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Human seminal plasma fibrinolytic activity.  


The distribution of total fibrinolytic activity in seminal plasma, as well as specific tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), has been studied using antigen and activity techniques in 170 ejaculates of men attending for assessment because of infertility without genital urinary pathology. Among these 170 patients, 18 showed oligoasthenoteratospermia, 28 showed azoospermia, and 124 showed normozoospermia. The seminal values were 50 times higher (262 to 289 ng/mL in antigen and 179 to 199 x 10 (3) IU/L for activity) than values in blood for t-PA and 15 times higher than values in blood for u-PA (18.4 to 26 ng/mL and 1.5 to 2.4 IU/mL, respectively). There was no correlation between the two levels in antigen or activity, but a higher concentration was observed in all first fractions from split ejaculates measurements. Moreover, t-PA was significantly lower in semen with abnormal liquefaction compared with semen exhibiting normal liquefaction. Zymography confirms the active forms. PAI was absent or at the detection limit for normozoospermia, whereas patients with oligoasthenoteratospermia or azoospermia showed high PAI antigen and activity levels. These data demonstrate that seminal PA activity may be related to sperm fertilizing capacity. PMID:17253186

Van Dreden, Patrick; Carlo, Audrey; Audrey, Carlo; Rousseau, Aurélie; Aurélie, Rousseau



Raman spectroscopic characterization and differentiation of seminal plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy (RS) was applied for the analysis of seminal plasma in order to detect spectral parameters, which might be used for differentiating the normal and abnormal semen samples. Raman spectra of seminal plasma separated from normal and abnormal semen samples, showed a distinct difference in peak ratios between 1449 and 1418 cm-1 (P < 0.05). More efficient alternative method of using principal component analysis-linear discriminate analysis based on Raman spectroscopic data yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 82%. The results suggest that RS combined with the multivariate analysis method has the potential for differentiating semen samples by examination of the corresponding seminal plasma.

Huang, Zufang; Chen, Xiwen; Chen, Yanping; Chen, Jinhua; Dou, Min; Feng, Shangyuan; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong



Components of stallion seminal plasma and the effects of seminal plasma on sperm longevity.  


Seminal plasma is a mixture of secretions produced in the testes, epididymides and accessory sex glands, and ejaculated as several consecutive fluid fractions. The composition of seminal plasma and the effects on sperm longevity vary between fractions and individual stallions. This review focuses on the sequence of ejaculation, constituents of seminal plasma and their potential use as fertility markers as well as the influence of seminal plasma on spermatozoa during storage. PMID:18556156

Kareskoski, Maria; Katila, Terttu



Seminal plasma induces the expression of IL-1? in normal and neoplastic cervical cells via EP2/EGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer is a chronic inflammatory disease of multifactorial etiology usually presenting in sexually active women. Exposure of neoplastic cervical epithelial cells to seminal plasma (SP) has been shown to promote the growth of cancer cells in vitro and tumors in vivo by inducing the expression of inflammatory mediators including pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-1? is a pleotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine induced in several human cancers and has been associated with virulent tumor phenotype and poorer prognosis. Here we investigated the expression of IL-1? in cervical cancer, the role of SP in the regulation of IL-1? in neoplastic cervical epithelial cells and the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation. Methods and results Real-time quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the elevated expression of IL-1? mRNA in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma tissue explants, compared with normal cervix. Using immunohistochemistry, IL-1? was localized to the neoplastically transformed squamous, columnar and glandular epithelium in all cases of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinomas explants studied. We found that SP induced the expression of IL-? in both normal and neoplastic cervical tissue explants. Employing HeLa (adenocarcinoma) cell line as a model system we identified PGE2 and EGF as possible ligands responsible for SP-mediated induction of IL-1? in these neoplastic cells. In addition, we showed that SP activates EP2/EGFR/PI3kinase-Akt signaling to induce IL-1? mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in normal cervical tissue explants the induction of IL-1? by SP is via the activation of EP2/EGFR/PI3 kinase-Akt signaling. Conclusion SP-mediated induction of IL-1? in normal and neoplastic cervical epithelial cells suggests that SP may promote cervical inflammation as well as progression of cervical cancer in sexually active women. PMID:25237386



Unconjugated 5 alpha-androstan-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol and 5 alpha-androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol in normal and pathological human seminal plasma. Comparison with testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and testosterone-glucosiduronate.  


By means of specific RIA unconjugated 5 alpha-androstan-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol (3 alpha-diol) and 5 alpha-androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol (3 beta-diol) have been estimated for the first time in normal and pathological human seminal plasma. Testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and testosterone-glucosiduronate (T, DHT, TG) have been determined simultaneously. On average a significant decrease of both diols was established in seminal plasma obtained from males suffering from oligozoospermia, azoospermia, asthenozoospermia and teratozoospermia. The decrease of 3 beta-diol was more pronounced. A significant diminution in DHT concentrations was found only in severe oligozoospermia. Significantly lowered concentrations of testosterone were detected in severe oligozoospermia and in teratozoospermia. However, DHT levels in teratozoospermia were found on average within normal ranges. TG exhibited no significant deviations. PMID:6859560

Kurniawan, E; Tamm, J; Volkwein, U; Schirren, C



Seminal plasma proteome of electroejaculated Bos indicus bulls.  


The present study describes the seminal plasma proteome of Bos indicus bulls. Fifty-six, 24-month old Australian Brahman sires were evaluated and subjected to electroejaculation. Seminal plasma proteins were separated by 2-D SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. The percentage of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm of the bulls were 70.4 ± 2.3 and 64 ± 3.2%, respectively. A total of 108 spots were identified in the 2-D maps, corresponding to 46 proteins. Binder of sperm proteins accounted for 55.8% of all spots detected in the maps and spermadhesins comprised the second most abundant constituents. Other proteins of the Bos indicus seminal plasma include clusterin, albumin, transferrin, metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, osteopontin, epididymal secretory protein E1, apolipoprotein A-1, heat shock 70 kDa protein, glutathione peroxidase 3, cathelicidins, alpha-enolase, tripeptidyl-peptidase 1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, plasma serine protease inhibitor, beta 2-microglobulin, proteasome subunit beta type-4, actin, cathepsins, nucleobinding-1, protein S100-A9, hemoglobin subunit alpha, cadherin-1, angiogenin-1, fibrinogen alpha and beta chain, ephirin-A1, protein DJ-1, serpin A3-7, alpha-2-macroglobulin, annexin A1, complement factor B, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, seminal ribonuclease, ribonuclease-4, prostaglandin-H2 d-isomerase, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. In conclusion, this work uniquely portrays the Bos indicus seminal fluid proteome, based on samples from a large set of animals representing the Brahman cattle of the tropical Northern Australia. Based on putative biochemical attributes, seminal proteins act during sperm maturation, protection, capacitation and fertilization. PMID:24889044

Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Corbet, N J; Corbet, D H; Burns, B M; Boe-Hansen, G B; McGowan, M R



Identification of fatty acids in canine seminal plasma.  


Seminal plasma contains various biochemical components associated with sperm function. However, there is limited information regarding the fatty acid composition of seminal plasma and their effect on sperm. The aim of this study was to identify the fatty acid content in canine seminal plasma using gas chromatography. Twelve ejaculates were studied, the seminal plasma was obtained by centrifugation and then the lipids were extracted, methylated and analysed by chromatography. The total lipids in the seminal plasma were 2.5 ± 0.3%, corresponding to 85% saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 15% unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). The greatest proportions of SFA were palmitic acid (30.4%), stearic acid (23.4%) and myristic acid (5.3%) and of UFA oleic acid (9.0%). Therefore, the protocols and techniques used enabled the identification of 18 different fatty acids in canine seminal plasma, which constitutes a good method to evaluate and quantify the fatty acid profile in this species. PMID:23398451

Díaz, R; Inostroza, K; Risopatrón, J; Sanchez, R; Sepúlveda, N



Human Seminal Plasma Proteome Study: A Search for Male Infertility Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Seminal plasma is a potential source of biomarkers for many disorders of the male reproductive system including male infertility. Knowledge of the peptide and protein components of seminal fluid is accumulating especially with the appearance of high-throughput MS-based techniques. Of special interest in the field of male infertility biomarkers, is the identification and characterization of differentially expressed proteins in seminal plasma of men with normal and impaired spermatogenesis. However, the data obtained until now is still quite heterogeneous and with small percentage of overlap between independent studies. Extensive comparative analysis of seminal plasma proteome is still needed in order to establish a potential link between seminal plasma proteins and male infertility. PMID:24052741

Davalieva, K; Kiprijanovska, S; Noveski, P; Plaseski, T; Kocevska, B; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D



Seminal Plasma Initiates a Neisseria gonorrhoeae Transmission State  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Niche-restricted pathogens are evolutionarily linked with the specific biological fluids that are encountered during infection. Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the genital infection gonorrhea and is exposed to seminal fluid during sexual transmission. Treatment of N. gonorrhoeae with seminal plasma or purified semen proteins lactoferrin, serum albumin, and prostate-specific antigen each facilitated type IV pilus-mediated twitching motility of the bacterium. Motility in the presence of seminal plasma was characterized by high velocity and low directional persistence. In addition, infection of epithelial cells with N. gonorrhoeae in the presence of seminal plasma resulted in enhanced microcolony formation. Close association of multiple pili in the form of bundles was also disrupted after seminal plasma treatment leading to an increase in the number of single pilus filaments on the bacterial surface. Thus, exposure of N. gonorrhoeae to seminal plasma is proposed to alter bacterial motility and aggregation characteristics to influence the processes of transmission and colonization. PMID:24595372

Anderson, Mark T.; Dewenter, Lena; Maier, Berenike; Seifert, H. Steven



Seasonal variation of goat seminal plasma proteins.  


The present study describes the investigation of seasonal changes in seminal plasma proteins of Saanen goats under natural conditions in south Brazil. Proteins were isolated by liquid chromatography on heparin Sepharose CL-6B column and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Important differences were observed in the pattern of heparin-affinity proteins (HAPs), such as a band of 178 kDa unique to the breeding season; a decrease in 119 kDa proteins; and an increase in proteins ranging from 73 to 104 kDa. HAP caused deterioration of sperm motility and acrosome breakage in media containing and not containing skimmed milk; the effect was most remarkable with the proteins from the nonbreeding season. Furthermore, HAP presented phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, which was 4.4-fold higher in nonbreeding season than in breeding season. Binding sites for HAP were identified in the sperm surface, particularly at the middle piece of the spermatozoa. These results indicate that proteins from goat seminal plasma are under seasonal control and associated with sperm function during breeding and nonbreeding seasons. PMID:12041898

La Falci, V S N; Tortorella, H; Rodrigues, J L; Brandelli, A



Quantification of seminal plasma motility inhibitor/semenogelin in human seminal plasma.  


Semenogelin I and II (Sg I and II) are the major components of human semen coagulum. The protein is rapidly cleaved after ejaculation by the chymotrypsin-like protease prostate-specific antigen (PSA), which results in the liquefaction of the semen coagulum and the progressive release of motile spermatozoa. One of the cleavage products of the protein, a 14-kDa protein, is a sperm motility inhibitor (seminal plasma motility inhibitor [SPMI]). We developed a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that is specific to the fragment of Sgs, SPMI, and a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system for the quantification of Sgs using this mAb. Then, we measured SPMI/Sg levels in human seminal plasma from healthy male volunteers (n = 100, aged 18-24 years). The mean level of SPMI/Sg in seminal plasma was 19 +/- 13 mg/mL (range, 4-68 mg/mL). Log-transformed SPMI/Sg levels were negatively correlated with the sperm motility (r = -0.229, P =.0220) and positively correlated with the total protein concentration (r = 0.793, P <.0001). This result supports that SPMI, one of the fragments of Sg, has its inhibitory effect on ejaculated spermatozoa in liquefied semen under physiological conditions. PMID:14581514

Yoshida, Kaoru; Yamasaki, Tadashi; Yoshiike, Miki; Takano, Shoichi; Sato, Itaru; Iwamoto, Teruaki



Seminal plasma and its effect on ruminant spermatozoa during processing.  


Seminal plasma can both inhibit and stimulate sperm function, making its use as a supportive medium somewhat contradictory. These effects are directed by the multifunctional action of numerous inorganic and organic components, but it is the direct association of seminal plasma proteins with the sperm membrane that is thought to exert the most significant response. In vitro handling of spermatozoa in preparation for artificial insemination may involve washing, dilution, cooling, freezing, re-warming and sex-sorting. These processes can alter proteins of the sperm surface and reduce seminal plasma in the sperm environment. This, among other factors, may destabilize the sperm membrane and reduce the fertilizable lifespan of spermatozoa. Such handling-induced damage may be prevented or reversed through supplementation of seminal plasma, but the effectiveness of this technique differs with species, and the source and subsequent treatment of both spermatozoa and seminal plasma. Seminal plasma appears to act as a protective medium during in vitro processing of ram spermatozoa, but this does not appear to be the case for bull spermatozoa. The reasons for this divergent effect will be discussed with particular emphasis on the influence of the major proteins of ruminant seminal plasma, known as BSP proteins. The biochemical and biophysical properties of these proteins are well documented, and this information has provided greater insight into the signalling pathways of capacitation and the protective action of extender components. PMID:22827372

Leahy, T; de Graaf, S P



Oral zinc supplementation restore high molecular weight seminal zinc binding protein to normal value in Iraqi infertile men  

PubMed Central

Background Zinc in human seminal plasma is divided into three types of ligands which are high (HMW), intermediate (IMW), and low molecular weight ligands (LMW). The present study was aimed to study the effect of Zn supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen along with Zinc Binding Protein levels in the seminal plasma in asthenozoospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 37 fertile and 37 asthenozoospermic infertile men with matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate, every participant took two capsules per day for three months (each one 220mg). Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. For determination of the amount of zinc binding proteins, the gel filtration of seminal plasma on Sephadex G-75 was performed. All the fractions were investigated for protein and for zinc concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Evaluation of chromatograms was made directly from the zinc concentration in each fraction. Results A significant high molecular weight zinc binding ligands percentage (HMW-Zn %) was observed in seminal plasma of fertile males compared with subfertile males. However, seminal low molecular weight ligands (LMW-Zn) have opposite behavior. The mean value of semen volume, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc sulfate supplementation. Conclusions Zinc supplementation restores HMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to normal value. Zinc supplementation elevates LMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to more than normal value. Trial registration identifier NCT01612403 PMID:23145537



Verification of male infertility biomarkers in seminal plasma by multiplex selected reaction monitoring assay.  


Seminal plasma is a promising biological fluid to use for noninvasive clinical diagnostics of male reproductive system disorders. To verify a list of prospective male infertility biomarkers, we developed a multiplex selected reaction monitoring assay and measured the relative abundance of 31 proteins in 30 seminal plasma samples from normal, nonobstructive azoospermia and post-vasectomy individuals. Median levels of some proteins were decreased by more than 100-fold in nonobstructive azoospermia or post-vasectomy samples, in comparison with normal samples. To follow up the most promising candidates and measure their concentrations in seminal plasma, heavy isotope-labeled internal standards were synthesized and used to reanalyze 20 proteins in the same set of samples. Concentrations of candidate proteins in normal seminal plasma were found in the range 0.1-1000 ?g/ml but were significantly decreased in nonobstructive azoospermia and post-vasectomy. These data allowed us to select, for the first time, biomarkers to discriminate between normal, nonobstructive azoospermia, and post-vasectomy (simulated obstructive azoospermia) seminal plasma samples. Some testis-specific proteins (LDHC, TEX101, and SPAG11B) performed with absolute or nearly absolute specificities and sensitivities. Cell-specific classification of protein expression indicated that Sertoli or germ cell dysfunction, but not Leydig cell dysfunction, was observed in nonobstructive azoospermia seminal plasma. The proposed panel of biomarkers, pending further validation, could lead to a clinical assay that can eliminate the need for testicular biopsy to diagnose the category of male infertility, thus providing significant benefits to patients as well as decreased costs associated with the differential diagnosis of azoospermia. PMID:21933954

Drabovich, Andrei P; Jarvi, Keith; Diamandis, Eleftherios P



Lactotransferrin in Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Seminal Plasma Correlates with Semen Quality  

PubMed Central

Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have highly variable ejaculate quality within individuals, greatly reducing the efficacy of artificial insemination and making it difficult to devise a sperm cryopreservation protocol for this endangered species. Because seminal plasma influences sperm function and physiology, including sperm motility, the objectives of this study were to characterize the chemistry and protein profiles of Asian elephant seminal plasma and to determine the relationships between seminal plasma components and semen quality. Ejaculates exhibiting good sperm motility (?65%) expressed higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology (80.3±13.0 vs. 44.9±30.8%) and positive Spermac staining (51.9±14.5 vs. 7.5±14.4%), in addition to higher total volume (135.1±89.6 vs. 88.8±73.1 ml) and lower sperm concentration (473.0±511.2 vs. 1313.8±764.7×106 cells ml?1) compared to ejaculates exhibiting poor sperm motility (?10%; P<0.05). Comparison of seminal plasma from ejaculates with good versus poor sperm motility revealed significant differences in concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and glucose. These observations suggest seminal plasma influences semen quality in elephants. One- and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis revealed largely similar compositional profiles of seminal plasma proteins between good and poor motility ejaculates. However, a protein of ?80 kDa was abundant in 85% of ejaculates with good motility, and was absent in 90% of poor motility ejaculates (P<0.05). We used mass spectrometry to identify this protein as lactotransferrin, and immunoblot analysis to confirm this identification. Together, these findings lay a functional foundation for understanding the contributions of seminal plasma in the regulation of Asian elephant sperm motility, and for improving semen collection and storage in this endangered species. PMID:23976974

Kiso, Wendy K.; Selvaraj, Vimal; Nagashima, Jennifer; Asano, Atsushi; Brown, Janine L.; Schmitt, Dennis L.; Leszyk, John; Travis, Alexander J.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.



Galectin-3 Is a Substrate for Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) in Human Seminal Plasma  

PubMed Central

Background Galectin-3 is a multivalent carbohydrate-binding protein involved in cell adhesion, cell cycle control, immunomodulation, and cancer progression, including prostate cancer. Galectin-3 function is regulated by proteolytic cleavage that destroys galectin-3 multivalency while preserving carbohydrate-binding activity. In human semen, galectin-3 is present in seminal plasma and is also associated with prostasomes, exosome-like vesicles secreted by the prostate. In the current study, we characterized the proteolytic activity that cleaves galectin-3 in human seminal plasma. Methods An in vitro assay was developed to investigate galectin-3 cleavage in seminal plasma. The effect of protease inhibitors, divalent ion chelators, and Zn2+ on the cleavage activity was determined. Proteases enriched from seminal plasma were tested for their ability to cleave galectin-3. Affinity purification and microsequence analysis were used to identify the cleavage site in galectin-3. Results Galectin-3 was identified in human seminal plasma in an intact and truncated form. Gelatinases enriched from seminal plasma did not cleave galectin-3. Inhibitor studies indicated that the galectin-3 cleavage activity in seminal plasma is a Zn2+ sensitive, serine protease. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) was demonstrated to cleave galectin-3 between tyrosine107-glycine108 and produce a functionally-active, monovalent lectin. Conclusions PSA is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease secreted by the prostatic epithelium and normally functions in liquefaction of semen following ejaculation. Furthermore, PSA is implicated in the promotion of localized prostate tumors and bone metastases by its roles in immunomodulation, invasion, and apoptosis. Our results indicate that PSA regulates galectin-3 in human semen and may regulate galectin-3 function during prostate cancer progression. PMID:20672323

Saraswati, Sarika; Block, Ashley S.; Davidson, Mari. K.; Rank, Roger. G.; Mahadevan, Maha; Diekman, Alan B.



PIXE analysis of human spermatozoa isolated from seminal plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PIXE has been applied to the multielemental and microanalysis of human spermatozoa. This is the first attempt to determine the chemical compositions of the motile spermatozoa free from contaminations of seminal plasma without loss of component elements during washing. The spermatozoa were isolated from semen by letting them swim into a kind of physiological saline, Tyrode's solution. Relative concentrations of P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Zn and Br in motile spermatozoa were determined by the use of the chlorine K X-ray peak intensity for evaluating the amount of Tyrode's solution contained in the sample targets. The concentrations of calcium and iron in spermatozoa were considerably higher than in seminal plasma. The concentrations of P, K, Zn and Br in spermatozoa were not so different from those in seminal plasma.

Maeda, K.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Yoshida, K.; Uda, M.



Protein composition of seminal plasma in fractionated stallion ejaculates.  


Seminal plasma (SP) contains several types of compounds derived from the epididymides and accessory glands. The aim of this study was to examine the protein composition of different ejaculate fractions. Trial I: fractionated ejaculates were collected from two normal and two subfertile stallions. Samples containing pre-sperm fluid and the first sperm-rich jets (HIGH-1), the main sperm-rich portion (HIGH-2), the jets with low sperm concentrations (LOW), and a combined whole-ejaculate (WE) sample was centrifuged, and the SP was filtered and frozen. A part of each SP sample was stored (5°C, 24 h) with spermatozoa from HIGH-2 and skim milk extender. Sperm motility was evaluated after storage in extender mixed with the stallion's own SP or SP from one of the other stallions (sperm from a normal stallion stored in SP from a subfertile stallion and vice versa). Protein composition was analysed using reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry. The area-under-the-curve (AUC) was used for quantitative comparison of proteins within fractions. Trial II: semen samples were collected from seven stallions. Fractions with the highest (HIGH) and lowest (LOW) sperm concentrations and WE samples were examined using SDS-PAGE and densitometry. No significant differences emerged between fractions in the AUC-values of the Horse Seminal Protein-1 (HSP-1) and HSP-2 peaks, or the peak containing HSP-3 and HSP-4 (HSP-3/4). Levels of HSP-1, HSP-2 and HSP-3/4 were not significantly correlated with total sperm motility, progressive sperm motility or average path velocity after storage. Significant differences between ejaculate fractions in the amount of different protein groups present in SP were not found in Trial I; but in Trial II, the proteins in the 60-70 kDa range were more abundant in LOW than in HIGH and WE, indicating that this band contained proteins derived mainly from the seminal vesicles, which produce most of the SP in LOW. PMID:20546178

Kareskoski, A M; del Alamo, M M Rivera; Güvenc, K; Reilas, T; Calvete, J J; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Andersson, M; Katila, T



Boar seminal vesicles secrete arylsulfatases into seminal plasma: evidence that desulfation of seminolipid occurs only after ejaculation.  


The presence and composition of arylsulfatases in secretions of various glands of the boar genital tract were studied. Arylsulfatase A was present in seminal plasma but not in extracellular fluids of the testis and epididymis nor in blood serum of boars. On the other hand, arylsulfatase B was present in both seminal plasma and extracellular fluids of the testis but was completely resorbed in the epididymis. The acrosomal arylsulfatase A did not leak out of spermatozoa before ejaculation. We conclude that arylsulfatases A and B present in seminal plasma are secreted by the seminal vesicles, for three reasons: 1) secretions from seminal vesicles contained 2.3-fold higher arylsulfatase activities than did those from seminal plasma, but had an identical composition; 2) cauda epididymal fluids did not contain arylsulfatase; and 3) other accessory glands of the boar genital tract did not secrete arylsulfatase. When intact boar spermatozoa were incubated with arylsulfatase A, complete desulfation of seminolipid was observed. The most important arguments favoring our hypothesis that desulfation of seminolipid does not start before ejaculation are the following: 1) desulfoseminolipid is not detectable in epididymal or freshly ejaculated sperm samples; 2) the acrosomal arylsulfatase A cannot desulfate seminolipid present at the surface of the plasma membrane of intact spermatozoa because of its intracellular localization; 3) extracellular arylsulfatase A is stored in seminal vesicles and thus can interact with spermatozoa during and after ejaculation. PMID:8095813

Gadella, B M; Colenbrander, B; Van Golde, L M; Lopes-Cardozo, M



Boar seminal plasma components and their relation with semen quality.  


Select boar seminal plasma (SP) components and their relation to semen quality were investigated. Thirty nine boars from three artificial insemination (AI) centers were divided into group A (GA:?>?80% normal sperm and >70% motility) and group B (GB:?normal sperm and?normal morphology. Only Mg was associated (p?

López Rodríguez, Alfonso; Rijsselaere, Tom; Beek, Josine; Vyt, Philip; Van Soom, Ann; Maes, Dominiek



Stimulation of sperm motility and oxygen consumption of fowl spermatozoa by a low molecular weight fraction of seminal plasma.  


Washed fowl spermatozoa were incubated in a phosphate buffer containing various concentrations of fowl seminal plasma at 41 degrees C, normal body temperature, and the motility and oxygen consumption of spermatozoa were determined. Immediately after the incubation, spermatozoa showed good motility in the various diluents. However, with concentrations of seminal plasma at or below 20%, spermatozoa quickly became immotile. In contrast, at concentrations higher than 40% seminal plasma, spermatozoa were motile even after 15 min. As the concentration of seminal plasma was increased, oxygen consumption of spermatozoa also increased. A filtrate of the seminal plasma, obtained by passing the fluid through an Amicon YM-2 ultra-filtration membrane (Mr less than 1000), also stimulated the motility and oxygen consumption of spermatozoa. These results suggest that some low molecular weight factor(s) in fowl seminal plasma stimulated motility and oxygen consumption of fowl spermatozoa at 41 degrees C. A physiological role of this factor(s) may be to assist passage of spermatozoa through the vagina after natural mating. PMID:6747966

Ashizawa, K; Okauchi, K



Assessment of seminal plasma laminin in fertile and infertile men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To assess laminin levels in the seminal plasma of infertile and fertile men, and to analyze the correlation of laminin levels with sperm count, age, sperm motility and semen volume.Methods:One hundred and twenty-five recruited men were equally divided into five groups according to their sperm concentration and clinical examination: fertile normozoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia, non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), obstructive azoospermia (OA) and congenital

Mohamed R. El-Dakhly; Gamil A. Tawadrous; Taymour Mostafa; Mohamed M. F. Roaia; Abdel R. M. El-Nashar; Shedeed A. Shedeed; Ihab I. Kamel; Amal A. Aziz; Yasser El-Mohtaseb



Sperm-immobilizing monoclonal antibody to human seminal plasma antigens.  


Rat spleen cells immunized to human azoospermic semen (a mixture of seminal plasma components) and mouse myeloma cells (P3/X63 Ag8U1; P3U1) (Marguilies et al., 1976) were successfully fused with polyethylene glycol (PEG 1500) and 19 of 89 fused cell cultures were found to produce sperm-immobilizing antibody. The cells that produced antibody indicating the highest sperm-immobilizing activity were distributed into wells for further recloning and 10 clones producing sperm-immobilizing antibody were established. The clone (1C4) producing the highest antibody titre was found to produce a large amount of IgG in culture supernatants and to contain a mixture of rat and mouse chromosomes. It was proved by immunodiffusion test that the monoclonal antibody was produced to the human seminal plasma antigen No. 7 which is common to human milk protein. Using this hybridoma which produced a large amount of monoclonal sperm-immobilizing antibody, a new method could be developed for purifying human seminal plasma antigen by immunoaffinity chromatography with bound antibody from the hybridoma. PMID:6783353

Shigeta, M; Watanabe, T; Maruyama, S; Koyama, K; Isojima, S



Gelatinases and serine proteinase inhibitors of seminal plasma and the reproductive tract of turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined proteolytic enzymes and serine proteinase inhibitors in turkey seminal plasma with relation to their distribution within the reproductive tract and to yellow semen syndrome (YSS). Proteases of blood plasma, extracts from the reproductive tract, and seminal plasma were analyzed by gelatin zymography. We found a clear regional distribution of proteolytic enzymes in the turkey reproductive tract. Each

M. Kot?owska; R. Kowalski; J. Glogowski; J. Jankowski; A. Ciereszko



Functional proteomic analysis of seminal plasma proteins in men with various semen parameters  

PubMed Central

Background Alterations at the molecular level in spermatozoa and seminal plasma can affect male fertility. The objective of this study was to determine if analysis of differential expression of proteins in varying semen parameters can serve as potential biomarkers for male infertility. Methods The differential expression of proteins in the seminal plasma of men based on sperm count and morphology were examined utilizing proteomic tools. Subjects were categorized based on sperm concentration and morphology into 4 groups: 1) normal sperm count and normal morphology (NN); 2) normal sperm count and abnormal morphology (NA); 3) oligozoospermia and normal morphology (ON); and 4) oligozoospermia and abnormal morphology (OA). Proteomic analysis was performed by LC-MS/MS followed by functional bioinformatics analysis. Protein distribution in the NA, ON and OA groups was compared with that of the NN group. Results Twenty proteins were differentially expressed among the 4 groups. Among the unique proteins identified, 3 were downregulated in the NA group, 1 in the ON group and 1 in the OA group while 2 were upregulated in the ON and OA groups. The functional analysis 1) identified biological regulation as the major processes affected and 2) determined that most of the identified proteins were of extracellular origin. Conclusions We have identified proteins that are over-or underexpressed in the seminal plasma of men with poor sperm quality. The distinct presence of some of the proteins may serve as potential biomarkers and provide insight into the mechanistic role played by these proteins in male infertility. Further studies using Western Blot analysis are required to validate these findings. PMID:23663294



Seminal plasma oxytocin and oxidative stress levels in infertile men with varicocele.  


This study aimed to assess seminal plasma oxytocin (OT) and oxidative stress (OS) levels in infertile men with varicocele (Vx). A total of 131 men were divided into fertile men (n = 20), fertile men with Vx (n = 17), infertile men without Vx (n = 40) and infertile men with Vx (n = 54). OT, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were estimated in seminal plasma. Mean levels of seminal OT, MDA were significantly decreased, and the mean level of GPx was significantly increased in fertile men with/without Vx compared with infertile men with/without Vx. Mean levels of OT, MDA were increased, and mean level of GPx was significantly decreased in Vx grade III cases compared with Vx grades I, II cases and in bilateral Vx cases compared with unilateral Vx. There was significant negative correlation between seminal OT with sperm count, sperm motility, seminal GPx and significant positive correlation with sperm abnormal forms, seminal MDA. It is concluded that seminal OT is significantly decreased in fertile men with/without Vx compared with infertile men with/without Vx. Seminal OT demonstrated significant negative correlation with sperm count, sperm motility, seminal GPx and significant positive correlation with sperm abnormal forms, seminal MDA. Seminal OT is associated with Vx grade and its bilaterality. PMID:24635706

Mostafa, T; Rashed, L A; Osman, I; Marawan, M



Domestic Cat Model for Predicting Human Nucleoside Analogue Pharmacokinetics in Blood and Seminal Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish whether a feline model can predict nucleoside analogue behavior in human semen, zidovudine (ZDV) and lamivudine (3TC) pharmacokinetic parameters (PKs) were determined in the blood and seminal plasma of healthy cats. Our results show considerable similarity in ZDV and 3TC PKs between cats and humans. As in humans, ZDV and 3TC tend to accumulate in feline seminal plasma.




