperm plasma membrane that is detrimental for sperm preservation. In this study, we investigated whether the protective effect of milk could be due to an interaction between BSP proteins and milk proteins. The binding of BSP proteins to milk proteins was demonstrated by gel filtration chromatography. Milk was fractionated into three fractions: the first containing whey protein aggregates and kappa-casein, the second containing all milk proteins, and the third containing small peptides, salts, and sugars. BSP1 has a higher affinity for the milk proteins in the milk fractions as compared to BSP3 and BSP5. The binding of BSP proteins to milk proteins was further characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry. We demonstrated that BSP1 binds to caseins and the titration could be simulated with a Scatchard approach, leading to an affinity constant (K(a)) of 350 mM(-1) and a stoichiometric parameter for the association (n) of 4.5 BSP1 per casein. The association between BSP1 and alpha-lactalbumin was characterized by a K(a) of 240 mM(-1) and an n value of 0.8. These results indicate the existence of an interaction between BSP proteins and milk proteins that could be the origin of the protection of sperm during preservation in milk. PMID:21593483

  14. Seasonal variation of plasminogen activator activity in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of boar, buck, bull and stallion.

    PubMed

    Zervos, I A; Lavrentiadou, S N; Tsantarliotou, M P; Georgiadis, M P; Kokolis, N A; Taitzoglou, I A

    2010-12-01

    Plasminogen activators (PA) are proteolytic enzymes present in the spermatozoa and seminal plasma of various species. They play a role in the binding of the spermatozoon and its penetration through the layers surrounding the oocyte. Plasminogen activator activity (PAA) is modulated by hormones that have a seasonal variation, such as testosterone and melatonin. The present study investigates the seasonal variation of PA activity in sperm extracts and seminal plasma of four farm animal species: boar, buck, bull and stallion. Semen samples were collected every second week during a 12-month period and PAA was determined. With respect to sperm enzyme activity, the boar showed a peak from late January until the beginning of April, whereas the activity in the bull was at the highest levels from April until October and gradually declined during autumn and winter period. Plasminogen activator activity of stallion spermatozoa peaked during March and April, and remained low throughout the rest of the year, whereas in the buck sperm, PAA increased from late October until the end of January. No biologically significant variation was detected regarding the seminal PAA activity in any of the species studied. While seasonality of reproduction is typically studied from the female perspective, the present data provide compelling information about a factor that may affect the reproductive ability of the male. PMID:20412514

  15. Survival of ram spermatozoa at high dilution: protective effect of simple constituents of culture media as compared with seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, P J; Harrison, R A; Miller, N G; Plummer, J M; Watson, P F

    1994-01-01

    During incubation of ram spermatozoa at 1 x 10(7) cells mL-1 or less in a simple HEPES-buffered saline medium, high levels of cell death were detected using propidium iodide as a probe of viability (membrane integrity): some 70% of the cells died during 3 h incubation at 37 degrees C. Because the conditions of incubation were similar to those encountered during manipulations for in vitro fertilization, this phenomenon was investigated further. If ram spermatozoa were diluted in an equivalent sucrose-based medium, or if the saline medium was supplemented with 10% seminal plasma, survival was greatly improved (only 5-15% died during a 3-h incubation at 37 degrees C); the protective effect of seminal plasma resided in a 5-10 kDa fraction. Sperm death in the basal saline medium was strongly dependent on cell concentration below 5 x 10(7) spermatozoa mL-1 whereas little effect of concentration was seen in the sucrose medium or in the presence of seminal plasma. The presence of Ca2+ (2 mM), EGTA (1 mM) or mercaptoethanol (1 mM) enhanced sperm survival in saline medium, but no effect was gained by replacing NaCl with KCl, and neither BSA nor fetal calf serum were beneficial. However, when a combination of pyruvate (1 mM), lactate (21.7 mM), Mg2+ (0.4 mM), phosphate (0.3 mM) and Ca2+ (2 mM) was included in the saline medium (to render it similar to Tyrode's medium), cell survival was greatly improved (12% died during the 3-h incubation).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7991785

  16. Study of the effects of oral zinc supplementation on peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity in seminal plasma of Iraqi asthenospermic patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) are necessary for the biology and physiology of spermatozoa, but high levels of NO are toxic and have negative effects on sperm functions. Although several studies have considered the relationship between infertility and semen NO concentrations, no study on the effects of asthenospermia treatments such as oral zinc supplementation on concentrations of NO, which are important in fertility, has been reported. Studies have shown that oral zinc supplementation develops sperm count, motility and the physical characteristics of sperm in animals and in some groups of infertile men. The present study was conducted to study the effect of zinc supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen, along with enzymes of the NO pathway in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 60 fertile and 60 asthenozoospermic infertile men of matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate; each participant took two capsules (220 mg per capsule) per day for 3 months. Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction of the seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. The stable metabolites of NO (nitrite) in seminal plasma were measured by nitrophenol assay. Arginase activity and NO synthase activity were measured spectrophotometrically. Results Peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity, NO synthase activity and various sperm parameters were compared among fertile controls and infertile patients (before and after treatment with zinc sulfate). Peroxynitrite levels and NO synthase activity were significantly higher in the infertile patients compared to the fertile group. Conversely, arginase activity was significantly higher in the fertile group than the infertile patients. Peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity of the infertile patient were restored to normal values after treatment with zinc sulfate. Volume of semen, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc supplementation. Conclusions Treatment of asthenospermic patients with zinc supplementation leads to restored peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity to normal values and gives a statistically significant improvement of semen parameters compared with controls. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01684059 PMID:24383664

  17. Comparison of Before and After Varicocelectomy Levels of Trace Elements, Nitric Oxide, Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Malondialdehyde in the Seminal Plasma and Peripheral and Spermatic Veins.

    PubMed

    Kiziler, Ali Riza; Aydemir, Birsen; Guzel, Savas; Yazici, Cenk Murat; Gulyasar, Tevfik; Malkoc, Ercan; Acar, Ayse

    2015-10-01

    Increased oxidative damage has been suggested to play an important role in the spermatogenesis and sperm function changes in patients with varicocele. However, changes in levels of nitric oxide (NO), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), malondialdehyde (MDA), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in blood and seminal plasma, and semen quality, are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the NO, ADMA, Fe, Cu, Zn and MDA levels from seminal plasma and peripheral and spermatic vein blood samples of patients with varicocele before and after varicocelectomy. In this before and after comparative study, 29 consecutive patients attending a training hospital in Tekirdag, Turkey, were recruited. MDA and NO levels were determined by spectrophotometric methods. The levels of ADMA were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Trace element level was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The levels of MDA in the seminal plasma and peripheral and spermatic vein samples were observed to decrease significantly in the comparison of before and after phases of the study group (p?=?0.022, p?=?0.001 and p?=?0.034, respectively). Also, the levels of NO in the seminal plasma and spermatic vein samples decreased significantly in the comparison of before and after phases of the study group (p?=?0.025 and p?=?0.001, respectively), while the levels of ADMA in seminal plasma and spermatic vein samples increased significantly in the comparison of before and after phases of the study group (p?=?0.003 and p?=?0.001, respectively). There were no significant differences in the levels of trace elements and sperm count (p?>?0.05). Oxidative stress is significantly higher in the spermatic vein and seminal plasma samples of patients with varicocele before varicocelectomy. In conclusion, these events may be evaluated accordingly for the potentially beneficial treatment methods. PMID:25787826

  18. Effect of post-thaw addition of seminal plasma on motility, viability and chromatin integrity of cryopreserved donkey jack (Equus asinus) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, C; Mari, G; Mislei, B; Love, Cc; Panzani, D; Camillo, F; Rota, A

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy rates in donkeys after artificial insemination with cryopreserved semen are still low, compared to the horse species. Addition of autologous seminal plasma to frozen-thawed semen appeared to improve pregnancy rates. The aims of this study were to evaluate (1) sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity after thawing (T0) and after one and 2 h (T1 and T2) of post-thaw incubation in either 0% (SP0) or 70% (SP70) autologous seminal plasma and (2) sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and DNA quality (%COMP-?t) after thawing (T0) and after 2 and 4 h (T2 and T4) of post-thaw incubation in either 0% (SP0), 5% (SP5) or 20% (SP20) homologous seminal plasma. In experiment 1, seminal plasma decreased total and progressive sperm motility and plasma membrane intact spermatozoa immediately after dilution and at all following time points (p < 0.05). In experiment 2, total and progressive motility did not differ between treatments immediately after dilution and between SP0 and SP5 at T2, while they were lower in both SP5 and SP20 than in SP0 at T4. Plasma membrane intact sperm cells did not differ between SP0 and SP5 and were lower in SP20 at all time points. DNA quality was not affected by treatment immediately after dilution and was significantly worse for SP20 after 4 h of incubation (p < 0.05). The post-thaw addition of seminal plasma at the tested concentrations did not improve donkey frozen semen characteristics in vitro over time. PMID:25256158

  19. Expression, purification and structural analysis of recombinant rBdh-2His?, a spermadhesin from buck (Capra hircus) seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Antônia Sâmia F; Cajazeiras, João B; Nascimento, Kyria S; Nogueira, Sara Monalisa S; Sousa, Bruno L; Teixeira, Edson H; Melo, Luciana M; da Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape S; Silva, André Luiz C; Cavada, Benildo S

    2012-01-01

    Spermadhesins, a family of secretory proteins from the male genital tract of ungulate species, belong to the group of animal lectins. Spermadhesins have a prominent role in different aspects of fertilisation, such as spermatozoid capacitation, acrosomal stabilisation, sperm-oviduct interaction and during sperm-oocyte fusion. Proteins (spermadhesins) in buck seminal plasma were described. In the present study, bodhesin Bdh-2 cDNA present in buck seminal plasma was subcloned with the expression plasmid pTrcHis TOPO used to transform Escherichia coli Top10 One shot cells. The recombinant clones were selected by growth in 50 µg mL?¹ ampicillin-containing LB broth and polymerase chain reaction amplification. Recombinant rBdh-2His? synthesis was monitored by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and followed by immunoblotting using monoclonal anti-His antibody. Production of rBdh-2 using low temperatures was not satisfactory. Greater production of rBdh-2 occurred with 1.5mM isopropyl ?d-thiogalactoside after 2h of induction. The method used to purify rBdh-2 was affinity chromatography on a His-Trap column following ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-Sephacel column. The secondary structure of the rBdh-2His? was evaluated by spectral profile circular dichroism (CD). The prevalence of secondary structures like ?-sheets, with fewer unfolded structures and ?-helices, was confirmed. The structure of rBdh-2His? remained stable up to 35°C. However, significant structural changes were observed at temperatures higher than 40 °C related to a distortion of the CD spectrum. PMID:22541546

  20. Protein analysis of boar seminal plasma proteins with protective effect during low-temperature storage of spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Daskalova, Denica; Kukov, Alexander; Kirilova, Irina; Ivanova-Kicheva, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different seminal plasma proteins (SPPs) on boar spermatozoa functional characteristics. We investigated the putative protective effect of SSPs on sperm cells motility and velocity, as well as on the integrity of the plasma membrane (PM) during low-temperature storage at 4 °C. SPPs fractions were obtained and purified by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Nine fractions of SPPs were obtained and further characterized by 12% sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Sperm computer analysis (SCA) after incubation of spermatozoa with separated proteins revealed that fraction 6 consisting of low molecular weight (MW) proteins could preserve spermatozoa motility and velocity better when compared to those with higher MW. Two-dimensional (2D) elecrtophoretic analysis showed that fraction 6 contained proteins with the following MW and isoelectric point (pI): 16 kDa and pI 7.35, 18 kDa and pI 5.20, 19 kDa and pI 7.35, 26 kDa and pI 4.50, 26 kDa and pI 4.30, 29 kDa and pI 5.85.

  1. Effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on sperm parameters, seminal plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress in men.

    PubMed

    Rao, Meng; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Yang, Jing; Hu, Shi-Fu; Lei, Hui; Xia, Wei; Zhu, Chang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this experimental prospective study, we aimed to analyze the effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on the male reproductive organs, from the perspective of sperm parameters, semen plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress, to evaluate whether different frequencies of heat exposure cause different degrees of damage to spermatogenesis. Two groups of volunteers (10 per group) received testicular warming in a 43°C water bath 10 times, for 30 min each time: group 1: 10 consecutive days; group 2: once every 3 days. Sperm parameters, epididymis and accessory sex gland function, semen plasma oxidative stress and serum sex hormones were tested before treatment and in the 16-week recovery period after treatment. At last, we found an obvious reversible decrease in sperm concentration (P = 0.005 for Group 1 and P= 0.008 for Group 2 when the minimums were compared with baseline levels, the same below), motility (P = 0.009 and 0.021, respectively), the hypoosmotic swelling test score (P = 0.007 and 0.008, respectively), total acrosin activity (P = 0.018 and 0.009, respectively), and an increase in the seminal plasma malondialdehyde concentration (P = 0.005 and 0.017, respectively). The decrease of sperm concentration was greater for Group 2 than for Group 1 (P = 0.031). We concluded that transient scrotal hyperthermia seriously, but reversibly, negatively affected the spermatogenesis, oxidative stress may be involved in this process. In addition, intermittent heat exposure more seriously suppresses the spermatogenesis compared to consecutive heat exposure. This may be indicative for clinical infertility etiology analysis and the design of contraceptive methods based on heat stress. PMID:25652627

  2. Development and validation of LC-MS/MS method for quantification of bisphenol A and estrogens in human plasma and seminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Vitku, Jana; Chlupacova, Tereza; Sosvorova, Lucie; Hampl, Richard; Hill, Martin; Heracek, Jiri; Bicikova, Marie; Starka, Luboslav

    2015-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely known endocrine disruptor with estrogenic, antiestrogenic or antiandrogenic properties. BPA could interfere with estrogen metabolism as well with receptor-mediated estrogen actions. Both environmental BPA and estrogens may be traced in body fluids, of which, besides the blood plasma, the seminal fluid is of particular interest regarding their possible interactions in the testis. The method for simultaneously determining BPA and estrogens is then needed, taking into account that their concentrations in these body fluid may differ. Here the method was developed and validated for measurements of BPA, estrone (E1), estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3) in blood plasma and seminal plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Due to the phenolic moiety of all compounds, dansyl chloride derivatization could be used. The analytical criteria of the method with respect to expected concentration of the analytes were satisfactory. The lower limits of quantifications (LLOQ) amounted to 43.5, 4.0, 12.7, 6.7 pg/mL for plasma BPA, E1, E2 and E3, and 28.9, 4.9, 4.5, 3.4 pg/mL for seminal BPA, E1, E2 and E3, respectively. The concentrations of individual steroids differed between body fluids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method that enabled the measurement of estrogens and BPA together in one run. The concentrations of E1, E2 and for the first time also of E3 in seminal plasma in normospermic men are reported. PMID:26048824

  3. High total antioxidant capacity of the porcine seminal plasma (SP-TAC) relates to sperm survival and fertility.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Isabel; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Ceron, Jose J; Martinez, Emilio A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The study attempted to clarify the role of total antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma (SP-TAC) on boar sperm survival and fertility after artificial insemination (AI). SP-TAC differed (P?

  4. High total antioxidant capacity of the porcine seminal plasma (SP-TAC) relates to sperm survival and fertility

    PubMed Central

    Barranco, Isabel; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Ceron, Jose J.; Martinez, Emilio A.; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The study attempted to clarify the role of total antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma (SP-TAC) on boar sperm survival and fertility after artificial insemination (AI). SP-TAC differed (P?

  5. LH release and ovulatory response after intramuscular, intravenous, and intrauterine administration of ?-nerve growth factor of seminal plasma origin in female llamas.

    PubMed

    Silva, M; Fernández, A; Ulloa-Leal, C; Adams, G P; Berland, M A; Ratto, M H

    2015-10-15

    The objective of the study was to compare the pituitary and ovarian responses after intramuscular, intravenous, or intrauterine administration of ?-nerve growth factor (?-NGF) of seminal plasma origin (SP-NGF) in llamas. In experiment 1, mature female llamas with a growing follicle of 7 mm or greater were assigned randomly to four groups (n = 7/group) and given 2 mg of purified SP-NGF in a volume of 2 mL by (1) intramuscular administration, (2) intravenous administration, and (3) intrauterine infusion, or (4) intrauterine infusion of 2 mL of PBS (negative control). Because ovulations were not detected after intrauterine infusion in experiment 1, a second experiment was done to determine if a higher dose of SP-NGF given by intrauterine infusion, similar to a natural dose during copulation, will elicit an ovulatory response. In experiment 2, llamas with a growing follicle of 7 mm or greater were assigned randomly to three groups (n = 6/per group) given an intrauterine infusion of (1) 4 mL of raw seminal plasma, (2) 4 mL of PBS containing 20 mg of purified llama SP-NGF, or 3) 4 mL of PBS (negative control). In both experiments, the ovaries were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography using a B-mode scanner and power Doppler mode to detect ovulation and to monitor CL growth, regression, and vascularization. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma LH and progesterone concentrations. In experiment 1, only llamas treated by intramuscular or intravenous administration of SP-NGF ovulated (7 of 7 and 6 of 7, respectively). Plasma LH concentration did not differ between the intramuscular and intravenous SP-NGF-treated groups, nor did CL diameter, CL vascularization, or plasma progesterone concentration profiles. In experiment 2, the ovulation rate was 100% for llamas treated by intrauterine infusion of raw seminal plasma or llama SP-NFG, whereas no ovulations were detected in females treated with PBS. Plasma LH concentrations did not differ between groups that ovulated, nor did CL diameter, CL vascularization, or plasma progesterone concentration profiles. We conclude that ?-NGF from llama seminal plasma origin elicits a preovulatory LH surge, followed by ovulation and the development of a functional CL, regardless of the route of administration. However, the dose required to elicit pituitary and ovarian responses is higher when administered by intrauterine infusion than by intramuscular or intravenous routes. PMID:26164804

  6. Seminal plasma biochemistry and spermatozoa characteristics of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) of wild and cultivated origin.

    PubMed

    Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest; Trippel, Edward Alexander; Ciereszko, Andrzej; Soler, Carles; S?owi?ska, Mariola; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi; Litvak, Matthew Kenneth; Babiak, Igor

    2011-05-01

    Our objectives were to compare spermatozoa activity, morphology, and seminal plasma (SP) biochemistry between wild and cultivated Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Swimming velocities of wild cod spermatozoa were significantly faster than those of cultivated males. Wild males had a significantly larger spermatozoa head area, perimeter, and length, while cultivated males had more circular heads. Total monounsaturated fatty acids and the ratio of n-3/n-6 were significantly higher in sperm from wild males, while total n-6 from cultivated males was significantly higher than the wild males. Significantly higher concentrations of the fatty acids C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:4n-3, C20:1n-11, C20:1n-9, C20:4n-3, C22:1n-11, and C22:6n-3 were observed in wild males, while significantly higher concentrations of C18:2n-6, C20:2n-6, and C22:5n-3 occurred in cultivated males. Osmolality, protein concentration, lactate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase activity of SP of wild males were significantly higher than the cultivated males. Antioxidant capacity of SP was significantly higher in cultivated males, while pH and anti-trypsin did not differ between fish origins. Four bands of anti-trypsin activity and nine protein bands were detected in SP. Performing a discriminant function analysis, on morphology and fatty acid data showed significant discrimination between wild and cultivated fish. Results are relevant to breeding programs and aquaculture development. PMID:21281735

  7. Measurement of carbonic anhydrase isozyme VI (CA-VI) in swine sera, colostrums, saliva, bile, seminal plasma and tissues.

    PubMed

    Nishita, Toshiho; Itoh, Seigo; Arai, Sachiko; Ichihara, Nobutune; Arishima, Kazuyoshi

    2011-10-01

    Swine secretory carbonic anhydrase VI (CA-VI) was purified from swine saliva and an antibody to CA-VI was generated. A specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed for the measurement of swine CA-VI. The assay can detect as little as 5?ng/mL of swine CA-VI. Typical standard curves were determined for a range of CA-VI solutions (7.8 to 500?ng/mL). The coefficients of variation for these solutions were less than 5%. When 500, 250 or 100?ng/mL of swine CA-VI was added to swine sera, the recoveries were 102.0%, 109.7% and 100.2%, respectively. The concentrations of CA-VI in the saliva (26.2?±?30.4?µg/mL), sera (3.3?±?4.9?ng/mL), bile (153.0?±?114.0?ng/mL), seminal plasma (124.0?±?39.0?ng/mL) and parotid gland (441.3?±?90.0?µg/g wet tissue), submaxillary gland (88.1?±?124.4?µg/g wet tissue), sublingual gland (58.6?±?24.6?µg/g wet tissue) and gallbladder (2.4?±?1.3?µg/1g wet tissue) were determined by ELISA. The concentration of CA-VI in colostrum was 163.3?±?101.4?ng/mL and did not decrease within 10?days following parturition. An immunohistochemical reaction to anti-CA-VI antiserum was observed in the columnar epithelial cells lining the gallbladder. These data suggest that secretory CA-VI plays various roles in pH regulation and the maintenance of ion and fluid balance. PMID:21951903

  8. Effect of seminal plasma vesicular structures in canine frozen-thawed semen.

    PubMed

    Goericke-Pesch, S; Hauck, S; Failing, K; Wehrend, A

    2015-12-01

    Membrane vesicles (MVs) in the ejaculate have been identified in various species and are considered to affect membrane fluidity due to their characteristic molecular composition. Addition of MV to human frozen semen has been shown to improve post-thaw motility. Similarly, a beneficial effect has been suggested for frozen equine semen. As post-thaw canine semen quality varies widely between dogs, the aim of our study was to test for the effect of addition of canine MV on post-thaw semen quality in dogs. Semen samples from 10 male dogs were purified from MV and prepared for freezing. In experiment 1, three groups were compared: sperm frozen (1) with MV (S1); (2) without MV, but MV added immediately after thawing (S2); and (3) without MV (C). Semen analysis included computer-assisted sperm analysis of motility parameters immediately after thawing (t0), after 10 (t10) and 30 minutes (t30), % living sperm, % membrane intact, % morphologically normal sperm (all t0 and t30). Computer-assisted sperm analysis motility distance and velocity parameters (all P < 0.05) and % living sperm (P < 0.001) were significantly affected by treatment with a temporary increase of distance and velocity parameters at t0 to t10, but a significant decrease of the aforementioned parameters at t30 in samples with MV. In experiment 2, different MV protein concentrations added after thawing were compared: 0.05 mg, 0.1 mg, and 0.2 mg/mL. Computer-assisted sperm motility analysis was performed at t0, t10, and t30. No differences between MV concentrations were identified, only a significant interaction between effect of treatment and time for progressive motility (P < 0.01). Our study identified a short-term beneficial effect of canine MV on post-thaw distance and velocity parameters, whereas at t30 progressive motility, motility parameters and % living sperm were reduced in samples with MV compared to C. The results point to species-specific differences regarding the MV effect on frozen semen and indicate the need for further studies using different semen and MV purification protocols and more frequent analyses. At the moment, addition of MV is not an option to improve post-thaw semen quality in dogs. PMID:26296522

  9. Influence of seminal plasma, spermatozoa and semen extender on cytokine expression in the porcine endometrium after insemination.

    PubMed

    Jiwakanon, J; Persson, E; Berg, M; Dalin, A-M

    2011-02-01

    The effects of semen components or extender alone on the expression of selected cytokines [interleukine (IL)-1?, IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1] on the porcine endometrium were studied, as well as the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs). In experiment (Exp) I, groups of gilts were sampled at 5-6h after insemination with fresh semen in extender (Beltsville thawing solution, BTS), spermatozoa in extender (Spz), seminal plasma (SP), or only BTS (control). In Exp II, gilts were sampled 35-40h after insemination with Spz, SP, BTS or only catheter inserted (as control). Immunohistochemical (IHC) labelling of IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-?1 was evident, especially in surface and glandular epithelia of the porcine endometrium. There were no consistent differences in IHC-labelling of the cytokines in relation to different treatments. However, the scores for IL-6 and IL-10 in surface epithelium and sub-epithelial connective tissue compartments were higher at 35-40h than shortly (5-6h) after treatment. Cytoplasmic labelling in the sub-epithelial connective tissue was observed in scattered individual cells but not in PMNs. Shortly (5-6h) after insemination, there were no differences between animals inseminated with BTS (control) and the semen components for any of the cytokine mRNAs. Later however, at 35-40h, lower endometrial expression of TGF-?1 mRNA was observed in the Spz and BTS groups compared with the control (catheter only). The same pattern was found for IL-10 (NS). The mRNA expression of IL-6 in the BTS inseminated group was higher compared to the control group. Insemination with SP resulted in significantly lower PMN cell infiltration in the sub-epithelial connective tissue compared with Spz or BTS groups shortly (5-6h) after insemination. Later (35-40h), a significant difference was found between SP (lower) and the control group (only catheter). To conclude, our results show that insemination and/or inseminated components modulated cytokine expression in the gilt endometrium. The semen extender BTS stimulated immune reactivity, as shown by down-regulation of the suppressive cytokine TGF-?1. Insemination with solely SP clearly decreased PMN cell infiltration of the gilt endometrium. However, no clear relation between the cytokines studied and PMN cell presence was found. PMID:21196090

  10. Molecular structure and functional characterization of a human complement cytolysis inhibitor found in blood and seminal plasma: identity to sulfated glycoprotein 2, a constituent of rat testis fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Jenne, D E; Tschopp, J

    1989-01-01

    A component of soluble terminal complement complexes was identified and affinity-purified to homogeneity by using a monoclonal antibody previously developed against the soluble C5b-9 complex. The protein, which we have designated complement cytolysis inhibitor (CLI), has a molecular mass of 70 kDa and consists of two nonidentical, disulfide-linked subunits of 35 kDa. Partial amino acid sequences determined for the amino-termini of the two subunits were identical with those of a recently characterized serum protein called SP-40,40. An almost full-length cDNA clone of 1651 base pairs was isolated from a human liver cDNA library by using long synthetic oligonucleotides as probes. The encoded amino acid sequence of CLI consists of 427 amino acid residues preceded by a 21-residue-long typical signal peptide and shows an overall 75.6% amino acid sequence homology to sulfated glycoprotein 2 (SGP-2), a major Sertoli cell-derived protein of rat testis fluid. As in SGP-2, proteolytic processing between residues 206 and 207 yields the two disulfide-linked subunits of plasma CLI. CLI and SGP-2 were shown to be orthologous single-copy genes in humans and rats by Southern blotting experiments. In addition, CLI was immunologically identified in human seminal plasma. Functional studies with purified terminal complement components showed that CLI suppresses the cytolytic potential of nascent C5b-7 complexes at physiological blood plasma concentrations (approximately 50 micrograms/ml). Its presence on the surface of mature sperm cells and its relative abundance in seminal plasma (approximately 250 micrograms/ml) suggest that CLI protects sperm cells and epithelial tissues against complement attack in the male reproductive tract. Images PMID:2780565

  11. Decreased activity of superoxide dismutase in the seminal plasma of infertile men correlates with increased sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation during the first hours after sperm donation.

    PubMed

    Wdowiak, Artur; Bakalczuk, Szymon; Bakalczuk, Grzegorz

    2015-07-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation varies between individuals and is more pronounced with increased patient age and time after sperm donation. The intensification of DNA fragmentation depends on the balance of the oxidoreductive system, which is regulated mainly by two enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation dynamics, fertility and seminal SOD and catalase activity. The study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at the Non-Public Health Care Unit 'Ovum Reproduction and Andrology' in Lublin, Lublin, Poland, and covered 218 men aged 25-35 (85 fertile and 133 patients treated for infertility). Percentage of fragmented DNA was measured in a modified chromatin dispersion test at four time points after sperm donation (t = 0, 3, 6, 12 h). SOD and catalase activities were determined spectrophotometrically. We confirmed that the activity of SOD in the seminal plasma of men with reproductive disorders was lower compared with fertile men. Conversely, no significant correlations were found between fertility and catalase activity. Sperm DNA of infertile males was initially more fragmented than fertile male sperm DNA. SOD and catalase activity did not correlate with the degree of DNA fragmentation in fertile men. In men with reproductive disorders, the rate of DNA fragmentation was slow within first 3 h after sperm donation and then increased between 6 and 12 h. In this group of infertile men, those with higher SOD activity had a lower DNA fragmentation index (DFI) after 12 h, and a reduced rate of intensity of fragmentation from 6 to 12 h. Alternatively, higher catalase activity among men treated for infertility was accompanied by higher initial DFI and higher rate of DNA fragmentation from 6 to 12 h. These results highlight the importance of determining a proper time window between sperm donation and procedures of assisted reproductive technology. PMID:26198800

  12. Cryosurvival and in vitro fertilizing capacity postthaw is improved when boar spermatozoa are frozen in the presence of seminal plasma from good freezer boars.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Marta; Roca, Jordi; Calvete, Juan J; Sanz, Libia; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José A; Vázquez, Juan M; Martínez, Emilio A

    2007-01-01

    The study evaluated the protective effect of seminal plasma (SP) added to freezing extender against cryopreservation injuries to boar spermatozoa. Pooled sperm-rich fractions collected from 9 fertile boars were frozen in 0.5-mL straws after being extended in a conventional freezing extender either alone or supplemented with 5% of SPs (SP1-SP4) collected from the sperm-rich fractions (diluted 1:1, vol/vol, in Beltsville Thawing Solution extender) from 4 boars (1-4) with known sperm cryosurvival (poor, moderate, and good sperm freezers). Cryopreservation injuries were assessed in terms of postthaw sperm motility (assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis), viability (plasma membrane and acrosome integrity assessed simultaneously by flow cytometry), membrane lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA] production), and the ability of thawed spermatozoa to fertilize in vitro-matured homologous oocytes. The addition of SP from good sperm freezers (SP3 and SP4) improved (P < .01) the motility and viability of thawed spermatozoa without any influence on MDA production. Moreover, SP from good sperm freezers also increased (P < .05) the percentage of penetrated (SP3) and polyspermic oocytes (SP4) with respect to the control. Neither the total amount of SP proteins, protein profiles, nor antioxidant capacity of the different SPs were related to the various cryosurvival/fertilizing capacities of the processed spermatozoa. PMID:17460094

  13. A DEXTRAN SWIM-UP PROCEDURE FOR SEPARATION OF HIGHLY MOTILE AND VIABLE RAM SPERMATOZOA FROM SEMINAL PLASMA

    E-print Network

    Zaragoza, Universidad de

    individual motility, membrane integrity and resistance to a hypoosmotic swelling test (HOS). Semen samples. The second, third and fourth fractions were pooled and showed low plasma contamination (2% NAG and 5% citrate

  14. Effect of dietary energy on seminal plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), serum IGF-I and testosterone levels, semen quality and fertility in adult rams.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, S; Sivasubramani, T; Raghavendra, B S; Raju, P; Rao, S B N; Dineshkumar, D; Ravindra, J P

    2012-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to modulate seminal plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) by dietary energy and assess the relationship among testosterone and IGF-I levels, semen quality and fertility in adult rams. Twenty-four 1-yr old adult Nellore rams were equally divided into three groups (n = 8) and fed with three different concentrate mixtures formulated using conventional ingredients and finger millet (Eleucine corocana) straw to ensure rams received with similar amount of crude protein with three levels of energy. Rams in low-energy group were offered diets with 20% less energy than the control energy group (optimum energy, 100%, recommended energy level), whereas rams in high energy group were offered diets with 20% more energy than the optimum energy group. Semen was collected from rams 60 days after start of the experimental feeding. The percentages of progressive forward motility, functional membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential of the spermatozoa were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in control and high energy groups as compared to low-energy group. Feeding of low-energy diet significantly (P < 0.05) decreased spermatozoa VSL, VCL and VAP when compared to control and high energy fed groups. The number of spermatozoa binding/oocyte was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in control (11.23 ± 0.20) and high energy (10.57 ± 0.19) groups as compared to the low energy (6.14 ± 0.01) group. The serum and seminal plasma IGF-I levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in control and high energy fed groups as compared to the low-energy group. The serum testosterone and cholesterol levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the control group as compared to the low-energy group. The seminal plasma fructose levels in optimum energy fed animals were significantly (P < 0.05) higher as compared to other two groups. The seminal plasma IGF-I level had positive correlation with progressive forward motility (r = 0.7) and other velocity (linearity, r = 0.7; straightness, r = 0.7) parameters. The study suggested that the modulation of seminal plasma IGF-I levels by dietary energy is possible and the optimum level of seminal plasma IGF-I is necessary and sufficient to influence semen quality. PMID:22626778

  15. Does seminal plasma PSP-I/PSP-II spermadhesin modulate the ability of boar spermatozoa to penetrate homologous oocytes in vitro?

    PubMed

    Caballero, Ignacio; Vazquez, Juan M; Gil, Maria A; Calvete, Juan J; Roca, Jordi; Sanz, Libia; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Garcia, Eva M; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Martinez, Emilio A

    2004-01-01

    Low concentration (0.15 mg per million of spermatozoa) of seminal plasma-derived PSP-I/PSP-II spermadhesin heterodimer is able to preserve the viability of highly extended boar spermatozoa. Whether spermatozoa also keep their fertilizing capacity is not yet known. The present study evaluated the effect of exposing freshly extended and frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa (10 million/mL) to PSP-I/PSP-II (1.5 mg/mL) for 30 or 120 minutes on sperm characteristics and the outcome of in vitro penetration of immature (IM) and in vitro matured (IVM) homologous oocytes, aiming to identify this spermadhesin as a suitable modulator for sperm-handling protocols. Although exposure to the heterodimer improved sperm viability and motility without increasing the levels of sperm acrosome exocytosis in both freshly extended and frozen-thawed spermatozoa, this pretreatment did not affect sperm penetration rates or sperm numbers per oocyte when pretreated fresh spermatozoa were coincubated with IM or IVM oocytes compared with controls. When cryopreserved spermatozoa were tested, however, on IVM oocytes, already a 30-minute preincubation exposure to PSP-I/PSP-II showed a significant blocking effect on penetration rate (from 90% to 32%, P < .05) and on mean sperm numbers per oocyte (2.9 to 1.6, P < .05). To disclose the nature of this paradox, frozen-thawed spermatozoa were cleansed (by centrifugation in saline bovine serum albumin or through Percoll density gradient separation) and the procedure repeated. Oocyte penetration (but not number of spermatozoa per oocyte) increased (P < .05) when spermatozoa were cleansed with Percoll compared with either washed or unwashed controls (53% vs 13% vs 31%, respectively). In addition, the percentages of polyspermic oocytes remained lower than control (38.5% vs 68.7%, respectively; P < .05). In conclusion, the results confirm that exposure of fresh or frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa to a low dose of seminal PSP-I/PSP-II spermadhesin preserves sperm viability and motility in vitro. Although there was no obvious influence of the heterodimer on the capability of freshly extended boar spermatozoa to penetrate homologous oocytes (either IM or IVM), PSP-I/PSP-II exerted a deleterious effect when frozen-thawed spermatozoa were used to penetrate IVM oocytes. Such an effect of cryopreservation seems to a certain extent reversible, since cleansing of the sperm surface decreased, at least partially, this blocking effect, increasing both penetration and the monospermic rates. PMID:15477376

  16. Electromagnetic fluctuations and normal modes of a drifting relativistic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ruyer, C.; Gremillet, L.; Bénisti, D.; Bonnaud, G.

    2013-11-15

    We present an exact calculation of the power spectrum of the electromagnetic fluctuations in a relativistic equilibrium plasma described by Maxwell-Jüttner distribution functions. We consider the cases of wave vectors parallel or normal to the plasma mean velocity. The relative contributions of the subluminal and supraluminal fluctuations are evaluated. Analytical expressions of the spatial fluctuation spectra are derived in each case. These theoretical results are compared to particle-in-cell simulations, showing a good reproduction of the subluminal fluctuation spectra.

  17. Cetrorelix suppresses the preovulatory LH surge and ovulation induced by ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) present in llama seminal plasma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to determine if the effect of llama OIF on LH secretion is mediated by stimulation of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. Methods Using a 2-by-2 factorial design to examine the effects of OIF vs GnRH with or without a GnRH antagonist, llamas with a growing ovarian follicle greater than or equal to 8 mm were assigned randomly to four groups (n = 7 per group) and a) pre-treated with 1.5 mg of GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix acetate) followed by 1 mg of purified llama OIF, b) pre-treated with 1.5 mg of cetrorelix followed by 50 micrograms of GnRH, c) pre-treated with a placebo (2 ml of saline) followed by 1 mg of purified llama OIF or d) pre-treated with a placebo (2 ml of saline) followed by 50 micrograms of GnRH. Pre-treatment with cetrorelix or saline was given as a single slow intravenous dose 2 hours before intramuscular administration of either GnRH or OIF. Blood samples for LH measurement were taken every 15 minutes from 1.5 hours before to 8 hours after treatment. The ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to detect ovulation and CL formation. Blood samples for progesterone measurement were taken every-other-day from Day 0 (day of treatment) to Day 16. Results Ovulation rate was not different (P = 0.89) between placebo+GnRH (86%) and placebo+OIF groups (100%); however, no ovulations were detected in llamas pre-treated with cetrorelix. Plasma LH concentrations surged (P < 0.01) after treatment in both placebo+OIF and placebo+GnRH groups, but not in the cetrorelix groups. Maximum plasma LH concentrations and CL diameter profiles did not differ between the placebo-treated groups, but plasma progesterone concentrations were higher (P < 0.05), on days 6, 8 and 12 after treatment, in the OIF- vs GnRH-treated group. Conclusion Cetrorelix (GnRH antagonist) inhibited the preovulatory LH surge induced by OIF in llamas suggesting that LH secretion is modulated by a direct or indirect effect of OIF on GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus. PMID:21624125

  18. Maturation of spermatozoa from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sex-reversed females using artificial seminal plasma or glucose-methanol extender.

    PubMed

    Ciereszko, Andrzej; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Nynca, Joanna; Dobosz, Stefan; Krom, Janusz

    2015-04-15

    Masculinized females (sex-reversed females) produce only homogametic spermatozoa (X) for fertilization which is desired for the production of all-female rainbow trout populations. The milt of sex-reversed females is of low quality and must be matured through extension in maturation solutions. The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of glucose-methanol (GM) extender with artificial seminal plasma (ASP) extender for the maturation of milt of sex-reversed female rainbow trout. Milt suspensions were incubated at 4 °C for either 15 minutes (GM extender) or 120 minutes (ASP extender). Incubation of milt diluted in either the GM or ASP extender caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the percentage of sperm motility to 76.1 ± 10.9% and 74.7 ± 18.6% for GM and ASP, respectively, but no differences between both the extenders were found. Incubation also increased the average path velocity, straight line velocity, and linearity values of spermatozoa diluted with the GM extender; at the same time, none of the other parameters changed for ASP suspensions. Sperm diluted with ASP was characterized by higher curvilinear velocity and lateral head displacement values. Percentage of eyed embryos produced by fertilization using milt diluted in the GM extender amounted to 63.6 ± 16.4% and 67.2 ± 11.9% for sperm-to-egg ratio of 300,000:1 or 600,000:1, respectively and was lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of ASP extender (79.5 ± 5.8% and 80.3 ± 4.7% for sperm-to-egg ratio of 300,000:1 or 600,000:1, respectively). The results of our study clearly report that the mechanism of sperm maturation by the GM extender differs from that based on ASP. PMID:25638350

  19. Enhancement of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Infection by Seminal Plasma and Semen Amyloids Implicates a New Target for the Prevention of HSV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Lilith; Ortiz, Tatiana; Tang, Qiyi

    2015-01-01

    Human herpesviruses cause different infectious diseases, resulting in world-wide health problems. Sexual transmission is a major route for the spread of both herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and -2. Semen plays an important role in carrying the viral particle that invades the vaginal or rectal mucosa and, thereby, initiates viral replication. Previously, we demonstrated that the amyloid fibrils semenogelin (SEM) and semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI), and seminal plasma (SP) augment cytomegalovirus infection (Tang et al., J. Virol 2013). Whether SEM or SEVI amyloids or SP could also enhance other herpesvirus infections has not been examined. In this study, we found that the two amyloids as well as SP strongly enhance both HSV-1 and -2 infections in cell culture. Along with SP, SEM and SEVI amyloids enhanced viral entry and increased infection rates by more than 10-fold, as assessed by flow cytometry assay and fluorescence microscopy. Viral replication was increased by about 50- to 100-fold. Moreover, viral growth curve assays showed that SEM and SEVI amyloids, as well as SP, sped up the kinetics of HSV replication such that the virus reached its replicative peak more quickly. The interactions of SEM, SEVI, and SP with HSVs are direct. Furthermore, we discovered that the enhancing effects of SP, SEM, and SEVI can be significantly reduced by heparin, a sulfated polysaccharide with an anionic charge. It is probable that heparin abrogates said enhancing effects by interfering with the interaction of the viral particle and the amyloids, which interaction results in the binding of the viral particles and both SEM and SEVI. PMID:25903833

  20. Seminal fluid factors regulate activin A and follistatin synthesis in female cervical epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, David J; Schjenken, John E; Mottershead, David G; Robertson, Sarah A

    2015-12-01

    Seminal fluid induces pro-inflammatory cytokines and elicits an inflammation-like response in the cervix. Here, Affymetrix microarray and qPCR was utilised to identify activin A (INHBA) and its inhibitor follistatin (FST) amongst the cytokines induced by seminal plasma in Ect1 ectocervical epithelial cells, and a similar response was confirmed in primary ectocervical epithelial cells. TGFB is abundant in seminal plasma and all three TGFB isoforms induced INHBA in Ect1 and primary cells, and neutralisation of TGFB in seminal plasma suppressed the INHBA response. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide in seminal plasma also elicited INHBA, but potently suppressed FST production. There was moderate reciprocal inhibition between FST and INHBA, and cross-attenuating effects were seen. These data identify TGFB and potentially LPS as factors mediating seminal plasma-induced INHBA synthesis in cervical cells. INHBA and FST induced by seminal fluid in cervical tissues may thus contribute to regulation of the post-coital response in women. PMID:26415587

  1. Recombinant human LCAT normalizes plasma lipoprotein profile in LCAT deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simonelli, Sara; Tinti, Cristina; Salvini, Laura; Tinti, Laura; Ossoli, Alice; Vitali, Cecilia; Sousa, Vitor; Orsini, Gaetano; Nolli, Maria Luisa; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura

    2013-11-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is the enzyme responsible for cholesterol esterification in plasma. Mutations in the LCAT gene leads to two rare disorders, familial LCAT deficiency and fish-eye disease, both characterized by severe hypoalphalipoproteinemia associated with several lipoprotein abnormalities. No specific treatment is presently available for genetic LCAT deficiency. In the present study, recombinant human LCAT was expressed and tested for its ability to correct the lipoprotein profile in LCAT deficient plasma. The results show that rhLCAT efficiently reduces the amount of unesterified cholesterol (-30%) and promotes the production of plasma cholesteryl esters (+210%) in LCAT deficient plasma. rhLCAT induces a marked increase in HDL-C levels (+89%) and induces the maturation of small pre?-HDL into alpha-migrating particles. Moreover, the abnormal phospholipid-rich particles migrating in the LDL region were converted in normally sized LDL. PMID:24140107

  2. Effects of water immersion on plasma catecholamines in normal humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Johnson, G.; Denunzio, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in order to determine whether water immersion to the neck (NI) alters plasma catecholamines in normal humans. Eight normal subjects were studied during a seated control study (C) and during 4 hr of NI, and the levels of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) as determined by radioenzymatic assay were measured hourly. Results show that despite the induction of a marked natriuresis and diuresis indicating significant central hypervolemia, NI failed to alter plasma NE or E levels compared with those of either C or the corresponding prestudy 1.5 hr. In addition, the diuresis and natriuresis was found to vary independently of NE. These results indicate that the response of the sympathetic nervous system to acute volume alteration may differ from the reported response to chronic volume expansion.

  3. Relationship of semen hyperviscosity with IL-6, TNF-?, IL-10 and ROS production in seminal plasma of infertile patients with prostatitis and prostato-vesiculitis.

    PubMed

    Castiglione, R; Salemi, M; Vicari, L O; Vicari, E

    2014-12-01

    Changes in levels of oxidative damage products in semen and their relationship to seminal fluid viscosity (SFV) have recently received increasing research interest. We analysed whether SFV was associated with ROS generation, levels of cytokines TNF-alpha (TNF-?), IL-6 and IL-10 and seminal leucocyte concentration, and whether ROS production was related to the extent of infections/inflammations at one (prostatitis) or two (prostato-vesiculitis) male accessory glands. We studied 169 infertile patients, with chronic bacterial prostatitis (PR, n = 74) and/or bilateral prostato-vesiculitis (PV, n = 95), as diagnosed by the ultrasound (US) criteria. Healthy fertile men (n = 42) served as controls. In the PV patient group, SFV, semen characteristics and ROS production had median values that were significantly higher than those found in PR patients and controls, although other sperm variables had values significantly lower than those found in PR patients or controls. In PV infertile patients, ROS generation and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels were higher than those found in PR infertile patients and controls, although seminal IL-10 levels in PV and PR patients were lower than those found in the controls. In PR patients, the levels of SFV were positively related to TNF-? (r = 0.67; P < 0.01), fMLP-stimulated ROS production in the 45% Percoll fraction (r = 0.687, P < 0.01) and the 90% Percoll fraction in basal condition (r = 0.695, P < 0.01), and after fMLP-stimulation (r = 0.688, P < 0.01). Thus, our data indicated that seminal hyperviscosity is associated with increased oxidative stress in infertile men and increased pro-inflammatory interleukins in patients with male accessory gland infection, more when the infection was extended to the seminal vesicles. PMID:24329571

  4. Restoration of Normal Prothrombin Time/International Normalized Ratio With Fresh Frozen Plasma in Hypocoagulable Patients.

    PubMed

    Only, Arthur J; DeChristopher, Phillip J; Iqal, Omer; Fareed, Jawed

    2016-01-01

    Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is an effective reversal agent for hypocoagulable patients. Its proven efficacy continues to prompt its usage as both a prophylactic and a therapeutic therapy. Although published guidelines encouraging the appropriate administration of FFP exist, overutilization continues. The purpose of these ex vivo studies was to determine the effects of succeeding volumes of FFP supplementation on hypocoagulable plasma prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR). By analyzing the decline in PT/INR with varying volumes of FFP, a minimal required volume of FFP could be identified representing the optimal volume to administer while still providing therapeutic effect. A total of 497 plasma samples were screened for elevated PT/INR values and 50 samples were selected for inclusion in this experiment. The initial PTs/INRs ranged from 12.5 to 43.4 seconds/1.42 to 4.91. Subsequent declines in PT/INR values were analyzed following addition of 50, 100, and 150 µL of FFP to a fixed volume of 250 µL of plasma (26.4 ± 5.318 seconds/2.99 ± 0.603, 13.3 ± 1.077 seconds/1.51 ± 0.122, 11.2 ± 0.712 seconds/1.27 ± 0.081, and 10.3 ± 0.533 seconds/1.16 ± 0.06, respectively). A nonlinear relationship between decline in INR values and percentage of FFP supplementation was demonstrated. The greatest effect on INR was obtained after supplementation with 50 µL (49%). Doubling and tripling the volume of FFP lead to significantly lower declines in INR (16% and 8%, respectively). Analysis of variance indicated a statistical significance with subsequent volume supplementation of FFP, but marginal clinical benefits exist between the PTs/INRs obtainable with increased FFP volume administration. PMID:25294634

  5. Proteomic analysis of seminal fluid from men exhibiting oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Seminal plasma serves as a natural reservoir of antioxidants. It helps to remove excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and consequently, reduce oxidative stress. Proteomic profiling of seminal plasma proteins is important to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress and sperm dysfunction in infertile men. Methods This prospective study consisted of 52 subjects: 32 infertile men and 20 healthy donors. Once semen and oxidative stress parameters were assessed (ROS, antioxidant concentration and DNA damage), the subjects were categorized into ROS positive (ROS+) or ROS negative (ROS-). Seminal plasma from each group was pooled and subjected to proteomics analysis. In-solution digestion and protein identification with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), followed by bioinformatics analyses was used to identify and characterize potential biomarker proteins. Results A total of 14 proteins were identified in this analysis with 7 of these common and unique proteins were identified in both the ROS+ and ROS- groups through MASCOT and SEQUEST analyses, respectively. Prolactin-induced protein was found to be more abundantly present in men with increased levels of ROS. Gene ontology annotations showed extracellular distribution of proteins with a major role in antioxidative activity and regulatory processes. Conclusions We have identified proteins that help protect against oxidative stress and are uniquely present in the seminal plasma of the ROS- men. Men exhibiting high levels of ROS in their seminal ejaculate are likely to exhibit proteins that are either downregulated or oxidatively modified, and these could potentially contribute to male infertility. PMID:24004880

  6. Correlation between seminal lead and cadmium and seminal parameters in idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermic males

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Emad A.; Sayed, Sohair K.; Ghandour, Nagwa M; Mahran, Ali M.; Saleh, Medhat A.; Amin, Magdy M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The exact causes of the decline in semen quality are not yet known, environmental factors have been considered to play an important role. Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) are two of the well-known reproductive toxicants to which humans are exposed occupationally and environmentally and can lead to negative effects on the testicular functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate lead and cadmium levels in seminal plasma of men with idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermia in comparison to fertile healthy controls and to correlate these levels with conventional semen parameters, sperm hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) percentage, sperm DNA fragmentation percentage, and semen reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Material and Methods Thirty infertile male patients with idiopathic oligo and/or asthenozoospermia and thirty healthy fertile men, which was the control group, were included in the study. Lead and cadmium levels in seminal plasma, semen parameters, sperm HOS, sperm DNA fragmentation percentage and semen ROS assay were measured in all subjects. Results There was a significant increase in seminal lead and cadmium levels among infertile males in comparison to controls. There were significant negative correlations between seminal lead and cadmium levels on one hand and certain semen parameters especially progressive sperm motility and vitality (HOS). Importantly, significant positive correlations were noted between seminal lead and cadmium levels on one hand and sperm DNA fragmentation percentage and semen ROS level in infertile men and controls on the other hand. Conclusions Thus, men with idiopathic male infertility had higher levels of lead and cadmium in their semen which correlated with impairment of sperm motility and vitality percentages and more importantly with higher sperm DNA fragmentation% and semen ROS level. PMID:24579002

  7. On Constructing Seminal Paper Genealogy.

    PubMed

    Duck-Ho Bae; Se-Mi Hwang; Sang-Wook Kim; Faloutsos, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Let us consider that someone is starting a research on a topic that is unfamiliar to them. Which seminal papers have influenced the topic the most? What is the genealogy of the seminal papers in this topic? These are the questions that they can raise, which we try to answer in this paper. First, we propose an algorithm that finds a set of seminal papers on a given topic. We also address the performance and scalability issues of this sophisticated algorithm. Next, we discuss the measures to decide how much a paper is influenced by another paper. Then, we propose an algorithm that constructs a genealogy of the seminal papers by using the influence measure and citation information. Finally, through extensive experiments with a large volume of a real-world academic literature data, we show the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach. PMID:23757533

  8. Comparison of Methods for Assessing Viability of Equine Spermatozoa and Effects of Seminal Plasma on Viability and Motion Characteristics of Equine Spermatozoa 

    E-print Network

    Foster, Mary L.

    2010-07-14

    Assessment of sperm viability is an important component for evaluating stallion sperm quality. The flow cytometer is considered the standard in the assessment of sperm plasma membrane integrity (viability); however, this instrument is costly...

  9. Seminal fluid and reproduction: much more than previously thought.

    PubMed

    Bromfield, John J

    2014-06-01

    The influence of seminal plasma on the cytokine and immune uterine environment is well characterised in mice and humans, while the effects of disruption to uterine seminal plasma exposure on pregnancy and offspring health is becoming more clearly understood. The cellular and molecular environment of the uterus during the pre- and peri-implantation period of early pregnancy is critical for implantation success and optimal foetal and placental development. Perturbations to this environment not only have consequences for the success of pregnancy and neonatal health and viability, but can also drive adverse health outcomes in the offspring after birth, particularly the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity, hypertension and insulin resistance. It is now reported that an absence of seminal plasma at conception in mice promotes increased fat accumulation, altered metabolism and hypertension in offspring. The evidence reviewed here demonstrates that seminal plasma is not simply a transport medium for sperm, but acts also as a key regulator of the female tract environment providing optimal support for the developing embryo and benefiting future health of offspring. PMID:24830788

  10. Effect of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) seminal plasma on the post-thaw quality of ram semen cryopreserved in a soybean lecithin-based or egg yolk-based extender.

    PubMed

    Ustuner, Burcu; Alcay, Selim; Toker, M Berk; Nur, Zekariya; Gokce, Elif; Sonat, Fusun Ak; Gul, Zulfiye; Duman, Muhammed; Ceniz, Cafer; Uslu, Ayd?n; Sagirkaya, Hakan; Soylu, M Kemal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of rainbow trout seminal plasma (RTSP) (0.1%, 1% and 10%) in extenders containing either egg yolk or lecithin for use in Awassi ram semen cryopreservation. Pooled sperm were diluted in a two-step dilution method to a final concentration of 1/5 (semen/extender) in egg yolk or lecithin extender containing no RTSP, 0.1%, 1% or 10% RTSP (v/v). Semen samples were assessed for sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity [hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) and Hoechst 33258] and defective acrosomes [FITC-conjugated Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA-FITC)] at the following five time points: after dilution with extender A; after equilibration; and post-thaw at 0h, 3h and 5h. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was examined only after thawing. Freezing and thawing procedures (dilution, equilibration and post-thaw incubation at 0h, 3h and 5h) negatively affected the motility (P<0.001) and acrosome integrity (P<0.001). Additionally, freezing and thawing negatively affected the plasma membrane integrity, as determined by the HOST and Hoechst 33258 (P<0.001). The extender group affected the motility (P<0.001) and the HOST results (P<0.001). Levels of MDA in the egg yolk extender with 1% RTSP group were significantly lower than in the lecithin control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the egg yolk extender groups that were supplemented with 10% and 1% RTSP provided greater cryoprotective effects for semen survivability during 5h incubation than the other extender groups. PMID:26685096

  11. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels in some birds of prey.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, J A; Garbett, R; Morzenti, A

    1978-10-01

    Blood samples taken from five great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), eight red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), four marsh hawks (Circus cyaneus), two prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), five golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and five white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) that had been fasted for 24 h were used to determine plasma levels of glucose by the glucose oxidase method. The mean plasma glucose levels were: great horned owls 374.6 mg/100 ml, red-tailed hawks 346.5 mg/00 ml, marsh hawks 369.3 mg/100 ml, prairie falcons 414.5 mg/100 ml, golden eagles 368.4 mg/100 ml, and white Leghorn chickens 218.2 mg/100 ml. The plasma glucose levels obtained for the raptorial birds in this study were considerably higher than those found for the chickens. These values are discussed in relation to the carnivorous food habits of raptors. PMID:739587

  12. Seminal vesicle schwannoma presenting with left hydroureteronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Gopalakrishnan; Chakraborti, Shrijeet; Rai, Santosh; Prabhu, Gurupur Guni Laxman

    2014-01-01

    We report a very rare case of seminal vesicle schwannoma in a 50-year-old male, with left hydroureteronephrosis. Only five cases of seminal vesicle schwannomas have been reported in medical literature until date. PMID:25371618

  13. Proteins of human semen. I. Two-dimensional mapping of human seminal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.J.; Tollaksen, S.L.; Anderson, N.G.

    1981-08-01

    The proteins in human seminal plasma were mapped by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (ISO-DALT and BASO-DALT systems). When analyzed under dissociating conditions, samples from normal fertile males revealed a pattern of over 200 proteins, ranging in mass from 10,000 to 100,000 daltons. Comparison of the mapped proteins from these males and those who had undergone vasectomy allowed us to identify one series of glycoproteins as missing from the semen from vasectomized individuals. Glycoproteins isolated by affinity chromatography with use of concanavalin A were also mapped. Some of the protein spots were identified either by coelectrophoresis with purified proteins or by the electrophoretic transfer of proteins to nitrocellulose sheets and subsequent detection by immunological procedures. The proteins identified include a number of serum proteins as well as prostatic acid phosphatase and creatine kinase. Proteolytic events shown to occur during the liquefaction of semen that occurs early after collection indicate the importance of carefully controlled collection and preparation methods for clinical evaluation of seminal plasma. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibit this proteolysis.