Isolation, characterization and cDNA sequencing of a Kazal family proteinase inhibitor from seminal plasma of turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The turkey reproductive tract and seminal plasma contain a serine proteinase inhibitor that seems to be unique for the reproductive tract. Our experimental objective was to isolate, characterize and cDNA sequence the Kazal family proteinase inhibitor from turkey seminal plasma and testis. Seminal plasma contains two forms of a Kazal family inhibitor: virgin (Ia) represented by an inhibitor of moderate

Mariola S?owi?ska; Mariusz Olczak; Mariola Wojtczak; Jan Glogowski; Jan Jankowski; Wies?aw W?torek; Ryszard Amarowicz; Andrzej Ciereszko



Correlation between Sperm Parameters and Protein Expression of Antioxidative Defense Enzymes in Seminal Plasma: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Semen analysis is the cornerstone in the evaluation of male (in)fertility. However, there are men with normal semen tests but with impaired fertilizing ability, as well as fertile men with poor sperm characteristics. Thus, there is rising interest to find novel parameters that will help to predict and define the functional capacity of spermatozoa. Methods. We examined whether there is a correlation between semen parameters (count, progressive motility, and morphology) and protein expression/activity of antioxidative defense enzymes in seminal plasma from 10 normospermic subjects. Results. Sperm progressive motility was in positive correlation with seminal plasma protein expression of both superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms (MnSOD and CuZnSOD) and catalase. Also, positive correlation was observed between sperm count and MnSOD protein expression, as well as between sperm morphology and protein expression of catalase in seminal plasma. In contrast, protein expression of glutathione peroxidase was not in correlation with any sperm parameter, while its activity negatively correlated with sperm morphology and motility. Conclusions. These data suggest that evaluation of protein expression of antioxidative defense enzymes in seminal plasma might be of importance in the evaluation of male fertility status and that could be used as an additional biomarker along with classic semen analysis in assessment of semen quality. PMID:25691806

Macanovic, Biljana; Vucetic, Milica; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Buzadzic, Biljana; Garalejic, Eliana; Otasevic, Vesna



Seminal plasma applied post-thawing affects boar sperm physiology: a flow cytometry study.  


Cryopreservation induces extensive biophysical and biochemical changes in the sperm. In the present study, we used flow cytometry to assess the capacitation-like status of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa and its relationship with intracellular calcium, assessment of membrane fluidity, modification of thiol groups in plasma membrane proteins, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, viability, acrosomal status, and mitochondrial activity. This experiment was performed to verify the effect of adding seminal plasma on post-thaw sperm functions. To determine these effects after cryopreservation, frozen-thawed semen from seven boars was examined after supplementation with different concentrations of pooled seminal plasma (0%, 10%, and 50%) at various times of incubation from 0 to 4 hours. Incubation caused a decrease in membrane integrity and an increase in acrosomal damage, with small changes in other parameters (P > 0.05). Although 10% seminal plasma showed few differences with 0% (ROS increase at 4 hours, P < 0.05), 50% seminal plasma caused important changes. Membrane fluidity increased considerably from the beginning of the experiment, and ROS and free thiols in the cell surface increased by 2 hours of incubation. By the end of the experiment, viability decreased and acrosomal damage increased in the 50% seminal plasma samples. The addition of 50% of seminal plasma seems to modify the physiology of thawed boar spermatozoa, possibly through membrane changes and ROS increase. Although some effects were detrimental, the stimulatory effect of 50% seminal plasma could favor the performance of post-thawed boar semen, as showed in the field (García JC, Domínguez JC, Peña FJ, Alegre B, Gonzalez R, Castro MJ, Habing GG, Kirkwood RN. Thawing boar semen in the presence of seminal plasma: effects on sperm quality and fertility. Anim Reprod Sci 2010;119:160-5). PMID:23756043

Fernández-Gago, Rocío; Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe



Effect of Seminal Plasma on Equine Sperm Quality: Preparation and Storage Techniques  

E-print Network

This study had four experimental aims. We investigated whether fresh (unfrozen) or snap-frozen homologous seminal plasma yielded similar sperm quality in cool-stored semen. We compared sperm quality following exposure to homologous versus...

Whigham, Alison R



Seminal plasma proteins and sperm resistance to stress.  


The role of seminal plasma (SP) in mammalian sperm function remains largely a matter of speculation as both inhibitory and stimulating effects have been found. Specific components of SP, particularly proteins, are adsorbed onto the surface of ejaculated sperm as they pass through the male and female reproductive tracts. These sperm coating components seem to have the important function of maintaining the stability of the membrane up to the process of capacitation (decapacitation factors). Therefore, they must be removed, modified or masked before the spermatozoa undergo the acrosome reaction, an essential process for successful fertilization. It is well known that low temperatures alter the function of spermatozoa. Cold shock results in the destabilization of sperm membranes and impairment of sperm function, and it is also well known that ram spermatozoa are more sensitive to cold-shock stress than those of other species. The addition of SP proteins to spermatozoa before and/or after cooling is able to minimize cryoinjury effects. The major proteins in ram SP which are able to protect and repair the cold-shock damage to sperm contain fibronectin-II domains. The significance of this domain and the role of these proteins in sperm capacitation and gamete interaction are discussed. PMID:18803753

Muiño-Blanco, T; Pérez-Pé, R; Cebrián-Pérez, J A



Seminal plasma biochemical markers and their association with semen analysis findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To examine the clinical value of six seminal plasma components in the evaluation of sperm quality and in the differential diagnosis of men with infertility.Methods. We analyzed 202 seminal plasmas for prostate-specific antigen, glucose, pepsinogen C, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS), and BRCA1-like immunoreactive protein (BRCA1-LIP) using quantitative immunofluorometric procedures. The semen donors were categorized

Eleftherios P Diamandis; William P Arnett; George Foussias; Helen Pappas; Shruti Ghandi; Dimitrios N Melegos; Brendan Mullen; He Yu; John Srigley; Keith Jarvi



Glycosaminoglycans in the accessory sex glands, testes and seminal plasma of alpaca and ram.  


The viscous nature of alpaca semen limits its use in cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies. The cause and source of this viscosity is unknown although it has been postulated, but never proven, that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) secreted by the bulbourethral gland are responsible. The present study investigated the concentration and composition of GAGs in alpaca seminal plasma, testes, bulbourethral gland and prostate gland and compared them to those in the ram to determine the relationship between seminal plasma GAGs and viscosity and to identify the source of seminal plasma GAGs. Alpaca seminal plasma contained more GAGs than ram (P<0.001) and the predominant GAG, keratan sulfate, was correlated with viscosity (P=0.05, R(2)=0.2635). The alpaca bulbourethral gland contained most GAGs compared with prostate or testis (P<0.001). In the ram, the prostate contained most GAGs. These findings suggest that GAGs, particularly keratan sulfate, may be the cause of seminal plasma viscosity in alpacas, and that the seminal plasma GAGs originate from the bulbourethral gland. PMID:22281083

Kershaw-Young, Claire M; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C



The major bactericidal activity of human seminal plasma is zinc-dependent and derived from fragmentation of the semenogelins.  


One of the major roles of seminal plasma is to provide antimicrobial protection for the spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract. We found that the bactericidal activity of seminal plasma was highest after resolution of the seminal clot and that this antibacterial activity subsequently became greatly diminished. The antibacterial activity was derived from peptides generated by fragmentation of the semenogelins while the semenogelin holoproteins displayed no antibacterial activity. After ejaculation the semenogelin-derived peptides were fragmented to smaller and smaller fragments over time and thereby lost antibacterial activity. This paralleled the loss of antibacterial activity of whole seminal plasma both in vitro and after sexual intercourse. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the semenogelin-derived peptides generated in seminal plasma was strictly zinc-dependent both at neutral and low pH. These data provide novel roles for the resolution of seminal clots and for the high zinc concentration in human seminal plasma. PMID:18714013

Edström, Anneli M L; Malm, Johan; Frohm, Birgitta; Martellini, Julie A; Giwercman, Aleksander; Mörgelin, Matthias; Cole, Alexander M; Sørensen, Ole E



Differential protein expression in seminal plasma from fertile and infertile males  

PubMed Central

AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze human seminal plasma proteins in association with male fertility status using the proteomic mass spectrometry technology Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (SELDI-TOF-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen analysis was performed using conventional methods. Protein profiles of the seminal plasma were obtained by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry over a strong anion exchanger, ProteinChip® Q10 array. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant differences in motility and sperm count between fertile and infertile men. In addition, we observed ten seminal proteins that are significantly up-regulated in the infertile group. In conclusion, comparison of seminal plasma proteome in fertile and infertile men provides new aspects in the physiology of male fertility and might help in identifying novel markers of male infertility. PMID:25395747

Cadavid J, Angela P.; Alvarez, Angela; Markert, Udo R.; Maya, Walter Cardona



Factor H in Porcine Seminal Plasma Protects Sperm against Complement Attack in Genital Tracts*  

PubMed Central

We found that factor H (FH) exists in porcine seminal plasma. Purified FH strongly inhibited serum alternative pathway complement activation against lipopolysaccharide. The molecular weight, pI, and heparin-binding activity of the purified protein were different from those of purified FH from porcine serum. The complement regulatory activity of seminal plasma FH was ?2-fold stronger than that of serum FH. Treatment of purified serum FH with sialidase and N-glycosidase F gave almost the same results as those of seminal plasma FH. The deletion of sialic acid from the carbohydrate chains of both FHs contributed to heparin-binding and complement regulatory activities. Results of reverse transcriptase-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry showed that seminal plasma FH is mainly secreted from epithelial cells of the seminal vesicle in male genital tracts. FH was also detected in the outer acrosomal region of ejaculated sperm by immunofluorescence staining, and found that the purified FH from the sperm membrane has the same complement regulatory activity as that of seminal plasma FH. The ejaculated sperm possessing FH in the outer acrosomal region considerably evaded complement attack. We also found that there is strong complement activity in fluids from female genital tract ducts. These findings indicate that FH bound to the outer acrosomal region and soluble FH play important roles in protecting sperm against complement attack in male and female genital tracts. PMID:19920146

Sakaue, Tomohisa; Takeuchi, Keisuke; Maeda, Toshinaga; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Nishi, Katsuji; Ohkubo, Iwao



Seminal plasma affects sperm sex sorting in boars.  


Two experiments were conducted in boar semen samples to evaluate how both holding time (24h) and the presence of seminal plasma (SP) before sorting affect sperm sortability and the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to tolerate liquid storage. Whole ejaculate samples were divided into three aliquots immediately after collection: one was diluted (1:1, v/v) in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS; 50% SP); the SP of the other two aliquots was removed and the sperm pellets were diluted with BTS + 10% of their own SP (10% SP) or BTS alone (0% SP). The three aliquots of each ejaculate were divided into two portions, one that was processed immediately for sorting and a second that was sorted after 24h storage at 15-17°C. In the first experiment, the ability to exhibit well-defined X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm peaks (split) in the cytometry histogram and the subsequent sorting efficiency were assessed (20 ejaculates). In contrast with holding time, the SP proportion influenced the parameters examined, as evidenced by the higher number of ejaculates exhibiting split and better sorting efficiency (P<0.05) in semen samples with 0-10% SP compared with those with 50% SP. In a second experiment, the quality (viability, total and progressive motility) and functionality (plasma membrane fluidity and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species) of sex-sorted spermatozoa were evaluated after 0, 72 and 120h storage at 15-17°C (10 ejaculates). Holding time and SP proportion did not influence the quality or functionality of stored sex-sorted spermatozoa. In conclusion, a holding time as long as 24h before sorting did not negatively affect sex sorting efficiency or the ability of sorted boar spermatozoa to tolerate long-term liquid storage. A high proportion of SP (50%) in the semen samples before sorting reduced the number of ejaculates to be sorted and negatively influenced the sorting efficiency, but did not affect the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to tolerate liquid storage. PMID:25163401

Alkmin, Diego V; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Tarantini, Tatiana; Del Olmo, David; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi



Determination of some blood and seminal plasma ions in the beluga, Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758).  


Blood and seminal plasma ionic parameters are essential for monitoring health status, detecting illnesses, fish stock conservation and development of artificial propagation methods via extender improvement. In this study, comparison of blood and seminal plasma ionic parameters in beluga, Huso huso (30-45 kg, 1-2 m, n = 10), was made. The results obtained show that Na(+) (82.54 ± 5.46), Cl(-) (15.95 ± 0.72) and K(+) (3.57 ± 0.15) were predominant ions in the seminal plasma (as mM). Blood ionic values (as mM) were determined for Na(+) (110.2 ± 1.26), K(+) (3.77 ± 0.081), Cl(-) (60.12 ± 1.5), Ca(2+) (2.05 ± 0.35) and Mg(2+) (1.9 ± 0.16). Results of the comparison between ionic parameters of seminal and blood plasma indicated that the concentrations of all parameters of blood plasma with the exception of K(+) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of seminal plasma. PMID:25041321

Aramli, M S; Habibi, E; Aramli, S; Nouri, H A



?-Microseminoprotein Endows Post Coital Seminal Plasma with Potent Candidacidal Activity by a Calcium- and pH-Dependent Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The innate immune factors controlling Candida albicans are mostly unknown. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is common in women and affects approximately 70–75% of all women at least once. Despite the propensity of Candida to colonize the vagina, transmission of Candida albicans following sexual intercourse is very rare. This prompted us to investigate whether the post coital vaginal milieu contained factors active against C. albicans. By CFU assays, we found prominent candidacidal activity of post coital seminal plasma at both neutral and the acid vaginal pH. In contrast, normal seminal plasma did not display candidacidal activity prior to acidification. By antifungal gel overlay assay, one clearing zone corresponding to a protein band was found in both post coital and normal seminal plasma, which was subsequently identified as ?-microseminoprotein. At neutral pH, the fungicidal activity of ?-microseminoprotein and seminal plasma was inhibited by calcium. By NMR spectroscopy, amino acid residue E71 was shown to be critical for the calcium coordination. The acidic vaginal milieu unleashed the fungicidal activity by decreasing the inhibitory effect of calcium. The candidacidal activity of ?-microseminoprotein was mapped to a fragment of the C-terminal domain with no structural similarity to other known proteins. A homologous fragment from porcine ?-microseminoprotein demonstrated calcium-dependent fungicidal activity in a CFU assay, suggesting this may be a common feature for members of the ?-microseminoprotein family. By electron microscopy, ?-microseminoprotein was found to cause lysis of Candida. Liposome experiments demonstrated that ?-microseminoprotein was active towards ergosterol-containing liposomes that mimic fungal membranes, offering an explanation for the selectivity against fungi. These data identify ?-microseminoprotein as an important innate immune factor active against C. albicans and may help explain the low sexual transmission rate of Candida. PMID:22496651

Edström Hägerwall, Anneli M. L.; Rydengård, Victoria; Fernlund, Per; Mörgelin, Matthias; Baumgarten, Maria; Cole, Alexander M.; Malmsten, Martin; Kragelund, Birthe B.; Sørensen, Ole E.



Nitric Oxide Levels and Total Antioxidant Capacity in The Seminal Plasma of Infertile Smoking Men  

PubMed Central

Objective: Cigarette is a rich source of oxidants and reactive nitrogen species. Nitric oxide (NO) in high concentration has deleterious effects on human sperm function. Antioxidant defense system in seminal plasma protects spermatozoa from the attack of reactive oxygen metabolites. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between cigarette smoking with the NO levels and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the seminal plasma in infertile smoker men and to compare severity of oxidative stress (OS) in them with fertile and infertile non-smoking men. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, a total of 95 male participants attended the Infertility Clinic of the Fatehmeh-zahra Hospital in Babol, Mazandaran Province, Iran, between 2010 and 2011. They were divided into three groups: I. fertile non-smokers (F.ns; n=32), II. infertile non-smokers (IF.ns; n=30) and III. infertile smokers (IF.s; n=33) according to semen analysis World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 2001) and smoking data. TAC concentration and NO levels of seminal plasma were measured using the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) method and the Griess reagent, respectively. Results: Standard sperm parameters were significantly higher in the fertile group than those in the infertile groups, but these differences between the IF.ns and IF.s were not statistically significant. The mean TAC in the seminal plasma was higher in the F.ns>IF.ns>IF.s, respectively, but these differences were not statistically significant among three groups (p= 0.096). In contrast, the mean NO level in the seminal plasma was lower in the F.nsseminal plasma and decreased fertility in men. PMID:25870842

Yousefniapasha, Yousefreza; Jorsaraei, Gholamali; Gholinezhadchari, Maryam; Mahjoub, Soleiman; Hajiahmadi, Mahmoud; Farsi, Mehrdad



Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in the seminal plasma and human semen parameters  

SciTech Connect

A luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH)-like substance has been detected in human seminal plasma by a radioimmunoassay (RIA) with a highly specific anti-LH-RH antiserum. The seminal samples - not only the plasma itself but also the sample extracted by an acid/alcohol method - showed satisfactory displacement curves in our RIA system. The relationship between fertility and the LH-RH values in the seminal plasma was studied by comparing the peptide levels with sperm concentration and motility. By these two parameters, 103 samples were divided into four groups. In the low-concentration groups (oligozoospermic patients), the hormonal concentrations differed significantly between those specimens demonstrating good and poor motility. These data suggest that this immunoreactive LH-RH may play a role in human spermatogenesis.

Izumi, S.; Makino, T.; Iizuka, R.



Heparin-binding proteins of human seminal plasma: purification and characterization.  


Human seminal plasma (HuSP) contains several proteins that bind heparin and related glycosaminoglycans. Heparin binding proteins (HBPs) from seminal plasma have been shown to participate in modulation of capacitation or acrosome reaction and thus have been correlated with fertility in some species. However, these have not been studied in detail in human. The objective of this study was to purify major HBPs from HuSP in order to characterize these proteins. HBPs were isolated by affinity-chromatography on Heparin-Sepharose column, purified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and Size-exclusion chromatography and checked for purity on sodium-dodecyl PAGE (SDS-PAGE). Identification of HBPs was done by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Here we report the purification and identification of seven HBPs in seminal fluid. The major HBPs are lactoferrin and its fragments, semenogelin I fragments, semenogelin II, prostate specific antigen, homolog of bovine seminal plasma-proteins (BSP), zinc finger protein (Znf 169) and fibronectin fragments. In this study we are reporting for the first time the purification and identification of BSP-homolog and Znf 169 from HuSP and classified them as HBPs. Here we report the purification of seven clinically important proteins from human seminal fluid through heparin affinity chromatography and RP-HPLC, in limited steps with higher yield. PMID:18425775

Kumar, Vijay; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Kashav, Tara; Singh, Tej P; Yadav, Savita



BIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION 63, 15311537 (2000) Seminal Plasma Proteins Revert the Cold-Shock Damage on Ram Sperm Membrane1  

E-print Network

1531 BIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION 63, 1531­1537 (2000) Seminal Plasma Proteins Revert the Cold-Shock to cold shock, were incubated with ram seminal plasma proteins and analyzed by fluorescence markers to reverse the cold shock effect. Scanning electron microscopy also confirmed the high activity of one

Zaragoza, Universidad de


Seminal plasma induces mRNA expression of IL1 , IL6 and LIF in endometrial epithelial cells in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of seminal plasma on the mRNA expression of cytokines in human endometrial epithelial and stromal cells and the cytokine production of spermatozoa were investigated in vitro. Seminal plasma and spermatozoa were collected from healthy volunteers and were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for cytokines. Epithelial and stromal cells from fertile women were cultured on matrigel or polystyrol and

S. Gutsche; M. von Wolff; T. Strowitzki; C. J. Thaler



Relationships between seminal plasma arginase activity and spermatological parameters in rams.  


This study was conducted to evaluate the correlation between seminal plasma arginase activity and spermatological parameters in rams. In this study, five fertility-proven Awassi rams were used as material. Six ejaculates were collected from each ram by an artificial vagina. Spermatological parameters (semen volume, mass activity, sperm motility and concentration and abnormal sperm rate) were immediately determined in each ejaculate. For enzyme assay, the semen samples were centrifuged and stored at -20 °C for the analysis of arginase activity. The average seminal plasma arginase activity was 0.61 ± 0.20 U (mg protein)(-1) . There was a positive correlation between arginase activity and semen volume (r = 0.412, P < 0.05), semen mass activity (r = 0.610, P < 0.01), sperm motility (r = 0.447, P < 0.05) and sperm concentration (r = 0.808, P < 0.01). However, there was a negative correlation between arginase activity and abnormal sperm rate (r = -0.424, P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study clearly suggests that there is a significant correlation between seminal plasma arginase activity and spermatological parameters. In light of these results, seminal plasma arginase activity may be a biochemical criterion for determining sperm quality besides classical semen analysis parameters in rams. PMID:21848887

Gür, S; Kandemir, F M



Characterization, expression and antibacterial properties of apolipoproteins A from carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) seminal plasma.  


Apolipoproteins A are multifunctional proteins that, in addition to contributing to lipid metabolism and transport, are associated with the innate immune system in fish. Using a three step isolation procedure consisting of affinity chromatography on Blue-Sepharose, delipidation and reverse phase HPLC we isolated apolipoproteins from carp seminal plasma and identified them as ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa. Moreover, we provided the full-length cDNA sequence of ApoA-I encoding 257 amino acids including a 18 amino acid signal peptide and a 4 amino acid propeptide. Apolipoproteins corresponded to the most abundant proteins in carp seminal plasma. Both ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa were represented by several proteoforms that differ both in molecular mass and isoelectric point. The proteoforms of ApoA-I characteristic for seminal plasma were distinguished from those of blood. Carp seminal plasma ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa showed a high immunologic similarity to their counterparts in carp blood and seminal plasma of other Cyprinid species. The mRNA expression analysis and immunohistochemical study suggest synthesis and secretion of ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa in the fish reproductive tract and suggest a role in spermatogenesis and the stabilization of sperm membrane. Moreover, ApoA-I displayed bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and bacteriostatic activity against Aeromonas hydrophila which suggests that ApoA-I is associated with innate immune system of the fish reproductive tract. PMID:25251775

Dietrich, Mariola A; Adamek, Miko?aj; Bili?ska, Barbara; Hejmej, Anna; Steinhagen, Dieter; Ciereszko, Andrzej



Seminal plasma proteins of adult boars and correlations with sperm parameters.  


The present study was conducted to identify the major seminal plasma protein profile of boars and its associations with semen criteria. Semen samples were collected from 12 adult boars and subjected to evaluation of sperm parameters (motility, morphology, vitality, and percent of cells with intact acrosome). Seminal plasma was obtained by centrifugation, analyzed by two-dimensional SDS-PAGE, and proteins identified by mass spectrometry (electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight). We tested regression models using spot intensities related to the same proteins as independent variables and semen parameters as dependent variables (P ? 0.05). One hundred twelve spots were identified in the boar seminal plasma gels, equivalent to 39 different proteins. Spermadhesin porcine seminal protein (PSP)-I and PSP-II, as well as spermadhesins AQN-1, AQN-3 and AWN-1 represented 45.2 ± 8% of the total intensity of all spots. Other proteins expressed in the boar seminal plasma included albumin, complement proteins (complement factor H precursor, complement C3 precursor and adipsin/complement factor D), immunoglobulins (IgG heavy chain precursor, IgG delta heavy chain membrane bound form, IgG gamma-chain, Ig lambda chain V-C region PLC3, and CH4 and secreted domains of swine IgM), IgG-binding proteins, epididymal-specific lipocalin 5, epididymal secretory protein E1 precursor, epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase precursor, transferrin, lactotransferrin and fibronectin type 1 (FN1). On the basis of the regression analysis, the percentage of sperm with midpiece defects was related to the amount of CH4 and secreted domains of swine IgM and FN1 (r² = 0.58, P = 0.006), IgG-binding protein (r² = 0.41, P = 0.024), complement factor H precursor (r² = 0.61, P = 0.014) and lactadherin (r² = 0.45, P = 0.033). The percentage of sperm with tail defects was also related to CH4 and secreted domains of swine IgM and FN1 (r² = 0.40, P = 0.034), IgG-binding protein (r² = 0.35, P = 0.043) and lactadherin (r² = 0.74, P = 0.001). Sperm motility, in turn, had association with the intensities of spots identified as lactadherin (r² = 0.48, P = 0.027). In conclusion, we presently describe the major proteome of boar seminal plasma and significant associations between specific seminal plasma proteins and semen parameters. Such relationships will serve as the basis for determination of molecular markers of sperm function in the swine species. PMID:25034516

González-Cadavid, Verónica; Martins, Jorge A M; Moreno, Frederico B; Andrade, Tiago S; Santos, Antonio C L; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O; Moreira, Renato A; Moura, Arlindo A



Large-scale and high-confidence proteomic analysis of human seminal plasma  

PubMed Central

Background The development of mass spectrometric (MS) techniques now allows the investigation of very complex protein mixtures ranging from subcellular structures to tissues. Body fluids are also popular targets of proteomic analysis because of their potential for biomarker discovery. Seminal plasma has not yet received much attention from the proteomics community but its characterization could provide a future reference for virtually all studies involving human sperm. The fluid is essential for the survival of spermatozoa and their successful journey through the female reproductive tract. Results Here we report the high-confidence identification of 923 proteins in seminal fluid from a single individual. Fourier transform MS enabled parts per million mass accuracy, and two consecutive stages of MS fragmentation allowed confident identification of proteins even by single peptides. Analysis with GoMiner annotated two-thirds of the seminal fluid proteome and revealed a large number of extracellular proteins including many proteases. Other proteins originated from male accessory glands and have important roles in spermatozoan survival. Conclusion This high-confidence characterization of seminal plasma content provides an inventory of proteins with potential roles in fertilization. When combined with quantitative proteomics methodologies, it should be useful for studies of fertilization, male infertility, and prostatic and testicular cancers. PMID:16709260

Pilch, Bartosz; Mann, Matthias



Association of seminal plasma motility inhibitors/semenogelins with sperm in asthenozoospermia-infertile men.  


Seminal plasma motility inhibitors (SPMIs) are proteinase-resistant fragments of semenogelin I and II (Sgs), which are the major proteins of semen coagulum. SPMIs inhibit the motility of spermatozoa, and Sgs are thought to be natural regulators of human sperm function. The mechanism underlying sperm motility regulation and its association with defective motility in infertile men remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between SPMIs and spermatozoa in infertile men with asthenozoospermia. Fifty-four semen samples from 37 asthenozoospermic patients and 17 samples from 9 normal healthy subjects were analyzed. Spermatozoa, washed by Percoll density gradients, were immunostained with anti-SPMI antibody and subjected to flow cytometric analysis. The proportion of spermatozoa labeled with the antibody and the average intensity of fluorescence labeling per spermatozoa were analyzed in relation to the parameters used for semen analysis. A significant negative correlation was found between sperm motility and the proportion (R = -0.68) and intensity (R = -0.38) of labeling. These results suggest that SPMIs remain on the sperm surface after liquefaction. This might account for some disorders of sperm motility observed in infertile men with asthenozoospermia. PMID:20720384

Terai, K; Yoshida, K; Yoshiike, M; Fujime, M; Iwamoto, T



Presence of membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma: ultrastructural characteristics, protein profile and enzymatic activity.  


This study sought to verify the presence of membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma by means of transmission electron microscopy and to identify protein profile and some of the enzymatic activities associated with these particles. The transmission electron microscopy observations showed the existence of different sized vesicular membranous structures of more or less spherical shape. These vesicles were surrounded by single-, double- or multiple-layered laminar membranes. The vesicle diameters ranged from 16.3 to 387.4 nm, with a mean of 116.5 ± 70.7 nm. Enzyme activity determinations showed the presence of dipeptilpeptidase IV, aminopeptidase, alkaline and acid phosphatase. To our knowledge, this is the first report that identifies and characterizes the membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma. However, further studies are necessary to identify the exact site of production of these membranous vesicles in the cat male genital tract and to determine their specific roles in the reproductive events of this species. PMID:25414137

Polisca, A; Troisi, A; Minelli, A; Bellezza, I; Fontbonne, A; Zelli, R



Interaction analysis identifies semenogelin I fragments as new binding partners of PIP in human seminal plasma.  


Identification of protein-protein interactions is vital for complete understanding of a biological process and for functional characterization of a protein in related biochemical pathways. In this study, we performed analysis of prolactin inducible protein (PIP) interactions in human seminal plasma. PIP and its interacting partners were co-immunoprecipitated, analyzed by SDS-PAGE and identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Three major interacting partners were identified, viz. human serum albumin, zinc-?-2 glycoprotein and semenogelin I fragments. This is the first report of interaction between PIP and semenogelin I fragments in human seminal plasma or elsewhere with a suggestive role in reproductive physiology which might be helpful for spermatozoa to acquire their motility. PMID:23085372

Tomar, Anil Kumar; Sooch, Balwinder Singh; Raj, Isha; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita



Biophysical characterization of the interaction of bovine seminal plasma protein PDC109 with phospholipid vesicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

PDC-109 is the major protein of bovine seminal plasma. It binds to the bovine sperm surface at ejaculation and modulates\\u000a sperm capacitation. PDC-109 displays phosphorylcholine- and heparin-binding activities which are thought to account for its\\u000a sperm surface coating and glycosaminoglycan-induced sperm capacitating activities, respectively. We have characterized the\\u000a interaction of isolated PDC-109 with membranes of phospholipid vesicles using a biophysical

Peter Müller; Karl-Rudolf Erlemann; Karin Müller; Juan J. Calvete; Edda Töpfer-Petersen; Kathleen Marienfeld; Andreas Herrmann



Heparin-binding proteins of human seminal plasma homologous with boar spermadhesins.  


Protein homologues to boar seminal plasma spermadhesins with the N-terminal sequence AQN (AQN spermadhesins) and with the N-terminal sequence AWN (AWN spermadhesins) were detected in human seminal plasma and characterized. They were isolated as heparin-binding (HB) proteins from human seminal plasma by affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose and then separated into 12 fractions (HB1-HB12) by RP HPLC or into four major fractions (HB-I-HB-IV) by gel filtration. Rabbit antibody against boar seminal plasma AQN 1 spermadhesin cross-reacted with 10-14 kDa proteins of fraction HB7, and antibody against AWN 1 spermadhesin cross-reacted with 11-14 kDa proteins of fractions HB9 and HB11. Both antibodies interacted with 10-14 kDa proteins in fractions HB-I and HB-II. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (1)AQNKG(5)... was determined in the 14 kDa protein of fraction HB-I cross-reacting with AQN 1 antibodies. A component detected among 10-14 kDa proteins of HB7 cross-reacting with rabbit antiserum against AQN 1 had the N-terminal sequence (1)GELKFVTLVFAVGDYE(16), which is similar to the sequence of a fragment of prostatic acid phosphatase. Lactoferrin and its fragments were immunodetected with rabbit antibody against human milk lactoferrin in fractions HB7-HB11. This was proved by N-terminal sequencing of a lactoferrin fragment immunodetected in fraction HB7. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the dominant component of fraction HB2 revealed the presence of a fragment of semenogelin I. PMID:11543852

Kraus, M; Tichá, M; Jonáková, V



Quantitative analysis of anandamide and related acylethanolamides in human seminal plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endocannabinoids anandamide, palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide have been detected in human seminal plasma and are bioactive lipids implicated in regulation of sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction. Several methods exist for endocannabinoid quantification but none have been validated for measurement in human seminal plasma. We describe sensitive, robust, reproducible solid phase and isotope-dilution UHPLC-ESI-MS\\/MS methods for the extraction and quantification

Akwasi A. Amoako; Timothy H. Marczylo; Patricia M. W. Lam; Jonathon M. Willets; Amanda Derry; Janine Elson; Justin C. Konje



Differential diagnosis of azoospermia with proteomic biomarkers ECM1 and TEX101 quantified in seminal plasma.  


Male fertility problems range from diminished production of sperm, or oligozoospermia, to nonmeasurable levels of sperm in semen, or azoospermia, which is diagnosed in nearly 2% of men in the general population. Testicular biopsy is the only definitive diagnostic method to distinguish between obstructive (OA) and nonobstructive (NOA) azoospermia and to identify the NOA subtypes of hypospermatogenesis, maturation arrest and Sertoli cell-only syndrome. We measured by selected reaction monitoring assay 18 biomarker candidates in 119 seminal plasma samples from men with normal spermatogenesis and azoospermia, and identified two proteins, epididymis-expressed ECM1 and testis-expressed TEX101, which differentiated OA and NOA with high specificities and sensitivities. The performance of ECM1 was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. On the basis of a cutoff level of 2.3 ?g/ml derived from the current data, we could distinguish OA from normal spermatogenesis with 100% specificity, and OA from NOA with 73% specificity, at 100% sensitivity. Immunohistochemistry and an immunoenrichment mass spectrometry-based assay revealed the differential expression of TEX101 in distinct NOA subtypes. TEX101 semen concentrations differentiated Sertoli cell-only syndrome from the other categories of NOA. As a result, we propose a simple two-biomarker decision tree for the differential diagnosis of OA and NOA and, in addition, for the differentiation of NOA subtypes. Clinical assays for ECM1 and TEX101 have the potential to replace most of the diagnostic testicular biopsies and facilitate the prediction of outcome of sperm retrieval procedures, thus increasing the reliability and success of assisted reproduction techniques. PMID:24259048

Drabovich, Andrei P; Dimitromanolakis, Apostolos; Saraon, Punit; Soosaipillai, Antoninus; Batruch, Ihor; Mullen, Brendan; Jarvi, Keith; Diamandis, Eleftherios P



Isolation and characterization of an ovoinhibitor, a multidomain Kazal-like inhibitor from Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) seminal plasma.  


Turkey seminal plasma contains three serine proteinase inhibitors. Two of them, with low molecular masses (6 kDa), were identified as single-domain Kazal-type inhibitors responsible for regulating acrosin activity. Our experimental objective was to isolate and characterize the inhibitor with the high molecular weight from turkey seminal plasma. The inhibitor was purified using hydrophobic interaction and affinity chromatography. Pure preparations of the inhibitor were used for identification by mass spectrometry, for determination of physicochemical properties (molecular weight, pI, and content and composition of the carbohydrate component), for kinetic studies, and for antibacterial tests. Gene expression and immunohistochemical detection of the inhibitor were analyzed in the testis, epididymis, and ductus deferens. The inhibitor with a high molecular weight from turkey seminal plasma was identified as an ovoinhibitor, which was found in avian semen for the first time. The turkey seminal plasma ovoinhibitor was a six-tandem homologous Kazal-type domain serine proteinase inhibitor that targeted multiple proteases, including subtilisin, trypsin, and elastase, but not acrosin. Our results suggested that hepatocyte growth factor activator was a potential target proteinase for the ovoinhibitor in turkey seminal plasma. The presence of the ovoinhibitor within the turkey reproductive tract suggested that its role was to maintain a microenvironment for sperm in the epididymis and ductus deferens. The turkey seminal plasma ovoinhibitor appeared to play a significant role in an antibacterial semen defense against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25253733

S?owi?ska, Mariola; Liszewska, Ewa; Nynca, Joanna; Bukowska, Joanna; Hejmej, Anna; Bili?ska, Barbara; Szubstarski, Jaros?aw; Koz?owski, Krzysztof; Jankowski, Jan; Ciereszko, Andrzej



Prostasomes of canine seminal plasma - zinc-binding ability and effects on motility characteristics and plasma membrane integrity of spermatozoa.  


Prostasomes are small lipid membrane-confined vesicles that are involved in various fertilization-related processes. The aim of this study was to demonstrate canine seminal plasma prostasomes' ability to bind zinc ions, as well as examining their effects on sperm motility characteristics and plasma membrane integrity during cold storage. Ejaculates, collected from five cross-bred dogs (n = 50), were subjected to ultracentrifugation followed by gel filtration (GF) on a Superose 6 column. Prostasomes appeared as a single fraction in the elution profile. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of canine prostasomes revealed the presence of membrane vesicles with diameters ranging from 20.3 to 301 nm. The zinc-affinity chromatography on a Chelating Sepharose Fast Flow - Zn(2 +) showed that from 93 to 100% of the prostasome proteins bind zinc ions (P(+) Zn). SDS-PAGE revealed that canine P(+) Zn comprised four protein bands, with low molecular weights (10.2-12 kDa). We have also shown a positive effect of prostasomes (p < 0.05), especially variant B (2% of total seminal plasma protein) on canine sperm motility parameters after 2 h storage at 5°C (TMOT%, 44.75 ± 5.18) and PMOT%, 12.42 ± 1.59) and VAP, VSL, VCL, when compared with Control (TMOT%, 7.30 ± 1.41 and PMOT%, 1.70 ± 0.42). Higher percentage of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane (SYBR/PI dual staining) and intact acrosome (Giemsa stained), after 2 h storage at 5°C, was showed, in variant A (1.5% of total seminal plasma protein) and B, when compared with Control and variant C (2.5% of total seminal plasma protein). The prostasomes' effect on motility and plasma membrane integrity of canine cold-stored spermatozoa may be related to their ability to bind zinc ions and regulate their availability to the sperm. PMID:25809561

Mogielnicka-Brzozowska, M; Strze?ek, R; Wasilewska, K; Kordan, W



Effect of isoflavones on reproductive performance, testosterone levels, lipid peroxidation, and seminal plasma biochemistry of male rabbits.  


The objective of this study was to determine the effect of either 2.5 mg/kg Body Weight or 5 mg/kg Body Weight (BW) doses of isoflavones on semen quality, testosterone levels, lipid peroxidation and semen biochemistry of male New Zealand White rabbits. Animals were given both 2.5 mg/kg BW and 5 mg/kg BW doses of isoflavones. The tested doses were given to rabbits orally every other day for 13 weeks. Treatment with isoflavones caused an increase (p < 0.05) in libido (by decreasing the reaction time), sperm concentration, sperm motility (%), total motile sperm per ejaculate (TMS), packed sperm volume (PSV), total functional sperm fraction (TFSF), total sperm output, initial fructose concentration and normal sperm, while dead sperm was reduced compared to control animals. On the other hand, ejaculate volume, initial hydrogen ion concentration (pH) and plasma testosterone levels did not change in treated animals with both doses of isoflavones as compared to control. Concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), total lipids, and low density lipoprotein were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in seminal plasma of rabbits treated with either 2.5 mg/kg BW or 5 mg/kg BW doses of isoflavones. While, the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), acid phosphatase (AcP), and alkaline phosphatase (AlP) were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in seminal plasma of treated animals. Also, total cholesterol, percentage cholesterol (out of total lipids), and high density lipoprotein were significantly (p < 0.05) increased, while triglyceride did not change in seminal plasma of treated animals. Supplementation at either level of isoflavones did not cause changes in live body weight (LBW), dry matter intake (DMI), and relative weights of testes and epididymis. The present results showed that either 2.5 mg/kg BW or 5 mg/kg BW doses of isoflavones caused an improvement of some semen characteristics and did not have negative effects on male fertility. PMID:15620089

Yousef, Mokhtar I; Esmail, Alshaimaa M; Baghdadi, Hoda H



A proton NMR study of the effect of Mucuna pruriens on seminal plasma metabolites of infertile males.  


The objective of this study was to employ proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy to evaluate the impact of Mucuna pruriens seeds on the metabolic profile of seminal plasma of infertile patients. A total of 180 infertile patients were administered M. pruriens seed powder for a period of three months. Age-matched healthy men comprised the control (n=50) group in the study. Lactate, alanine, choline, citrate, glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glutamine, tyrosine, histidine, phenylalanine, and uridine were measured in seminal plasma by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. To evaluate the degree of infertility and extent of hormonal imbalance induced by this milieu, separate sperm concentration, motility, lipid peroxide in seminal plasma and LH, FSH, T, and PRL hormone concentration in serum were measured using standard laboratory methods and RIA, respectively, in the same subjects. M. pruriens therapy rectifies the perturbed alanine, citrate, GPC, histidine and phenylalanine content in seminal plasma and improves the semen quality of post-treated infertile men with compared to pre-treated. Concomitantly, clinical variables in seminal plasma and blood serum were also improved over post therapy in infertile men. On the basis of these observations, it may be proposed that M. pruriens seed powder not only reactivates the enzymatic activity of metabolic pathways and energy metabolism but also rejuvenates the harmonic balance of male reproductive hormones in infertile men. These findings open more opportunities for infertility treatment and management by improving semen quality. PMID:21459537

Gupta, Ashish; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Shukla, Kamla Kant; Bansal, Navneeta; Jaiswer, Shyam Pyari; Shankhwar, Satya Narain



Prostate Secretory Protein of 94 Amino Acids (PSP94) Binds to Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP) in Human Seminal Plasma  

PubMed Central

Prostate Secretory Protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94) is one of the major proteins present in the human seminal plasma. Though several functions have been predicted for this protein, its exact role either in sperm function or in prostate pathophysiology has not been clearly defined. Attempts to understand the mechanism of action of PSP94 has led to the search for its probable binding partners. This has resulted in the identification of PSP94 binding proteins in plasma and seminal plasma from human. During the chromatographic separation step of proteins from human seminal plasma by reversed phase HPLC, we had observed that in addition to the main fraction of PSP94, other fractions containing higher molecular weight proteins also showed the presence of detectable amounts of PSP94. This prompted us to hypothesize that PSP94 could be present in the seminal plasma complexed with other protein/s of higher molecular weight. One such fraction containing a major protein of ?47 kDa, on characterization by mass spectrometric analysis, was identified to be Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP). The ability of PAP present in this fraction to bind to PSP94 was demonstrated by affinity chromatography. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the presence of PSP94-PAP complex both in the fraction studied and in the fresh seminal plasma. In silico molecular modeling of the PSP94-PAP complex suggests that ?-strands 1 and 6 of PSP94 appear to interact with domain 2 of PAP, while ?-strands 7 and 10 with domain 1 of PAP. This is the first report which suggests that PSP94 can bind to PAP and the PAP-bound PSP94 is present in human seminal plasma. PMID:23469287

Anklesaria, Jenifer H.; Jagtap, Dhanashree D.; Pathak, Bhakti R.; Kadam, Kaushiki M.; Joseph, Shaini; Mahale, Smita D.



The Analysis of Sialylation, N-Glycan Branching, and Expression of O-Glycans in Seminal Plasma of Infertile Men  

PubMed Central

Carbohydrates are known to mediate some events involved in successful fertilization. Although some studies on the glycosylation of seminal plasma proteins are available, the total glycan profile was rarely analyzed as a feature influencing fertilization potential. In this work we aimed to compare some glycosylation traits in seminal plasma glycoproteins of fertile and infertile men. The following findings emerge from our studies: (1) in human seminal plasma the presence and alterations of O-linked glycans were observed; (2) the expression of SNA-reactive sialic acid significantly differs between asthenozoospermia and both normozoospermic (fertile and infertile) groups; (3) the expression of PHA-L-reactive highly branched N-glycans was significantly lower in oligozoospermic patients than in both normozoospermic groups. Indication of the appropriate lectins that would enable the possibly precise determination of the glycan profile seems to be a good supplement to mass spectrum analysis. Extension of the lectin panel is useful for the further research.

Kratz, Ewa M.; Ka?u?a, Anna; Zimmer, Mariusz; Ferens-Sieczkowska, Miros?awa



Assessment of post-thawed ram sperm viability after incubation with seminal plasma.  


A suggested alternative to improve post-thawed ram semen quality is the addition of seminal plasma (SP). This is thought to be capable of improving sperm resistance to thermal shock, reverting cryocapacitation and helping sperm survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of frozen-thawed ram semen incubation with SP on mitochondrial activity, acrosomal membrane integrity, necrosis and apoptosis. Frozen/thawed semen was divided into two groups: the SP Group and the control group. After 0, 30 and 60 min, fluorescent probes were added to aliquots from each treatment group and evaluated using flow cytometry. There was no difference between treatment groups in almost all viability parameters evaluated, with exception of the apoptosis, which was found increased in SP group. The increase in incubation period resulted in a decreased percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential and acrosomal membrane integrity and an increased percentage of necrotic and apoptotic sperm cells. In conclusion, the present study showed that addition of seminal plasma after thawing cryopreserved ram sperm had no identifiable beneficial effect on sperm quality. PMID:22661118

Rovegno, Mariana; Feitosa, Weber Beringui; Rocha, Andre Monteiro; Mendes, Camilla Mota; Visintin, Jose Antonio; D'Avila Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz



Glycodelin-S in human seminal plasma reduces cholesterol efflux and inhibits capacitation of spermatozoa.  


Tight control of sperm capacitation is important for successful fertilization. Glycodelin-S is one of the most abundant glycoproteins in the human seminal plasma. However, its function is unclear. We investigated the role of glycodelin-S on capacitation of human spermatozoa. Binding kinetics experiments demonstrated the presence of two saturable and reversible binding sites of glycodelin-S on human spermatozoa. Differently glycosylated other isoforms of glycodelin, glycodelin-A and -F, did not compete with glycodelin-S for these binding sites, suggesting that the glycodelin-S binding sites are different from those of the other isoforms. Indirect immunofluorescent staining revealed specific binding of glycodelin-S around the sperm head. This immunoreactivity was greatly reduced in spermatozoa that had migrated through the cervical mucus surrogates. Glycodelin-S at physiological concentrations significantly reduced the bovine serum albumin and cyclodextrin-induced cholesterol efflux and down-regulated the adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A/tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, resulting in suppression of capacitation. Deglycosylation abolished glycodelin-S binding and the effect of glycodelin-S on bovine serum albumin-induced capacitation. This indicates that the carbohydrate moiety of glycodelin-S is critical for the function of the molecule. It is concluded that glycodelin-S in seminal plasma maintains the uncapacitated state of human spermatozoa. PMID:15883155

Chiu, Philip C N; Chung, Man-Kin; Tsang, Heng-Yan; Koistinen, Riitta; Koistinen, Hannu; Seppala, Markku; Lee, Kai-Fai; Yeung, William S B



Identification of novel semenogelin I-derived antimicrobial peptide from liquefied human seminal plasma.  


Semenogelin I (SgI) is one of the most abundant proteins in human seminal plasma. SgI plays a key role in sperm coagulation and spermatozoon immobilization. In addition, SgI and/or its proteolytic fragments are involved in regulating spermatozoon motility, capacitation and inhibin-like activity. However, little is known about the antibacterial activity of SgI-derived peptides. By a combination of ion-exchange, gel filtration and high-performance liquid chromatography, peptides from liquefied human seminal plasma from 40 healthy donors were isolated and characterized. N-terminal amino-acid sequencing and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry revealed that four isolated peptides were SgI-derived, namely SgI-29 (85-113), SgI-46 (85-130), SgI-47 (85-131) and SgI-52 (85-136). Interestingly, SgI-29, SgI-46 and SgI-47 are newly identified SgI-derived peptides. Antimicrobial activity assay results indicated that synthesized SgI-29 had strong antibacterial activity toward various bacterial strains. Our results indicate that SgI can be digested into small fragments like newly identified SgI-29, SgI-46 and SgI-47 and may have diversified functions. PMID:18314226

Zhao, Hui; Lee, Wen-Hui; Shen, Ji-Hong; Li, Hong; Zhang, Yun



Involvement of semenogelin-derived peptides in the antibacterial activity of human seminal plasma.  


Mechanisms for protecting spermatozoa, and the testes that produce them, from infection are essential, given the importance of these cells and organs for the fertility of the individual and perpetuation of the species. This is borne out by the publication of numerous papers on this subject over the last 50 years. We extended our work and that of others on the anti-infectious defense system of the male genital tract, using a new strategy for the direct identification of antibacterial molecules in human seminal plasma. We subjected a liquefied seminal plasma cationic fraction to reversed-phase HPLC, monitored microbicidal activity by gel overlay and radial diffusion assays, and identified the proteins and/or peptides present in each active fraction by mass spectrometry. In addition to proteins with known potent microbicidal activity--phospholipase A2, lactoferrin, and lysozyme--we also found that peptides produced by cleavage of semenogelin I, the predominant human semen coagulum protein, had high levels of antibacterial activity. PMID:14613901

Bourgeon, Frédéric; Evrard, Bertrand; Brillard-Bourdet, Michèle; Colleu, Daniel; Jégou, Bernard; Pineau, Charles



Seminal plasma proteins regulate the association of lipids and proteins within detergent-resistant membrane domains of bovine spermatozoa.  


Maturing spermatozoa acquire full fertilization competence by undergoing major changes in membrane fluidity and protein composition and localization. In epididymal spermatozoa, several proteins are associated with cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) domains. These proteins dissociate from DRM in capacitated sperm cells, suggesting that DRM may play a role in the redistribution of integral and peripheral proteins in response to cholesterol removal. Since seminal plasma regulates sperm cell membrane fluidity, we hypothesized that seminal plasma factors could be involved in DRM disruption and redistribution of DRM-associated proteins. Our results indicate that: 1) the sperm-associated proteins, P25b and adenylate kinase 1, are linked to DRM of epididymal spermatozoa, but were exclusively associated with detergent-soluble material in ejaculated spermatozoa; 2) seminal plasma treatment of cauda epididymal spermatozoa significantly lowered the content of cholesterol and the ganglioside, GM1, in DRM; and 3), seminal plasma dissociates P25b from DRM in epididymal spermatozoa. We found that the seminal plasma protein, Niemann-Pick C2 protein, is involved in cholesterol and GM1 depletion within DRM, then leading to membrane redistribution of P25b that occurs in a very rapid and capacitation-independent manner. Together, these data suggest that DRM of ejaculated spermatozoa are reorganized by specific seminal plasma proteins, which induce lipid efflux as well as dissociation of DRM-anchored proteins. This process could be physiologically relevant in vivo to allow sperm survival and attachment within the female reproductive tract and to potentiate recognition, binding, and penetration of the oocyte. PMID:18235103

Girouard, Julie; Frenette, Gilles; Sullivan, Robert



Toxic metals signature in the human seminal plasma of Pakistani population and their potential role in male infertility.  


Aims of this study were to provide firsthand data on the incidence of trace metals in human seminal plasma and find possible correlations between levels of toxic metals and semen quality of Pakistani population. Human semen samples were collected from male partners of couples undergoing infertility assessment at the National Institute of Health Islamabad (Pakistan). We investigated seventy-five seminal plasma samples, which were further categorized into three groups (normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia) according to WHO guidelines. The concentration of 17 different toxic metals in human seminal plasma was determined simultaneously by using Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Out of 17 trace metals, Cd and Ni showed significant difference (p < 0.05) among three monitored groups. Ni and Cd concentrations in the seminal plasma were negatively correlated with sperm concentration (r = -0.26, -0.29) and motility (r = -0.33, -0.37), respectively. This study suggested that exposure of Ni and Cd is mainly related with the consumption of contaminated dietary items, including ghee (cooking oil), flour and other agri-products. In some semen samples, the concentrations of Sn, V, Cu, Pb, Cr and Hg exhibited high levels suggesting a recent human exposure to surrounding sources. In Pakistani human semen samples, the levels of trace metals were lower and/or comparable to that found in populations of other countries. The results show the first evidence of the effect of toxic metals on semen quality and male infertility in Pakistan. PMID:25471479

Zafar, Ambreen; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Bostan, Nazish; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Tahir, Faheem; Shah, Syed Tahir Abbas; Hussain, Alamdar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Huang, Qingyu; Peng, Siyuan; Shen, Heqing



Seminal plasma concentrations of Anti-Müllerian hormone and inhibin B predict motile sperm recovery from cryopreserved semen in asthenozoospermic men: a prospective cohort study.  


The rate of motile sperm recovery after cryopreservation is very variable and difficult to predict. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin B are produced by Sertoli cells and released into the seminal plasma, where they could be functional markers of spermatogenesis and sperm resistance to thermal stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether seminal plasma levels of AMH and inhibin B predict sperm recovery after cryopreservation. The study included 153 men enrolled prospectively during a semen analysis. The cohort was stratified by the fresh semen characteristics into: normal (n = 52), high sperm count (n = 55), asthenozoospermia (n = 23), and oligozoospermia (n = 23). The main outcome measure was motile sperm recovery rate, defined as post-thaw total motile sperm count × 100/pre-freezing total motile sperm count. In men with asthenozoospermia there was a significant correlation between motile sperm recovery rate and the pre-freezing concentrations of AMH (r = 0.522, p < 0.05) and inhibin B (0.471, p < 0.05). In this group, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of AMH and inhibin B for prediction of ?50% motile sperm recovery after cryopreservation were, respectively, 0.808 and 0.638. AMH was particularly useful, with sensitivity of 0.85, specificity of 0.80, positive predictive value of 0.84 and negative predictive value of 0.80. The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of inhibin B for the same outcome were, respectively, 0.62, 0.60, 0.67, and 0.55. The median motile sperm recovery rate was 83% when seminal plasma AMH concentration was ?0.84 ng/mL, vs. 27% when AMH concentration was <0.84 ng/mL (p < 0.05). In other patient groups, there was no correlation between the two hormone levels in seminal plasma and the motile sperm recovery rate. In conclusion, seminal plasma AMH and inhibin B concentrations correlate with and can be used to predict motile sperm recovery after semen cryopreservation in asthenozoospermic men. PMID:25269872

Nery, S F; Vieira, M A F; Dela Cruz, C; Lobach, V N M; Del Puerto, H L; Torres, P B; Rocha, A L L; Reis, A B; Reis, F M



Properties of a highly purified antifertility factor from human seminal plasma.  


A high molecular weight antifertility factor (AF-1) was obtained in a high degree of purity from human seminal plasma by ultracentrifugation, CM-cellulose and concanavalin A chromatography, and Sepharose 6B gel filtration. A final purification step involving preparative disc electrophoresis was occasionally required. AF-1 showed a dose-dependent inhibition of the in vitro fertilizing ability of capacitated mouse spermatozoa, causing 50% inhibition of fertilization at approximately 27.5 micrograms/10(6) spermatozoa. Removal of the follicle cell layer of the oocyte did not decrease the antifertility effect of AF-1 but inhibition of fertilization was no longer observed after dispersal of the zona pellucida. The effect of AF-1 was on the spermatozoa and not on the oocytes. These results show that AF-1 treatment prevents capacitated spermatozoa from penetrating the zona pellucida and possibly the follicle cell layer. The mechanism by which AF-1 does so is not known because AF-1 did not prevent the in vitro acrosome reaction of guinea pig spermatozoa, nor did it inhibit the activity of human acrosin or bovine testicular hyaluronidase. The antifertility activity of AF-1 is reversed after recapacitation of the AF-1 treated spermatozoa and it can be assumed that AF-1 is either dissipated or loses activity during the transport of the spermatozoa through the female genital tract when capacitation takes place. AF-1 is heat labile. The properties of AF-1 are the same as those found previously for the pellet obtained by high-speed centrifugation of human seminal plasma, indicating that this is the primary, nonparticulate, high molecular weight factor with antifertility activity in human semen. PMID:7159655

Reddy, J M; Audhya, T K; Goodpasture, J C; Zaneveld, L J



Cationic polypeptides contribute to the anti-HIV-1 activity of human seminal plasma  

PubMed Central

Mucosal surfaces of the reproductive tract as well as their secretions have important roles in preventing sexual transmission of HIV-1. In the current study, the majority of the intrinsic anti-HIV-1 activity of human seminal plasma (SP) was determined to reside in the cationic polypeptide fraction. Antiviral assays utilizing luciferase reporter cells and lymphocytic cells revealed the ability of whole SP to prevent HIV-1 infection, even when SP was diluted 3200-fold. Subsequent fractionation by continuous flow acid-urea (AU)-PAGE and antiviral testing revealed that cationic polypeptides within SP were responsible for the majority of anti-HIV-1 activity. A proteomic approach was utilized to resolve and identify 52 individual cationic polypeptides that contribute to the aggregate anti-HIV-1 activity of SP. One peptide fragment of semenogelin I, termed SG-1, was purified from SP by a multistep chromatographic approach, protein sequenced, and determined to exhibit anti-HIV-1 activity against HIV-1. Anti-HIV-1 activity was transient, as whole SP incubated for prolonged time intervals exhibited a proportional decrease in anti-HIV-1 activity that was directly attributed to the degradation of semenogelin I peptides. Collectively, these results indicate that the cationic polypeptide fraction of SP is active against HIV-1, and that semenogelin-derived peptides contribute to the intrinsic anti-HIV-1 activity of SP.—Martellini, J. A., Cole, A. C., Venkataraman, N., Quinn, G. A., Svoboda, P., Gangrade, B. K., Pohl, J., Sørensen, O. E., Cole, A. M. Cationic polypeptides contribute to the anti-HIV-1 activity of human seminal plasma. PMID:19487309

Martellini, Julie A.; Cole, Amy L.; Venkataraman, Nitya; Quinn, Gerry A.; Svoboda, Pavel; Gangrade, Bhushan K.; Pohl, Jan; Sørensen, Ole E.; Cole, Alexander M.



Mechanism of Membrane Binding by the Bovine Seminal Plasma Protein, PDC109: A Surface Plasmon Resonance Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PDC-109, the major protein of bovine seminal plasma, binds to sperm plasma membranes upon ejaculation and plays a crucial role in the subsequent events leading to fertilization. The binding process is mediated primarily by the specific interaction of PDC-109 with choline-containing phospholipids. In the present study the kinetics and mechanism of the interaction of PDC-109 with phospholipid membranes were investigated

Celestine J. Thomas; V. Anbazhagan; M. Ramakrishnan; Nabil Sultan; Ira Surolia; Musti J. Swamy



Effect of seminal plasma on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) sperm vitrification.  


This study was designed to test a vitrification method in Atlantic salmon spermatozoa and determine the capacity of seminal plasma (SP) to protect these cells from cryoinjuries. The vitrification medium consisted of a standard buffer for fish spermatozoa (Cortland medium) + 10% DMSO + 2% BSA + 0.13-M sucrose + SP at concentrations of 30% (G30), 40% (G40), or 50% (G50). Fresh sperm was used as a control. To freeze the samples, 30-?L suspensions of spermatozoa from each group were dropped directly into liquid nitrogen. The resulting spheres were placed in cryotubes for storage in liquid nitrogen. The cryotubes with the vitrified spermatozoa were thawed by placing them in a water bath at 37 °C for 45 seconds. After thawing, the following sperm quality parameters were determined by flow cytometry: DNA fragmentation (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling), plasma membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI, staining technique), and mitochondrial membrane potential (JC-1 staining). An optical microscope was used to assess subjectively sperm motility, whereas fertility was determined by the presence of neurulation using five replicates per treatment in a sample of 30 eggs. Spermatozoa quality variables were preserved best when the highest concentration of SP (50%) was used (DNA fragmentation, 9.2%; plasma membrane integrity, 98.6%; mitochondrial membrane integrity, 47.2%; motility, 44.1%; and fertility, 46.2%). PMID:25442390

Figueroa, E; Merino, O; Risopatrón, J; Isachenko, V; Sánchez, R; Effer, B; Isachenko, E; Farias, J G; Valdebenito, I



The abundant 19-kilodalton protein associated with human sperm nuclei that is related to seminal plasma alpha-inhibins.  


A basic protein with a relative molecular mass of 19 kDa has been identified and isolated to purity from sonication-resistant, partially demembranized human sperm nuclei. Several criteria prove that this is the unique sperm-specific protein, which was previously thought to be a sperm/testis histone. Partial primary structure sequencing demonstrates homologies with human seminal alpha-inhibins and semenogelin. From the sequence and Western-blotting data with antibodies against basic seminal inhibin-like peptide, we propose that this 19-kD protein is a product of 52-kDa semenogelin processing. The 19-kDa protein was not found among seminal plasma proteins and may be protected from further cleavage into inhibin-like peptides by its association with the sperm head. Immunofluorescence data indicate its localization in the nuclear periphery, with preferential concentration at the acrosome calyx boundary. PMID:8257566

Zalensky, A O; Yau, P; Breneman, J W; Bradbury, E M



Timing of Intermittent Seminal HIV-1 RNA Shedding in Patients with Undetectable Plasma Viral Load under Combination Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

It was demonstrated that combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the HIV-1 viral load (VL) in the blood and the seminal compartment. Some studies have reported that the seminal HIV-1 VL is undetectable in individuals with an undetectable blood plasma viral load (bpVL) under cART. However, some recent studies have demonstrated that seminal HIV-1 RNA may still be detected, and potentially infectious, even in the case of an undetectable bpVL. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the detection rate of a seminal VL and whether shedding could be intermittent over a very short time. From January 2006 to December 2011, 88 HIV-1 infected men, enrolled in an Assisted Reproduction program, provided 306 semen samples, corresponding to 177 frozen sperm samples (two samples delivered at a one-hour interval (n?=?129) or one sample (n?=?48)). All enrolled men were under cART, with an undetectable bpVL for more than 6 months. HIV-1 RNA was quantified in seminal plasma using a Roche COBAS Ampliprep COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test. Seminal HIV-1 RNA was detected in 23 samples (7.5%) from 17 patients (19.3%). This detection rate was stable over years. With regards to the freezing of two samples delivered at a one-hour interval, the proportion of discordance between the first and second samples was 9.3% (12/129). Our results confirm the intermittent shedding of HIV-1 in semen. While this finding has been shown by studies examining longer time intervals, to our knowledge, this has never been demonstrated over such a short time interval. PMID:24594873

Ferraretto, Xavier; Estellat, Candice; Damond, Florence; Longuet, Pascale; Epelboin, Sylvie; Demailly, Pauline; Yazbeck, Chadi; Llabador, Marie-Astrid; Pasquet, Blandine; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Matheron, Sophie; Patrat, Catherine



Timing of intermittent seminal HIV-1 RNA shedding in patients with undetectable plasma viral load under combination antiretroviral therapy.  