  14. 1-m normal incidence UV spectrometer for plasma measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Register, D.F.; Jackson, G.L.; Walker, S.E.

    1985-05-01

    An Acton Research VM 521-SG UV monochromator has been equipped with an intensified diode array detector for use as a mid-UV spectrometer. 600 and 2400 gr/mm gratings are used in a turret assembly for either low-resolution surveys or high-resolution Doppler ion studies. The detector is a CsI coated MCP with a P-11 output phosphor. The 1024 diode array is scanned at a 1-MHZ video rate allowing a complete spectra to be obtained in 1.0 ms. System performance and preliminary operation on the OHTE plasma will be presented.

  15. MHD surface waves in high- and low-beta plasmas. I - Normal-mode solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Suess, S. T.

    1989-01-01

    Since the first paper by Barston (1964) on electrostatic oscillations in inhomogeneous cold plasmas, it has been commonly accepted that all finite layers with a continuous profile in pressure, density and magnetic field cannot support normal surface waves but instead the waves always decay through phase mixing (also called resonant absorption). The problem is reanalyzed by studying a compressible current sheet of a general structure with rotation of the magnetic field included. All inhomogeneous layers considered in the high-beta plasma limit do not support normal modes. However, in the limit of a low-beta plasma there are some cases when normal-mode solutions are recovered. The latter means that the process of resonant absorption is not common for all inhomogeneous layers.

  16. Seminal shedding of human herpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Most of the human herpesviruses can be found in semen, although the reported prevalence varies considerably between individual studies. The frequent presence of herpesvirus in semen raises the question whether sexual transmission of the virus could have an impact on human reproduction. Only few studies have associated seminal shedding of herpesviruses with impaired sperm quality, reduced fertility, or reduced chances of pregnancy, whereas most studies fail to find an association. Taken together, no firm evidence is so far linking the presence of herpesviruses in semen to impaired human reproduction. PMID:23834839

  17. Plasma antibodies to Abeta40 and Abeta42 in patients with Alzheimer's disease and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wuhua; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Matsubara, Etsuro; Deguchi, Kentaro; Murakami, Tetsuro; Harigaya, Yasuo; Ikeda, Masaki; Amari, Masakuni; Kuwano, Ryozo; Abe, Koji; Shoji, Mikio

    2008-07-11

    Antibodies to amyloid beta protein (Abeta) are present naturally or after Abeta vaccine therapy in human plasma. To clarify their clinical role, we examined plasma samples from 113 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 205 normal controls using the tissue amyloid plaque immunoreactivity (TAPIR) assay. A high positive rate of TAPIR was revealed in AD (45.1%) and age-matched controls (41.2%), however, no significance was observed. No significant difference was observed in the MMS score or disease duration between TAPIR-positive and negative samples. TAPIR-positive plasma reacted with the Abeta40 monomer and dimer, and the Abeta42 monomer weakly, but not with the Abeta42 dimer. TAPIR was even detected in samples from young normal subjects and young Tg2576 transgenic mice. Although the Abeta40 level and Abeta40/42 ratio increased, and Abeta42 was significantly decreased in plasma from AD groups when compared to controls, no significant correlations were revealed between plasma Abeta levels and TAPIR grading. Thus an immune response to Abeta40 and immune tolerance to Abeta42 occurred naturally in humans without a close relationship to the Abeta burden in the brain. Clarification of the mechanism of the immune response to Abeta42 is necessary for realization of an immunotherapy for AD. PMID:18534566

  18. Effect of correlations on the thermal equilibrium and normal modes of a non-neutral plasma Daniel H. E. Dubin

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    in transport processes lead- ing to loss of the plasma and limits on the density 1,5 . Furthermore, when of the plasma. The theory developed in this paper consists of a perturba- tive solution of a viscoelastic modelEffect of correlations on the thermal equilibrium and normal modes of a non-neutral plasma Daniel H

  19. Plasma cortisol and cortisone concentrations in normal subjects and patients with adrenocortical disorders.

    PubMed

    Morita, Hiroyuki; Isomura, Yukinori; Mune, Tomoatsu; Daido, Hisashi; Takami, Rieko; Yamakita, Noriyoshi; Ishizuka, Tatsuo; Takeda, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Keigo; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E

    2004-01-01

    Two isozymes of the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11-HSD) are responsible for the interconversion of cortisol (F) and cortisone (E). The type 1 isozyme, 11-HSD1, acts mainly as a reductase in vivo, activating E to F, whereas the type 2, 11-HSD2, acts as a dehydrogenase, inactivating F to E. 11-HSD1 is the most abundant in the liver and 11-HSD2 in the kidney. In this study, we attempted to determine which isozyme and organs primarily contribute to equilibrium of plasma F and E concentrations in the peripheral circulation and to clarify differences in 11-HSD activities among adrenocortical disorders. Upon selective catheterizations for adrenocortical and renovascular disorders, plasma F and E concentrations in the femoral vein were closer to those in the renal vein than those in the hepatic vein. Values for mean plasma F/E ratios in the peripheral vein were in-between those of the adrenal and renal veins. A double reciprocal plot between peripheral plasma F and E concentrations in patients with various adrenocortical tumors was almost identical to that in normal subjects. Mean plasma F/E ratio in peripheral blood was higher in patients with Cushing's syndrome and was lower in patients with primary aldosteronism and nonfunctioning adrenocortical adenoma than that in normal subjects. These results suggest that renal 11-HSD2 is a main factor controlling the equilibrium of plasma F and E concentrations in the periphery and that cortisol and aldosterone excess do not change the equilibrium of plasma F and E concentrations in the peripheral circulation, but may alter expression of 11-HSD2. Alternation of 11-HSD2 activities as well as corticosteroid levels may be important in the pathophysiology of adrenocortical disorders. PMID:14681848

  20. Note: A novel normalization scheme for laser-based plasma x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, B. B.; Sun, D. R.; Tao, Y.; Sun, S. S.

    2014-09-15

    A kHz repetition rate laser pump-X-ray probe system for ultrafast X-ray diffraction is set up based on a laser-driven plasma X-ray source. A simple and reliable normalization approach has been developed to minimize the impact of large X-ray pulse intensity fluctuation on data quality. It utilizes one single X-ray area detector to record both sample and reference signals simultaneously. Performance of this novel normalization method is demonstrated in reflectivity oscillation measurement of a superlattice sample at sub-ps resolution.

  1. Plasma amyloid levels and the risk of AD in normal subjects in the Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, O.L.; Kuller, L.H.; Mehta, P.D.; Becker, J.T.; Gach, H.M.; Sweet, R.A.; Chang, Y.F.; Tracy, R.; DeKosky, S.T.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between incident Alzheimer disease (AD), and plasma A?1-40 and A?1-42 levels in normal and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects in a subgroup of participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study Cognition Study. Methods We determined the plasma A?1-40 and A?1-42 levels of 274 nondemented subjects (232 normals and 42 with MCI) in 1998 –1999 and repeated the measurements in 2002–2003. The mean age of the subjects at baseline was 79.3 ± 3.6 years. We examined the association between A? levels and incident AD over the ensuing 4.5 years, controlling for age, cystatin C level (marker of glomerular function), apolipoprotein E-4 allele, Modified-Mini-Mental State Examination scores, and MRI-identified infarcts. Results In an unadjusted prospective model in normal subjects, both A?1-40 and A?1-42 levels in 1998 –1999 were associated with incident AD (n = 55) in 2002–2003 (longitudinal analysis). In the fully adjusted multivariate model, neither A?1-42 nor A?1-40 nor their ratio was associated with incident AD. However, adjustment had a very small effect on point estimates for A?1-42, from an odds ratio (OR) of 1.61 (p = 0.007) in the unadjusted model to an OR of 1.46 (p = 0.08) in the fully adjusted model. In 2002–2003 (cross-sectional analysis), only the unadjusted models showed that both peptides were associated with AD. Conclusions Plasma A? levels are affected by age and by systemic and CNS vascular risk factors. After controlling for these conditions, A?-40 and A?1-42 are weak predictors of conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD) in normal subjects and are only weakly associated with AD in cross-sectional analysis. Consequently, plasma levels of A? do not seem to be useful biomarkers for AD. PMID:18401021

  2. Forearm mineral content in normal men: relationship to weight, height and plasma testosterone concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    McElduff, A.; Wilkinson, M.; Ward, P.; Posen, S.

    1988-01-01

    We measured forearm bone mineral content by single photon absorptiometry together with height, weight and the plasma concentrations of testosterone, free testosterone and sex steroid binding globulin in 66 normal Caucasian males aged 29-46 years. Multiple regression analysis suggests that bone mineral content in either the dominant or the nondominant arm is correlated with weight and sex steroid binding globulin (p less than 0.05 for both parameters). The partial negative correlation of bone mineral content (corrected for weight and sex steroid binding globulin) with plasma testosterone failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.07). The parsimonious regression equation which best explained the bone mineral content measurements in the nondominant forearm in these men was bone mineral content = 29.1-0.374 (plasma testosterone) + 0.383 (weight) + 0.220 (sex steroid binding globulin) with an R2 value of 29.7%. A similar equation was generated for the dominant arm.

  3. Vasopressin administration into the paraventricular nucleus normalizes plasma oxytocin and corticosterone levels in Brattleboro rats.

    PubMed

    Zelena, Dóra; Langnaese, Kristina; Domokos, Agnes; Pintér, Ottó; Landgraf, Rainer; Makara, Gábor B; Engelmann, Mario

    2009-06-01

    Adult male rats of the Brattleboro strain were used to investigate the impact of the congenital absence of vasopressin on plasma adrenocorticotropin, corticosterone, and oxytocin concentrations as well as the release pattern of oxytocin within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), in response to a 10-min forced swimming session. Measurement of adrenocorticotropin in plasma samples collected via chronically implanted jugular venous catheters revealed virtually identical stress responses for vasopressin-lacking Brattleboro (KO) and intact control animals. In contrast, plasma corticosterone and oxytocin levels were found to be significantly elevated 105 min after onset of the stressor in KO animals only. Microdialysis samples collected from the extracellular fluid of the PVN showed significantly higher levels of oxytocin both under basal conditions and in response to stressor exposure in KO vs. intact control animals accompanied by elevated oxytocin mRNA levels in the PVN of KO rats. These findings suggest that the increased oxytocin levels in the PVN caused by the congenital absence of vasopressin may contribute to normal adrenocorticotropin stress responses in KO animals. However, whereas the stressor-induced elevation of plasma oxytocin in KO rats may be responsible for their maintained corticosterone levels, oxytocin seems unable to fully compensate for the lack of vasopressin. This hypothesis was tested by retrodialyzing synthetic vasopressin into the PVN area concomitantly with blood sampling in KO animals. Indeed, this treatment normalized plasma oxytocin and corticosterone levels 105 min after forced swimming. Thus, endogenous vasopressin released within the PVN is likely to act as a paracrine signal to facilitate the return of plasma oxytocin and corticosterone to basal levels after acute stressor exposure. PMID:19246538

  4. The Relationship between Seminal Melatonin with Sperm Parameters, DNA Fragmentation and Nuclear Maturity in Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Sharbatoghli, Mina; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba; Bahadori, Mohammad Hadi; Salman Yazdi, Reza; Ghaleno, Leila Rashki

    2015-01-01

    Objective Melatonin, the chief secretory product of the pineal gland, regulates dynamic physiological adaptations that occur in seasonally breeding mammals as a response to changes in daylight hours. Because of the presence of melatonin in semen and the mem- brane melatonin receptor in spermatozoa, the impact of melatonin on the regulation of male infertility is still questionable. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of endogenous melatonin on human semen parameters (sperm concentration, motility and normal morphology), DNA fragmentation (DF) and nuclear maturity. Materials and Methods In this clinical prospective study, semen samples from 75 infer- tile men were routinely analyzed and assessed for melatonin and total antioxidant capac- ity (TAC) levels using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and colorimetric assay kits, respectively. DF was examined by the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test. Acidic aniline blue staining was used to detect chromatin defects in the sperm nuclei. Results There was no significant correlation between seminal plasma melatonin and TAC with sperm parameters and nuclear maturity. However, we observed a positive significant correlation between DF and melatonin level (r=0.273, P<0.05). Conclusion Melatonin in seminal plasma is positively correlated with damaged sperm DNA of infertile patients. The mechanism of this phenomenon needs further study. PMID:26464827

  5. Seminal characteristics and cryopreservation of sperm from the squirrel monkey, Saimiri collinsi.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, K G; Leão, D L; Almeida, D V C; Santos, R R; Domingues, S F S

    2015-09-15

    The Neotropical nonhuman primate squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.) is one of the most commonly used species in research in several areas of knowledge. However, little progress has been reported in respect to techniques for preservation of their gametes. Thus, the main objectives of this study were (1) to describe testicular and seminal aspects of a new species, Saimiri collinsi, (2) to preserve semen of this species by cooling or freezing using ACP-118 (powdered coconut water), and (3) to test two glycerol (GLY) concentrations (1.5% or 3%) for semen freezing in the presence of ACP-118. The experimental group started with 14 captive males, but only 11 were suitable to collect ejaculates containing sperm. After anesthesia, both testes were evaluated: length, width, height, and testicular circumference. Semen was collected by electroejaculation and evaluated, followed by dilution, cooling, and freezing. Seminal parameters and sperm motility, vigor, plasma membrane integrity, and normal morphology were evaluated after each step; functionality was also checked in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, and normal sperm in cooled semen (n = 11) were 44.1 ± 34.0, 63.1 ± 15.6, and 73.8 ± 19.8, respectively, with vigor ranging of 2 to 3. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, normal and functional sperm in frozen semen (n = 5) were 0.6 ± 1.3 (1.5% and 3% GLY); 4.4 ± 4.9 (1.5% GLY) and 6.6 ± 7.2 (3% GLY); 86.8 ± 3.0 (1.5% GLY) and 88.8 ± 5.1 (3% GLY); 13.3 ± 11.9 (1.5% GLY) and 14.3 ± 13.5 (3% GLY), respectively, and vigor 0 for both 1.5% and 3% GLY. No significant difference between GLY concentrations was observed. We concluded that electroejaculation was efficient for semen collection of S collinsi and tested the cooling protocol that allowed to recover a satisfactory percentage (63%) of membrane intact sperm. However, the freezing protocol was not appropriate to sperm preservation. PMID:26047706

  6. Seminal CD38 Enhances Human Sperm Capacitation through Its Interaction with CD31

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Ju; Park, Dae-Ryoung; Nam, Tae-Sik; Lee, Seo Ho; Kim, Uh-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Human sperm have to undergo a maturational process called capacitation in the female reproductive tract. Capacitation confers upon the sperm an ability to gain hypermotility and undergo acrosome reaction. Previous studies have suggested that seminal plasma proteins induce the capacitation of sperm in the female reproductive tract for the successful fertilization of the oocyte. However, the function of seminal plasma proteins in capacitation remains largely unclear. To the end, we found that soluble CD38 (sCD38) in seminal plasma increases the capacitation of sperm via specific interactions between sCD38 and the CD31 on the sperm. Upon the association of sCD38 with CD31, tyrosine kinase Src phosphorylates CD31, a process blocked by Src inhibitors. Shc, SHP-2, Grb2, and SOS, as well as Src kinase were found to associate with the phosphorylated CD31. The sCD38-induced phosphorylation of CD31 initiates a cascade reaction through the phosphorylation of Erk1/2, which results in the acrosome reaction, and sperm hypermotility. These processes were prevented by Src, Ras and MEK inhibitors. Taken together, these data indicate that the sCD38 present in seminal plasma plays a critical role in the capacitation of sperm. PMID:26407101

  7. Role of the apolipoprotein E polymorphism in determining normal plasma lipid and lipoprotein variation.

    PubMed Central

    Sing, C F; Davignon, J

    1985-01-01

    The structural gene locus for apolipoprotein E (apo E) is polymorphic. Three common alleles (epsilon 2, epsilon 3, epsilon 4) code for three major isoforms in plasma and determine six apo E phenotypes that may be identified by isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide. To establish what fraction of the inherited variation in a normal plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile is attributable to the segregation of the common alleles at the apo E gene locus, we have estimated the average apo E allelic effects on plasma cholesterol (C), triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-C, VLDL-apo B, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C, LDL-apo B, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C in a representative sample of normolipidemic individuals from Ottawa, Canada. Data from published studies were also analyzed by the same statistical procedures. As much as 16% of the genetic variance (8.3% of the total variance) for LDL-C could be accounted for by the apo E gene locus. After correction for differences in age, sex, height, and weight, it was found that the epsilon 2 allele lowered and the epsilon 4 allele raised total cholesterol, LDL-C, and LDL-apo B. No other gene has been identified that contributes as much to normal cholesterol variability. Analysis of these data and those of others also indicates that the apo E locus imparts a differential susceptibility to a variety of factors that promote hyperlipidemia. The hypothesis is proposed that the epsilon 2 allele protects against coronary heart disease (CHD) and, hence, gives a reproductive advantage that is balanced by a predisposition to CHD when the epsilon 2 is combined with a second, independent causative factor to give a reproductive disadvantage. A similar mechanism is proposed for the maintenance of the epsilon 4 allele in the population. PMID:3985008

  8. Honey increased saliva, plasma, and urine content of total nitrite concentrations in normal individuals.

    PubMed

    Al-Waili, Noori S; Boni, Nadir S

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated effects of oral honey solution on total nitrite, a stable nitric oxide metabolite, in saliva, plasma, and urine samples collected from normal subjects. Fourteen adult healthy volunteers, 25-50 years old, nine males and three females, were enrolled in the study. Total nitrite was estimated in saliva, plasma, and urine after 14 hours of food fasting. Each subject was then asked to drink honey solution (80 g of raw honey dissolved in 250 mL of water). Saliva and blood samples were collected at 1, 2, and 3 hours after ingestion of honey solution for total nitrite assay, while urine samples were collected after 3 hours for total nitrite assay. The mean total fasting nitrite in saliva was 108 +/- 61.3 micromol/L, which was increased to 130 +/- 62.9, 131.2 +/- 59, and 135.1 +/- 64.3 micromol/L at 1, 2, and 3 hours, respectively. Plasma total nitrite was 22.41 +/- 16.22 micromol/L before drinking honey, which was increased to 34.71 +/- 18.13, 29.38 +/- 14.29, and 33 +/- 13.09 micromol/L at 1, 2, and 3 hours, respectively, after drinking honey. Urine total nitrite before drinking honey was 75.8 +/- 54.79 micromol/L, which was increased to 107.8 +/- 70.83 micromol/L 3 hours after ingestion of honey solution. Although not statistically significant, honey solution showed a tendency to increase total nitrite concentration in different biological fluids from humans, including saliva, plasma, and urine. PMID:15383235

  9. Effects of positive acceleration /+Gz/ on renal function and plasma renin in normal man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Shubrooks, S. J., Jr.; Fishman, L. M.; Duncan, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of positive radial centrifugation (+Gz) on plasma resin activity (PRA) and renal function were assessed in 15 normal male subjects under carefully controlled conditions of Na, K, and water intake. Twenty minutes of +2.0 Gz resulted in significant decreases in the mean rate of sodium excretion and creatine clearance and in a doubling of PRA in seven sodium-depleted subjects (10 meq Na intake). In eight sodium-replete subjects (200 mq Na intake), 30 min of +2.0 Gz was also associated with a decrease in the mean rate of sodium excretion. As a consequence of a concurrent decrease in creatine clearance, the fractional excretion of sodium during centrifugation did not differ from control, suggesting that the changes in Na excretion were mediated primarily by renal hemodynamic factors, although enhanced renal tubular sodium reabsorption may also have played a role.

  10. Normal and abnormal evolution of argon metastable density in high-density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; You, S. J.

    2015-05-01

    A controversial problem on the evolution of Ar metastable density as a function of electron density (increasing trend versus decreasing trend) was resolved by discovering the anomalous evolution of the argon metastable density with increasing electron density (discharge power), including both trends of the metastable density [Daltrini et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Later, by virtue of an adequate physical explanation based on a simple global model, both evolutions of the metastable density were comprehensively understood as part of the abnormal evolution occurring at low- and high-density regimes, respectively, and thus the physics behind the metastable evolution has seemed to be clearly disclosed. In this study, however, a remarkable result for the metastable density behavior with increasing electron density was observed: even in the same electron density regime, there are both normal and abnormal evolutions of metastable-state density with electron density depending on the measurement position: The metastable density increases with increasing electron density at a position far from the inductively coupled plasma antenna but decreases at a position close to the antenna. The effect of electron temperature, which is spatially nonuniform in the plasma, on the electron population and depopulation processes of Argon metastable atoms with increasing electron density is a clue to understanding the results. The calculated results of the global model, including multistep ionization for the argon metastable state and measured electron temperature, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Normal and abnormal evolution of argon metastable density in high-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; You, S. J.

    2015-05-15

    A controversial problem on the evolution of Ar metastable density as a function of electron density (increasing trend versus decreasing trend) was resolved by discovering the anomalous evolution of the argon metastable density with increasing electron density (discharge power), including both trends of the metastable density [Daltrini et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Later, by virtue of an adequate physical explanation based on a simple global model, both evolutions of the metastable density were comprehensively understood as part of the abnormal evolution occurring at low- and high-density regimes, respectively, and thus the physics behind the metastable evolution has seemed to be clearly disclosed. In this study, however, a remarkable result for the metastable density behavior with increasing electron density was observed: even in the same electron density regime, there are both normal and abnormal evolutions of metastable-state density with electron density depending on the measurement position: The metastable density increases with increasing electron density at a position far from the inductively coupled plasma antenna but decreases at a position close to the antenna. The effect of electron temperature, which is spatially nonuniform in the plasma, on the electron population and depopulation processes of Argon metastable atoms with increasing electron density is a clue to understanding the results. The calculated results of the global model, including multistep ionization for the argon metastable state and measured electron temperature, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Sperm motility inversely correlates with seminal leptin levels in idiopathic asthenozoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jianhua; Zhao, Yang; Huang, Weiying; Hu, Wei; Gu, Jianjun; Chen, Chuhong; Zhou, Juan; Peng, Yubing; Gong, Min; Wang, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Asthenozoospermia is one kind cause of male infertility. Nevertheless, no specific etiology can be identified by routine tests in some cases. Recently, it has been shown that leptin plays a critical role in male fertility. However, the link between leptin and sperm motility is yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to explore association between seminal and serum leptin levels and sperm motility in idiopathic asthenozoospermia. Methods: Our study included 79 asthenozoospermic men and 77 normozoospermic men. Semen was assessed by volume, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. Serum gonadotropic and sex hormones were determined by a chemiluminescent assay. The leptin levels in serum and seminal plasma were detected with ELISA. Results: The mean seminal leptin level in asthenozoospermic group was significantly higher than that in control group, but there was no significant difference in the serum leptin levels between these two groups. The serum leptin had no significant correlation with sperm motility. The seminal leptin had significantly negative correlation with sperm progressive motility and serum total testosterone. Conclusions: The findings indicate a pathophysiological relevance of seminal leptin in sperm motility. PMID:25419396

  13. Identification of predicted seminal fluid proteins in Tribolium castaneum

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Sara

    Identification of predicted seminal fluid proteins in Tribolium castaneum A. South*, L. K. Sirot female physiology and behaviour. Tribolium casta- neum is an economically important pest species. Keywords: seminal fluid proteins, male accessory glands, gene expression, Tribolium castaneum. Introduction

  14. [Localized amyloidosis of the seminal vesicle: a case report].

    PubMed

    Kono, Masanori; Kurokawa, Tetsuyuki; Takata, Masayuki; Komatsu, Kazuto; Tsukahara, Kenji; Kurose, Nozomu

    2011-02-01

    Primary amyloidosis of the seminal vesicle is a rare disease entity. We report here a case of localized seminal vesicle amyloidosis with hematospermia. A 66-year-old man visited our hospital with a chief complaint of hematospermia. T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a hypointensity mass in the left seminal vesicle. Needle biopsy revealed amyloidosis of the seminal vesicle. Without any specific treatment, the mass lesion disappeared on MRI, and hematospermia was improved. PMID:21412044

  15. Normalization schemes for ultrafast x-ray diffraction using a table-top laser-driven plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Schick, D.; Bojahr, A.; Herzog, M.; Korff Schmising, C. von; Shayduk, R.; Leitenberger, W.; Gaal, P.; Bargheer, M.

    2012-02-15

    We present an experimental setup of a laser-driven x-ray plasma source for femtosecond x-ray diffraction. Different normalization schemes accounting for x-ray source intensity fluctuations are discussed in detail. We apply these schemes to measure the temporal evolution of Bragg peak intensities of perovskite superlattices after ultrafast laser excitation.

  16. Intercorrelations among plasma high density lipoprotein, obesity and triglycerides in a normal population

    SciTech Connect

    Albrink, M.J.; Krauss, R.M.; Lindgren, F.T.; von der Groeben, J.; Pan, S.; Wood, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    The interrelationships among fatness measures, plasma triglycerides and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were examined in 131 normal adult subjects: 38 men aged 27 to 46, 50 men aged 47 to 66, 29 women aged 27 to 46 and 24 women aged 47 to 66. None of the women were taking estrogens or oral contraceptive medication. The HDL concentration was subdivided into HDL/sub 2b/, HDL/sub 2a/ and HDL by a computerized fitting of the total schileren pattern to reference schlieren patterns. Anthropometric measures employed included skinfolds at 3 sites, 2 weight/height indices and 2 girth measurements. A high correlation was found among the various fatness measures. These measures were negatively correlated with total HDL, reflecting the negative correlation between fatness measures and HDL/sub 2/ (as the sum of HDL/sub 2a/ and /sub 2b/). Fatness measures showed no relationship to HDL/sub 3/. There was also an inverse correlation between triglyceride concentration and HDL/sub 2/. No particular fatness measure was better than any other for demonstrating the inverse correlation with HDL but multiple correlations using all of the measures of obesity improved the correlations. Partial correlations controlling for fatness did not reduce any of the significnt correlations between triglycerides and HDL/sub 2/ to insignificance. The weak correlation between fatness and triglycerides was reduced to insigifnicance when controlled for HDL/sub 2/.

  17. Plasma metabolomic profiles enhance precision medicine for volunteers of normal health

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lining; Milburn, Michael V.; Ryals, John A.; Lonergan, Shaun C.; Mitchell, Matthew W.; Wulff, Jacob E.; Alexander, Danny C.; Evans, Anne M.; Bridgewater, Brandi; Miller, Luke; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; Caskey, C. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Precision medicine, taking account of human individuality in genes, environment, and lifestyle for early disease diagnosis and individualized therapy, has shown great promise to transform medical care. Nontargeted metabolomics, with the ability to detect broad classes of biochemicals, can provide a comprehensive functional phenotype integrating clinical phenotypes with genetic and nongenetic factors. To test the application of metabolomics in individual diagnosis, we conducted a metabolomics analysis on plasma samples collected from 80 volunteers of normal health with complete medical records and three-generation pedigrees. Using a broad-spectrum metabolomics platform consisting of liquid chromatography and GC coupled with MS, we profiled nearly 600 metabolites covering 72 biochemical pathways in all major branches of biosynthesis, catabolism, gut microbiome activities, and xenobiotics. Statistical analysis revealed a considerable range of variation and potential metabolic abnormalities across the individuals in this cohort. Examination of the convergence of metabolomics profiles with whole-exon sequences (WESs) provided an effective approach to assess and interpret clinical significance of genetic mutations, as shown in a number of cases, including fructose intolerance, xanthinuria, and carnitine deficiency. Metabolic abnormalities consistent with early indications of diabetes, liver dysfunction, and disruption of gut microbiome homeostasis were identified in several volunteers. Additionally, diverse metabolic responses to medications among the volunteers may assist to identify therapeutic effects and sensitivity to toxicity. The results of this study demonstrate that metabolomics could be an effective approach to complement next generation sequencing (NGS) for disease risk analysis, disease monitoring, and drug management in our goal toward precision care. PMID:26283345

  18. Plasma metabolomic profiles enhance precision medicine for volunteers of normal health.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lining; Milburn, Michael V; Ryals, John A; Lonergan, Shaun C; Mitchell, Matthew W; Wulff, Jacob E; Alexander, Danny C; Evans, Anne M; Bridgewater, Brandi; Miller, Luke; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L; Caskey, C Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Precision medicine, taking account of human individuality in genes, environment, and lifestyle for early disease diagnosis and individualized therapy, has shown great promise to transform medical care. Nontargeted metabolomics, with the ability to detect broad classes of biochemicals, can provide a comprehensive functional phenotype integrating clinical phenotypes with genetic and nongenetic factors. To test the application of metabolomics in individual diagnosis, we conducted a metabolomics analysis on plasma samples collected from 80 volunteers of normal health with complete medical records and three-generation pedigrees. Using a broad-spectrum metabolomics platform consisting of liquid chromatography and GC coupled with MS, we profiled nearly 600 metabolites covering 72 biochemical pathways in all major branches of biosynthesis, catabolism, gut microbiome activities, and xenobiotics. Statistical analysis revealed a considerable range of variation and potential metabolic abnormalities across the individuals in this cohort. Examination of the convergence of metabolomics profiles with whole-exon sequences (WESs) provided an effective approach to assess and interpret clinical significance of genetic mutations, as shown in a number of cases, including fructose intolerance, xanthinuria, and carnitine deficiency. Metabolic abnormalities consistent with early indications of diabetes, liver dysfunction, and disruption of gut microbiome homeostasis were identified in several volunteers. Additionally, diverse metabolic responses to medications among the volunteers may assist to identify therapeutic effects and sensitivity to toxicity. The results of this study demonstrate that metabolomics could be an effective approach to complement next generation sequencing (NGS) for disease risk analysis, disease monitoring, and drug management in our goal toward precision care. PMID:26283345

  19. Sperm quality and fertility of boar seminal doses after 2 days of storage: does the type of extender really matter?

    PubMed

    Pinart, Elisabeth; Yeste, Marc; Prieto-Martínez, Noelia; Reixach, Josep; Bonet, Sergi

    2015-06-01

    The present approach was designed to evaluate the extender effects on sperm quality and fertility of short-term refrigerated seminal doses from Landrace boars lodged in husbandry-controlled conditions. For this purpose, we analyzed the sperm quality of seminal doses diluted in short-term (Beltsville Thawing Solution) and extra-long-term (Duragen) extenders from Days 0 to 2 of storage at 17 °C during an 8-month period. Pregnancy rates and litter size were evaluated from double inseminations within an interval of 12 hours (36 and 48 hours of refrigeration) of multiparous females using seminal doses diluted in each extender type. Sperm quality was assessed from the analyses of sperm motility and kinetics, sperm viability, expressed as plasma and acrosome membrane integrity, membrane lipid disorder, intracellular calcium levels, and acrosin activity. Results indicated significant differences between the extenders in the sperm quality of seminal doses. Therefore, the seminal doses diluted in Duragen had higher percentages of progressive motile spermatozoa and membrane-intact spermatozoa than those diluted in Beltsville Thawing Solution throughout all the experimental months. Nevertheless, despite these differences in preserving the sperm quality, pregnancy rates (>90%) and litter sizes (>10 piglets born per litter) were similar between the extenders. Our results had great relevance from a practical point of view because they reported lack of an extender effect on the reproductive performance of seminal doses during short-tem storage. PMID:25796288

  20. Age-related change in plasma concentration of 7B2(a novel pituitary polypeptide) in normal humans

    SciTech Connect

    Natori, S.; Iguchi, H.; Nawata, H.; Kato, K.; Ibayashi, H.; Chretian, M.

    1987-08-24

    Using a specific radioimmunoassay, the authors measured concentrations of plasma 7B2(a novel pituitary polypeptide) immunoreactivity(7B2-IR) in normal human subjects, patients with chronic renal failure and those with liver cirrhosis. Mean(+/-SEM) values of plasma 7B2-IR in normal healthy men and women were 55.8 +/- 1.2 pg/ml (n=266) and 56.1 +/- 0.9 pg/ml (n = 408), respectively. The elevation of plasma 7B2-IR showed a relationship with age of the subjects, in both men(r=0.39, t = 6.86, p < 0.001) and women (r=0.35, t=7.44, p < 0.001). Plasma 7B2-IR concentrations were elevated in patients with chronic renal failure (536 +/- 45 pg/ml, Mean +/- SEM, n = 10) as well as those in liver cirrhosis (95 +/- 10 pg/ml, Mean +/- SEM, n = 15) compared to values in normal subjects, suggesting that 7B2 is mainly eliminated through the kidney and is partly metabolized in the liver. 10 references, 4 figures.

  1. [A case of prostatic cancer with a low PSA level accompanied with cystic formation requiring differentiation from adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle].

    PubMed

    Itami, Yoshitaka; Nagai, Yasuharu; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Minami, Takafumi; Hayashi, Taiji; Nozawa, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Tokumi; Uemura, Hirotsugu

    2012-07-01

    A 70-year-old man with the complaint of macrohematuria and hematospermia was admitted to our hospital for further examination of a cystic formation of the right seminal vesicle, 3.6 cm in diameter, detected by magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). Cystoscopy revealed no remarkable change, but urine cytology was class III. The serum concentration of prostate specific antigen (PSA) was within the normal range of 1.83 ng/ml. Transperineal needle biopsy of the prostate and cystic tumor of the seminal vesicle revealed adenocarcinoma of the prostate and seminal vesicle, but immunostaining for PSA was negative, so we diagnosed the case as primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle. Bloody fluid of the cyst was obtained by transperineal aspiration, but no cancer cells were detected by cytological examination. Total prostatectomy was performed, and pathological findings was infiltration of prostate cancer into the seminal vesicle (pT3b) because immunostaining of the PSA was positive. PMID:22895132

  2. Influence of the normalized ion flux on the constitution of alumina films deposited by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kurapov, Denis; Reiss, Jennifer; Trinh, David H.; Hultman, Lars; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2007-07-15

    Alumina thin films were deposited onto tempered hot working steel substrates from an AlCl{sub 3}-O{sub 2}-Ar-H{sub 2} gas mixture by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The normalized ion flux was varied during deposition through changes in precursor content while keeping the cathode voltage and the total pressure constant. As the precursor content in the total gas mixture was increased from 0.8% to 5.8%, the deposition rate increased 12-fold, while the normalized ion flux decreased by approximately 90%. The constitution, morphology, impurity incorporation, and the elastic properties of the alumina thin films were found to depend on the normalized ion flux. These changes in structure, composition, and properties induced by normalized ion flux may be understood by considering mechanisms related to surface and bulk diffusion.

  3. Obesity is associated with increased seminal insulin and leptin alongside reduced fertility parameters in a controlled male cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity appears to be associated with male reproductive dysfunction and infertility, although this has been inconsistent and inconclusive. Insulin and leptin are known mediators and modulators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testes axis, contributing to the regulation of male reproductive potential and overall wellbeing. These hormones are also present in semen influencing sperm functions. Although abdominal obesity is closely associated with insulin resistance (hyperinsulinaemia), hyperleptinaemia and glucose dysfunction, changes in seminal plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin and glucose in obese males has not previously been investigated. Methods This small case controlled study assessed serum and seminal concentrations of insulin, leptin and glucose in obese (BMI?>?=30; n?=?23) and non-obese (BMI?seminal insulin and leptin, with no significant difference in seminal glucose. Serum and seminal concentrations of insulin and leptin were positively correlated. Furthermore, obesity was associated with decreased sperm concentration, sperm vitality and increased MMP and DF, with a non-significant impact on motility and morphology. Conclusions Hyperinsulinaemia and hyperleptinaemia are associated with increased seminal insulin and leptin concentrations, which may negatively impact male reproductive function in obesity. Insulin was also found to be highly concentrated in the seminal plasma of both groups. This data will contribute to the contradictive information available in the literature on the impact of obesity and male reproduction. PMID:24885899

  4. Seminal Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and its relationship to infertility in Egyptian patients with varicocele.

    PubMed

    Eid, A A; Younan, D N

    2015-11-01

    Germ cell apoptosis has been proposed as one of the mechanisms by which varicocele can influence fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between seminal tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) levels and male infertility in patients with varicocele. This study included 112 males: 30 fertile males with varicocele, 44 infertile males with varicocele and 38 healthy fertile control subjects without varicocele. Semen analysis was performed, and serum levels of reproductive hormones were measured. Seminal TRAIL levels in the infertile varicocele group were significantly higher than in the fertile varicocele and the control groups (P = 0.014). A significant negative correlation was found between seminal TRAIL and progressive (P < 0.001) and total motility scores (P < 0.001) in the infertile varicocele group. A significant negative correlation was also detected between seminal TRAIL levels and normal sperm morphology in the fertile varicocele (P = 0.007) and infertile varicocele patients (P = 0.047). Seminal TRAIL was significantly correlated with varicocele grade whether the patients were fertile (P = 0.001) or infertile (P = 0.035). Seminal TRAIL may thus have a potential role in varicocele-associated male infertility through its negative effect on sperm motility and morphology. PMID:25351208

  5. Insect Seminal Fluid Proteins: Identification and Function

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Frank W.; Sirot, Laura K.; LaFlamme, Brooke A.; Rubinstein, C. Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2014-01-01

    Seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) produced in reproductive tract tissues of male insects and transferred to females during mating induce numerous physiological and behavioral post-mating changes in females. These changes include decreasing receptivity to re-mating, affecting sperm storage parameters, increasing egg production, modulating sperm competition, feeding behaviors, and mating plug formation. In addition, SFPs also have anti-microbial functions and induce expression of anti-microbial peptides in at least some insects. Here, we review recent identification of insect SFPs and discuss the multiple roles these proteins play in the post-mating processes of female insects. PMID:20868282

  6. ?-Defensin RTD-1 improves insulin action and normalizes plasma glucose and FFA levels in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Tran, Dat; Buchanan, Thomas A; Selsted, Michael E; Youn, Jang H

    2015-07-15

    Inflammation is implicated in metabolic abnormalities in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because ?-defensins have anti-inflammatory activities, we tested whether RTD-1, a ?-defensin, improves metabolic conditions in diet-induced obesity (DIO). DIO was induced by high-fat feeding in obese-prone CD rats from 4 wk of age. Starting at age 10 wk, the DIO rats were treated with saline or RTD-1 for 4 or 8 wk. DIO rats gained more weight than low-fat-fed controls. RTD-1 treatment did not alter body weight or calorie intake in DIO rats. Plasma glucose, FFA, triglyceride (TG), and insulin levels increased in DIO rats; RTD-1 normalized plasma glucose and FFA levels and showed tendencies to lower plasma insulin and TG levels. Hepatic and skeletal muscle TG contents increased in DIO rats; RTD-1 decreased muscle, but not hepatic, TG content. Insulin sensitivity, estimated using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and the glucose clamp technique, decreased in DIO rats, but this change was markedly reversed by RTD-1. RTD-1 had no significant effects on plasma cytokine/chemokine levels or IL-1? and TNF-? expression in liver or adipose tissues. RTD-1 treatment decreased hepatic expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase, suggesting that the effect of RTD-1 on plasma glucose (or insulin action) might be mediated by its effect to decrease hepatic gluconeogenesis. Thus, RTD-1 ameliorated insulin resistance and normalized plasma glucose and FFA levels in DIO rats, supporting the potential of RTD-1 as a novel therapeutic agent for insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, or type 2 diabetes. PMID:25991648

  7. Dependence of plasma rotation braking on ion temperature and non-axisymmetric magnetic field spectra in high normalized beta KSTAR plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Berkery, J. W.; Bialek, J. M.; Ko, W. H.; Jeon, Y. M.; Bak, J. G.; Hahn, S. H.; Kim, J.; Lee, S. G.; Jardin, S.; Choi, M. J.; Yun, G. S.; Park, H. K.

    2014-10-01

    H-mode plasma operation of KSTAR has surpassed the ideal MHD n = 1 no-wall limit by achieving high normalized beta up to 2.8 while reducing plasma internal inductance to near 0.7. Non-axisymmetric fields were applied using in-vessel control coils with varied n = 2 field spectra, ECH, and supersonic molecular beam injection to alter the plasma toroidal rotation profile in high beta H-mode plasmas and to analyze their distinct effects on the rotation. The rotation profile was significantly altered in a self-similar fashion with rotation level reduced by more than 60% without tearing activity or mode locking using the full range of techniques. Changes in the steady-state rotation profiles are analyzed to determine the physical aspects of NTV. The NTV scaling with ?B2 shows good agreement with the measured profile change. The NTV coefficient scales as Ti2 . 27 , in general agreement with the low collisionality ``1/ ?'' regime scaling of NTV theory. Resistive tearing stability determined by examining the classical tearing stability index is discussed, and the result is compared with two-fluid resistive MHD solutions from the M3D-C1 code. The effect of plasma rotation profile on tearing stability is examined using the M3D-C1 analyses. Supported by U.S. DOE grant DE-FG02-99ER54524.

  8. Estradiol and estetrol plasma levels before and after intravenous administration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in normal and pathologic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    De Cecco, L; Capitanio, G L; Lanera, P; Pedretti, E; Ragni, N; Rossato, P; Venturini, P L

    1979-03-01

    Intravenous injections of 50 mg dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were given to 7 women with normal pregnancies and 5 with pathologic pregnancies and the serum levels of 17 beta-estradiol and estetrol were assayed before and at 15 or 30-minute intervals for three hours after the injection. All tests were carried out during the 25th to 36th week of amenorrhea. Serum estradiol rose rapidly in normal subjects and remained high to the end of the test. In patients with gestational pathology the estradiol pattern was not significantly different from that of the controls. Esterol plasma levels showed a biphasic pattern with an initial rise at 30 min. and a second rise at 90 min. in normal pregnancies, whereas in pathologic pregnancies this response was either lacking completely or was markedly reduced compared to the controls. PMID:161846

  9. Suppressive effect of metyrapone on plasma corticotrophin immunoreactivity in normal man.

    PubMed

    Schöneshöfer, M; Fenner, A; Claus, M

    1983-04-01

    Short term alterations of plasma corticotrophin immunoreactivity (ACTH) and cortisol were studied in healthy men under basal conditions and during intravenous administration of metyrapone. In the intravenous experiment, a low dose (1 g/5 h) and a high dose (4 g/5 h) of metyrapone ditartrate were infused. In the early phase of the metyrapone experiments, plasma ACTH fell from 9.46 +/- 0.95 (SE) pmol/l at 08.00 h to 7.7 +/- 1.1 pmol/l at 09.00 h (P greater than 0.05) in the low-dose experiment, and from 7.0 +/- 1.6 pmol/l to 4.6 +/- 0.9 pmol/l (P less than 0.05) in the high-dose experiment. A significant delayed increase of plasma ACTH secondary to the hypocortisolaemic stimulus was apparent in the high-dose experiment, in which plasma cortisol was maximally suppressed to 14 +/- 3 nmol/l at 13.00 h. No significant increase was observed in the low-dose experiment, the maximal suppression of plasma cortisol being 46 +/- 9 nmol/l at 14.00 h. The present data suggest dual effects of metyrapone on plasma ACTH: 1) a suppressive effect, the mechanism of which is not yet understood, and 2) the known increasing effect of 'feed-back' stimulation, which seems to be very sensitive to alterations of plasma cortisol only at cortisol levels lower than about 50 nmol/l. The suppressive effect of metyrapone may account for the frequently described inadequate response of plasma ACTH to metyrapone-induced hypocortisolaemia. Particularly, the diagnostic validity of the very short versions of the metyrapone test would seem to be seriously questioned. PMID:6307549

  10. Human sperm and other seminal constituents in male infertile patients from arsenic and cadmium rich areas of Southern Assam.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mahuya; Deb, Ishita; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Kar, Kushal Kumar

    2013-08-01

    In the present study the occurrence of two heavy metals, arsenic and cadmium, have been reported in the drinking water and seminal plasma of infertile male patients as compared to a control group. The study originated from a survey of geogenic groundwater contamination with the heavy metals arsenic and cadmium in Southern Assam, India as an increase in the incidence of male infertility was being reported from these areas. According to WHO protocol, patients with sperm concentration < 20 x 10(6)/ml were selected as cases (oligozoospermic and azoospermic), and those with > 20 x 10(6)/ml, without any extreme pathological disorders and having fathered a child within 1-2 years of marriage were the control (normozoospermic) group. The study reports an inverse relationship between total sperm count and heavy metal content in drinking water as well as seminal plasma of the subjects. Moreover, a high correlation between altered semenological parameters and lower expression of accessory sex gland markers like fructose, acid phosphatase, and neutral ?-glucosidase in the seminal plasma of patients is reported. The study also highlights significant differences of the sperm function parameters like hypo-osmotic swelling, acrosome reaction, and nuclear chromatin decondensation in the patient group as compared to controls. These findings are significant as they address a likely association between heavy metal stress and altered sperm function as well as seminal enzyme inhibition. PMID:23651453

  11. Schwannoma, a rare tumor of the seminal vesicle

    PubMed Central

    Carrasquinho, Eduardo; Ferreira, Marco; Afonso, Ana; Ferrito, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We present a rare case of a schwannoma of the seminal vesicle that occurred in a 43-year-old male with symptoms of the lower urinary tract. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging documented a solid mass in the patient's left seminal vesicle. A transvesical approach with a transtrigonal midline incision was successfully performed. The microscopic aspect was compatible with schwannoma. PMID:24578861

  12. Normal and neoplastic plasma cell membrane phenotype: studies with new monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Tazzari, P L; Gobbi, M; Dinota, A; Bontadini, A; Grassi, G; Cerato, C; Cavo, M; Pileri, S; Caligaris-Cappio, F; Tura, S

    1987-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (MoAb), named 8A, 8F6 and 62B1, reacting with plasma cell-associated antigens, were characterized. 8A was found to be positive throughout the B cell lineage maturation steps from the immature B-committed CD10+ cell to the plasma cells. 8F6 and 62B1 reactivity is restricted to more mature cells and related lymphoid malignancies. In particular 62B1 appears to be limited to hairy cells and plasma cells. The results show that it is possible to obtain reagents reacting with plasma cells by immunizing mice with cells derived from human multiple myelomas. Furthermore, the obtained results suggest that it is possible to elicit antibodies against antigens which are present throughout all the differentiation steps of the B cell lineage. These new MoAb could help in elucidating the phenotype of the plasma cells and the relationships of multiple myelomas with other B cell proliferative disorders. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3319299

  13. A novel extreme ultraviolet four channels normal incidence imaging system for plasma diagnostics of Z-pinch facility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Mu, Baozhong; Zhu, Jingtao; Wang, Ling; Yi, Shengzhen; Li, Wenbin; Wang, Zhanshan; Qin, Yi; Xu, Zeping; Xu, Rongkun; Li, Zhenghong

    2013-07-01

    A novel EUV four channels normal incidence imaging system for plasma diagnostics of Z-pinch facility was presented in this paper, which consists of four concave mirrors and one convex mirror used for focusing an object onto four different positions with about 30 ?m resolution on the same image plane. In addition, this imaging system can work at the energies of 50 eV, 95 eV, 150 eV, and broadband of 50-100 eV by using different multilayer films deposited on the concave and convex mirrors. This instrument, combined with framing camera, can achieve the power of two-dimensional spatial and temporal resolution, as well as the ability to imaging the plasma at the specific temperature. In the paper, the four channels microscope centering at multi-energies was developed. PMID:23902074

  14. 21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. 866...Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. 866...Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. 866...Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. 866...Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. 866...Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...

  19. Effect of psychological stress on fertility hormones and seminal quality in male partners of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Bhongade, M B; Prasad, S; Jiloha, R C; Ray, P C; Mohapatra, S; Koner, B C

    2015-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of psychological stress on male fertility hormones and seminal quality in male partner of infertile couples. Seventy male partners of infertile couples were evaluated for level of psychological stress using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) questionnaire, serum total testosterone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) by electrochemiluminescence assay and serum GnRH by ELISA. Seminal analysis was performed as per WHO guideline. Nineteen (27%) of them had HADS anxiety and depression score ?8 (abnormal HADS score). The persons having abnormal HADS had lower serum total testosterone, higher serum FSH and LH than those of persons having normal HADS. Serum total testosterone correlated negatively with HADS, but LH and FSH correlated positively. There was no change in GnRH with the change in stress or testosterone levels. Sperm count, motility and morphologically normal spermatozoa were lower in persons having abnormal HADS. Sperm count correlated positively with total testosterone and negatively with FSH and LH. Abnormal sperm motility and morphology were related to lower testosterone and higher LH and FSH levels. Psychological stress primarily lowers serum total testosterone level with secondary rise in serum LH and FSH levels altering seminal quality. Stress management is warranted for male infertility cases. PMID:24673246

  20. Management of Zinner's Syndrome Associated with Contralateral Seminal Vesicle Hypoplasia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kardoust Parizi, Mehdi; Shakhssalim, Nasser

    2013-01-01

    A 27-year-old man presented with chronic hematospermia, painful ejaculation, and primary infertility. Physical examination, transrectal ultrasonography, and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated left seminal vesicle cyst, left renal agenesia, and contralateral seminal vesicle hypoplasia. Hormone workup (LH, FSH, prolactin, and testosterone) was normal. Sperm analysis showed oligoasthenozoospermia and low ejaculate volume. We performed transurethral resection of the ejaculatory duct (TUR-ED) using methylene blue vasography guidance without surgical-related complications. Hematospermia and painful ejaculation completely improved at 2-month followup, and the patient's wife experienced a missed abortion thereafter. This patient was considered as a rare variant of Zinner's syndrome and was managed effectively with a less invasive treatment modality (TUR-ED). PMID:23401842

  1. Procoagulant tissue factor-exposing vesicles in human seminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Franz, C; Böing, A N; Hau, C M; Montag, M; Strowitzki, T; Nieuwland, R; Toth, B

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that various types of vesicles, like microparticles (MP) and exosomes, are present in blood, saliva, bone marrow, urine and synovial fluid. These vesicles, which are released upon activation or shear stress, are thought to play a role in coagulation, neovascularisation, inflammation and intercellular signalling. Seminal fluid is a cell-, sperm- and protein-rich suspension. Although seminal fluid is known to contain vesicles like prostasomes, MP and exosomes have never been characterised. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyse and characterise vesicles in seminal fluid in male partners of patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF/ICSI. MP from seminal fluid of patients during routine IVF/ICSI procedures were detected and analysed with flow cytometry (FACS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), using antibodies against tissue factor (TF), CD10, CD13, CD26 and annexin V. The coagulant properties of vesicles were studied using a fibrin generation test. MP were detected in human seminal fluid by both flow cytometry and TEM. Seminal fluid-derived MP expressed CD10, CD13, CD26 and TF, which was highly procoagulant and a powerful trigger of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. The extent to which the procoagulant activity of MP in seminal fluid contributes to the implantation process itself and therefore affects human reproduction needs to be further elucidated. PMID:23578769

  2. Identification and Function of Proteolysis Regulators in Seminal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    LaFlamme, Brooke A.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2014-01-01

    Proteins in the seminal fluid of animals with internal fertilization effect numerous responses in mated females that impact both male and female fertility. Among these proteins is the highly represented class of proteolysis regulators (proteases and their inhibitors). Though proteolysis regulators have now been identified in the seminal fluid of all animals in which proteomic studies of the seminal fluid have been conducted (as well as several other species in which they have not), a unified understanding of the importance of proteolysis to male fertilization success and other reproductive processes has not yet been achieved. In this review, we provide an overview of the identification of proteolysis regulators in the seminal fluid of humans and Drosophila melanogaster, the two species with the most comprehensively known seminal fluid proteomes. We also highlight reports demonstrating the functional significance of specific proteolysis regulators in reproductive and post-mating processes. Finally, we make broad suggestions for the direction of future research into the roles of both active seminal fluid proteolysis regulators and their inactive homologs, another significant class of seminal fluid proteins. We hope that this review aids researchers in pursuing a coordinated study of the functional significance of proteolysis regulators in semen. PMID:23109270

  3. Investigation of complexity dynamics of inverse and normal homoclinic bifurcation in a glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Debajyoti Kumar Shaw, Pankaj; Janaki, M. S.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.; Ghosh, Sabuj; Mitra, Vramori Michael Wharton, Alpha

    2014-03-15

    Order-chaos-order was observed in the relaxation oscillations of a glow discharge plasma with variation in the discharge voltage. The first transition exhibits an inverse homoclinic bifurcation followed by a homoclinic bifurcation in the second transition. For the two regimes of observations, a detailed analysis of correlation dimension, Lyapunov exponent, and Renyi entropy was carried out to explore the complex dynamics of the system.