It was demonstrated that combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the HIV-1 viral load (VL) in the blood and the seminal compartment. Some studies have reported that the seminal HIV-1 VL is undetectable in individuals with an undetectable blood plasma viral load (bpVL) under cART. However, some recent studies have demonstrated that seminal HIV-1 RNA may still be detected, and potentially infectious, even in the case of an undetectable bpVL. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the detection rate of a seminal VL and whether shedding could be intermittent over a very short time. From January 2006 to December 2011, 88 HIV-1 infected men, enrolled in an Assisted Reproduction program, provided 306 semen samples, corresponding to 177 frozen sperm samples (two samples delivered at a one-hour interval (n?=?129) or one sample (n?=?48)). All enrolled men were under cART, with an undetectable bpVL for more than 6 months. HIV-1 RNA was quantified in seminal plasma using a Roche COBAS Ampliprep COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test. Seminal HIV-1 RNA was detected in 23 samples (7.5%) from 17 patients (19.3%). This detection rate was stable over years. With regards to the freezing of two samples delivered at a one-hour interval, the proportion of discordance between the first and second samples was 9.3% (12/129). Our results confirm the intermittent shedding of HIV-1 in semen. While this finding has been shown by studies examining longer time intervals, to our knowledge, this has never been demonstrated over such a short time interval. PMID:24594873

Ferraretto, Xavier; Estellat, Candice; Damond, Florence; Longuet, Pascale; Epelboin, Sylvie; Demailly, Pauline; Yazbeck, Chadi; Llabador, Marie-Astrid; Pasquet, Blandine; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Matheron, Sophie; Patrat, Catherine



Seminal Plasma and Semen Amyloids Enhance Cytomegalovirus Infection in Cell Culture  

PubMed Central

Among the modes of transmission available to the cytomegalovirus (CMV) is sexual transmission, primarily via semen. Both male-to-female (M-F) and male-to-male (M-M) sexual transmission significantly contribute toward the spread of CMV infections in the global population. Semen plays an important role in carrying the viral particle that invades the vaginal or rectal mucosa, thereby initiating viral replication. Both semen and seminal plasma (SP) can enhance HIV-1 infection in cell culture, and two amyloid fibrils, semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI) and amyloids derived from the semenogelins (SEM amyloids), have been identified as seminal factors sufficient to enhance HIV-1 infection (J. Munch et al., Cell 131:1059–1071, 2007; N. R. Roan et al., Cell Host Microbe 10:541–550, 2011; F. Arnold et al., J. Virol. 86:1244–1249, 2012). Whether SP, SEVI, or SEM amyloids can enhance other viral infections has not been extensively examined. In this study, we found that SP, SEVI, and SEM amyloids strongly enhance both human CMV (HCMV) and murine CMV infection in cell culture. SEVI and SEM amyloids increased infection rates by >10-fold, as determined by both flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Viral replication was increased by 50- to 100-fold. Moreover, viral growth curve assays showed that SP, SEVI, and SEM amyloids sped up the kinetics of CMV replication such that the virus reached its replicative peak more quickly. Finally, we discovered that SEM amyloids and SEVI counteracted the effect of anti-gH in protecting against CMV infection. Collectively, the data suggest that semen enhances CMV infection through interactions between semen amyloid fibrils and viral particles, and these interactions may prevent HCMV from being neutralized by anti-gH antibody. PMID:24027327

Roan, Nadia R.; Yamamura, Yasuhiro



Seminal Plasma as a Source of Prostate Cancer Peptide Biomarker Candidates for Detection of Indolent and Advanced Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Extensive prostate specific antigen screening for prostate cancer generates a high number of unnecessary biopsies and over-treatment due to insufficient differentiation between indolent and aggressive tumours. We hypothesized that seminal plasma is a robust source of novel prostate cancer (PCa) biomarkers with the potential to improve primary diagnosis of and to distinguish advanced from indolent disease. Methodology/Principal Findings In an open-label case/control study 125 patients (70 PCa, 21 benign prostate hyperplasia, 25 chronic prostatitis, 9 healthy controls) were enrolled in 3 centres. Biomarker panels a) for PCa diagnosis (comparison of PCa patients versus benign controls) and b) for advanced disease (comparison of patients with post surgery Gleason score <7 versus Gleason score >7) were sought. Independent cohorts were used for proteomic biomarker discovery and testing the performance of the identified biomarker profiles. Seminal plasma was profiled using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry. Pre-analytical stability and analytical precision of the proteome analysis were determined. Support vector machine learning was used for classification. Stepwise application of two biomarker signatures with 21 and 5 biomarkers provided 83% sensitivity and 67% specificity for PCa detection in a test set of samples. A panel of 11 biomarkers for advanced disease discriminated between patients with Gleason score 7 and organ-confined (Seminal profiles showed excellent pre-analytical stability. Eight biomarkers were identified as fragments of N-acetyllactosaminide beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, prostatic acid phosphatase, stabilin-2, GTPase IMAP family member 6, semenogelin-1 and -2. Restricted sample size was the major limitation of the study. Conclusions/Significance Seminal plasma represents a robust source of potential peptide makers for primary PCa diagnosis. Our findings warrant further prospective validation to confirm the diagnostic potential of identified seminal biomarker candidates. PMID:23826311

von Wilcke, Philine; Bauer, Hartwig W.; Leung, Hing; Siwy, Justyna; Ulrici, Wolfram; Paasch, Uwe; Horn, Lars-Christian; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe



New insights into the mechanisms of ram sperm protection by seminal plasma proteins.  


To provide new insights into the mechanisms through which seminal plasma proteins (SPP) are able to protect spermatozoa, we tested the hypothesis that apoptosis can contribute to the negative effect of refrigeration on ram spermatozoa, and that SPP prevent this damage. Having proved the presence of key constituents of apoptosis-related pathways in ram sperm protein extracts, we carried out a comparative analysis of the effects of the addition of SPP before refrigeration (15 °C, 30 min) and induced-apoptosis with betulinic acid or fibroblast-associated receptor ligand, assessing sperm quality parameters and apoptotic markers. The protective effect of SPP on plasma membrane integrity and potential, motility and mitochondrial inner membrane potential, and surface (cardiolipin content) was evidenced in refrigerated and induced-apoptosis samples. The addition of SPP resulted in lower values of phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA damage, and caspase activity. Therefore, apoptosis in fresh or refrigerated ram spermatozoa can occur due to activation of both the extrinsic and the intrinsic mediated pathway, and SPP might interfere with both pathways. The addition of SPP also resulted in higher proportions of viable, noncapacitated sperm and fertilizing ability (ZBA rate). This report demonstrates that SPP support survival of ram spermatozoa acting not only at the plasma membrane but also by inhibition of capacitation, and proposes the possibility that SPP might interfere with the extrinsic and the intrinsic apoptotic pathways. This opens new, interesting perspectives for the study of cellular regulatory mechanisms in spermatozoa that could be crucial for the improvement of ram semen preservation protocols. PMID:23636812

Mendoza, Noelia; Casao, Adriana; Pérez-Pé, Rosaura; Cebrián-Pérez, José A; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa



Effect of seminal plasma fractions on stallion sperm survival after cooled storage.  


This study aimed to evaluate stallion sperm survival after 24 h of cooled storage in the presence of seminal plasma (SP) derived from the sperm-rich fractions (SRF) or sperm-poor fractions(SPF) of the ejaculate, without SP, or in the presence of SP from other stallions. Ejaculates were collected from four stallions using an automated phantom, which separated the semen into five cups. Centrifuged and washed spermatozoa from cup 2 (SRF) were mixed with skim milk extender to a concentration of 100 x 10(6) sperm/ml and then 1:1 (v/v) with SP from the stallion's own or another stallions' second (SP-SRF) or last cup (SP-SPF). Skim milk extender (K) and skim milk extender supplemented with modified Tyrode's medium (KMT) were used as control treatments. After a 24-h storage period in a transport container, spermatozoa were evaluated for motion characteristics and plasma membrane integrity by calcein acetoxymethyl (AM)/propidium iodide staining. The percentage of spermatozoa with intact plasma membranes after storage was lower in SP-SRF than in SP-SPF, and the highest in K (P < 0.05). Progressive motility (PMOT) was lower for sperm stored in SP-SRF than for sperm stored in SP-SPF (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in total motility (TMOT). Sperm stored in KMT (P < 0.05) registered the highest TMOT and PMOT percentages. Osmolarity was significantly higher and pH lower in K than in KMT or SP. Treatment with SP-SPF from three stallions benefited the PMOT of sperm from one stallion. These preliminary findings suggest that SP from SRFs may be more harmful during storage than SP from SPFs. Removal of SP improves sperm survival in KMT extender, and exchanging SP between stallions seems to influence sperm survival. PMID:17054486

Akcay, E; Reilas, T; Andersson, M; Katila, T



Protection of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) spermatozoa motility under oxidative stress by antioxidants and seminal plasma.  


The protective influence of seminal plasma and the antioxidants catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GTH) on quality parameters, oxidative stress indices, and antioxidant activity was studied in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) spermatozoa exposed to the xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO) system. Fish spermatozoa were incubated for 5 and 20 min at 4 °C with X-XO concentrations of 1 mM X-0.1 U/mL, 0.6 mM X-0.05 U/mL, 0.3 mM X-0.025 U/mL, and 0.1 mM X-0.0125 U/mL. A dose-dependent reduction in spermatozoa motility and velocity was observed at concentrations of 0.1 mM X-0.0125 U/mL to 1 mM X-0.1 U/mL XO. Increase in spermatozoa motility parameters was recorded following treatment with antioxidants and seminal plasma. The level of the oxidative stress indices lipid peroxidation (LPO) and carbonyl derivatives of proteins (CP) was significantly reduced after addition of CAT, SOD, or GTH along with seminal plasma. Significant differences in SOD, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity were seen in spermatozoa incubated with, compared to that without, seminal plasma at all studied X-XO concentrations. The data demonstrated that CAT, SOD, or GTH in combination with SP can reduce reactive oxygen species stress in fish spermatozoa and improve spermatozoa quality. PMID:25079247

Shaliutina-Kolešová, A; Gazo, I; Cosson, J; Linhart, O



Ram seminal plasma improves pregnancy rates in ewes cervically inseminated with ram semen stored at 5 °C for 24 hours  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we compared pregnancy rates obtained using ram semen stored at 5 °C for 24 h, with ram or bull seminal plasma (SP) added to TRIS-egg yolk extender. During the breeding period, 670 adult Corriedale ewes were cervically inseminated with semen (2 × 108 sperm in a volume of 0.2 mL) from eight adult Corriedale rams. Ejaculates, obtained

A. López-Pérez; R. Pérez-Clariget


Cationic polypeptides contribute to the anti-HIV-1 activity of human seminal plasma.  


Mucosal surfaces of the reproductive tract as well as their secretions have important roles in preventing sexual transmission of HIV-1. In the current study, the majority of the intrinsic anti-HIV-1 activity of human seminal plasma (SP) was determined to reside in the cationic polypeptide fraction. Antiviral assays utilizing luciferase reporter cells and lymphocytic cells revealed the ability of whole SP to prevent HIV-1 infection, even when SP was diluted 3200-fold. Subsequent fractionation by continuous flow acid-urea (AU)-PAGE and antiviral testing revealed that cationic polypeptides within SP were responsible for the majority of anti-HIV-1 activity. A proteomic approach was utilized to resolve and identify 52 individual cationic polypeptides that contribute to the aggregate anti-HIV-1 activity of SP. One peptide fragment of semenogelin I, termed SG-1, was purified from SP by a multistep chromatographic approach, protein sequenced, and determined to exhibit anti-HIV-1 activity against HIV-1. Anti-HIV-1 activity was transient, as whole SP incubated for prolonged time intervals exhibited a proportional decrease in anti-HIV-1 activity that was directly attributed to the degradation of semenogelin I peptides. Collectively, these results indicate that the cationic polypeptide fraction of SP is active against HIV-1, and that semenogelin-derived peptides contribute to the intrinsic anti-HIV-1 activity of SP. PMID:19487309

Martellini, Julie A; Cole, Amy L; Venkataraman, Nitya; Quinn, Gerry A; Svoboda, Pavel; Gangrade, Bhushan K; Pohl, Jan; Sørensen, Ole E; Cole, Alexander M



Suppression of natural and activated human antitumour cytotoxicity by human seminal plasma.  

PubMed Central

The influence of human seminal plasma (SP) and whole semen (S) on the expression of natural cytotoxicity by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) was examined. Marked suppression of natural cytotoxicity against K562 targets was observed when effectors were pre-treated for 1 h with SP or S diluted up to 1:400. Abrogation of cytolytic activity by SP was not the result of direct lymphotoxicity, although a reduction of approximately 50% in the number of target binding cells was observed. In addition, the cytotoxicity of interferon (alpha-IFN, beta-IFN, gamma-IFN) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) activated human PBMNC was suppressed by components present in human SP, although IL-2 activated human PBMC were relatively resistant to suppression compared with other effector (spontaneous or activated) populations. Following 1 h exposure to SP, PBMNC failed to recover more than 25% of their initial cytotoxic potential upon further in vitro incubation (18 h) in the absence of SP. However, both interferon and IL-2 caused an increase in the cytotoxicity of these populations, in some instances to the level obtained with control, IFN or IL-2 activated PBMNC. The biological significance of SP as an inhibitor of immune function under experimentally defined conditions is discussed in relation to its possible role in vivo. PMID:2423280

Rees, R C; Vallely, P; Clegg, A; Potter, C W



Effects of multiple collections on spermatozoa quality of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus: motility, density and seminal plasma composition.  


In this study, we investigated the effects of multiple collections of sperm on the endangered Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, in terms of a number of sperm functional parameters (percentage of motile spermatozoa, total time period of motility and sperm concentration) as well as on the ionic composition, protein concentration and osmolality of seminal plasma. Semen samples were collected from 12 induced male fish in three experimental groups that had been injected intramuscularly with LHRH-A2, at dosages of 5 ?g/kg body weight, at a number of time regimes: at 12 h, 17 h and 24 h after spawning induction (1); at 24, 29 and 34 h after spawning induction (2); and at 36, 41 and 46 h after spawning induction (3). The percentage of motile spermatozoa and the period of sperm motility decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after the second and third collections. The concentration of spermatozoa decreased after the third collection, but this decline was not significant. No significant effect of multiple collections on protein concentration and ionic content (with exception of the Cl(-) ion) of seminal plasma was observed. In all experimental groups, a moderate impact of sequential collection on the osmolality (p < 0.05) of seminal plasma was observed. This study provides new data on the effects of multiple collections on spermatological characteristics in the Persian sturgeon. Our results confirm that sequential stripping after the third collections has a negative effect on a number of functional parameters associated with sperm. PMID:24931708

Aramli, M S; Kalbassi, M R; Gharibi, M R



Influence of dietary zinc on semen traits and seminal plasma antioxidant enzymes and trace minerals of beetal bucks.  


Zinc (Zn) is a potent antioxidant and plays a key role in scavenging free radicals. We hypothesized that supplementation of Zn would reduce the oxidative damage, which is linked with poor sperm quality. Sixteen bucks of similar average age (2 years) and body weight (41 kg) were randomly divided into four groups viz., 1, 2, 3 and 4 supplemented with zinc sulphate into the diet at the rate of 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/buck/day, respectively, for 3 months. At the end of the experiment, semen samples were collected and assessed. Seminal plasma was separated to find the concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and trace minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe). The results revealed that semen volume (1.85 ± 0.01 ml) and sperm motility (88.23 ± 5.77%) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in supplemented groups compared with the control specifically in group 3. SOD (10.66 ± 0.23 inhibition rate %) and GPx (23.55 ± 0.49 mU/ml) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in group 3 with no effect on AST and ALT. Among seminal plasma trace elements, no significant change (p > 0.05) was observed. From the present results, we concluded that zinc sulphate at the rate of 100 mg/buck/day improved semen traits and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in Beetal bucks. PMID:25263460

Rahman, H U; Qureshi, M S; Khan, R U



IL-17A concentration of seminal plasma and follicular fluid in infertile men and women with various clinical diagnoses.  


Seminal plasma and follicular fluid (FF) cytokine analysis are valuable tools for diagnoses and validation of therapeutic approaches for improving the chance of conception. Despite the initial discovery over a decade ago, the IL-17 family has not received much attention in the case of infertility. In this study, we analyzed the level of IL-17A in seminal plasma, follicular fluid and blood serum of infertile patients with different clinical diagnoses by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The results showed that the level of IL-17A was higher in seminal plasma and blood serum of varicocele patients than the control group. The level of this cytokine was higher in follicular fluid of endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and tubal factor patients than the control group. A similar elevation in IL-17A level was observed in blood serum of these patients. Furthermore, there was a correlation between the numbers of meiosis I (MI) oocytes and the level of blood serum and follicular fluid IL-17A in PCOS patients. Our data suggest a putative role of IL-17A in mediating these conditions and may have possible applications in the development of more effective diagnostic tools and therapeutic treatments for human reproductive disorders. PMID:24927491

Sabbaghi, MohammadA; Aram, Raheleh; Roustaei, Hessam; Fadavi Islam, Mahla; Daneshvar, Maryam; Castaño, A Raúl; Haghparast, Alireza



Measurement of activity and concentration of paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) in seminal plasma and identification of PON-2 in the sperm of boar ejaculates.  


This study revealed and characterised the presence of the antioxidant enzymes paraoxonase (PON) type 1 (PON-1, extracellular) and type 2 (PON-2, intracellular) in boar semen. To evaluate PON-1, an entire ejaculate from each of ten boars was collected and the seminal plasma was harvested after double centrifugation (1,500g for 10?min). Seminal plasma was analysed for concentration as well as enzymatic activity of PON-1 and total cholesterol levels. Seminal-plasma PON-1 concentration ranged from 0.961 to 1.670?ng/ml while its enzymatic activity ranged from 0.056 to 0.400 IU/ml, which represent individual variance. Seminal-plasma PON-1 concentration and enzymatic activity were negatively correlated (r?=?-0.763; P?seminal-plasma PON-1 negatively correlated with ejaculate volume (r?=?-0.726, P?seminal-plasma cholesterol concentration positively correlated with PON-1 activity (r?=?0.773; P?seminal plasma and PON-2 within the spermatozoa. Further studies are needed to characterise the relationship between antioxidant PONs with sperm and other seminal-plasma parameters. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 82: 58-65, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25487823

Barranco, Isabel; Roca, Jordi; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Rubér, Marie; Vicente-Carrillo, Alejandro; Atikuzzaman, Mohammad; Ceron, Jose J; Martinez, Emilio A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto



Parameters of the reproductive tract, spermatogenesis, daily sperm production and major seminal plasma proteins of tropically adapted morada nova rams.  


This study describes the reproductive parameters of Morada Nova rams, a breed of hair sheep from Brazil and with unique adaption to tropical environments. At 42 weeks of age, 15 rams were subjected to semen collection and, 1 week later, animals were slaughtered for collection of testes, epididymis and accessory sex glands. We conducted 2-D electrophoresis of seminal plasma proteins and major spots of stained gels were identified by LC-MS/MS. Total RNA was isolated from testis, epididymis and vesicular glands and subjected to qPCR. At slaughter, scrotal circumference and testicular weight were 27.5 ± 0.5 cm and 109.5 ± 6.0 g, respectively. Seminiferous tubule (ST) diameter was 188.3 ± 4.0 ?m and each testis contained 1.9 ± 0.1 Sertoli cells (×10(9) ). Each Sertoli cell supported 0.1 ± 0.01 A spermatogonia, 3.0 ± 0.2 pachytene spermatocytes and 7.7 ± 0.5 round spermatids/tubule cross section. Daily sperm production reached 5.6 × 10(6)  cells/g of testis parenchyma. Testis size appeared as indicative of ST diameter and associated with epididymal measurements, as well as with the population of round spermatids and Sertoli cells/testis. Rams with heavier testes had greater daily sperm production and more Sertoli cells/testis. We detected 90.9 ± 9.6 spots per 2-D gel of seminal plasma. Major seminal proteins were identified as ram seminal vesicle proteins at 14 and 22 kDa, representing 16.2% and 12.8% of the total intensity of valid spots in the gels, respectively. Expression of both genes was greater in the vesicular glands as compared to testis and epididymis. Pixel intensity for those proteins in the 2-D gels was significantly correlated with seminal vesicle weight. This is the first description of the basic reproductive aspects of Morada Nova rams, including protein profiles of their seminal plasma. These findings will allow a better understanding of their reproductive physiology. PMID:24716618

Sousa, F M L; Lobo, C H; Menezes, E S B; Rego, J P A; Oliveira, R V; Lima-Souza, A C; Fioramonte, M; Gozzo, F C; Pompeu, R C F F; Cândido, M J D; Oliveira, J T; Moura, A A




Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeBecause varicocele is seen often in infertile men and oxidative stress has been implicated in sperm dysfunction, we assessed spermatozoal reactive oxygen species and seminal total antioxidant capacity in men with and without varicocele.




Seasonal variation of plasminogen activator activity in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of boar, buck, bull and stallion.  


Plasminogen activators (PA) are proteolytic enzymes present in the spermatozoa and seminal plasma of various species. They play a role in the binding of the spermatozoon and its penetration through the layers surrounding the oocyte. Plasminogen activator activity (PAA) is modulated by hormones that have a seasonal variation, such as testosterone and melatonin. The present study investigates the seasonal variation of PA activity in sperm extracts and seminal plasma of four farm animal species: boar, buck, bull and stallion. Semen samples were collected every second week during a 12-month period and PAA was determined. With respect to sperm enzyme activity, the boar showed a peak from late January until the beginning of April, whereas the activity in the bull was at the highest levels from April until October and gradually declined during autumn and winter period. Plasminogen activator activity of stallion spermatozoa peaked during March and April, and remained low throughout the rest of the year, whereas in the buck sperm, PAA increased from late October until the end of January. No biologically significant variation was detected regarding the seminal PAA activity in any of the species studied. While seasonality of reproduction is typically studied from the female perspective, the present data provide compelling information about a factor that may affect the reproductive ability of the male. PMID:20412514

Zervos, I A; Lavrentiadou, S N; Tsantarliotou, M P; Georgiadis, M P; Kokolis, N A; Taitzoglou, I A



The activity of N-acetyl-?-hexosaminidase in boar seminal plasma is linked with semen quality and its suitability for cryopreservation.  


The determination of sperm cryotolerance is an important step in the process of developing optimal techniques for the storage of boar semen. The objective of this study was to determine individual proteome variations in boar seminal plasma and spermatozoa and establish their influence on the cryotolerance of ejaculate. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of protein with estimated molecular weight of 90 kDa in sperm extracts from ejaculates of selected boars. In all cases, dialysis performed at the initial stage of cryopreservation effectively removed the protein from sperm cells. The protein had an affinity for Zn(2+) ions. Mass spectrometry revealed similarities between the discussed protein and the ? subunit of N-acetyl-?-hexosaminidase (?-HEX). Seminal plasma ?-HEX was purified 252-fold with approximately 27% recovery and specific activity of 1800 U/mg of protein. Enzyme activity in fresh seminal plasma was correlated with superoxide dismutase activity (r = -0.42, P < 0.05), glutathione peroxidase activity (r = -0.42, P < 0.05), mitochondrial function (r = 0.31, P < 0.05), glutathione content (r = 0.34, P < 0.05), total protein content (r = 0.42, P < 0.05), and total oxidant status of seminal plasma (r = 0.37, P < 0.05). After thawing, ?-HEX activity in seminal plasma was negatively correlated with the total motile sperm count (r = -0.33, P < 0.05), plasma membrane integrity (r = -0.31, P < 0.05), and lipid peroxidation (r = 0.33, P < 0.05). The observed correlations indicate that lower levels of ?-HEX activity in boar seminal plasma are linked with higher quality of sperm after thawing. Based on those observations, the ejaculates were divided into two groups characterized by low (<20,000 U/L) and high (>20,000 U/L) levels of ?-HEX activity in seminal plasma. In plasma with high ?-HEX activity, spermatozoa were characterized by lower plasma membrane integrity (84.7%, P < 0.05). Higher glutathione levels (1250.3 ?M), higher total protein content (50 mg/mL), and higher total oxidant status (6.82-?mol H2O2 Equiv/L) were also observed (P < 0.05). After thawing, lower sperm motility (20.4%), lower plasma membrane integrity (41.7%), and higher lipid peroxidation (30.9-nM malondialdehyde/10(8) spermatozoa/h) were reported in ejaculates with high seminal plasma ?-HEX activity. The results of this study indicate that ?-HEX activity in seminal plasma is a useful indicator in preliminary evaluations of boar sperm cryotolerance. PMID:25661485

Wysocki, Pawe?; Orzo?ek, Aleksandra; Strze?ek, Jerzy; Koziorowska-Gilun, Magdalena; Zasiadczyk, ?ukasz; Kordan, W?adys?aw



Study of the effects of oral zinc supplementation on peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity in seminal plasma of Iraqi asthenospermic patients  

PubMed Central

Background Low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) are necessary for the biology and physiology of spermatozoa, but high levels of NO are toxic and have negative effects on sperm functions. Although several studies have considered the relationship between infertility and semen NO concentrations, no study on the effects of asthenospermia treatments such as oral zinc supplementation on concentrations of NO, which are important in fertility, has been reported. Studies have shown that oral zinc supplementation develops sperm count, motility and the physical characteristics of sperm in animals and in some groups of infertile men. The present study was conducted to study the effect of zinc supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen, along with enzymes of the NO pathway in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 60 fertile and 60 asthenozoospermic infertile men of matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate; each participant took two capsules (220 mg per capsule) per day for 3 months. Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction of the seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. The stable metabolites of NO (nitrite) in seminal plasma were measured by nitrophenol assay. Arginase activity and NO synthase activity were measured spectrophotometrically. Results Peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity, NO synthase activity and various sperm parameters were compared among fertile controls and infertile patients (before and after treatment with zinc sulfate). Peroxynitrite levels and NO synthase activity were significantly higher in the infertile patients compared to the fertile group. Conversely, arginase activity was significantly higher in the fertile group than the infertile patients. Peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity of the infertile patient were restored to normal values after treatment with zinc sulfate. Volume of semen, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc supplementation. Conclusions Treatment of asthenospermic patients with zinc supplementation leads to restored peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity to normal values and gives a statistically significant improvement of semen parameters compared with controls. Trial registration identifier: NCT01684059 PMID:24383664



Fertility-associated metabolites in bull seminal plasma and blood serum: (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.  


Early estimation of bull fertility is highly desirable for the conservation of male genetics of endangered species and for the exploitation of genetically superior sires in artificial insemination programs. The present work was conducted as a proof-of-principle study to identify fertility-associated metabolites in dairy bull seminal plasma and blood serum using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR). Semen and blood samples were collected from high- and low-fertility breeding bulls (n?=?5 each), stationed at Semex, Guelph, Canada. NMR spectra of serum and seminal plasma were recorded at a resonance frequency of 500.13?MHz on a Bruker Avance-500 spectrometer equipped with an inverse triple resonance probe (TXI, 5?mm). Spectra were phased manually, baseline corrected, and calibrated against 3-(trimethylsilyl) propionic-2,2,3,3-d4 acid at 0.0 parts per million (ppm). Spectra were converted to an appropriate format for analysis using Prometab software running within MATLAB. Principal component analysis was used to examine intrinsic variation in the NMR data set, and to identify trends and to exclude outliers. Partial least square-discriminant analysis was performed to identify the significant features between fertility groups. The fertility-associated metabolites with variable importance in projections (VIP) scores >2 were citrate (2.50?ppm), tryptamine/taurine (3.34-3.38?ppm), isoleucine (0.74?ppm), and leucine (0.78?ppm) in the seminal plasma; and isoleucine (1.14?ppm), asparagine (2.90-2.94?ppm), glycogen (3.98?ppm), and citrulline (1.54?ppm) in the serum. These metabolites showed identifiable peaks, and thus can be used as biomarkers of fertility in breeding bulls. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 82: 123-131, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25640164

Kumar, Ajeet; Kroetsch, Tom; Blondin, Patrick; Anzar, Muhammad



Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes  

PubMed Central

Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with higher levels in the breeding season. The yearly pattern of GRD and catalase was close to that of melatonin, and GRD showed a significant seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with a higher activity during the breeding season. Linear regression analysis between the studied hormones and antioxidant enzymes showed a significant correlation between melatonin and testosterone, GRD, SOD and catalase. Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system. PMID:20540737



Characterization of the cDNA and in vitro expression of the ram seminal plasma protein RSVP14.  


In previous studies we have shown that seminal plasma (SP) proteins can prevent and repair cold-shock membrane damage to ram spermatozoa. Three proteins of approximately 14, 20 and 22kDa, mainly responsible for this protective ability, were identified in ram SP. They are exclusively synthesized in the seminal vesicles and, consequently, named RSVP14, RSVP20 and RSVP22. The aim of this study is to characterize and express the RSVP14 gene to provide new insights into the mechanisms through which SP proteins are able to protect spermatozoa. Additionally, a first approach has been made to the recombinant protein production. The cDNA sequence obtained encodes a 129 amino acid chain and presents a 25-amino acid signal peptide, one potential O-linked glycosylation site and seven phosphorylation sites on tyrosine, serine and threonine residues. The sequence contains two FN-2 domains, the signature characteristic of the bovine seminal plasma (BSP) protein family and related proteins of different species. More interestingly, it was shown that RSVP14 contains four disulphide bonds and a cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC) domain, also found in BSP and similar proteins. Analysis of the relationships between RSVP14 and other mammalian SP proteins revealed a 76-85% identity, particularly with the BSP protein family. The recombinant protein was obtained in insect cell extracts and in Escherichia coli in which RSVP14 was detected in both the pellet and the supernatant. The results obtained corroborate the role of RSVP14 in capacitation and might explain its protective effect against cold-shock injury to the membranes of ram spermatozoa. Furthermore, the biochemical and functional similarities between RSVP14 and BSP proteins suggest that it might play a similar role in sperm functionality. PMID:23462333

Serrano, Edith; Pérez-Pé, Rosaura; Calleja, Lucía; Guillén, Natalia; Casao, Adriana; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramón; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José A



Isothermal Titration Calorimetric Studies on the Interaction of the Major Bovine Seminal Plasma Protein, PDC-109 with Phospholipid Membranes  

PubMed Central

The interaction of the major bovine seminal plasma protein, PDC-109 with lipid membranes was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Binding of the protein to model membranes made up of diacyl phospholipids was found to be endothermic, with positive values of binding enthalpy and entropy, and could be analyzed in terms of a single type of binding sites on the protein. Enthalpies and entropies for binding to diacylphosphatidylcholine membranes increased with increase in temperature, although a clear-cut linear dependence was not observed. The entropically driven binding process indicates that hydrophobic interactions play a major role in the overall binding process. Binding of PDC-109 with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine membranes containing 25 mol% cholesterol showed an initial increase in the association constant as well as enthalpy and entropy of binding with increase in temperature, whereas the values decreased with further increase in temperature. The affinity of PDC-109 for phosphatidylcholine increased at higher pH, which is physiologically relevant in view of the basic nature of the seminal plasma. Binding of PDC-109 to Lyso-PC could be best analysed in terms of two types of binding interactions, a high affinity interaction with Lyso-PC micelles and a low-affinity interaction with the monomeric lipid. Enthalpy-entropy compensation was observed for the interaction of PDC-109 with phospholipid membranes, suggesting that water structure plays an important role in the binding process. PMID:22022488

Anbazhagan, V.; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Swamy, Musti J.



Effect of post-thaw addition of seminal plasma on motility, viability and chromatin integrity of cryopreserved donkey jack (Equus asinus) spermatozoa.  


Pregnancy rates in donkeys after artificial insemination with cryopreserved semen are still low, compared to the horse species. Addition of autologous seminal plasma to frozen-thawed semen appeared to improve pregnancy rates. The aims of this study were to evaluate (1) sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity after thawing (T0) and after one and 2 h (T1 and T2) of post-thaw incubation in either 0% (SP0) or 70% (SP70) autologous seminal plasma and (2) sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and DNA quality (%COMP-?t) after thawing (T0) and after 2 and 4 h (T2 and T4) of post-thaw incubation in either 0% (SP0), 5% (SP5) or 20% (SP20) homologous seminal plasma. In experiment 1, seminal plasma decreased total and progressive sperm motility and plasma membrane intact spermatozoa immediately after dilution and at all following time points (p < 0.05). In experiment 2, total and progressive motility did not differ between treatments immediately after dilution and between SP0 and SP5 at T2, while they were lower in both SP5 and SP20 than in SP0 at T4. Plasma membrane intact sperm cells did not differ between SP0 and SP5 and were lower in SP20 at all time points. DNA quality was not affected by treatment immediately after dilution and was significantly worse for SP20 after 4 h of incubation (p < 0.05). The post-thaw addition of seminal plasma at the tested concentrations did not improve donkey frozen semen characteristics in vitro over time. PMID:25256158

Sabatini, C; Mari, G; Mislei, B; Love, Cc; Panzani, D; Camillo, F; Rota, A



Proteomics of human seminal plasma: identification of biomarker candidates for fertility and infertility and the evolution of technology.  


Proteomics is a research area that has developed rapidly in the last decade. It studies the large-scale characterization of the full protein components of a cell, a tissue, or a biological fluid. In the last decade, clinical proteomics has developed new technology and bioinformatics useful in identifying molecular markers of pathology; the next decade might be the era of proteomics. Seminal plasma (SP) represents a good sample for proteomic analysis in the evaluation of male fertility/infertility. SP is an acellular fluid conglomerate, comprised of contributions from the epididymis and accessory sexual glands. Human SP contains many proteins that are important to the successful fertilization of the oocyte by the spermatozoa. Proteomic studies have identified numerous seminal-specific proteins, and recent reports have provided a further understanding of their function with respect to male fertility. Upon further validation, these proteins may be useful in the clinical distinction between fertility and infertility. This article reviews the proteomic methods, such as one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D-PAGE), two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), and mass spectrometry (MS), employed to detect human SP markers involved in fertility and infertility. As such, proteomic studies will help the development of new techniques to identify novel biomarkers for a better clinical diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. PMID:23559416

Milardi, Domenico; Grande, Giuseppe; Vincenzoni, Federica; Castagnola, Massimo; Marana, Riccardo



Short-term effect of dietary selenium-enriched yeast on semen parameters, antioxidant status and Se concentration in goat seminal plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of dietary selenium (Se)-enriched yeast on semen parameters in goat during the breeding season. Also, the antioxidant status and Se content in seminal plasma was investigated. A total of 72 adult Taihang black goats of proven fertility were randomly assigned to four treatment groups. They were fed the basal

Lei Shi; Chunxiang Zhang; Wenbin Yue; Liguang Shi; Xiaomin Zhu; Fulin Lei



Effects of vitamins, probiotics, and protein level on semen traits and some seminal plasma macro- and microminerals of male broiler breeders after zinc-induced molting.  


This study was conducted to investigate the effects of vitamin E, vitamin C, probiotics, dietary protein level, and their combination on semen traits and seminal plasma macro- and microminerals in 65-week-old male broiler breeders after zinc-induced molting. One hundred eighty birds were induced to molt by mixing zinc oxide (3,000 mg/kg) in the diet. The birds were divided into six groups (five replicates) by completely randomized design. One group was kept as control (16% CP), while the other five were supplemented with vitamin E (100 IU/kg feed), vitamin C (500 IU/kg feed) probiotics (50 mg/L), protein level (14% CP), and their combination. Semen samples were weekly collected for determination of semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, and dead sperm percentage. Analyses of Na, K, Ca and Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, and Cu in seminal plasma were also performed. Overall, mean semen volume was significantly high in vitamin E and C supplemented groups compared to control. Overall mean sperm motility was significantly higher in vitamin E supplemented group, whereas dead sperm percentage was significantly lower in the vitamin C group compared to control. Mineral analyses revealed that overall mean seminal plasma Mg increased significantly in vitamin E and C supplemented groups compared to control. Similarly, significantly high overall mean seminal plasma Cu concentration was observed in vitamins E and C and combination groups. It can be concluded that vitamins have a vital role in improving semen quality and bioavailability of Mg and Cu in seminal plasma of the post-molt cockerels. PMID:22318702

Khan, Rifat Ullah; Zia-Ur-Rahman; Javed, Ijaz; Muhammad, Faqir



Detection of 90K/MAC-2BP in the seminal plasma of infertile males with accessory gland infection and the autoimmune pathogenetic hypothesis.  


The purpose of the study was to evaluate 90K/MAC-2BP, a glycoprotein member of the Scavenger Receptor Cystein Rich superfamily, in the seminal plasma of infertile male patients with male accessory gland infection in order to investigate a putative autoimmune pathogenesis. 90K seminal concentration and sperm parameters were evaluated in 50 patients with male accessory gland infection at baseline and after cycles of treatment with Levofluoxacin 500 mg daily for 15 days plus serratiopeptidase 10 mg daily for 30 days. Treatment was continued for up to 6 cycles in cases of persistant bacteriospermia and/or clinical and ejaculatory signs of the disease. Patients with persistant male accessory gland infection after 6 cycles were defined as nonresponders. The same parameters were evaluated at baseline and after a 2-month period in 30 healthy controls. Patients with male accessory gland infection showed impaired sperm parameters and had lower seminal 90K concentration compared to controls. After treatment, seminal 90K level significantly increased in patients compared to controls. Twenty-two patients responded to treatment (44%), while 28 were nonresponders (56%). No difference in pretreatment and posttreatment sperm parameters and seminal 90K was observed between the 2 subgroups. Thirteen patients (26%) had identifiable bacteriospermia: significantly less pretreatment seminal 90K was observed compared to patients without bacteriospermia. Seminal 90K is decreased in patients with male accessory gland infection, and may be restored by a treatment with quinolones. However, the clinical utility of a 90K assay in these patients remains uncertain, as its level is not predictive of response to treatment. PMID:16837737

Caroppo, Ettore; Niederberger, Craig; Iacovazzi, Palma A; Correale, Mario; D'Amato, Giuseppe



Genetic variation in KLK2 and KLK3 is associated with levels of hK2 and PSA in seminal plasma and in serum in young men  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Genetic variants in KLK2 and KLK3 have been associated with increased serum levels of their encoded proteins human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 (hK2) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and with prostate cancer in older men. Catalytic PSA, possibly activated by hK2, cleaves semenogelin I and II in semen to release motile sperm; low PSA levels in seminal plasma are associated with low sperm motility. To evaluate whether common genetic variants in KLK2 and KLK3 affect physiological prostatic secretion, we studied the association of SNPs with hK2 and PSA levels in seminal plasma and serum of young healthy men. METHODS Leukocyte DNA was extracted from 303 male military conscripts (median age 18.1 years). Nine SNPs across KLK2-KLK3 were genotyped. PSA and hK2 were measured in seminal plasma and serum with immunofluorometric assays. The association of genotype frequencies with hK2 and PSA levels was tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS Four KLK2 SNPs (rs198972, rs198977, rs198978, and rs80050017) were strongly associated with hK2 levels in seminal plasma and serum, with individuals homozygous for the major alleles having 3- to 7-fold higher levels than the other homozygote and heterozygotes having intermediate levels (all P<0.001). Three of these SNPs were significantly associated with %fPSA in serum (all P<0.007). Three KLK3 SNPs showed associations with PSA in seminal plasma and the rs1058205 SNP was associated with total PSA in serum (P=0.001), and with lower %free PSA (P=0.015). CONCLUSION In young men without prostate disease, both the seminal plasma and serum levels of hK2 and PSA are associated with several genetic variants in KLK2 and KLK3 that could be used to refine models of PSA cut-off values in prostate cancer testing. PMID:24270797

Sävblom, Charlotta; Halldén, Christer; Cronin, Angel M.; Säll, Torbjörn; Savage, Caroline; Vertosick, Emily A.; Klein, Robert J.; Giwercman, Aleksander; Lilja, Hans



Is abnormal expression of semenogelin I involved with seminal vesiculitis?  


Seminal vesiculitis is the common disease of male urogenital system. However, the pathogenesis of seminal vesiculitis remains unclear. Semenogelin I (Sg I) is mainly synthesized and secreted by seminal vesicle and has antibacterial activity. We thus postulate that Sg I plays an important role during the occurrence and development of seminal vesiculitis. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of Sg I in normal seminal vesicle tissues and seminal vesiculitis tissues through immunohistochemistry. The results showed down-regulated expression of clusterin at protein level in seminal vesiculitis tissues compared with normal seminal vesicle tissues. Our preliminary data suggest that the abnormal expression of clusterin is closely related to seminal vesiculitis. Downregulation of Sg I expression may weaken the antibacterial activity of the seminal vesicle and then induce the occurrence of disease. This is the first study to focus on the relationship between Sg I and human seminal vesiculitis. PMID:24472869

Liu, Bianjiang; Song, Zhen; Xu, Aiming; Su, Shifeng; Wang, Zengjun; Yin, Changjun



Detection of haptoglobin in seminal plasma of Awassi rams and the relation with its level in serum and some semen parameters.  


The study was conducted to detect haptoglobin in seminal plasma (SP-Hp) of Awassi rams and the effect of the breeding season on its concentration, along with determining the correlation with its concentration in serum (S-Hp) and main semen variables. Pre-warmed artificial vagina was used to collect semen samples biweekly from five Awassi rams. Semen samples were evaluated for volume, concentration and sperm motility. Blood samples were collected 10-30 min after semen collection. The concentration of serum and seminal plasma Hp was determined using ELISA. The mean ± SESP-Hp concentrations ranged from 0.25 ± 0.05 to 0.81 ± 0.44 ?g/ml, whereas those of S-Hp-ranged from 0.99 ± 0.29 to 2.99 ± 0.18 mg/ml. There was a significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation (r = 0.329) between SP-Hp and S-Hp concentrations. Both SP-Hp and S-Hp concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in winter as compared with the other seasons. The concentrations of SP-Hp and S-Hp during the breeding season were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those of the out season period. SP-Hp concentration negatively correlated with semen volume and sperm concentration (r = -0.164 and -0.121), whereas sperm concentration positively correlated with individual sperm motility (r = 0.100). No significant correlation was detected between SP-Hp and semen parameters. It can be concluded that, Hp is present in ram seminal plasma and its concentration was about 2000 folds lower than that of the serum, and Hp concentration was lower during the breeding season, but its concentration in seminal plasma has no significant correlation with semen parameters. PMID:25685465

Aziz, Dhafer M; Ahmad, Ahmad K



The effects of opiate consumption on serum reproductive hormone levels, sperm parameters, seminal plasma antioxidant capacity and sperm DNA integrity.  


We evaluated the effects of opiate consumption on semen quality, sperm function, seminal plasma antioxidant capacity, and sperm DNA integrity. A total of 142 opiate addict men (group 1) were enrolled in the study and 146 healthy age matched male volunteers (group 2) served as controls. Two semen analyses were performed in all participants. Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) was used to identify sperm DNA integrity. The mean±SD sperm concentration in opiate users and in control subjects was 22.2±4.4 and 66.3±8.3 million per ml, respectively (P=0.002). A significant increase in the amount of fragmented DNA was found in opiate consumers compared with that in controls (36.4±3.8% vs. 27.1±2.4%, P=0.004). Significantly decreased levels of catalase-like and superoxide dismutase-like (SOD) activity were observed in group 1 compared with group 2. Opiate consumption has significant adverse effects on semen quality. In cases of unexplained infertility in men, opium consumption should be considered as a possible factor. PMID:23207164

Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Asgari, Seyyed Alaeddin; Farshi, Alireza; Ghaedi, Gholamhossein; Kolahi, Ali Asghar; Iravani, Shahrokh; Khoshdel, Ali Reza



Ram seminal plasma improves pregnancy rates in ewes cervically inseminated with ram semen stored at 5 °C for 24 hours.  


In this study, we compared pregnancy rates obtained using ram semen stored at 5 °C for 24 h, with ram or bull seminal plasma (SP) added to TRIS-egg yolk extender. During the breeding period, 670 adult Corriedale ewes were cervically inseminated with semen (2 × 10(8) sperm in a volume of 0.2 mL) from eight adult Corriedale rams. Ejaculates, obtained using an artificial vagina, were split into three aliquots and diluted with the following: TRIS-egg yolk based extender (T), T + 30% ram SP (R), or T + 30% bull SP (B). Samples were refrigerated and stored at 5 °C for 24 h until used for AI. Pregnancy was assessed by ultrasonography 35 to 40 d after AI. Pregnancy rate was not affected by ram (P = 0.77) or breeding period (P = 0.43), and there were no interactions between extender and ram (P = 0.94), or extender and breeding period (P = 0.24). However, there was an effect of extender (P = 0.0009) on pregnancy rates; ram SP, but not bull SP, increased pregnancy rates compared with extender without SP (49.7, 38.1, and 31.1%, for R, B, and T respectively). In conclusion, ram SP added to TRIS-egg yolk extender had a beneficial effect on the pregnancy rate of ram sperm stored at 5 °C for 24 h and used for cervical insemination of ewes. PMID:21958634

López-Pérez, A; Pérez-Clariget, R



The association of the presence of seminal plasma and its components with sperm longevity in fractionated stallion ejaculates.  


Semen jets in the stallion's ejaculate differ in both the biochemical composition of seminal plasma (SP) and in sperm concentration, forming sperm-rich fractions (HIGH) and sperm-poor fractions (LOW). This study examined (i) the association of the levels of selected components of SP [alkaline phosphatase (AP), acid phosphatase (ACP), Na(+), Cl(-), K(+), Ca, Mg and prostaglandin E(2)] with semen quality, sperm longevity and fertility; (ii) the effects of the presence of SP on sperm survival during cooled storage; (iii) the differences in the composition of SP between sperm-rich and sperm-poor ejaculatory fractions; (iv) the differences between these fractions in the effects of SP on sperm longevity. The levels of AP, ACP and Na(+) were higher in HIGH compared with LOW, whereas higher concentrations of Ca, K(+) and Mg were found in LOW than in HIGH. None of the measured components were correlated to the first cycle pregnancy rate. The presence of SP during cooled storage caused DNA degradation, but total and progressive sperm motility was not affected. Sperm-rich fractions stored with low levels of SP maintained higher level of DNA integrity compared with sperm-rich fractions in higher levels of SP, or sperm-poor fractions irrespective of the proportion of SP. The concentration of K(+) in LOW may give some indication on the maintenance of total sperm motility during cooled storage. PMID:21535237

Kareskoski, M; Sankari, S; Johannisson, A; Kindahl, H; Andersson, M; Katila, T



Decreased melatonin levels and increased levels of advanced oxidation protein products in the seminal plasma are related to male infertility.  


Melatonin, an indolamine secreted by the pineal gland, is known as a powerful free-radical scavenger and wide-spectrum antioxidant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to correlate markers of oxidative protein damage (advanced oxidation protein products, AOPPs) and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) with melatonin levels in the seminal plasma of men with azoospermia (n=37), theratozoospermia (n=29) and fertile controls (normozoospermia, n=37). Melatonin concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. The levels of AOPP as well as TAC efficiency (determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP) were estimated by spectrophotometric methods. The concentration of melatonin and AOPP significantly differed in azoospermic (PPr=-0.33, P=0.0016). The TAC levels were significantly higher in azoospermia than in theratozoospermia (P=0.0022) and the control group (P=0.00016). In azoospermia, the AOPP concentration was also significantly higher than that observed in theratozoospermia (P=0.00029). Decreased levels of melatonin together with elevated AOPP altered the oxidative-antioxidative balance in the ejaculate, thereby reducing fertility. Therefore, melatonin and AOPP levels may serve as additional diagnostic markers of semen quality and male reproductive potential. PMID:25218686

Kratz, Ewa Maria; Piwowar, Agnieszka; Zeman, Michal; Stebelová, Katarína; Thalhammer, Theresia



Boar sperm cryosurvival is better after exposure to seminal plasma from selected fractions than to those from entire ejaculate.  


Boar bulk ejaculates are now being collected instead of usual sperm-rich fractions (SRF) for artificial insemination purpose. The present study evaluated the influence of holding boar sperm samples before freezing surrounded in their own seminal plasma (SP), from either fractions/portions or the entire ejaculate, on post-thawing sperm quality and functionality. Ejaculates collected as bulk (BE) or as separate (first 10 mL of SRF [P1] and rest of SRF [P2]) from 10 boars were held 24h at 15-17°C and then frozen. Some bulk ejaculate samples were frozen immediately after collections as Control. In addition, epididymal sperm samples from the same 10 boars were collected post-mortem and extended in SP from P1 (EP1), P2 (EP2) and post SRF (EP3), and also held 24h before freezing for a better understanding of the influence of SP on boar sperm cryopreservation. The sperm quality (motility, evaluated by CASA, and viability, evaluated by flow cytometry) and functionality (flow cytometry assessment of plasma membrane fluidity, mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species [ROS] in viable sperm) were evaluated at 30, 150 and 300 min post-thaw. Post-thawing sperm quality and functionality of P1 and P2 were similar but higher (p < 0.01) than BE samples. Control samples showed higher (p < 0.01) post-thaw sperm quality and functionality than BE samples. Post-thawing sperm quality and functionality of EP1 and EP2 were similar but higher (p < 0.05) than EP3. These results showed that boar sperm from BE are more cryosensitive than those from the SRF, particularly when held 24h before freezing, which would be attributable to the cryonegative effects exerted by the SP from post SRF. PMID:25037026

Alkmin, Diego V; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Barranco, Isabel; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi



Effect of vitamins, probiotics and protein level on semen traits and seminal plasma biochemical parameters of post-moult male broiler breeders.  


1. A study was designed to investigate the comparative effect of supplementary vitamin E, vitamin C, probiotics and dietary crude protein concentration on semen traits and seminal plasma biochemical parameters in male broiler breeders after Zn-induced moulting. 2. A total of 180 male broiler breeders were induced to moult at 65 weeks of age by mixing ZnO in diet at the rate 3000?mg/kg of feed. After moulting, the males were divided into six groups that were given feed supplemented with: vitamin C (500?IU/kg), vitamin E (100?IU/kg), protein (140?g CP/kg), probiotics (50?mg/kg) and the combination of these components, while one group was kept as a control. Semen samples were collected weekly and semen volume, spermatozoa concentration, motility and dead spermatozoa percentage were determined. Seminal plasma was separated to determine the concentration of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), homocysteine, paraoxonase (PON1), arylesterase, ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. 3. Semen volume was significantly higher in the vitamin E and C groups compared to the control. Spermatozoa motility was higher in the vitamin E group and dead spermatozoa percentage was significantly lower in the vitamin C group compared with the control group. 4. Seminal plasma TAC was higher in the vitamin E group, homocysteine was lower in the vitamin C and E groups. PON1 was higher in the combination group. Arylesterase increased significantly in the vitamin C and combination groups over time. Seminal plasma AST was significantly lower in the vitamin C and E supplemented groups whereas ALT decreased significantly only in the vitamin E group compared with the control. Higher concentrations of ceruloplasmin were observed in the combination group compared with the other treatments. 5. It was concluded that additional vitamin E and C or their combination was the most potent nutrient treatment for improving the semen traits and seminal plasma biochemical characteristics in male broiler breeders after Zn-induced moulting. PMID:23444861

Khan, R U; Rahman, Z U; Javed, I; Muhammad, F



Mechanism of Membrane Binding by the Bovine Seminal Plasma Protein, PDC-109: A Surface Plasmon Resonance Study  

PubMed Central

PDC-109, the major protein of bovine seminal plasma, binds to sperm plasma membranes upon ejaculation and plays a crucial role in the subsequent events leading to fertilization. The binding process is mediated primarily by the specific interaction of PDC-109 with choline-containing phospholipids. In the present study the kinetics and mechanism of the interaction of PDC-109 with phospholipid membranes were investigated by the surface plasmon resonance technique. Binding of PDC-109 to different phospholipid membranes containing 20% cholesterol (wt/wt) indicated that binding occurs by a single-step mechanism. The association rate constant (k1) for the binding of PDC-109 to dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes containing cholesterol was estimated to be 5.7 × 105 M?1 s?1 at 20°C, while the values of k1 estimated at the same temperature for the binding to membranes of negatively charged phospholipids such as dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) and dimyristoylphosphatidic acid (DMPA) containing 20% cholesterol (wt/wt) were at least three orders of magnitude lower. The dissociation rate constant (k?1) for the DMPC/PDC-109 system was found to be 2.7 × 10?2 s?1 whereas the k?1 values obtained with DMPG and DMPA was about three to four times higher. From the kinetic data, the association constant for the binding of PDC-109 to DMPC was estimated as 2.1 × 107 M?1. The association constants for different phospholipids investigated decrease in the order: DMPC > DMPG > DMPA > DMPE. Thus the higher affinity of PDC-109 for choline phospholipids is reflected in a faster association rate constant and a slower dissociation rate constant for DMPC as compared to the other phospholipids. Binding of PDC-109 to dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine, which are also zwitterionic, was found to be very weak, clearly indicating that the charge on the lipid headgroup is not the determining factor for the binding. Analysis of the activation parameters indicates that the interaction of PDC-109 with DMPC membranes is favored by a strong entropic contribution, whereas negative entropic contribution is primarily responsible for the rather weak interaction of this protein with DMPA and DMPG. PMID:12719234

Thomas, Celestine J.; Anbazhagan, V.; Ramakrishnan, M.; Sultan, Nabil; Surolia, Ira; Swamy, Musti J.



Luteotrophic effect of ovulation-inducing factor/nerve growth factor present in the seminal plasma of llamas.  


The hypothesis that ovulation-inducing factor/nerve growth factor (OIF/NGF) isolated from llama seminal plasma exerts a luteotrophic effect was tested by examining changes in circulating concentrations of LH and progesterone, and the vascular perfusion of the ovulatory follicle and developing CL. Female llamas with a growing follicle of 8 mm or greater in diameter were assigned randomly to one of three groups (n = 10 llamas per group) and given a single intramuscular dose of PBS (1 mL), GnRH (50 ?g), or purified OIF/NGF (1.0 mg). Cineloops of ultrasonographic images of the ovary containing the dominant follicle were recorded in brightness and power Doppler modalities. Llamas were examined every 4 hours from the day of treatment (Day 0) until ovulation, and every other day thereafter to Day 16. Still frames were extracted from cineloops for computer-assisted analysis of the vascular area of the preovulatory follicle from treatment to ovulation and of the growing and regressing phases of subsequent CL development. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of plasma LH and progesterone concentrations. The diameter of the dominant follicle at the time of treatment did not differ among groups (P = 0.48). No ovulations were detected in the PBS group but were detected in all llamas given GnRH or OIF/NGF (0/10, 10/10, and 10/10, respectively; P < 0.0001). No difference was detected between the GnRH and OIF/NGF groups in the interval from treatment to ovulation (32.0 ± 1.9 and 30.4 ± 5.7 hours, respectively; P = 0.41) or in maximum CL diameter (13.1 ± 0.4 and 13.5 ± 0.3 mm, respectively; P = 0.44). The preovulatory follicle of llamas treated with OIF/NGF had a greater vascular area at 4 hours after treatment than that of the GnRH group (P < 0.001). Similarly, the luteal tissue of llamas treated with purified OIF/NGF had a greater vascular area than that of the GnRH group on Day 6 after treatment (P < 0.001). The preovulatory surge in plasma LH concentration began, and peaked 1 to 2 hours later in the OIF/NGF group than in the GnRH group (P < 0.05). Plasma progesterone concentration was higher on Day 6 in the OIF/NGF group than in the GnRH group (P < 0.001). Results support the hypothesis that OIF/NGF exerts a luteotrophic effect by altering the secretion pattern of LH and enhancing tissue vascularization during the periovulatory period and early stages of CL development. PMID:24582374

Ulloa-Leal, C; Bogle, O A; Adams, G P; Ratto, M H



The percentage of spermatozoa lost during the centrifugation of brown bear (Ursus arctos) ejaculates is associated with some spermatozoa quality and seminal plasma characteristics.  


Cryopreservation of brown bear (Ursus arctos) semen requires centrifugation to increase concentration and/or remove urine contamination. However, a percentage of the spermatozoa are lost in the process. This percentage varies considerably between males and ejaculates, and we have studied the effect of sperm quality and seminal plasma characteristics on the spermatozoa recovery rate after centrifugation. One hundred and thirty one sperm samples obtained from fifteen brown bear males by electroejaculation under general anaesthesia were used. The ejaculates were centrifuged 600 × g for 6 min. Motility was assessed by CASA, and acrosomal status (PNA-FITC) and viability (SYBR-14/propidium iodide) were determined by flow cytometry. Seminal plasma characteristics (albumin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, cholesterol, creatine, glucose, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), lactate, lipase, magnesium, phosphate and total protein) were determined by a biochemical and gas analysis. Total motility (r = 0.26; P=0.005) and cell viability (r = 0.20; P = 0.033) were positively correlated with the percentage of recovered spermatozoa. Sperm recovery was correlated with the concentration of several components of seminal plasma: negatively with glucose concentration (r = -0.47; P = 0.005) and positively with the enzymes GOT (r = 0.36; P = 0.040) and lactate dehydrogenase (r = 0.36; P = 0.041). After sorting the data into classes according to sperm recovery (Low: 0-39, Medium: 40-69, High: 70-100), we observed that the samples with a lower recovery rate derived from ejaculates with lower values for TM, VAP and viability (P<0.05). Multiple regression analysis rendered two models to define the post-centrifugation spermatozoa recovery which included total motility and damaged acrosome or glucose, GOT and lactate dehydrogenase. We discuss these relationships and their implications in the electroejaculation procedure and the handling of the sample during centrifugation. PMID:23084761

Alvarez, M; Nicolas, M; Borragán, S; Lopez-Urueña, E; Anel-López, L; Martinez-Pastor, F; Tamayo-Canul, J; Anel, L; de Paz, P



Seminal plasma proteins in prostatic carcinoma: increased nuclear semenogelin I expression is a predictor of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.  


Semenogelins and eppin are seminal plasma proteins that form a complex and inhibit sperm motility. However, the role of these proteins in prostate cancer is poorly understood. We immunohistochemically stained for semenogelins I and II and eppin in 291 radical prostatectomy specimens. We then evaluated the association between their expressions in nuclei, cytoplasms, or intraluminal secretions of benign/high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia/carcinoma cells and clinicopathologic profile available for our patient cohort. Stains were positive in 32%/77%/84% (nuclear semenogelin I), 87%/94%/84% (nuclear semenogelin II), 56%/64%/37% (nuclear eppin), 7%/15%/11% (cytoplasmic semenogelin I), 6%/11%/9% (cytoplasmic semenogelin II), 68%/74%/95% (cytoplasmic eppin), 97%/98%/13% (secreted semenogelin I), 98%/97%/11% (secreted semenogelin II), and 97%/98%/48% (secreted eppin) of benign/prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia/carcinoma, respectively. The levels of nuclear semenogelin I/cytoplasmic eppin were significantly higher in carcinoma than in benign (P<.001/P<.001) or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (P<.001/P<.001) and in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia than in benign (P<.001/P=.006). Significantly higher nuclear semenogelin II expression was found in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia than in benign (P<.001) or carcinoma (P<.001). Significantly lower nuclear eppin expression was seen in carcinoma than in benign (P<.001) or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (P<.001). Secreted semenogelin I, secreted semenogelin II, and secreted eppin were all significantly lower in carcinoma than in benign (P<.001) or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (P<.001). There were no statistically significant correlations between each stain and clinicopathologic features except significantly lower nuclear eppin expression in Gleason score 8 or higher tumors. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests further revealed that patients with nuclear semenogelin I-positive tumor had a significantly higher risk for biochemical recurrence (P=.046). Multivariate Cox model showed a trend toward significance (P=.093) in nuclear semenogelin I positivity as an independent predictor for recurrence. These results suggest that nuclear semenogelin I expression could be a reliable prognosticator in men who undergo radical prostatectomy. PMID:22617231

Izumi, Koji; Li, Yi; Zheng, Yichun; Gordetsky, Jennifer; Yao, Jorge L; Miyamoto, Hiroshi



Characterization of adiponectin concentrations and molecular weight forms in serum, seminal plasma, and ovarian follicular fluid from cattle.  


Adiponectin (AdipoQ), an adipocyte-derived hormone, is one of the most abundant adipokines in the blood circulation. Adiponectin has various metabolic functions, such as improving insulin sensitivity in humans and rodents. The role of AdipoQ in reproduction is not yet fully understood, but the expression of AdipoQ in reproductive tissues has been observed in various animals and humans, including chicken testis, bovine ovary, and human placenta. The objective of this study was to characterize AdipoQ in the bovine body fluids related to reproduction. Therefore, we evaluated the seminal plasma (SP) from breeding bulls (n = 29) and follicular fluid (FF) from heifers (n = 14), and we also collected blood samples from these animals. In addition, blood samples from other bulls (n = 30) and heifers (n = 14) were assayed for AdipoQ. The concentrations were assessed using a bovine-specific ELISA, and the molecular weight (MW) pattern of the AdipoQ protein was estimated by the Western blot analysis. The SP AdipoQ concentrations were approximately 180-fold lower compared with that in the serum concentrations. Furthermore, the AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP were positively correlated. The MW patterns of AdipoQ in the serum and SP were different such that the high MW form of AdipoQ was more abundant in the SP than serum. The AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP also increased with age: old bulls (>6 years) had higher AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP than bulls aged 24 months or lesser (P < 0.05). In the FF, the AdipoQ concentrations were 1.6-fold lower than those in the corresponding serum samples, and the concentrations in the serum and FF were not correlated (P > 0.1). In the FF, only the middle MW forms of AdipoQ were detectable by Western blotting. The MW pattern in the serum did not differ between the sexes. Our data provide both the AdipoQ concentration and the MW patterns for bovine body fluids related to reproduction. PMID:25468552

Heinz, Johanna F L; Singh, Shiva P; Janowitz, Ulrich; Hoelker, Michael; Tesfaye, Dawit; Schellander, Karl; Sauerwein, Helga



New strategies of boar sperm cryopreservation: development of novel freezing and thawing methods with a focus on the roles of seminal plasma.  