  4. Effect of drinking bottled beer on plasma insulin and glucose responses in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Joffe, B I; Shires, R; Lamprey, J M; Baker, S G; Seftel, H C

    1982-07-17

    Alcohol may provoke reactive hypoglycaemia when drunk with a sucrose mixer ('gin and tonic') but does not do so when taken in the form of a starch-based beverage like sorghum beer. We examined the hypoglycaemic potential of bottled beer (Lion Lager; South African Breweries), which differs from sorghum beer in that it contains less carbohydrate (polysaccharides and simple sugars) and has a higher alcohol content. After an overnight fast 5 Black men each drank 2 litres of Lion Lager over an hour. Over the ensuing 5 hours their plasma insulin, glucose and alcohol concentrations were compared with the responses previously documented before and after consuming the same volume of sorghum beer or a 100 g control carbohydrate solution. Bottled beer elicited a prompt but short-lived rise in plasma insulin (mean +/- SEM, 37 +/- 7 mU/l at 1 hour), which was significantly greater than that produced by sorghum beer but less sustained than after drinking the control carbohydrate solution. After drinking bottled beer plasma glucose levels fell to a mean nadir of 3,6 mmol/l at 2 hours (compared with 5,4 mmol/l for sorghum beer), thereafter slowly returning to the basal value, while a substantial rise in the blood alcohol concentration occurred. We conclude that the development of alcohol-induced reactive hypoglycaemia is largely determined by the nature of the carbohydrate ingested together with alcohol. PMID:7046102

  5. Construction and tropism characterisation of recombinant viruses exhibiting HIV-1 env gene from seminal strains.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Philip; Berlier, Willy; Delezay, Olivier; Palle, Sabine; Olivier, Thomas; Saoudin, Henia; Mottin, Stéphane; Lucht, Frédéric; Pozzetto, Bruno; Bourlet, Thomas

    2009-04-10

    Genetic differences between blood and mucosal-derived HIV-1 strains have been widely reported. As amplification of HIV-1 strains from mucosal samples including semen or saliva by co-culture has low sensitivity, we developed the construction of chimeric viruses expressing wild-type seminal HIV-1 envelope protein. Chimeric viruses were produced by co-transfection of a V1-V3 deleted pNL 43 vector and PCR fragments spanning the deleted region, amplified from HIV-1 RNA positive seminal plasma samples. After an initial testing of co-receptor usage by a tropism recombinant test, replication capacity and amplification of these recombinant viruses were assessed using PBMC. Four chimeric replicative strains, all using CXCR4 as coreceptor, were produced. The interaction between cell-free viral particles and reporter cell lines was assessed by confocal microscopy. These replicative chimeras exhibiting HIV-1 env from seminal strains represent useful tools for the in vitro study of the heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 and testing of microbicide activity. PMID:19232661

  6. Seasonal variations in antioxidant enzyme activity in ram seminal plasma

    E-print Network

    Zaragoza, Universidad de

    ), a physiological secretion from multiple glands of the male reproductive tract, is known to both inhibit reproductive technology. A dynamic interplay between pro- and anti-antioxidant substances in the ejaculate system comprising superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx

  7. Changes in Levels of Seminal Nitric Oxide Synthase, Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor, Sperm DNA Integrity and Caspase-3 in Fertile Men after Scrotal Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhi-Da; Wang, Lei-Guang; Qiu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background This study observes changes in levels of seminal nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), sperm DNA integrity, chromatin condensation and Caspase-3in adult healthy men after scrotal heat stress (SHS). Methods Exposure of the scrotum of 25 healthy male volunteers locally at 40–43°C SHS belt warming 40 min each day for successive 2 d per week. The course of SHS was continuously 3 months. Routine semen analysis, hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test, Aniline blue (AB) staining, HOS/AB and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated d UDP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) were carried out before, during and after SHS. Seminal NO and NOS contents were determined by nitrate reduction method. The activated Caspase-3 levels of spermatozoa and MIF in seminal plasma were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Statistical significance between mean values was determined using statistical ANOVA tests. Results The mean parameters of sperm concentration, motile and progressive motile sperm and normal morphological sperm were significantly decreased in groups during SHS 1, 2 and 3 months compared with those in groups of pre-SHS (P<0.001). Statistically significant differences of sperm DNA fragmentation, normal sperm membrane, and Caspase-3 activity as well as the level of NO, NOS and MIF in semen were observed between the groups before SHS and after SHS 3 months and the groups during SHS 1, 2 and 3 months (P<0.001). After three months of the SHS, various parameters recovered to the level before SHS. WBC in semen showed a positively significant correlation with the levels of NO, NOS, MIF and Caspase-3 activity. The percentage of abnormal sperm by using the test of HOS showed a positively significant correlation with that of HOS/AB. Conclusions The continuously constant SHS can impact the semen quality and sperm DNA and chromatin, which may be contributed to the high level of NO, NOS, MIF and Caspase-3 by SHS. PMID:26512992

  8. Plasma levels of unconjugated estetrol and estriol and of total estriol in normal human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gualandi, L; Modelli, L; Maurizio, G; Filicori, M; Bolelli, G

    1979-06-01

    The course of normal pregnancy in 54 patients was monitored by weekly assays of Unconjugated Estriol (E3U), Total Estriol (E3T) and Unconjugated Estetrol (E4U). These subjects were divided into two groups: one of those patients who delivered a fetus with a weight above the 50th percentile and the other of those who delivered a fetus with a weight below the 50th percentile. No significant difference was found between these two groups and it is not therefore possible to have information regarding the weight of the fetus, starting from the weekly values of these hormones. Analogous variations of the three hormones were found as pregnancy progresses. However, the rate of increase for E4U was higher than for E3T and E3U. PMID:545977

  9. Pathway-Based Genome-Wide Association Studies for Plasma Triglycerides in Obese Females and Normal-Weight Controls

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Struan F. A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Price, R. Arlen; Li, Wei-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Pathway-based analysis as an alternative approach can provide complementary information to single-marker genome-wide association studies (GWASs), which always ignore the epistasis and does not have sufficient power to find rare variants. In this study, using genotypes from a genome-wide association study (GWAS), pathway-based association studies were carried out by a modified Gene Set Enrichment Algorithm (GSEA) method (GenGen) for triglyceride in 1028 unrelated European-American extremely obese females (BMI?35kg/m2) and normal-weight controls (BMI<25kg/m2), and another pathway association analysis (ICSNPathway) was also used to verify the GenGen result in the same data. The GO0009110 pathway (vitamin anabolism) was among the strongest associations with triglyceride (empirical P<0.001); the result remained significant after FDR correction (P = 0.022). MMAB, an obesity-related locus, included in this pathway. The ABCG1 and BCL6 gene was found in several triglyceride-related pathways (empirical P<0.05), which were also replicated by ICSNPathway (empirical P<0.05, FDR<0.05). We also performed single-marked GWAS using PLINK for TG levels (log-transformed). Significant associations were found between ASTN2 gene SNPs and plasma triglyceride levels (rs7035794, P = 2.24×10?10). Our study suggested that vitamin anabolism pathway, BCL6 gene pathways and ASTN2 gene may contribute to the genetic variation of plasma triglyceride concentrations. PMID:26308950

  10. The Application of Pediatric Ureteroscope for Seminal Vesiculoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shulin; Xie, Donghua; He, Xiangfei; Du, Chuance; Zhu, Lunfeng; Deng, Xiaolin; Yang, Zhongsheng

    2015-01-01

    To describe a novel technique of transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy using a pediatric ureteroscope in the diagnosis and management of persistent hematospermia, a retrospective study was carried out for 20 patients with recurrent hematospermia whom we evaluated and treated using a 6–7.5F (6F front end and 7.5F rear end) pediatric ureteroscope from August 2009 to September 2013. For the 20 patients, the age ranges from 25 to 48 years with a mean age of 36 years. The duration of the hematospermia ranges from 6 to 48 months with a mean duration of 18 months. Transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy was successfully performed in the 20 cases and the mean operative time was 35?min (ranges from 25 to 90?min). Among the 20 patients, 11 patients were found to have seminal vesiculitis, five were with seminal vesicle stone, one was with prostatic utricle stone, one was with prostate cyst, and one was with ejaculatory duct obstruction. The mean follow-up period was 7 months (ranged from 6 to 12 months). Hematospermia in 19 cases disappeared after the surgery and only in one patient the hematospermia recurred 6 months after the surgery. The cure rate was 95%. This study indicated that transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy could be performed easily using a semirigid pediatric ureteroscope with few complications and is an effective therapeutic approach for persistent hematospermia. PMID:26576299

  11. Penetration of ciprofloxacin into prostatic fluid, ejaculate and seminal fluid in volunteers after an oral dose of 750 mg.

    PubMed

    Naber, K G; Sörgel, F; Kinzig, M; Weigel, D M

    1993-11-01

    To evaluate an effective dose for the treatment of bacterial prostatitis the concentrations of ciprofloxacin were measured in prostatic fluid, ejaculate and the cell-free seminal fluid of 15 healthy volunteers who received an oral dose of 750 mg. ciprofloxacin while in a fasting state. Venous blood samples were taken in all subjects at 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours. In 6 subjects blood samples were also taken after 8 and 12 hours. Urine was collected in all subjects during 0 to 4 hours and in the 6 subjects also during 4 to 8 hours and 8 to 12 hours. Prostatic fluid could be obtained in 10 subjects by prostatic massage 4 hours after drug intake. So as not to contaminate the urethra with ciprofloxacin the subjects were not allowed to void until 4 hours after drug intake. Iopamidol (3.162 gm.), a renal contrast agent, was administered intravenously concomitantly with oral ciprofloxacin intake. After 8 hours iohexol (3.235 gm.) was administered intravenously. These agents were measured in prostatic fluid, ejaculate and seminal fluid to assess the contamination of those fluids by urine. All drug measurements were done by high pressure liquid chromatography. The median plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin were 2.1 mg./l. at 1 hour (maximum concentration), 0.9 mg./l. at 4 hours and 0.2 mg./l. at 12 hours. The median concentration in prostatic fluid was 0.23 mg./l. with a fluid-to-plasma concentration ratio of 0.23. The median concentration in the ejaculate (seminal fluid) after 4 hours was 7.4 mg./l. (6.6 mg./l.) and after 12 hours it was 2.0 mg./l. (1.9 mg./l.) with corresponding ejaculate (seminal fluid)-to-plasma concentration ratios of 8.4 (7.7) and 8.0 (6.6), respectively. Thus, ciprofloxacin is concentrated several-fold in ejaculate and seminal fluid but not in prostatic fluid. According to the results the concentrations of ciprofloxacin in prostatic fluid exceed the minimal inhibitory concentration-90% for Enterobacteriaceae but not for Pseudomonas, enterococci and staphylococci, whereas the concentrations in ejaculate and seminal fluid are sufficiently elevated to include the total spectrum of sensitive strains causing bacterial prostatis. PMID:8411457

  12. Disease-causing mutations in the CLRN1 gene alter normal CLRN1 protein trafficking to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Isosomppi, Juha; Geller, Scott F.; Heon, Elise; Flannery, John G.; Sankila, Eeva-Marja

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Mutations of clarin 1 (CLRN1) cause Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3). To determine the effects of USH3 mutations on CLRN1 function, we examined the cellular distribution and stability of both normal and mutant CLRN1 in vitro. We also searched for novel disease-causing mutations in a cohort of 59 unrelated Canadian and Finnish USH patients. Methods Mutation screening was performed by DNA sequencing. For the functional studies, wild-type (WT) and mutant CLRN1 genes were expressed as hemagglutinin (HA) tagged fusion proteins by transient transfection of BHK-21 cells. Subcellular localization of CLRN1-HA was examined by confocal microscopy. The N-glycosylation status of CLRN1 was studied by using the N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) enzyme and western blotting. Cycloheximide treatment was used to assess the stability of CLRN1 protein. Results We found three previously reported pathogenic mutations, p.A123D, p.N48K, and p.Y176X, and a novel sequence variant, p.L54P, from the studied USH patients. The WT HA-tagged CLRN1 was correctly trafficked to the plasma membrane, whereas mutant CLRN1-HA proteins were mislocalized and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. PNGase F treatment of CLRN1-HA resulted in an electrophoretic mobility shift consistent with sugar residue cleavage in WT and in all CLRN1 mutants except in p.N48K mutated CLRN1, in which the mutation abolishes the glycosylation site. Inhibition of protein expression with cycloheximide indicated that WT CLRN1-HA remained stable. In contrast, the CLRN1 mutants showed reduced stability. Conclusions WT CLRN1 is a glycoprotein localized to the plasma membrane in transfected BHK-21 cells. Mutant CLRN1 proteins are mislocalized. We suggest that part of the pathogenesis of USH3 may be associated with defective intracellular trafficking as well as decreased stability of mutant CLRN1 proteins. PMID:19753315

  13. A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo study of plasma-induced damage of normal incidence collector optics used in extreme ultraviolet lithography

    E-print Network

    Zegeling, Paul

    A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo study of plasma-induced damage of normal incidence collector EUVL light source. The model is based on the particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo approach. The photoelectric effect and ionization by electron collisions are included. The time evolution of the low density

  14. Lipid and apolipoprotein concentrations in prenodal leg lymph of fasted humans. Associations with plasma concentrations in normal subjects, lipoprotein lipase deficiency, and LCAT deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nanjee, M N; Cooke, C J; Olszewski, W L; Miller, N E

    2000-08-01

    The extent to which lipid and apolipoprotein (apo) concentrations in tissue fluids are determined by those in plasma in normal humans is not known, as all studies to date have been performed on small numbers of subjects, often with dyslipidemia or lymphedema. Therefore, we quantified lipids, apolipoproteins, high density lipoprotein (HDL) lipids, and non-HDL lipids in prenodal leg lymph from 37 fasted ambulant healthy men. Lymph contained almost no triglycerides, but had higher concentrations of free glycerol than plasma. Unesterified cholesterol (UC), cholesteryl ester (CE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and sphingomyelin (SPM) concentrations in whole lymph were not significantly correlated with those in plasma. HDL lipids, but not non-HDL lipids, were directly related to those in plasma. Lymph HDLs were enriched in UC. However, as the HDL cholesterol/non-HDL cholesterol ratio in lymph exceeded that in plasma, whole lymph nevertheless had a lower UC/CE ratio than plasma. Lymph also had a significantly higher SPM/PC ratio. The lymph/plasma (L/P) ratios of apolipoproteins were as follows: A-IV > A-I and A-II > C-III and E > B. Comparison with the L/P ratios of seven nonlipoprotein proteins suggested that apoA-IV was predominantly lipid free. Concentrations of apolipoproteins A-II, A-IV, C-III, and E in lymph, but not of apolipoproteins A-I or B, were positively correlated with those in plasma. The L/P ratios of apolipoproteins B, C-III, and E in two subjects with lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency, and of apolipoproteins A-I and A-IV in a subject with lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency, were low relative to those in normal subjects. Thus, the concentrations of lipids, apolipoproteins, and lipoproteins in human tissue fluid are determined only in part by their concentrations in plasma. Other factors, including the actions of LPL and LCAT, are at least as important. PMID:10946020

  15. Normally-off AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor on Si(111) by recessed gate and fluorine plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jyun-Hao; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Lai, Chao-Hsing; Su, Yan-Kuin

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the efficiency of using both recessed gate and fluorine plasma treatment to achieve normally-off high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT). It is found that, by a simple recess process, one cannot achieve normally off device with high drain current because of gate leakage problem after inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching for recessed structure. The proper method is adding fluorine treatment based on recess gate. The normally off GaN HEMTs with recess gate and fluorine treatment show very good performance. It is found that the threshold voltages can be shifted to +1.1 V, and the drain current at VGS ? Vth = 2 V and VDS = 20 V was 218 mA/mm.

  16. The influence of antisperm antibodies, intratesticular haemodynamics and the surgical approach to varicocelectomy on seminal variables

    PubMed Central

    Al-Adl, Ahmed M.; El-Karamany, Tarek; Issa, Hesham; Zaazaa, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of antisperm antibodies (ASAs), hormonal levels, intratesticular haemodynamics and the surgical approach on the outcomes of varicocelectomy in infertile men, as assessed by seminal variables. Patients and methods In a prospective case-series study, 82 infertile men with varicocele (35 left and 47 bilateral) were evaluated. The preoperative assessment included a physical examination, semen analysis, assessment of ASAs in seminal plasma, hormonal levels (follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone and testosterone), and scrotal colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) to measure the peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index. Patients were scheduled for varicocelectomy, with high ligation (Palomo) used in 40 patients (18, 45%, with left and 22, 55%, with bilateral varicocele), or an inguinal approach (Ivanissivich) with loupe magnification used in 42 (17, 40%, with left and 25, 60%, with bilateral varicocele). The men were reassessed at ?3 months after surgery and according to the improvement in seminal variables (expressed as a ?50% increase in total motile sperm count, TMSC), patients were further categorised into ‘improved’ or ‘unimproved’. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the predictors of improvement. Results Before surgery the ASAs were positive in 17 men (21%). There was no significant difference between the right and left sides in intratesticular haemodynamics. The TMSC was improved in 52 (63%) patients who had a significant improvement in the haemodynamic variables. Intratesticular haemodynamics, serum FSH and testosterone levels differed significantly between the improved and unimproved patients. Positivity for ASAs, the surgical approach and laterality of the varicocele were not significantly different, although the ASA-positive cases were characterised by a significant decrease in motility. Logistic regression analysis showed that the EDV, PSV, FSH, testosterone level and bilateral testicular volume (BTV) were significant predictors of improvement. Conclusion Positivity for ASAs is not a predictor of the outcome after varicocelectomy but affects only the motile fraction in positive cases, despite the improvement in other seminal variables and testicular haemodynamics, and regardless of the surgical approach. The EDV, PSV, FSH, testosterone and BTV were significant predictors of a successful outcome. PMID:26019968

  17. Modest decrements in plasma glucose concentration cause early impairment in cognitive function and later activation of glucose counterregulation in the absence of hypoglycemic symptoms in normal man.

    PubMed Central

    De Feo, P; Gallai, V; Mazzotta, G; Crispino, G; Torlone, E; Perriello, G; Ventura, M M; Santeusanio, F; Brunetti, P; Bolli, G B

    1988-01-01

    To establish the glycemic threshold for onset of neuroglycopenia (impaired cognitive function, measured by the latency of the P300 wave), activation of hormonal counterregulation and hypoglycemic symptoms, 12 normal subjects were studied either under conditions of insulin-induced, glucose-controlled plasma glucose decrements, or during maintenance of euglycemia. A decrement in plasma glucose concentration from 88 +/- 3 to 80 +/- 1 mg/dl for 150 min did not result in changes in the latency of the P300 wave nor in an activation of counterregulatory hormonal response. In contrast, a greater decrement in plasma glucose concentration from 87 +/- 3 to 72 +/- 1 mg/dl for 120 min caused an increase in the latency of the P300 wave (from 301 +/- 12 to 348 +/- 20 ms, P less than 0.01), a subsequent increase in all counterregulatory hormones but no hypoglycemic symptoms. Finally, when plasma glucose concentration was decreased in a stepwise manner from 88 +/- 2 to 50 +/- 1 mg/dl within 75 min, the increase in the latency of the P300 wave was correlated with the corresponding plasma glucose concentration (r = -0.76, P less than 0.001). The glycemic threshold for hypoglycemic symptoms was 49 +/- 2 mg/dl. Thus, in normal man the glycemic threshold for neuroglycopenia (72 +/- 1 mg/dl) is greater than currently thought; the hormonal counterregulation follows the onset of neuroglycopenia; the hypoglycemic symptoms are a late indicator of advanced neuroglycopenia. PMID:3403713

  18. Statin action favors normalization of the plasma lipidome in the atherogenic mixed dyslipidemia of MetS: potential relevance to statin-associated dysglycemia.

    PubMed

    Meikle, Peter J; Wong, Gerard; Tan, Ricardo; Giral, Philippe; Robillard, Paul; Orsoni, Alexina; Hounslow, Neil; Magliano, Dianna J; Shaw, Jonathan E; Curran, Joanne E; Blangero, John; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Chapman, M John

    2015-12-01

    The impact of statin treatment on the abnormal plasma lipidome of mixed dyslipidemic patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), a group at increased risk of developing diabetes, was evaluated. Insulin-resistant hypertriglyceridemic hypertensive obese males (n = 12) displaying MetS were treated with pitavastatin (4 mg/day) for 180 days; healthy normolipidemic age-matched nonobese males (n = 12) acted as controls. Statin treatment substantially normalized triglyceride (-41%), remnant cholesterol (-55%), and LDL-cholesterol (-39%), with minor effect on HDL-cholesterol (+4%). Lipidomic analysis, normalized to nonHDL-cholesterol in order to probe statin-induced differences in molecular composition independently of reduction in plasma cholesterol, revealed increment in 132 of 138 lipid species that were subnormal at baseline and significantly shifted toward the control group on statin treatment. Increment in alkyl- and alkenylphospholipids (plasmalogens) was prominent, and consistent with significant statin-induced increase in plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid levels. Comparison of the statin-mediated lipidomic changes in MetS with the abnormal plasma lipidomic profile characteristic of prediabetes and T2D in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study and San Antonio Family Heart Study cohorts by hypergeometric analysis revealed a significant shift toward the lipid profile of controls, indicative of a marked trend toward a normolipidemic phenotype. Pitavastatin attenuated the abnormal plasma lipidome of MetS patients typical of prediabetes and T2D. PMID:26486974

  19. Average Weight of Seminal Vesicles: An Adjustment Factor for Radical Prostatectomy Specimens Weighed With Seminal Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Tjionas, George A; Epstein, Jonathan I; Williamson, Sean R; Diaz, Mireya; Menon, Mani; Peabody, James O; Gupta, Nilesh S; Parekh, Dipen J; Cote, Richard J; Jorda, Merce; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N

    2015-12-01

    The International Society of Urological Pathology in 2010 recommended weighing prostates without seminal vesicles (SV) to include only prostate weight in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density (PSAD) calculation, because SV do not produce PSA. Large retrospective cohorts exist with combined weight recorded that needs to be modified for retrospective analysis. Weights of prostates and SV were separately recorded in 172 consecutive prostatectomies. The average weight of SV and proportion of prostate weight from combined weight were calculated. The adjustment factors were then validated on databases of 2 other institutions. The average weight of bilateral SV was 6.4 g (range = 1-17.3 g). The prostate constituted on average 87% (range = 66% to 98%) of the total specimen weight. There was no correlation between patient age and prostate weight with SV weight. The best performing correction method was to subtract 6.4 g from total radical prostatectomy weight and to use this weight for PSAD calculation. The average weights of retrospective specimens weighed with SV were not significantly different between the 3 institutions. Using our data allowed calibration of the weights and PSAD between the cohorts weighed with and without SV. Thus, prostate weight in specimens including SV weight can be adjusted by subtracting 6.4 g, resulting in significant change of PSAD. Some institution-specific variations may exist, which could further increase the precision of retrospective analysis involving prostate weight and PSAD. However, unless institution-specific adjustment parameters are developed, we recommend that this correction factor be used for retrospective cohorts or in institutions where combined weight is still recorded. PMID:26306700

  20. An unusual cause of hematospermia: Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle.

    PubMed

    Eken, Alper; Izol, Volkan; Aridogan, I Atilla; Erdogan, Seyda; Ac?kal?n, Arbil; Tansug, Zuhtu

    2012-12-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles is one of the rare causes of hematospermia. Primary seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose due to frequent invasion of adenocarcinomas of the surrounding organs, especially the prostate. In the present study, a case of a primary seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma will be discussed in the light of the current literature. PMID:23283099

  1. 21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. 866.5800 Section 866.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. 866.5800 Section 866.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid...

  3. Toward a self-consistent model of the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse with an overdense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Debayle, A.; ETSI Aeronáuticos. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 ; Sanz, J.; Gremillet, L.; Mima, K.

    2013-05-15

    Following a recent work by Sanz et al. [Phys. Rev. E 85, 046411 (2012)], we elaborate upon a one-dimensional model describing the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse and an overdense plasma. The analytical solutions of the reflected laser field, the electrostatic field, and the plasma surface oscillation are obtained within the cold-fluid approximation. The high-order harmonic spectrum is calculated from the exact solution of the plasma surface oscillations. In agreement with particle-in-cell simulations, two regimes of harmonic generation are predicted: for moderately relativistic laser intensities, or high plasma densities, the harmonic spectrum is determined by the discontinuity in the derivative of the reflected field when the electron plasma boundary oscillates across the fixed ion boundary. For higher intensities, the electron plasma boundary is confined inside the ion region and oscillates at relativistic velocities, giving rise to a train of reflected attosecond pulses. In both cases, the harmonic spectrum obeys an asymptotic ?{sup ?4} scaling. The acceleration of electrons and the related laser absorption efficiency are computed by a test particle method. The model self-consistently reproduces the transition between the “anomalous skin effect” and the “J × B” heating predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. Analytical estimates of the different scalings are presented.

  4. Association of n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cell membrane and plasma with severity of normal tension glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Man; Chen, Bo; Gong, Bo; Shuai, Ping; Wu, Zheng-Zheng; Lin, Wei

    2015-01-01

    AIM To determine whether red blood cell (RBC) membrane and plasma lipids, particularly long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (AA) are significantly correlated with severity of normal tension glaucoma (NTG). METHODS This study included 35 patients with NTG and 12 healthy normal control subjects, matched for age and sex with the study group. The stage of glaucoma was determined according to the Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson classification. Lipids were extracted from RBC membranes and plasma, and fatty acid methyl esters prepared and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). RESULTS When RBC lipids were analyzed, the levels of EPA, the levels of DHA and the ratio of n3 to n6 were positively associated with the Humphrey Perimetry mean deviation (MD) score (r=0.617, P<0.001; r=0.727, P<0.001 and r=0.720, P<0.001, respectively), while the level of AA was negatively associated with the MD score (r=-0.427, P=0.001). When plasma lipids were analyzed, there was a significant positive relationship between the levels of EPA and the MD score (r=0.648, P<0.001), and the levels of AA were inversely correlated with the MD score (r=-0.638, P<0.001). CONCLUSION The levels of n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in RBC membrane and plasma lipids were associated with severity of NTG. PMID:26085994

  5. Leiomyoma of the Seminal Vesicle: A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Aftab S.; Bakhshi, Girish D.; Khan, Arshad S.; Jamadar, Nilofar M.; Nirmala, Aravind Kotresh; Raza, Arif Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Leiomyomas though common benign tumors of smooth muscle cells are extremely rare in the male genitourinary tract. We present a case of an elderly male who presented with complaints suggestive of urinary bladder outlet obstruction since 1 year. His evaluation showed it due to a tumour arising from the left seminal vesicle. Excision of the tumor was done which was diagnosed on histopathology as leiomyoma. A brief case report and review of literature is being presented. PMID:24765520

  6. PLASMA CHOLINE IN NORMAL NEWBORNS, INFANTS, TODDLERS, AND IN VERY-LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT NEONATES REQUIRING TOTAL PARENTERAL NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Choline deficiency is associated with hepatic abnormalities in adult volunteers and patients administered total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Preliminary investigation has suggested that plasma-free choline concentration (PFCh) is greater in neonatal animals, including humans, than in adults. The aims...

  7. Teaching Normal Birth, Normally

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A

    2009-01-01

    Teaching normal-birth Lamaze classes normally involves considering the qualities that make birth normal and structuring classes to embrace those qualities. In this column, teaching strategies are suggested for classes that unfold naturally, free from unnecessary interventions. PMID:19436595

  8. Preferential induction of apoptotic cell death in melanoma cells as compared with normal keratinocytes using a non-thermal plasma torch.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Shoshanna N; Zirnheld, Jennifer; Bagati, Archis; DiSanto, Thomas M; Des Soye, Benjamin; Wawrzyniak, Joseph A; Etemadi, Kasra; Nikiforov, Mikhail; Berezney, Ronald

    2012-11-01

    Selective induction of apoptosis in melanoma cells is optimal for therapeutic development. To achieve this goal, a non-thermal helium plasma torch was modified for use on cultured cells in a temperature-controlled environment. Melanoma cells were targeted with this torch (1) in parallel cultures with keratinocytes, (2) in co-culture with keratinocytes and (3) in a soft agar matrix. Melanoma cells displayed high sensitivity to reactive oxygen species generated by the torch and showed a 6-fold increase in cell death compared with keratinocytes. The extent of cell death was compared between melanoma cells and normal human keratinocytes in both short-term (5 min) co-culture experiments and longer assessments of apoptotic cell death (18-24 h). Following a 10 sec plasma exposure there was a 4.9-fold increase in the cell death of melanoma vs. keratinocytes as measured after 24 h at the target site of the plasma beam. When the treatment time was increased to 30 sec, a 98% cell death was reported for melanoma cells, which was 6-fold greater than the extent of cell death in keratinocytes. Our observations further indicate that this preferential cell death is largely due to apoptosis.. In addition, we report that this non-thermal plasma torch kills melanoma cells growing in soft agar, suggesting that the plasma torch is capable of inducing melanoma cell death in 3D settings. We demonstrate that the presence of gap junctions may increase the area of cell death, likely due to the "bystander effect" of passing apoptotic signals between cells. Our findings provide a basis for further development of this non-invasive plasma torch as a potential treatment for melanoma. PMID:22895073

  9. A normal rate of cellular cholesterol removal can be mediated by plasma from a patient with familial lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bérard, A M; Clerc, M; Brewer, B; Santamarina-Fojo, S

    2001-12-01

    Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is the major enzyme involved in the esterification of cholesterol in circulating plasma lipoproteins. In the present study, we describe the molecular defects in the LCAT gene and in lipoprotein metabolism of a 34-year-old patient presenting with features of classic familial LCAT deficiency. DNA sequencing revealed two separate point mutations in exon 3 of the patient's LCAT gene: a C to A substitution converting Tyr(83) to a Stop and a C to T transition converting an Arg(99) to a Cys. Digestion of patient PCR-amplified DNA with the restriction enzymes AccI and AciI established that the patient was a compound heterozygote for both mutations. In vitro expression of LCAT (Arg(99)-->Cys) in human embryonic kidney-293 cells demonstrated reduced expression, as well as reduced secretion and/or increased intracellular degradation of the mutant enzyme with significantly decreased alpha-LCAT specific activity, thus, establishing the functional significance of the LCAT (Arg(99)-->Cys) mutation. The plasma cholesterol esterification rate (CER, 2+/-0.3 nmol/ml/h), alpha-LCAT activity (2.9+/-0.1 nmol/ml/h) and LCAT concentration (0.3+/-0.1 microg/ml) were 2.9%, 2.3% and 6.1% that of normal subjects, respectively. Analysis of the patient's plasma lipid profile revealed reduced plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (111+/-0.5 mg/dl), HDL cholesterol (1.6+/-0.2 mg/dl), apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (52+/-4 mg/dl) and apo A-II (11+/-0.5 mg/dl). Nevertheless, for the first time, we demonstrate that the LCAT-deficient plasma is as efficient as control plasma in cholesterol efflux experiments performed with [(3)H]-cholesterol loaded fibroblasts. This result could explain the absence of premature atherosclerosis in this LCAT-deficient patient. PMID:11718688

  10. A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo study of plasma-induced damage of normal incidence collector optics used in extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Wieggers, R. C.; Goedheer, W. J.; Akdim, M. R.; Bijkerk, F.; Zegeling, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    We present a kinetic simulation of the plasma formed by photoionization in the intense flux of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) light source. The model is based on the particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo approach. The photoelectric effect and ionization by electron collisions are included. The time evolution of the low density argon plasma is simulated during and after the EUV pulse and the ion-induced sputtering of the coating material of a normal incidence collector mirror is computed. The relation between the time and position at which the ions are created and their final energy is studied, revealing how the evolution and the properties of the sheath influence the amount of sputtered material. The influence of the gas pressure and the source intensity is studied, evaluating the behavior of Ar{sup +} and Ar{sup 2+} ions. A way to reduce the damage to the collector mirror is presented.

  11. Lesions of the Seminal Vesicles and their MRI Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Mahati N; Verma, Sadhna

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, MRI of the prostate has made great strides in improving cancer detection and is being embraced by more clinicians each day. This article aims to review the imaging characteristics of common and uncommon, but consequential lesions involving the seminal vesicles (SV), as seen predominantly on MRI. Many of these findings are seen incidentally during imaging of the prostate. Anatomy and embryology of the SV will be described which will help illustrate the associations of abnormalities seen. Congenital, infectious, neoplastic, and tumor mimics will be explored in detail, with discussion on clinical presentation and treatment strategies. PMID:25396077

  12. Distinct effects of TRAIL on the mitochondrial network in human cancer cells and normal cells: role of plasma membrane depolarization

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki-Karasaki, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Kyoko; Saito, Kosuke; Suzuki-Karasaki, Miki; Ochiai, Toyoko; Soma, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Apo2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2L/TRAIL) is a promising anticancer drug due to its tumor-selective cytotoxicity. Here we report that TRAIL exhibits distinct effects on the mitochondrial networks in malignant cells and normal cells. Live-cell imaging revealed that multiple human cancer cell lines and normal cells exhibited two different modes of mitochondrial responses in response to TRAIL and death receptor agonists. Mitochondria within tumor cells became fragmented into punctate and clustered in response to toxic stimuli. The mitochondrial fragmentation was observed at 4 h, then became more pronounced over time, and associated with apoptotic cell death. In contrast, mitochondria within normal cells such as melanocytes and fibroblasts became only modestly truncated, even when they were treated with toxic stimuli. Although TRAIL activated dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-dependent mitochondrial fission, inhibition of this process by Drp1 knockdown or with the Drp1 inhibitor mdivi-1, potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial fragmentation, and clustering. Moreover, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated depolarization accelerated mitochondrial network abnormalities in tumor cells, but not in normal cells, and TRAIL caused higher levels of mitochondrial ROS accumulation and depolarization in malignant cells than in normal cells. Our findings suggest that tumor cells are more prone than normal cells to oxidative stress and depolarization, thereby being more vulnerable to mitochondrial network abnormalities and that this vulnerability may be relevant to the tumor-targeting killing by TRAIL. PMID:26057632

  13. Seminal Fluid Regulation of Female Sexual Attractiveness in Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tram, Uyen; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    1998-03-01

    Finding a willing and suitable mate is critical for sexual reproduction. Visual, auditory, and chemical cues aid in locating and/or attracting partners. After mating, females from many insect species become less attractive. This is caused by changes in the quantity and/or quality of pheromones synthesized by the female and to changes in the female's behavior. For example, female insects may stop releasing pheromones, assume a mate refusal posture, or move less in response to males. Many postmating changes in female insects are triggered by seminal fluid proteins from the male's accessory gland proteins (Acps) and by sperm. To determine the role of seminal fluid components in mediating changes in attractiveness, we measured the attractiveness of Drosophila melanogaster females that had been mated to genetically altered males that lack sperm and/or Acps. We found that the drop in female attractiveness occurs in two phases. A short-term drop in attractiveness is triggered independent of the receipt of sperm and Acps. Maintenance of lowered attractiveness is dependent upon sperm.

  14. Microbiota of the seminal fluid from healthy and infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Dongsheng; Zhou, Xia; Zhong, Xue; Settles, Matt; Herring, Jessica; Wang, Li; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J.; Xu, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore potential causes of male infertility by determining the composition and structure of commensal bacterial communities in seminal fluids. Design: Microscopy of gram stained semen samples and classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences to determine the species composition of semen bacterial communities. Setting(s): Clinical andrology laboratory and academic research laboratories. Patient(s): 19 sperm donors and 58 infertility patients. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences, clustering of seminal microbial communities, and multiple statistical tests. Result(s): High numbers of diverse kinds of bacteria were present in most samples of both sperm donors and infertility patients. The bacterial communities varied widely between subjects, but they could be clustered into six groups based on similarities in composition and the rank abundances of taxa. Overall there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients. However, multiple statistical tests showed a significant negative association between sperm quality and the presence of Anaerococcus. The results also indicated that many of the bacterial taxa identified in semen also occur in the vaginal communities of some women, especially those with bacterial vaginosis, which suggests heterosexual sex partners may share bacteria. Conclusion(s): Diverse kinds of bacteria were present in the human semen, there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients, The presence of Anaerococcus might be a biomarker for low sperm quality. PMID:23993888

  15. On the presence of prostatic secretion protein in rat seminal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Borgstroem, E.; Pousette, A.; Bjoerk, P.; Hoegberg, B.; Carlstroem, K.; Sundelin, B.; Gustafsson, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The copulating plug collected from the tip of the penis from rats immediately after decapitation contains a protein very similar and probably identical to PSP (prostatic secretion protein); this protein has earlier been purified from rat prostatic cytosol and characterized. The protein present in the copulating plug interacts with (3H)estramustine and binds to the antibody raised against rat PSP. The concentration of the protein in the copulating plug is 400 ng/mg of total protein, when measured using the radioimmunoassay technique developed earlier for measurement of PSP in rat prostate. The (3H)estramustine-protein complex formed in a preparation of the copulating plug has an apparent molecular weight of about 50,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of about 3S when analyzed using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The complex was retained on Concanavalin-A Sepharose indicating that the protein is a glycoprotein. Binding of the complex was also observed on hydroxylapatite and DEAE-Sephadex columns, from which it was eluted at 0.18 M KCl. Light microscope autoradiograms of rat sperms incubated with 125I-labeled PSP indicated that PSP is bound to all parts of the sperms. A macromolecule interacting with the PSP-antibodies is also present in human seminal fluid but at a concentration considerably lower than in rat seminal fluid. The present study shows that a macromolecule probably identical to prostatic secretion protein is present in the copulating plug from the rat. The biological role of this protein in normal male fertility is discussed.

  16. Bacterial Communities in Semen from Men of Infertile Couples: Metagenomic Sequencing Reveals Relationships of Seminal Microbiota to Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shun-Long; Chiu, Chih-Min; Lin, Feng-Mao; Huang, Wei-Chih; Liang, Chao; Yang, Ting; Yang, Tzu-Ling; Liu, Chia-Yu; Wu, Wei-Yun; Chang, Yi-An; Chang, Tzu-Hao; Huang, Hsien-Da

    2014-01-01

    Some previous studies have identified bacteria in semen as being a potential factor in male infertility. However, only few types of bacteria were taken into consideration while using PCR-based or culturing methods. Here we present an analysis approach using next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics analysis to investigate the associations between bacterial communities and semen quality. Ninety-six semen samples collected were examined for bacterial communities, measuring seven clinical criteria for semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, Kruger's strict morphology, antisperm antibody (IgA), Atypical, and leukocytes). Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) was also performed. Results showed that the most abundant genera among all samples were Lactobacillus (19.9%), Pseudomonas (9.85%), Prevotella (8.51%) and Gardnerella (4.21%). The proportion of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella was significantly higher in the normal samples, while that of Prevotella was significantly higher in the low quality samples. Unsupervised clustering analysis demonstrated that the seminal bacterial communities were clustered into three main groups: Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, and Prevotella predominant group. Remarkably, most normal samples (80.6%) were clustered in Lactobacillus predominant group. The analysis results showed seminal bacteria community types were highly associated with semen health. Lactobacillus might not only be a potential probiotic for semen quality maintenance, but also might be helpful in countering the negative influence of Prevotella and Pseudomonas. In this study, we investigated whole seminal bacterial communities and provided the most comprehensive analysis of the association between bacterial community and semen quality. The study significantly contributes to the current understanding of the etiology of male fertility. PMID:25340531

  17. Impacts of recessed gate and fluoride-based plasma treatment approaches toward normally-off AlGaN/GaN HEMT.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jun-Woo; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2014-12-01

    We report two approaches to fabricating high performance normally-off AIGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The fabrication techniques employed were based on recessed-metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) gate and recessed fluoride-based plasma treatment. They were selectively applied to the area under the gate electrode to deplete the two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) density. We found that the recessed gate structure was effective in shifting the threshold voltage by controlling the etching depth of gate region to reduce the AIGaN layer thickness to less than 8 nm. Likewise, the CF4 plasma treatment effectively incorporated negatively charged fluorine ions into the thin AIGaN barrier so that the threshold voltage shifted to higher positive values. In addition to the increased threshold voltage, experimental results showed a maximum drain current and a maximum transconductance of 315 mA/mm and 100 mS/mm, respectively, for the recessed-MIS gate HEMT, and 340 mA/mm and 330 mS/mm, respectively, for the fluoride-based plasma treated HEMT. PMID:25971079

  18. Effects of re-stripping on the seminal characteristics of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) during the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Kuradomi, Rafael Y; De Souza, Thiago G; Foresti, Fausto; Schulz, Rüdiger W; Bogerd, Jan; Moreira, Renata G; Furlan, Luiz R; Almeida, Eduardo A; Maschio, Lucilene R; Batlouni, Sergio R

    2016-01-01

    Seminal characteristics in teleost fish with an annual reproductive period, such as pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), may vary during the breeding season. The sperm formed before the beginning of the spawning period may be stored for a long time, causing damage to the cells. Therefore, re-stripping may be an important way to eliminate the "old" and allow for the collection of "new" spermatozoids. In this study, we analyzed the seminal characteristics of hormonally induced pacu at the beginning, middle and end of the breeding season, and we analyzed samples from re-stripped males (stripped first at the beginning, re-stripped in the middle, and re-stripped again at the end of the season) during two breeding seasons. The sperm density, ionic composition, pH, and osmolality were similar among the groups. The semen volume, seminal plasma protein concentration and incidence of morphologically anomalous sperm increased over time. In addition, some parameters that are associated with good-quality semen decreased, such as sperm motility, viability and DNA integrity. Moreover, we observed a positive association among motility, viability and DNA integrity for sperm with elevated 11-ketotestosterone, but there was no such association for fshb or lhb mRNA levels in the pituitary. The semen that was obtained earlier (at the beginning) or from re-stripped males exhibited better characteristics than the other samples collected. In conclusion, collecting semen from pacu at the end of breeding season should be avoided; it is preferable to strip early and then re-strip later in the season, and this approach may be used for diverse aquaculture purposes. PMID:26095224

  19. A molecular tweezer antagonizes seminal amyloids and HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Lump, Edina; Castellano, Laura M; Meier, Christoph; Seeliger, Janine; Erwin, Nelli; Sperlich, Benjamin; Stürzel, Christina M; Usmani, Shariq; Hammond, Rebecca M; von Einem, Jens; Gerold, Gisa; Kreppel, Florian; Bravo-Rodriguez, Kenny; Pietschmann, Thomas; Holmes, Veronica M; Palesch, David; Zirafi, Onofrio; Weissman, Drew; Sowislok, Andrea; Wettig, Burkhard; Heid, Christian; Kirchhoff, Frank; Weil, Tanja; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Bitan, Gal; Sanchez-Garcia, Elsa; Winter, Roland; Shorter, James; Münch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Semen is the main vector for HIV transmission and contains amyloid fibrils that enhance viral infection. Available microbicides that target viral components have proven largely ineffective in preventing sexual virus transmission. In this study, we establish that CLR01, a 'molecular tweezer' specific for lysine and arginine residues, inhibits the formation of infectivity-enhancing seminal amyloids and remodels preformed fibrils. Moreover, CLR01 abrogates semen-mediated enhancement of viral infection by preventing the formation of virion-amyloid complexes and by directly disrupting the membrane integrity of HIV and other enveloped viruses. We establish that CLR01 acts by binding to the target lysine and arginine residues rather than by a non-specific, colloidal mechanism. CLR01 counteracts both host factors that may be important for HIV transmission and the pathogen itself. These combined anti-amyloid and antiviral activities make CLR01 a promising topical microbicide for blocking infection by HIV and other sexually transmitted viruses. PMID:26284498

  20. Yolk sac tumor of the seminal vesicles: A rare malignant cause of hematospermia.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jonathan D; Bhattarai, Selina; Patel, Chirag N; Paul, Alan B

    2015-01-01

    Extra-gonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare and generally associated with poor outcomes. Involvement of the seminal vesicles is extremely rare with only one previously described case. We report a case of a primary YST of the seminal vesicles and discuss the management strategy. PMID:25657559

  1. Yolk sac tumor of the seminal vesicles: A rare malignant cause of hematospermia

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Jonathan D.; Bhattarai, Selina; Patel, Chirag N.; Paul, Alan B.

    2015-01-01

    Extra-gonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare and generally associated with poor outcomes. Involvement of the seminal vesicles is extremely rare with only one previously described case. We report a case of a primary YST of the seminal vesicles and discuss the management strategy. PMID:25657559

  2. Application of the Ureteroscope for Diagnosis and Treatment of the Seminal Vesicle Diseases.

    PubMed

    Song, Yalin; Zhao, Jianwen; Dong, Yao

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to apply the transurethral endoscopic technique with the ureteroscope for diagnosis and treatment of the seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct disorders. At present there is no special equipment designed to enter directly into the seminal vesicle cavity under direct vision. Sixty patients with disorders of the seminal vesicle were included in this study. A 6.5 F rigid ureteroscope (Richard Wolf GmbH, Knittlingen, Germany) was inserted into the posterior urethra to find the verumontanum. Then a 3F catheter (Shanghai Kangge JJMC, Shanghai, China) was inserted into the verumontanum. After that the 6.5 F ureteroscope was introduced into the ejaculatory duct and seminal vesicle to examine them under direct observation. A total of 55 patients were diagnosed and cured successfully with the ureteroscope; 42 (76.4%) patients were discovered to have hemospermia. They were given an anti-inflammatory and seminal vesicle washing. Eight (14.5%) patients who had small stones in the seminal vesicle were offered the operation of the stones removal. Five (9.1%) patients were found to have seminal vesicle gland cysts. The orifices of ejaculatory duct were not found in 3 patients among 5 who were operated unsuccessfully. The ureteroscope failed to enter the seminal vesicle in 2 patients. Some diseases of the seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct can be easily diagnosed and treated in the clinical practice using a ureteroscope. Transurethral endoscopy technique with the ureteroscope for diagnosis and therapy of the seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct disorders is safe and practicable. PMID:26595499

  3. Laparoscopic Removal of a Congenital Seminal Vesicle Cyst in Zinner's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Listopadzki, S?awomir; Kowalski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Seminal vesicle cysts are rarely diagnosed, but symptomatic congenital seminal vesicle cysts are reported in the literature describing Zinner syndrome. Case Description: We present the case of a 26-year-old patient admitted to the urology department because of abdominal pain. A left seminal vesicle cyst and left kidney agenesis were found on examination, and the patient qualified for laparoscopic removal of the left seminal vesicle cyst. The procedure was performed with transperitoneal access using 5 trocars. The peritoneum was incised between the bladder and the rectum to reveal the left seminal vesicle, which was resected from the surrounding tissue. A TachoSil (Takeda Pharmaceuticals, Zurich, Switzerland) hemostatic sponge was placed in the ledge after cutting the base of the seminal vesicle. Discussion: The aim of this study was to evaluate usefulness of the laparoscopic technique to remove a cystic seminal vesicle. The procedure lasted 180 minutes, and the estimated blood loss was 50 mL. We did not record any intra- or postoperative complications. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the third postoperative day and remains symptom-free after 12 months. Histopathologic examination confirmed the presence of a seminal vesicle cyst, and renal agenesis and stenosis of the vas deferens suggests Zinner syndrome. Symptomatic seminal vesicle cysts are a good indication for the application of a laparoscopic technique and, in our opinion, this is better than the open technique because of the view into the surgical area. Therefore, it should be used as the method of choice in treating seminal vesicle defects. PMID:24960509

  4. A four year study of vasectomy on plasma levels of pituitary and sex hormones in normal males in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Piyasena, R D; Weerasekera, D A; Reginald, G J; Wikramanayake, T W

    1982-03-01

    Blood levels of pituitary gonadotropins, prolactin, testosterone, and estrogens were measured at regular intervals in Sri Lankan males of proven fertility for a period of 4 years after vasectomy. All assays were done by standard radioimmunoassay procedures using materials supplied by the World Health Organization, Geneva, under their Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction (Matched Assay Reagent Program), which also provides for internal and external quality control of results. No significant alteration from basal values of any of the hormonal levels measured was observed over the 4-year period. The results may increase confidence in vasectomy as a means of contraception. The effects of vasectomy on the plasma levels of the abovementioned hormones were investigated over a 4-year period from February 1975. Blood samples were obtained prior to surgery and at regular intervals thereafter for 4 years so that each subject served as his own control. Serum was stored deep frozen and the relevant hormonal measurements made in batches by radioimmunoassay techniques with suitable precautions for both internal and external quality control. PMID:7151239

  5. Relationship among plasma adipokines, insulin and androgens level as well as biochemical glycemic and lipidemic markers with incidence of PCOS in women with normal BMI.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, Samad; Ghasemi, Soghra; Kalantarhormozi, Mohamadreza; Nabipour, Iraj; Abbasi, Fateme; Aminfar, Alnaz; Jaffari, Seyed Mojtaba; Motamed, Niloofar; Movahed, Ali; Mirzaei, Mostafa; Rahbar, Ali Reza

    2012-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder in women. Omentin-1 and vaspin are secretary adipokines that are produced by the visceral adipose tissue. These levels change in obese women with PCOS. The aim of this study is to investigate whether omentin and vaspin levels change in nonobese PCOS subjects. This study is a cross-sectional case control study in which 39 women with PCOS were picked out for this study. The inclusion criteria were based on the Rotterdam 2003 diagnostic criteria. The control group consisted of 39 women with normal pelvic sonographic reports having regular menstruation and showing no signs of infertility. The fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglyceride (TG), Chol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), insulin, testosterone, omentin and vaspin were measured by the enzymatic methods. The differences within these groups were calculated by the un-paired t-test and the Mann-Whitney test. The results from this study show a significant increase in the amount of insulin, testosterone, homeostasis model assessments for insulin resistance, TG and lower HDL in the patient group. No significant differences were seen in omentin, vaspin, FPG, Cho, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, Cr and homeostasis model assessments for B cell function levels between groups. Results show that PCOS is not a determinant of decreased omentin and vaspin plasma levels and those high androgen level and insulin resistances are warning signs of PCOS. PMID:22309615

  6. Residual malignant and normal plasma cells shortly after high dose melphalan and stem cell transplantation. Highlight of a putative therapeutic window in Multiple Myeloma?

    PubMed Central

    Caraux, Anouk; Vincent, Laure; Bouhya, Salahedine; Quittet, Philippe; Moreaux, Jérôme; Requirand, Guilhem; Veyrune, Jean-Luc; Olivier, Gaëlle; Cartron, Guillaume; Rossi, Jean-François; Klein, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Multiple Myeloma (MM) is an incurable malignant plasma cell disorder. We have evaluated the counts of Multiple Myeloma Cells (MMCs) and normal plasma cells (N-PCs), seven days after high-dose melphalan (HDM) and autologous stem transplantation (ASCT). Two third of patients had detectable minimal residual disease (MRD+) (71.7 MMCs/?L) after induction treatment with dexamethasone and proteasome inhibitor. MMC counts were reduced by 92% (P ? .05) but not eradicated 7 days after HDM+ASCT. Post-HDM+ASCT MMCs were viable and bathed in a burst of MMC growth factors, linked with post-HDM aplasia. In one third of patients (MRD? patients), MMCs were not detectable after induction treatment and remained undetectable after HDM+ASCT. Major difference between MRD? and MRD+ patients is that N-PC counts were increased 3 fold (P < .05) by HDM+ASCT in MRD? patients, but were unaffected in MRD+ patients. Possible explanation could be that clearance of MMCs in MRD? patients makes more niches available for N-PCs. Thus, MMCs are not fully eradicated shortly after HDM, are bathed in high concentrations of MMC growth factors in an almost desert BM, are viable in short-term culture, which suggests providing additional therapies shortly after HDM to kill resistant MMCs before full repair of lesions. PMID:23154454

  7. Measurement of canine gastric vascular permeability to plasma proteins in the normal and protein-losing states

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.G.; Davenport, H.W.

    1982-04-01

    An isolated segment of the greater curvature of a dog's stomach was perfused at constant flow through a single cannulated artery with donor blood containing 131I-albumin, 125I-fibrinogen, and papaverine. Perfusion pressure was 30-50 mmHg, and venous pressure was set at 15 mmHg. Venous blood was collected in 1-min samples for 60 min. Filtration of fluid and loss of labeled proteins were calculated as the difference between measured arterial inflow and venous outflow. Permeability-surface area products (PS) were calculated for the proteins, and reflection coefficients (sigma) were calculated from solute flux and filtration. Intraarterial infusion of histamine (1.6-1.9 microgram . ml-1) increased filtration and PS and decreased sigma for albumin but not fibrinogen. When protein-losing was established by topical irrigation with 10 mM dithiothreitol in neutral solution, filtration and PS increased, and sigma for albumin but not fibrinogen decreased. Irrigation of the mucosa with 10 mM salicylic acid in 100 mN HCl caused bleeding that was quantitated by addition of 51Cr-erythrocytes to perfusing blood. Filtration and PS increased, and sigma for albumin but not fibrinogen decreased. Hematocrit of blood lost remained low during extensive mucosal damage. Effects of histamine infusion were attenuated or abolished by cimetidine (4 mg . kg-1 loading, 1.4 mg . kg-1 . h-1 continuous infusion) or by pyrilamine maleate (5 mg . kg-1 bolus injection at beginning of irrigation, repeated at 40-50 min). Pyrilamine attenuated or abolished effects of topical dithiothreitol or salicylic acid. We conclude that during protein loss caused by dithiothreitol or salicylic acid, histamine released within the mucosa causes increased vascular permeability for plasma proteins.

  8. Transgelin: an androgen-dependent protein identified in the seminal vesicles of three Saharan rodents.

    PubMed

    Kaci-Ouchfoun, Naïma; Izemrane, Djamila; Boudrissa, Abdelkrim; Gernigon, Thérèse; Khammar, Farida; Exbrayat, Jean Marie

    2013-10-15

    During the breeding season, a major androgen-dependent protein with an apparent molecular weight of 21 kDa was isolated and purified from the seminal vesicles of three Saharan rodents (MLVSP21 from Meriones libycus, MSVSP21 from Meriones shawi, and MCVSP21 from Meriones crassus). The 21-kDa protein was isolated and purified from soluble seminal vesicle proteins of homogenate by one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Using polyclonal antibodies directed against POSVP21 (Psammomys obesus seminal vesicles protein of 21 kDa), a major androgen-dependent secretory protein from sand rat seminal vesicles, identified previously as transgelin, we showed an immunological homology with POSVP21 by immunoblotting. These three major androgen-dependent proteins with a same apparent molecular weight of 21 kDa designated as MLVSP21 (Meriones libycus seminal vesicles protein of 21 kDa), MSVSP21 (Meriones shawi seminal vesicles protein of 21 kDa), and MCVSP21 (Meriones crassus seminal vesicles protein of 21 kDa) were localized by immunohistochemistry and identified by applying a proteomic approach. Our results indicated that the isolated proteins MLSVP21, MSSVP21, and MCSVP21 seem to correspond to the same protein: the transgelin. So that transgelin can be used as a specific marker of these rodent physiological reproduction mechanisms. PMID:23906482

  9. Reduced Seminal Concentration of CD45pos Cells after Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Treatment in Selected Patients with Idiopathic Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita A.; Calogero, Aldo E.; Vicari, Enzo; Mongioi', Laura; Cannarella, Rossella; Giacone, Filippo; Iacoviello, Linda; Favilla, Vincenzo; La Vignera, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the conventional sperm parameters and the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells (pan-leukocyte marker) of infertile patients with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT). The patients were arbitrarily divided into three groups treated with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone FSH: ? (Group A = 20 patients), recombinant FSH-? (Group B = 20 patients), and highly purified human FSH (Group C = 14 patients). All treated groups achieved a similar improvement of the main sperm parameters (density, progressive motility, and morphology), but only the increase in the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology was significant compared to the baseline in all three examined groups. Moreover, all groups had a significant reduction of the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells and of the percentage of immature germ cells. Before and after the treatment, the concentration of CD45pos cells showed a positive linear correlation with the percentage of immature germ cells and a negative correlation with the percentage of spermatozoa with regular morphology. These results demonstrate that treatment with FSH is effective in patients with idiopathic OAT and that there are no significant differences between the different preparations. The novelty of this study is in the significant reduction of the concentration of CD45pos cells observed after the treatment. PMID:24550984

  10. Seminal transmission of lumpy skin disease virus in heifers.

    PubMed

    Annandale, C H; Holm, D E; Ebersohn, K; Venter, E H

    2014-10-01

    It is known that lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) can be shed in bull semen following infection and also that artificial insemination (AI) poses a biosecurity risk. However, it is not known whether the use of LSDV infected semen in AI poses a biosecurity risk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LSDV, transmitted through semen, can infect cows and their embryos. Two controlled trials were performed simultaneously. Eleven young beef heifers, naïve to LSDV, were synchronized using an OvSynch protocol and inseminated on Day 0 with fresh semen spiked with a field strain of LSDV on day 0. Six of the heifers were superovulated on Day 1 using pregnant mare serum gonadotropin, and embryos were flushed from these heifers on Day 6. Blood and serum samples were collected from Day 4 until Day 27 to determine the presence of LSDV by PCR and virus isolation, and the presence of antibodies against LSDV by SNT. The first clinical signs of LSD were noticed on Day 10, followed by severe generalized LSD in three heifers and mild LSD in two more heifers. Two heifers were humanely euthanized due to severe unresponsive stranguria. LSDV was detected by PCR, virus isolation or electron microscopy in blood, embryos and organs of experimentally infected animals; and eight heifers had seroconverted by Day 27. Two control animals were not affected. This is the first report of experimental seminal transmission of LSDV in cattle. PMID:23289592

  11. Multiple advanced surgical techniques to treat acquired seminal duct obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong-Tao; Yuan, Qian; Liu, Yu; Liu, Zeng-Qin; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Xiao, Ke-Feng; Yang, Jiang-Gen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of multiple advanced surgical treatments (i.e. microsurgery, laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic surgery) for acquired obstructive azoospermia. We analyzed the surgical outcomes of 51 patients with suspected acquired obstructive azoospermia consecutively who enrolled at our center between January 2009 and May 2013. Modified vasoepididymostomy, laparoscopically assisted vasovasostomy and transurethral incision of the ejaculatory duct with holmium laser were chosen and performed based on the different obstruction sites. The mean postoperative follow-up time was 22 months (range: 9 months to 52 months). Semen analyses were initiated at four postoperative weeks, followed by trimonthly (months 3, 6, 9 and 12) semen analyses, until no sperm was found at 12 months or until pregnancy was achieved. Patency was defined as >10,000 sperm ml?1 of semen. The obstruction sites, postoperative patency and natural pregnancy rate were recorded. Of 51 patients, 47 underwent bilateral or unilateral surgical reconstruction; the other four patients were unable to be treated with surgical reconstruction because of pelvic vas or intratesticular tubules obstruction. The reconstruction rate was 92.2% (47/51), and the patency rate and natural pregnancy rate were 89.4% (42/47) and 38.1% (16/42), respectively. No severe complications were observed. Using multiple advanced surgical techniques, more extensive range of seminal duct obstruction was accessible and correctable; thus, a favorable patency and pregnancy rate can be achieved. PMID:25337841

  12. Identification of miR-93 as a suitable miR for normalizing miRNA in plasma of tuberculosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Simone E; Chan, Brian; Ellis, Magda; Yang, YuRong; Plit, Marshall L; Guan, Guangyu; Wang, Xiaolin; Britton, Warwick J; Saunders, Bernadette M

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health issue. New tests to aid diagnoses and monitor the response to therapy are urgently required. There is growing interest in the use of microRNA (miRNA) profiles as diagnostic, prognostic or predictive markers in a range of clinical and infectious diseases, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, however, challenges exist to accurately normalise miRNA levels in cohorts. This study examined the appropriateness of 12 miRs and RNU6B to normalise circulating plasma miRNA levels in individuals with active TB from 2 different geographical and ethnic regions. Twelve miRs (let-7, miR-16, miR-22, miR-26, miR-93, miR-103, miR-191, miR-192, miR-221, miR-423, miR-425 and miR-451) and RNU6B were selected based on their reported production by lung cells, expression in blood and previous use as a reference miRNA. Expression levels were analysed in the plasma of newly diagnosed TB patients from Australia and China compared with individuals with latent TB infection and healthy volunteers. Analysis with both geNorm and NormFinder software identified miR-93 as the most suitable reference miR in both cohorts, either when analysed separately or collectively. Interestingly, there were large variations in the expression levels of some miRs, in particular miR-192 and let-7, between the two cohorts, independent of disease status. These data identify miR-93 is a suitable reference miR for normalizing miRNA levels in TB patients, and highlight how environmental, and possibly ethnic, factors influence miRNA expression levels, demonstrating the necessity of assessing the suitability of reference miRs within the study population. PMID:25753045

  13. Philip E. Cryer, MD: Seminal Contributions to the Understanding of Hypoglycemia and Glucose Counterregulation and the Discovery of HAAF (Cryer Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Dagogo-Jack, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Optimized glycemic control prevents and slows the progression of long-term complications in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In healthy individuals, a decrease in plasma glucose below the physiological range triggers defensive counterregulatory responses that restore euglycemia. Many individuals with diabetes harbor defects in their defenses against hypoglycemia, making iatrogenic hypoglycemia the Achilles heel of glycemic control. This Profile in Progress focuses on the seminal contributions of Philip E. Cryer, MD, to our understanding of hypoglycemia and glucose counterregulation, particularly his discovery of the syndrome of hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF). PMID:26604275

  14. Gender and single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2R, and SCARB1 are significant predictors of plasma homocysteine normalized by RBC folate in healthy adults.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using linear regression models, we studied the main and two-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma homocysteine normalized by red blood cell...