Cryopreservation of boar spermatozoa offers an effective means of long-term storage of important genetic material. Many researchers have investigated how to improve reproductive performance by artificial insemination (AI) using cryopreserved boar spermatozoa. Recently, we and other groups reported that high conception rates (70-80%) can be achieved by AI with frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa using a modified temperature program during freezing, or a novel cryopreservation extender to improve sperm quality (including sperm survivability, motility, membrane status and fertilization ability) after thawing, or a novel sperm infusion method, deep intra uterine insemination. However, these techniques have not yet been used for commercial pig production. The variation in sperm freezability among boars or among ejaculations in an identical boar is one of the main reasons for this problem. In our previous study, it was revealed that some components of seminal plasma have a negative effect on the freezability of boar sperm. One of these factors is bacteria-released endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide: LPS). LPS binds to Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) expressed on the sperm surface, resulting in induction of apoptosis. On the other hand, seminal plasma suppresses cryo-capacitation induced by thawing stress. On the basis of these findings, we designed a novel protocol of AI using frozen-thawed boar sperm. PMID:22943528

Okazaki, Tetsuji; Shimada, Masayuki



Semenogelin I and II, the predominant human seminal plasma proteins, are also expressed in non-genital tissues.  


Semenogelin I (SgI) and semenogelin II (SgII) are the dominating protein components of the coagulum formed by freshly ejaculated human semen. The primary source of these proteins is the seminal vesicles and, apart from a small production of SgII in epididymis, they have not been detected in other tissues. In this report, we have re-examined the distribution of SgI and SgII transcripts and protein by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Both SgI and SgII transcripts were demonstrated in several tissues, with the strongest signals coming from seminal vesicles, vas deferens, prostate, epididymis and trachea. Transcripts in the gastro-intestinal tract and skeletal muscle almost exclusively encoded SgI, whereas in kidney and testis, SgII transcripts were predominant. By immunohistochemistry, the basal cell layer of the secretory epithelium in prostate, trachea and bronchi was stained by antibodies recognizing both SgI and SgII. This is in contrast to the seminal vesicle and vas deferens, where the luminal cells were stained. The staining of skeletal muscle cells and a few scattered cells in the central nervous system suggests that semenogelin expression is not restricted to epithelial cells. PMID:12200457

Lundwall, Ake; Bjartell, Anders; Olsson, A Yvonne; Malm, Johan



Maternal tract factors contribute to paternal seminal fluid impact on metabolic phenotype in offspring.  


Paternal characteristics and exposures influence physiology and disease risks in progeny, but the mechanisms are mostly unknown. Seminal fluid, which affects female reproductive tract gene expression as well as sperm survival and integrity, provides one potential pathway. We evaluated in mice the consequences for offspring of ablating the plasma fraction of seminal fluid by surgical excision of the seminal vesicle gland. Conception was substantially impaired and, when pregnancy did occur, placental hypertrophy was evident in late gestation. After birth, the growth trajectory and metabolic parameters of progeny were altered, most profoundly in males, which exhibited obesity, distorted metabolic hormones, reduced glucose tolerance, and hypertension. Altered offspring phenotype was partly attributable to sperm damage and partly to an effect of seminal fluid deficiency on the female tract, because increased adiposity was also evident in adult male progeny when normal two-cell embryos were transferred to females mated with seminal vesicle-excised males. Moreover, embryos developed in female tracts not exposed to seminal plasma were abnormal from the early cleavage stages, but culture in vitro partly alleviated this. Absence of seminal plasma was accompanied by down-regulation of the embryotrophic factors Lif, Csf2, Il6, and Egf and up-regulation of the apoptosis-inducing factor Trail in the oviduct. These findings show that paternal seminal fluid composition affects the growth and health of male offspring, and reveal that its impact on the periconception environment involves not only sperm protection but also indirect effects on preimplantation embryos via oviduct expression of embryotrophic cytokines. PMID:24469827

Bromfield, John J; Schjenken, John E; Chin, Peck Y; Care, Alison S; Jasper, Melinda J; Robertson, Sarah A



On a matter of seminal importance.  


Egg and sperm have, understandably, been the "stars" of mammalian fertilization biology, particularly because artificial reproductive technologies allow for fertilization to occur outside of the female reproductive tract without other apparent contributions from either sex. Yet, recent research, including an exciting new paper, reveals unexpected and important contributions of seminal plasma to fertility. For example, seminal plasma proteins play critical roles in modulating female reproductive physiology, and a new study in mice demonstrates that effects of some of these proteins on the female can even affect the health of her progeny. Furthermore, although several actions of seminal plasma have been conserved across taxa, male accessory glands and their products are diverse - even among mammals. Taken together, these studies suggest that the actions of seminal plasma components are important to understand, and also to consider in future development of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) for humans, farm species and endangered species of mammals. PMID:25379987

McGraw, Lisa A; Suarez, Susan S; Wolfner, Mariana F



Spermadhesins of the AQN and AWN families, DQH sperm surface protein and HNK protein in the heparin-binding fraction of boar seminal plasma.  


Heparin-binding proteins (designated BHB-2-BHB-9) were isolated from boar seminal plasma by affinity chromatography on heparin immobilized on polyacrylamide gel, followed by reverse phase HPLC. According to their N-terminal amino acid sequences, BHB-3-BHB-5 belong to the AQN family of spermadhesins and BHB-7-BHB-9 to the AWN family. BHB-6 is composed of two different proteins. The dominant protein (14 kDa) has the N-terminal amino acid sequence HNKQEGRDHD that is identical to the sequence of human semenogelin at positions 85-94. The minor proteins (16 and 17 kDa) belong to the AWN family of spermadhesins. The 14 kDa HNK protein does not crossreact with antibodies against AQN or AWN spermadhesins. BHB-2 also binds to the acrosome of boar epididymal spermatozoa but has the N-terminal sequence DQH. Therefore, basic protein BHB-2 belongs to a new family of DQH sperm surface proteins that are homologous to the acidic proteins from bull and stallion seminal plasma, to the collagen binding domain II in fibronectin and to the leucocyte cell-cell adhesion regulator, but are not homologous to AQN or AWN spermadhesins. Nevertheless, anti-AQN-1 spermadhesin antibodies crossreact strongly with DQH protein. All boar heparin-binding proteins bind concanavalin A indicating their glycoprotein nature, which was proved by the detection of glucosamine and galactosamine residues in their molecules. Furthermore, spermadhesins interact with zona pellucida, protease inhibitors and a polyacrylamide derivative of heparin. Affinity chromatography experiments showed that the DQH protein bound to gelatin-agarose together with the AWN proteins and that the DQH protein and AQN-1 spermadhesin belong to the phosphoryl choline binding proteins. PMID:9875152

Jonáková, V; Kraus, M; Veselský, L; Cechová, D; Bezouska, K; Tichá, M



Genomic structure and tissue-specific expression of human and mouse genes encoding homologues of the major bovine seminal plasma proteins.  


Sperm capacitation is a maturation event that takes place in the female reproductive tract and is essential for fertilization. A family of phospholipid-binding proteins present in bovine seminal plasma (BSP proteins) binds the sperm membrane at ejaculation and promotes bovine sperm capacitation. Homologues of these proteins have also been isolated from boar, ram, goat, bison and stallion seminal fluid, suggesting that BSP proteins and their homologues are conserved among mammals. However, there have been no reports on BSP-homologous proteins in mice and humans to date. A search of the mouse and human genomes, using the nucleic acid sequences of BSP proteins, revealed the presence of three BSP-like sequences in the mouse genome, named mouse BSP Homologue 1 (mBSPH1), mBSPH2 and mBSPH3, and one sequence in the human genome (hBSPH1). Mouse epididymal expressed sequence tags corresponding to partial sequences of mBSPH1 and mBSPH2 were identified. The entire complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences of mBSPH1 and mBSPH2 from mouse epididymis and hBSPH1 from human epididymis were obtained by 5'-/3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and encode predicted proteins containing two tandemly repeated fibronectin type II domains, which is the signature of the BSP family of proteins. Using RT-PCR, it was revealed that mBSPH1, mBSPH2 and hBSPH1 mRNA are expressed only in the epididymis. Expression of mBSPH3 was not detected in any tissue and probably represents a pseudogene. This work shows, for the first time, that BSP homologues are expressed in mouse and human and may be involved in sperm capacitation in these species. PMID:17085770

Lefebvre, J; Fan, J; Chevalier, S; Sullivan, R; Carmona, E; Manjunath, P



Human kallikrein-related peptidase 14 (KLK14) is a new activator component of the KLK proteolytic cascade. Possible function in seminal plasma and skin.  


Human kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) are a family of 15 serine proteases mainly known for their biomarker utility in various neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. Despite significant progress in understanding their clinical application, little is known about the activation mechanism(s) of this important family of enzymes. Emerging evidence indicates that KLKs are activated in a stepwise manner, which is a characteristic of proteolytic cascades. Thus far, KLK cascades have been implicated in semen liquefaction and skin desquamation. Many members of the KLK family have been reported to be active in seminal plasma and/or skin, suggesting their involvement in common proteolytic cascades. KLK14, in particular, is highly active and has recently been proposed as one of the key trypsin-like proteases involved in skin desquamation. This study aims to elucidate a probable cascade-mediated role of KLK14 by 1) examining KLK14-mediated cleavage of a heptapeptide library encompassing activation sites of the 15 KLKs and 2) verifying activation of certain candidate downstream targets of KLK14 (i.e. pro-KLK1, -KLK3, and -KLK11). Heptapeptides encompassing activation motifs of KLK2, -3, -5, and -11 were cleaved with a high (> or =85%) cleavage efficiency. Activation of these candidates was confirmed using full-length recombinant proteins. Pro-KLK11, -KLK3, and -KLK1 were rapidly activated in a concentration-dependent manner. Pro-KLK3 regulation was bidirectional because activation was followed by inactivation via internal cleavage of active KLK3. We are proposing a putative cascade model, operating through multiple KLKs. Identification of novel members of such proteolytic cascades will aid in further defining mechanisms involved in seminal/skin homeostasis. PMID:18056261

Emami, Nashmil; Diamandis, Eleftherios P



Electromagnetic fluctuations and normal modes of a drifting relativistic plasma  

SciTech Connect

We present an exact calculation of the power spectrum of the electromagnetic fluctuations in a relativistic equilibrium plasma described by Maxwell-Jüttner distribution functions. We consider the cases of wave vectors parallel or normal to the plasma mean velocity. The relative contributions of the subluminal and supraluminal fluctuations are evaluated. Analytical expressions of the spatial fluctuation spectra are derived in each case. These theoretical results are compared to particle-in-cell simulations, showing a good reproduction of the subluminal fluctuation spectra.

Ruyer, C.; Gremillet, L.; Bénisti, D. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)] [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Bonnaud, G. [CEA, Saclay, INSTN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [CEA, Saclay, INSTN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)



Male obesity is associated with changed spermatozoa Cox4i1 mRNA level and altered seminal vesicle fluid composition in a mouse model.  


The rate of obesity among men of reproductive age has tripled in the last three decades. Previously, we demonstrated that paternal obesity resulted in impaired preimplantation developmental kinetics, compromised post-compaction metabolism and decreased blastocyst cell number when embryos were generated in vivo. Subsequently, using in vitro fertilization we found embryos of obese males to have altered metabolism before compaction, reduced inner cell mass cell number and retarded fetal development-the difference between these two studies being the method of embryo generation and the presence or absence of seminal plasma, respectively. Here, we hypothesize that both sperm and seminal plasma are affected by obesity, compromising embryogenesis and pregnancy health in a cumulative manner. Epididymal sperm and seminal vesicle fluid were collected from normal and obese C57BL/6 mice. RNA and DNA were extracted from spermatozoa for qPCR and global methylation analysis, respectively. Proteomic (Luminex) and metabolomic (GC-MS) techniques were employed to analyse the composition of seminal vesicle fluid. Nuclear encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 1 (Cox4i1) of the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory chain demonstrated significantly increased RNA levels in the sperm of obese males (P< 0.05). Quantitative seminal plasma analysis identified significant changes in levels of the hormones insulin, leptin and estradiol between normal and obese males (P < 0.05). Further, the metabolite composition of seminal vesicle fluid was significantly affected by obesity. Consequently, this study has determined that obesity affects both sperm and seminal plasma composition. The interaction between sperm and seminal plasma warrants further analysis. PMID:25731709

Binder, Natalie K; Sheedy, John R; Hannan, Natalie J; Gardner, David K



Cryosurvival and in vitro fertilizing capacity postthaw is improved when boar spermatozoa are frozen in the presence of seminal plasma from good freezer boars.  


The study evaluated the protective effect of seminal plasma (SP) added to freezing extender against cryopreservation injuries to boar spermatozoa. Pooled sperm-rich fractions collected from 9 fertile boars were frozen in 0.5-mL straws after being extended in a conventional freezing extender either alone or supplemented with 5% of SPs (SP1-SP4) collected from the sperm-rich fractions (diluted 1:1, vol/vol, in Beltsville Thawing Solution extender) from 4 boars (1-4) with known sperm cryosurvival (poor, moderate, and good sperm freezers). Cryopreservation injuries were assessed in terms of postthaw sperm motility (assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis), viability (plasma membrane and acrosome integrity assessed simultaneously by flow cytometry), membrane lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA] production), and the ability of thawed spermatozoa to fertilize in vitro-matured homologous oocytes. The addition of SP from good sperm freezers (SP3 and SP4) improved (P < .01) the motility and viability of thawed spermatozoa without any influence on MDA production. Moreover, SP from good sperm freezers also increased (P < .05) the percentage of penetrated (SP3) and polyspermic oocytes (SP4) with respect to the control. Neither the total amount of SP proteins, protein profiles, nor antioxidant capacity of the different SPs were related to the various cryosurvival/fertilizing capacities of the processed spermatozoa. PMID:17460094

Hernández, Marta; Roca, Jordi; Calvete, Juan J; Sanz, Libia; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José A; Vázquez, Juan M; Martínez, Emilio A



Effect of holding of semen and washing of seminal plasma on quality and fertility of Hampshire boar semen preserved at liquid state.  


The present study was aimed to reveal the effect on keeping quality of boar semen on holding or not holding at an elevated temperature than that used for preservation when combined with washing or not washing of seminal plasma. Twenty ejaculates, four from each of five Hampshire boars were used to hold for 0 and 4h in GEPS extender at 22°C and subsequently washed (1500×g for 10min) of seminal plasma or left unwashed and preserved at 15°C for 72h after extending with the same extender. The seminal parameters in terms of sperm motility, live spermatozoa, and live spermatozoa with intact acrosome (LIA) were evaluated at 0h-(immediately after extension) and thereafter at 24h intervals. The mean percentage of sperm motility was significantly (P<0.01) higher in unwashed than washed semen at both 0h and 4h of holding irrespective of preservation period. It was significantly (P<0.01) higher in semen held for 4h than 0h irrespective of washing and significantly (P<0.01) lower in washed than in unwashed semen irrespective of holding during preservation. Irrespective of preservation period the mean percentage of live spermatozoa was significantly (P<0.01) higher with 4h than 0h of holding in both unwashed and washed semen and was significantly (P<0.01) higher in unwashed than washed semen at both 0h and 4h of holding. It was significantly (P<0.01) higher for 4h held semen irrespective of washing and was significantly (P<0.01) lower in washed than in unwashed semen irrespective of holding during preservation. The mean percentage of LIA was significantly (P<0.01) higher with 4h than with 0h holding in both unwashed and washed semen and was significantly (P<0.01) higher in unwashed than in washed semen at both 0h and 4h of holding irrespective of preservation period. It was significantly (P<0.01) higher for 4h held as compared to unheld semen irrespective of washing and was significantly (P<0.01) lower in washed than unwashed semen irrespective of holding during preservation. The mean percentage of sperm motility, live spermatozoa and LIA decreased significantly (P<0.01) in 0h and 4h holding irrespective of washing and in unwashed and washed semen irrespective of holding with increase in preservation period. Among all the treatments unwashed semen held for 4h yielded superior sperm quality on preservation. A total of 32 female pigs were inseminated using preserved semen obtained with the best processing technique found in the study. The conception rate, farrowing rate and litter size at birth were recorded to be 81.25%, 78.13% and 7.96 respectively as compared to 73.38%, 67.57% and 6.68 respectively in the control group. It could be concluded that unwashed Hampshire boar semen held for 4h, extended with GEPS and preserved at 15°C for 72h was conducive to obtain optimum fertility and fecundity in females when used for artificial insemination. PMID:24559728

Chutia, T; Biswas, R K; Tamuli, M K; Deka, B C; Sinha, S; Goswami, J; Banik, S; Kayastha, R B




E-print Network

a selection of highly motile and viable ram spermatozoa free of semen plasma. Semen collected from 3 rams over individual motility, membrane integrity and resistance to a hypoosmotic swelling test (HOS). Semen samples with initial motility improvement in all 3 parameters; samples with 65 to 70

Zaragoza, Universidad de


Interaction of a vacuum arc plasma beam with an obstacle positioned normal to the plasma flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of an obstacle positioned normal to a plasma jet produced by a vacuum arc plasma source on the radial distribution of ion flux in the vicinity of the obstacle was studied. This study was motivated by interest in the mutual influence of tightly packed substrates on coatings in industrial vacuum arc deposition systems. The experimental system consisted of

O Zarchin; V N Zhitomirsky; S Goldsmith; R L Boxman



Inter- and intra-individual variability of total antioxidant capacity of bovine seminal plasma and relationships with sperm quality before and after cryopreservation.  


The aim of the present study was to investigate inter- and intra-individual variability of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in seminal plasma of bulls. In addition, relationships between TAC and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase activities (SOD), and parameters of sperm quality, respectively, were examined. Eight consecutive ejaculates were collected from nine Holstein-Friesian bulls. The percentage of plasma membrane and acrosome intact (PMAI) sperm was measured by using the FITC-PNA/PI assay, the amount of membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO) without and with stimulation(s) of LPO was quantified by using the BODIPY assay before cryopreservation and immediately (0h) as well as 3h after thawing. The percentage of sperm with a greater DNA fragmentation index was measured by the sperm chromatin structure assay. The amount of TAC differed (P<0.0001) between bulls but not (P>0.05) between ejaculates within bulls. The amounts of TAC were not related (P>0.05) to amounts of SOD and GPx, but were negatively associated with LPO 0h (r=-0.85; P?0.01). The amounts of SOD showed positive relationships with LPO 0h (r=0.71; P?0.05) and LPO 3h (r=0.80; P?0.05). In conclusion, total antioxidant activity varied among bulls, but not between ejaculates within bulls. While the amounts of antioxidative enzyme GPx was not related to sperm quality and SOD was positively related with lipid peroxidation after thawing of sperm, whereas total antioxidative capacity was negatively correlated with lipid peroxidation of cryopreserved sperm. PMID:25735828

Gürler, Hakan; Calisici, Oguz; Bollwein, Heinrich



Seminal androgens, oestradiol and progesterone in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men with varicocele.  


This study aimed to assess seminal androgens, oestradiol, progesterone levels in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men with varicocele (Vx). In all, 154 men with matched age and body mass index were investigated that were divided into healthy fertile controls (n = 35), OAT men with Vx (n = 55), OAT men without Vx (n = 64). They were subjected to assessment of semen parameters, seminal levels of testosterone (T), androstenedione (A), 5?-androstane-3 ?,17 ?-diol (3 ?-diol), oestradiol (E2 ), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and progesterone (P). Seminal levels of T and A were significantly decreased where seminal levels of 3 ?-diol, E2 , 17-OHP, P were significantly higher in OAT men with/without Vx compared with fertile controls. Sperm count, sperm motility and sperm normal forms percentage demonstrated significant positive correlation with seminal T and A and significant negative correlation with seminal 3 ?-diol, E2 , P. It is concluded that in fertile men, seminal T and A are significantly increased and seminal 3 ?-diol, E2 , 17-OHP, P are significantly decreased compared with infertile OAT men with/without Vx. Association of Vx demonstrated a nonsignificant influence on these hormonal levels in OAT cases. Sperm count, sperm motility and sperm normal forms demonstrated significant positive correlation with seminal T, A and significant negative correlation with seminal 3 ?-diol, E2 , P. PMID:23944757

Zalata, A; El-Mogy, M; Abdel-Khabir, A; El-Bayoumy, Y; El-Baz, M; Mostafa, T



Cetrorelix suppresses the preovulatory LH surge and ovulation induced by ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) present in llama seminal plasma  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the study was to determine if the effect of llama OIF on LH secretion is mediated by stimulation of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. Methods Using a 2-by-2 factorial design to examine the effects of OIF vs GnRH with or without a GnRH antagonist, llamas with a growing ovarian follicle greater than or equal to 8 mm were assigned randomly to four groups (n = 7 per group) and a) pre-treated with 1.5 mg of GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix acetate) followed by 1 mg of purified llama OIF, b) pre-treated with 1.5 mg of cetrorelix followed by 50 micrograms of GnRH, c) pre-treated with a placebo (2 ml of saline) followed by 1 mg of purified llama OIF or d) pre-treated with a placebo (2 ml of saline) followed by 50 micrograms of GnRH. Pre-treatment with cetrorelix or saline was given as a single slow intravenous dose 2 hours before intramuscular administration of either GnRH or OIF. Blood samples for LH measurement were taken every 15 minutes from 1.5 hours before to 8 hours after treatment. The ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to detect ovulation and CL formation. Blood samples for progesterone measurement were taken every-other-day from Day 0 (day of treatment) to Day 16. Results Ovulation rate was not different (P = 0.89) between placebo+GnRH (86%) and placebo+OIF groups (100%); however, no ovulations were detected in llamas pre-treated with cetrorelix. Plasma LH concentrations surged (P < 0.01) after treatment in both placebo+OIF and placebo+GnRH groups, but not in the cetrorelix groups. Maximum plasma LH concentrations and CL diameter profiles did not differ between the placebo-treated groups, but plasma progesterone concentrations were higher (P < 0.05), on days 6, 8 and 12 after treatment, in the OIF- vs GnRH-treated group. Conclusion Cetrorelix (GnRH antagonist) inhibited the preovulatory LH surge induced by OIF in llamas suggesting that LH secretion is modulated by a direct or indirect effect of OIF on GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus. PMID:21624125



Maturation of spermatozoa from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sex-reversed females using artificial seminal plasma or glucose-methanol extender.  


Masculinized females (sex-reversed females) produce only homogametic spermatozoa (X) for fertilization which is desired for the production of all-female rainbow trout populations. The milt of sex-reversed females is of low quality and must be matured through extension in maturation solutions. The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of glucose-methanol (GM) extender with artificial seminal plasma (ASP) extender for the maturation of milt of sex-reversed female rainbow trout. Milt suspensions were incubated at 4 °C for either 15 minutes (GM extender) or 120 minutes (ASP extender). Incubation of milt diluted in either the GM or ASP extender caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the percentage of sperm motility to 76.1 ± 10.9% and 74.7 ± 18.6% for GM and ASP, respectively, but no differences between both the extenders were found. Incubation also increased the average path velocity, straight line velocity, and linearity values of spermatozoa diluted with the GM extender; at the same time, none of the other parameters changed for ASP suspensions. Sperm diluted with ASP was characterized by higher curvilinear velocity and lateral head displacement values. Percentage of eyed embryos produced by fertilization using milt diluted in the GM extender amounted to 63.6 ± 16.4% and 67.2 ± 11.9% for sperm-to-egg ratio of 300,000:1 or 600,000:1, respectively and was lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of ASP extender (79.5 ± 5.8% and 80.3 ± 4.7% for sperm-to-egg ratio of 300,000:1 or 600,000:1, respectively). The results of our study clearly report that the mechanism of sperm maturation by the GM extender differs from that based on ASP. PMID:25638350

Ciereszko, Andrzej; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Nynca, Joanna; Dobosz, Stefan; Krom, Janusz



Membrane insertion and lipid-protein interactions of bovine seminal plasma protein PDC-109 investigated by spin-label electron spin resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed Central

The interaction of the major acidic bovine seminal plasma protein, PDC-109, with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes has been investigated by spin-label electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Studies employing phosphatidylcholine spin labels, bearing the spin labels at different positions along the sn-2 acyl chain indicate that the protein penetrates into the hydrophobic interior of the membrane and interacts with the lipid acyl chains up to the 14th C atom. Binding of PDC-109 at high protein/lipid ratios (PDC-109:DMPC = 1:2, w/w) results in a considerable decrease in the chain segmental mobility of the lipid as seen by spin-label electron spin resonance spectroscopy. A further interesting new observation is that, at high concentrations, PDC-109 is capable of (partially) solubilizing DMPC bilayers. The selectivity of PDC-109 in its interaction with membrane lipids was investigated by using different spin-labeled phospholipid and steroid probes in the DMPC host membrane. These studies indicate that the protein exhibits highest selectivity for the choline phospholipids phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin under physiological conditions of pH and ionic strength. The selectivity for different lipids is in the following order: phosphatidylcholine approximately sphingomyelin > or = phosphatidic acid (pH 6.0) > phosphatidylglycerol approximately phosphatidylserine approximately and rostanol > phosphatidylethanolamine > or = N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine >> cholestane. Thus, the lipids bearing the phosphocholine moiety in the headgroup are clearly the lipids most strongly recognized by PDC-109. However, these studies demonstrate that this protein also recognizes other lipids such as phosphatidylglycerol and the sterol androstanol, albeit with somewhat reduced affinity. PMID:11566792

Ramakrishnan, M; Anbazhagan, V; Pratap, T V; Marsh, D; Swamy, M J



Seminal plasma protein in renal cell carcinoma: expression of semenogelin I is a predictor for cancer progression and prognosis.  


The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been steadily rising each year. There are currently few recognized biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of RCC. We investigated semenogelin I (Sg I) expression and its clinical significance in patients with RCC. The expression levels of Sg I and its protein were measured by qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the protein expression of Sg I in RCC and normal renal tissue from 53 patients. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used to evaluate the data. By qRCR (p?

Zhang, Shengli; Fang, Jianzheng; Zhang, Xiangxiang; Qin, Chao; Su, Shifeng; Deng, Yunfei; Song, Zhen; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Hainan; Yin, Changjun; Wang, Zengjun



[Plasma membrane focal defects in structurally normal cells].  


The technique of perfusion fixation through the rat kidney vasculature was modified to ensure the highest possible level of cell preservation close to that under in vivo conditions. Electron microscopic analysis of the tissue specimens treated in such a way revealed local defects of the plasma membrane in a number of cells than that otherwise looked normal. These findings together with the evidence for reparability of such defects and some data on the purely artificial nature of certain alterations should be taken into consideration in order to avoid misinterpretations while diagnosing the biopsy specimens. PMID:20131509

Nevorotin, A I; Khokhlov, S E; Borisova, E A; Sipovski?, V G; Chefu, S G



Absorption of plasma proteins from peritoneal cavity of normal rats  

SciTech Connect

The present study was undertaken to examine whether the uptake of plasma proteins from the peritoneal cavity is quantitative so that tracers could be introduced that way for measuring their turnover. To this end, the metabolic behavior of seven homologous plasma proteins, labeled with 125I, was compared in rats after intravenous or intraperitoneal administration. The animals were maintained under physiological conditions. Total body radiation measurements showed that the degradation rates of albumin, immunoglobulins A and G, alpha 1-macroglobulin, and transferrin were the same regardless of the route of injection. This implies that these proteins are quantitatively absorbed from the peritoneum without undergoing modifications. The half-life of intraperitoneally injected alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was consistently shorter by an average 9%, thus suggesting that this protein becomes slightly altered if introduced that way. Only one-half of intraperitoneally injected fibrinogen survived normally, whereas the other underwent rapid degradation. The surviving molecules had the same half-life as fibrinogen injected intravenously. The fraction of surviving fibrinogen could be augmented by mixing the dose with serum. Within a wide range of concentrations and quantities injected, the degradation rate of transferrin remained the same. Analysis by deconvolution of the plasma curves of albumin and alpha 1-macroglobulin absorbed from the peritoneum showed that the transport process was independent of protein size and, at least up to 35 mg, of the amount injected. According to the same technique, intraperitoneally administered diferric transferrin retained its iron during passage into the circulation.

Regoeczi, E.; Zaimi, O.; Chindemi, P.A.; Charlwood, P.A.



Protective effect of esterified glucomannan on aflatoxin-induced changes in testicular function, sperm quality, and seminal plasma biochemistry in rams.  


The aim of this study was to determine the effect of aflatoxin (AF) on spermatologic, biochemical, and testis parameters in rams, and the protective efficiency of esterified glucomannan (EG) co-administered with AF. Thirty-two Merino rams (12-14 months old) were used. The experimental design consisted of four dietary treatments. The control group was fed commercial feed. The AF group was fed with commercial feed plus 250 ?g/d of total AF. The EG group received commercial feed plus 2 g/d of EG. The AF + EG group was given commercial feed plus 250 ?g/d of total AF and 2 g/d of EG. There were treatment, time, and treatment-by-time interaction effects on sperm motility, abnormal spermatozoa, damaged acrosome, and dead spermatozoa (P < 0.01). The percentage of motile sperm was lower and the percentages of abnormal sperm, sperm with damaged acrosomes, and dead sperm were greater in the AF group than in the control, AF+EG, and EG groups, as from week 3 until the end of week 12 (P < 0.05). As from week 3, hyaluronidase activity in the seminal plasma increased significantly in the AF group, compared with the control. The co-administration of AF+EG was found to be effective in preventing the increase in hyaluronidase activity. As week 4, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly higher in the AF group compared with the control. The combined administration of AF+EG was found to be effective in lowering the MDA levels, increased by AF, to the levels measured in the control (P < 0.05). Although glutathione (GSH) levels were determined to have significantly decreased in the AF group in comparison to the control, it was observed that, in the group co-administered with AF and EG, particularly after week 7, the GSH levels, which had decreased owing to AF, were largely ameliorated (P < 0.05). In conclusion, AF adversely affected spermatologic, biochemical, and testis parameters, and the combined administration of EG with AF reversibly eliminated these adverse effects in rams. PMID:24210915

Ataman, Mehmet Bozkurt; Dönmez, Hasan Hüseyin; Dönmez, Nurcan; Sur, Emrah; Bucak, Mustafa Numan; Coyan, Kenan



Relationship of semen hyperviscosity with IL-6, TNF-?, IL-10 and ROS production in seminal plasma of infertile patients with prostatitis and prostato-vesiculitis.  