  15. Diverse Nitrogen Sources in Seminal Fluid Act in Synergy To Induce Filamentous Growth of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Francisco J.; Ryman, Kicki; Hooijmaijers, Cornelis; Bulone, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is the leading cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). VVC represents a major quality-of-life issue for women during their reproductive years, a stage of life where the vaginal epithelium is subject to periodic hormonally induced changes associated with menstruation and concomitant exposure to serum as well as potential intermittent contact with seminal fluid. Seminal fluid potently triggers Candida albicans to switch from yeastlike to filamentous modes of growth, a developmental response tightly linked to virulence. Conversely, vaginal fluid inhibits filamentation. Here, we used artificial formulations of seminal and vaginal fluids that faithfully mimic genuine fluids to assess the contribution of individual components within these fluids to filamentation. The high levels of albumin, amino acids, and N-acetylglucosamine in seminal fluid act synergistically as potent inducers of filamentous growth, even at atmospheric levels of CO2 and reduced temperatures (30°C). Using a simplified in vitro model that mimics the natural introduction of seminal fluid into the vulvovaginal environment, a pulse of artificial seminal fluid (ASF) was found to exert an enduring potential to overcome the inhibitory efficacy of artificial vaginal fluid (AVF) on filamentation. These findings suggest that a transient but substantial change in the nutrient levels within the vulvovaginal environment during unprotected coitus can induce resident C. albicans cells to engage developmental programs associated with virulent growth. PMID:25662979

  16. Male seminal fluid substances affect sperm competition success and female reproductive behavior in a seed beetle.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Takashi; Goenaga, Julieta; Rönn, Johanna Liljestrand; Arnqvist, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Male seminal fluid proteins are known to affect female reproductive behavior and physiology by reducing mating receptivity and by increasing egg production rates. Such substances are also though to increase the competitive fertilization success of males, but the empirical foundation for this tenet is restricted. Here, we examined the effects of injections of size-fractioned protein extracts from male reproductive organs on both male competitive fertilization success (i.e., P2 in double mating experiments) and female reproduction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We found that extracts of male seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 1 day after the females' initial mating, while extracts from accessory glands and testes increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 2 days after the females' initial mating. Moreover, different size fractions of seminal fluid proteins had distinct and partly antagonistic effects on male competitive fertilization success. Collectively, our experiments show that several different seminal fluid proteins, deriving from different parts in the male reproductive tract and of different molecular weight, affect male competitive fertilization success in C. maculatus. Our results highlight the diverse effects of seminal fluid proteins and show that the function of such proteins can be contingent upon female mating status. We also document effects of different size fractions on female mating receptivity and egg laying rates, which can serve as a basis for future efforts to identify the molecular identity of seminal fluid proteins and their function in this model species. PMID:25893888

  17. Male Seminal Fluid Substances Affect Sperm Competition Success and Female Reproductive Behavior in a Seed Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Takashi; Goenaga, Julieta; Rönn, Johanna Liljestrand; Arnqvist, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Male seminal fluid proteins are known to affect female reproductive behavior and physiology by reducing mating receptivity and by increasing egg production rates. Such substances are also though to increase the competitive fertilization success of males, but the empirical foundation for this tenet is restricted. Here, we examined the effects of injections of size-fractioned protein extracts from male reproductive organs on both male competitive fertilization success (i.e., P2 in double mating experiments) and female reproduction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We found that extracts of male seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 1 day after the females’ initial mating, while extracts from accessory glands and testes increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 2 days after the females’ initial mating. Moreover, different size fractions of seminal fluid proteins had distinct and partly antagonistic effects on male competitive fertilization success. Collectively, our experiments show that several different seminal fluid proteins, deriving from different parts in the male reproductive tract and of different molecular weight, affect male competitive fertilization success in C. maculatus. Our results highlight the diverse effects of seminal fluid proteins and show that the function of such proteins can be contingent upon female mating status. We also document effects of different size fractions on female mating receptivity and egg laying rates, which can serve as a basis for future efforts to identify the molecular identity of seminal fluid proteins and their function in this model species. PMID:25893888

  18. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  19. Effect of low density lipoprotein receptor deficiency on the metabolism of apolipoprotein B-100 in blood plasma. Kinetic studies in normal and Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, N; Shames, D M; Havel, R J

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 in particles containing apo E (B,E particles) or lacking apo E (B particles) were studied in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits deficient in low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, and compared with those of normal rabbits after injection of radioiodinated very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL), and LDL. In both groups results of kinetic modeling were consistent with the hypothesis that all apo B enters the plasma in VLDL, mainly as B,E particles, followed by delipidation and partial conversion to IDL and LDL, with concomitant conversion of some B,E particles to B particles. In WHHL rabbits, production of VLDL apo B was reduced by 40%, but LDL production was increased threefold. Defective removal of B,E and B particles in all three lipoprotein classes, coupled with preserved processes of delipidation, can account for the observed increases in the concentration of apo B (threefold in VLDL, fivefold in IDL, and twenty-twofold in LDL) in WHHL rabbits. PMID:3611356

  20. Mixed epithelial-stromal tumor (MEST) of seminal vesicle: a proposal for unified nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Reikie, Brian A; Yilmaz, Asli; Medlicott, Shaun; Trpkov, Kiril

    2015-03-01

    In contrast to the common tumors of the prostate, seminal vesicle demonstrates low potential for neoplastic proliferation. Of the rare primary seminal vesicle tumors, adenocarcinoma is the most common, but there are also rare seminal vesicle neoplasms which demonstrate epithelial and stromal components. These neoplasms have been described in the literature under various names, including "epithelial-stromal tumor," "cystic epithelial-stromal tumor," "cystadenoma," "cystomyoma," "mesenchymoma," "Müllerian adenosarcoma-like tumor," "phyllodes tumor," and "cystosarcoma phyllodes." The spectrum of reported mixed epithelial-stromal tumors (MEST) of seminal vesicle encompasses low, intermediate and high-grade tumors, but the precise distinction and nomenclature for these tumors remain unsettled. We propose a common nomenclature for these tumors, based on the review of published cases and 2 index cases from our practice, which represent the low-grade category. The first patient was 46 years old and presented with seminal vesicle neoplasm detected on routine rectal examination. The neoplasm measured 4 cm in greatest dimension, and completely replaced the left seminal vesicle. The tumor was circumscribed and consisted of multiple cysts separated by spindle-cell stroma. The second patient was a 60-year-old man, who had an incidental seminal vesicle neoplasm, which was discovered when he underwent a radical prostatectomy for a prostatic adenocarcinoma, (Gleason score 3+4, stage 3a). Both neoplasms contained hypercellular stroma, which was composed of uniform spindle cells, arranged in fascicles and interspersed between the glands. Both tumors lacked worrisome morphology, such as infiltrative borders, cell atypia, increased mitotic activity, hemorrhage, and necrosis. The stromal cells were reactive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, and desmin. The cysts and dilated glands were lined by epithelial cells, which were positive for cytokeratin 7 and were negative for prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific acid phosphatase. The first patient underwent prostatectomy and was alive and without evidence of disease recurrence or progression after 11 years of follow-up. Similarly, the second patient had no evidence of disease recurrence or progression after 8 months of follow-up. We propose that term seminal vesicle "mixed epithelial-stromal tumor" be used to designate the tumors of the seminal vesicle containing epithelial and stromal components, with a distinction of grade based on the histologic features and the biological behavior. Histologic features to be evaluated for grade separation include stromal atypia, mitotic activity, nuclear pleomorphism, and tumor necrosis. Designations "low-grade MEST," "intermediate-grade MEST (uncertain malignant potential)," and "high-grade MEST" of seminal vesicle can be applied to these tumors to better characterize and study them in the future. PMID:25664946

  1. Approximating Multivariate Normal Orthant Probabilities. ONR Technical Report. [Biometric Lab Report No. 90-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Robert D.; And Others

    The probability integral of the multivariate normal distribution (ND) has received considerable attention since W. F. Sheppard's (1900) and K. Pearson's (1901) seminal work on the bivariate ND. This paper evaluates the formula that represents the "n x n" correlation matrix of the "chi(sub i)" and the standardized multivariate normal density…

  2. Inhibition of Intestinal Bile Acid Transporter Slc10a2 Improves Triglyceride Metabolism and Normalizes Elevated Plasma Glucose Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Snaith, Michael; Lindmark, Helena; Lundberg, Johanna; Östlund-Lindqvist, Ann-Margret; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2) and ob/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma TG levels were reduced in Slc10a2-deficient mice, and when challenged with a sucrose-rich diet, they displayed a reduced response in hepatic TG production as observed from the mRNA levels of several key enzymes in fatty acid synthesis. This effect was paralleled by a diminished induction of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c). Unexpectedly, the SR-diet induced intestinal fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 mRNA and normalized bile acid synthesis in Slc10a2?/? mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of Slc10a2 in diabetic ob/ob mice reduced serum glucose, insulin and TGs, as well as hepatic mRNA levels of Srebp1c and its target genes. These responses are contrary to those reported following treatment of mice with a bile acid binding resin. Moreover, when key metabolic signal transduction pathways in the liver were investigated, those of Mek1/2 - Erk1/2 and Akt were blunted after treatment of ob/ob mice with the Slc10a2 inhibitor. It is concluded that abrogation of Slc10a2 reduces hepatic Srebp1c activity and serum TGs, and in the diabetic ob/ob model it also reduces glucose and insulin levels. Hence, targeting of Slc10a2 may be a promising strategy to treat hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes. PMID:22662222

  3. A case of seminal vesicle cyst associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis diagnosed during an investigation of urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Co?kun, Burhan; Dalk?l?ç, Ayhan; Sönmez, Nurettin Cem; Ar?san, Serdar; Ofluo?lu, Y?lmaz; Ergenekon, Erbil

    2013-01-01

    Seminal vesicle cysts are rare and usually associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis. The diagnosis of seminal vesicle cysts may be delayed or missed because of the non-specific symptoms of this condition. In this study, we aimed to discuss the diagnosis and treatment of a left seminal vesicle cyst that was associated ipsilateral agenesis in a 24-year-old patient who presented to our outpatient department with urinary incontinence. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a seminal vesicle cyst measuring 40×45 mm in diameter. Although the patient’s symptoms were relieved with cyst aspiration via transrectal ultrasonography, the symptoms recurred 6 months later. PMID:26328079

  4. Primary yolk sac tumor of seminal vesicle: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor) is a rare malignant germ cell tumor arising in the testis or ovary. Extragonadal yolk sac tumor is even rarer and has only been described in case reports. Due to the rarity of the tumors, the appropriately optimal treatment remains unclear. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the seminal vesicle. Case A 38-year-old Asian male presented with gross hematuria and hemospermia. Transrectal ultrasound scan showed a solid mass in the left seminal vesicle and the scrotal sonography showed no abnormalities. Bilateral seminal vesicles were resected, and histopathological examination showed a typical pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST). The patient responded poorly to comprehensive treatment of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgeries, developed systemic multiple metastases, and died of cachexia one and half years after diagnosis. PMID:22978485

  5. Seminal vesicle metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma: An unusual and challenging presentation.

    PubMed

    Foahom Kamwa, Alain D; Mateus, Christine; Thanigasalam, Ruban; Boulay-Coletta, Isabelle; Duchatelle, Véronique; Triller, Marie; Robert, Caroline; Baumert, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a tumour, which usually involves skin melanocytes. Involvement of the male genitourinary (GU) system by melanoma is an uncommon and challenging diagnosis. We report the first case of seminal vesicle metastasis from a primary cutaneous melanoma in a 58-year-old man, with hemospermia as the only clinical sign. This case highlights the role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, as a more sensitive assessment to early detect metastatic melanoma in the GU system. The patient underwent a robot-assisted laparoscopic bilateral seminal vesiculectomy, which had good functional and oncological results and is still in complete remission at the 1-year follow-up. PMID:26085885

  6. Seminal vesicle metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma: An unusual and challenging presentation

    PubMed Central

    Foahom Kamwa, Alain D.; Mateus, Christine; Thanigasalam, Ruban; Boulay-Coletta, Isabelle; Duchatelle, Véronique; Triller, Marie; Robert, Caroline; Baumert, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a tumour, which usually involves skin melanocytes. Involvement of the male genitourinary (GU) system by melanoma is an uncommon and challenging diagnosis. We report the first case of seminal vesicle metastasis from a primary cutaneous melanoma in a 58-year-old man, with hemospermia as the only clinical sign. This case highlights the role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, as a more sensitive assessment to early detect metastatic melanoma in the GU system. The patient underwent a robot-assisted laparoscopic bilateral seminal vesiculectomy, which had good functional and oncological results and is still in complete remission at the 1-year follow-up. PMID:26085885

  7. Chemical composition of seminal and ovarian fluids of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and their effects on sperm motility traits

    E-print Network

    Montgomerie, Bob

    ) and their effects on sperm motility traits Patrice Rosengrave a, , Harry Taylor a, , Robert Montgomerie b , Victoria: Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) Chinook salmon Ionic composition Ovarian fluid Seminal fluid Sperm, seminal fluids and sperm function are not well known in teleostean fish species. The objective

  8. Origin of the catalytic activity of bovine seminal ribonuclease against double-stranded RNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opitz, J. G.; Ciglic, M. I.; Haugg, M.; Trautwein-Fritz, K.; Raillard, S. A.; Jermann, T. M.; Benner, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    Bovine seminal ribonuclease (RNase) binds, melts, and (in the case of RNA) catalyzes the hydrolysis of double-stranded nucleic acid 30-fold better under physiological conditions than its pancreatic homologue, the well-known RNase A. Reported here are site-directed mutagenesis experiments that identify the sequence determinants of this enhanced catalytic activity. These experiments have been guided in part by experimental reconstructions of ancestral RNases from extinct organisms that were intermediates in the evolution of the RNase superfamily. It is shown that the enhanced interactions between bovine seminal RNase and double-stranded nucleic acid do not arise from the increased number of basic residues carried by the seminal enzyme. Rather, a combination of a dimeric structure and the introduction of two glycine residues at positions 38 and 111 on the periphery of the active site confers the full catalytic activity of bovine seminal RNase against duplex RNA. A structural model is presented to explain these data, the use of evolutionary reconstructions to guide protein engineering experiments is discussed, and a new variant of RNase A, A(Q28L K31C S32C D38G E111G), which contains all of the elements identified in these experiments as being important for duplex activity, is prepared. This is the most powerful catalyst within this subfamily yet observed, some 46-fold more active against duplex RNA than RNase A.

  9. university-logo Two papers which changed my life: Milnor's seminal work on flat manifolds

    E-print Network

    Goldman, William

    university-logo Two papers which changed my life: Milnor's seminal work on flat manifolds Two Banff International Research Station February 24, 2011 #12;university-logo Two papers which changed my of Euclidean 3-space by free groups of affine transformations. #12;university-logo Two papers which changed my

  10. Seminal, ultrasound and psychobiological parameters correlate with metabolic syndrome in male members of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Lotti, F; Corona, G; Degli Innocenti, S; Filimberti, E; Scognamiglio, V; Vignozzi, L; Forti, G; Maggi, M

    2013-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a diagnostic category which identifies subjects at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, erectile dysfunction (ED) and male hypogonadism. However, MetS impact on male infertility has been poorly studied. We systematically evaluated possible associations between MetS and clinical characteristics in men with couple infertility. Out of 367 consecutive subjects, 351 men without genetic abnormalities were studied. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation&American Heart Association/National Heart,Lung, and Blood Institute classification. All men underwent physical, hormonal, seminal and scrotal ultrasound evaluation. Erectile and ejaculatory functions were assessed by International Index of Erectile Function-15 erectile function domain (IIEF-15-EFD) and Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), respectively, while psychological symptoms by Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire. Out of 351 patients, 27 (7.7%) fulfilled MetS criteria. Among ultrasound features, in an age-adjusted logistic model, only testis inhomogeneity was significantly associated with increasing MetS factors (HR = 1.36 [1.09-1.70]; p < 0.01). In an age-adjusted model, MetS was associated with a stepwise decline in total testosterone (TT) (B = -1.25 ± 0.33; p < 0.0001), without a concomitant rise in gonadotropins. At univariate analysis, progressive motility and normal morphology were negatively related to the number of MetS components (both p < 0.0001), but when age and TT were introduced in a multivariate model, only sperm morphology retained a significant association (B = -1.418 ± 0.42; p = 0.001). The risk of ED (IIEF-15-EFD score <26) increased as a function of the number of MetS factors, even after adjusting for age and TT (HR = 1.45[1.08-1.95]; p < 0.02). No association between PEDT score and MetS was observed. Finally, after adjusting for age and TT, somatization and depressive symptoms were associated with increasing MetS components (B = 0.66 ± 0.03, p < 0.05; B = 0.69 ± 0.03, p < 0.02; respectively). In conclusion, in men with couple infertility, MetS is associated with hypogonadism, poor sperm morphology, testis ultrasound inhomogeneity, ED, somatization and depression. Recognizing MetS could help patients to improve not only fertility but also sexual and overall health. PMID:23315971

  11. [Seminal profile in workers exposed to cholinesterase inhibitor insecticides].

    PubMed

    Mármol-Maneiro, Lenys; Fernández-D'Pool, Janice; Sánchez, Betty J; Sirit, Yadira

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physical, chemical and cytomorphologic characteristics of semen obtained from workers exposed to cholinesterase inhibitor insecticides and compare them with samples of the same nature obtained from unexposed subjects, and in addition, to correlate those findings with blood levels of cholinesterase. The study group consisted of 29 adult males, age range 20-54, that were exposed to cholinesterase inhibitor insecticides during 4 hours per day for a variable lapse (one year minimum), whereas the control group consisted of 30 unexposed individuals of the same gender, and similar age range. A thorough medical examination was performed in every individual. It consisted of an occupational medical history and complete physical exam. A blood sample was obtained in all the subjects in order to determine total cholinesterase levels by the modified S. Hestrin Hydroxamate method. Semen analysis was done in specimens collected after recent masturbation following a 3-day abstinence period. The data was processed and analyzed by the SAS computerized statistics program. The results revealed significant differences between both groups (p < 0.05) for the following variables: sperm count per mL., percentage of fast, mobile and immobile, live and dead spermatozoids. Spermatozoa morphology was found to be within normal limits as established by the WHO. Nevertheless, the differences related to the percentage of big head and amorphous spermatozoids was significant (p < 0.05). The results indicate that cholinesterase inhibitor insecticides affect certain variables of the semen analysis and hence the quality of the semen. PMID:12815841

  12. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) for excision of a seminal vesicle cyst associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ki Don; Choi, Kyung Hwa; Yang, Seung Choul; Jang, Won Sik; Jang, Ji Young; Han, Woong Kyu

    2011-06-01

    We report a case of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) for a symptomatic left seminal vesicular cyst and ipsilateral renal agenesis. A 49-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of severe irritation upon voiding and intractable, recurrent hematospermia. A computed tomography scan showed a 68×41×38 mm sized left seminal vesicular cyst with ipsilateral renal agenesis. LESS was performed successfully to treat the seminal vesicle cyst. The total operative time was 125 minutes, and blood loss was minimal. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the second postoperative day. PMID:21755023

  13. Perceptual effects of linguistic category priming: the Stapel and Semin (2007) paradigm revisited in twelve experiments.

    PubMed

    IJzerman, Hans; Regenberg, Nina F E; Saddlemyer, Justin; Koole, Sander L

    2015-05-01

    Linguistic category priming is a novel paradigm to examine automatic influences of language on cognition (Semin, 2008). An initial article reported that priming abstract linguistic categories (adjectives) led to more global perceptual processing, whereas priming concrete linguistic categories (verbs) led to more local perceptual processing (Stapel & Semin, 2007). However, this report was compromised by data fabrication by the first author, so that it remains unclear whether or not linguistic category priming influences perceptual processing. To fill this gap in the literature, the present article reports 12 studies among Dutch and US samples examining the perceptual effects of linguistic category priming. The results yielded no evidence of linguistic category priming effects. These findings are discussed in relation to other research showing cultural variations in linguistic category priming effects (IJzerman, Saddlemyer, & Koole, 2014). The authors conclude by highlighting the importance of conducting and publishing replication research for achieving scientific progress. PMID:25703607

  14. Primary bilateral seminal vesicle carcinoma: description of a case and literature review.

    PubMed

    Campobasso, Davide; Fornia, Samanta; Ferretti, Stefania; Maestroni, Umberto; Cortellini, Pietro

    2012-12-01

    With no more than 60 reported cases, tumors of the seminal vesicles are rare. Because of poor and nonspecific symptoms diagnosis is often very difficult. This report presents a case of a 56-year-old man with right renal agenesis and intermittent hematospermia and bilateral cystic masses of the seminal vesicles. Transrectal biopsies of the cystic lesion revealed a papillary clear cell adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphoadenectomy. Lymph node metastases were found on histological examination. The patient received 4 cycles of chemotherapy and pelvic radiotherapy. He remains disease free 21 months after surgery. Radiological imaging in patients with hematospermia and hematuria will allow disease detection at earlier stages. Immunohistochemistry and histomorphology can be used for differential diagnosis. Surgery with clear margins offers the best chance to cure. Hormonal and radio-chemotherapy have a role as adjuvant and palliative treatment. PMID:22723505

  15. Persistent painless hemospermia due to metastatic melanoma of the right seminal vesicle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metastatic melanoma of the seminal vesicles is a very rare clinical entity and has been reported only once until today in a patient suffering from concomitant HIV infection 12 years ago. Case presentation We report a case of persistent, painless hemospermia in a young Caucasian caused by metastatic malignant melanoma of the right seminal vesicle. The diagnosis was established by magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. In the subsequent diagnostic workup the primary location of the tumor remained unknown but concomitant pulmonary, hepatic and supraclavicular lymph node metastases have been detected. Despite immediate chemotherapy initiation the patient finally succumbed to his progressive disease six months later. Conclusions Malignant melanoma should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis of hemospermia after common causes have been ruled out. PMID:24006885

  16. [Neutral alpha-glucosidase, a specific marker for epididymal secretion in seminal pathology].

    PubMed

    Loko, F; Alihonou, E; Goufodji, B; Fagla, B; Hounton, M

    1997-12-01

    Semen samples were obtained from 153 patients attending the Centre de recherche en Reproduction Humaine et en Démographie (CRRHD, Bénin) and seminal neutral alpha glucosidase activity was evaluated. Semen contains testicular and accessory gland secretions. Oligozoospernia asthenozoospernia and leucospermia are involved in reducing the fertilizing ability of the spermatozoa. The present work was undertaken to evaluate the variations of seminal alpha glucosidase activity as a specific epididymal enzyme marker in these diseases. A significant positive correlation was demonstrated (P < 0.01) between alpha glucosidase activity and (1) number of spermatozoa in oligozoospermic and normozoospermic men (2) motility of spermatozoa in asthenozoospermic men. No correlation occurred between alpha glucosidase activity and leucospermia. The results of the present study suggest that alpha glucosidase specific activity of the semen was involved in the maturation and acquisition of motility by the germ cells. Otherwise, in our sample, epididymis is scarcely involved in various inflammatory diseases of the reproductive tract. PMID:9497607

  17. Deformation of Prostate and Seminal Vesicles Relative to Intraprostatic Fiducial Markers

    SciTech Connect

    Wielen, Gerard J. van der; Mutanga, Theodore F.; Incrocci, Luca; Kirkels, Wim J.; Vasquez Osorio, Eliana M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Boer, Hans C.J. de

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: To quantify the residual geometric uncertainties after on-line corrections with intraprostatic fiducial markers, this study analyzed the deformation of the prostate and, in particular, the seminal vesicles relative to such markers. Patients and Methods: A planning computed tomography (CT) scan and three repeat CT scans were obtained for 21 prostate cancer patients who had had three to four cylindrical gold markers placed. The prostate and whole seminal vesicles (clinical target volume [CTV]) were delineated on each scan at a slice thickness of 1.5 mm. Rigid body transformations (translation and rotation) mapping the markers onto the planning scan positions were obtained. The translation only (T{sub only}) or both translation and rotation were applied to the delineated CTVs. Next, the residue CTV surface displacements were determined using nonrigid registration of the delineated contours. For translation and rotation of the CTV, the residues represented deformation; for T{sub only}, the residues stemmed from deformation and rotation. T{sub only} represented the residues for most currently applied on-line protocols. The patient and population statistics of the CTV surface displacements were calculated. The intraobserver delineation variation was similarly quantified using repeat delineations for all patients and corrected for. Results: The largest CTV deformations were observed at the anterior and posterior side of the seminal vesicles (population average standard deviation {<=}3 mm). Prostate deformation was small (standard deviation {<=}1 mm). The increase in these deviations when neglecting rotation (T{sub only}) was small. Conclusion: Although prostate deformation with respect to implanted fiducial markers was small, the corresponding deformation of the seminal vesicles was considerable. Adding marker-based rotational corrections to on-line translation corrections provided a limited reduction in the estimated planning margins.

  18. Multivariate normality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, H. L.; Falls, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    Sets of experimentally determined or routinely observed data provide information about the past, present and, hopefully, future sets of similarly produced data. An infinite set of statistical models exists which may be used to describe the data sets. The normal distribution is one model. If it serves at all, it serves well. If a data set, or a transformation of the set, representative of a larger population can be described by the normal distribution, then valid statistical inferences can be drawn. There are several tests which may be applied to a data set to determine whether the univariate normal model adequately describes the set. The chi-square test based on Pearson's work in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is often used. Like all tests, it has some weaknesses which are discussed in elementary texts. Extension of the chi-square test to the multivariate normal model is provided. Tables and graphs permit easier application of the test in the higher dimensions. Several examples, using recorded data, illustrate the procedures. Tests of maximum absolute differences, mean sum of squares of residuals, runs and changes of sign are included in these tests. Dimensions one through five with selected sample sizes 11 to 101 are used to illustrate the statistical tests developed.

  19. Multiple effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and on vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility

    SciTech Connect

    Nojimoto, Fernanda D.; Piffer, Renata C.; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo de A.; Lameu, Claudiana; Camargo, Antonio C.M. de; Pupo, Andre S.

    2009-09-15

    Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine and 5-HT reuptake largely used in the management of obesity. Although a fairly safe drug, postmarketing adverse effects of sibutramine were reported including abnormal ejaculation in men. This study investigates the effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility. Adult male rats received sibutramine (5; 20; or 50 mg kg{sup -1}, ip) and after 60 min were exposed to receptive females for determination of ejaculation parameters. The vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles of untreated rats were mounted in isolated organ baths for recording of isometric contractions and HEK293 cells loaded with fluorescent calcium indicator were used to measure intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transients. Sibutramine 5 and 20 mg kg{sup -1} reduced ejaculation latency whereas 50 mg kg{sup -1} increased ejaculation latency. Sibutramine 3 to 30 {mu}M greatly increased the sensitivity of the seminal vesicle and vas deferens to norepinephrine, but at concentrations higher than 10 {mu}M there were striking depressions of maximal contractions induced by norepinephrine, carbachol and CaCl{sub 2}. In HEK293 cells, sibutramine 10 to 100 {mu}M inhibited intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transients induced by carbachol. Depending on the doses, sibutramine either facilitates or inhibits ejaculation. Apart from its actions in the central nervous system, facilitation of ejaculation may result from augmented sensitivity of smooth muscles to norepinephrine while reductions of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} may be involved in the delayed ejaculation observed with high doses of sibutramine.

  20. Radiotherapy Treatment Plans With RapidArc for Prostate Cancer Involving Seminal Vesicles and Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Sua; Wu, Q. Jackie; Lee, W. Robert; Yin Fangfang

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: Dosimetric results and treatment delivery efficiency of RapidArc plans to those of conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were compared using the Eclipse treatment planning system for high-risk prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: This study included 10 patients. The primary planning target volume (PTV{sub P}) contained prostate, seminal vesicles, and pelvic lymph nodes with a margin. The boost PTV (PTV{sub B}) contained prostate and seminal vesicles with a margin. The total prescription dose was 75.6 Gy (46.8 Gy to PTV{sub P} and an additional 28.8 Gy to PTV{sub B}; 1.8 Gy/fraction). Three plans were generated for each PTV: Multiple-field IMRT, one-arc RapidArc (1ARC), and two-arc RapidArc (2ARC). Results: In the primary IMRT with PTV{sub P}, average mean doses to bladder, rectum and small bowel were lower by 5.9%, 7.7% and 4.3%, respectively, than in the primary 1ARC and by 3.6%, 4.8% and 3.1%, respectively, than in the primary 2ARC. In the boost IMRT with PTV{sub B}, average mean doses to bladder and rectum were lower by 2.6% and 4.8% than with the boost 1ARC and were higher by 0.6% and 0.2% than with the boost 2ARC. Integral doses were 7% to 9% higher with RapidArc than with IMRT for both primary and boost plans. Treatment delivery time was reduced by 2-7 minutes using RapidArc. Conclusion: For PTVs including prostate, seminal vesicles, and lymph nodes, IMRT performed better in dose sparing for bladder, rectum, and small bowel than did RapidArc. For PTVs including prostate and seminal vesicles, RapidArc with two arcs provided plans comparable to those for IMRT. The treatment delivery is more efficient with RapidArc.

  1. Ejaculation training, seminal alkaline phosphatase and semen preservation through cooling in a milk-based extender in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Valiente, Carla; de la Sota, Pablo E; Arauz, Sandra; Gobello, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe (1) the training of domestic cats in ejaculation into an artificial vagina (AV), (2) alkaline phosphatase (AP) concentrations in whole ejaculates, and (3) the in vitro effect of a skimmed-milk plus egg yolk (SM-Y) extender on feline spermatozoa incubated at 4ºC. Five post-pubertal cats were trained to ejaculate into an AV three times a week for 20 mins in the presence of a teaser queen. Fifty AV-obtained ejaculates were macro- and microscopically assessed, and the AP therein measured by optimized colorimetry. Eighty AV-obtained ejaculates were pooled, diluted in SM-Y extender [80% (v/v) skimmed milk, 20% (v/v) egg yolk, and antibiotics], stored at 4°C and evaluated daily for 6 days. All the animals could be trained to ejaculate, although the interval up to the first AV ejaculation varied from 1.5 to 5.5 months (mean 3.9 months). The final performance at collection ranged from excellent to poor and was inversely related to the training period required in all cases. The mean AP concentration in whole ejaculates was 20,645.6 ± 4405U/l, which was not correlated with the concentration of spermatozoa. Most seminal parameters [(%); total (77 ± 2.3) and progressive (62.7 ± 3.4) motility, live sperm (91.8 ± 1.2), intact plasmalemma (83.5 ± 2.6), normal acrosomes (83.5 ± 2.6), pH (6.6 ± 0.0) and osmolarity (mOsm/l; 321 ± 5.2)], though decreasing during storage in the cold, remained within values compatible with in vivo fertilization for 2 days. PMID:24127457

  2. An Odorant-Binding Protein Is Abundantly Expressed in the Nose and in the Seminal Fluid of the Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Niccolini, Alberto; Serra, Andrea; Gazzano, Angelo; Scaloni, Andrea; Pelosi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    We have purified an abundant lipocalin from the seminal fluid of the rabbit, which shows significant similarity with the sub-class of pheromone carriers “urinary” and “salivary” and presents an N-terminal sequence identical with that of an odorant-binding protein (rabOBP3) expressed in the nasal tissue of the same species. This protein is synthesised in the prostate and found in the seminal fluid, but not in sperm cells. The same protein is also expressed in the nasal epithelium of both sexes, but is completely absent in female reproductive organs. It presents four cysteines, among which two are arranged to form a disulphide bridge, and is glycosylated. This is the first report of an OBP identified at the protein level in the seminal fluid of a vertebrate species. The protein purified from seminal fluid is bound to some organic chemicals whose structure is currently under investigation. We reasonably speculate that, like urinary and salivary proteins reported in other species of mammals, this lipocalin performs a dual role, as carrier of semiochemicals in the seminal fluid and as detector of chemical signals in the nose. PMID:25391153

  3. Normalizing Rejection.

    PubMed

    Conn, Vicki S; Zerwic, Julie; Jefferson, Urmeka; Anderson, Cindy M; Killion, Cheryl M; Smith, Carol E; Cohen, Marlene Z; Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Herrick, Linda; Topp, Robert; Benefield, Lazelle E; Loya, Julio

    2016-02-01

    Getting turned down for grant funding or having a manuscript rejected is an uncomfortable but not unusual occurrence during the course of a nurse researcher's professional life. Rejection can evoke an emotional response akin to the grieving process that can slow or even undermine productivity. Only by "normalizing" rejection, that is, by accepting it as an integral part of the scientific process, can researchers more quickly overcome negative emotions and instead use rejection to refine and advance their scientific programs. This article provides practical advice for coming to emotional terms with rejection and delineates methods for working constructively to address reviewer comments. PMID:26041785

  4. Intraluminal occlusion of the seminal duct by laser and Histoacryl: Two non-invasive alternatives for vasectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, B.; Sroka, R.; Koelle, S.; Becker, A. J.; Khoder, W.; Pongratz, T.; Stief, C. G.; Trottmann, M.

    2014-03-01

    Introduction and objective: Vasectomy is a well-established method in family control. Even though it is a safe and low risk operation, this surgery is invasive and difficult to reverse. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate new non-invasive methods for occlusion of the seminal duct. Material and Methods: Seminal duct tissue was obtained from patients (n=30) suffering from prostate cancer and therefore undergoing prostatectomy. In a first set of experiments, the seminal duct was occluded by intraluminal application of Histoacryl® (Braun Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany). In a 2nd set of experiments, endoluminal laser induced occlusion was performed. Four different laser wavelengths (1940nm, 1470nm, 1064nm, 940nm) and different sets of laser parameters (e.g. power, exposure duration, fibre diameter, energy applied) were compared. Effectiveness of occlusion of the seminal duct was proven by post-treatment irrigation flow measurement, as well as by morphological analyses. To evaluate a potential damage of the surrounding tissue, external temperature was measured using a thermometer during laser application. Results: Intraluminal application of Histoacryl® induced an immediate and complete occlusion of the seminal duct. The underlying connective tissue maintained its functional integrity after this treatment. By laser light application to a Histoacryl® block, a hole could be created into the block thus indicating the possibility of recanalization. Treatment with laser energy resulted in shrinkage of the ductal lumen. The laser application generally caused necrosis in the epithelium and induced formation of vacuoles in the underlying connective tissue. As described for endoluminal varicose treatment, this distinct local reaction might result in an intense inflammation leading to a functional occlusion of the vas deferens. Conclusions: Both laser-induced occlusion and application of Histoacryl® are fast and simple techniques which may be able to achieve a functional occlusion of the seminal duct. The application of Histoacryl® additionally may be easily reversible by laser treatment.

  5. Control of impurities in toroidal plasma devices

    DOEpatents

    Ohkawa, Tihiro (La Jolla, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for plasma impurity control in closed flux plasma systems such as Tokamak reactors is disclosed. Local axisymmetrical injection of hydrogen gas is employed to reverse the normally inward flow of impurities into the plasma.

  6. Physical Warmth and Perceptual Focus: A Replication of IJzerman and Semin (2009)

    PubMed Central

    Schilder, Janneke D.; IJzerman, Hans; Denissen, Jaap J. A.

    2014-01-01

    With the changing of modal research practices in psychology, the grounded cognition perspective (sometimes categorized under the more popular term of “social priming”) has become heavily criticized. Specifically, LeBel and Campbell (2013) reported a failed replication of a study involving what some would call “social priming.” We sought to replicate a study from our own lab (IJzerman & Semin, 2009), to investigate the reproducibility of the reported effect that physical warmth leads to a greater focus on perceptual relations. We also improved our methods to reduce potential experimenter's bias (cf. Doyen, Klein, Pichon, & Cleeremans, 2012). We successfully replicated the finding that a simple cue of physical warmth makes people more likely to adopt a relational focus. PMID:25402343

  7. A new Stygarctus (Arthrotardigrada: Stygarctidae) from Japan, with entangled seminal receptacle ducts.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Shinta

    2014-01-01

    Stygarctus ayatori sp. nov. (Arthrotardigrada: Stygarctidae), is described from a sandy beach located at Okinoshima, Tateyama Bay, Boso Peninsula, Honshu, Japan. The most prominent characters were observed in the female genital structure, with the seminal receptacle ducts forming a three-dimensional entanglement near the exterior opening, and internal thickening situated peripheral to the gonopore and between the gonopore and anus. The new species is distinguished from the congeners by these characters; excluding S. abornatus McKirdy et al., 1976 for which there is no information on the genital structure. However, S. ayatori sp. nov. and S. abornatus can be differentiated by the presence of dorsal spines on the former species, which are absent from the latter. PMID:24872047

  8. Physical warmth and perceptual focus: a replication of IJzerman and Semin (2009).

    PubMed

    Schilder, Janneke D; IJzerman, Hans; Denissen, Jaap J A

    2014-01-01

    With the changing of modal research practices in psychology, the grounded cognition perspective (sometimes categorized under the more popular term of "social priming") has become heavily criticized. Specifically, LeBel and Campbell (2013) reported a failed replication of a study involving what some would call "social priming." We sought to replicate a study from our own lab (IJzerman & Semin, 2009), to investigate the reproducibility of the reported effect that physical warmth leads to a greater focus on perceptual relations. We also improved our methods to reduce potential experimenter's bias (cf. Doyen, Klein, Pichon, & Cleeremans, 2012). We successfully replicated the finding that a simple cue of physical warmth makes people more likely to adopt a relational focus. PMID:25402343

  9. TIME-DEPENDENT EFFECTS ON GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT SEMINAL VESICLE DEVELOPMENTALLY ALTERED BY IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    TIME-DEPENDENT EFFECTS ON GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT SEMINAL VESICLE DEVELOPMENTALLY ALTERED BY IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO TCDD. V M Richardson', J T Hamm2, and L S Birnbaum1. 'USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, 'Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, ...

  10. I In 1950, Claude Shannon published his seminal work on how to program a computer to play chess.

    E-print Network

    Meeden, Lisa A.

    I In 1950, Claude Shannon published his seminal work on how to program a computer to play chess. Since then, developing game-playing programs that can compete with (and even exceed) the abil- ities that play world-class backgammon, checkers, chess, Othello, and Scrab- ble. These remarkable achievements

  11. In the 1950s, seminal electron microscopy studies led to the canonical view of mitochondria as bean-shaped

    E-print Network

    Chan, David

    In the 1950s, seminal electron microscopy studies led to the canonical view of mitochondria as bean-shaped organelles. These studies revealed the ultrastructural hallmarks of mitochondria, which include double lipid for the fact that the mitochondrial structure is highly dynamic1,2 . Mitochondria have drastically different

  12. Premature Ejaculation – Dose and Duration Dependent Effect of Fluoxetine: A Histological Study on Seminal Vesicle of Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jethani, SL; Rohatagi, RK; Kalra, Juhi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fluoxetine is a prototype drug of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Its active demethylated metabolite has a half life of 7-10 d. Fluoxetine is used to treat depression and is also prescribed in premature ejaculation. Aim: In the present study dose and duration dependent effects of Fluoxetine on histology of seminal vesicle of the albino rats were observed. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 36 adult male albino rats. Fluoxetine was administered intraperitoneally for 2 wk, 4 wk and 12 wk with mild (10mg/kg/day), moderate (20mg/kg/day) and severe doses (40mg/kg/day). Histological slides of Seminal vesicle were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Results: On examination through the light microscope, the proliferation of primary, secondary and tertiary villi, increased crypt/alveoli, increased thickness of lamina propria, decreased epithelial cell height, metaplasia, changes in the amount of luminal eosinophilic secretory material in the form of scanty secretion in lumen of seminal vesicle. Conclusion: Low doses for long duration and high doses for short duration of Fluoxetine produce histological changes in seminal vesicle of albino rats. PMID:25386416

  13. Technology and the Deep Play of Intercultural Teacher Education: A Reflection on Two Seminal Writings of Clifford Geertz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdig, Richard E.; Dawson, Kara

    2005-01-01

    The selection of a seminal piece on intercultural issues in technology and teacher education was challenging. Researchers interested in the field come from numerous fields of study, including education, anthropology, sociology, psychology, economics, business, international relations, and communication. The two essays by Cliffort Gertz (1973a, b)…

  14. Adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles complicated by antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles is a very rare malignancy, with less than 100 cases reported worldwide. It is documented to have a poor prognosis, with the majority of patients developing metastatic disease, most commonly in the prostate, bladder and rectum. Currently there is no standard treatment for metastatic disease and the limited reports of treatment with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal (anti-androgenic) therapy show that they are generally of modest benefit. The association between malignancy and an increased risk of autoimmune vasculitis has been demonstrated in a number of malignancies, but to date there have been no documented cases of adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis. Case presentation In this report we describe the case of a 55-year-old Caucasian man with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles. He previously had received chemotherapy treatment for advanced testicular cancer and later presented with hemospermia. He subsequently developed c-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis requiring intensive immunosuppression and renal dialysis. Conclusion Adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles is a rare diagnosis and our case is more unusual in that our patient previously had chemotherapy treatment for advanced testicular cancer and went on to develop severe antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis when diagnosed with metastatic seminal vesicle cancer. This case illustrates that autoimmune vasculitis can occur in any patient with malignancy and an early referral to the renal team combined with renal biopsy can assist in the earlier diagnosis and more successful management of these rare events. This case should be of interest to oncologists, renal physicians, urologists and general physicians who encounter patients presenting with hemospermia or vasculitis. PMID:23452402

  15. Dihydroisoxazole inhibitors of Anopheles gambiae seminal transglutaminase AgTG3

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current vector-based malaria control strategies are threatened by the rise of biochemical and behavioural resistance in mosquitoes. Researching mosquito traits of immunity and fertility is required to find potential targets for new vector control strategies. The seminal transglutaminase AgTG3 coagulates male Anopheles gambiae seminal fluids, forming a ‘mating plug’ that is required for male reproductive success. Inhibitors of AgTG3 can be useful both as chemical probes of A. gambiae reproductive biology and may further the development of new chemosterilants for mosquito population control. Methods A targeted library of 3-bromo-4,5-dihydroxoisoxazole inhibitors were synthesized and screened for inhibition of AgTG3 in a fluorescent, plate-based assay. Positive hits were tested for in vitro activity using cross-linking and mass spectrometry, and in vivo efficacy in laboratory mating assays. Results A targeted chemical library was screened for inhibition of AgTG3 in a fluorescent plate-based assay using its native substrate, plugin. Several inhibitors were identified with IC50?

  16. Testosterone regulates levels of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, adenylate cyclase, and cAMP in the seminal vesicles of orchidectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Nur Siti Khadijah; Giribabu, Nelli; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2016-01-15

    Secretions of chloride (Cl(-))- and bicarbonate (HCO3(-))-rich fluid by the seminal vesicles could involve cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), which activity can be stimulated by cAMP generated from the reaction involving adenylate cyclase (AC). In this study, we investigated levels of CFTR, AC, and cAMP in the seminal vesicles under testosterone influence. Orchidectomized adult male rats received 7-day treatment with 125 or 250 ?g/kg/day of testosterone with or without flutamide or finasteride. At the end of the treatment, animals were sacrificed and seminal vesicles were harvested for analyses of CFTR and AC protein expression level by Western blotting. Distribution of CFTR and AC in seminal vesicles was observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of cAMP and dihydrotestosterone in seminal vesicle homogenates were measured by ELISA. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, AC, and cAMP levels increased with increasing doses of testosterone (P < 0.05 compared to nontreated orchidectomized rats). Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator and AC were expressed at the apical membrane of the epithelium lining the seminal vesicle lumen with higher expression levels observed in testosterone-treated rats than in non-treated orchidectomized rats (P < 0.05). The inhibitory effects of flutamide or finasteride on these parameters were greater in 250 ?g/kg/day testosterone-treated rats than their effects in 125 ?g/kg/day testosterone-treated rats. Higher dihydrotestosterone levels were observed in seminal vesicle homogenates after treatment with 250 ?g/kg/day than with 125 ?g/kg/day of testosterone (P < 0.05). Increased levels of CFTR, AC, and cAMP in seminal vesicles might contribute toward an increase in Cl(-) and HCO3(-) concentrations in the seminal fluid as reported under testosterone influence. PMID:26483308

  17. Multiple recognition assay reveals prostasomes as promising plasma biomarkers for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tavoosidana, Gholamreza; Ronquist, Gunnar; Darmanis, Spyros; Yan, Junhong; Carlsson, Lena; Wu, Di; Conze, Tim; Ek, Pia; Semjonow, Axel; Eltze, Elke; Larsson, Anders; Landegren, Ulf D.; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood

    2011-01-01

    Prostasomes are microvesicles (mean diameter, 150 nm) that are produced and secreted by normal and malignant prostate acinar cells. It has been hypothesized that invasive growth of malignant prostate cells may cause these microvesicles, normally released into seminal fluid, to appear in interstitial space and therewith into peripheral circulation. The suitability of prostasomes as blood biomarkers in patients with prostate cancer was tested by using an expanded variant of the proximity ligation assay (PLA). We developed an extremely sensitive and specific assay (4PLA) for detection of complex target structures such as microvesicles in which the target is first captured via an immobilized antibody and subsequently detected by using four other antibodies with attached DNA strands. The requirement for coincident binding by five antibodies to generate an amplifiable reporter results in both increased specificity and sensitivity. The assay successfully detected significantly elevated levels of prostasomes in blood samples from patients with prostate cancer before radical prostatectomy, compared with controls and men with benign biopsy results. The medians for prostasome levels in blood plasma of patients with prostate cancer were 2.5 to sevenfold higher compared with control samples in two independent studies, and the assay also distinguished patients with high and medium prostatectomy Gleason scores (8/9 and 7, respectively) from those with low score (?6), thus reflecting disease aggressiveness. This approach that enables detection of prostasomes in peripheral blood may be useful for early diagnosis and assessment of prognosis in organ-confined prostate cancer. PMID:21555566

  18. Plasma Cell Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) Multiple Myeloma Macroglobulinemia Heavy Chain Diseases Plasma cell disorders are uncommon. They begin ... antibody produced is incomplete, consisting of only light chains or heavy chains (functional antibodies normally consist of ...

  19. Fluorescence and NMR Studies of Human Seminal Plasma Prostatic Inhibin: Association of Lifetimes with Sterically Constrained Tryptophans

    E-print Network

    Mallela, Krishna M. G.

    Therefore, neutralizing inhibin through active im- munization leads to increase in milk production. Seidah) with an exclusion limit of 200 000 Da. The proteins were eluted with 0.05 M acetate buffer, pH 4.0, at a flow rate by radioimmunoassay.6 The protein was then dissolved in sodium acetate buffer (pH ) 4.5; 100 mM), and then the pH was a

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of the Maize Primary, Crown and Seminal Root in Response to Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiangbo; Li, Cuiling; Tian, Huiyu; Ding, Zhaojun

    2015-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to crop growth and yield. The primary and lateral roots of Arabidopsis thaliana are known to respond differentially to a number of environmental stresses, including salinity. Although the maize root system as a whole is known to be sensitive to salinity, whether or not different structural root systems show differential growth responses to salinity stress has not yet been investigated. The maize primary root (PR) was more tolerant of salinity stress than either the crown root (CR) or the seminal root (SR). To understand the molecular mechanism of these differential growth responses, RNA-Seq analysis was conducted on cDNA prepared from the PR, CR and SR of plants either non-stressed or exposed to 100 mM NaCl for 24 h. A set of 444 genes were shown to be regulated by salinity stress, and the transcription pattern of a number of genes associated with the plant salinity stress response differed markedly between the various types of root. The pattern of transcription of the salinity-regulated genes was shown to be very diverse in the various root types. The differential transcription of these genes such as transcription factors, and the accumulation of compatible solutes such as soluble sugars probably underlie the differential growth responses to salinity stress of the three types of roots in maize. PMID:25803026

  1. The applicability of a seminal professional development theory to creative arts therapies students.

    PubMed

    Orkibi, Hod

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to test the extent to which a seminal theory of the professional development of counsellors and therapists is applicable to the particular experiences of creative arts therapies graduate students who learn how to use the arts in psychotherapy. Nevertheless, readers may consider the results of the present study transferable to other healthcare disciplines. Questionnaires for each developmental phase were used for data collection, and analysis included data quantification, assessment of inter-rater agreement and theory derivation procedure. Results indicate that creative arts therapies students were concerned about translating theory into practice, learning how experienced therapists concretely function in practice, and reducing cognitive dissonance upon realization that their pre-training lay conceptions of helping were no longer valid. Stress and anxiety drove students to adopt easily mastered techniques that were implemented creatively in practicum. The results confirm that students who were older and had undergraduate human-service education and/or considerable life experience were less concerned about their suitability to the profession, were more acquainted with a professional working style and searched for their individual way of becoming therapists. Finally, recommendations for future research are suggested, and implications for practice are offered. PMID:23733240

  2. The Role of Imaging in the Diagnosis of Recurrence of Primary Seminal Vesicle Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Silvotti, Monica; Casali, Massimiliano; Giovanardi, Franco; Zadro, Alvise; Froio, Armando; Erba, Paola Anna; Versari, Annibale

    2014-01-01

    Primary seminal vesicle (SV) adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor. A small amount of data about the role of imaging to detect tumor recurrence is available. We report the case of a 58-year-old patient with primary SV clear-cell well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Clinical and instrumental examinations were negative for the 32 months after treatments when computed tomography scan, [18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging showed the appearance of a lesion in the left perineal muscle suspected for recurrence. Patient was symptomless. Cytology of the suspected lesion confirmed SV adenocarcinoma recurrence. The combined approach, using radiological and nuclear medicine techniques, seems to be effective in the follow-up of SV adenocarcinoma. Technological advances, together with awareness of this rare tumor, have the potential of improving patients outcomes not only by providing earlier detection and accurate staging, but also by detecting recurrence and thereby avoiding delays and therapeutic dilemmas. PMID:24872954

  3. Identification and characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Boes, Kathryn E; Ribeiro, José M C; Wong, Alex; Harrington, Laura C; Wolfner, Mariana F; Sirot, Laura K

    2014-06-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is an important vector for pathogens that affect human health, including the viruses that cause dengue and Chikungunya fevers. It is also one of the world's fastest-spreading invasive species. For these reasons, it is crucial to identify strategies for controlling the reproduction and spread of this mosquito. During mating, seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) are transferred from male mosquitoes to females, and these Sfps modulate female behavior and physiology in ways that influence reproduction. Despite the importance of Sfps on female reproductive behavior in mosquitoes and other insects, the identity of Sfps in Ae. albopictus has not previously been reported. We used transcriptomics and proteomics to identify 198 Sfps in Ae. albopictus. We discuss possible functions of these Sfps in relation to Ae. albopictus reproduction-related biology. We additionally compare the sequences of these Sfps with proteins (including reported Sfps) in several other species, including Ae. aegypti. While only 72 (36.4%) of Ae. albopictus Sfps have putative orthologs in Ae. aegypti, suggesting low conservation of the complement of Sfps in these species, we find no evidence for an elevated rate of evolution or positive selection in the Sfps that are shared between the two Aedes species, suggesting high sequence conservation of those shared Sfps. Our results provide a foundation for future studies to investigate the roles of individual Sfps on feeding and reproduction in this mosquito. Functional analysis of these Sfps could inform strategies for managing the rate of pathogen transmission by Ae. albopictus. PMID:24945155

  4. POSVP21, a major secretory androgen-dependent protein from sand rat seminal vesicles, identified as a transgelin

    PubMed Central

    Kaci-Ouchfoun, Naïma; Incamps, Anne; Hadj-Bekkouche, Fatima; Abbadi, Mohamed Cherif; Bellanger, Laurent; Gernigon-Spychalowicz, Thérèse

    2010-01-01

    The seminal vesicles of adult sand rat contain a major secretory protein band (MW 21 kDa) designated as Psammomys obesus seminal vesicles protein of 21 kDa (POSVP21). This protein is abundant in secretions, regulated by androgens and also present in the vaginal plug. POSVP21 accounts for over 22.3% of soluble proteins from homogenate during the breeding season, 13.3% during the middle season and 5.3% during the hormonal regression season. It is absent during the non-breeding season. POSVP21 is localized in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells and in secretory products in the lumen. It presents an immunological homology with two epididymal proteins with the same molecular weight and a high degree of homology with transgelin from rat (Rattus norvegicus). PMID:20400972

  5. Heterogeneity in mouse seminal vesicle epithelial cells responding to androgen as evaluated by incorporation of (/sup 125/I)iododeoxyuridine

    SciTech Connect

    Terada, N.; Ogasawara, Y.; Yamane, T.; Matsumoto, K.; Kitamura, Y.

    1985-04-01

    When the uptake of 5-(/sup 125/I)iodo-2'-deoxyuridine ((/sup 125/I)IdUrd) into the seminal vesicle of castrated mice was measured 3 days after starting injections of various doses of testosterone propionate (TP), logarithmic values of (/sup 125/I)IdUrd uptake were proportional to the logarithmic doses of TP in the range of 0.04-2 micrograms/g BW. The (/sup 125/I)IdUrd uptake values correlated well with the labeling and mitotic indices of epithelial cells. Since daily injections of 0.4 microgram TP/g BW did not increase significantly the weight or DNA content or protein content of the seminal vesicle, the (/sup 125/I)IdUrd uptake is a sensitive index of androgen action. Moreover, this suggests that low doses of androgen induce division of epithelial cells without resulting in the increase in cell number. The (/sup 125/I)IdUrd radioactivity in the seminal vesicle was measured 2-15 days after the injection of (/sup 125/I)IdUrd, since the value represented the fraction of surviving cells synthesizing DNA at the time of (/sup 125/I)IdUrd injection. When injections of 4 micrograms TP/g BW were continued, the incorporated radioactivity was retained. In contrast, continuous injections of 0.2 microgram TP/g BW did not maintain the radioactivity, of which incorporation was induced by the same dose of TP. Thus, the present result suggests the presence of heterogeneity in androgen-responsive epithelial cells of the seminal vesicle.

  6. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Information Page Synonym(s): Hydrocephalus - Normal Pressure Table ... Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus? Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is an abnormal ...

  7. High HPV Infection Prevalence in Men from Infertile Couples and Lack of Relationship between Seminal HPV Infection and Sperm Quality

    PubMed Central

    Golob, Barbara; Verdenik, Ivan; Kolbezen Simoniti, Mojca; Vrta?nik Bokal, Eda; Zorn, Branko

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the most frequently sexually transmitted viruses and etiological agents of several human cancers. Controversial results of the role of HPV in infertile population on sperm parameters have been published. The aim of this study was to estimate the type-specific prevalence of HPV DNA infection of the external genitalia and semen in 340 Slovenian men from infertile couples and to establish the relationship between seminal HPV DNA infection and abnormal sperm parameters. Self-taken swabs of the entire penile surface and semen samples were collected, and HPV detection and genotyping were performed. HPV DNA was detected in 37.12% of external genitalia and in 13.61% of semen samples with high HPV type concordance of both sampling sites. The most prevalent HPV types in the male external genitalia were HPV-CP6108 and HPV-84. The most prevalent HPV types in semen were HPV-53 and HPV-CP6108. The prevalence of HPV infection between normozoospermic men and men with abnormal sperm parameters did not differ significantly. Sperm quality did not differ significantly between men with seminal HPV infection and uninfected men. In conclusion, the men from infertile couples are equally susceptible to HPV infection regardless of their fertile potential; seminal HPV infection does not impair sperm quality. PMID:24809062

  8. [Seminal vesicles: echographic findings in 244 subjects. Evaluation of anatomic data and correlations with pathologic prostatic-vesicular parameters].

    PubMed

    Bacaro, D; Solivetti, F M; Rossi, P; D'Ascenzo, R; Romeo, G

    1992-10-01

    Over a 2-year period (1989-90), about 400 cases were examined (out of nearly 2,500 US examinations of the prostate), 244 of which had subsequent bioptic, surgical or autoptic confirmation. This paper reports the anatomic, clinical and pathologic data relative to the seminal vesicles of 244 subjects who underwent transrectal US of the prostate for different clinical indications. Our biometric values were slightly different from those reported in literature, the latter being based on autoptic findings. Agenesis and monolateral ectopia were confirmed to be extremely rare: 4 cases only (1.6%) in our series. A typical finding was the nearly perfect symmetry; in size and structure, of the two seminal vesicles in the same subject; as a matter of fact, a loco-regional pathologic condition was detected in all the patients (14) with asymmetry. A hundred per cent agreement was observed between the US patterns of the seminal vesicles and the prostatic patterns in case of acute/subacute prostatic inflammation involving also the 2 glands: this parameter can be used to follow the clinical course of the inflammatory process. PMID:1455026

  9. Prevalence of Cysts in Seminal Tract and Abnormal Semen Parameters in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Torra, Roser; Sarquella, Joaquim; Calabia, Jordi; Martí, Jordi; Ars, Elisabet; Fernández-Llama, Patricia; Ballarin, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a systemic disorder with a wide range of extrarenal involvement. The scope of this study was to analyze the prevalence of seminal cysts and to correlate these findings with the sperm parameters in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: A prospective study enrolled 30 adult men with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Of these 30 patients, 22 agreed to provide a semen sample for analysis, and 28 of 30 agreed to undergo an ultrasound rectal examination. Data obtained from the semen tests and from the ultrasound study were compared. Results: Cysts in the seminal tract were present in 10 (43.47%) of 28 individuals. Twenty of 22 patients showed abnormal semen parameters, with asthenozoospermia as the most common finding. No correlation between ultrasound findings and sperm abnormalities was observed. Conclusions: The presence of cysts in the seminal tract is remarkably high (43.47%); however, this finding does not correlate with sperm abnormalities, which are also a frequent finding, especially asthenozoospermia. This semen abnormality is probably related to the abnormal function of polycystins. More attention should be paid to reproductive aspects in the initial evaluation of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease before their ability to conceive is further impaired by uremia. PMID:18322042

  10. Hybrid Registration of Prostate and Seminal Vesicles for Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, Johan de; Herk, Marcel van; Pos, Floris J.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Fiducial markers are a good surrogate for the prostate but provide little information on the position and orientation of the seminal vesicles (SVs). Therefore, a more advanced localization method is warranted if the SVs are part of the target volume. The purpose of this study was to develop a hybrid registration technique for the localization of the prostate and SVs. Methods and Materials: Twenty prostate patients implanted with 2 or 3 elongated fiducial markers had cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans acquired at every fraction. The first step of the hybrid registration was to localize the prostate by CBCT-to-planning-CT alignment of the fiducial markers, allowing both translations and rotations. Using this marker registration as a starting point, the SVs were registered based on gray values, allowing only rotations around the lateral axis. We analyzed the differential rotation between the prostate and SVs and compared the required SV margins for 3 correction strategies. Results: The SV registration had a precision of 2.7° (1 standard deviation) and was successful for 96% of the scans. Mean (M), systematic (?), and random (?) differences between the orientation of the prostate and SV were M = ?0.4°, ? = 7.2°, and ? = 6.4°. Daily marker-based corrections required an SV margin of 11.4 mm (translations only) and 11.6 mm (translations + rotations). Rotation corrections of the SVs reduced the required margin to 8.2 mm. Conclusions: We found substantial differences between the orientation of the prostate and SVs. The hybrid registration technique can accurately detect these rotations during treatment. Rotation correction of the SVs allows for margin reduction for the SVs.

  11. Induction of micronuclei with ochratoxin A in ovine seminal vesicle cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Degen, G H; Gerber, M M; Obrecht-Pflumio, S; Dirheimer, G

    1997-01-01

    The genotoxic potential of the carcinogenic mycotoxin of ochratoxin A (OTA) has been investigated by means of an in vitro micronucleus assay, an endpoint for genotoxicity which has not been studied previously for OTA. OTA was found to induce dose-dependently micronuclei (MN) in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated ovine seminal vesicle (OSV) cell cultures, which had been treated with mycotoxin (12-30 microM) for 6 h in medium containing 10% fetal calf serum. For comparison, OSV cells were treated with colcemid (0.02-0.06 micrograms/ml), or 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide (NQO; 0.5 microM), a typical aneugen and clastogen, respectively. All test compounds increased the frequency of MN in OSV cells, the highest level being induced by 10 microM OTA. When MN were characterized by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-kinetochore (CREST) antibodies, the majority of MN in colcemid-treated cells was CREST-reactive (> 70% kinetochore positive); as expected, this fraction was < 10% for the NQO-treatment group. In cells treated with OTA the fraction of kinetochore positive MN was similar (33-40%) to that observed in solvent controls (38%). These data indicate that OTA induces MN apparently by a mixed, although predominantly clastogenic mode of action. OSV cells lack monooxygenase activity but express high prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS) activity. When cells were treated with OTA in the presence of indomethacin (10 and 10 microM), a well known inhibitor of PGHS, the frequency of MN induced by OTA was not decreased, but rather increased. This indicates that metabolic activation of OTA by PGHS seems not to be required for genotoxicity. The increased MN induction in OSV cell cultures is most likely due to competition in indomethacin with OTA for binding to serum proteins thus raising the fraction of free mycotoxin. PMID:9195018

  12. Review: Properties of sperm and seminal fluid, informed by research on reproduction and contraception.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Robin W; Fisher, Matthew B

    2015-09-01

    Forensic DNA testing is grounded in molecular biology and population genetics. The technologies that were the basis of restriction length polymorphism testing (RFLP) have given way to PCR based technologies. While PCR has been the pillar of short tandem repeat (STR) methods and will continue to be used as DNA sequencing and analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are introduced into human identification, the molecular biology techniques in use today represent significant advances since the introduction of STR testing. Large forensic laboratories with dedicated research teams and forensic laboratories which are part of academic institutions have the resources to keep track of advances which can then be considered for further research or incorporated into current testing methods. However, many laboratories have limited ability to keep up with research advances outside of the immediate area of forensic science and may not have access to a large university library systems. This review focuses on filling this gap with respect to areas of research that intersect with selected methods used in forensic biology. The review summarizes information collected from several areas of the scientific literature where advances in molecular biology have produced information relevant to DNA analysis of sexual assault evidence and methods used in presumptive and confirmatory identification of semen. Older information from the literature is also included where this information may not be commonly known and is relevant to current methods. The topics selected highlight (1) information from applications of proteomics to sperm biology and human reproduction, (2) seminal fluid proteins and prostate cancer diagnostics, (3) developmental biology of sperm from the fertility literature and (4) areas where methods are common to forensic analysis and research in contraceptive use and monitoring. Information and progress made in these areas coincide with the research interests of forensic biology and cross-talk between these disciplines may benefit both. PMID:25817211

  13. Process of aerenchyma formation and reactive oxygen species induced by waterlogging in wheat seminal roots.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q T; Yang, L; Zhou, Z Q; Mei, F Z; Qu, L H; Zhou, G S

    2013-11-01

    The development and regulation of aerenchyma in waterlogged conditions were studied in the seminal roots of wheat. Evans blue staining and the first cell death position indicated that the cortical cell death began at the root mid-cortex cells in flooding conditions. Continuous waterlogging treatment caused the spread of cell death from the mid-cortex to the neighboring cells and well-developed aerenchyma was formed after 72 h. Meanwhile, the formation of radial oxygen loss barrier was observed in the exodermis owing to the induction of Casparian bands and lignin deposition. Analysis of aerenchyma along the wheat root revealed that aerenchyma formed at 10 mm from the root tip, significantly increased toward the center of the roots, and decreased toward the basal region of the root. In situ detection of radial oxygen species (ROS) showed that ROS accumulation started in the mid-cortex cells, where cell death began indicating that cell death was probably accompanied by ROS production. Further waterlogging treatments resulted in the accumulation of ROS in the cortical cells, which were the zone for aerenchyma development. Accumulation and distribution of H?O? at the subcellular level were revealed by ultracytochemical localization, which further verified the involvement of ROS in the cortical cell death process (i.e., aerenchyma formation). Furthermore, gene expression analysis indicated that ROS production might be the result of up-regulation of genes encoding for ROS-producing enzymes and the down-regulation of genes encoding for ROS-detoxifying enzymes. These results suggest that aerenchyma development in wheat roots starts in the mid-cortex cells and its formation is regulated by ROS. PMID:23975011

  14. Nonlinear Theory and Simulation of Void Formation in Dusty Plasmas http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&i... 1 of 1 7/2/07 11:28 AM

    E-print Network

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    through the subscription of Univ of New Hampshire. You are logged in. [ Previous / Next Abstract | Volume. 145-148 NEW VISTAS IN DUSTY PLASMAS: Fourth International Conference on the Physics of Dusty Plasmas. Avinash, S. Hu, and Z. W. Ma Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 We

  15. Normal modes and continuous spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Balmforth, N.J.; Morrison, P.J.

    1994-12-01

    The authors consider stability problems arising in fluids, plasmas and stellar systems that contain singularities resulting from wave-mean flow or wave-particle resonances. Such resonances lead to singularities in the differential equations determining the normal modes at the so-called critical points or layers. The locations of the singularities are determined by the eigenvalue of the problem, and as a result, the spectrum of eigenvalues forms a continuum. They outline a method to construct the singular eigenfunctions comprising the continuum for a variety of problems.

  16. Evaluation of thermal comfort, physiological, hematological, and seminal features of buffalo bulls in an artificial insemination station in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Barros, Daniel Vale; Silva, Lilian Kátia Ximenes; de Brito Lourenço, José; da Silva, Aluizio Otávio Almeida; E Silva, André Guimarães Maciel; Franco, Irving Montanar; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; Tholon, Patrícia; Martorano, Lucieta Guerreiro; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation over time in thermal comfort indices and the behavior of physiological parameters related to thermolysis, blood parameters, and semen in natura of buffalo bulls reared in tropical climate. The study was carried out in an artificial insemination station under a humid tropical climate (Afi according to Köppen). Ten water buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) were used during the 5 months (April to August) of study. The environmental Temperature Humidity Index (THId) and the pen microclimate Temperature Humidity Index (THIp) were calculated. Every 25 days, respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (RT), and Benezra's thermal comfort index (BTCI) were assessed in the morning and in the afternoon. A blood assay was performed every month, while semen was collected weekly. THIp did not vary over the months (P?>?0.05) and was higher in the afternoon than in the morning (77.7?±?2.6 versus 81.8?±?2.1, P??0.05) but within the physiological limits. RT varied between the periods of the day and decreased over the months, being the lowest in August (37.8?±?0.7 °C), time-impacted hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, hemoglobin levels, and spermatic gross motility and vigor (P?seminal parameters at normal levels. PMID:25801015

  17. Seminal Vesicle-Rectal Fistula Secondary to Anastomotic Leakage After Low Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer: A Case Report and Brief Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, Masato; Hiraguri, Manabu; Maeda, Chika; Yoshiki, Mizukami; Horigome, Naoto; Kaneko, Gengo

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a patient with seminal vesicle-rectal fistula, an extremely rare complication of low anterior resection of the rectum. A 53-year-old man with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent low anterior resection in our hospital. The patient experienced diarrhea, pneumaturia, and low-grade fever on postoperative day 13. A computed tomography scan showed emphysema in the right seminal vesicle. We concluded that anastomotic leakage induced a seminal vesicle-rectal fistula. The patient underwent conservative therapy with total parenteral nutrition and oral intake of metronidazole. Diarrhea and pneumaturia rapidly improved after metronidazole administration and the patient was successfully cured without invasive therapy such as colostomy or surgical drainage. A seminal vesicle-rectal fistula is a rare complication of low anterior resection, and therapeutic strategies for this condition remain elusive. Our report provides valuable information on the successful conservative treatment of a secondary seminal vesicle-rectal fistula that developed after low anterior resection of the rectum in a patient. PMID:24444264

  18. Efficacy of tamoxifen and l-carnitine on sperm ultrastructure and seminal oxidative stress in patients with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Nada, E A; El Taieb, M A; Ibrahim, H M; Al Saied, A E-R A

    2015-09-01

    Idiopathic oligoathenoteratozoospermia (iOAT) is a common finding in the evaluation of male infertility. Oxidative stress (OS) may underlie its pathology. Tamoxifen and l-carnitine are used to treat idiopathic male infertility. The aim of this work was to detect the efficacy of tamoxifen and l-carnitine on sperm parameters, sperm ultrastructure and seminal OS in iOAT patients. Sixty patients were recruited for this study and divided into three groups; the 1st was treated with tamoxifen, 2nd with l-carnitine and 3rd with both drugs. Semen analysis, malondialdehye (MDA) level and transmission electron microscopy were performed before and after three months treatment. The first group showed significant improvement in MDA levels, sperm concentration, sperm morphology, ultrastructural head, acrosomal and mitochondrial anomalies (P < 0.01). Other parameters were not significantly improved. In the 2nd group, significant improvements in MDA, sperm motility, sperm morphology, ultrastructural mitochondrial and tail anomalies were detected (P < 0.01). No significant improvement in the other parameters. Third group showed improvement in MDA, all semen parameters and all ultrastructural anomalies (P < 0.01). In conclusion, tamoxifen and l-carnitine are effective in improving seminal OS, semen parameters and sperm ultrastructure. Combination of both drugs is superior to monotherapy. PMID:25274200

  19. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Normal Pancreas Anatomy View/Download: Small: 761x736 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Normal Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows the ...

  20. Clinical evaluation of V??ya effect of P?ga Kha??a on sexual health and seminal parameters

    PubMed Central

    Baragi, Pramod C.; Bhat, Sathyanarayana; Prajapati, P. K.; Baragi, Umapati C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Due to changes in life-style, the human beings are losing their V??yat? (virility). Bio-medicine hasn’t been able to address this challenge. Hence, we see that many people seek the help of herbal medicines to get relief. In view of the above, it becomes necessary to provide potent formulations to address this ailment. Objectives: The study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of P?ga Kha??a on seminal parameters and sexual health. Materials and Methods: P?ga Kha??a has been mentioned as V??ya (aphrodisiac) in the 30th chapter of Bhai?ajyaratn?val?. A simple-randomised, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study comparing this P?ga Kha??a preparation with a placebo was conducted in 52 patients attending O.P.D. of Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana of Muniyal Institute of Ayurveda Medical Sciences, Manipal. An elaborative case taking Proforma was specially designed for this purpose incorporating all aspects of the disease in the Ayurvedic parlance. Both groups received either P?ga Kha??a or placebo, in empty stomach in the early morning with water, as per the randomisation plan for a period of 45 days. Patients were followed-upto 4 weeks, 43 patients (84%) had completed the trial and no adverse effects were reported. The assessment was done on the basis of changes in seminal parameters and sexual health parameters. Results: A varying degree of improvement was observed in sexual parameters viz. duration of coitus (P<0.001), frequency of coitus (P<0.01), Sexual desire (P<0.05), penile erection (P<0.01), A significant improvement was seen in duration of coitus (P< 0.001) in the group treated by P?ga Kha??a. Conclusion: The trial drug P?ga Kha??a was superior to placebo in reducing the mean sign and symptom score of seminal parameters and sexual health. PMID:24501440

  1. Is My Penis Normal?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Is My Penis Normal? KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > For Guys > Is My Penis Normal? Print A A A Text Size Just ... any guy who's ever worried about whether his penis is a normal size. There's a fairly wide ...

  2. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Image-Guided Biopsy to Detect Seminal Vesicle Invasion by Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raskolnikov, Dima; George, Arvin K.; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Turkbey, Baris; Shakir, Nabeel A.; Okoro, Chinonyerem; Rothwax, Jason T.; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Siddiqui, M. Minhaj; Su, Daniel; Stamatakis, Lambros; Merino, Maria J.; Wood, Bradford J.; Choyke, Peter L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between multiparametric prostate MRI (MP-MRI) suspicion for seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) by prostate cancer (PCa) and pathology on MRI/ultrasound (US) fusion-guided biopsy. Patients and Methods: From March 2007 to June 2013, 822 patients underwent MP-MRI at 3 Tesla and MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy. Of these, 25 patients underwent targeted biopsy of the seminal vesicles (SVs). In six patients, bilateral SVI was suspected, resulting in 31 samples. MP-MRI findings that triggered these SV biopsies were scored as low, moderate, or high suspicion for SVI based on the degree of involvement on MRI. Correlative prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy (RP) pathology were reviewed by a single genitourinary pathologist. Results: At the time of MP-MRI, the median age was 64 years with a median prostate-specific antigen of 10.74?ng/mL. Of the 31 SV lesions identified, MP-MRI suspicion scores of low, moderate, and high were assigned to 3, 19, and 9 lesions, respectively. MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy detected SVI in 20/31 (65%) of cases. For the four patients who underwent RP after a preoperative assessment of SVI, biopsy pathology and RP pathology were concordant in all cases. Conclusions: As this technology becomes more available, MP-MRI and MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy may play a role in the preoperative staging for PCa. Future work will determine if improved preoperative staging leads to better surgical outcomes. PMID:25010361

  3. Intrapulmonary administration of natural honey solution, hyperosmolar dextrose or hypoosmolar distill water to normal individuals and to patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus or hypertension: their effects on blood glucose level, plasma insulin and C-peptide, blood pressure and peaked expiratory flow rate.

    PubMed

    Al-Waili, N

    2003-07-31

    Safety and effect intrapulmonary administration (by inhalation) of 60 % honey solution, 10% dextrose or distill water on blood sugar, plasma insulin and C-peptide, blood pressure, heart rate, and peaked expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in normal or diabetic subjects were studied. - Twenty-four healthy subjects, 16 patients with type 11 diabetes mellitus and six patients with hypertension were entered for study. They were underwent complete physical examination and laboratory investigations. Twelve healthy subjects were subjected for distill water inhalation for 10 min, and after one week they received inhalation of honey solution (60% wt/v) for 10 min. Another 12 healthy subjects received inhalation of 10% dextrose for 10 min. Blood glucose level, plasma insulin and C-peptide, blood pressure, heart rate and PEFR were estimated before inhalation and during 2-3 hrs after inhalation, at 30 min intervals. Random blood glucose level was estimated in eight patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, and repeated 30 min after honey inhalation. One week later, fasting blood glucose level was estimated in each patient and blood glucose level was re-estimated during three hrs after honey inhalation, at 30 min intervals. Glucose tolerance test was performed in another eight patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus, and after one week the procedure was repeated with inhalation of honey, which was started immediately after ingestion of glucose. Six hypertensive patients received honey inhalation for 10 min; supine blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after inhalation. - Results showed that in normal subjects distill water caused mild elevation of blood glucose level, mild lowering of plasma insulin, and significant reduction of plasma C-peptide. 10% dextrose inhalation caused mild reduction of plasma insulin and C-peptide and unremarkable changes in blood glucose level. No significant changes were obtained in blood pressure, heart rate or PEFR after distill water or 10% dextrose inhalation. Honey inhalation caused lowering of blood glucose level and elevation of plasma insulin and C-peptide, mild reduction of blood pressure and up to 11 and 16 percent increase in PEFR. Honey inhalation significantly reduced random blood glucose level from 199 +/- 40.9 mg/dl to 156 +/- 52.3 mg/dl after 30 min (p = 0.0303). Fasting blood glucose level was reduced after honey inhalation during three hr post-inhalation, which was significant at hr three (p<0.05). Intensity of hyperglycemia was significantly lowered in glucose tolerance test when patients received honey inhalation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was reduced by honey inhalation in hypertensive patients; significant changes were obtained at 60 and 120 min after inhalation. No adverse effects were observed with inhalation of distill water, 10% dextrose and 60% honey solution except for nasal watery discharge experienced by all subjects and mild cough that was experienced by seven subjects after honey inhalation. - The results demonstrated that honey inhalation was safe and effective in reducing blood glucose level, in normal and diabetic subjects, it could improve glucose tolerance test, elevate plasma insulin and C-peptide and PEFR, and reduce elevated blood pressure in hypertensive patients. PMID:12911866

  4. On the Power of Rewinding Simulators in Functional In a seminal work, Boneh, Sahai and Waters (BSW, for short) [TCC'11] showed that for functional

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    On the Power of Rewinding Simulators in Functional Encryption Abstract In a seminal work, Boneh, Sahai and Waters (BSW, for short) [TCC'11] showed that for functional encryption). This is achieved by retaining a strong simulation-based flavour but adding more rewinding power to the simulator

  5. Forty Years of "Pastoral Care": An Appraisal of Michael Marland's Seminal Book and Its Significance for Pastoral Care in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Michael Marland's seminal book: "Pastoral Care" was published 40 years ago this year. The thesis of the book--that pastoral care is the central task of the school, and must be planned and institutionalized through pastoral roles and structures--is explored against the background of the social, cultural and educational developments…

  6. Seminal vesicles and urinary bladder as sites of aromatization of androgens in men, evidenced by a CYP19A1-driven luciferase reporter mouse and human tissue specimens.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Leena; Rantakari, Pia; Sjögren, Klara; Salminen, Anu; Lauren, Eve; Kallio, Jenny; Damdimopoulou, Pauliina; Boström, Minna; Boström, Peter J; Pakarinen, Pirjo; Zhang, FuPing; Kujala, Paula; Ohlsson, Claes; Mäkelä, Sari; Poutanen, Matti

    2013-04-01

    The human CYP19A1 gene is expressed in various tissues by the use of tissue-specific promoters, whereas the rodent cyp19a1 gene is expressed mainly in the gonads and brain. We generated a transgenic mouse model containing a >100-kb 5' region of human CYP19A1 gene connected to a luciferase reporter gene. The luciferase activity in mouse tissues mimicked the CYP19A1 gene expression pattern in humans. Interestingly, the reporter gene activity was 16 and 160 times higher in the urinary bladder and seminal vesicles, respectively, as compared with the activity in the testis. Accordingly, CYP19A1 gene and P450arom protein expression was detected in those human tissues. Moreover, the data revealed that the expression of CYP19A1 gene is driven by promoters PII, I.4, and I.3 in the seminal vesicles, and by promoters PII and I.4 in the urinary bladder. Furthermore, the reporter gene expression in the seminal vesicles was androgen dependent: Castration decreased the expression ?20 times, and testosterone treatment restored it to the level of an intact mouse. This reporter mouse model facilitates studies of tissue-specific regulation of the human CYP19A1 gene, and our data provide evidence for seminal vesicles as important sites for estrogen production in males. PMID:23239821

  7. Atrial natriuretic factor in high-altitude pulmonary hypertension: the influence of acute hypoxia on plasma atrial natriuretic factor, renin, and aldosterone concentrations in highlanders with initially normal or elevated pulmonary artery pressure and without evidence of right ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Soodanbekova, G K; Batyraliev, T A; Niyazova, Z A; Kudaiberdieva, G Z; Birand, A

    1995-09-01

    Since the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and atrial natriuretic factor are directly involved in the regulation of hemodynamics and structural alterations in the circulatory system, the interest of investigators in the observed changes in this system during exogenous hypoxia and the resultant development of high-altitude pulmonary hypertension is quite understandable. The authors measured the plasma levels of hormones from the major vasoconstrictor neurohumoral system and from one vasodilatory system and correlated them with hemodynamic variables in native highlanders of Tien-Shan. PMID:7661387

  8. Pelvic Normal Tissue Contouring Guidelines for Radiation Therapy: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, Hiram A.; Barthold, H. Joseph; O'Meara, Elizabeth; Bosch, Walter R.; El Naqa, Issam; Al-Lozi, Rawan; Rosenthal, Seth A.; Lawton, Colleen; Lee, W. Robert; Sandler, Howard; Zietman, Anthony; Myerson, Robert; Dawson, Laura A.; Willett, Christopher; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Jhingran, Anuja; Portelance, Lorraine; Ryu, Janice; and others

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To define a male and female pelvic normal tissue contouring atlas for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials. Methods and Materials: One male pelvis computed tomography (CT) data set and one female pelvis CT data set were shared via the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center. A total of 16 radiation oncologists participated. The following organs at risk were contoured in both CT sets: anus, anorectum, rectum (gastrointestinal and genitourinary definitions), bowel NOS (not otherwise specified), small bowel, large bowel, and proximal femurs. The following were contoured in the male set only: bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, and penile bulb. The following were contoured in the female set only: uterus, cervix, and ovaries. A computer program used the binomial distribution to generate 95% group consensus contours. These contours and definitions were then reviewed by the group and modified. Results: The panel achieved consensus definitions for pelvic normal tissue contouring in RTOG trials with these standardized names: Rectum, AnoRectum, SmallBowel, Colon, BowelBag, Bladder, UteroCervix, Adnexa{sub R}, Adnexa{sub L}, Prostate, SeminalVesc, PenileBulb, Femur{sub R}, and Femur{sub L}. Two additional normal structures whose purpose is to serve as targets in anal and rectal cancer were defined: AnoRectumSig and Mesorectum. Detailed target volume contouring guidelines and images are discussed. Conclusions: Consensus guidelines for pelvic normal tissue contouring were reached and are available as a CT image atlas on the RTOG Web site. This will allow uniformity in defining normal tissues for clinical trials delivering pelvic radiation and will facilitate future normal tissue complication research.

  9. Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, M.; Kong, M. G.; Morfill, G.; Stolz, W.

    2012-05-01

    Foreword R. Satava and R. J. Barker; Part I. Introduction to Non-equilibrium Plasma, Cell Biology, and Contamination: 1. Introduction M. Laroussi; 2. Fundamentals of non-equilibrium plasmas M. Kushner and M. Kong; 3. Non-equilibrium plasma sources M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 4. Basic cell biology L. Greene and G. Shama; 5. Contamination G. Shama and B. Ahlfeld; Part II. Plasma Biology and Plasma Medicine: 6. Common healthcare challenges G. Isbary and W. Stolz; 7. Plasma decontamination of surfaces M. Kong and M. Laroussi; 8. Plasma decontamination of gases and liquids A. Fridman; 9. Plasma-cell interaction: prokaryotes M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 10. Plasma-cell interaction: eukaryotes G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 11. Plasma based wound healing G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 12. Plasma ablation, surgery, and dental applications K. Stalder, J. Woloszko, S. Kalghatgi, G. McCombs, M. Darby and M. Laroussi; Index.

  10. Normal Mode Initialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this research is the development and implementation of normal mode procedures for use with the GLAS analysis/forecast system. Specific tasks of this work include: (1) high latitude filtering of model fields to preserve the GLAS GCM's linear stability during integration; (2) development of nonlinear normal mode initialization (NLNMI) processes, both adiabatic and diabatic. Using NLNMI to initialize GLAS analyses; investigation of the impact of normal mode initialization on the GLAS analysis/forecast system, especially in regard to data assimilation; and (3) diagnosis of the 1-3 day systemic forecast errors of the GLAS GCM.

  11. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  12. Normal Meshes Igor Guskov

    E-print Network

    Desbrun, Mathieu

    Normal Meshes Igor Guskov Caltech Kiril Vidimce Mississippi State University Wim Sweldens Bell with a single func- tion. In practice we often approximate surfaces using a triangle mesh. While describing

  13. Normality in analytical psychology.

    PubMed

    Myers, Steve

    2013-12-01

    Although C.G. Jung's interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault's criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung's work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault's own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung's disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  14. The performance of transrectal ultrasound in the diagnosis of seminal vesicle defects: a comparison with magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu; Wang, Hua; Wu, Rong-Pei; Liang, Hui; Mao, Xiao-Peng; Mao, Cheng-Qiang; Zhu, Hong-Zhang; Qiu, Shao-Peng; Wang, Dao-Hu

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive azoospermia (OA) is one of the most common causes of male infertility. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) has been used to diagnose OA for many years. From 2009 to 2013, we evaluated a prospective cohort of 1249 patients with suspected OA using TRUS. It was found that dilation of the ejaculatory duct (ED) (29.9%, 374/1249) was the most common cause of OA, followed by seminal vesicle (SV) abnormalities (28.5%, 356/1249). A total of 237 patients were diagnosed with congenital defects (agenesis and/or hypoplasia) of the SV, constituting more than half of the cases of SV disease in OA (19.0%, 237/1249). In contrast to ED, congenital defects of the SV could not be corrected with surgical treatment. Therefore, it is meaningful to compare TRUS and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for accurate diagnosis of SV defects. Among our patients, 30 with agenesis or/and hypoplasia of the SV on TRUS were further evaluated using pelvic MRI within 2 years, with the objective of verifying the TRUS results. The concordance rate for diagnosing congenital defects of the SV was 73.3% (22/30). We concluded that TRUS is a reliable and convenient method for diagnosing agenesis or hypoplasia of the SV in OA patients with a high concordance with MRI while MRI is useful in patients with inconclusive TRUS findings. PMID:25337847

  15. MODELING OF DAMAGE AND LIFETIME ANALYSIS OF PLASMA FACING COMPONENTS DURING PLASMA INSTABILITIES IN TOKAMAKS

    E-print Network

    Harilal, S. S.

    MODELING OF DAMAGE AND LIFETIME ANALYSIS OF PLASMA FACING COMPONENTS DURING PLASMA INSTABILITIES Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA Email: fgenco@purdue.edu (F. Genco) , hassanein@purdue.edu (A. Hassanein) Off normal operating conditions resulting from plasma instabilities

  16. Dosimetric implications of residual seminal vesicle motion in fiducial-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stenmark, Matthew H.; Vineberg, Karen; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Feng, Mary

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether residual interfraction seminal vesicle (SV) displacement necessitates specific planning target volume (PTV) margins during fiducial-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate. A planning computed tomography (CT) scan and 2 subsequent CT scans were prospectively obtained for 20 prostate cancer patients with intraprostatic fiducial markers. After CT registration, SV displacement relative to the prostate was quantified as a function of margin size for both the proximal (1 cm) SV (PSV) and the full SV (FSV). Two IMRT plans were simulated for each patient (prostate + PSV and prostate + FSV) both with a uniform 5-mm PTV margin. Minimum clinical target volume (CTV) dose (D{sub min}) and the volume of SV receiving 95% of the prescription dose (V{sub 95%}) were assessed during treatment and compared with the initial plan. In all cases, SV displacement with respect to the prostate was greater for the FSV compared with the PSV. To ensure at least 95% geometrical coverage of the CTV for 90% of patients, margins of 5 and 8 mm were required for the PSV and FSV, respectively. Dosimetrically, residual SV displacement had minimal impact on PSV coverage compared with FSV coverage. For the PSV D{sub min} was {>=}95% of the prescribed dose in 90% of patients with an overall mean V{sub 95%} of 99.6 {+-} 0.8%; for the FSV D{sub min} was {>=}95% of the prescribed dose in only 45% of patients with a mean V{sub 95%} of 97.9 {+-} 2.4%. The SVs move differentially from the prostate and exhibit greater variation with increasing distance from the prostate. For plans targeting just the prostate and PSVs, 5-mm PTV expansions are adequate. However, despite daily localization of the prostate, larger PTV margins are required for cases where the intent is to completely cover the FSV.

  17. On normal numbers Veronica Becher

    E-print Network

    Becher, Verónica

    On normal numbers 8 / 33 #12;Normal to all bases Bulletin de la Soci´et´e Math´ematique de France (On normal numbers Ver´onica Becher Universidad de Buenos Aires & CONICET Coloquio del Departamento de Matem´atica, FCEN, UBA, 2 octubre 2014 #12;Normal numbers Normality is a basic form of randomness

  18. STUDIES OF NORMAL ADOLESCENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OFFER, DANIEL

    A STUDY TO EXAMINE THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE FUNCTIONING OF NORMAL ADOLESCENTS WAS UNDERTAKEN. A SELF-IMAGE QUESTIONNAIRE WAS DEVELOPED TO SELECT MODAL ADOLESCENTS ON THE BASIS OF HOW CLOSE THEY COME TO PSYCHOLOGICAL NORMS. AFTER THREE YEARS, COMPLETE INFORMATION WAS OBTAINED FOR 73 BOYS. THE DATA…

  19. Normals to a Parabola

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Given a parabola in the standard form y[superscript 2] = 4ax, corresponding to three points on the parabola, such that the normals at these three points P, Q, R concur at a point M = (h, k), the equation of the circumscribing circle through the three points P, Q, and R provides a tremendous opportunity to illustrate "The Art of Algebraic…

  20. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... means "water on the brain." Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a rise in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in ... There is no known cause for NPH. But the chance of developing NPH is high in someone who has had any of the following: Bleeding from a blood vessel ...

  1. Analytical model of a normal mode capacitive discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisovskiy, Valeriy; Yegorenkov, Vladimir

    2011-10-01

    This paper develops an analytical model describing onset conditions and characteristics for a normal mode of a low pressure capacitive discharge. The model assumes that conductivity current in the plasma volume and displacement current in near-electrode sheaths are equal as well as the ambipolar ion flux out of the plasma and drift ion flux with charge exchange in the sheaths (described by the collisional Child-Langmuir law). The normal current density is found to be proportional to gas pressure and rf field frequency squared, i.e., Jn ~ p ?2. Calculation results match well with registered data for a number of gases.

  2. Are Children “Normal”?*

    PubMed Central

    Black, Dan A.; Kolesnikova, Natalia; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2015-01-01

    We examine Becker’s (1960) contention that children are “normal.” For the cross section of non-Hispanic white married couples in the U.S., we show that when we restrict comparisons to similarly-educated women living in similarly-expensive locations, completed fertility is positively correlated with the husband’s income. The empirical evidence is consistent with children being “normal.” In an effort to show causal effects, we analyze the localized impact on fertility of the mid-1970s increase in world energy prices – an exogenous shock that substantially increased men’s incomes in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Empirical evidence for that population indicates that fertility increases in men’s income. PMID:26203199

  3. Normal-reflection image

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.; Fehler, Michael C.

    2003-01-01

    Common-angle wave-equation migration using the double-square-root is generally less accurate than the common-shot migration because the wavefield continuation equation for thc former involves additional approximations compared to that for the latter. We present a common-angle wave-equation migration that has the same accuracy as common-shot wave-equation migration. An image obtained from common-angle migration is a four- to five-dimensional output volume for 3D cases. We propose a normal-reflection imaging condition for common-angle migration to produce a 3D output volume for 3D migration. The image is closely related to the normal-reflection coefficients at interfaces. This imaging condition will allow amplitude-preserving migration to generate an image with clear physical meaning.

  4. Normalized Ghost Imaging

    E-print Network

    Baoqing Sun; Stephen S. Welsh; Matthew P. Edgar; Jeffrey H. Shapiro; Miles J. Padgett

    2012-12-20

    We present an experimental comparison between different iterative ghost imaging algorithms. Our experimental setup utilizes a spatial light modulator for generating known random light fields to illuminate a partially-transmissive object. We adapt the weighting factor used in the traditional ghost imaging algorithm to account for changes in the efficiency of the generated light field. We show that our normalized weighting algorithm can match the performance of differential ghost imaging.

  5. Dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

    1996-05-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities.

  6. Investigation of the structure of anti-human seminal plasma protein single-chain antibody and its association with linker peptide length

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, XIN; ZHAI, JUN; SONG, DONGKUI; QU, QINGSHAN; LI, MING; XING, LI; MIAO, SHUZHAI

    2015-01-01

    To enhance the activity of seminoprotein single-chain variable fragment (?-Sm-ScFv) antibodies, modulation of the length of the linker peptide, which connects the variable region of the heavy chain (VH) and the light chain (VL) of single-chain antibodies, was performed in the present study. Homologous modeling of single VH and VL were performed, respectively. Subsequently, modeling of the whole ScFv sequence, which was previously modified with added linkers of different lengths was also performed, and the (Gly4Ser)n peptide chain structure was used as the linker. The similarities between VH and VL prior to and following the addition of the linker were compared by applying the algorithm of protein similarity, based on spherical coordinates layering. In addition, changes in the fore and aft distance, and diffusion radius were calculated using a MATLAB tool, based on which changes in structural stability were analyzed. Finally, the single-chain antibody was assessed in a nude mouse model. When n=3 or n=6, the similarity between the original distance and VH and VL were the highest, and the fore and aft distance and diffusion radius were relatively close. In addition, the nude mouse model indicated that, when n=3 or n=6, the inhibitory rate of the single-chain antibody against tumor cells was significantly higher, compared with the other linker peptides of different lengths. The effect of structural changes of the linker peptides in the single-chain antibodies on the whole antibody molecule was examined at different levels using a combination of mathematical modeling, bioinformatics methods and biological experiments. The findings of the present study may provide a foundation for further investigation into the preparation of single-chain antibodies. PMID:26099852

  7. Investigation of the structure of anti-human seminal plasma protein single-chain antibody and its association with linker peptide length.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xin; Zhai, Jun; Song, Dongkui; Qu, Qingshan; Li, Ming; Xing, Li; Miao, Shuzhai

    2015-09-01

    To enhance the activity of seminoprotein single?chain variable fragment (??Sm?ScFv) antibodies, modulation of the length of the linker peptide, which connects the variable region of the heavy chain (VH) and the light chain (VL) of single?chain antibodies, was performed in the present study. Homologous modeling of single VH and VL were performed, respectively. Subsequently, modeling of the whole ScFv sequence, which was previously modified with added linkers of different lengths was also performed, and the (Gly4Ser)n peptide chain structure was used as the linker. The similarities between VH and VL prior to and following the addition of the linker were compared by applying the algorithm of protein similarity, based on spherical coordinates layering. In addition, changes in the fore and aft distance, and diffusion radius were calculated using a MATLAB tool, based on which changes in structural stability were analyzed. Finally, the single?chain antibody was assessed in a nude mouse model. When n=3 or n=6, the similarity between the original distance and VH and VL were the highest, and the fore and aft distance and diffusion radius were relatively close. In addition, the nude mouse model indicated that, when n=3 or n=6, the inhibitory rate of the single?chain antibody against tumor cells was significantly higher, compared with the other linker peptides of different lengths. The effect of structural changes of the linker peptides in the single?chain antibodies on the whole antibody molecule was examined at different levels using a combination of mathematical modeling, bioinformatics methods and biological experiments. The findings of the present study may provide a foundation for further investigation into the preparation of single?chain antibodies. PMID:26099852

  8. Plasma radioiron kinetics in man: explanation for the effect of plasma iron concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Skarberg, K; Eng, M; Huebers, H; Marsaglia, G; Finch, C

    1978-01-01

    The plasma iron turnover was measured in 19 normal subjects. A correlation was found between plasma iron concentration and plasma iron turnover. In addition to the turnover of 55Fe at normal plasma iron concentration (predominantly monoferric transferrin), a second turnover in which the labeled plasma was saturated with iron (to produce predominantly diferric transferrin) was studied with 50Fe. It was demonstrated that diferric transferrin had a greater rate of iron turnover but that the distribution between erythroid and non-erythroid tissues was unchanged. It was concluded that plasma iron turnover is dependent on the monoferric/diferric transferrin ratio in the plasma but that the internal distribution of iron is unaffected. PMID:274740

  9. A Drosophila protease cascade member, seminal metalloprotease-1, is activated stepwise by male factors and requires female factors for full activity.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Brooke A; Avila, Frank W; Michalski, Kevin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-04-01

    Females and males of sexually reproducing animals must cooperate at the molecular and cellular level for fertilization to succeed, even though some aspects of reproductive molecular biology appear to involve antagonistic interactions. We previously reported the existence of a proteolytic cascade in Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid that is initiated in the male and ends in the female. This proteolytic cascade, which processes at least two seminal fluid proteins (Sfps), is a useful model for understanding the regulation of Sfp activities, including proteolysis cascades in mammals. Here, we investigated the activation mechanism of the downstream protease in the cascade, the astacin-family metalloprotease Seminal metalloprotease-1 (Semp1, CG11864), focusing on the relative contribution of the male and female to its activation. We identified a naturally occurring semp1 null mutation within the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel. By expressing mutant forms of Semp1 in males homozygous for the null mutation, we discovered that cleavage is required for the complete activation of Semp1, and we defined at least two sites that are essential for this activational cleavage. These amino acid residues suggest a two-step mechanism for Semp1 activation, involving the action of at least two male-derived proteases. Although the cascade's substrates potentially influence both fertility and sperm competition within the mated female, the role of female factors in the activation or activity of Semp1 is unknown. We show here that Semp1 can undergo its activational cleavage in male ejaculates, without female contributions, but that cleavage of Semp1's substrates does not proceed to completion in ejaculates, indicating an essential role for female factors in Semp1's full activity. In addition, we find that expression of Semp1 in virgin females demonstrates that females can activate this protease on their own, resulting in activity that is complete but substantially delayed. PMID:24514904

  10. Effects of atipamezole and medetomidine administration on seminal variables and functions of erection and ejaculation of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) after electroejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alpha adrenergic drugs are usually used in the treatment of erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction in humans. The influence of such drugs on the seminal characteristics of wild animals has not been verified; whereas their impact on the seminal characteristics and erectile and ejaculatory functions of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) has already been determined. This study aimed at investigating and comparing the effects of medetomidine and atipamezole on the seminal variables of collared peccaries undergoing electroejaculation as well as at determining whether these drugs affected the erectile and ejaculatory functions of this species. Results A statistically significant difference in sperm concentration was observed between AP (100.0?±?26.0 × 106 sperm/ml) and MP (220.2?±?49.8 × 106 sperm/ml); however, both these treatments did not differ from P treatment (180.0?±?50.7 × 106 sperm/ml). No statistically significant difference was observed among all treatments with regard to erectile function. With regard to ejaculation time, no significant difference was observed between the MP and AP treatments; however, when compared with the P treatment, AP exhibited a significantly higher difference. Conclusions When collared peccaries were anesthetized with propofol, neither medetomidine nor atipamezole significantly affected the characteristics of the semen or the erectile function, despite the fact that the AP treatment increased ejaculation time. Therefore, the data indicate that using propofol alone is an effective anesthetic protocol for collecting semen in collared peccaries. Other non-injectable anesthetic drugs, such as inhaled anesthetics, may be used in future research to collect semen from peccaries. PMID:25103781

  11. Serum copper, follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, spermatic count, viability, progression and seminal zinc correlations in a human (male) infertility study

    SciTech Connect

    Sella, G.E.; Cunnane, S.C.; McInnes, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    The role of copper and its correlations to other parameters has been investigated in a male-fertility pilot study at a University infertility clinic in Montreal. Serum and semen Cu concentrations were determined in 100 men (age 25 to 54 years) referred to the clinic for infertility evaluation. The results of the significant correlations between serum Cu concentrations and male fertility parameters such as (1) the serum concentrations of the hormones FSH, LH and prolactin; (2) spermatozoal count, viability and progression and (3) seminal zinc concentrations are reported.

  12. Radioimmunoassay of ACTH in plasma

    PubMed Central

    Berson, Solomon A.; Yalow, Rosalyn S.

    1968-01-01

    Techniques are described in detail for a radioimmunoassay of plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) that is capable of detecting hormone in unextracted normal human plasma at 1:5 dilution under the conditions described. The sensitivity of the assay is at the level of 1 ??g/ml (equivalent to 0.014 mU/100 ml). In normal subjects ACTH concentrations averaged 22 ??g/ml (equivalent to 0.308 mU/100 ml) plasma at 8-10 a.m. In a smaller group the concentrations averaged 9.6 ??g/ml (equivalent to 0.134 mU/100 ml) at 10-11 p.m. Although a circadian rhythm in normal subjects was not always well marked throughout the daytime hours, plasma ACTH usually fell to its lowest value in the late evening. In hospital patients who were not acutely ill, concentrations were infrequently above 100 ??g/ml in the morning and usually fell to significantly lower levels in the late evening. Severely ill hospital patients occasionally exhibited a.m. concentrations above 200 ??g/ml. In a group of subjects showing frequent spiking of plasma 17-OHCS concentrations throughout the day parallel spiking of plasma ACTH as well was generally observed. Metyrapone produced marked increases in plasma ACTH within 24 hr in all cases and generally within 3-6 hr except when started late in the day. Dexamethasone brought about a persistent reduction in plasma ACTH in a patient under continued treatment with metyrapone. Hypoglycemia, electroshock, surgery under general anesthesia, histalog and vasopressin administration were usually followed by significant increases in plasma ACTH concentration. Prior administration of dexamethasone blocked the response to hypoglycemia. Marked elevations in plasma ACTH were observed in patients with adrenal insufficiency off steroid therapy, in Cushing's disease after adrenalectomy even in the presence of persistent hypercortisolemia, and in some untreated patients with Cushing's disease. Umbilical cord blood contained higher plasma ACTH concentrations than maternal blood at delivery in seven of eight cases. After suppression of ACTH secretion by dexamethasone or cortisol. ACTH disappeared from plasma with half-times ranging from 22 min to 30 min in three cases studied. Images PMID:4302180

  13. Normal Untreated Jurkat Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. The objective of the research was to define a way to differentiate between effects due to microgravity and those due to possible stress from non-optimal spaceflight conditions. These Jurkat cells, a human acute T-cell leukemia was obtained to evaluate three types of potential experimental stressors: a) Temperature elevation; b) Serum starvation; and c) Centrifugal force. The data from previous spaceflight experiments showed that actin filaments and cell shape are significantly different for the control. These normal cells serve as the baseline for future spaceflight experiments.

  14. Institutionalizing Normal: Rethinking Composition's Precedence in Normal Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinnell, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Composition historians have recently worked to recover histories of composition in normal schools. This essay argues, however, that historians have inadvertently misconstrued the role of normal schools in American education by inaccurately comparing rhetorical education in normal schools to rhetorical education in colleges and universities.…

  15. Unconjugated estetrol in normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Benassi, L; Alfieri, L; Debiasi, D; Trentadue, R

    1982-01-01

    The Authors studied the levels of Estetrol (15 alpha-hydroxyestriol) in the amniotic fluid, in maternal and foetal plasma, by the RIA method, in near-term pregnancies. Higher concentrations of this steroid were found in the foetal plasma and in amniotic fluid than in the maternal plasma. These data, even though of little clinical importance, confirm the foetal origin of this compound and suggest further studies, especially in the amniotic compartment. PMID:7168899

  16. Plasma valve

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady (Mount Sinai, NY); Sharma, Sushil (Hinsdale, IL); Noonan, John (Naperville, IL); Rotela, Elbio (Clarendon Hills, IL); Khounsary, Ali (Hinsdale, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A plasma valve includes a confinement channel and primary anode and cathode disposed therein. An ignition cathode is disposed adjacent the primary cathode. Power supplies are joined to the cathodes and anode for rapidly igniting and maintaining a plasma in the channel for preventing leakage of atmospheric pressure through the channel.

  17. Plasma accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui (Los Alamos, NM); Barnes, Cris W. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

  18. Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generator

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V.; Johnson, R. P.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.

    2012-02-15

    A prototype RF H{sup -} surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA/kW. Control experiments with H{sup -} beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing.

  19. Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generator.

    PubMed

    Dudnikov, V; Johnson, R P; Murray, S; Pennisi, T; Piller, C; Santana, M; Stockli, M; Welton, R

    2012-02-01

    A prototype RF H(-) surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA?kW. Control experiments with H(-) beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing. PMID:22380221

  20. Transient growth in stable collisionless plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Camporeale, Enrico; Burgess, David; Passot, Thierry

    2009-03-15

    The first kinetic study of transient growth for a collisionless homogeneous Maxwellian plasma in a uniform magnetic field is presented. A system which is linearly stable may display transient growth if the linear operator describing its evolution is non-normal so that its eigenvectors are nonorthogonal. In order to include plasma kinetic effects, a Landau fluid model is employed. The linear operator of the model is shown to be non-normal and the results suggest that the non-normality of a collisionless plasma is intrinsically related to its kinetic nature, with the transient growth being more accentuated for smaller scales and higher plasma beta. The results based on linear spectral theory have been confirmed with nonlinear simulations.

  1. Smith Normal Form and Combinatorics

    E-print Network

    normal form (SNF) of A. Smith Normal Form and Combinatorics ­ p. 2 #12;Smith normal form A: n × n matrix, . . . d1d2 · · · dn), where di R. We then call B a Smith normal form (SNF) of A. NOTE. (1) Can extend to m × n. (2) unit · det(A) = det(B) = dn 1 dn-1 2 · · · dn. Thus SNF is a refinement of det. Smith

  2. On normal numbers Veronica Becher

    E-print Network

    Becher, Verónica

    Logique Math´ematique, Universit´e Paris Diderot F´evrier 2, 2015 #12;Normal numbers Normality is a basicOn normal numbers Ver´onica Becher Universidad de Buenos Aires & CONICET Seminaire de l'Equipe de form of randomness for real numbers. It asks that the expansions of real numbers obey the Law of Large

  3. WMAP normalization of inflationary cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Mukherjee, Pia; Leach, Samuel M.

    2006-10-15

    We use the three-year WMAP observations to determine the normalization of the matter power spectrum in inflationary cosmologies. In this context, the quantity of interest is not the normalization marginalized over all parameters, but rather the normalization as a function of the inflationary parameters n{sub S} and r with marginalization over the remaining cosmological parameters. We compute this normalization and provide an accurate fitting function. The statistical uncertainty in the normalization is 3%, roughly half that achieved by COBE. We use the k-l relation for the standard cosmological model to identify the pivot scale for the WMAP normalization. We also quote the inflationary energy scale corresponding to the WMAP normalization.

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate rapidly remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107), and SEM2(49-107) seminal amyloid fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Laura M.; Hammond, Rebecca M.; Holmes, Veronica M.; Weissman, Drew; Shorter, James

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Semen harbors amyloid fibrils formed by proteolytic fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 and PAP85-120) and semenogelins (SEM1 and SEM2) that potently enhance HIV infectivity. Amyloid but not soluble forms of these peptides enhance HIV infection. Thus, agents that remodel these amyloid fibrils could prevent HIV transmission. Here, we confirm that the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), slowly remodels fibrils formed by PAP248-286 termed SEVI (semen derived enhancer of viral infection) and also exerts a direct anti-viral effect. We elucidate for the first time that EGCG remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107), and SEM2(49-107) fibrils more rapidly than SEVI fibrils. We establish EGCG as the first small molecule that can remodel all four classes of seminal amyloid. The combined anti-amyloid and anti-viral properties of EGCG could have utility in preventing HIV transmission. PMID:26319581

  5. Smith Normal Form and Combinatorics

    E-print Network

    ) such that PAQ := B = diag(d1, d1d2, . . . d1d2 · · · dn), where di R. We then call B a Smith normal form (SNF · · · dn), where di R. We then call B a Smith normal form (SNF) of A. NOTE. (1) Can extend to m × n. (2) unit · det(A) = det(B) = dn 1 dn-1 2 · · · dn. Thus SNF is a refinement of det. Smith Normal Form

  6. Regulation of plasma factor XIII binding to fibrin in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, C.S.; Dobson, J.V.; Miraglia, C.C.

    1985-11-01

    The binding of plasma factor XIII to fibrinogen or fibrin that has been chemically or enzymatically induced to polymerize was studied. Factor XIII binding was assayed using a TH-putrescine incorporation assay and an SVI-plasma factor XIII binding assay. More than 80% of the native and radiolabeled plasma factor XIII was bound to fibrin I formed by reptilase in EDTA, citrate, or heparin anticoagulated plasma. Plasma factor XIII and SVI-factor XIII was bound to fibrin II formed by thrombin in either citrate or EDTA anticoagulated plasma. In the presence of calcium chloride and thrombin, the b2-subunit dissociated and factor XIIIa was bound. Protamine sulfate caused fibrinogen polymerization in the absence of divalent cations and reduced both plasma factor XIII and immunologic fibrinogen levels. Fibrinogen polymerized by protamine sulfate bound plasma factor XIII and the a2-subunit of SVI-platelet factor XIII. Plasma factor XIII was also bound to sonicated non-cross-linked fibrin II in either normal plasma or afibrinogenemic plasma. Plasma levels of several coagulation proteins were unchanged after the addition of reptilase, protamine sulfate, or sonicated fibrin to plasma. These results demonstrate that a specific binding site for the a2-subunit of plasma factor XIII is present on polymerized fibrinogen, fibrin I, and fibrin II. Furthermore, the presence of divalent cations, thrombin-cleavage of plasma factor XIII, and release of fibrinopeptides A or B are not required for plasma factor XIII binding to polymerized fibrinogen and fibrin.

  7. Plasma and Plasma Protein Product Transfusion: A Canadian Blood Services Centre for Innovation Symposium.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Michelle P; Al-Habsi, Khalid S; Golder, Mia; Walsh, Geraldine M; Sheffield, William P

    2015-07-01

    Plasma obtained via whole blood donation processing or via apheresis technology can either be transfused directly to patients or pooled and fractionated into plasma protein products that are concentrates of 1 or more purified plasma protein. The evidence base supporting clinical efficacy in most of the indications for which plasma is transfused is weak, whereas high-quality evidence supports the efficacy of plasma protein products in at least some of the clinical settings in which they are used. Transfusable plasma utilization remains composed in part of applications that fall outside of clinical practice guidelines. Plasma contains all of the soluble coagulation factors and is frequently transfused in efforts to restore or reinforce patient hemostasis. The biochemical complexities of coagulation have in recent years been rationalized in newer cell-based models that supplement the cascade hypothesis. Efforts to normalize widely used clinical hemostasis screening test values by plasma transfusion are thought to be misplaced, but superior rapid tests have been slow to emerge. The advent of non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants has brought new challenges to clinical laboratories in plasma testing and to clinicians needing to reverse non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants urgently. Current plasma-related controversies include prophylactic plasma transfusion before invasive procedures, plasma vs prothrombin complex concentrates for urgent warfarin reversal, and the utility of increased ratios of plasma to red blood cell units transfused in massive transfusion protocols. The first recombinant plasma protein products to reach the clinic were recombinant hemophilia treatment products, and these donor-free equivalents to factors VIII and IX are now being supplemented with novel products whose circulatory half-lives have been increased by chemical modification or genetic fusion. Achieving optimal plasma utilization is an ongoing challenge in the interconnected worlds of transfusable plasma, plasma protein products, and recombinant and engineered replacements. PMID:25862281

  8. Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.

    PubMed

    Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2014-10-01

    Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands. PMID:25160003

  9. On the normal-mode frequency spectrum of kinetic magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, J. J.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an explicit proof that, in the kinetic magnetohydrodynamics framework, the squared frequencies of normal-mode perturbations about a static equilibrium are real. This proof is based on a quadratic form for the square-integrable normal-mode eigenfunctions and does not rely on demonstrating operator self-adjointness. The analysis is consistent with the quasineutrality condition without involving any subsidiary constraint to enforce it, and does not require the assumption that all particle orbits be periodic. It applies to Maxwellian equilibria, spatially bounded by either a rigid conducting wall or by a plasma-vacuum interface where the density goes continuously to zero.

  10. Transrectal ultrasonographic characterization of the accessory sex glands, pelvic urethra, and ureters in normal geldings.