Changes in levels of oxidative damage products in semen and their relationship to seminal fluid viscosity (SFV) have recently received increasing research interest. We analysed whether SFV was associated with ROS generation, levels of cytokines TNF-alpha (TNF-?), IL-6 and IL-10 and seminal leucocyte concentration, and whether ROS production was related to the extent of infections/inflammations at one (prostatitis) or two (prostato-vesiculitis) male accessory glands. We studied 169 infertile patients, with chronic bacterial prostatitis (PR, n = 74) and/or bilateral prostato-vesiculitis (PV, n = 95), as diagnosed by the ultrasound (US) criteria. Healthy fertile men (n = 42) served as controls. In the PV patient group, SFV, semen characteristics and ROS production had median values that were significantly higher than those found in PR patients and controls, although other sperm variables had values significantly lower than those found in PR patients or controls. In PV infertile patients, ROS generation and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels were higher than those found in PR infertile patients and controls, although seminal IL-10 levels in PV and PR patients were lower than those found in the controls. In PR patients, the levels of SFV were positively related to TNF-? (r = 0.67; P < 0.01), fMLP-stimulated ROS production in the 45% Percoll fraction (r = 0.687, P < 0.01) and the 90% Percoll fraction in basal condition (r = 0.695, P < 0.01), and after fMLP-stimulation (r = 0.688, P < 0.01). Thus, our data indicated that seminal hyperviscosity is associated with increased oxidative stress in infertile men and increased pro-inflammatory interleukins in patients with male accessory gland infection, more when the infection was extended to the seminal vesicles. PMID:24329571

Castiglione, R; Salemi, M; Vicari, L O; Vicari, E



Restoration of Normal Prothrombin Time/International Normalized Ratio With Fresh Frozen Plasma in Hypocoagulable Patients.  


Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is an effective reversal agent for hypocoagulable patients. Its proven efficacy continues to prompt its usage as both a prophylactic and a therapeutic therapy. Although published guidelines encouraging the appropriate administration of FFP exist, overutilization continues. The purpose of these ex vivo studies was to determine the effects of succeeding volumes of FFP supplementation on hypocoagulable plasma prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR). By analyzing the decline in PT/INR with varying volumes of FFP, a minimal required volume of FFP could be identified representing the optimal volume to administer while still providing therapeutic effect. A total of 497 plasma samples were screened for elevated PT/INR values and 50 samples were selected for inclusion in this experiment. The initial PTs/INRs ranged from 12.5 to 43.4 seconds/1.42 to 4.91. Subsequent declines in PT/INR values were analyzed following addition of 50, 100, and 150 µL of FFP to a fixed volume of 250 µL of plasma (26.4 ± 5.318 seconds/2.99 ± 0.603, 13.3 ± 1.077 seconds/1.51 ± 0.122, 11.2 ± 0.712 seconds/1.27 ± 0.081, and 10.3 ± 0.533 seconds/1.16 ± 0.06, respectively). A nonlinear relationship between decline in INR values and percentage of FFP supplementation was demonstrated. The greatest effect on INR was obtained after supplementation with 50 µL (49%). Doubling and tripling the volume of FFP lead to significantly lower declines in INR (16% and 8%, respectively). Analysis of variance indicated a statistical significance with subsequent volume supplementation of FFP, but marginal clinical benefits exist between the PTs/INRs obtainable with increased FFP volume administration. PMID:25294634

Only, Arthur J; DeChristopher, Phillip J; Iqal, Omer; Fareed, Jawed



Seminal reactive oxygen species-antioxidant relationship in fertile males with and without varicocele.  


The aim of this study was to assess seminal reactive oxygen species (ROS)-antioxidants relationship in fertile and infertile men with and without varicocele. One hundred and seventy six males were studied; fertile healthy volunteers (n = 45), fertile men with varicocele (n = 45), infertile oligoasthenozoospermia (OA, n = 44) without varicocele and infertile OA with varicocele (n = 42). In their seminal plasma, two ROS parameters (malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide) and five antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, vitaminE, vitaminC) were estimated. Compared with fertile healthy men, in all other studied groups, estimated seminal ROS were significantly higher and estimated antioxidants were significantly lower. Infertile men with varicocele showed the same relationship as infertile men without varicocele. Sperm concentration, total sperm motility as well as sperm normal forms were negatively correlated with seminal malondialdehyde and were positively correlated with vitaminC. It is concluded that varicocele has an oxidative stress (OS) in fertile normozoospermic bearing conditions. This may allow understanding that, within men with varicocele, there is a threshold value of OS over which male fertility may be impaired. PMID:19260850

Mostafa, T; Anis, T; Imam, H; El-Nashar, A R; Osman, I A



Semenogelin I: a coagulum forming, multifunctional seminal vesicle protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Human seminal plasma spontaneously coagulates after ejaculation. The major component of this coagulum is semenogelin I, a\\u000a 52-kDa protein expressed exclusively in the seminal vesicles. Recently, a sperm motility inhibitor has been found to be identical\\u000a to semenogelin I, suggesting that it may also be a physiological sperm motility inhibitor. The protein is rapidly cleaved\\u000a after ejaculation by the

M. Robert; C. Gagnon



Seminal CD38 is a pivotal regulator for fetomaternal tolerance.  


A successful pregnancy depends on a complex process that establishes fetomaternal tolerance. Seminal plasma is known to induce maternal immune tolerance to paternal alloantigens, but the seminal factors that regulate maternal immunity have yet to be characterized. Here, we show that a soluble form of CD38 (sCD38) released from seminal vesicles to the seminal plasma plays a crucial role in inducing tolerogenic dendritic cells and CD4(+) forkhead box P3(+) (Foxp3(+)) regulatory T cells (Tregs), thereby enhancing maternal immune tolerance and protecting the semiallogeneic fetus from resorption. The abortion rate in BALB/c females mated with C57BL/6 Cd38(-/-) males was high compared with that in females mated with Cd38(+/+) males, and this was associated with a reduced proportion of Tregs within the CD4(+) T-cell pool. Direct intravaginal injection of sCD38 to CBA/J pregnant mice at preimplantation increased Tregs and pregnancy rates in mice under abortive sonic stress from 48 h after mating until euthanasia. Thus, sCD38 released from seminal vesicles to the seminal plasma acts as an immunoregulatory factor to protect semiallogeneic fetuses from maternal immune responses. PMID:25591581

Kim, Byung-Ju; Choi, Yun-Min; Rah, So-Young; Park, Dae-Ryoung; Park, Seon-Ah; Chung, Yun-Jo; Park, Seung-Moon; Park, Jong Kwan; Jang, Kyu Yun; Kim, Uh-Hyun



Response of plasma arginine vasopressin to nicotine in normal man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) to nicotine administered by chewing gum (Nicorette, 2 mg) was examined in nine healthy volunteers. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum osmolality, plasma AVP level, and plasma nicotine level were measured at baseline (control) and at 30, 45, and 60 minutes after initial administration of the gum. There were small increases in heart

Steven R Goldsmith; Adriana Katz; Peter A Crooks



Carbohydrate metabolism in pregnancy. Part I. Diurnal plasma glucose profile in normal and diabetic women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diurnal plasma glucose profiles and oral glucose tolerance during pregnancy were studied in normal women, chemical diabetics, and insulin-requiring diabetics. In normal women the mean diurnal plasma glucose rose by only 0.22 mmol\\/1 (4 mg\\/100 m1) during pregnancy. Mild chemical diabetes resulted in an increase in both the mean diurnal glucose concentration and the fluctuation of plasma glucose levels during

M D Gillmer; R W Beard; F M Brooke; N W Oakley



Effect of diet on plasma acid-base composition in normal humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of diet on plasma acid-base composition in normal humans. Steady-state plasma and urine acid-base composition was assessed in 19 studies of 16 normal subjects who ingested constant amounts of one of three diets that resulted in different rates of endogenous noncarbonic acid production (EAP) within the normal range. Renal net acid excretion (NAE) was used to quantify EAP since

Ira Kurtz; Terry Maher; Henry N Hulter; Morris Schambelan; Anthony Sebastian



Proteomic analysis of seminal fluid from men exhibiting oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

Background Seminal plasma serves as a natural reservoir of antioxidants. It helps to remove excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and consequently, reduce oxidative stress. Proteomic profiling of seminal plasma proteins is important to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress and sperm dysfunction in infertile men. Methods This prospective study consisted of 52 subjects: 32 infertile men and 20 healthy donors. Once semen and oxidative stress parameters were assessed (ROS, antioxidant concentration and DNA damage), the subjects were categorized into ROS positive (ROS+) or ROS negative (ROS-). Seminal plasma from each group was pooled and subjected to proteomics analysis. In-solution digestion and protein identification with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), followed by bioinformatics analyses was used to identify and characterize potential biomarker proteins. Results A total of 14 proteins were identified in this analysis with 7 of these common and unique proteins were identified in both the ROS+ and ROS- groups through MASCOT and SEQUEST analyses, respectively. Prolactin-induced protein was found to be more abundantly present in men with increased levels of ROS. Gene ontology annotations showed extracellular distribution of proteins with a major role in antioxidative activity and regulatory processes. Conclusions We have identified proteins that help protect against oxidative stress and are uniquely present in the seminal plasma of the ROS- men. Men exhibiting high levels of ROS in their seminal ejaculate are likely to exhibit proteins that are either downregulated or oxidatively modified, and these could potentially contribute to male infertility. PMID:24004880



Resistive Alfven normal modes in a non-uniform plasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resistive normal mode solutions of the MHD equations are found numerically in a smooth, nonuniform, magnetic field. The (alpha, S) boundary within which normal mode solutions exist is explicitly computed, where alpha is the normalized wavenumber and S the Lundquist number. As an extension of previous analytic results of Mok and Einaudi (1985), the damping rate of these modes is computed to a higher accuracy, and is found to have an a + bS exp -1/3 dependence, where a and b are independent of S.

Einaudi, G.; Mok, Y.



Normal fasting plasma glucose levels in some birds of prey.  


Blood samples taken from five great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), eight red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), four marsh hawks (Circus cyaneus), two prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), five golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and five white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) that had been fasted for 24 h were used to determine plasma levels of glucose by the glucose oxidase method. The mean plasma glucose levels were: great horned owls 374.6 mg/100 ml, red-tailed hawks 346.5 mg/00 ml, marsh hawks 369.3 mg/100 ml, prairie falcons 414.5 mg/100 ml, golden eagles 368.4 mg/100 ml, and white Leghorn chickens 218.2 mg/100 ml. The plasma glucose levels obtained for the raptorial birds in this study were considerably higher than those found for the chickens. These values are discussed in relation to the carnivorous food habits of raptors. PMID:739587

O'Donnell, J A; Garbett, R; Morzenti, A



Model for ultraintense laser-plasma interaction at normal incidence.  


An analytical study of the relativistic interaction of a linearly polarized laser field of ? frequency with highly overdense plasma is presented. In agreement with one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, the model self-consistently explains the transition between the sheath inverse bremsstrahlung absorption regime and the J×B heating (responsible for the 2? electron bunches), as well as the high harmonic radiations and the mean electron energy. PMID:22680590

Sanz, J; Debayle, A; Mima, K



Magnetic field dependence of the normal mode spectrum of a planar complex plasma cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic field dependence of the normal mode spectra of two-dimensional finite clusters of complex plasmas which are confined by an external harmonic potential is presented. The dependence of the normal mode spectrum as a function of a perpendicular magnetic field is discussed. The nature of the eigenmodes is investigated and the corresponding divergence and rotor were calculated which describe

Minghui Kong; Wandemberg Paiva Ferreira; Bart Partoens; François M. Peeters



Normal plasma arginine esterase and the Hageman factor (factor XII) -prekallikrein-kininogen system in cystic fibrosis.  


Previous investigators have suggested that the biological activity of plasma prekallikrein is defective in cystic fibrosis. In contrast, no such difference was demonstrable between normal and cystic fibrosis plasma. Esterolytic activity for the synthetic substrate p-toluene sulfonyl-arginine methyl ester (TAMe) evolved normally in cystic fibrosis plasma treated with chloroform and ellagic acid, a measure of generation of plasma kallikrein. Additionally, plasma prekallikrein (Fletcher factor) and high molecular weight kininogen (Fitzgerald factor), a substrate of plasma kallikrein, were normal. Thus, the concept that cystic fibrosis is associated with abnormalities in the plasma kallikrein-kinin system could not be supported. PMID:830773

Goldsmith, G H; Stern, R C; Saito, H; Ratnoff, O D



Suppression of superoxide generation by normal polymorphonuclear leukocytes preincubated in plasma from patients with Felty's syndrome.  


Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) isolated from patients with Felty's syndrome (FS) generate fewer superoxide anions (O-2) upon stimulation with fmet-leu-phe than PMN from normal controls or patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, plasma samples were obtained from 12 patients with RA and 12 patients with FS. Incubation of normal PMN in plasma from Felty patients resulted in a significant reduction in both the rate and total quantity of O-2 generation when activated with fmet-leu-phe. This was not observed with plasma from RA patients. The capacity of a plasma sample to suppress O-2 generation correlated with plasma IgG-PMN-binding activity (IgG-PBA) and, to a lesser extent, with the content of circulating immune complexes (CIC). These data suggest that IgG-PBA and possibly CIC have a pathogenetic role in both qualitative and quantitative defects in PMN in Felty patients. PMID:3037685

Friman, C; Davis, P; Starkebaum, G; Johnston, C; Dasgupta, M; Grace, M; Wong, K



Study on quantitative analysis of slag based on spectral normalization of laser-induced plasma image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reduce the influence of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) experimental parameter fluctuations to quantitative analysis of slag components, a normalization method using integral intensity of plasma image was proposed and a series of experiments with slag samples were performed. Mg II 279.55 nm, Ca II 396.85 and Ca I 422.67 nm were selected as analytical lines, and analytical curves of reference mass fractions versus spectral line intensities were established. With the increment of set threshold for edge extraction of plasma image, the determination coefficients and relative standard deviations of analytical curves were improved gradually and reached the optimum values when the threshold was equal to 10 000. Comparing with the results without normalization and normalized by whole spectrum area, the relativity between spectral line intensity and mass fraction can be enhanced efficiently after normalized by integral intensity of plasma image. The verification experiments with Ti alloy samples further confirmed the conclusions mentioned above.

Ni, Zhi-Bo; Chen, Xing-Long; Fu, Hong-Bo; Wang, Jing-Ge; Dong, Feng-Zhong



Effect of different seasons on concentration of plasma luteinizing hormone and seminal quality vis-à-vis freezability of buffalo bulls ( Bubalus bubalis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal variations in semen quality, freezability and plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were studied between summer and spring. Semen volume, density and initial sperm motility did not differ significantly between different seasons. Plasma LH decreased between summer and spring but the differences were, however, not significant. Pre-freezing motility did not differ significantly but post-freezing motility varied significantly ( P<0.01) between seasons. Post-freezing motility was lowest during summer and highest during winter. It can be concluded that summer spermatozoa may be fragile and cannot withstand freezing stress. To increase reproductive efficiency in buffalo during summer, semen should be frozen during winter and spring and used during hot weather conditions. Seasonal variations in plasma LH levels were insignificant.

Bahga, C. S.; Khokar, B. S.



Aldosterone receptors and the evaluation of plasma mineralocorticoid activity in normal and hypertensive states.  

PubMed Central

Aldosterone receptors from rat kidney slices were utilized in a competitive binding technique to analyze the contribution of various steroids to plasma "mineralocorticoid" activity and to assess their possible role in hypertension. To consider simultaneously the plasma binding, steroids were incubated with slices in undiluted plasma; competitor activities for [3H]aldosterone binding were aldosterone, 100%; deoxycorticosterone, 16.2%; cortisol, 0.4%; and 18-hydroxy-deoxy-corticosterone and d18-hydroxy-corticosterone, 0.1%. These steroids were more active in buffer than plasma, suggesting that they bind to plasma and that this reduces their receptor binding. Analysis of the competition data suggests that at normal plasma concentrations, aldosterone occupies the receptors to a major extent, cortisol occupies some of the receptors, and deoxycorticosterone and 8-hydroxydeoxycorticosterone contribute little to receptor occupancy. Two steroids implicated in low-renin essential hypertension, 16beta-hydroxy-dehydro-epiandrosterone and 16-oxoandrostenediol, did not have significant competitor activity. Competitor activity in plasmas from normal subjects taken at 12 noon (upright) was greater than that in those taken at 8 a.m. (supine). Since the 12 noon samples had higher aldosterone and lower cortisol levels than the 8 a.m. samples, the competitor activity under these physiological circumstances reflects aldosterone more than cortisol. The competitor activities of plasmas from patients relative to normal subjects (100+/-12.1%; mean+/-SEM) were: normal renin "essential" hypertension, 117+/-14%; low-renin essential hypertension, 101+/-6.6%; and primary aldosteronism, 176+/-14.3%. Thus a significant increase in activity of steroids that interact with mineralocorticoid receptors was detected in primary aldosteronism (P LESS THAN 0.01) BUT WAS NOT DETECTED IN LOW-RENIN OR NORMAL-RENIN ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION. PMID:182723

Baxter, J D; Schambelan, M; Matulich, D T; Spindler, B J; Taylor, A A; Bartter, F C



Quantitation of seminal factor IX and factor IXa in fertile, nonfertile, and vasectomy subjects: a step closer toward identifying a functional clotting system in human semen.  


Coagulation factor (F) IX is a zymogen of the plasma serine proteases, one that plays an essential role in the regulation of normal blood coagulation. Congenital defects of FIX synthesis or function cause hemophilia B (originally called hemophilia C). Factor IX is activated by Tissue Factor (TF):FVII/FVIIa complex and FXIa. Subsequent to its activation, FIXa combines with FVIIIa on the platelet surface and activates FX to FXa. Human semen forms a semi-solid gelatinous coagulum, which then liquefies within 5-20 minutes in vitro. In spite of evidence demonstrating the importance of the seminal coagulation and liquefaction process in terms of global fertility and despite the fact that the seminal coagulum is composed of fibrin-like material, it has always been addressed from the perspective of High Molecular Weight Seminal Vesicle (HMW-SV) proteins (Semenogelin I and II) and their cleavage by prostate-specific antigen rather than the conventional hemostatic factors. In this study and as part of our continuing investigation of human seminal clotting factors, we report here on seminal FIX and FIXa in normal, subfertile, and vasectomized subjects. Factors IX and FIXa were studied in a total of 119 semen specimens obtained from subfertile (n=18), normally fertile (n=34), and fertile sperm donors (n=27) and vasectomy subjects (n=40). Seminal FIX and FIXa levels were also measured in a group defined by normality in several parameters derived from the World Health Organization fertility criteria and termed "pooled normal semen parameters." Both FIX and FIXa were quantifiable in human semen. There was a wide individual variation in FIX and FIXa levels within groups. Despite the group size, statistically significant associations with fertility-related parameters were infrequent. There is a positive correlation between FIX and its activation product, FIXa (n=36; r=0.51; P <.05). Factor IXa elevation in the high sperm-clump group was significant (P <.05), and days of abstention correlated with FIXa levels (n=63; r=0.3; P <.05). The key finding of the present study is that both FIX and FIXa are present in concentrations that are not dissimilar to plasma levels and that are apparently functional, as the activated form is also present. This fact, taken with other reports of coagulation factors in semen, raises the likelihood that a functional set of hemostatic coagulation proteins exists in semen, potentially to interact with the HMW-SV proteins and the prostate-specific antigen system. PMID:15611579

Lwaleed, Bashir A; Greenfield, Robert S; Hicks, James; Birch, Brian R; Cooper, Alan J



Proteins of human semen. I. Two-dimensional mapping of human seminal fluid  

SciTech Connect

The proteins in human seminal plasma were mapped by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (ISO-DALT and BASO-DALT systems). When analyzed under dissociating conditions, samples from normal fertile males revealed a pattern of over 200 proteins, ranging in mass from 10,000 to 100,000 daltons. Comparison of the mapped proteins from these males and those who had undergone vasectomy allowed us to identify one series of glycoproteins as missing from the semen from vasectomized individuals. Glycoproteins isolated by affinity chromatography with use of concanavalin A were also mapped. Some of the protein spots were identified either by coelectrophoresis with purified proteins or by the electrophoretic transfer of proteins to nitrocellulose sheets and subsequent detection by immunological procedures. The proteins identified include a number of serum proteins as well as prostatic acid phosphatase and creatine kinase. Proteolytic events shown to occur during the liquefaction of semen that occurs early after collection indicate the importance of carefully controlled collection and preparation methods for clinical evaluation of seminal plasma. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibit this proteolysis.

Edwards, J.J.; Tollaksen, S.L.; Anderson, N.G.



Seminal vesicle schwannoma presenting with left hydroureteronephrosis  

PubMed Central

We report a very rare case of seminal vesicle schwannoma in a 50-year-old male, with left hydroureteronephrosis. Only five cases of seminal vesicle schwannomas have been reported in medical literature until date. PMID:25371618

Arun, Gopalakrishnan; Chakraborti, Shrijeet; Rai, Santosh; Prabhu, Gurupur Guni Laxman



Wave propagation in pulsar magnetospheres - Dispersion relations and normal modes of plasmas in superstrong magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive the dispersion relations and polarization characteristics of the normal modes of radiation in superstrong magnetic fields, with particular attention to those attributes of importance to the transfer of radiation in the relativistic electron-positron plasmas expected to occur in the magnetospheres of radio pulsars. We restrict ourselves to the regions where the proper frequency of cyclotron resonance greatly exceeds

J. Arons; J. J. Barnard



Restoration of the normal squamous lining in Barrett's esophagus by argon beam plasma coagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Barrett's esophagus is associated with significantly increased risk of development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Replacing columnar epithelium with the normal squamous lining in this condition offers the possibility of decreasing the risk of degeneration to invasive adenocarcinoma. This study aimed to establish the feasibility of argon beam plasma coagulation (ABPC), in conjunction with control of gastroesophageal reflux, to restore the squamous

James P. Byrne; Gordon R. Armstrong; Stephen E. A. Attwood




NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint lecture, by Jason Park of San Jose State University Department of Computer Science, offers students a quick introduction to database normalization, the "process of removing redundant data from your tables in to improve storage efficiency, data integrity, and scalability." Here, visitors will find information about database normalization history and applications. With information on the normal forms, field pioneer Edgar F. Codd, and problematic tables, this presentation will be helpful in any database programming and design classroom.

Park, Jason



Proteolysis of Complement Factors iC3b and C5 by the Serine Protease Prostate-Specific Antigen in Prostatic Fluid and Seminal Plasma  

PubMed Central

Prostate-specific Ag (PSA) is a serine protease that is expressed exclusively by normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells. The continued high-level expression of PSA by the majority of men with both high- and low-grade prostate cancer throughout the course of disease progression, even in the androgen-ablated state, suggests that PSA has a role in the pathogenesis of disease. Current experimental and clinical evidence suggests that chronic inflammation, regardless of the cause, may predispose men to prostate cancer. The responsibility of the immune system in immune surveillance and eventually tumor progression is well appreciated but not completely understood. In this study, we used a mass spectrometry–based evaluation of prostatic fluid obtained from diseased prostates after removal by radical prostatectomy to identify potential immunoregulatory proteins. This analysis revealed the presence of Igs and the complement system proteins C3, factor B, and clusterin. Verification of these findings by Western blot confirmed the high-level expression of C3 in the prostatic fluid and the presence of a previously uncharacterized C-terminal C3 cleavage product. Biochemical analysis of this C3 cleavage fragment revealed a putative PSA cleavage site after tyrosine-1348. Purified PSA was able to cleave iC3b and the related complement protein C5. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized function of PSA as an immunoregulatory protease that could help to create an environment hospitable to malignancy through proteolysis of the complement system. PMID:23401592

Manning, Michael L.; Williams, Simon A.; Jelinek, Christine A.; Kostova, Maya B.; Denmeade, Samuel R.



Proteolysis of complement factors iC3b and C5 by the serine protease prostate-specific antigen in prostatic fluid and seminal plasma.  


Prostate-specific Ag (PSA) is a serine protease that is expressed exclusively by normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells. The continued high-level expression of PSA by the majority of men with both high- and low-grade prostate cancer throughout the course of disease progression, even in the androgen-ablated state, suggests that PSA has a role in the pathogenesis of disease. Current experimental and clinical evidence suggests that chronic inflammation, regardless of the cause, may predispose men to prostate cancer. The responsibility of the immune system in immune surveillance and eventually tumor progression is well appreciated but not completely understood. In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based evaluation of prostatic fluid obtained from diseased prostates after removal by radical prostatectomy to identify potential immunoregulatory proteins. This analysis revealed the presence of Igs and the complement system proteins C3, factor B, and clusterin. Verification of these findings by Western blot confirmed the high-level expression of C3 in the prostatic fluid and the presence of a previously uncharacterized C-terminal C3 cleavage product. Biochemical analysis of this C3 cleavage fragment revealed a putative PSA cleavage site after tyrosine-1348. Purified PSA was able to cleave iC3b and the related complement protein C5. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized function of PSA as an immunoregulatory protease that could help to create an environment hospitable to malignancy through proteolysis of the complement system. PMID:23401592

Manning, Michael L; Williams, Simon A; Jelinek, Christine A; Kostova, Maya B; Denmeade, Samuel R



Keyhole and weld shapes for plasma arc welding under normal and zero gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A first order study of the interfacial (keyhole) shape between a penetrating argon plasma arc jet and a stationary liquid metal weld pool is presented. The interface is determined using the Young-Laplace equation by assuming that the plasma jet behaves as a one-dimensional ideal gas flow and by neglecting flow within the weld pool. The solution for the keyhole shape allows an approximate determination of the liquid-solid metal phase boundary location based on the assumption that the liquid melt is a stagnant thermal boundary layer. Parametric studies examine the effect of plasma mass flow rate, initial plasma enthalpy, liquid metal surface tension, and jet shear on weldment shape under both normal and zero gravity. Among the more important findings of this study is that keyhole and weld geometries are minimally affected by gravity, suggesting that data gathered under gravity can be used in planning in-space welding.

Keanini, R. G.; Rubinsky, B.



Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) in different reproductive states.  


Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of castrated tree sparrows from each of three reproductive states was evaluated by measuring the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of replacement or plasma testosterone. Birds were exposed to exogenous testosterone for 38 days. Replacement doses less than 0.17 mumol or plasma concentrations less than about 0.7 nmol/l did not induce seminal-sac growth in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days, in photosensitive castrated birds transferred from short to long days, or in photorefractory castrated birds retained on long days. Higher replacement doses or plasma concentrations, however, stimulated log dose-dependent growth of the seminal sacs in castrated birds from all three reproductive states. The change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of the dose of replacement testosterone was less (P = 0.0495) in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days than in photosensitive castrated birds transferred to long days. A more critical test of sensitivity (i.e. the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of mean plasma testosterone concentration) indicated, however, that sensitivity of the seminal sacs to testosterone is independent of reproductive state. That result, when considered in the context of the plasma testosterone profile of intact males during a simulated reproductive cycle, argues that the seminal sacs of sexually quiescent (photosensitive or photorefractory) tree sparrows are small not because of their insensitivity to androgens, but because of a deficiency of circulating androgens. PMID:3701240

Wilson, F E





... Parents are naturally concerned about the health and welfare of their children. Many parents correctly and comfortably see their youngster as normal. However, some parents worry whether their infant, child, or teenager has a problem. These worries can ...


Presence of a platelet aggregating factor in the plasma of patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and its inhibition by normal plasma.  


Three patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) were treated by infusion of normal plasma with dramatic responses. The plasmas collected from these patients during relapse induced in vitro aggregation of washed platelets from both normal donors and the patients during remission. The platelet aggregating factor was not dialyzable or adsorbable by Al(OH)3 and was not inactivated by diisopropylfluorophosphate, hirudin, or heparin in the presence of normal amounts of antithrombin. In contrast to the platelet aggregation induced by platelet isoantibody, the platelet aggregating activity of TTP plasma diminished as a function of time when it was incubated with normal plasma at 37 degrees C. These observations suggest that at least some instances of TTP appear to be due to deficiency of a plasma inhibitor to counteract a platelet aggregating factor demonstrated to be present in the plasma of these patients. PMID:570069

Lian, E C; Harkness, D R; Byrnes, J J; Wallach, H; Nunez, R



Plasma antibodies to Abeta40 and Abeta42 in patients with Alzheimer's disease and normal controls.  


Antibodies to amyloid beta protein (Abeta) are present naturally or after Abeta vaccine therapy in human plasma. To clarify their clinical role, we examined plasma samples from 113 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 205 normal controls using the tissue amyloid plaque immunoreactivity (TAPIR) assay. A high positive rate of TAPIR was revealed in AD (45.1%) and age-matched controls (41.2%), however, no significance was observed. No significant difference was observed in the MMS score or disease duration between TAPIR-positive and negative samples. TAPIR-positive plasma reacted with the Abeta40 monomer and dimer, and the Abeta42 monomer weakly, but not with the Abeta42 dimer. TAPIR was even detected in samples from young normal subjects and young Tg2576 transgenic mice. Although the Abeta40 level and Abeta40/42 ratio increased, and Abeta42 was significantly decreased in plasma from AD groups when compared to controls, no significant correlations were revealed between plasma Abeta levels and TAPIR grading. Thus an immune response to Abeta40 and immune tolerance to Abeta42 occurred naturally in humans without a close relationship to the Abeta burden in the brain. Clarification of the mechanism of the immune response to Abeta42 is necessary for realization of an immunotherapy for AD. PMID:18534566

Xu, Wuhua; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Matsubara, Etsuro; Deguchi, Kentaro; Murakami, Tetsuro; Harigaya, Yasuo; Ikeda, Masaki; Amari, Masakuni; Kuwano, Ryozo; Abe, Koji; Shoji, Mikio



Nonlinear surface plasma wave induced target normal sheath acceleration of protons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mode structure of a large amplitude surface plasma wave (SPW) over a vacuum-plasma interface, including relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities, is deduced. It is shown that the SPW excited by a p-polarized laser on a rippled thin foil target can have larger amplitude than the transmitted laser amplitude and cause stronger target normal sheath acceleration of protons as reported in a recent experiment. Substantial enhancement in proton number also occurs due to the larger surface area covered by the SPW.