    PubMed

    Schnobrich, Maria Raymond; Turner, Regina Orstaglio; Belcher, Carolyn Niles; Slack, JoAnn

    2016-01-15

    Transrectal ultrasound of the internal urogenital tract may be used to aid in the diagnosis of reproductive tract and urinary tract pathology in both stallions and geldings. Abnormalities of the accessory sex glands of geldings are uncommon, although prostatic masses have recently been described in adult geldings presenting with dysuria, stranguria, and/or hematuria. The purpose of this study was to describe the normal ultrasonographic features and sizes of the accessory sex glands, caudal ureters, and pelvic urethra in clinically normal geldings. Eleven healthy geldings with no history of urogenital tract pathology were evaluated by a single observer experienced in ultrasound of the stallion accessory sex glands. The ultrasonographic appearance, relative anatomic relationships and sizes of the accessory sex glands, caudal ureters, and pelvic urethra were investigated using both rectal linear array and microconvex array transducers. Summary statistics including mean, standard error, confidence intervals, and range were calculated for each structure. There were no statistically significant differences in measurements between the left and right sides of paired structures or between measurements obtained with different transducers. Fluid was present in the seminal vesicles of 7 of 9 subjects. Midline cysts of the urethra as well as bulbourethral gland and prostatic cysts were identified. The normal reference ranges defined in this study will be useful in the clinical evaluation of geldings with suspected internal urogenital tract pathology. PMID:26483314

  11. Normalizing Catastrophe: An Educational Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Processes of normalizing assumptions and values have been the subjects of theoretical framing and critique for several decades now. Critique has often been tied to issues of environmental sustainability and social justice. Now, in an era of global warming, there is a rising concern that the results of normalizing of present values could be…

  12. MINIMAL TRIANGULATIONS AND NORMAL SURFACES

    E-print Network

    Burton, Benjamin

    MINIMAL TRIANGULATIONS AND NORMAL SURFACES Benjamin Andrew Burton Submitted in total fulfilment of minimal 3-manifold triangulations and to the study of normal surfaces within these triangulations. These problems include the formation and analysis of a census of 3-manifold triangulations, a study of splitting

  13. MINIMAL TRIANGULATIONS AND NORMAL SURFACES

    E-print Network

    Burton, Benjamin

    MINIMAL TRIANGULATIONS AND NORMAL SURFACES Benjamin Andrew Burton Submitted in total fulfilment to the combinatorial structures of minimal 3-manifold triangulations and to the study of normal surfaces within these triangulations. These problems include the formation and analysis of a census of 3-manifold triangulations

  14. Normal Aging and Linguistic Decrement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Olga B.

    A study investigated language patterning, as an indication of synthetic mental activity, in comparison groups of normal pre-middle-aged adults (30-42 years), normal elderly adults (75-93), and elderly adults (71-91) with Alzheimer's dementia. Semiotic theory was used as the conceptual context. Linguistic measures included the Token Test, the…

  15. Fgf8-Deficient Mice Compensate for Reduced GnRH Neuronal Population and Exhibit Normal Testicular Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Johnson, Joshua I.; Tsai, Pei-San

    2015-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is critical for the onset and maintenance of reproduction in vertebrates. The development of GnRH neurons is highly dependent on fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling. Mice with a hypomorphic Fgf8 allele (Fgf8 Het) exhibited a ~50% reduction in GnRH neuron number at birth. Female Fgf8 Het mice were fertile but showed significantly delayed puberty. However, it was unclear if these mice suffered additional loss of GnRH neurons after birth, and if male Fgf8 Het mice had normal pubertal transition and testicular function. In this study, we examined postnatal GnRH neuron number and hypothalamic GnRH content in Fgf8 Het mice from birth to 120?days of age. Further, we examined seminal vesicle and testicular growth, testicular histology, and circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) around and after pubertal transition. Our results showed that GnRH neuron numbers were significantly and consistently reduced in Fgf8 Het mice of both sexes in all ages examined, suggesting these animals were born with an inherently defective GnRH system, and no further postnatal loss of GnRH neurons had occurred. Despite an innately compromised GnRH system, male and female Fgf8 mice exhibited normal levels of immunoassayable hypothalamic GnRH peptide at all ages examined except on 60?days of age, suggesting increased GnRH synthesis or reduced turnover as a compensatory mechanism. Fgf8 Het males also had normal seminal vesicle and testicular mass/body mass ratios, testicular histology, and circulating LH. Overall, our data speak to the extraordinary ability of a GnRH system permanently compromised by developmental defect to overcome pre-existing deficiencies to ensure pubertal progression and reproduction. PMID:26441841

  16. Plasma Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Radio communication with space probes requires sending signals through the Earth's ionosphere and usually the solar wind. During planetary flybys, the signal may also pass through the ionosphere of another planet. These ionized media can perturb the radio signal in a variety of ways. Examples of these perturbations are variations in the electrical length between the spacecraft and the ground station, Faraday rotation of linearly polarized signals, amplitude and phase scintillations, and spectral and angular broadening. These plasma effects can have undesirable influences on telemetry performance and thus need to be understood from a communications engineering viewpoint. The plasma effects are, however, useful from a scientific viewpoint, since the effects on the communications link can often be inverted to estimate the physical conditions in the plasma.

  17. Hypoglycaemic effect of Calamintha officinalis Moench. in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lemhadri, A; Zeggwagh, N-A; Maghrani, M; Jouad, H; Michel, J B; Eddouks, M

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a water extract from the aerial parts of Calamintha officinalis Moench., after either a single dose or daily oral administration for 15 days, on plasma blood glucose concentrations and basal insulin levels in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ diabetic rats). The results clearly demonstrated the hypoglycaemic effect of this plant extract in both normal and STZ diabetic rats. In addition, no changes were observed in basal plasma insulin concentrations after treatment with this plant in normal or STZ diabetic rats, indicating that the underlying mechanism of the plant's pharmacological action seems to be independent of insulin secretion. We conclude that the aqueous C. officinalis extract exhibits a significant hypoglycaemic effect in normal and STZ diabetic rats without affecting basal plasma insulin concentrations, and supports, therefore, its traditional use by the Moroccan population. PMID:15231045

  18. Placental exosomes in normal and complicated pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Murray D; Peiris, Hassendrini N; Kobayashi, Miharu; Koh, Yong Q; Duncombe, Gregory; Illanes, Sebastian E; Rice, Gregory E; Salomon, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    While there is considerable contemporary interest in elucidating the role of placenta-derived extracellular vesicles in normal and complicated pregnancies and their utility as biomarkers and therapeutic interventions, progress in the field is hindered by a lack of standardized extracellular vesicle taxonomy and isolation protocols. The term "extracellular vesicle" is nonspecific and refers to all membrane-bound vesicles from nanometer to micrometer diameters and of different biogenic origins. To meaningfully ascribe biological function and/or diagnostic and therapeutic utility to extracellular vesicles, and in particular exosomes, greater specificity and vesicle characterization is required. The current literature relating to exosome biology must be interpreted in this context. Exosomes are a subtype of extracellular vesicle that are specifically defined by an endosomal biogenesis and particle size (40-120 nm) and density (1.13-1.19 g/mL(-1)). Exosomes are specifically package with signaling molecules (including protein, messenger RNA, microRNA, and noncoding RNA) and are released by exocytosis into biofluid compartments. Exosomes regulate the activity of both proximal and distal target cells, including translational activity, angiogenesis, proliferation, metabolism, and apoptosis. As such, exosomal signaling represents an integral pathway mediating intercellular communication. During pregnancy, the placenta releases exosomes into the maternal circulation from as early as 6 weeks of gestation. Release is regulated by factors that include both oxygen tension and glucose concentration and correlates with placental mass and perfusion. The concentration of placenta-derived exosomes in maternal plasma increases progressively during gestation. Exosomes isolated from maternal plasma are bioactive in vitro and are incorporated into target cells by endocytosis. While the functional significance of placental exosomes in pregnancy remains to be fully elucidated, available data support a role in normal placental development and maternal immunotolerance. Similarly, the role of exosomes in the etiology and progression of complications of pregnancy remains in a formative stage. Changes in the release of placenta- and nonplacenta-derived exosomes, their concentration in maternal plasma, composition, and bioactivity have been reported in association with pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. The data, however, are confounded by the use of different isolation methodologies and vesicle subpopulations. The application of specific and well-characterized isolation methodologies is requisite to resolving the precise role of exosomes in complications of pregnancies and their ultimate clinical utility. PMID:26428497

  19. Normal Mode of DC Glow Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisovskiy, Valeriy; Kharchenko, Nadiia; Yegorenkov, Vladimir

    2008-10-01

    We registered the normal current density j of the dc glow discharge in the nitrogen pressure range p = 0.3 - 10 Torr and determined the quantity j/p^2. Experiments were carried out in a T-shaped tube, the cathode was located at one end of the horizontal part of T, whereas another electrode (anode at the bottom of T) was grounded. Photos were taken through a window at the opposite end of the horizontal part of T exposing the cathode and the images were digitized. According to a generally accepted opinion this quantity j/p^2 had to remain constant on varying the current I in the normal mode. This proved to be valid only for p < 1 Torr. At higher pressure values the current growth was accompanied with a decrease of the quantity j/p^2. In a plasma column of small cross section the current density is larger to compensate for the increased loss of charged particles from the discharge volume.

  20. Renal and hormonal responses to acute hypoxia in normal individuals.

    PubMed

    Ashack, R; Farber, M O; Weinberger, M H; Robertson, G L; Fineberg, N S; Manfredi, F

    1985-07-01

    We studied, in normal volunteers, the effects of 1 hour of hypoxia on the concentration of angiotensin-converting enzyme and bradykinins, along with previously measured parameters of renal and endocrine function. Ten men, 18 to 42 years of age, undergoing water diuresis, breathed a low-oxygen mixture (five breathed 10.5% O2 and five 12% O2); all breathed 21% O2 on a control day. Measurements included mean blood pressure and heart rate every 2 to 3 minutes; plasma levels of renin activity, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, norepinephrine, and bradykinin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, before and at the end of gas breathing; and urine volume (UV), creatinine, Na+, and bradykinin concentration. Arterial blood gases and effective renal plasma flow were determined at the end of gas breathing only. Mean values +/- SEM for arterial blood gases with low O2 were pH 7.39 +/- 0.02, PO2 46 +/- 2 torr, PCO2 39 +/- 2 torr (12% O2) and 7.48 +/- 0.01, 35 +/- 1 torr, 33 +/- 1 torr (10.5% O2). Responses were otherwise identical in both groups, and data were combined for analysis. With hypoxia, heart rate and effective renal plasma flow increased significantly, P less than 0.005; no changes occurred in Uv, urine Na+ concentration, glomerular filtration rate, plasma or urine bradykinin concentration, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone concentration, plasma arginine vasopressin concentration, or plasma norepinephrine concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2989395

  1. Pharmacokinetic modeling of ascorbate diffusion through normal and tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Caroline; Vissers, Margreet C M; Hicks, Kevin O

    2014-12-01

    Ascorbate is delivered to cells via the vasculature, but its ability to penetrate into tissues remote from blood vessels is unknown. This is particularly relevant to solid tumors, which often contain regions with dysfunctional vasculature, with impaired oxygen and nutrient delivery, resulting in upregulation of the hypoxic response and also the likely depletion of essential plasma-derived biomolecules, such as ascorbate. In this study, we have utilized a well-established multicell-layered, three-dimensional pharmacokinetic model to measure ascorbate diffusion and transport parameters through dense tissue in vitro. Ascorbate was found to penetrate the tissue at a slightly lower rate than mannitol and to travel via the paracellular route. Uptake parameters into the cells were also determined. These data were fitted to the diffusion model, and simulations of ascorbate pharmacokinetics in normal tissue and in hypoxic tumor tissue were performed with varying input concentrations, ranging from normal dietary plasma levels (10-100 ?M) to pharmacological levels (>1 mM) as seen with intravenous infusion. The data and simulations demonstrate heterogeneous distribution of ascorbate in tumor tissue at physiological blood levels and provide insight into the range of plasma ascorbate concentrations and exposure times needed to saturate all regions of a tumor. The predictions suggest that supraphysiological plasma ascorbate concentrations (>100 ?M) are required to achieve effective delivery of ascorbate to poorly vascularized tumor tissue. PMID:25277418

  2. Burning plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Sigmar, D.J. )

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration.

  3. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 48 (2006) 13471372 doi:10.1088/0741-3335/48/9/006

    E-print Network

    Heidbrink, William W.

    2006-01-01

    the plasma density changes [2, 3]. Frequency sweeping of normal modes can also occur nonlinearly as resonant to alter the nonlinear dynamics. Steady-frequency TAE modes diminish during the HHFW heating arise in several ways. First, if the instability is a normal mode of the background plasma

  4. Prostate and seminal vesicle volume based consideration of prostate cancer patients for treatment with 3D-conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Nandanuri M. S.; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chang, Hyesook; Lange, Christopher S.; Ravi, Akkamma

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to determine the suitability of the prostate and seminal vesicle volumes as factors to consider patients for treatment with image-guided 3D-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), using common dosimetry parameters as comparison tools. Methods: Dosimetry of 3D and IMRT plans for 48 patients was compared. Volumes of prostate, SV, rectum, and bladder, and prescriptions were the same for both plans. For both 3D and IMRT plans, expansion margins to prostate+SV (CTV) and prostate were 0.5 cm posterior and superior and 1 cm in other dimensions to create PTV and CDPTV, respectively. Six-field 3D plans were prepared retrospectively. For 3D plans, an additional 0.5 cm margin was added to PTV and CDPTV. Prescription for both 3D and IMRT plans was the same: 45 Gy to CTV followed by a 36 Gy boost to prostate. Dosimetry parameters common to 3D and IMRT plans were used for comparison: Mean doses to prostate, CDPTV, SV, rectum, bladder, and femurs; percent volume of rectum and bladder receiving 30 (V30), 50 (V50), and 70 Gy (V70), dose to 30% of rectum and bladder, minimum and maximum point dose to CDPTV, and prescription dose covering 95% of CDPTV (D95). Results: When the data for all patients were combined, mean dose to prostate and CDPTV was higher with 3D than IMRT plans (P<0.01). Mean D95 to CDPTV was the same for 3D and IMRT plans (P>0.2). On average, among all cases, the minimum point dose was less for 3D-CRT plans and the maximum point dose was greater for 3D-CRT than for IMRT (P<0.01). Mean dose to 30% rectum with 3D and IMRT plans was comparable (P>0.1). V30 was less (P<0.01), V50 was the same (P>0.2), and V70 was more (P<0.01) for rectum with 3D than IMRT plans. Mean dose to bladder was less with 3D than IMRT plans (P<0.01). V30 for bladder with 3D plans was less than that of IMRT plans (P<0.01). V50 and V70 for 3D plans were the same for 3D and IMRT plans (P>0.2). Mean dose to femurs was more with 3D than IMRT plans (P<0.01). For a given patient, mean dose and dose to 30% rectum and bladder were less with 3D than IMRT plans for prostate or prostate+SV volumes <65 (38/48) and 85 cm{sup 3} (39/48), respectively (P<0.01). The larger the dose to rectum or bladder with 3D plans, the larger also was the dose to these structures with IMRT (P<0.001). For both 3D and IMRT plans, dose to rectum and bladder increased with the increase in the volumes of prostate and seminal vesicles (P<0.02 to 0.001). Conclusions: Volumes of prostate and seminal vesicles provide a reproducible and consistent basis for considering patients for treatment with image-guided 3D or IMRT plans. Patients with prostate and prostate+SV volumes <65 and 85 cm{sup 3}, respectively, would be suitable for 3D-CRT. Patients with prostate and prostate+SV volumes >65 and 85 cm{sup 3}, respectively, might get benefit from IMRT.

  5. Plasma Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2005-10-01

    The Plasma Shield is a vortex-stabilized arc that is employed to shield beams and workpiece area of interaction from atmospheric or liquid environment. A vortex-stabilized arc is established between a beam generating device (laser, ion or electron gun) and the target object. The arc, which is composed of a pure noble gas (chemically inert), engulfs the interaction region and generates an outward flow, thus, shielding it from any surrounding liquids (water) or atmospheric gases. The vortex is composed of a sacrificial gas or liquid that swirls around and stabilizes the arc. In current art, many industrial processes that involve ion and electron beams like, dry etching, micro-fabrication, machining, welding and melting are performed exclusively in vacuum, since guns, and accelerators must be kept at a reasonably high vacuum, and since chemical interactions with atmospheric gases adversely affect various processes. Various processes involving electron ion and laser beams can, with the Plasma Shield be performed in practically any environment (under water). It should allow for in situ repair of ship and nuclear reactor components, as well as in-air ion implantation of semiconductors. The plasma shield results in both thermal (since the plasma is hotter than the environment) and chemical shielding. The latter feature brings about in-vacuum process purity out of vacuum, and the thermal shielding aspect results in higher production rates. Experimental results will be presented. *Plasma Shield/Work supported by Acceleron, Inc., Connecticut Light & Power Co., US DOE funding under a NICE3 grant DE-FG41-01R110925, and Connecticut DEP.

  6. Evidence of normal functional levels of activated protein C inhibitor in combined Factor V/VIII deficiency disease.

    PubMed

    Canfield, W M; Kisiel, W

    1982-12-01

    Human activated protein C (APC) is a plasma serine protease that possesses amidolytic and anticoagulant activity. The rate at which the amidolytic and anticoagulant activity of APC was neutralized in normal plasma was essentially identical to that observed in plasma obtained from four individuals with combined Factor V/VIII deficiency disease. Incubation of radioiodinated APC with either normal human plasma or the combined Factor V/VIII-deficient plasmas resulted in the formation of a stable complex (Mr = 96,000) of the enzyme and a plasma protein as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Pretreatment of the radiolabeled APC with diisopropyl fluorophosphate prevented the formation of the enzyme-protein complex. On the basis of its ability to form a complex with radiolabeled APC, the APC-binding protein was purified to homogeneity from normal human plasma by ammonium sulfate fractionation, heparin-agarose chromatography, and QAE-Sephadex A-50 chromatography. The APC-binding protein (Mr = 54,000) is a glycoprotein, and possesses an amino-terminal sequence of Gly-Arg-Thr-Cys-Pro-Lys-Pro-Asp. The amino-terminal sequence of the APC-binding protein exhibited considerable homology with bovine colostrum inhibitor and pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, but no apparent sequence homology with the plasma serine protease inhibitors. Affinity-purified antibody against APC-binding protein immunoprecipitated a complex of radiolabeled APC and native APC-binding protein from normal human plasma. Complex formation was virtually eliminated in plasma immunodepleted of the APC-binding protein. Quantitative electroimmunoassay indicated essentially equal levels of APC-binding protein antigen in normal plasma compared with plasma from four patients with combined Factor V/VIII deficiency disease. PMID:6294139

  7. Is My Child's Appetite Normal?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Nutrition Newsletters for Parents of Young Children, USDA, Food and Nutrition Service Is My Child’s Appetite Normal? Overfeeding can be ... Nutrition Newsletters for Parents of Young Children, USDA, Food and Nutrition Service

  8. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    E-print Network

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  9. Normal stresses in elastic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioroianu, Adrian R.; Storm, Cornelis

    2013-11-01

    When loaded in simple shear deformation, polymeric materials may develop so-called normal stresses: stresses perpendicular to the direction of the applied shear. These normal stresses are intrinsically nonlinear: basic symmetry considerations dictate they may only enter at O(?2), with ? the dimensionless shear strain. There is no fundamental restriction on their sign, and normal stresses may be positive (pushing outward) or negative (pulling inward). Most materials tend to dilate in the normal direction, but a wide variety of biopolymer networks including fibrin and actin gels have been reported to present anomalously large, negative normal stresses—a feature which has been ascribed to the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity of semiflexible fibers. In this work, we present analytical results on a model nonlinear network, which we expand to the required nonlinear order to show that due to geometric, rather than elastic, nonlinearities (negative) normal stresses generically arise in filamentous networks—even in networks composed of linear, Hookean springs. We investigate analytically and numerically how the subsequent addition of elastic nonlinearities, nonaffine deformations, and filament persistence through cross-linkers augment this basic behavior.

  10. Sexual behavior attenuates the effects of chronic stress in body weight, testes, sexual accessory glands, and plasma testosterone in male rats.

    PubMed

    Retana-Márquez, S; Vigueras-Villaseñor, R M; Juárez-Rojas, L; Aragón-Martínez, A; Torres, G Reyes

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether continuous sexual behavior could attenuate the effects of chronic stress on spermatogenesis, sexual glands, plasma testosterone and corticosterone in sexually experienced male rats. Rats were exposed to stress by immersion in cold water (ICW) daily for 20 or 50 consecutive days. Plasma testosterone and corticosterone, masculine sexual behavior, as well as the number of offspring, the epithelial area of seminiferous, prostatic and seminal glands were assessed. In stressed males, body and testicular weights decreased, male sexual behavior was disrupted, and adrenal weights increased. In males stressed for 50 days, prostate and seminal glands had lower weights compared with controls. Prostate and seminal epithelial areas also decreased in these males. Seminiferous tubules in testes from rats stressed for 20 or 50 days showed several degenerative signs, such as vacuoles in the basal epithelium, with picnotic indicia; moderate to severe exfoliation of degenerative germinal cells in the tubule lumen was also observed. In males stressed for 50 days a significant decrease in seminiferous epithelial area was observed from stages I-VIII, regardless of copulation. The litters from females that copulated with males stressed for 50 days decreased significantly. Chronic stress caused increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, which were higher in males stressed for 20 days than in males stressed for 50 days. Testosterone decreased in stressed males and it was lower in males stressed for 50 days. In stressed males allowed to copulate, body and testicular weights were similar to controls. Adrenal, seminal glands, and prostate weights, as well as epithelial areas of males stressed for 50 days allowed to copulate were also similar to controls. Corticosterone was lower than in males stressed for 50 days, but still higher than in controls. Testosterone in males stressed for 50 days and allowed to copulate was higher than in stressed males not allowed to copulate and control males without copulation, but still lower than in control copulating males. These results show that chronic stress causes germ cell loss in testes and a decrease in prostate and seminal epithelium, possibly as a result of testosterone decrease, affecting fertility. Continuous copulation can attenuate the effects of stress on testosterone levels and on the epithelial area in male sexual glands, but not on the seminiferous epithelium after 50 days of stress. PMID:25236886

  11. What is Normal? A Characterization of the Values and Variabilty in Reproductive Endpoints of the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Jensen et al. investigated aspects of the normal reproductive biology of the fathead minnow (FHM, P. promelas), and subsequent studies have generated a large amount of additional reproductive data for endpoints such as plasma steroid hormone and vitellogenin concentrations, spa...

  12. Cell proliferation in normal epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, G.D.; McCullough, J.L.; Ross, P.

    1984-06-01

    A detailed examination of cell proliferation kinetics in normal human epidermis is presented. Using tritiated thymidine with autoradiographic techniques, proliferative and differentiated cell kinetics are defined and interrelated. The proliferative compartment of normal epidermis has a cell cycle duration (Tc) of 311 h derived from 3 components: the germinative labeling index (LI), the duration of DNA synthesis (ts), and the growth fraction (GF). The germinative LI is 2.7% +/- 1.2 and ts is 14 h, the latter obtained from a composite fraction of labeled mitoses curve obtained from 11 normal subjects. The GF obtained from the literature and from human skin xenografts to nude mice is estimated to be 60%. Normal-appearing epidermis from patients with psoriasis appears to have a higher proliferation rate. The mean LI is 4.2% +/- 0.9, approximately 50% greater than in normal epidermis. Absolute cell kinetic values for this tissue, however, cannot yet be calculated for lack of other information on ts and GF. A kinetic model for epidermal cell renewal in normal epidermis is described that interrelates the rate of birth/entry, transit, and/or loss of keratinocytes in the 3 epidermal compartments: proliferative, viable differentiated (stratum malpighii), and stratum corneum. Expected kinetic homeostasis in the epidermis is confirmed by the very similar ''turnover'' rates in each of the compartments that are, respectively, 1246, 1417, and 1490 cells/day/mm2 surface area. The mean epidermal turnover time of the entire tissue is 39 days. The Tc of 311 h in normal cells in 8-fold longer than the psoriatic Tc of 36 h and is necessary for understanding the hyperproliferative pathophysiologic process in psoriasis.

  13. Binding of a substrate analog to a domain swapping protein: X-ray structure of the complex of bovine seminal ribonuclease with uridylyl(2',5')adenosine.

    PubMed Central

    Vitagliano, L.; Adinolfi, S.; Riccio, A.; Sica, F.; Zagari, A.; Mazzarella, L.

    1998-01-01

    Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) is a unique member of the pancreatic-like ribonuclease superfamily. The native enzyme is a mixture of two dimeric forms with distinct structural features. The most abundant form is characterized by the swapping of N-terminal fragments. In this paper, the crystal structure of the complex between the swapping dimer and uridylyl(2',5')adenosine is reported at 2.06 A resolution. The refined model has a crystallographic R-factor of 0.184 and good stereochemistry. The quality of the electron density maps enables the structure of both the inhibitor and active site residues to be unambiguously determined. The overall architecture of the active site is similar to that of RNase A. The dinucleotide adopts an extended conformation with the pyrimidine and purine base interacting with Thr45 and Asn71, respectively. Several residues (Gln11, His12, Lys41, His119, and Phe120) bind the oxygens of the phosphate group. The structural similarity of the active sites of BS-RNase and RNase A includes some specific water molecules believed to be relevant to catalytic activity. Upon binding of the dinucleotide, small but significant modifications of the tertiary and quaternary structure of the protein are observed. The ensuing correlation of these modifications with the catalytic activity of the enzyme is discussed. PMID:10082366

  14. New Forms of Convection in Galaxy Cluster Plasmas

    E-print Network

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    New Forms of Convection in Galaxy Cluster Plasmas (i.e., how do galaxy clusters boil?) Eliot · Hot Plasma in Clusters of Galaxies · Hydrodynamic Convection (`normal' convection; e.g., the sun) · Convection induced by Anisotropic Thermal Conduction · new convective instabilities: the "MTI" & "HBI

  15. Multiple States and Variable Intensity in the Plasma Display Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, William Dooley

    The plasma panel has potential as a computer output display device; and when perfected, may even be suitable for commercial television. In its normal operation the plasma panel exhibits a bistable range in which the cells can exist in either of two stable modes. The "on" state results from a discharge every cycle, and the "off" state corresponds…

  16. 3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…

  17. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1997-06-10

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3{prime} noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

  18. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, Marcelo B. (New York, NY); Efstratiadis, Argiris (Englewood, NJ)

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  19. Plasma Sail Concept Fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Delamere, P.; Kabin, K.; Linde, T. J.

    2004-01-01

    The mini-magnetospheric plasma propulsion (M2P2) device, originally proposed by Winglee et al., predicts that a 15-km standoff distance (or 20-km cross-sectional dimension) of the magnetic bubble will provide for sufficient momentum transfer from the solar wind to accelerate a spacecraft to unprecedented speeds of 50 C80 km/s after an acceleration period of 3 mo. Such velocities will enable travel out of the solar system in period of 7 yr almost an order of magnitude improvement over present chemical-based propulsion systems. However, for the parameters of the simulation of Winglee et al., a fluid model for the interaction of M2P2 with the solar wind is not valid. It is assumed in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid model, normally applied to planetary magnetospheres, that the characteristic scale size is much greater than the Larmor radius and ion skin depth of the solar wind. In the case of M2P2, the size of the magnetic bubble is actually less than or comparable to the scale of these characteristic parameters. Therefore, a kinetic approach, which addresses the small-scale physical mechanisms, must be used. A two-component approach to determining a preliminary estimate of the momentum transfer to the plasma sail has been adopted. The first component is a self-consistent MHD simulation of the small-scale expansion phase of the magnetic bubble. The fluid treatment is valid to roughly 5 km from the source and the steady-state MHD solution at the 5 km boundary was then used as initial conditions for the hybrid simulation. The hybrid simulations showed that the forces delivered to the innermost regions of the plasma sail are considerably ( 10 times) smaller than the MHD counterpart, are dominated by the magnetic field pressure gradient, and are directed primarily in the transverse direction.

  20. Cold Atmosphere Plasma in Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidar, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Plasma is an ionized gas that is typically generated in high-temperature laboratory conditions. Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. Areas of potential application of cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) include dentistry, drug delivery, dermatology, cosmetics, wound healing, cellular modifications, and cancer treatment. Various diagnostic tools have been developed for characterization of CAP including intensified charge-coupled device cameras, optical emission spectroscopy and electrical measurements of the discharge propertied. Recently a new method for temporally resolved measurements of absolute values of plasma density in the plasma column of small-size atmospheric plasma jet utilizing Rayleigh microwave scattering was proposed [1,2]. In this talk we overview state of the art of CAP diagnostics and understanding of the mechanism of plasma action of biological objects. The efficacy of cold plasma in a pre-clinical model of various cancer types (long, bladder, and skin) was recently demonstrated [3]. Both in-vitro and in-vivo studies revealed that cold plasmas selectively kill cancer cells. We showed that: (a) cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in vitro without damaging normal cells. For instance a strong selective effect was observed; the resulting 60--70% of lung cancer cells were detached from the plate in the zone treated with plasma, whereas no detachment was observed in the treated zone for the normal lung cells under the same treatment conditions. (b) Significantly reduced tumor size in vivo. Cold plasma treatment led to tumor ablation with neighbouring tumors unaffected. These experiments were performed on more than 10 mice with the same outcome. We found that tumors of about 5mm in diameter were ablated after 2 min of single time plasma treatment. The two best known cold plasma effects, plasma-induced apoptosis and the decrease of cell migration velocity can have important implications in cancer treatment by localizing the affected area of the tissue and by decreasing metastasic development. In addition, cold plasma treatment has affected the cell cycle of cancer cells. In particular, cold plasma induces a 2-fold increase in cells at the G2/M-checkpoint in both papilloma and carcinoma cells at about 24 hours after treatment, while normal epithelial cells (WTK) did not show significant differences. It was shown that reactive oxygen species metabolism and oxidative stress responsive genes are deregulated. We investigated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with cold plasma treatment as a potential mechanism for the tumor ablation observed. [4pt] [1] Shashurin A., Shneider M.N., Dogariu A., Miles R.B. and Keidar M. Appl. Phys. Lett. (2010) 96, 171502.[0pt] [2] Shashurin A., Shneider M.N., Keidar M. Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 21 (2012) 034006.[0pt] [3]. M. Keidar, R. Walk, A. Shashurin, P. Srinivasan, A. Sandler, S. Dasgupta , R. Ravi, R. Guerrero-Preston, B. Trink, British Journal of Cancer, 105, 1295-1301, 2011

  1. Urinary and metabolic clearances of arginine vasopressin in normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, A.M.; Steciak, E.

    1986-08-01

    Synthetic arginine vasopressin (AVP) was infused into 11 hydrated normal subjects at five different infusion rates ranging from 10 to 350 U kg min . Each infusion rate was continued for 1 h, and urinary determinations were made on the 30- to 60-min specimens during which time there was no further rise in plasma AVP. Urinary AVP concentrations ( U/ml) and excretion rates ( U/min) increased linearly with increasing infusion rates, and the concentration of AVP in urine increased 120 times more rapid than plasma. Urinary and metabolic clearances of AVP also increased linearly with the maximum urinary clearance being 60.6% of the creatinine clearance. The total metabolic clearance of AVP (including urinary clearance) was 17.8 times that of the urinary clearance of AVP alone. These data clarify the relationships between plasma and urinary AVP in normal hydrated subjects during AVP infusion under steady-state conditions and emphasize the potential advantage of measuring urinary AVP as a monitor of endogenous AVP secretion. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay.

  2. Normalizing Catastrophe: Sustainability and Scientism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Making an adequate response to our deteriorating environmental situation is a matter of ever increasing urgency. It is argued that a central obstacle to achieving this is the way that scientism has become normalized in our thinking about environmental issues. This is taken to reflect on an underlying "metaphysics of mastery" that vitiates proper…

  3. Normal and Abnormal Sexual Differentiation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can look normal, like those of any other boy or girl. Nowadays, operations to correct masculinized female genitalia, when ... of sexual activity and adjusted, if necessary, such girls should be able to have intercourse ... boys, the correction of even severe hypospadias should not ...

  4. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    E-print Network

    John Ellis; Nick E. Mavromatos; Dimitri P. Skliros

    2015-12-08

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting `trick' we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear sigma-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  5. Simultaneous normalization and algebra husks

    E-print Network

    Kollár, János

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this note is to use the concept of algebra husks to prove an analog of the flattening decomposition theorem for simultaneous normalizations. Other applications improve earlier flatness criteria. Parts of this note were contained in the first version of "Hulls and Husks" (arXiv:0805.0576).

  6. DIII-D Edge Plasma, Disruptions, and Radiative Processes. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Boedo, J. A.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Moyer, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    The scientific goal of the UCSD-DIII-D Collaboration during this period was to understand the coupling of the core plasma to the plasma-facing components through the plasma boundary (edge and scrape-off layer). To achieve this goal, UCSD scientists studied the transport of particles, momentum, energy, and radiation from the plasma core to the plasma-facing components under normal (e.g., L-mode, H-mode, and ELMs), and off-normal (e.g., disruptions) operating conditions.

  7. Intrahospital correlation of the international normalized ratio.

    PubMed

    Lazo-Langner, Alejandro; Villa-Márquez, Rosario; Hernández-Hernández, Darinel; Rojas-Maya, Sonia; Piedras, Josefa

    2009-01-01

    Background. Monitoring of oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) is usually accomplished by measuring prothrombin time and the international normalized ratio (INR). However, thromboplastins have different responsiveness and sensitivity to vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors depletion. Several studies have shown INR variation when low sensitive thromboplastins are used. This study compared INR variability between two laboratories using highly sensitive thromboplastins. Methods. A total of 237 plasmas were tested, half of them from patients under OAT. Samples were tested simultaneously in two laboratories: in laboratory A, a Behring Coagulation Timer instrument and a human recombinant thromboplastin (Innovin, Dade Behring) (ISI 1.01) were used. In laboratory B, a Thrombolyzer Compact (Behnk Elektronik) and a rabbit brain thromboplastin (Simplastin Excel S, Organon Teknika) with an ISI of 1.30 were used. Statistical analysis was carried out according to the method of Bland and Altman. Results. Even though high correlation coefficients were obtained when comparing both laboratories, Bland-Altman analysis showed a variation of INR between laboratories ranging from -0.77 to +1.07. After logarithmic transformation of data, these values yielded a variation of the INR either 25% below or 44% above. Conclusions. These results are clearly inadequate for clinical use because such a variation would most probably induce the clinician to make a change in warfarin dose. Standardization of instruments, reagents, and controls is warranted to decrease this variation. PMID:18385150

  8. Vitronectin is not essential for normal mammalian development and fertility.

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, X; Saunders, T L; Camper, S A; Samuelson, L C; Ginsburg, D

    1995-01-01

    Vitronectin (VN) is an abundant glycoprotein present in plasma and the extracellular matrix of most tissues. Though the precise function of VN in vivo is unknown, it has been implicated as a participant in diverse biological processes, including cell attachment and spreading, complement activation, and regulation of hemostasis. The major site of synthesis appears to be the liver, though VN is also found in the brain at an early stage of mouse organogenesis, suggesting that it may play an important role in mouse development. Genetic deficiency of VN has not been reported in humans or in other higher organisms. To examine the biologic function of VN within the context of the intact animal, we have established a murine model for VN deficiency through targeted disruption of the murine VN gene. Southern blot analysis of DNA obtained from homozygous null mice demonstrates deletion of all VN coding sequences, and immunological analysis confirms the complete absence of VN protein expression in plasma. However, heterozygous mice carrying one normal and one null VN allele and homozygous null mice completely deficient in VN demonstrate normal development, fertility, and survival. Sera obtained from VN-deficient mice are completely deficient in "serum spreading factor" and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 binding activities. These observations demonstrate that VN is not essential for cell adhesion and migration during normal mouse development and suggest that its role in these processes may partially overlap with other adhesive matrix components. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8618914

  9. Hypoglycemic effect of the water extract of Smallantus sonchifolius (yacon) leaves in normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Aybar, M J; Sánchez Riera, A N; Grau, A; Sánchez, S S

    2001-02-01

    The hypoglycemic effect of the water extract of the leaves of Smallantus sonchifolius (yacon) was examined in normal, transiently hyperglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Ten-percent yacon decoction produced a significant decrease in plasma glucose levels in normal rats when administered by intraperitoneal injection or gastric tube. In a glucose tolerance test, a single administration of 10% yacon decoction lowered the plasma glucose levels in normal rats. In contrast, a single oral or intraperitoneal administration of yacon decoction produced no effect on the plasma glucose levels of STZ-induced diabetic rats. However, the administration of 2% yacon tea ad libitum instead of water for 30 days produced a significant hypoglycemic effect on STZ-induced diabetic rats. After 30 days of tea administration, diabetic rats showed improved body (plasma glucose, plasma insulin levels, body weight) and renal parameters (kidney weight, kidney to body weight ratio, creatinine clearance, urinary albumin excretion) in comparison with the diabetic controls. Our results suggest that yacon water extract produces an increase in plasma insulin concentration. PMID:11167030

  10. Stellarator Coil Design and Plasma Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Long-Poe Ku and Allen H. Boozer

    2010-11-03

    The rich information contained in the plasma response to external magnetic perturbations can be used to help design stellarator coils more effectively. We demonstrate the feasibility by first devel- oping a simple, direct method to study perturbations in stellarators that do not break stellarator symmetry and periodicity. The method applies a small perturbation to the plasma boundary and evaluates the resulting perturbed free-boundary equilibrium to build up a sensitivity matrix for the important physics attributes of the underlying configuration. Using this sensitivity information, design methods for better stellarator coils are then developed. The procedure and a proof-of-principle application are given that (1) determine the spatial distributions of external normal magnetic field at the location of the unperturbed plasma boundary to which the plasma properties are most sen- sitive, (2) determine the distributions of external normal magnetic field that can be produced most efficiently by distant coils, (3) choose the ratios of the magnitudes of the the efficiently produced magnetic distributions so the sensitive plasma properties can be controlled. Using these methods, sets of modular coils are found for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) that are either smoother or can be located much farther from the plasma boundary than those of the present design.

  11. PLASMA SUBSTITUTES

    PubMed Central

    Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.; Miller, L. L.; Alling, E. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1946-01-01

    Hemoglobin and globin alone, supplemented, or modified in various ways are seriously considered as plasma substitutes. Human globin given to doubly depleted (anemic and hypoproteinemic) dogs by vein contributes to the production of new hemoglobin and plasma protein, but there is some toxicity and weight loss. Dog hemoglobin given intraperitoneally is better tolerated and somewhat more completely utilized with more blood proteins formed and less weight loss. Dog globin (tryptic digest) given by vein in anemic dogs is associated with a moderate production of new hemoglobin. Horse globin by mouth contributes to the formation of new hemoglobin in the standard anemic dog. Dog hemoglobin given intraperitoneally in protein fasting, non-anemic dogs is well utilized to maintain nitrogen and weight balance. A dl-isoleucine supplement fails to improve this utilization of hemoglobin for maintenance in the dog. A small supplement of dl-methionine greatly improves the utilization of dog hemoglobin for maintenance in the dog and further addition of isoleucine is without effect. The intermediary metabolism of dog hemoglobin is not yet worked out. Electrophoretic analyses (Table 6) suggest that globin appears in the peripheral circulation after intraperitoneal injections of hemoglobin. PMID:19871535

  12. DEPARTURE FROM NORMALITY AND EIGENVALUE PERTURBATION BOUNDS

    E-print Network

    , departure from normality, sum of normal matrices AMS subject classification. 15A42, 15A18, 15A12, 65F15, 65F35 1. Introduction. The results in this paper are based on two eigenvalue bounds for normal

  13. Magnetic Fields and Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Schep, T.J.

    2004-03-15

    Plasmas and magnetic fields are inseparably related in numerous physical circumstances. This is not only the case in natural occurring plasmas like the solar corona and the earth magnetic tail, but also in laboratory plasmas like tokamaks and stellarators.

  14. Plasma Free Metanephrines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Plasma Free Metanephrines Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Plasma Metanephrines Formal name: Fractionated Plasma Free Metanephrines (Metanephrine ...

  15. Improved plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  16. Neutral Atom Diffusion in a Partially Ionized Prominence Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2010-01-01

    The support of solar prominences is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized. it is necessary to consider in addition the support of the neutral component of the prominence plasma. This support is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material,

  17. Residual Seminal Vesicle Displacement in Marker-Based Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer and the Impact on Margin Design

    SciTech Connect

    Smitsmans, Monique H.P.; Bois, Josien de; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Catton, Charles N.; Jaffray, David A.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Herk, Marcel van

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to quantify residual interfraction displacement of seminal vesicles (SV) and investigate the efficacy of rotation correction on SV displacement in marker-based prostate image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). We also determined the effect of marker registration on the measured SV displacement and its impact on margin design. Methods and Materials: SV displacement was determined relative to marker registration by using 296 cone beam computed tomography scans of 13 prostate cancer patients with implanted markers. SV were individually registered in the transverse plane, based on gray-value information. The target registration error (TRE) for the SV due to marker registration inaccuracies was estimated. Correlations between prostate gland rotations and SV displacement and between individual SV displacements were determined. Results: The SV registration success rate was 99%. Displacement amounts of both SVs were comparable. Systematic and random residual SV displacements were 1.6 mm and 2.0 mm in the left-right direction, respectively, and 2.8 mm and 3.1 mm in the anteroposterior (AP) direction, respectively. Rotation correction did not reduce residual SV displacement. Prostate gland rotation around the left-right axis correlated with SV AP displacement (R{sup 2} = 42%); a correlation existed between both SVs for AP displacement (R{sup 2} = 62%); considerable correlation existed between random errors of SV displacement and TRE (R{sup 2} = 34%). Conclusions: Considerable residual SV displacement exists in marker-based IGRT. Rotation correction barely reduced SV displacement, rather, a larger SV displacement was shown relative to the prostate gland that was not captured by the marker position. Marker registration error partly explains SV displacement when correcting for rotations. Correcting for rotations, therefore, is not advisable when SV are part of the target volume. Margin design for SVs should take these uncertainties into account.

  18. Plasma crystals and liquid plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Morfill, G. E.; Thomas, H. M.; Konopka, U.; Rothermel, H.; Zuzic, M.

    1998-10-21

    General properties of strongly coupled colloidal plasmas are briefly summarised, and their properties of being able to 'condense' into a self-organised liquid and crystalline form is discussed. Both laboratory and microgravity aspects of the research into this new form of matter are described and the theoretical constraints are compared with available measurements. Finally, the phase transition solid-liquid-gaseous is investigated using measurements of the 'normalised interaction cross section', {sigma}{sigma}{sub p}, derived from molecular diffusion of the colloid component.

  19. Normal Modes of Magnetized Finite Two-Dimensional Yukawa Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marleau, Gabriel-Dominique; Kaehlert, Hanno; Bonitz, Michael

    2009-11-01

    The normal modes of a finite two-dimensional dusty plasma in an isotropic parabolic confinement, including the simultaneous effects of friction and an external magnetic field, are studied. The ground states are found from molecular dynamics simulations with simulated annealing, and the influence of screening, friction, and magnetic field on the mode frequencies is investigated in detail. The two-particle problem is solved analytically and the limiting cases of weak and strong magnetic fields are discussed.[4pt] [1] C. Henning, H. K"ahlert, P. Ludwig, A. Melzer, and M.Bonitz. J. Phys. A 42, 214023 (2009)[2] B. Farokhi, M. Shahmansouri, and P. K. Shukla. Phys.Plasmas 16, 063703 (2009)[3] L. Cândido, J.-P. Rino, N. Studart, and F. M. Peeters. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 10, 11627--11644 (1998)

  20. Microscopic Motion of Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Components In A Diverted Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworski, M A; Morley, N B; Abrams, T; Kaita, R; Kallman, J; Kugel, H; Majeski, R

    2010-09-22

    Liquid metal plasma facing components (PFCs) have been identified as an alternative material for fusion plasma experiments. The use of a liquid conductor where significant magnetic fields are present is considered risky, with the possibility of macroscopic fluid motion and possible ejection into the plasma core. Analysis is carried out on thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamic (TEMHD) forces caused by temperature gradients in the liquid-container system itself in addition to scrape-off-layer currents interacting with the PFC from a diverted plasma. Capillary effects at the liquid-container interface will be examined which govern droplet ejection criteria. Stability of the interface is determined using linear stability methods. In addition to application to liquidmetal PFCs, thin film liquidmetal effects have application to current and future devices where off-normal events may liquefy portions of the first wall and other plasma facing components.

  1. Normal Plotting for Process Characterization

    E-print Network

    Vardeman, Stephen B.

    1 Normal Plotting for Process Characterization (Section 5.1 of Vardeman and Jobe) #12;2 When functions" here · So plots of might be used to compare distribution shapes (Q-Q plots) p 1( )Q p 2 ( )Q p .1 Example · Q-Q plot for the two artificial data sets · Q-Q plot if the smallest value in data set #2

  2. Normal forms in Poisson geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcut, Ioan

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies normal forms for Poisson structures around symplectic leaves using several techniques: geometric, formal and analytic ones. One of the main results (Theorem 2) is a normal form theorem in Poisson geometry, which is the Poisson-geometric version of the Local Reeb Stability (from foliation theory) and of the Slice Theorem (from equivariant geometry). The result generalizes Conn's theorem from fixed points to arbitrary symplectic leaves. We present two proofs of this result: a geometric one relying heavily on the theory of Lie algebroids and Lie groupoids (similar to the new proof of Conn's theorem by Crainic and Fernandes), and an analytic one using the Nash-Moser fast convergence method (more in the spirit of Conn's original proof). The analytic approach gives much more, we prove a local rigidity result (Theorem 4) around compact Poisson submanifolds, which is the first of this kind in Poisson geometry. Theorem 4 has a surprising application to the study of smooth deformation of Poisson structures: in Theorem 5 we compute the Poisson-moduli space around the Lie-Poisson sphere (i.e. the invariant unit sphere inside the linear Poisson manifold corresponding to a compact semisimple Lie algebra). This is the first such computation of a Poisson moduli space in dimension greater or equal to 3 around a degenerate (i.e. non-symplectic) Poisson structure. Other results presented in the thesis are: a new proof to the existence of symplectic realizations (Theorem 0), a normal form theorem for symplectic foliations (Theorem 1), a formal normal form/rigidity result around Poisson submanifolds (Theorem 3), and a general construction of tame homotopy operators for Lie algebroid cohomology (the Tame Vanishing Lemma). We also revisit Conn's theorem and a theorem of Hamilton on rigidity of foliations.

  3. Succeeding in the New Normal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    Being a college CIO these days must feel a bit like juggling chain saws with one hand while holding a donation cup in the other. It's unlikely to end well, yet it represents the new normal in IT. While campus clients--from administrators to faculty and students--expect the usual raft of tech services, the IT budget simply can't deliver. In this…

  4. Normal fault earthquakes or graviquakes.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, C; Carminati, E; Petricca, P; Riguzzi, F

    2015-01-01

    Earthquakes are dissipation of energy throughout elastic waves. Canonically is the elastic energy accumulated during the interseismic period. However, in crustal extensional settings, gravity is the main energy source for hangingwall fault collapsing. Gravitational potential is about 100 times larger than the observed magnitude, far more than enough to explain the earthquake. Therefore, normal faults have a different mechanism of energy accumulation and dissipation (graviquakes) with respect to other tectonic settings (strike-slip and contractional), where elastic energy allows motion even against gravity. The bigger the involved volume, the larger is their magnitude. The steeper the normal fault, the larger is the vertical displacement and the larger is the seismic energy released. Normal faults activate preferentially at about 60° but they can be shallower in low friction rocks. In low static friction rocks, the fault may partly creep dissipating gravitational energy without releasing great amount of seismic energy. The maximum volume involved by graviquakes is smaller than the other tectonic settings, being the activated fault at most about three times the hypocentre depth, explaining their higher b-value and the lower magnitude of the largest recorded events. Having different phenomenology, graviquakes show peculiar precursors. PMID:26169163

  5. Normal fault earthquakes or graviquakes

    PubMed Central

    Doglioni, C.; Carminati, E.; Petricca, P.; Riguzzi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquakes are dissipation of energy throughout elastic waves. Canonically is the elastic energy accumulated during the interseismic period. However, in crustal extensional settings, gravity is the main energy source for hangingwall fault collapsing. Gravitational potential is about 100 times larger than the observed magnitude, far more than enough to explain the earthquake. Therefore, normal faults have a different mechanism of energy accumulation and dissipation (graviquakes) with respect to other tectonic settings (strike-slip and contractional), where elastic energy allows motion even against gravity. The bigger the involved volume, the larger is their magnitude. The steeper the normal fault, the larger is the vertical displacement and the larger is the seismic energy released. Normal faults activate preferentially at about 60° but they can be shallower in low friction rocks. In low static friction rocks, the fault may partly creep dissipating gravitational energy without releasing great amount of seismic energy. The maximum volume involved by graviquakes is smaller than the other tectonic settings, being the activated fault at most about three times the hypocentre depth, explaining their higher b-value and the lower magnitude of the largest recorded events. Having different phenomenology, graviquakes show peculiar precursors. PMID:26169163

  6. Normalization of Gravitational Acceleration Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckman, Randy A.; Brown, Aaron J.; Adamo, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike the uniform density spherical shell approximations of Newton, the con- sequence of spaceflight in the real universe is that gravitational fields are sensitive to the nonsphericity of their generating central bodies. The gravitational potential of a nonspherical central body is typically resolved using spherical harmonic approximations. However, attempting to directly calculate the spherical harmonic approximations results in at least two singularities which must be removed in order to generalize the method and solve for any possible orbit, including polar orbits. Three unique algorithms have been developed to eliminate these singularities by Samuel Pines [1], Bill Lear [2], and Robert Gottlieb [3]. This paper documents the methodical normalization of two1 of the three known formulations for singularity-free gravitational acceleration (namely, the Lear [2] and Gottlieb [3] algorithms) and formulates a general method for defining normalization parameters used to generate normalized Legendre Polynomials and ALFs for any algorithm. A treatment of the conventional formulation of the gravitational potential and acceleration is also provided, in addition to a brief overview of the philosophical differences between the three known singularity-free algorithms.

  7. Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements

    DOEpatents

    Zonca, F.; Cohen, S.A.; Bennett, T.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1993-08-24

    An apparatus is described for measuring momentum flux from an intense plasma stream, comprising: refractory target means oriented normal to the flow of said plasma stream for bombardment by said plasma stream where said bombardment by said plasma stream applies a pressure to said target means, pendulum means for communicating a translational displacement of said target to a force transducer where said translational displacement of said target is transferred to said force transducer by an elongated member coupled to said target, where said member is suspended by a pendulum configuration means and where said force transducer is responsive to said translational displacement of said member, and force transducer means for outputting a signal representing pressure data corresponding to said displacement.

  8. Complementary electrowetting devices on plasma-treated fluoropolymer surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kim, D Y; Steckl, A J

    2010-06-15

    A reversal of the normal two-fluid competitive (water vs oil) electrowetting (nEW) on dielectric has been achieved by plasma irradiation of the normally hydrophobic fluoropolymer followed by thermal annealing. This process first renders the surface hydrophilic and then returns it to its normal hydrophobic properties as measured by water droplet contact and rolling angles. In the plasma-irradiated and annealed EW device (pEW), the normal two-fluid EW action is reversed after an initial charging step, with the oil layer being displaced at zero voltage and being returned at high voltage. A possible explanation of this effect is a plasma-induced modification of the fluoropolymer, rendering it more susceptible to charge injection and trapping at high voltage. nEW and pEW devices exhibit complementary EW operation, as verified by oil movement and optical transmission. This method can lead to low-power operation of two-fluid EW devices. PMID:20329778

  9. Plasma Dictionary Website

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Don; Heeter, Robert; Alvarez, Mitch

    2000-10-01

    In response to many inquiries for a list of plasma terms, a database driven Plasma Dictionary website (plasmadictionary.llnl.gov) was created that allows users to submit new terms, search for specific terms or browse alphabetic listings. The Plasma Dictionary website contents began with the Fusion & Plasma Glossary terms available at the Fusion Energy Educational website (fusedweb.llnl.gov). Plasma researchers are encouraged to add terms and definitions. By clarifying the meanings of specific plasma terms, it is envisioned that the primary use of the Plasma Dictionary website will be by students, teachers, researchers, and writers for (1) Enhancing literacy in plasma science, (2) Serving as an educational aid, (3) Providing practical information, and (4) Helping clarify plasma writings. The Plasma Dictionary website has already proved useful in responding to a request from the CRC Press (www.crcpress.com) to add plasma terms to its CRC physics dictionary project (members.aol.com/physdict/).

  10. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in quantum magnetized viscous plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshoudy, G. A.

    2011-09-15

    Quantum effects on Rayleigh-Taylor instability of stratified viscous plasmas layer under the influence of vertical magnetic field are investigated. By linearly solving the viscous QMHD equations into normal mode, a forth-order ordinary differential equation is obtained to describe the velocity perturbation. Then the growth rate is derived for the case where a plasma with exponential density distribution is confined between two rigid planes. The results show that, the presence of vertical magnetic field beside the quantum effect will bring about more stability on the growth rate of unstable configuration for viscous plasma, which is greater than that of inviscous plasma.

  11. Iodide and albumin kinetics in normal canine wrists and knees

    SciTech Connect

    Simkin, P.A.; Benedict, R.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The clearance rates of free iodide and of radioiodinated serum albumin were measured in the knee and wrist joints of 9 normal adult dogs. Iodide clearance from the knee was 3 times greater than that from the wrist. In contrast, radioiodinated serum albumin clearance from the knee was only slightly greater than that from the wrist. Interpreted as respective indices of effective synovial plasma flow and lymphatic drainage, these values indicate that the filtration fraction is normally greater in microvessels of the wrist than in those of the knee. These findings complement the results of companion studies of Starling forces that indicate a higher pressure microvascular bed in the wrist than in the knee.

  12. Normalization of microarray Anja von Heydebreck

    E-print Network

    Spang, Rainer

    ) controls and base normalization on them. #12;1. Loess normalization · M-A plot (minus vs. add): log-shaped" scatterplots on the log- scale are observed. #12;Loess normalization · Intensity-dependent trends are modeled by a regression curve, M = f(A) + . · The normalized log-ratios are computed as the residuals of the loess

  13. Smith normal form Incidence of Subspaces

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Elizabeth A.

    Smith normal form Incidence of Subspaces Incidence maps and SNF bases The Smith Normal Form SNF of Skew Lines in PG(3, q) #12;Smith normal form Incidence of Subspaces Incidence maps and SNF bases Outline 1 Smith normal form 2 Incidence of Subspaces 3 Incidence maps and SNF bases Brouwer, Ducey

  14. Cold atmospheric plasma in cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Keidar, Michael; Shashurin, Alex; Volotskova, Olga; Ann Stepp, Mary; Srinivasan, Priya; Sandler, Anthony; Trink, Barry

    2013-05-15

    Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas has led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. This paper outlines recent progress in understanding of cold plasma physics as well as application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) in cancer therapy. Varieties of novel plasma diagnostic techniques were developed recently in a quest to understand physics of CAP. It was established that the streamer head charge is about 10{sup 8} electrons, the electrical field in the head vicinity is about 10{sup 7} V/m, and the electron density of the streamer column is about 10{sup 19} m{sup ?3}. Both in-vitro and in-vivo studies of CAP action on cancer were performed. It was shown that the cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in-vitro without damaging normal cells and significantly reduces tumor size in-vivo. Studies indicate that the mechanism of action of cold plasma on cancer cells is related to generation of reactive oxygen species with possible induction of the apoptosis pathway. It is also shown that the cancer cells are more susceptible to the effects of CAP because a greater percentage of cells are in the S phase of the cell cycle.

  15. The bacteriology of normal urine

    E-print Network

    Milligan, Jay McDonald

    1917-01-01

    $ carbolic solution, bacteria were still present in the urine even if it were obtained by a catheter. Eraus8,and ClwosteliJ, found bacteria in the urethra at a depth of sis to eight c.o. in 60$ of healthy males ezamined. while ScheriklQ,and Austerlitz11... that it is possible. In the practical Uranalysis and Urinary Diagnosis, Charles ?/. Purdy-^ says:,"It has been generally accepted that healthy urine when freshly voided is free from bacteria and is, in fact, an aseptic fluid. If however the ordinary normal urine...

  16. Cascaded target normal sheath acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F.; Zhang, X. M.; Wang, X. F.; Xu, J. C.; Zhao, X. Y.; Yu, Y. H.; Yi, L. Q.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, L. G.; Xu, T. J.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2013-11-15

    A cascaded target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) scheme is proposed to simultaneously increase energy and improve energy spread of a laser-produced mono-energetic proton beam. An optimum condition that uses the maximum sheath field to accelerate the center of the proton beam is theoretically found and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. An initial 10 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 21 MeV with energy spread decreased from 5% to 2% under the optimum condition during the process of the cascaded TNSA. The scheme opens a way to scale proton energy lineally with laser energy.

  17. Physics and medical applications of cold atmospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidar, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. Varieties of novel plasma diagnostic techniques were applied in a quest to understand physics of cold plasmas. In particular it was established that the streamer head charge is about 108 electrons, the electrical field in the head vicinity is about 107 V/m, and the electron density of the streamer column is about 1019 m3. We have demonstrated the efficacy of cold plasma in a pre-clinical model of various cancer types (lung, bladder, breast, head, neck, brain and skin). Both in-vitro andin-vivo studies revealed that cold plasmas selectively kill cancer cells. We showed that: (a) cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in vitro without damaging normal cells. (b) Significantly reduced tumor size in vivo. Cold plasma treatment led to tumor ablation with neighbouring tumors unaffected. These experiments were performed on more than 10 mice with the same outcome. We found that tumors of about 5mm in diameter were ablated after 2 min of single time plasma treatment. The two best known cold plasma effects, plasma-induced apoptosis and the decrease of cell migration velocity can have important implications in cancer treatment by localizing the affected area of the tissue and by decreasing metastasic development. In addition, cold plasma treatment has affected the cell cycle of cancer cells. In particular, cold plasmainduces a 2-fold increase in cells at the G2/M-checkpoint in both papilloma and carcinoma cells at ~24 hours after treatment, while normal epithelial cells (WTK) did not show significant differences. It was shown that reactive oxygen species metabolism and oxidative stress responsive genes are deregulated. We investigated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with cold plasma treatment as a potential mechanism for the tumor ablation observed.

  18. Plasma sweeper. [Patents

    DOEpatents

    Motley, R.W.; Glanz, J.

    1982-10-25

    A device is described for coupling RF power (a plasma sweeper) from RF power introducing means to a plasma having a magnetic field associated therewith comprises at least one electrode positioned near the plasma and near the RF power introducing means. Means are described for generating a static electric field at the electrode directed into the plasma and having a component substantially perpendicular to the plasma magnetic field such that a non-zero vector cross-product of the electric and magnetic fields exerts a force on the plasma causing the plasma to drift.

  19. Normal Bone Anatomy and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Bart

    2008-01-01

    This review describes normal bone anatomy and physiology as an introduction to the subsequent articles in this section that discuss clinical applications of iliac crest bone biopsy. The normal anatomy and functions of the skeleton are reviewed first, followed by a general description of the processes of bone modeling and remodeling. The bone remodeling process regulates the gain and loss of bone mineral density in the adult skeleton and directly influences bone strength. Thorough understanding of the bone remodeling process is critical to appreciation of the value of and interpretation of the results of iliac crest bone histomorphometry. Osteoclast recruitment, activation, and bone resorption is discussed in some detail, followed by a review of osteoblast recruitment and the process of new bone formation. Next, the collagenous and noncollagenous protein components and function of bone extracellular matrix are summarized, followed by a description of the process of mineralization of newly formed bone matrix. The actions of biomechanical forces on bone are sensed by the osteocyte syncytium within bone via the canalicular network and intercellular gap junctions. Finally, concepts regarding bone remodeling, osteoclast and osteoblast function, extracellular matrix, matrix mineralization, and osteocyte function are synthesized in a summary of the currently understood functional determinants of bone strength. This information lays the groundwork for understanding the utility and clinical applications of iliac crest bone biopsy. PMID:18988698

  20. Plasmas for space propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahedo, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    Plasma thrusters are challenging the monopoly of chemical thrusters in space propulsion. The specific energy that can be deposited into a plasma beam is orders of magnitude larger than the specific chemical energy of known fuels. Plasma thrusters constitute a vast family of devices ranging from already commercial thrusters to incipient laboratory prototypes. Figures of merit in plasma propulsion are discussed. Plasma processes and conditions differ widely from one thruster to another, with the pre-eminence of magnetized, weakly collisional plasmas. Energy is imparted to the plasma via either energetic electron injection, biased electrodes or electromagnetic irradiation. Plasma acceleration can be electrothermal, electrostatic or electromagnetic. Plasma-wall interaction affects energy deposition and erosion of thruster elements, and thus is central for thruster efficiency and lifetime. Magnetic confinement and magnetic nozzles are present in several devices. Oscillations and turbulent transport are intrinsic to the performances of some thrusters. Several thrusters are selected in order to discuss these relevant plasma phenomena.

  1. Disturbed Local Auxin Homeostasis Enhances Cellular Anisotropy and Reveals Alternative Wiring of Auxin-ethylene Crosstalk in Brachypodium distachyon Seminal Roots

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Villalobos, David; Sankar, Martial; Ljung, Karin; Hardtke, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    Observations gained from model organisms are essential, yet it remains unclear to which degree they are applicable to distant relatives. For example, in the dicotyledon Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), auxin biosynthesis via indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) is essential for root development and requires redundant TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS 1 (TAA1) and TAA1-RELATED (TAR) genes. A promoter T-DNA insertion in the monocotyledon Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) TAR2-LIKE gene (BdTAR2L) severely down-regulates expression, suggesting reduced tryptophan aminotransferase activity in this mutant, which thus represents a hypomorphic Bdtar2l allele (Bdtar2lhypo). Counterintuitive however, Bdtar2lhypo mutants display dramatically elongated seminal roots because of enhanced cell elongation. This phenotype is also observed in another, stronger Bdtar2l allele and can be mimicked by treating wild type with L-kynerunine, a specific TAA1/TAR inhibitor. Surprisingly, L-kynerunine-treated as well as Bdtar2l roots display elevated rather than reduced auxin levels. This does not appear to result from compensation by alternative auxin biosynthesis pathways. Rather, expression of YUCCA genes, which are rate-limiting for conversion of IPA to auxin, is increased in Bdtar2l mutants. Consistent with suppression of Bdtar2lhypo root phenotypes upon application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC), BdYUCCA genes are down-regulated upon ACC treatment. Moreover, they are up-regulated in a downstream ethylene-signaling component homolog mutant, Bd ethylene insensitive 2-like 1, which also displays a Bdtar2l root phenotype. In summary, Bdtar2l phenotypes contrast with gradually reduced root growth and auxin levels described for Arabidopsis taa1/tar mutants. This could be explained if in Brachypodium, ethylene inhibits the rate-limiting step of auxin biosynthesis in an IPA-dependent manner to confer auxin levels that are sub-optimal for root cell elongation, as suggested by our observations. Thus, our results reveal a delicate homeostasis of local auxin and ethylene activity to control cell elongation in Brachypodium roots and suggest alternative wiring of auxin-ethylene crosstalk as compared to Arabidopsis. PMID:23840182

  2. Disturbed local auxin homeostasis enhances cellular anisotropy and reveals alternative wiring of auxin-ethylene crosstalk in Brachypodium distachyon seminal roots.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Villalobos, David; Sankar, Martial; Ljung, Karin; Hardtke, Christian S

    2013-06-01

    Observations gained from model organisms are essential, yet it remains unclear to which degree they are applicable to distant relatives. For example, in the dicotyledon Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), auxin biosynthesis via indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) is essential for root development and requires redundant TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS 1 (TAA1) and TAA1-RELATED (TAR) genes. A promoter T-DNA insertion in the monocotyledon Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) TAR2-LIKE gene (BdTAR2L) severely down-regulates expression, suggesting reduced tryptophan aminotransferase activity in this mutant, which thus represents a hypomorphic Bdtar2l allele (Bdtar2l(hypo) ). Counterintuitive however, Bdtar2l(hypo) mutants display dramatically elongated seminal roots because of enhanced cell elongation. This phenotype is also observed in another, stronger Bdtar2l allele and can be mimicked by treating wild type with L-kynerunine, a specific TAA1/TAR inhibitor. Surprisingly, L-kynerunine-treated as well as Bdtar2l roots display elevated rather than reduced auxin levels. This does not appear to result from compensation by alternative auxin biosynthesis pathways. Rather, expression of YUCCA genes, which are rate-limiting for conversion of IPA to auxin, is increased in Bdtar2l mutants. Consistent with suppression of Bdtar2l(hypo) root phenotypes upon application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC), BdYUCCA genes are down-regulated upon ACC treatment. Moreover, they are up-regulated in a downstream ethylene-signaling component homolog mutant, Bd ethylene insensitive 2-like 1, which also displays a Bdtar2l root phenotype. In summary, Bdtar2l phenotypes contrast with gradually reduced root growth and auxin levels described for Arabidopsis taa1/tar mutants. This could be explained if in Brachypodium, ethylene inhibits the rate-limiting step of auxin biosynthesis in an IPA-dependent manner to confer auxin levels that are sub-optimal for root cell elongation, as suggested by our observations. Thus, our results reveal a delicate homeostasis of local auxin and ethylene activity to control cell elongation in Brachypodium roots and suggest alternative wiring of auxin-ethylene crosstalk as compared to Arabidopsis. PMID:23840182

  3. Synthesis of hemoglobins in rice (Oryza sativa var. Jackson) plants growing in normal and stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Lira-Ruan, V; Sarath, G; Klucas, R V.; Arredondo-Peter, R

    2001-07-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa var. Jackson) at least three copies of hemoglobin (hb) gene exist. Rice hb1 and hb2 genes are differentially expressed in roots and leaves from mature plants. We used polyclonal antibodies raised to recombinant rice Hb1 and Western blotting to analyze the synthesis of Hbs in rice plants growing under normal or stress conditions. Results showed that rice Hbs are synthesized in coleoptiles, seminal roots and embryos from seeds germinated for 6 days, and also in leaves and roots from plants 2-14 weeks after germination. Analysis of Hb synthesis in stressed rice showed that: (i) level of Hbs was higher in etiolated than control plants, (ii) level of Hbs increased in roots from flooded rice, and (iii) level of Hbs did not change under oxidative (H(2)O(2)), nitrosative (SNP) and hormonal (2,4-D) stresses. These results suggest that the effect of light withdrawal in etiolated leaves and O(2)-limiting conditions in flooded roots, but not oxidative, nitrosative and hormonal stresses, modulate the synthesis of rice Hbs. PMID:11448759

  4. Plasma Physics PART Al: INTRODUCTION TO PLASMA SCIENCE

    E-print Network

    Chen, Francis F.

    Plasma Physics PART Al: INTRODUCTION TO PLASMA SCIENCE I. What is a plasma? 1 II. Plasma fundamentals 3 1. Quasineutrality and Debye length 2. Plasma frequency and acoustic velocity 3. Larmor radius; magnetic buckets Cross section data 21 PART A3: PLASMA SOURCES I IV. Introduction to plasma sources 25 1

  5. Superdiffusive transport in space and laboratory plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbardo, Gaetano

    2014-05-01

    In the last few years it has been shown that the transport of plasma particles in the presence of electric and magnetic turbulence can be superdiffusive rather than normal diffusive (Gaussian). The term 'superdiffusive' refers to the mean square displacement of particle positions growing superlinearly with time, as compared to the normal linear growth. The so-called anomalous transport, which in general is comprising both subdiffusion and superdiffusion, has gained growing attention during the last two decades in many fields including laboratory plasma physics and space physics. Both anomalous regimes, i.e. sub- and superdiffusion, are found in such plasmas by a number of techniques. In parallel, it has been found, both by data analysis and by numerical simulations, that the transport of energetic particles in the presence of solar wind magnetic turbulence can be superdiffusive. The theoretical description of anomalous transport in the cases of both sub- and superdiffusion involves the use of a variety of tools. In this presentation we will discuss the most common theoretical approaches to superdiffusion, that is the one based on fractional transport equations, and the one based on a non Guassian jump probability corresponding to Levy walks. The two approaches are compared, and we discuss which tool is most appropriate to each plasmas system. Examples of superdiffusive transport and of the corresponding particle acceleration for astrophysical plasmas will be given.

  6. Industrial plasmas in academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollenstein, Ch; Howling, AA; Guittienne, Ph; Furno, I.

    2015-01-01

    The present review, written at the occasion of the 2014 EPS Innovation award, will give a short overview of the research and development of industrial plasmas within the last 30?years and will also provide a first glimpse into future developments of this important topic of plasma physics and plasma chemistry. In the present contribution, some of the industrial plasmas studied at the CRPP/EPFL at Lausanne are highlighted and their influence on modern plasma physics and also discharge physics is discussed. One of the most important problems is the treatment of large surfaces, such as that used in solar cells, but also in more daily applications, such as the packaging industry. In this contribution, the advantages and disadvantages of some of the most prominent plasmas such as capacitively- and inductively-coupled plasmas are discussed. Electromagnetic problems due to the related radio frequency and its consequences on the plasma reactor performance, and also dust formation due to chemical reactions in plasma, are highlighted. Arcing and parasitic discharges occurring in plasma reactors can lead to plasma reactor damages. Some specific problems, such as the gas supply of a large area reactor, are discussed in more detail. Other topics of interest have been dc discharges such as those used in plasma spraying where thermal plasmas are applied for advanced material processing. Modern plasma diagnostics make it possible to investigate sparks in electrical discharge machining, which surprisingly show properties of weakly-coupled plasmas. Nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge plasmas have been applied to more speculative topics such as applications in aerodynamics and will surely be important in the future for ignition and combustion. Most of the commonly-used plasma sources have been shown to be limited in their performance. Therefore new, more effective plasma sources are urgently required. With the recent development of novel resonant network antennas for new advanced large area or large volume plasma sources, an important step towards high performance plasmas and new fast processes is made.

  7. EUV near normal incidence collector development at SAGEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier Ythier, R.; Bozec, X.; Geyl, R.; Rinchet, A.; Hecquet, Christophe; Ravet-Krill, Marie-Françoise; Delmotte, Franck; Sassolas, Benoît; Flaminio, Raffaele; Mackowski, Jean-Marie; Michel, Christophe; Montorio, Jean-Luc; Morgado, Nazario; Pinard, Laurent; Roméo, Elodie

    2008-03-01

    Through its participation to European programs, SAGEM has worked on the design and manufacturing of normal incidence collectors for EUV sources. By opposition to grazing incidence, normal incidence collectors are expected to collect more light with a simpler and cheaper design. Designs are presented for the two current types of existing sources: Discharge Produced Plasma (DPP) and Laser Produced Plasma (LPP). Collection efficiency is calculated in both cases. It is shown that these collectors can achieve about 10 % efficiency for DPP sources and 40 % for LPP sources. SAGEM works on the collectors manufacturability are also presented, including polishing, coating and cooling. The feasibility of polishing has been demonstrated with a roughness better than 2 angstroms obtained on several materials (glass, silicon, Silicon Carbide, metals...). SAGEM is currently working with the Institut d'Optique and the Laboratoire des Materiaux Avancés on the design and the process of EUV coatings for large mirrors. Lastly, SAGEM has studied the design and feasibility of an efficient thermal control, based on a liquid cooling through slim channels machined close to the optical surface.

  8. Plasma enhanced C1 chemistry for green technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro

    2013-09-01

    Plasma catalysis is one of the innovative next generation green technologies that meet the needs for energy and materials conservation as well as environmental protection. Non-thermal plasma uniquely generates reactive species independently of reaction temperature, and these species are used to initiate chemical reactions at unexpectedly lower temperatures than normal thermochemical reactions. Non-thermal plasma thus broadens the operation window of existing chemical conversion processes, and ultimately allows modification of the process parameters to minimize energy and material consumption. We have been specifically focusing on dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) as one of the viable non-thermal plasma sources for practical fuel reforming. In the presentation, room temperature one-step conversion of methane to methanol and hydrogen using a miniaturized DBD reactor (microplasma reactor) is highlighted. The practical impact of plasma technology on existing C1-chemistry is introduced, and then unique characteristics of plasma fuel reforming such as non-equilibrium product distribution is discussed.

  9. Remarkable paramagnetic features of Fermi-Dirac plasmas

    E-print Network

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper by using the relativistic magnetic susceptibility of a Fermi-Dirac (relativistically degenerate) plasma, quantum magnetohydrodynamics (QMHD) model is used to investigate the propagation of spin-induced (SI) magnetosonic nonlinear excitations in a normally and relativistically degenerate dense electron-ion plasma in the presence of the spin magnetization effect. Based on the conventional pseudopotential method the matching criterion for the evolution of SI solitary structures is evaluated. It is found that, the plasma mass density and strength of the magnetic field have significant effects on excitation and evolution of magnetosonic nonlinear structures in Fermi-Dirac plasmas. Only rarefactive SI magnetosonic solitary structures are found to excite in such plasmas. Furthermore, fundamental differences are shown to exist in magnetosonic soliton dynamics in the two distinct plasma degeneracy regimes, which is due to interplay between the negative spin paramagnetism pressure-like and positive relati...

  10. IIH with normal CSF pressures?

    PubMed

    Suh, Soh Youn; Kim, Seong-Joon

    2013-11-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in the absence of space occupying lesions. ICP is usually measured by lumbar puncture and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure above 250 mm H2O is one of the diagnostic criteria of IIH. Recently, we have encountered two patients who complained of headaches and exhibited disc swelling without an increased ICP. We prescribed acetazolamide and followed both patients frequently; because of the definite disc swelling with IIH related symptoms. Symptoms and signs resolved in both patients after they started taking acetazolamide. It is generally known that an elevated ICP, as measured by lumbar puncture, is the most important diagnostic sign of IIH. However, these cases caution even when CSF pressure is within the normal range, that suspicion should be raised when a patient has papilledema with related symptoms, since untreated papilledema may cause progressive and irreversible visual loss. PMID:24145570

  11. CYP3A activity based on plasma 4?-hydroxycholesterol during the early postpartum period has an effect on the plasma disposition of amlodipine.

    PubMed

    Naito, Takafumi; Kubono, Naoko; Ishida, Takuya; Deguchi, Shuhei; Sugihara, Masahisa; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro; Kawakami, Junichi

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate plasma 4?-hydroxycholesterol as an endogenous marker of CYP3A4/5 activity in early postpartum women and its impact on the plasma disposition of amlodipine. Twenty-seven early postpartum women treated with amlodipine for pregnancy-induced hypertension were enrolled. The plasma concentration of 4?-hydroxycholesterol and its ratio to cholesterol in postpartum and in non-perinatal women were evaluated. The predose plasma concentration of amlodipine was determined at steady state. The medians of the plasma 4?-hydroxycholesterol concentration at day 0-3 and 8-21 after delivery were 146 and 161 ng/mL, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the plasma concentration of 4?-hydroxycholesterol between the postpartum periods. The plasma concentration of 4?-hydroxycholesterol and its ratio to cholesterol in postpartum women were significantly higher than those in non-perinatal women. A large individual variability was observed in the dose-normalized plasma concentration of amlodipine in early postpartum women. A weak negative correlation was observed between the dose-normalized plasma concentration of amlodipine and the plasma concentration of 4?-hydroxycholesterol. In conclusion, early postpartum women possessed higher CYP3A activity based on plasma 4?-hydroxycholesterol and had a large pharmacokinetic variability in amlodipine. CYP3A activity during the early postpartum period had an effect on the plasma disposition of amlodipine. PMID:26654672

  12. Plasma surface cleaning using microwave plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.C.; Haselton, H.H.; Nelson, W.D.; Schechter, D.E.; Thompson, L.M.; Campbell, V.B.; Glover, A.L.; Googin, J.M.

    1993-11-01

    In a microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source, reactive plasmas of oxygen and its mixture with argon are used for plasma-cleaning experiments. Aluminum test samples (0.95 {times} 1.9 cm) were coated with thin films ({le} 20 {mu}m in thickness) of Shell Vitrea oil and cleaned by using such reactive plasmas. The plasma cleaning was done in various discharge conditions with fixed microwave power, rf power, biased potential, gas pressures (0.5 and 5 mtorr), and operating time up to 35 min. The status of plasma cleaning has been monitored by using mass spectroscopy. Mass loss of the samples after plasma cleaning was measured to estimate cleaning rates. Measured clean rates of low pressure (0.5 mtorr) argon/oxygen plasmas were as high as 2.7 {mu}/min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine cleanliness of the sample surfaces and confirm the effectiveness of plasma cleaning in achieving atomic levels of surface cleanliness. In this paper, significant results are reported and discussed.

  13. Welding arc plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cain, Bruce L.

    1990-01-01

    The problems of weld quality control and weld process dependability continue to be relevant issues in modern metal welding technology. These become especially important for NASA missions which may require the assembly or repair of larger orbiting platforms using automatic welding techniques. To extend present welding technologies for such applications, NASA/MSFC's Materials and Processes Lab is developing physical models of the arc welding process with the goal of providing both a basis for improved design of weld control systems, and a better understanding of how arc welding variables influence final weld properties. The physics of the plasma arc discharge is reasonably well established in terms of transport processes occurring in the arc column itself, although recourse to sophisticated numerical treatments is normally required to obtain quantitative results. Unfortunately the rigor of these numerical computations often obscures the physics of the underlying model due to its inherent complexity. In contrast, this work has focused on a relatively simple physical model of the arc discharge to describe the gross features observed in welding arcs. Emphasis was placed of deriving analytic expressions for the voltage along the arc axis as a function of known or measurable arc parameters. The model retains the essential physics for a straight polarity, diffusion dominated free burning arc in argon, with major simplifications of collisionless sheaths and simple energy balances at the electrodes.

  14. The Galileo plasma wave investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Shaw, R. R.; Roux, A.; Gendrin, R.; Kennel, C. F.; Scarf, F. L.; Shawhan, S. D.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the Galileo plasma wave investigation is to study plasma waves and radio emissions in the magnetosphere of Jupiter. The plasma wave instrument uses an electric dipole antenna to detect electric fields, and two search coil magnetic antennas to detect magnetic fields. The frequency range covered is 5 Hz to 5.6 MHz for electric fields and 5 Hz to 160 kHz for magnetic fields. Low time-resolution survey spectrums are provided by three on-board spectrum analyzers. In the normal mode of operation the frequency resolution is about 10 percent, and the time resolution for a complete set of electric and magnetic field measurements is 37.33 s. High time-resolution spectrums are provided by a wideband receiver. The wideband receiver provides waveform measurements over bandwidths of 1, 10, and 80 kHz. Compared to previous measurements at Jupiter this instrument has several new capabilities. These new capabilities include (1) both electric and magnetic field measurements to distinguish electrostatic and electromagnetic waves, (2) direction finding measurements to determine source locations, and (3) increased bandwidth for the wideband measurements.

  15. Phase-mixing of ion plasma modes in pair-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Sourav; Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2015-05-01

    Nonlinear interaction between two electrostatic normal modes of a warm pair-ion plasma, viz., ion plasma mode (Langmuir mode) and ion acoustic mode has been analyzed by employing a perturbation technique. It is shown that a gradual loss of phase coherence in the excited Langmuir wave dynamics (phase-mixing) occurs in such a plasma, leading to wave-breaking at arbitrarily low wave amplitudes. Nonlinear results provide an approximate expression for the phase-mixing time which is found to increase with the increase of the ratio of acoustic frequency to Langmuir frequency. The results of our investigation are expected to be relevant to the laboratory produced paired fullerene-ion plasmas.

  16. Phase-mixing of ion plasma modes in pair-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pramanik, Sourav; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2015-05-15

    Nonlinear interaction between two electrostatic normal modes of a warm pair-ion plasma, viz., ion plasma mode (Langmuir mode) and ion acoustic mode has been analyzed by employing a perturbation technique. It is shown that a gradual loss of phase coherence in the excited Langmuir wave dynamics (phase-mixing) occurs in such a plasma, leading to wave-breaking at arbitrarily low wave amplitudes. Nonlinear results provide an approximate expression for the phase-mixing time which is found to increase with the increase of the ratio of acoustic frequency to Langmuir frequency. The results of our investigation are expected to be relevant to the laboratory produced paired fullerene-ion plasmas.

  17. Hollow cylindrical plasma filament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Alshershby, Mostafa; Hao Zuoqiang; Lin Jingquan

    2013-01-15

    We have explored here a hollow cylindrical laser plasma multifilament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding, in which the separation between individual filaments is in the range of several millimeters and the waveguide cladding thickness is in the order of the microwave penetration depth. Such parameters give a closer representation of a realistic laser filament waveguide sustained by a long stable propagation of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. We report how the waveguide losses depend on structural parameters like normalized plasma filament spacing, filament to filament distance or pitch, normal spatial frequency, and radius of the plasma filament. We found that for typical plasma parameters, the proposed waveguide can support guided modes of microwaves in extremely high frequency even with a cladding consisting of only one ring of plasma filaments. The loss of the microwave radiation is mainly caused by tunneling through the discontinuous finite cladding, i.e., confinement loss, and is weakly dependent on the plasma absorption. In addition, the analysis indicates that the propagation loss is fairly large compared with the loss of a plasma waveguide with a continuous infinite thickness cladding, while they are comparable when using a cladding contains more than one ring. Compared to free space propagation, this waveguide still presents a superior microwave transmission to some distance in the order of the filamentation length; thus, the laser plasma filaments waveguide may be a potential channel for transporting pulsed-modulated microwaves if ensuring a long and stable propagation of fs laser pulses.

  18. Normal myoblast fusion requires myoferlin

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Katherine R.; Cave, Andrew; Davis, Dawn Belt; Delmonte, Anthony J.; Posey, Avery; Earley, Judy U.; Hadhazy, Michele; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Muscle growth occurs during embryonic development and continues in adult life as regeneration. During embryonic muscle growth and regeneration in mature muscle, singly nucleated myoblasts fuse to each other to form myotubes. In muscle growth, singly nucleated myoblasts can also fuse to existing large, syncytial myofibers as a mechanism of increasing muscle mass without increasing myofiber number. Myoblast fusion requires the alignment and fusion of two apposed lipid bilayers. The repair of muscle plasma membrane disruptions also relies on the fusion of two apposed lipid bilayers. The protein dysferlin, the product of the Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy type 2 locus, has been shown to be necessary for efficient, calcium-sensitive, membrane resealing. We now show that the related protein myoferlin is highly expressed in myoblasts undergoing fusion, and is expressed at the site of myoblasts fusing to myotubes. Like dysferlin, we found that myoferlin binds phospholipids in a calcium-sensitive manner that requires the first C2A domain. We generated mice with a null allele of myoferlin. Myoferlin null myoblasts undergo initial fusion events, but they form large myotubes less efficiently in vitro, consistent with a defect in a later stage of myogenesis. In vivo, myoferlin null mice have smaller muscles than controls do, and myoferlin null muscle lacks large diameter myofibers. Additionally, myoferlin null muscle does not regenerate as well as wild-type muscle does, and instead displays a dystrophic phenotype. These data support a role for myoferlin in the maturation of myotubes and the formation of large myotubes that arise from the fusion of myoblasts to multinucleate myotubes. PMID:16280346

  19. Normal myoblast fusion requires myoferlin.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Katherine R; Cave, Andrew; Davis, Dawn Belt; Delmonte, Anthony J; Posey, Avery; Earley, Judy U; Hadhazy, Michele; McNally, Elizabeth M

    2005-12-01

    Muscle growth occurs during embryonic development and continues in adult life as regeneration. During embryonic muscle growth and regeneration in mature muscle, singly nucleated myoblasts fuse to each other to form myotubes. In muscle growth, singly nucleated myoblasts can also fuse to existing large, syncytial myofibers as a mechanism of increasing muscle mass without increasing myofiber number. Myoblast fusion requires the alignment and fusion of two apposed lipid bilayers. The repair of muscle plasma membrane disruptions also relies on the fusion of two apposed lipid bilayers. The protein dysferlin, the product of the Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy type 2 locus, has been shown to be necessary for efficient, calcium-sensitive, membrane resealing. We now show that the related protein myoferlin is highly expressed in myoblasts undergoing fusion, and is expressed at the site of myoblasts fusing to myotubes. Like dysferlin, we found that myoferlin binds phospholipids in a calcium-sensitive manner that requires the first C2A domain. We generated mice with a null allele of myoferlin. Myoferlin null myoblasts undergo initial fusion events, but they form large myotubes less efficiently in vitro, consistent with a defect in a later stage of myogenesis. In vivo, myoferlin null mice have smaller muscles than controls do, and myoferlin null muscle lacks large diameter myofibers. Additionally, myoferlin null muscle does not regenerate as well as wild-type muscle does, and instead displays a dystrophic phenotype. These data support a role for myoferlin in the maturation of myotubes and the formation of large myotubes that arise from the fusion of myoblasts to multinucleate myotubes. PMID:16280346

  20. Normal Healthy Eating and Eating Disorders

    E-print Network

    Wapstra, Erik

    Normal Healthy Eating and Eating Disorders WHAT IS NORMAL HEALTHY EATING? Normal healthy eating an eating disorder. The main eating disorders are Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF AN EATING DISORDER Physical · excessive weight loss · loss of menstrual period in females · sensitivity

  1. Diagnosis and Treatment of Normal Eating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivy, Janet; Herman, C. Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores similarities between normal dieters and individuals with eating disorders. Compares regulation of intake among normal dieter and patient populations, using the boundary model of consumption. Concludes that in neither group is eating technically disordered, though it departs from appropriate physiological norms, and that many normal eaters…

  2. Mechanics of the normal heart.

    PubMed

    Tendulkar, Amod P; Harken, Alden H

    2006-01-01

    Even though studies on isolated papillary muscles and cardiomyocytes can be applied to the mechanics of a beating heart, it is not always easy for physicians to relate these findings to clinical medicine. Thus, it is important to extend the studies to intact heart either in simulations or in animal models and even better to validate the results with human subjects. Advances in engineering and computer technology have allowed us to bridge the gap between physiology and mechanics. Cardiomyocyte stress/strain relates to muscle energy expenditure, which dictates oxygen and substrate utilization. Appreciation of this sequential relationship by clinicians will facilitate the logical development and assessment of therapies. Theory of finite element analysis (FEA) can predict cardiac mechanics under normal and pathologic conditions. Imaging studies provide an avenue to relate these predictions indirectly to experimental studies. In this fashion, we can understand the mechanical basis for the micro- and macroanatomical twisting motion of the beating heart. The purposes of this manuscript are: (1) to examine the terms that are traditionally used to describe mechanical stresses and strain within the ventricle, (2) to explore the three-dimensional organization of cardiomyocytes that influences global ventricular function, (3) to apply mechanical measures to both single cardiomyofibrils and the intact ventricle (4) to evaluate mathematical and computer models used to characterize cardiac mechanics, and (5) to outline the clinical methods available to measure ventricular function and relate findings from FEA to pathologic conditions. PMID:17073971

  3. Post-treated prostate cancer: normal findings and signs of local relapse on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lopes Dias, João; Lucas, Rita; Magalhães Pina, João; João, Raquel; Costa, Nuno Vasco; Leal, Cecília; Bilhim, Tiago; Campos Pinheiro, Luís; Mateus Marques, Rui

    2015-10-01

    The use of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) for prostate cancer has increased over recent years, mainly for detection, staging, and active surveillance. However, suspicion of recurrence in the set of biochemical failure is becoming a significant reason for clinicians to request mp-MRI. Radiologists should be able to recognize the normal post-treatment MRI findings. Fibrosis and atrophic remnant seminal vesicles after prostatectomy are often found and must be differentiated from local relapse. Moreover, brachytherapy, external beam radiotherapy, cryosurgery, and hormonal therapy tend to diffusely decrease the signal intensity of the peripheral zone on T2-weighted images (T2WI) due to the loss of water content, consequently mimicking tumor and hemorrhage. The combination of T2WI and functional studies like diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced improves the identification of local relapse. Tumor recurrence tends to restrict on diffusion images and avidly enhances after contrast administration either within or outside the gland. The authors provide a pictorial review of the normal findings and the signs of local tumor relapse after radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, cryosurgery, and hormonal therapy. PMID:26105522

  4. Plasma and magnetospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, R. H.; Horwitz, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Research and development in plasmas and magnetospheric environments is reported. Topics discussed include: analysis and techniques of software development; data analysis and modeling; spacecraft sheath effects; laboratory plasma flow studies; instrument development.

  5. Polymorphism of human plasma thyroxine binding prealbumin.

    PubMed

    Dwulet, F E; Benson, M D

    1983-07-29

    Amyloid fibrils from an individual with heredofamilial amyloidosis were found to be composed of plasma prealbumin. To study this protein a three step procedure to isolate prealbumin from plasma was developed. It entailed ion exchange chromatography on DEAE Sephadex, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel Blue and gel filtration on AcA-34. Trypsin Digests of prealbumin were separated by reverse phase HPLC and the pattern compared to that from the normal protein. Only one unexpected peptide was found and it represented the substitution of a methionine for a valine at position 30 in the molecule. This substitution accounts for about 1/3 of the isolated molecules and it represents the first point mutation identified in human plasma prealbumin. PMID:6882448

  6. Plasma sheath driven targets

    SciTech Connect

    Brownell, J.H.; Freeman, B.L.

    1980-02-01

    Plasma focus driven target implosions are simulated using hydrodynamic-burn codes. Support is given to the idea that the use of a target in a plasma focus should allow ''impedance matching'' between the fuel and gun, permitting larger fusion yields from a focus-target geometry than the scaling laws for a conventional plasma focus would predict.

  7. PRINCETON PLASMA PHYSICS LABORATORY

    E-print Network

    Budny, Robert

    Magnetic Shear M.G. Bell Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Princeton, N.J., U.S.A. with contributions, G.L. Schmidt, E.J. Synakowski, M.C. Zarnstorff #12;PRINCETON PLASMA PHYSICS LABORATORY PPPL Topics enhanced confinement modes · Stability issues · Possibilities for exploitation #12;PRINCETON PLASMA PHYSICS

  8. Strongly Coupled Plasma Liquids

    E-print Network

    Z. Donko; P. Hartmann; G. J. Kalman

    2007-10-27

    This paper intends to review some of the prominent properties of strongly coupled classical plasmas having in mind the possible link with the quark-gluon plasma created in heavy-ion collisions. Thermodynamic and transport properties of classical liquid-state one-component plasmas are described and features of collective excitations are presented.

  9. Plasma insulin disturbances in primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hakjoong; Kalkhoff, Ronald K.; Costrini, Nicholas V.; Cerletty, James M.; Jacobson, Mitchell

    1971-01-01

    Plasma insulin dynamics were evaluated in 10 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism before and after parathyroidectomy and correction of hypercalcemia. Before surgery fasting plasma insulin concentrations and insulin responses to administered glucose, tolbutamide, and glucagon were significantly greater than postoperative values. Hyperinsulinemia was not associated with altered glucose curves during glucose or glucagon tolerance tests, but a relatively greater insulin response to tolbutamide resulted in an increased hypoglycemic effect following its administration. The glucose-lowering action of intravenous insulin was slightly impaired before treatment. Intramuscular injections of parathormone to six normal men for 8 days induced mild hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia and reproduced augmented plasma insulin responses to oral glucose and intravenous tolbutamide. 4-hr intravenous infusions of calcium to another group of six normal men raised serum calcium concentrations above 11 mg/100 ml. This did not alter glucose or insulin curves during oral glucose tolerance but markedly accentuated insulin responses to tolbutamide and potentiated its hypoglycemic effect. When highly purified parathormone was incubated with isolated pancreatic islets of male rats, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was unaffected. These findings suggest that chronic hypercalcemia of hyperparathyroidism sustains a form of endogenous insulin resistance that necessitates augmented insulin secretion to maintain plasma glucose homeostasis. This state is insufficient to oppose tolbutamide-induced hypoglycemia because of an additional direct, selective enhancement of hypercalcemia on pancreatic beta cell responsiveness to the sulfonylurea. The possible direct role of parathormone in these events has not been established. PMID:5129311

  10. Relationship of blood rheology to lipoprotein profile during normal pregnancies and those with intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, A; Uberos, J; Molina, A; Valenzuela, A; Cano, D; Ruiz, C; Molina Font, J A

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--The effects on fetal growth of hyperlipidaemia in pregnancy are not well understood at present. In this study the different lipid fractions in normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) were determined and related to changes in plasma and serum viscosity. METHODS--Two groups of pregnant women were studied. Group 1 consisted of 35 healthy pregnant women aged between 21 and 38 years with no previous pathology and a normal pregnancy to term. Group 1 patients were studied at four periods defined at the start of the study: (1) < or = 17 weeks; (2) 18-24 weeks; (3) 25-32 weeks, (4) > or = 33 weeks. Group 2 consisted of 24 pregnant women aged between 16 and 34 years with ultrasound diagnosed IUGR confirmed after birth. Plasma lipids and plasma and serum viscosity were measured. RESULTS--Plasma triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol increased progressively throughout pregnancy, with significantly higher values after week 25. Apolipoprotein A (ApoA) and triglyceride concentrations were significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the normal group. The HDL/ApoA ratio was greater in the IUGR group than in the control group, as was the ApoB/ApoA ratio. There were no differences in the other lipids. Plasma and serum viscosity was higher in the IUGR group than in the normal group. CONCLUSIONS--Haemorheological modifications in the IUGR group are partly secondary to changes in high density lipoprotein metabolism and the competitive inhibition of fibrinolysis by ApoB, which is increased in pregnancies with IUGR. Changes in ApoA, and more specifically in the ApoB/ApoA ratio, could be good markers for the early detection of IUGR. PMID:7665704

  11. Function of von Willebrand factor after crossed bone marrow transplantation between normal and von Willebrand disease pigs: effect on arterial thrombosis in chimeras.

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, T C; Samama, C M; Bellinger, D A; Roussi, J; Reddick, R L; Bonneau, M; Read, M S; Bailliart, O; Koch, G G; Vaiman, M

    1995-01-01

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) is essential for the induction of occlusive thrombosis in stenosed and injured pig arteries and for normal hemostasis. To separate the relative contribution of plasma and platelet vWF to arterial thrombosis, we produced chimeric normal and von Willebrand disease pigs by crossed bone marrow transplantation; von Willebrand disease (vWD) pigs were engrafted with normal pig bone marrow and normal pigs were engrafted with vWD bone marrow. Thrombosis developed in the chimeric normal pigs that showed normal levels of plasma vWF and an absence of platelet vWF; but no thrombosis occurred in the chimeric vWD pigs that demonstrated normal platelet vWF and an absence of plasma vWF. The ear bleeding times of the chimeric pigs were partially corrected by endogenous plasma vWF but not by platelet vWF. Our animal model demonstrated that vWF in the plasma compartment is essential for the development of arterial thrombosis and that it also contributes to the maintenance of bleeding time and hemostasis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7708664

  12. Zero gravity and cardiovascular homeostasis. The relationship between endogenous hyperprolactinemia and plasma aldosterone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, E.; Re, R. N.; Kourides, I. A.; Weihl, A. C.; Maloof, F.

    1978-01-01

    Prolactin, thyrotropin and aldosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay and plasma renin activity by the radioimmunoassay of angiotensin I in normal women before and after the intravenous injection of 200 micrograms of thyrotropin releasing hormone. Prolactin increased at 15 minutes following thyrotropin releasing hormone. Plasma renin activity was not different from control levels during the first hour following the administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone, nor did the plasma aldosterone concentration differ significantly from the control levels during this period. However, with upright posture, an increase in aldosterone and in plasma renin activity was noted, demonstrating a normal capacity to secrete aldosterone. Similarly, no change in aldosterone was seen in 9 patients with primary hypothyroidism given thyrotropin releasing hormone, despite the fact that the increase in prolactin was greater than normal. These data demonstrate that acutely or chronically elevated serum prolactin levels do not result in increased plasma aldosterone levels in humans.

  13. Normal and anti-normal ordered expressions for annihilation and creation operators

    E-print Network

    J. M. Vargas-Martínez; H. Moya-Cessa

    2013-04-01

    We give the normal and anti-normal order expressions of the number operator to the power $k$ by using the commutation relation between the annihilation and creation operators. We use those expressions to give general formulae for functions of the number operator in normal and anti-normal order.

  14. Afterglow Complex Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Samarian, A. A.; Boufendi, L.; Mikikian, M.

    2008-09-07

    The review of the first detailed experimental and theoretical studies of complex plasma in RF discharge afterglow is presented. The studies have been done in a frame of FAST collaborative research project between Complex Plasma Laboratory of the University of Sydney and the GREMI laboratory of Universite d'Orleans. We examined the existing models of plasma decay, presents experimental observations of dust dynamics under different afterglow complex plasma conditions, presents the experimental data obtained (in particular the presence of positively charged particles in discharge afterglow), discusses the use of dust particles as a probe to study the diffusion losses in afterglow plasmas.

  15. Electron density separations in nonideal plasmas: Structure of Thomas-Fermi-like bound states and the Mott transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, H.

    2000-05-01

    Starting from a general free energy functional, the chemical picture for nonideal plasmas arises from a certain separation of the electron density. Defining a bound state and its electrostatically screening plasma environment as a subsystem, a simple theory for plasma-correspondent bound state structure can be formulated. This provides the possibility to derive adjustable parameters for the interactions in the chemical picture. The Mott transition corresponds to the violation of the normalization condition due to plasma influences.

  16. KSTAR Equilibrium Operating Space and Projected Stabilization at High Normalized Beta

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y. S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Berkery, J.W.; Bialek, J.; Jeon, Y. M.; Hahn, S. H.; Eidietis, N. W.; Evans, T. E.; Yoon, S. W.; Ahn, Joonwook; Kim, J.; Yang, H. L.; You, K. I.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Bae, Y. S.; Chung, J. I.; Kwon, M.; Oh, Y. K.; Kim, W. C.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, S. G.; Park, H.; Reimerdes, H.; Leuer, J. A.; Walker, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Along with an expanded evaluation of the equilibrium operating space of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research, KSTAR, experimental equilibria of the most recent plasma discharges were reconstructed using the EFIT code. In near-circular plasmas created in 2009, equilibria reached a stored energy of 54 kJ with a maximum plasma current of 0.34 MA. Highly shaped plasmas with near double-null configuration in 2010 achieved H-mode with clear edge localized mode (ELM) activity, and transiently reached a stored energy of up to 257 kJ, elongation of 1.96 and normalized beta of 1.3. The plasma current reached 0.7 MA. Projecting active and passive stabilization of global MHD instabilities for operation above the ideal no-wall beta limit using the designed control hardware was also considered. Kinetic modification of the ideal MHD n = 1 stability criterion was computed by the MISK code on KSTAR theoretical equilibria with a plasma current of 2 MA, internal inductance of 0.7 and normalized beta of 4.0 with simple density, temperature and rotation profiles. The steep edge pressure gradient of this equilibrium resulted in the need for significant plasma toroidal rotation to allow thermal particle kinetic resonances to stabilize the resistive wall mode (RWM). The impact of various materials and electrical connections of the passive stabilizing plates on RWM growth rates was analysed, and copper plates reduced the RWM passive growth rate by a factor of 15 compared with stainless steel plates at a normalized beta of 4.4. Computations of active RWM control using the VALEN code showed that the n = 1 mode can be stabilized at normalized beta near the ideal wall limit via control fields produced by the midplane in-vessel control coils (IVCCs) with as low as 0.83kW control power using ideal control system assumptions. The ELM mitigation potential of the IVCC, examined by evaluating the vacuum island overlap created by resonant magnetic perturbations, was analysed using the TRIP3D code. Using a combination of all IVCCs with dominant n = 2 field and upper/lower coils in an even parity configuration, a Chirikov parameter near unity at normalized poloidal flux 0.83, an empirically determined condition for ELM mitigation in DIII-D, was generated in theoretical high-beta equilibria. Chirikov profile optimization was addressed in terms of coil parity and safety factor profile.

  17. Industrial Plasma Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeff, Igor

    2007-11-01

    This presentation summarizes an extensive program on plasma antennas. Plasma antennas are just as effective as metal antennas. In addition, they can transmit, receive and reflect lower frequency signals while being transparent to higher frequency signals. When de-energized, they electrically disappear. Plasma noise does not appear to be a problem. New technology that has been developed include a method of operating at high plasma density at minimal power consumption, a novel technique of noise reduction, and a method of opening a plasma window in a plasma microwave barrier on a time scale of microseconds rather than the usual time scale of milliseconds due to plasma decay. We are at present testing an intelligent plasma antenna in which a plasma ``window'' in a circular plasma barrier surrounding an antenna rotates azimuthally, seeking a radio transmitter. When located, a computer locks onto the transmitter. When the transmitter is de-energized, the plasma window recommences scanning. Commercial interest is strong, with invited papers being presented for 4 years in succession at the SMi Stealth Conference in London, UK, an operating model on permanent exhibition at the Booze-Allen headquarters in Alexandria, VA, and strong interest from Lockheed-Martin. In collaboration with Ted Anderson, Haleakala R&D Corp.; Esmaeil Farshi, Fred Dyer, Jeffrey Peck, Eric Pradeep, Nanditha Pulasani, and Naresh Karnam, University of Tennessee.

  18. Generation Of High Energy Ion Beams from a Plasma Focus Modified for Low Pressure Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chiow San; Choi, Peter; Leong, Wee Seong; Singh, Jasbir

    2002-06-01

    This paper reports on the modification of a small plasma focus device (UNU/ICTP PFF) to operate at low pressure for enhanced ion beam generation. For the present operation, the electrode geometry of the plasma focus device is modified to redirect the plasma motion at the end of the axial rundown phase so that normal plasma focus action will not occur. The redirection of the plasma leads to a rapid increase in the plasma resistivity and hence a high localized electric field will be established and as a result, high energy ion beam will be generated. With air as the working gas, pressure as low as 10-3 mbar has been tested. At such a low pressure, breakdown of the discharge must be initiated with the use of a set of twelve plasma injection cable guns. The modified plasma focus has been shown to be able to produce high energy ion beams of nitrogen, argon and hydrogen consistently.

  19. Plasma -Sheath Interface Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Natalia; Slemrod, Marshall

    1999-10-01

    For a collisional bounded plasma problem, it is necessary to model the plasma and sheath separately because of the different scales in each region. We specify the plasma boundary by Godyak's criterion and sheath boundary by Bohm's criterion. We connect the plasma and sheath by a viscous interfacial region where the electric field is approximately constant. The approach enables us to develop and solve universal models for each of the three regions, and combine the solutions continously to approximate the solution to the bounded plasma problem. Comparison of combined solutions with corresponding solution to the bounded plasma problem yields relative error at wall for ion density of 9velocity 10within experimental range. When the interface is neglected and the plasma and sheath are combined, the relative errors are ion density 40Although the interface region is very small it greatly improves the result.

  20. Arc Plasma Torch Modeling

    E-print Network

    Trelles, J P; Vardelle, A; Heberlein, J V R

    2013-01-01

    Arc plasma torches are the primary components of various industrial thermal plasma processes involving plasma spraying, metal cutting and welding, thermal plasma CVD, metal melting and remelting, waste treatment and gas production. They are relatively simple devices whose operation implies intricate thermal, chemical, electrical, and fluid dynamics phenomena. Modeling may be used as a means to better understand the physical processes involved in their operation. This paper presents an overview of the main aspects involved in the modeling of DC arc plasma torches: the mathematical models including thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium models, turbulent and radiative transport, thermodynamic and transport property calculation, boundary conditions and arc reattachment models. It focuses on the conventional plasma torches used for plasma spraying that include a hot-cathode and a nozzle anode.

  1. Plasma contactor research, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, John D.

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of double layers observed by researchers investigating magnetospheric phenomena are contrasted to those observed in plasma contacting experiments. Experiments in the electron collection mode of the plasma contacting process were performed and the results confirm a simple model of this process for current levels ranging to 3 A. Experimental results were also obtained in a study of the process of electron emission from a hollow cathode plasma contactor. High energy ions are observed coming from the cathode in addition to the electrons and a phenomenological model that suggests a mechanism by which this could occur is presented. Experimental results showing the effects of the design parameters of the ambient plasma simulator on the plasma potential, electron temperature, electron density and plasma noise levels induced in plasma contacting experiments are presented. A preferred simulator design is selected on the basis of these results.

  2. REVIEW ARTICLE: Control of non-axisymmetric toroidal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2010-10-01

    The control of non-axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, stellarators, has a different character than the control of tokamaks for two reasons. Non-axisymmetric magnetic fields (1) can provide an arbitrarily large fraction of the poloidal magnetic field and (2) can strongly center the plasma in the chamber making it impossible to lose position control. The focus of stellarator design is on plasmas that are stable without feedback, need little or no change in the external magnetic field as the plasma evolves, and require no external power to maintain the desired magnetic configuration. The physics of non-axisymmetric fields is the same whether in a tokamak or a stellarator and whether introduced intentionally or accidentally. Fundamental physics indicates that plasma shape, which is controlled by the distribution of the external magnetic field that is normal to the plasma surface, is the primary control for fusion plasmas. The importance of non-axisymmetric control is set by the importance of toroidal plasma physics. Informed decisions on the development strategy of tokamaks, as well as magnetic fusion in general, require an understanding of the capabilities and difficulties of plasma control at various levels of non-axisymmetric shaping.

  3. Plasmas for medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.; Masur, K.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2013-09-01

    Plasma medicine is an innovative and emerging field combining plasma physics, life science and clinical medicine. In a more general perspective, medical application of physical plasma can be subdivided into two principal approaches. (i) “Indirect” use of plasma-based or plasma-supplemented techniques to treat surfaces, materials or devices to realize specific qualities for subsequent special medical applications, and (ii) application of physical plasma on or in the human (or animal) body to realize therapeutic effects based on direct interaction of plasma with living tissue. The field of plasma applications for the treatment of medical materials or devices is intensively researched and partially well established for several years. However, plasma medicine in the sense of its actual definition as a new field of research focuses on the use of plasma technology in the treatment of living cells, tissues, and organs. Therefore, the aim of the new research field of plasma medicine is the exploitation of a much more differentiated interaction of specific plasma components with specific structural as well as functional elements or functionalities of living cells. This interaction can possibly lead either to stimulation or inhibition of cellular function and be finally used for therapeutic purposes. During recent years a broad spectrum of different plasma sources with various names dedicated for biomedical applications has been reported. So far, research activities were mainly focused on barrier discharges and plasma jets working at atmospheric pressure. Most efforts to realize plasma application directly on or in the human (or animal) body for medical purposes is concentrated on the broad field of dermatology including wound healing, but also includes cancer treatment, endoscopy, or dentistry. Despite the fact that the field of plasma medicine is very young and until now mostly in an empirical stage of development yet, there are first indicators of its enormous economic potential. This ambivalent situation fundamentally requires a responsible use of plasma sources, which are specifically designated for biomedical applications. To enable physicians as well as life scientists to decide whether a given plasma source is really suitable for medical applications or biological experiments, a meaningful and mandatory spectrum of indicators has to be compiled to allow for a basic estimation of the potential of this plasma source.

  4. In situ measurement of gas composition changes in radio frequency plasmas using a quartz sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Nonaka, Hidehiko

    2009-09-15

    A simple method using a quartz sensor (Q-sensor) was developed to observe gas composition changes in radio frequency (rf) plasmas. The output depends on the gases' absolute pressure, molecular weight, and viscosity. The pressure-normalized quartz sensor output depends only on the molecular weight and viscosity of the gas. Consequently, gas composition changes can be detected in the plasmas if a sensor can be used in the plasmas. Influences imparted by the plasmas on the sensor, such as those by reactive particles (e.g., radicals and ions), excited species, electrons, temperature, and electric potentials during measurements were investigated to test the applicability of this quartz sensor measurement to plasma. The Q-sensor measurement results for rf plasmas with argon, hydrogen, and their mixtures are reproducible, demonstrating that the Q-sensor measurement is applicable for plasmas. In this work, pressure- and temperature-normalized Q-sensor output (NQO) were used to obtain the gas composition information of plasma. Temperature-normalization of the Q-sensor output enabled quartz sensor measurements near plasma electrodes, where the quartz sensor temperature increases. The changes in NQO agreed with results obtained by gas analysis using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Results confirmed that the change in NQO is mainly attributable to changes in the densities and kinds of gas molecules in the plasma gas phase, not by other extrinsic influences of plasma. For argon, hydrogen, and argon-hydrogen plasmas, these changes correspond to reduction in nitrogen, production of carbon monoxide, and dissociation of hydrogen molecules, respectively. These changes in NQO qualitatively and somewhat quantitatively agreed with results obtained using gas analysis, indicting that the measurement has a potential application to obtain the gas composition in plasmas without disturbing industrial plasma processes.

  5. Effects of water immersion on renal hemodynamics in normal man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Levinson, R.; Loutzenhiser, R.

    1976-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to delineate the effects of water immersion to the neck (NI) on renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate as assessed by the clearance of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) and inulin, respectively. Nine normal male subjects were studied on two occasions, control and NI. The conditions of seated posture and time of day were identical. Immersion did not alter either clearance at a time when sodium excretion was increasing markedly. The constancy of PAH clearance during NI suggests that renal blood flow is unaltered and that the natriuresis of NI is mediated independently of alterations in overall renal perfusion. The sluggish decline of a natriuresis during recovery is consistent with the presence of a humoral factor contributing to the encountered natriuresis.

  6. Scaling laws for electromagnetic pulsed plasma thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemer, J. K.; Choueiri, E. Y.

    2001-08-01

    The scaling laws of pulsed plasma thrusters operating in the predominantly electromagnetic acceleration mode (EM-PPT) are investigated theoretically and experimentally using gas-fed pulsed plasma thrusters. A fundamental characteristic velocity that depends on the inductance per unit length and the square root of the capacitance to the initial inductance ratio is identified. An analytical model of the discharge current predicts scaling laws in which the propulsive efficiency is proportional to the EM-PPT performance scaling number, defined here as the ratio of the exhaust velocity to the EM-PPT characteristic velocity. The importance of the effective plasma resistance in improving the propulsive performance is shown. To test the validity of the predicted scaling relations, the performance of two gas-fed pulsed plasma thruster designs (one with coaxial electrodes and the other with parallel-plate electrodes), was measured under 70 different operating conditions using an argon plasma. The measurements demonstrate that the impulse bit scales linearly with the integral of the square of the discharge current as expected for an electromagnetic accelerator. The measured performance scaling is shown to be in good agreement with the theoretically predicted scaling. Normalizing the exhaust velocity and the impulse-to-energy ratio by the EM-PPT characteristic velocity collapses almost all the measured data onto single curves that uphold the general validity of these scaling laws. [12pt]This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr Daniel Birx

  7. Conformal Universality in Normal Matrix Ensembles

    E-print Network

    Alexei M. Veneziani; Tiago Pereira; Domingos H. U. Marchetti

    2009-09-18

    A remarkable property of Hermitian ensembles is their universal behavior, that is, once properly rescaled the eigenvalue statistics does not depend on particularities of the ensemble. Recently, normal matrix ensembles have attracted increasing attention, however, questions on universality for these ensembles still remain under debate. We analyze the universality properties of random normal ensembles. We show that the concept of universality used for Hermitian ensembles cannot be directly extrapolated to normal ensembles. Moreover, we show that the eigenvalue statistics of random normal matrices with radially symmetric potential can be made universal under a conformal transformation.

  8. Boundary Plasma Issues in Burning Plasma Science

    E-print Network

    Pitcher, C. S.

    magnetic fusion configuration: 1. wide dispersal of power 2. high divertor gas pressures 3. eliminate plasma/neutral densities · criterion for high recycling and cold divertor, Tt ~ 5 eV (a prerequisite (Tt carbon

  9. Increased Plasma Arginine Vasopressin in Clinical Adrenocortical Insufficiency and Its Inhibition By Glucosteroids*

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Abdul B. J.; George, Barbara C.; Gonzalez-Auvert, Carlos; Dingman, Joseph F.

    1967-01-01

    Trichloroacetic acid extracts of plasma were fractionated on a CG-50 resin column and the 50% acetic acid eluents chromatographed on silicic acid-impregnated glass paper in butanol-acetic acid-water. The specific arginine vasopressin (AVP) zone was eluted and assayed for antidiuretic activity in the diuretic rat. Thioglycolate inactivation was used to confirm AVP activity. Recovery of as little as 4 ?U AVP per ml plasma ranged between 80 and 90%. In normal subjects after an overnight fast, plasma AVP ranged between 2.5 and 10.0 ?U per ml. AVP secretion was inhibited by hemodilution and stimulated with nicotine and hypertonic saline. Plasma AVP was absent in patients with diabetes insipidus even after neurohypophyseal stimulation. Plasma AVP was abnormally elevated during mild dehydration and remained above the normal range despite hemodilution in patients with untreated adrenocortical insufficiency demonstrating a delayed water diuresis. Glucosteroid therapy lowered plasma AVP to normal in dehydrated patients. A normal diuretic response to hydration was accompanied by a fall in plasma AVP to zero in steroid-treated patients. These findings suggest that hypersecretion of AVP may play an important role in the abnormal water metabolism of adrenocortical insufficiency and that the glucosteroids promote normal water diuresis by inhibiting the secretion of AVP from the neurohypophysis. PMID:6018744

  10. Vascular and Cellular Calcium in Normal and Hypertensive Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Adamova, Zuzana; Ozkan, Sifa; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    Normal pregnancy is associated with significant hemodynamic changes in the cardiovascular system in order to meet the metabolic demands of mother and fetus. These changes include increased cardiac output, decreased vascular resistance, and vascular remodeling in the uterine and systemic circulation. Preeclampsia (PE) is a major complication of pregnancy characterized by proteinuria and hypertension. Several risk factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PE including genetic and dietary factors. Ca2+ is an essential dietary element and an important regulator of many cellular processes including vascular function. The importance of adequate dietary Ca2+ intake during pregnancy is supported by many studies. Pregnancy-associated changes in Ca2+ metabolism and plasma Ca2+ have been observed. During pregnancy, changes in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) have been described in red blood cells, platelets and immune cells. Also, during pregnancy, an increase in [Ca2+]i in endothelial cells (EC) stimulates the production of vasodilator substances such as nitric oxide and prostacyclin. Normal pregnancy is also associated with decreased vascular smooth muscle (VSM) [Ca2+]i and possibly the Ca2+-sensitization pathways of VSM contraction including protein kinase C, Rho-kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Ca2+-dependent matrix metalloproteinases could also promote extracellular matrix degradation and vascular remodeling during pregnancy. Disruption in the balance between dietary, plasma and vascular cell Ca2+ may be responsible for some of the manifestation of PE including procoagulation, decreased vasodilation, and increased vasoconstriction and vascular resistance. The potential benefits of Ca2+ supplements during pregnancy, and the use of modulators of vascular Ca2+ to reduce the manifestations of PE in susceptible women remain an important area for experimental and clinical research. PMID:19500073

  11. Vascular and cellular calcium in normal and hypertensive pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Adamova, Zuzana; Ozkan, Sifa; Khalil, Raouf A

    2009-09-01

    Normal pregnancy is associated with significant hemodynamic changes in the cardiovascular system in order to meet the metabolic demands of mother and fetus. These changes include increased cardiac output, decreased vascular resistance, and vascular remodeling in the uterine and systemic circulation. Preeclampsia (PE) is a major complication of pregnancy characterized by proteinuria and hypertension. Several risk factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PE including genetic and dietary factors. Ca2+ is an essential dietary element and an important regulator of many cellular processes including vascular function. The importance of adequate dietary Ca2+ intake during pregnancy is supported by many studies. Pregnancy-associated changes in Ca2+ metabolism and plasma Ca2+ have been observed. During pregnancy, changes in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+](i)) have been described in red blood cells, platelets and immune cells. Also, during pregnancy, an increase in [Ca2+](i) in endothelial cells (EC) stimulates the production of vasodilator substances such as nitric oxide and prostacyclin. Normal pregnancy is also associated with decreased vascular smooth muscle (VSM) [Ca2+](i) and possibly the Ca2+-sensitization pathways of VSM contraction including protein kinase C, Rho-kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Ca2+-dependent matrix metalloproteinases could also promote extracellular matrix degradation and vascular remodeling during pregnancy. Disruption in the balance between dietary, plasma and vascular cell Ca2+ may be responsible for some of the manifestation of PE including procoagulation, decreased vasodilation, and increased vasoconstriction and vascular resistance. The potential benefits of Ca2+ supplements during pregnancy, and the use of modulators of vascular Ca2+ to reduce the manifestations of PE in susceptible women remain an important area for experimental and clinical research. PMID:19500073

  12. Plasma Biomedicine in Orthopedics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaguchi, Satsohi

    2012-10-01

    Various effects of plasmas irradiation on cells, tissues, and biomaterials relevant for orthopedic applications have been examined. For direct application of plasmas to living cells or tissues, dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) with helium flows into ambient air were used. For biomaterial processing, on the other hand, either helium DBDs mentioned above or low-pressure discharges generated in a chamber were used. In this presentation, plasma effects on cell proliferation and plasma treatment for artificial bones will be discussed. First, the conditions for enhanced cell proliferation in vitro by plasma applications have been examined. The discharge conditions for cell proliferation depend sensitively on cell types. Since cell proliferation can be enhanced even when the cells are cultured in a plasma pre-treated medium, long-life reactive species generated in the medium by plasma application or large molecules (such as proteins) in the medium modified by the plasma are likely to be the cause of cell proliferation. It has been found that there is strong correlation between (organic) hydroperoxide generation and cell proliferation. Second, effects of plasma-treated artificial bones made of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) have been examined in vitro and vivo. It has been found that plasma treatment increases hydrophilicity of the surfaces of microscopic inner pores, which directly or indirectly promotes differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells introduced into the pores and therefore causes faster bone growth. The work has been performed in collaboration with Prof. H. Yoshikawa and his group members at the School of Medicine, Osaka University.

  13. Brief Report: Plasma Beta-Endorphin and Cortisol Levels in Autistic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Curt A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of plasma levels of beta-endorphin (BE) found that levels in 8 adult autistic patients were lower than levels in 17 healthy controls, for both morning and evening measurements. Plasma BE concentrations were also significantly lower for 13 developmentally disabled patients than levels for normal controls. (JDD)

  14. Neural network tool for rapid recovery of plasma topology V. Tribaldos and B. Ph. van Milligen

    E-print Network

    van Milligen, Boudewijn

    Neural network tool for rapid recovery of plasma topology V. Tribaldos and B. Ph. van Milligen for the rapid recovery of plasma topology based on a neural network fit of the normalized magnetic flux is presented. We propose a general method for coordinate inversions that is based on a neural network fit

  15. The behavior of the electron plasma boundary in ultraintense laser–highly overdense plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez-Arriaga, G.; Sanz, J.; Debayle, A.; Lehmann, G.

    2014-12-15

    The structural stability of the laser/plasma interaction is discussed, for the case of a linearly polarized laser beam interacting with a solid at normal incidence. Using a semi-analytical cold fluid model, the dynamics of the electron plasma boundary (EPB), usually related to the high-order harmonic generation and laser absorption, are presented. While the well-known J?×?B plasma oscillations at two times the laser frequency are recovered by the model, several other periodic in time stable solutions exist for exactly the same value of the physical parameters. This novel behavior highlights the importance of the laser pulse history among other factors. Some important features, such as the synchronization between the incident laser and the EPB oscillation, depend on the solution under consideration. A description of the possible types of stable oscillations in a parametric plane involving plasma density and laser amplitude is presented. The semi-analytical model is compared with particle-in-cell and semi-Lagrangian Vlasov simulations. They show that, among all the stable solutions, the plasma preferentially evolves to a state with the EPB oscillating twice faster than the laser. The effect of the plasma temperature and the existence of a ramp in the ion density profile are also discussed.

  16. Degenerate mixing of plasma waves on cold, magnetized single-species plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. W.; O'Neil, T. M.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Gould, R. W.

    2011-10-01

    In the cold-fluid dispersion relation ? =?p/[1+(k?/kz)2]1/2 for Trivelpiece-Gould waves on an infinitely long magnetized plasma cylinder, the transverse and axial wavenumbers appear only in the combination k?/kz. As a result, for any frequency ? plasma column, these degenerate waves reflect into one another at the ends; thus, each standing-wave normal mode of the bounded plasma is a mixture of many degenerate waves, not a single standing wave as is often assumed. A striking feature of the many-wave modes is that the short-wavelength waves often add constructively along resonance cones given by dz /dr=±(?p2/?2-1)1/2. Also, the presence of short wavelengths in the admixture for a predominantly long-wavelength mode enhances the viscous damping beyond what the single-wave approximation would predict. Here, numerical solutions are obtained for modes of a cylindrical plasma column with rounded ends. Exploiting the fact that the modes of a spheroidal plasma are known analytically (the Dubin modes), a perturbation analysis is used to investigate the mixing of low-order, nearly degenerate Dubin modes caused by small deformations of a plasma spheroid.

  17. The behavior of the electron plasma boundary in ultraintense laser-highly overdense plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Arriaga, G.; Sanz, J.; Debayle, A.; Lehmann, G.

    2014-12-01

    The structural stability of the laser/plasma interaction is discussed, for the case of a linearly polarized laser beam interacting with a solid at normal incidence. Using a semi-analytical cold fluid model, the dynamics of the electron plasma boundary (EPB), usually related to the high-order harmonic generation and laser absorption, are presented. While the well-known J × B plasma oscillations at two times the laser frequency are recovered by the model, several other periodic in time stable solutions exist for exactly the same value of the physical parameters. This novel behavior highlights the importance of the laser pulse history among other factors. Some important features, such as the synchronization between the incident laser and the EPB oscillation, depend on the solution under consideration. A description of the possible types of stable oscillations in a parametric plane involving plasma density and laser amplitude is presented. The semi-analytical model is compared with particle-in-cell and semi-Lagrangian Vlasov simulations. They show that, among all the stable solutions, the plasma preferentially evolves to a state with the EPB oscillating twice faster than the laser. The effect of the plasma temperature and the existence of a ramp in the ion density profile are also discussed.

  18. Power dependence of NF3 plasma stability for in situ chamber cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Bing; Elder, Delwin L.; Yang, James H.; Badowski, Peter R.; Karwacki, Eugene J.

    2004-04-01

    We investigated the stability of NF3 plasmas for in situ chamber cleaning in a production plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor. An rf power threshold, normalized by NF3 molar number (Pnn) and NF3 flow rate (Pnf), is observed to be PnnPnf=39 (W/? mol)(W/sccm) for stable plasmas with high NF3 destruction efficiency. This is rationalized by the energy required to maintain sufficient electron-ion pair creation in an electronegative discharge.

  19. Laser driven terahertz generation in hot plasma with step density profile

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Manoj Jeong, Young Uk; Tripathi, Vipin Kumar

    2015-06-15

    An analytical formalism of terahertz (THz) radiation generation by beating of two lasers in a hot plasma with step density profile is developed. The lasers propagate obliquely to plasma surface normal, and the nonlinearity arises through the ponderomotive force. The THz is emitted in the specular reflection direction, and the yield is enhanced due to coupling with the Langmuir wave when the plasma frequency is close to THz frequency. The power conversion efficiency maximizes at an optimum angle of incidence.

  20. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F.; Peng, R. D.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Ye, M. F.; Wang, L.

    2012-09-15

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  1. Target normal sheath acceleration analytical modeling, comparative study and developments

    SciTech Connect

    Perego, C.; Batani, D.; Zani, A.; Passoni, M.

    2012-02-15

    Ultra-intense laser interaction with solid targets appears to be an extremely promising technique to accelerate ions up to several MeV, producing beams that exhibit interesting properties for many foreseen applications. Nowadays, most of all the published experimental results can be theoretically explained in the framework of the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) mechanism proposed by Wilks et al. [Phys. Plasmas 8(2), 542 (2001)]. As an alternative to numerical simulation various analytical or semi-analytical TNSA models have been published in the latest years, each of them trying to provide predictions for some of the ion beam features, given the initial laser and target parameters. However, the problem of developing a reliable model for the TNSA process is still open, which is why the purpose of this work is to enlighten the present situation of TNSA modeling and experimental results, by means of a quantitative comparison between measurements and theoretical predictions of the maximum ion energy. Moreover, in the light of such an analysis, some indications for the future development of the model proposed by Passoni and Lontano [Phys. Plasmas 13(4), 042102 (2006)] are then presented.

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Magnetohydrodynamics of Plasma Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, J. W.

    1998-06-01

    This monograph on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) relaxation in plasmas by Ortolani and Schnack occupies a fascinating niche in the plasma physics literature. It is rare in the complex and often technically sophisticated subject of plasma physics to be able to isolate a topic and deal with it comprehensively in a mere 180 pages. Furthermore, it brings a refreshingly original and personal approach to the treatment of plasma relaxation, synthesizing the experiences of the two authors to produce a very readable account of phenomena appearing in such diverse situations as laboratory reversed field pinches (RFPs) and the solar corona. Its novelty lies in that, while it does acknowledge the seminal Taylor theory of relaxation as a general guide, it emphasizes the role of large scale numerical MHD simulations in developing a picture for the relaxation phenomena observed in experiment and nature. Nevertheless, the volume has some minor shortcomings: a tendency to repetitiveness and some omissions that prevent it being entirely self-contained. The monograph is divided into nine chapters, with the first a readable, `chatty', introduction to the physics and phenomena of relaxation discussed in the later chapters. Chapter 2 develops the tools for describing relaxation processes, namely the resistive MHD model, leading to a discussion of resistive instabilities and the stability properties of RFPs. This chapter demonstrates the authors' confessed desire to avoid mathematical detail with a rather simplified discussion of ?' and magnetic islands; it also sets the stage for their own belief, or thesis, that numerical simulation of the non-linear consequences of the MHD model is the best approach to explaining the physics of relaxation. Nevertheless, in Chapter 3 they provide a reasonably good account and critique of one analytic approach that is available, and which is the commonly accepted picture for relaxation in pinches - the Taylor relaxation theory based on the conservation of global magnetic helicity. Some of the shortcomings of the Taylor theory in explaining details of real pinch experiments are used by the authors as a justification for a more phenomenological approach, described in detail in Chapter 4. They construct a `phenomenological model' that utilizes experimental information and linear stability properties; this is described authoritatively, since the authors have been very much involved in this work. The experimental evidence showing the presence of large scale instabilities in RFPs is used to provide support for the main thrust of the monograph, described in Chapter 5, namely that numerical computations of the non-linear evolution of MHD modes is the key to understanding the dynamical processes occurring in relaxation. These MHD processes give rise to a dynamo effect, analogous to that generating magnetic fields in the earth or stars, which overcomes the natural consequences of Spitzer resistivity and produces a reversed toroidal field. Chapter 5 begins with a general discussion of dynamo models and then moves on to the pioneering work of Sykes and Wesson on numerical simulation of relaxation, before launching into an authoritative account of more detailed and advanced simulations in which the authors themselves have played a major part. These calculations capture the basic features of relaxation in pinches and provide a demonstration of Taylor's theory. Chapters 6 and 7 describe some applications to RFPs of relaxation theory: the anomalous loop voltage, improving their performance by helicity injection, as well as sawteeth and thermal transport. The penultimate Chapter 8 proposes applications of this computational approach to relaxation, developed initially for laboratory pinches, to the solar corona. This is a stimulating discussion, drawing analogues between the two very different situations, ideal for broadening the perspectives of the fusion physicist. Specifically, the authors consider modelling of the evolution of active magnetic arcades, associated with sunspots, and coronal heating, both of which result from foot

  3. Vortices in normal part of proximity system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kogan, V. G.

    2015-05-26

    It is shown that the order parameter ? induced in the normal part of superconductor-normal- superconductor proximity system is modulated in the magnetic field differently from vortices in bulk superconductors. Whereas ? turns zero at vortex centers, the magnetic structure of these vortices differs from that of Abrikosov's.

  4. Normal Stucture Property in Generalized James Spaces.

    E-print Network

    Khamsi, Mohamed Amine

    Normal Stucture Property in Generalized James Spaces. Mohamed A. Khamsi and S. Swaminathan in generalized James spaces and use it to investigate the normal structure property in these spaces. Then we discuss in the context of generalised James spaces a property introduced by D.Tingley. 1 #12

  5. Appearance Normalization of Histology Slides Jared Vicorya

    E-print Network

    Appearance Normalization of Histology Slides Jared Vicorya , Heather D. Couturea , Nancy E. Thomasb and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used

  6. Cultured normal mammalian tissue and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (inventor); Wolf, David A. (inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Normal mammalian tissue and the culturing process has been developed for the three groups of organ, structural and blood tissue. The cells are grown in vitro under microgravity culture conditions and form three dimensional cell aggregates with normal cell function. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.

  7. Vortices in normal part of proximity system

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V. G.

    2015-05-26

    It is shown that the order parameter ? induced in the normal part of superconductor-normal-superconductor proximity system is modulated in the magnetic field differently from vortices in bulk superconductors. Whereas ? turns zero at vortex centers, the magnetic structure of these vortices differs from that of Abrikosov's.

  8. Normal and pathologic laughter in children.

    PubMed

    Nirenberg, S A

    1991-11-01

    Laughter is a partly involuntary act involving complex pathways in the central nervous system. Laughter normally has positive effects on emotions; however, pathologic laughter is not related to emotion and occurs independent of a stimulus in the environment. This paper outlines normal laughter and the etiology of pathologic laughter, considering both congenital and acquired causes. PMID:1747977

  9. What is a plasma?

    SciTech Connect

    Intrator, Thomas P.

    2012-08-30

    This introduction will define the plasma fourth state of matter, where we find plasmas on earth and beyond, and why they are useful. There are applications to many consumer items, fusion energy, scientific devices, satellite communications, semiconductor processing, spacecraft propulsion, and more. Since 99% of our observable universe is ionized gas, plasma physics determines many important features of astrophysics, space physics, and magnetosphere physics in our solar system. We describe some plasma characteristics, examples in nature, some useful applications, how to create plasmas. A brief introduction to the theoretical framework includes the connection between kinetic and fluid descriptions, quasi neutrality, Debye shielding, ambipolar electric fields, some plasma waves. Hands-on demonstrations follow. More complete explanations will follow next week.

  10. Pulsed plasma electron sourcesa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasik, Ya. E.; Yarmolich, D.; Gleizer, J. Z.; Vekselman, V.; Hadas, Y.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Felsteiner, J.

    2009-05-01

    There is a continuous interest in research of electron sources which can be used for generation of uniform electron beams produced at E ?105 V/cm and duration ?10-5 s. In this review, several types of plasma electron sources will be considered, namely, passive (metal ceramic, velvet and carbon fiber with and without CsI coating, and multicapillary and multislot cathodes) and active (ferroelectric and hollow anodes) plasma sources. The operation of passive sources is governed by the formation of flashover plasma whose parameters depend on the amplitude and rise time of the accelerating electric field. In the case of ferroelectric and hollow-anode plasma sources the plasma parameters are controlled by the driving pulse and discharge current, respectively. Using different time- and space-resolved electrical, optical, spectroscopical, Thomson scattering and x-ray diagnostics, the parameters of the plasma and generated electron beam were characterized.

  11. Normalizing the causality between time series

    E-print Network

    Liang, X San

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a rigorous yet concise formula has been derived to evaluate the information flow, and hence the causality in a quantitative sense, between time series. To assess the importance of a resulting causality, it needs to be normalized. The normalization is achieved through distinguishing three types of fundamental mechanisms that govern the marginal entropy change of the flow recipient. A normalized or relative flow measures its importance relative to other mechanisms. In analyzing realistic series, both absolute and relative information flows need to be taken into account, since the normalizers for a pair of reverse flows belong to two different entropy balances; it is quite normal that two identical flows may differ a lot in relative importance in their respective balances. We have reproduced these results with several autoregressive models. We have also shown applications to a climate change problem and a financial analysis problem. For the former, reconfirmed is the role of the Indian Ocean Dipole as ...

  12. Principles of plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Ian H.

    The physical principles, techniques, and instrumentation of plasma diagnostics are examined in an introduction and reference work for students and practicing scientists. Topics addressed include basic plasma properties, magnetic diagnostics, plasma particle flux, and refractive-index measurements. Consideration is given to EM emission by free and bound electrons, the scattering of EM radiation, and ion processes. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, sample problems, and a glossary of symbols are provided.

  13. Plasma and magnetospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, R. H.; Horwitz, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of programs for statistical analysis of boundary and structure type files based on surveys of Dynamics Explorere data. Programs being used for handling data on plasma boundaries in the inner magnetosphere, the structure of the plasmasphere, and the heavy ion torus may be useful for determining statistics on the warm plasma cloak and the auroral ion fountain. Data analysis and modeling; spacecraft sheath effects; and laboratory plasma flow studies are discussed.

  14. Chiral plasma instabilities.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Yukinao; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2013-08-01

    We study the collective modes in relativistic electromagnetic or quark-gluon plasmas with an asymmetry between left- and right-handed chiral fermions, based on the recently formulated kinetic theory with Berry curvature corrections. We find that there exists an unstable mode, signaling the presence of a plasma instability. We argue the fate of this "chiral plasma instability" including the effect of collisions, and briefly discuss its relevance in heavy ion collisions and compact stars. PMID:23952387

  15. Helicons in Unbounded Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    Helicons are whistler modes with helical phase fronts. They have been studied in solid state plasmas and in discharge tubes where boundaries and nonuniformities are ever present. The present work shows that helicons also exist in unbounded and uniform plasmas, thereby bridging the fields of laboratory and space plasma physics. First measurements of helicon field lines in three dimensional space are presented. Helicons with negative and positive mode numbers can propagate with equal amplitudes.

  16. Space plasma physics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, Richard H.; Horwitz, James L.

    1993-01-01

    During the course of this grant, work was performed on a variety of topics and there were a number of significant accomplishments. A summary of these accomplishments is included. The topics studied include empirical model data base, data reduction for archiving, semikinetic modeling of low energy plasma in the inner terrestrial magnetosphere and ionosphere, O(+) outflows, equatorial plasma trough, and plasma wave ray-tracing studies. A list of publications and presentations which have resulted from this research is also included.

  17. RPE cell surface proteins in normal and dystrophic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, V.M.; Hall, M.O.

    1986-02-01

    Membrane-bound proteins in plasma membrane enriched fractions from cultured rat RPE were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Membrane proteins were characterized on three increasingly specific levels. Total protein was visualized by silver staining. A maximum of 102 separate proteins were counted in silver-stained gels. Glycoproteins were labeled with 3H-glucosamine or 3H-fucose and detected by autoradiography. Thirty-eight fucose-labeled and 61-71 glucosamine-labeled proteins were identified. All of the fucose-labeled proteins were labeled with glucosamine-derived radioactivity. Proteins exposed at the cell surface were labeled by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination prior to preparation of membranes for two-dimensional analysis. Forty separate 125I-labeled surface proteins were resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis/autoradiography. Comparison with the glycoprotein map showed that a number of these surface labeled proteins were glycoproteins. Two-dimensional maps of total protein, fucose-labeled, and glucosamine-labeled glycoproteins, and 125I-labeled surface proteins of membranes from dystrophic (RCS rdy-p+) and normal (Long Evans or RCS rdy+p+) RPE were compared. No differences in the total protein or surface-labeled proteins were observed. However, the results suggest that a 183K glycoprotein is more heavily glycosylated with glucosamine and fucose in normal RPE membranes as compared to membranes from dystrophic RPE.

  18. Shock normal determination for multiple-ion shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, R. L.; Coates, A. J.; Motschmann, U.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1994-01-01

    We have adapted the single-ion Vinas and Scudder (1986) solution to the Rankine-Hugoniot (R-H) problem to a multiple-on solution. Using this technique, we can calculate a shock normal direction, shock speed, best estimate of the upstream and downstream magnetic field and plasma asymptotic states, and theta(sub Bn), the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetic field. We test the multi-ion solution with a theoretical case but are restricted to a perpendicular shock in order to close the multi-ion Rankine-Hugoniot equations. For this test case both single-ion and multi-ion solutions are equally valid. We examine parameter regimes to look for differences between single-ion and multi-ion solutions of the R-H equations, and we find that the largest differences occur for quasi-parallel shocks, small values of solar wind speed, large values of heavy ion density, and very strong and very weak shocks. For both the inbound and outbound crossing of comet Halley we have a slow solar wind speed, small values of water group ions and fairly weak shocks. We examine both the quasi-perpendicular inbound crossing and the quasi-parallel outbound crossing at comet Halley.

  19. Planetary plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1993-01-01

    The primary types of plasma waves observed in the vicinity of the planets Venus, Mars, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are described. The observations are organized according to the various types of plasma waves observed, ordered according to decreasing distance from the planet, starting from the sunward side of the planet, and ending in the region near the closest approach. The plasma waves observed include: electron plasma oscillations and ion acoustic waves; trapped continuum radiation; electron cyclotron and upper hybrid waves; whistler-mode emissions; electrostatic ion cyclotron waves; and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  20. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  1. Plasma Processing Of Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, Jon D; Peter C. Kong; Brent A. Detering; Larry D. Zuck

    2007-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed several patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon processing. The INL patents include nonthermal and thermal plasma technologies for direct natural gas to liquid conversion, upgrading low value heavy oil to synthetic light crude, and to convert refinery bottom heavy streams directly to transportation fuel products. Proof of concepts has been demonstrated with bench scale plasma processes and systems to convert heavy and light hydrocarbons to higher market value products. This paper provides an overview of three selected INL patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon conversion or upgrade.

  2. Leo space plasma interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    1991-01-01

    Photovoltaic arrays interact with the low earth orbit (LEO) space plasma in two fundamentally different ways. One way is the steady collection of current from the plasma onto exposed conductors and semiconductors. The relative currents collected by different parts of the array will then determine the floating potential of the spacecraft. In addition, these steady state collected currents may lead to sputtering or heating of the array by the ions or electrons collected, respectively. The second kind of interaction is the short time scale arc into the space plasma, which may deplete the array and/or spacecraft of stored charge, damage solar cells, and produce EMI. Such arcs only occur at high negative potentials relative to the space plasma potential, and depend on the steady state ion currents being collected. New high voltage solar arrays being incorporated into advanced spacecraft and space platforms may be endangered by these plasma interactions. Recent advances in laboratory testing and current collection modeling promise the capability of controlling, and perhaps even using, these space plasma interactions to enable design of reliable high voltage space power systems. Some of the new results may have an impact on solar cell spacing and/or coverslide design. Planned space flight experiments are necessary to confirm the models of high voltage solar array plasma interactions. Finally, computerized, integrated plasma interactions design tools are being constructed to place plasma interactions models into the hands of the spacecraft designer.

  3. Solid expellant plasma generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Nobie H. (Inventor); Poe, Garrett D. (Inventor); Rood, Robert (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved solid expellant plasma generator has been developed. The plasma generator includes a support housing, an electrode rod located in the central portion of the housing, and a mass of solid expellant material that surrounds the electrode rod within the support housing. The electrode rod and the solid expellant material are made of separate materials that are selected so that the electrode and the solid expellant material decompose at the same rate when the plasma generator is ignited. This maintains a point of discharge of the plasma at the interface between the electrode and the solid expellant material.

  4. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    Plasma plumes, or plasma jets, belong to a large family of gas discharges whereby the discharge plasma is extended beyond the plasma generation region into the surrounding ambience, either by a field (e.g. electromagnetic, convective gas flow, or shock wave) or a gradient of a directionless physical quantity (e.g. particle density, pressure, or temperature). This physical extension of a plasma plume gives rise to a strong interaction with its surrounding environment, and the interaction alters the properties of both the plasma and the environment, often in a nonlinear and dynamic fashion. The plasma is therefore not confined by defined physical walls, thus extending opportunities for material treatment applications as well as bringing in new challenges in science and technology associated with complex open-boundary problems. Some of the most common examples may be found in dense plasmas with very high dissipation of externally supplied energy (e.g. in electrical, optical or thermal forms) and often in or close to thermal equilibrium. For these dense plasmas, their characteristics are determined predominantly by strong physical forces of different fields, such as electrical, magnetic, thermal, shock wave, and their nonlinear interactions [1]. Common to these dense plasma plumes are significant macroscopic plasma movement and considerable decomposition of solid materials (e.g. vaporization). Their applications are numerous and include detection of elemental traces, synthesis of high-temperature materials and welding, laser--plasma interactions, and relativistic jets in particle accelerators and in space [2]-[4]. Scientific challenges in the understanding of plasma jets are exciting and multidisciplinary, involving interweaving transitions of all four states of matter, and their technological applications are wide-ranging and growing rapidly. Using the Web of Science database, a search for journal papers on non-fusion plasma jets reveals that a long initial phase up to 1990 with only 31 papers per year on average, and a total of some 1300 papers, precedes a considerable growth of some 35-50% in research activity every five years, over the last 20 years or so. As shown in the table, the annual dissemination of the field is more than 1600 papers and the total number of papers is in excess of 20000. This upwards trajectory is typical of a strong and growing subject area in physical science, with considerable capacity in both fundamental science and applications. PeriodNumber of papersPapers per annum 1948-1990130031 1991-19952279456 1996-20003447689 2001-20054571914 2006-201066401328 2011 1658 In many of the dense plasma jets discussed above, strong physical forces generated by the plasma are often desired and this favours plasma generation at elevated gas pressure, including atmospheric pressure, which favours a high level of gas ionization. Historically it has been challenging to reduce and control the strong physical forces in high-pressure plasmas for applications where these are unwanted, for example, surface modification of polymeric sheets [5]. Indeed, there is a real need for a vast range of material processing applications at temperatures below 100oC (or below 400 K) and this favours atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained far from thermal equilibrium with the dissipated electrical energy largely used not in heat generation but in unleashing non-equilibrium chemical reactions. The long-standing difficulty of effectively controlling the level of gas ionization at atmospheric pressure was overcome by the technological breakthrough of achieving atmospheric-pressure glow discharges in the late 1980s [6]. A related challenge stemming from high collisionality of atmospheric-pressure plasmas (v >> ?0) means that large-area plasmas sustained between parallel-plate electrodes are very susceptible to strong plasma instabilities when molecular gases are introduced for processing applications. This led to an effective technological solution in the early to late 1990s of confining atmospheric plasmas in a small volume

  5. Evolution of complex amplitudes ratio in weakly anisotropic plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Yury A.; Bieg, Bohdan

    2010-10-01

    The equation for evolution of the complex amplitudes ratio (CAR) ? = Ey/Ex in weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous media is derived on the basis of quasi-isotropic approximation (QIA) of the geometrical optics method. This equation is convenient for the description of electromagnetic wave polarization in magnetized plasma of thermonuclear reactors like the ITER. The equation for the CAR is in agreement with other approaches, analyzing polarization evolution in weakly anisotropic media, in particular, with the equation for complex polarization angle and, via QIA equations, with the Segre equation for Stokes vector evolution. Simple analytical solutions for the CAR, which relates to normal mode propagation in homogeneous and weakly inhomogeneous plasma, are obtained. Besides, the equation for the CAR is solved numerically to describe the phenomenon of normal wave conversion in magnetized plasma in the vicinity of the orthogonality point between the ray and the static magnetic field. In distinction to the line-averaged measurements in traditional plasma polarimetry, the phenomenon of normal wave conversion opens the way for measuring the local plasma parameters near the orthogonality point.

  6. Enhanced target normal sheath acceleration based on the laser relativistic self-focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, D. B.; Zhuo, H. B. Yang, X. H.; Shao, F. Q.; Ma, Y. Y.; Yu, T. P.; Yin, Y.; Ge, Z. Y.; Li, X. H.; Wu, H. C.

    2014-06-15

    The enhanced target normal sheath acceleration of ions in laser target interaction via the laser relativistic self-focusing effect is investigated by theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations. The temperature of the hot electrons in the underdense plasma is greatly increased due to the occurrence of resonant absorption, while the electron-betatron-oscillation frequency is close to its witnessed laser frequency [Pukhov et al., Phys. Plasma 6, 2847 (1999)]. While these hot electrons penetrate through the backside solid target, a stronger sheath electric field at the rear surface of the target is induced, which can accelerate the protons to a higher energy. It is also shown that the optimum length of the underdense plasma is approximately equal to the self-focusing distance.

  7. Endosomal recycling controls plasma membrane area during mitosis

    E-print Network

    Kirchhausen, Tomas

    Endosomal recycling controls plasma membrane area during mitosis Emmanuel Boucrot and Tomas- cytosis is normal throughout all phases of cell division, whereas recycling of internalized membranes back a mechanism by which modulation of endosomal recycling controls cell area and surface expression of membrane

  8. Dust-Plasma Sheath in an Oblique Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Foroutan, G.; Mehdipour, H.

    2008-09-07

    Using numerical simulations of the multi fluid equations the structure of the magnetized sheath near a plasma boundary is studied in the presence of charged dust particles. The dependence of the electron, ion, and dust densities as well as the electrostatic potential, dust charge, and ion normal velocity, on the magnetic field strength and the edge dust number density is investigated.

  9. Plasma abatement of perfluorocompounds in inductively coupled plasma reactors

    E-print Network

    Kushner, Mark

    Plasma abatement of perfluorocompounds in inductively coupled plasma reactors Xudong ``Peter'' Xu Engineering, Urbana, Illinois 61801 Received 13 May 1999; accepted 1 October 1999 Perfluorinated compounds PFCs , gases which have large global warming potentials, are widely used in plasma processing

  10. Ferroelectric Plasma Cathodes for Plasma Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunaevsky, Alexander; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2002-11-01

    During last decade the phenomenon of strong ferroelectric emission was studied widely in many laboratories all around the world. It was shown that the application of a kilovolt-range driving pulse between solid rear and patterned front electrodes which cover a sample of a ferroelectric ceramics results in electron emission from the side of the front electrode. The current density of this electron emission varies from hundreds of mA to hundreds of A per cm^2. The duration of the current pulse is several hundreds of nanoseconds with the repetition rate up to several MHz. Recent investigations showed that the strong electron emission occurs from surface discharge plasma formed on the ceramic surface near the edges of the front electrode pattern. The surface plasma has a density of 10^11 - 10^13 cm-3, an electron temperature of 2-3 eV, and consists mostly from ions of ferroelectric ceramic material and the front electrode. Ferroelectric Plasma Cathodes (FPC) are used widely in electron guns, microwave sources, and high current switches. It was recently showed that a strong ferroelectric-gas discharge occurs at a background pressure about of 1 Torr. Dense plasma formed in the ferroelectric-gas discharge can be used either as a powerful cathodes-neutralizer or as a plasma source for an ion thruster. Ferroelectric segmented electrodes are also very promising for Hall thrusters in both emissive and nonemissive modes.

  11. Theoretical foundations of MHD spectroscopy in Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siller, Robert; Khalzov, Ivan; Forest, Cary

    2014-10-01

    We develop a theoretical basis of active MHD spectroscopy for Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment (MPDX). This new diagnostic is based on an analysis of incompressible shear Alfven modes and compressible acoustic modes for spherical plasmas, and the influence of plasma flow on the corresponding eigen-spectrum. Alfven modes in plasma are assumed to be excited in the presence of an external axial magnetic field. The mode frequencies depend on the distribution of plasma parameters. Inverting this dependence for a given (experimentally measured) set of modes, we are able to infer the spatial structure of plasma characteristics. We demonstrate this inversion technique by determining the rigid plasma rotation from the splitting of the low-frequency resonance Alfven modes driven by a localized antenna. Compressible acoustic waves in plasma are assumed to be excited with and without the presence of an external magnetic field. For the acoustic waves we determine the velocity dependence of the normal mode spectrum and magnetic field structure. We consider the feasibility of using the developed diagnostic in MPDX.

  12. Differential Extracellular and Intracellular Concentrations of Zidovudine and Lamivudine in Semen and Plasma of HIV-1–Infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Dumond, Julie B.; Reddy, Y. Sunila; Troiani, Luigi; Rodriguez, Jose F.; Bridges, Arlene S.; Fiscus, Susan A.; Yuen, Geoffrey J.; Cohen, Myron S.; Kashuba, Angela D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To quantitate extracellular and intracellular zidovudine (ZDV) and lamivudine (3TC) concentrations in blood and semen of HIV-1–infected men. Design Nonblind, single-center, open-label pharmacokinetic (PK) study in 14 subjects receiving ZDV plus 3TC. Methods Paired blood and semen samples were obtained during 1 intensive visit and 3 single time point visits over 2 weeks. Extracellular ZDV and 3TC concentrations were measured in blood plasma (BP) and seminal plasma (SP), and intracellular ZDV and 3TC triphosphate (TP) concentrations were measured in isolated mononuclear cells using validated methods. HIV-1 RNA was measured in blood and semen. PK parameters were estimated using non-compartmental analysis. Results Median (interquartile range [IQR]) SP/BP area under the time-concentration curve over the 12-hour dosing interval (AUC0–12h) ratios for ZDV and 3TC were 2.28 (1.48 to 2.97) and 6.67 (4.10 to 9.14), respectively, whereas individual SP/BP concentration ratios ranged from 1.9 to 91.4. Intracellular median (IQR) SP/BP AUC0–12h ratios for ZDV-TP and 3TC-TP were 0.36 (0.30 to 0.37) and 1.0 (0.62 to 1.30), respectively, whereas individual SP/BP concentration ratios ranged from 0.11 to 2.9. HIV-1 RNA was undetectable in both compartments. Conclusions ZDV and 3TC SP exposures are 2- to 6-fold greater than BP exposures. Seminal ZDV-TP exposures are ~40% of those found in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), whereas 3TC-TP exposures are similar to PBMC exposures. PK variability makes individual SP/BP ratios a suboptimal surrogate for genital tract exposure. PMID:18360288

  13. Self-energized plasma compressor. [for compressing plasma discharged from coaxial plasma generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shriver, E. L.; Igenbergs, E. B. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    The self-energized plasma compressor is described which compresses plasma discharged from a coaxial plasma generator. The device includes a helically shaped coil which is coaxially aligned with the center axis of the coaxial plasma generator. The plasma generator creates a current through the helical coil which, in turn, generates a time varying magnetic field that creates a force which acts radially upon the plasma. The coaxial plasma generator and helical coil move the plasma under high pressure and temperature to the narrow end of the coil. Positioned adjacent to the narrow end of the coil are beads which are engaged by the plasma to be accelerated to hypervelocities for simulating meteoroids.

  14. Inhibitor of DNA synthesis is present in normal chicken serum

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, R.A.; Davila, D.R.; Westly, H.J.; Kelley, K.W.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have found that heat-inactivated serum (57/sup 0/C for 1 hour) from normal chickens reduces the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated chicken and murine splenocytes as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines. Greater than a 50% reduction in /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation was observed when concanavalin A (Con A)-activated chicken splenocytes that were cultured in the presence of 10% autologous or heterologous serum were compared to mitogen-stimulated cells cultured in the absence of serum. Normal chicken serum (10%) also caused greater than 95% suppression of /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation by bovine (EBL-1 and BL-3) and gibbon ape (MLA 144) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The only cell line tested that was not inhibited by chicken serum was an IL-2-dependent, murine cell line. Chicken serum also inhibited both /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation and IL-2 synthesis by Con A-activated murine splenocytes. Suppression was caused by actions other than cytotoxicity because viability of chicken splenocytes was unaffected by increasing levels of chicken serum. Furthermore, dialyzed serum retained its activity, which suggested that thymidine in the serum was not inhibiting uptake of radiolabeled thymidine. Suppressive activity was not due to adrenal glucocorticoids circulating in plasma because neither physiologic nor pharmacologic doses of corticosterone had inhibitory effects on mitogen-stimulated chicken splenocytes. These data demonstrate that an endogenous factor that is found in normal chicken serum inhibits proliferation of T-cells from chickens and mice as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines.

  15. A zoo of computable binary normal sequences

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, Steve; Singer, Burton H.

    2012-01-01

    Historically there has been a virtual absence of constructive methods to produce broad classes of “certifiably random” infinite sequences, despite considerable interest in this endeavor. Previously, we proved a theorem that yielded explicit algorithms to produce diverse sets of normal numbers, reasonable candidates for random sequences, given their limiting equidistribution of subblocks of all lengths. Herein, we develop this algorithmic approach much further, systematizing the normal number generation process in several ways. We construct delineated, distinct sets of normal numbers (classified by the extent to which initial segments deviate from maximal irregularity), with virtually any allowable specified rate of convergence to 0 of this deviation, encompassing arbitrarily fast and slow rates, and accommodating asymmetric behavior above or below a centered median. As a corollary, we provide an explicit construction of a normal number that satisfies the Law of the Iterated Logarithm. We also produce distinct families of “biased” normal numbers, with virtually any specified rate of convergence of the bias (to 0). This latter theory is in part motivated by the remarkable observation that the binary version of Champernowne’s number, which is also normal, is biased—any initial segment has more 1s than 0s. Finally, we construct an interesting normal sequence with arbitrarily fast convergence to equidistribution of singleton blocks, yet arbitrarily slow convergence of pairs, which has profound implications both for probability theory, and for metrics to evaluate the “near-randomness” of sequences. PMID:23125196

  16. Inverse Bremsstrahlung in Shocked Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.; Jones, Frank C.; Ellison, Donald C.

    2000-01-01

    There has recently been interest in the role of inverse bremsstrahlung, the emission of photons by fast suprathermal ions in collisions with ambient electrons possessing relatively low velocities, in tenuous plasmas in various astrophysical contexts. This follows a long hiatus in the application of suprathermal ion bremsstrahlung to astrophysical models since the early 1970s. The potential importance of inverse bremsstrahlung relative to normal bremsstrahlung, i.e. where ions are at rest, hinges upon the underlying velocity distributions of the interacting species. In this paper, we identify the conditions under which the inverse bremsstrahlung emissivity is significant relative to that for normal bremsstrahlung in shocked astrophysical plasmas. We determine that, since both observational and theoretical evidence favors electron temperatures almost comparable to, and certainly not very deficient relative to proton temperatures in shocked plasmas, these environments generally render inverse bremsstrahlung at best a minor contributor to the overall emission. Hence inverse bremsstrahlung can be safely neglected in most models invoking shock acceleration in discrete sources such as supernova remnants. However, on scales approximately > 100 pc distant from these sources, Coulomb collisional losses can deplete the cosmic ray electrons, rendering inverse bremsstrahlung, and perhaps bremsstrahlung from knock-on electrons, possibly detectable.

  17. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase regulates ghrelin to control aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Vicky Ping; Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; Parks, Robin J.; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing mouse studies of a proposed therapy for cocaine abuse based on viral gene transfer of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) mutated for accelerated cocaine hydrolysis have yielded surprising effects on aggression. Further investigation has linked these effects to a reduction in circulating ghrelin, driven by BChE at levels ?100-fold above normal. Tests with human BChE showed ready ghrelin hydrolysis at physiologic concentrations, and multiple low-mass molecular dynamics simulations revealed that ghrelin’s first five residues fit sterically and electrostatically into BChE’s active site. Consistent with in vitro results, male BALB/c mice with high plasma BChE after gene transfer exhibited sharply reduced plasma ghrelin. Unexpectedly, such animals fought less, both spontaneously and in a resident/intruder provocation model. One mutant BChE was found to be deficient in ghrelin hydrolysis. BALB/c mice transduced with this variant retained normal plasma ghrelin levels and did not differ from untreated controls in the aggression model. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice with BChE gene deletion exhibited increased ghrelin and fought more readily than wild-type animals. Collectively, these findings indicate that BChE-catalyzed ghrelin hydrolysis influences mouse aggression and social stress, with potential implications for humans. PMID:25646463

  18. Frictional discharge plasma and seismo-electromagnetic phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Jun; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Miura, Takashi; Arakawa, Ichiro

    2008-05-01

    Although several mechanisms of precursory electromagnetic emissions of earthquakes have been proposed, there has been no in situ observation of electromagnetic phenomena occurring at the frictional contacts during rock frictions. From an experiment simulating the motion of an asperity on a fault surface, we report the generation of photon emissions around frictional contacts between natural rock minerals. Spectroscopic analysis clarified that the photon emissions are caused by dielectric breakdown of ambient gases (electric-discharge plasma) due to frictional electrification. The plasmas were found to occur under normal stress of 4 MPa and sliding speed of 10 -2 m/s. This indicates that plasma generations do not require high-normal stresses needed to fracture rocks and sliding speeds as high as seismic rates (˜1 m/s). Thus, frictional discharges could occur at microscopic asperities at the onset of the slips of earthquakes, and might be one of the sources of the seismo-electromagnetic emission.

  19. Affect of angle of incidence on plasmas generated during laser welding

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.D.; Lewis, G.K.

    1984-01-01

    This study has shown that laser supported combustion waves (lscw's) are generated and that they can reach critical density. More critical density plasmas are formed as the angle of incidence approaches the normal. As the angle of incidence is increased the penetration increases. The vapor plume is seen to precess about the surface normal which indicates motion of the molten pool. The penetration increases correlate with fewer critical density plasmas implying that better photon conversion is obtained when the plasma is absorbing and not at the critical density. The radiation monitoring techniques provide data which correlates with penetration and thus are potential monitoring and control methods.

  20. Superlite Plasma Collection System.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Sohachi

    2003-02-01

    The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare launched a national initiative to become plasma self-sufficient by reducing reliance on imported plasma products and increasing plasma collections to enable plasma-derived pharmaceuticals, including albumin, globulin, and Factor VIII products to use plasma collected within Japan. In order to realize this goal, plasma collections from volunteer donors must increase to about 1.5 million litres of plasma per year (1) or about 50% more than what the Japan Red Cross currently collects. A mobile device, such as the Superlite system, will make it easier and more efficient for Japan's sole blood collection agency, the Japan Red Cross, to add plasma collection to mobile blood drives. Haemonetics Corporation (Braintree, MA, USA) has combined many years of apheresis experience with up-to-date technology to create the Superlite Plasma Collection System (PCS) for the Japan Red Cross. This new device, which is expected to greatly contribute to the Red Cross's national source plasma collection program, is even smaller than the Ultralite PCS and offers several advanced features and benefits. Light, compact, and very portable, the Superlite has a Japanese language friendly user interface that continually displays collection status, including time remaining in the collection procedure. The device features a protocol that limits extra-corporeal blood volume for low-weight donors; a program used in conjunction with a reduced volume disposable bowl. Superlite, designed for use in both fixed-site and mobile applications, combines the portable ease-of-use of the Ultralite with the collection process calculation abilities of the CCS to provide a state-of-the-art collection device that will help define the future of Japan plasma collection. PMID:12921116

  1. Laboratory Dipole Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesner, Jay

    2011-10-01

    Modern laboratory studies of plasma confined by a strong dipole magnet originated twenty years ago when it was learned that planetary magnetospheres have centrally-peaked plasma pressure profiles that form naturally when solar wind drives plasma circulation and heating. Unlike other internal rings devices, like spherators and octupoles, the magnetic flux tubes of the dipole field expand rapidly with radius. Unlike plasma confinement devices that obtain stability from magnetic shear and average good curvature, like tokamaks and levitrons, the dipole-confined plasma obtains stability from plasma compressibility. These two geometric characteristics of the dipole field have profound consequences: (i) plasma can be stable with local beta exceeding unity, (ii) fluctuations can drive either heat or particles inward to create stationary profiles that are strongly peaked, and (iii) the confinement of particles and energy can decouple. During the past decade, several laboratory dipole experiments and modeling efforts have lead to new understanding of interchange, centrifugal and entropy modes, nonlinear gyrokinetics, and plasma transport. Two devices, the LDX experiment at MIT and RT-1 at the University of Tokyo, operate with levitated superconducting dipole magnets. With a levitated dipole, not only is very high-beta plasma confined in steady state but, also, levitation produces high-temperature at low input power and demonstrates that toroidal magnetic confinement of plasma does not require a toroidal field. Modeling has explained many of the processes operative in these experiments, including the observation of a strong inward particle pinch. Turbulent low-frequency fluctuations in dipole confined plasma cause adiabatic transport and form a fundamental linkage between the radial variation of flux-tube volume and the centrally peaked density and pressure profiles. In collaboration with M.E. Mauel and D.T. Garnier; supported by DoE FG02-98ER54458.

  2. 25-hydroxyvitamin D in obese youth across the spectrum of glucose tolerance from normal to prediabetes to type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to 1) determine if plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations differ among obese youth with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) versus prediabetes versus type 2 diabetes and 2) assess the relationships between 25(OH)D and in vivo insulin sensitivity and Beta-cell ...

  3. ALFVEN WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Terradas, J.; Carbonell, M. E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es E-mail: marc.carbonell@uib.es

    2013-04-20

    Alfven waves are a particular class of magnetohydrodynamic waves relevant in many astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of Alfven waves is affected by the interaction between ionized and neutral species. Here we study Alfven waves in a partially ionized plasma from the theoretical point of view using the two-fluid description. We consider that the plasma is composed of an ion-electron fluid and a neutral fluid, which interact by means of particle collisions. To keep our investigation as general as possible, we take the neutral-ion collision frequency and the ionization degree as free parameters. First, we perform a normal mode analysis. We find the modification due to neutral-ion collisions of the wave frequencies and study the temporal and spatial attenuation of the waves. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoff values of the wavelength that constrain the existence of oscillatory standing waves in weakly ionized plasmas. Later, we go beyond the normal mode approach and solve the initial-value problem in order to study the time-dependent evolution of the wave perturbations in the two fluids. An application to Alfven waves in the low solar atmospheric plasma is performed and the implication of partial ionization for the energy flux is discussed.

  4. Acute lupus pneumonitis with normal chest radiograph.

    PubMed

    Susanto, I; Peters, J I

    1997-06-01

    Patients with acute lupus pneumonitis (ALP) usually have hypoxemia, patchy infiltrates evidenced on a chest x-ray film, and an incomplete response to corticosteroids with high mortality. In contrast, lupus patients with a syndrome of acute reversible hypoxemia (SARH) have hypoxemia with normal chest x-ray films and a rapid response to corticosteroids. We present a case of biopsy-proven ALP with normal initial chest x-ray films, and a normal CT scan. We hypothesize that a continuum of vascular and parenchymal abnormalities may exist in the lungs of lupus patients. This case also illustrates the insensitivity of routine chest radiographs in demonstrating mild or early pneumonitis. PMID:9187214

  5. Partially ionized plasmas, including the Third Symposium on Uranium Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, M.

    1976-01-01

    Fundamentals of both electrically and fission generated plasmas are discussed. Research in gaseous fuel reactors using uranium hexafluoride is described and other partially ionized plasma applications are discussed.

  6. Laser plasma diagnostics of dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Glendinning, S.G.; Amendt, P.; Budil, K.S.; Hammel, B.A.; Kalantar, D.H.; Key, M.H.; Landen, O.L.; Remington, B.A.; Desenne, D.E.

    1995-07-12

    The authors describe several experiments on Nova that use laser-produced plasmas to generate x-rays capable of backlighting dense, cold plasmas (p {approximately} 1--3 gm/cm{sup 3}, kT {approximately} 5--10 eV, and areal density {rho}{ell}{approximately} 0.01--0.05 g/cm{sup 2}). The x-rays used vary over a wide range of h{nu}, from 80 eV (X-ray laser) to 9 keV. This allows probing of plasmas relevant to many hydrodynamic experiments. Typical diagnostics are 100 ps pinhole framing cameras for a long pulse backlighter and a time-integrated CCD camera for a short pulse backlighter.

  7. High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas

    E-print Network

    High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas General Plasma Science Developing Laboratory Plasma Program at FES Highlights of a world-class program A science-edge radiation- hydrodynamics codes, and for demonstrating substantial leadership qualities in high- energy

  8. EnergyandPower Plasma Science

    E-print Network

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    , embedded systems, plasma science and engineering, terahertz science and technology, MEMS, computer vision, MEMS and integrated microsystems, plasma science and engineering, optics and photonics, lasers, quantumEnergyandPower Plasma Science Electromagnetics Solid-State Devices and Nanotechnology Quantum

  9. Aberrant Glycosylation of Plasma Proteins in Severe Preeclampsia Promotes Monocyte Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Kazanjian, Avedis A.; Tinnemore, Deborah; Gafken, Philip R.; Ogata, Yuko; Napolitano, Peter G.; Stallings, Jonathan D.; Ippolito, Danielle L.

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylation of plasma proteins increases during pregnancy. Our objectives were to investigate an anti-inflammatory role of these proteins in normal pregnancies and determine whether aberrant protein glycosylation promotes monocyte adhesion in preeclampsia. Plasma was prospectively collected from nonpregnant controls and nulliparous patients in all 3 trimesters. Patients were divided into cohorts based on the applicable postpartum diagnosis. U937 monocytes were preconditioned with enzymatically deglycosylated plasma, and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cell monolayers was quantified by spectrophotometry. Plasma from nonpregnant controls, first trimester normotensives, and first trimester patients with mild preeclampsia inhibited monocyte–endothelial cell adhesion (P < .05), but plasma from first trimester patients with severe preeclampsia and second and third trimester normotensives did not. Deglycosylating plasma proteins significantly increased adhesion in all the cohorts. These results support a role of plasma glycoprotein interaction in monocyte–endothelial cell adhesion and could suggest a novel therapeutic target for severe preeclampsia. PMID:23757314

  10. The normal, the natural and the good: Generics and ideology

    E-print Network

    Haslanger, Sally

    The idea of "what's normal" has two importantly different uses. On one hand, "what's normal" is a statistical concept: what's normal is what is statistically probable. On the other hand, "what's normal," is a normative ...

  11. Plasma thrusters from Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, E.J.

    1992-09-01

    A report on the Russian stationary plasma thrusters having plasma accelerated to high velocities by electrical and magnetic forces is described. For specific impulses of 15-20 km/sec, optimal for such applications as satellite station keeping and orbital transfer, a unit supplying 0.05 N from a 2-kW input has a 30-cm-diameter nozzle.

  12. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  13. Diamagnetism of rotating plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. C.; Hassam, A. B.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Ellis, R. F.; Teodorescu, C.

    2011-11-15

    Diamagnetism and magnetic measurements of a supersonically rotating plasma in a shaped magnetic field demonstrate confinement of plasma pressure along the magnetic field resulting from centrifugal force. The Grad-Shafranov equation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic force balance, including supersonic rotation, is solved to confirm that the predicted angular velocity is in agreement with spectroscopic measurements of the Doppler shifts.

  14. Plasma suppression of beamstrahlung

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Stewart, J.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1988-06-01

    We investigate the use of a plasma at the interaction point of two colliding beams to suppress beamsstrahlung and related phenomena. We derive conditions for good current cancellation via plasma return currents and report on numerical simulations conducted to confirm our analytic results. 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Plasma technology directory

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, P.P.; Dybwad, G.L.

    1995-03-01

    The Plasma Technology Directory has two main goals: (1) promote, coordinate, and share plasma technology experience and equipment within the Department of Energy; and (2) facilitate technology transfer to the commercial sector where appropriate. Personnel are averaged first by Laboratory and next by technology area. The technology areas are accelerators, cleaning and etching deposition, diagnostics, and modeling.

  16. Plasma engineering for MARS

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, G.A.; Baldwin, D.E.; Barr, W.L.

    1983-03-24

    The two-year Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) has resulted in the conceptual design of a commercial, electricity-producing fusion reactor based on tandem mirror confinement. The physics basis for the MARS reactor was developed through work in two highly coupled areas of plasma engineering: magnetics and plasma performance.

  17. Atoms in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  18. Plasma diagnostic approach for high rate nanocrystalline Si synthesis in RF/UHF hybrid plasmas using a PECVD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, B. B.; Han, Jeon G.; Shin, Kyung S.; Ishikawa, K.; Hori, M.; Miyawaki, Yudai

    2015-04-01

    Hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si?:?H) films intended for efficient nc-Si?:?H solar cells are usually made at the transition to the nanocrystalline regime using the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. This change occurs within a sensitive process window and is affected by various deposition parameters. This paper reports a study of nc-Si?:?H films' fabrication by utilizing systematic plasma diagnostics. This work presents a novel approach for plasma processing using radio frequency (RF), ultra high frequency (UHF) and RF/UHF hybrid plasmas. Using careful analysis, efforts are made to investigate the radicals and plasma formation by changing the operating source power and silane (SiH4) concentration. The aim of this work is also to investigate the PECVD process and conditions favorable for the synthesis of nc-Si?:?H film. For the present study, we systematically use the optical emission spectroscopy (OES), normal, and RF-compensated Langmuir probe (LP) and vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy diagnostics. Measurements reveal that the OES diagnostic is consistent with the LP measurements. Investigation reveals that UHF power in addition to RF enables higher dissociation of H or SiH radicals and the production of higher plasma density. The combined effect of both RF and UHF sources is used as the hybrid plasma source. Measurements also reveal that inbetween SiH4 flow rates ˜20-30 sccm, there is significant change in the plasma characteristics that denotes the nc-Si?:?H-a-Si?:?H transition region. An atomic hydrogen density (nH) in the range ?(8 - 10) × 1011 cm-3 and plasma density n0 ? (2 - 3) × 1011 cm-3 with a silane to hydrogen ratio of 1-2% with high crystallinity has been obtained. Along with the discussion on the effect of frequency on plasma chemistry, this explains the RF power coupling and the role of electrons and ions in plasmas with increasing frequency.

  19. Perfect Implementation of Normal-Form Mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Izmalkov, Sergei

    Privacy and trust affect our strategic thinking, yet they have not been precisely modeled in mechanism design. In settings of incomplete information, traditional implementations of a normal-form mechanism ---by disregarding ...

  20. Perfect Implementation of Normal-Form Mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Izmalkov, Sergei

    2005-01-01

    Privacy and trust affect our strategic thinking, yet they have not been precisely modeled in mechanism design. In settings of incomplete information, traditional implementations of a normal-form mechanism ---by disregarding ...