Liu, C. S.; Tripathi, V. K.; Shao, Xi; Liu, T. C.



Plasma protein associations with hippocampal atrophy across the cognitive spectrum from normal aging to Alzheimer s disease  

E-print Network

Plasma protein associations with hippocampal atrophy across the cognitive spectrum from normal aging to Alzheimer s disease Methods: We analyzed the imaging and plasma protein biomarker data from EDTA plasma samples were collected and analyzed with a 190 analyte multiplex immunoassay panel based

Thompson, Paul


Effect of correlations on the thermal equilibrium and normal modes of a non-neutral plasma Daniel H. E. Dubin  

E-print Network

Effect of correlations on the thermal equilibrium and normal modes of a non-neutral plasma Daniel H forces neglected in the fluid theory. A viscoelastic model of the plasma incorporating these effects s : 52.25.Wz, 32.80.Pj, 52.35.Fp, 62.20.Dc I. INTRODUCTION Non-neutral plasmas, which are composed only

California at San Diego, University of


Epicardial adipose tissue thickness and plasma homocysteine in patients with metabolic syndrome and normal coronary arteries  

PubMed Central

Background Increased epicardial adipose tissue thickness and plasma homocysteine levels are associated with Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and coronary artery disease. The majority of patients with MS have subclinical or manifest coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between MS and plasma homocysteine levels and epicardial adipose tissue thickness in subjects without epicardial coronary artery disease. Methods Patients who underwent coronary angiography due to angina or equivocal symptoms and/or abnormal stress test results and were found to have normal coronary arteries were evaluated for the presence of MS. The study group comprised 75 patients with normal coronary arteries and MS, and the control group included 75 age-gender matched subjects without coronary artery disease or MS. Results Epicardial adipose tissue thickness (5.8?±?1.9 mm vs. 4.3?±?1.6 mm, p <0.001) and plasma homocysteine levels (21.6?±?6.1 ?mol/L vs. 15.1?±?5.8 ?mol/L, p <0.001) were significantly higher in the MS group. Body mass index, triglyceride level, weight, age and waist circumference were positively and HDL cholesterol level were negatively correlated with both epicardial adipose tissue thickness and plasma homocysteine level. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness had the strongest correlation with plasma homocysteine level (r?=?0.584, p?plasma homocysteine level was expected. Conclusions We observed a close relationship between MS and epicardial adipose tissue thickness and plasma homocysteine levels, even in the absence of overt coronary artery disease. PMID:24872849



Note: A novel normalization scheme for laser-based plasma x-ray sources  

SciTech Connect

A kHz repetition rate laser pump-X-ray probe system for ultrafast X-ray diffraction is set up based on a laser-driven plasma X-ray source. A simple and reliable normalization approach has been developed to minimize the impact of large X-ray pulse intensity fluctuation on data quality. It utilizes one single X-ray area detector to record both sample and reference signals simultaneously. Performance of this novel normalization method is demonstrated in reflectivity oscillation measurement of a superlattice sample at sub-ps resolution.

Zhang, B. B.; Sun, D. R.; Tao, Y., E-mail: [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun, S. S. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100090 (China)



Seminal fluid signaling in the female reproductive tract: lessons from rodents and pigs.  


Seminal fluid contains potent signaling agents that influence female reproductive physiology to improve the chances of conception and pregnancy success. Cytokines and prostaglandins synthesized in the male accessory glands are transferred to the female at insemination, where they bind to receptors on target cells in the cervix and uterus, activating changes in gene expression that lead to modifications in structure and function of the female tissues. The consequences are increased sperm survival and fertilization rates, conditioning of the female immune response to tolerate semen and the conceptus, and molecular and cellular changes in the endometrium that facilitate embryo development and implantation. Male-female tract signaling occurs in rodents, livestock animals, and all other mammals examined thus far, including humans. In mice, the key signaling moieties in seminal plasma are identified as members of the transforming growth factor-beta family. Recent studies indicate a similar signaling function for boar factors in the pig, whereby the sperm and plasma fractions of seminal fluid appear to synergize in activating an inflammatory response and downstream changes in the female tract after insemination. Seminal plasma elicits endometrial changes, with induction of proinflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase-2, causing recruitment of macrophages and dendritic cells. Sperm contribute by interacting with seminal plasma factors to modulate neutrophil influx into the luminal cavity. The cascade of changes in local leukocyte populations and cytokine synthesis persists throughout the preimplantation period. Exposure to seminal fluid alters the dynamics of preimplantation embryo development, with an increase in the number of fertilized oocytes attaining the viable blastocyst stage. There is also evidence that seminal factors influence the timing of ovulation, corpus luteum development, and progesterone synthesis. Insight into the molecular basis of seminal fluid signaling in the female reproductive tract may inform new interventions and management practices to ensure maximal fertility and reduce embryo mortality in pigs and, potentially, other livestock species. PMID:17085725

Robertson, S A



Volume change of the prostate and seminal vesicles in male hypogonadism after androgen replacement therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before and after androgen replacement therapy prostatic and seminovesicular volume was estimated by means of transrectal ultrasonography\\u000a in 13 hypogonadal men. Volume of the prostate (p<0.001) and seminal vesicles (p<0.01) significantly increased after treatment\\u000a with testosterone enanthate. However, the plasma level of testosterone remained abnormally low. These results indicate that\\u000a volume determination of the prostate and seminal vesicles by means

I. Sasagawa; T. Nakada; T. Kazama; S. Satomi; T. Terada; T. Katayama



Comparison of mean normal prothrombin time (PT) with PT of fresh normal pooled plasma or of a lyophilized control plasma (R82A) as denominator to express PT results: collaborative study of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mean normal prothrombin time (MNPT) is cur- rently recommended as the denominator term in the expression of PT ratio or International Normalized Ra- tio (INR) values. The PT of lyophilized normal control plasmas might also be used in calculating PT ratios, but the overall accuracy of this approach and its dependence on reagents and endpoint detectors have not been

Armando D'Angelo; Laura Galli; Hartmut Lang


Permeability of rheumatoid and normal human synovium to specific plasma proteins.  


A method is described for the determination of the permeability of the blood-joint barrier to specific plasma proteins, using the ratio of protein concentration in synovial fluid to that in plasma. The inadequacy of the ratio per se as a direct index of permeability is discussed. Permeabilities are evaluated for the normal and rheumatoid human knee. Permeability increases in the rhematoid knee by approximately 6 times for the rheumatoid knee by approximately 6 times for albumin and over 40 times for macroglobulins. The effect of protein molecular dimensions upon permeability is analyzed. Permeability shows less dependence upon solute dimensions in the rheumatoid knee than in the normal knee, i.e., molecular selectivity is reduced. From these data and synovial morphology, a two-membrane model of the blood-joint barrier is developed. The relative contribution of the component intimal and endothelial layers to the total barrier is found to depend upon solute dimensions. PMID:7326067

Levick, J R



Forearm mineral content in normal men: relationship to weight, height and plasma testosterone concentrations  

SciTech Connect

We measured forearm bone mineral content by single photon absorptiometry together with height, weight and the plasma concentrations of testosterone, free testosterone and sex steroid binding globulin in 66 normal Caucasian males aged 29-46 years. Multiple regression analysis suggests that bone mineral content in either the dominant or the nondominant arm is correlated with weight and sex steroid binding globulin (p less than 0.05 for both parameters). The partial negative correlation of bone mineral content (corrected for weight and sex steroid binding globulin) with plasma testosterone failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.07). The parsimonious regression equation which best explained the bone mineral content measurements in the nondominant forearm in these men was bone mineral content = 29.1-0.374 (plasma testosterone) + 0.383 (weight) + 0.220 (sex steroid binding globulin) with an R2 value of 29.7%. A similar equation was generated for the dominant arm.

McElduff, A.; Wilkinson, M.; Ward, P.; Posen, S.



Selenoprotein P in seminal fluid is a novel biomarker of sperm quality.  


Hepatically-derived selenoprotein P (SePP) transports selenium (Se) via blood to other tissues including the testes. Male Sepp-knockout mice are infertile. SePP-mediated Se transport to Sertoli cells is needed for supporting biosynthesis of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4) in spermatozoa. GPX4 becomes a structural component of sperm midpiece during sperm maturation, and its expression correlates to semen quality. We tested whether SePP is also present in seminal plasma, potentially correlating to fertility parameters. Semen quality was assessed by sperm density, morphology and motility. SePP was measured by an immunoluminometric assay, and trace elements were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. SePP levels were considerably lower in seminal plasma as compared to serum (0.4±0.1 mg/l vs. 3.5±1.0 mg/l); Se concentrations showed a similar but less pronounced difference (48.9±20.7 ?g/l vs. 106.7±17.3 ?g/l). Se and Zn correlated positively in seminal fluid but not in serum. Seminal plasma SePP concentrations were independent of serum SePP concentrations, but correlated positively to sperm density and fraction of vital sperm. SePP concentrations in seminal plasma of vasectomized men were similar to controls indicating that accessory sex glands are a testes-independent source of SePP. This notion was corroborated by histochemical analyses localizing SePP in epithelial cells of seminal vesicles. We conclude that SePP is not only involved in Se transport to testes supporting GPX4 biosynthesis but it also becomes secreted into seminal plasma, likely important to protect sperm during storage, genital tract passage and final journey. PMID:24361887

Michaelis, Marten; Gralla, Oliver; Behrends, Thomas; Scharpf, Marcus; Endermann, Tobias; Rijntjes, Eddy; Pietschmann, Nicole; Hollenbach, Birgit; Schomburg, Lutz



Seminal shedding of human herpesviruses  

PubMed Central

Most of the human herpesviruses can be found in semen, although the reported prevalence varies considerably between individual studies. The frequent presence of herpesvirus in semen raises the question whether sexual transmission of the virus could have an impact on human reproduction. Only few studies have associated seminal shedding of herpesviruses with impaired sperm quality, reduced fertility, or reduced chances of pregnancy, whereas most studies fail to find an association. Taken together, no firm evidence is so far linking the presence of herpesviruses in semen to impaired human reproduction. PMID:23834839



A network of interactions among seminal proteins underlies the long-term postmating response in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Despite the importance of seminal proteins in fertility and their capacity to alter mated females' physiology, the molecular pathways and networks through which they act have not been well characterized. Drosophila seminal fluid includes proteins that fall into biochemical classes conserved from insects to mammals, making it an excellent model with which to address this question. Drosophila seminal fluid also contains a “sex peptide” (SP, Acp70A) that plays a major role in regulating egg production and mating behavior in females for several days after mating. This long-term postmating response (LTR) initially requires the association of SP with sperm. The LTR also requires members of the conserved seminal protein classes (two lectins, a protease, and a cysteine-rich secretory protein). Here, we show that these seminal proteins function interdependently, regulating a three-step cascade (first, at the level of seminal protein transfer to the female; second, at the level of stability; and third, at the level of localization within females), leading to the normal localization of SP to sperm-storage organs. This localization is, in turn, necessary for successful induction of the LTR. The requirements for manifestation of the LTR in Drosophila establish the paradigm that multiple seminal proteins can exert their actions through a multistep, multicomponent network of interactions. PMID:19706411

Ram, K. Ravi; Wolfner, Mariana F.



The effect of chronic kisspeptin administration on seminal fructose levels in male mice.  


The discovery that kisspeptin was critical for normal fertility in all mammalian species including humans, ushered in a new chapter in our understanding of the control of GnRH secretion. Kisspeptin, the product of the KISS1 gene, plays an essential role in the regulation of spermatogenesis acting primarily at the hypothalamic level of the gonadotropic axis. Among the many identified substances in human semen, fructose is becoming increasingly significant. Fructose is synthesized and secreted by the seminal vesicles. Its synthesis is regulated by androgens and it is correlated directly with the levels of testosterone. Dose dependent degeneration of seminal vesicle has been described following intraperitoneal kisspeptin treatment; however, effects of kisspeptin administration on the levels of seminal fructose remain elusive till date. The present study, therefore, addresses the effects of 12-day administration of kisspeptin on seminal fructose levels in male mice. Kisspeptin-10 was administered intraperitoneally at different dosage concentrations (1 ?g, 1 ng, and 10 ?g) to adult male mice, twice daily for 12 days. Seminal fructose levels were studied photometrically after 12 days of treatment. At the end of the treatment, seminal fructose levels decreased significantly after all tested doses. Chronic intermittent kisspeptin-10 administration negatively regulates seminal fructose levels in adult male mice. PMID:23864558

Ramzan, Faiqah; Khan, Muhammad Ayaz; Ramzan, Muhammad Haris



Episodic release of plasma LH in normal cycling and ovariectomized cows  

E-print Network

by 48 *r postovariectomy in heifers. Short et al. (1971) observed that serum LH levels increased from 3. 1 x . 2 on day 0 to 6. 8 + . 6 ng/ ml on day 27 postovariectomy. Associated with the increases in levels of plasma LH following ovariectomy... (U-14, 624) produced a 90X reduction in NE levels without any noticeable effect on dopamine ( DA) in the hypothalamus, and that the pulsatile . discharge of LH normally seen in ovariectomized rats was abolished. An increase has been observed in NE...

Rahe, Charles Hardin



Age and sex differences of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and cortisol (CRT) plasma levels in normal controls and Alzheimer's disease (AD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 50 healthy subjects (23 female, 27 male, aged 18–81) and 24 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (11 female, 13 male, aged 58–88) DHEAS and CRT plasma levels were studied. In normal subjects there was a clear negative correlation of DHEAS to age, while no significant age correlated decrease of CRT plasma levels was found. There was a significant decrease

F. Leblhuber; C. Neubauer; Marianne Peichl; F. Reisecker; F. X. Steinparz; E. Windhager; Elisabeth Dienstl



Comparative proteomic analysis of proteins involved in the tumorigenic process of seminal vesicle carcinoma in transgenic mice.  


We studied the seminal vesicle secretion (SVS) of transgenic mice by using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with LTQ-FT ICR MS analysis to explore protein expression profiles. Using unique peptide numbers as a cut-off criterion, 79 proteins were identified with high confidence in the SVS proteome. Label-free quantitative analysis was performed by using the IDEAL_Q software program. Furthermore, western blot assays were performed to validate the expression of seminal vesicle proteins. Sulfhydryl oxidase 1, glia-derived nexin, SVS1, SVS3, and SVS6 showed overexpression in SVS during cancer development. With high sequence similarity to human semenogelin, SVS2 is the most abundance protein in SVS and is dramatically decreased during the tumorigenic process. Our results indicate that these protein candidates could serve as potential targets for monitoring seminal vesicle carcinoma. Moreover, this information can provide clues for investigating seminal vesicle secretion-containing seminal plasma for related human diseases. PMID:22084680

Chang, Wei-Chao; Chou, Chuan-Kai; Tsou, Chih-Chiang; Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Chen, Chein-Hung; Zhuo, Yu-Xing; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Chen, Chung-Hsuan



Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Proteins Involved in the Tumorigenic Process of Seminal Vesicle Carcinoma in Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

We studied the seminal vesicle secretion (SVS) of transgenic mice by using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with LTQ-FT ICR MS analysis to explore protein expression profiles. Using unique peptide numbers as a cut-off criterion, 79 proteins were identified with high confidence in the SVS proteome. Label-free quantitative analysis was performed by using the IDEAL_Q software program. Furthermore, western blot assays were performed to validate the expression of seminal vesicle proteins. Sulfhydryl oxidase 1, glia-derived nexin, SVS1, SVS3, and SVS6 showed overexpression in SVS during cancer development. With high sequence similarity to human semenogelin, SVS2 is the most abundance protein in SVS and is dramatically decreased during the tumorigenic process. Our results indicate that these protein candidates could serve as potential targets for monitoring seminal vesicle carcinoma. Moreover, this information can provide clues for investigating seminal vesicle secretion-containing seminal plasma for related human diseases. PMID:22084680

Chang, Wei-Chao; Chou, Chuan-Kai; Tsou, Chih-Chiang; Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Chen, Chein-Hung; Zhuo, Yu-Xing; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Chen, Chung-Hsuan



Plasma Adiponectin Levels in High Risk African-Americans with Normal Glucose Tolerance, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, and Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We studied plasma adiponectin, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion before and after oral glucose challenge in normal glucose tolerant, impaired glucose tolerant, and type 2 diabetic first degree relatives of African-American patients with type 2 diabetes.Research Methods and Procedures: We studied 19 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 8 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 14 with type 2

Kwame Osei; Trudy Gaillard; Dara Schuster



Modeling the effect of anisotropic pressure on tokamak plasmas normal modes and continuum using fluid approaches  

E-print Network

Extending the ideal MHD stability code MISHKA, a new code, MISHKA-A, is developed to study the impact of pressure anisotropy on plasma stability. Based on full anisotropic equilibrium and geometry, the code can provide normal mode analysis with three fluid closure models: the single adiabatic model (SA), the double adiabatic model (CGL) and the incompressible model. A study on the plasma continuous spectrum shows that in low beta, large aspect ratio plasma, the main impact of anisotropy lies in the modification of the BAE gap and the sound frequency, if the q profile is conserved. The SA model preserves the BAE gap structure as ideal MHD, while in CGL the lowest frequency branch does not touch zero frequency at the resonant flux surface where $m+nq=0$, inducing a gap at very low frequency. Also, the BAE gap frequency with bi-Maxwellian distribution in both model becomes higher if $p_\\perp > p_\\parallel$ with a q profile dependency. As a benchmark of the code, we study the m/n=1/1 internal kink mode. Numerical...

Qu, Zhisong; Fitzgerald, Michael



Correlation of Serum Lipid P rofile with Histological and Seminal Parameters of Testis in The Goat  

PubMed Central

Background: The lipid composition of a mammal’s spermatozoa and seminal plasma vary in both structure and function. Evidence exists to suggest that dietary supplementation with the appropriate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) affects spermatogenesis, semen quality and sperm motility. Therefore, this study has been conducted to evaluate the correlations between serum lipid profile and histological, anatomical and seminal parameters of testes in clinically healthy goats. Materials and Methods: In this analytic, cross-sectional study, we chose a total of ten mature Iranian male goats that comprised a homogenous group through simple random sampling. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein; the sera were separated and subsequently used for measurement of serum lipids, lipoproteins and testosterone levels. In addition, we collected semen from the animals and evaluated the seminal characteristics. We also performed histological and anatomical assessments of the testes. Results: The findings demonstrated that serum levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) had a significant positive correlation with interstitial testicular tissue area (r=0.73; p<0.001), seminiferous tubule area (r=0.61; p<0.01), the number of Leydig cells (r=0.53; p<0.05), the diameter of the Leydig cell nuclei (r=0.54; p<0.05), scrotal circumference (r=0.83; p<0.001), testis weight (r=0.72; p<0.001), the number of live, normal sperm (r=0.94 ; p<0.001) and serum testosterone levels (r=0.88; p<0.001). Significant but negative correlations were found between serum triglyceride concentration and seminiferous tubule area (r=-0.53; p<0.05), the diameter of the Leydig cell nuclei (r=-0.55; p<0.05), testis weight (r =-0.64; p<0.01), total sperm number (r=-0.82; p<0.001), number of live, normal sperm (r=-0.55; p<0.05) and serum testosterone levels (r=-0.79; p<0.001). In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) concentration and the percent of live sperm (r=-0.67; p<0.01), and serum testosterone levels (r=-0.65; p<0.01). Conclusion: The present results indicated that among serum lipids only the levels of HDL-c positively correlated with testicular parameters. High serum triglyceride levels exerted direct adverse effects at the testicular level, which was mainly observed in the seminiferous tubules (STs), characterization of Leydig cells and semen quality. PMID:24520474



Chylomicron remnant clearance from the plasma is normal in familial hypercholesterolemic homozygotes with defined receptor defects.  

PubMed Central

The retinyl palmitate fat tolerance test was used to measure chylomicron remnant clearance in 10 normal subjects (apolipoprotein E [apo E] isotypes 3 or 4 only), 6 normolipidemic apo E2/2 homozygotes and 5 familial hypercholesterolemic homozygotes. Skin fibroblasts with fully upregulated LDL receptors from the latter subjects degraded rabbit 125I-beta VLDL in vitro at rates ranging from less than 10-48% of normal. Experiments in vivo revealed no significant differences between the normal and homozygous familial hypercholesterolemic (FHH) subjects in chylomicron remnant clearance assessed on the basis of "areas under the curves" for retinyl palmitate levels present in post-prandial serum, chylomicron remnants (Sf. less than 1,000), or chylomicrons (Sf. greater than 1,000). Remnant clearance was greatly decreased at all times in the apo E2/2 homozygotes, indicative of an important degree of flux control exerted by a receptor-mediated step involving apo E as ligand. The absence of any excess remnant accumulation in FHH subjects with varying "impairment" of LDL receptor-mediated degradation of apo E-containing lipoproteins, permits the conclusion that chylomicron remnants are initially cleared from the plasma by apo E-recognizing receptors which are genetically distinct from LDL receptors. PMID:2212015

Rubinsztein, D C; Cohen, J C; Berger, G M; van der Westhuyzen, D R; Coetzee, G A; Gevers, W



Multiplex determination of murine seminal fluid cytokine profiles.  


Seminal fluid is known to be responsible for orchestrating mating-induced immunomodulation. Central to this process are numerous cytokines that modulate uterine leukocyte recruitment and trafficking. Despite this, a comprehensive analysis of the cytokine profile of murine seminal fluid is lacking. This study addressed this issue by using multiplex immunoassays to characterise the profile of interleukin (IL)-1alpha , IL-1beta , IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12 (p40), IL-12 (p70), IL-13, IL-17, eotaxin, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon (IFN)-gamma, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha , MIP-1beta , regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in fluid drawn from the seminal vesicles of single mice (n = 18). Their levels and ratios were compared with those found in serum. IL-1alpha , IL-1beta , IL-2, IL-5, IL-9, IL-12 (p40), IL-12 (p70), IL-13, IL-17, GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, MCP-1 and TNF-alpha levels were significantly higher in serum; IL-4, G-CSF, eotaxin, KC and RANTES exhibited the opposite trend. Based on these findings, we propose a model of mating-induced immunomodulation that implicates seminal eotaxin, RANTES and MIP-1alpha in the relocation and concentration of extravasated migrating endometrial eosinophils to the luminal epithelium. Furthermore, KC may participate in uterine neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. Eotaxin and MIP-alpha , together with IL-1beta and IL-9, may also enhance further cytokine synthesis for endometrial antigen-presenting cell recruitment for processing paternal ejaculate antigens. IL-4 and G-CSF could also minimise deleterious cell-mediated immunity and modulate IFN-gamma production, thereby supporting the establishment of pregnancy. PMID:16514204

Gopichandran, Nadia; Ekbote, Uma V; Walker, James J; Brooke, David; Orsi, Nicolas M



Linear technique to understand non-normal turbulence applied to a magnetized plasma.  


In nonlinear dynamical systems with highly nonorthogonal linear eigenvectors, linear nonmodal analysis is more useful than normal mode analysis in predicting turbulent properties. However, the nontrivial time evolution of nonmodal structures makes quantitative understanding and prediction difficult. We present a technique to overcome this difficulty by modeling the effect that the advective nonlinearities have on spatial turbulent structures. The nonlinearities are taken as a periodic randomizing force with time scale consistent with critical balance arguments. We apply this technique to a model of drift wave turbulence in the Large Plasma Device [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)], where nonmodal effects dominate the turbulence. We compare the resulting growth rate spectra to the spectra obtained from a nonlinear simulation, showing good qualitative agreement, especially in comparison to the eigenmode growth rate spectra. PMID:25062197

Friedman, B; Carter, T A



Anti-inflammatory and irritant effects of a fraction from normal human plasma  

PubMed Central

1 By the use of carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema assay the anti-inflammatory activity of a fraction isolated from normal human plasma has been measured after its intravenous, intraperitoneal and oral administration. Its effects in the dextran-induced rat paw oedema and the systemic dextran anaphylactoid reaction in the rat were also studied. 2 The fraction showed marked anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan test after intravenous administration and a smaller but still significant activity when given intraperitoneally, but was inactive orally after the administration of a larger dose. It was active in the dextran-induced paw oedema test but not against the anaphylactoid reaction. 3 A comparison between its anti-inflammatory and irritant properties revealed no correlation when each parameter was determined in relation to dose. The fraction did not affect the blood pressure of the anaesthetized rat. 4 These findings are discussed in relation to the existence of a natural anti-inflammatory substance or substances in human plasma. PMID:4425763

Elliott, P.N.C.; Ford-Hutchinson, A.W.; Smith, M.J.H.



Paternal antigen-specific proliferating regulatory T cells are increased in uterine-draining lymph nodes just before implantation and in pregnant uterus just after implantation by seminal plasma-priming in allogeneic mouse pregnancy.  


Paternal antigen-specific regulatory T (PA-specific Treg) cells play an important role in feto-maternal tolerance. To detect the PA-specific Tregs, female BALB/c mice were mated with male DBA/2 mice. Mls Ia antigen on DBA/2 mice is recognized by the T-cell receptor V?6; thus, CD4(+)Foxp3(+)V?6(+) cells are recognized as PA-specific Treg cells. CD4(+)CD25(+)V?6(+) cells effectively suppressed the allo-reactive proliferation of lymphocytes compared with that of CD4(+)CD25(+)V?6(-) cells. V?6(+) PA-specific Treg cells expressed CCR4 and CCR5 on their surface. The frequency of Ki67(+) PA-specific Treg cells among Treg cells was significantly increased in draining lymph nodes on day 3.5 post-coitus (pc; 6.8±1.1%, p<0.05) and day 5.5 pc (7.2±1.1%, p<0.05) in allogeneic pregnant mice compared with that in nonpregnant mice (2.7±0.2%). The frequency of Ki67(+) PA-specific Treg cells in the uterus increased significantly after day 5.5 pc in allogeneic pregnant mice compared with that in nonpregnant mice (8.8±2.8% vs. 1.2±1.3%, p<0.05). However, Ki67(-)PA-specific Tregs did not change during pregnancy. To analyze the role of seminal fluid or sperm in Treg expansion, female BALB/c mice were mated with vasectomized DBA/2 male mice (VAS) or seminal vesicle-excised DBA/2 male mice (SVX). The frequency of Ki67(+) PA-specific Treg cells did not increase in draining lymph nodes or uterus in BALB/c×DBA/2 (SVX) allogeneic mating mice. These findings suggest that the priming by seminal fluid is important for the induction of proliferating PA-specific Tregs in uterine-draining lymph nodes just before implantation and pregnant uterus after implantation, resulting in successful implantation and the maintenance of allogeneic pregnancy. PMID:25817463

Shima, Tomoko; Inada, Kumiko; Nakashima, Akitoshi; Ushijima, Akemi; Ito, Mika; Yoshino, Osamu; Saito, Shigeru



Physiological reduction in fasting plasma glucose concentration in the first trimester of normal pregnancy: The diabetes in early pregnancy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies indicate that fasting plasma glucose decreases during gestation, but the timing and extent are not consistent from study to study. We had an opportunity to examine this question in the normal pregnancy cohort of women studied in the Diabetes in Early Pregnancy Study. Subjects were monitored to identify pregnancy by human chorionic gonadotropin testing, enrolled within 21 days

James L. Mills; Lois Jovanovic; Robert Knopp; Jerome Aarons; Mary Conley; Y. Jack Lee; Lewis Holmes; Joe L. Simpson; Boyd Metzger



Normalization schemes for ultrafast x-ray diffraction using a table-top laser-driven plasma source  

SciTech Connect

We present an experimental setup of a laser-driven x-ray plasma source for femtosecond x-ray diffraction. Different normalization schemes accounting for x-ray source intensity fluctuations are discussed in detail. We apply these schemes to measure the temporal evolution of Bragg peak intensities of perovskite superlattices after ultrafast laser excitation.

Schick, D.; Bojahr, A.; Herzog, M. [Institut fuer Physik and Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Korff Schmising, C. von [Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Shayduk, R.; Leitenberger, W.; Gaal, P.; Bargheer, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)



Effect of Total and Ionized Calcium Levels of Seminal Fluid on Sperm Motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total and ionized calcium (Ca2+) levels of seminal fluid were assessed in 75 semen samples obtained from infertile patients and fertile patients referred to our clinic with different complaints. Patients who showed only motility disorders on sperm analysis were include into the study program. Forty-five patients showing hypomotility (motility < 60%) and 30 patients with normal motility (motility > 60%)

Sahir Kiliç; Kemal Sarica; Önder Yaman; Tarkan Soygür; Sezai Yaman



Heterologous Ovum Penetration Test and Seminal Parameters in Fertile and Infertile Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm penetration rates in the heterologous ovum pen- etration test were correlated with results of routine semen analysis in 30 fertile and 50 infertile men. There was no difference in penetration rates when comparing infertile men with normal and abnormal seminal pa- rameters, nor was any difference seen between fertile (15-83%) and infertile men (8-83%). Of the 22 infertile men



The Regulation of Inflammatory Pathways and Infectious Disease of the Cervix by Seminal Fluid  

PubMed Central

The connection between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the consequent sequelae which establishes cervical neoplastic transformation and invasive cervical cancer has redefined many aspects of cervical cancer research. However there is still much that we do not know. In particular, the impact of external factors, like seminal fluid in sexually active women, on pathways that regulate cervical inflammation and tumorigenesis, have yet to be fully understood. HPV infection is regarded as the initiating noninflammatory cause of the disease; however emerging evidence points to resident HPV infections as drivers of inflammatory pathways that play important roles in tumorigenesis as well as in the susceptibility to other infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Moreover there is emerging evidence to support a role for seminal fluid, in particular, the inflammatory bioactive lipids, and prostaglandins which are present in vast quantities in seminal fluid in regulating pathways that can exacerbate inflammation of the cervix, speed up tumorigenesis, and enhance susceptibility to HIV infection. This review will highlight some of our current knowledge of the role of seminal fluid as a potent driver of inflammatory and tumorigenic pathways in the cervix and will provide some evidence to propose a role for seminal plasma prostaglandins in HIV infection and AIDS-related cancer. PMID:25180120

Katz, Arieh Anthony



Age-related change in plasma concentration of 7B2(a novel pituitary polypeptide) in normal humans  

SciTech Connect

Using a specific radioimmunoassay, the authors measured concentrations of plasma 7B2(a novel pituitary polypeptide) immunoreactivity(7B2-IR) in normal human subjects, patients with chronic renal failure and those with liver cirrhosis. Mean(+/-SEM) values of plasma 7B2-IR in normal healthy men and women were 55.8 +/- 1.2 pg/ml (n=266) and 56.1 +/- 0.9 pg/ml (n = 408), respectively. The elevation of plasma 7B2-IR showed a relationship with age of the subjects, in both men(r=0.39, t = 6.86, p < 0.001) and women (r=0.35, t=7.44, p < 0.001). Plasma 7B2-IR concentrations were elevated in patients with chronic renal failure (536 +/- 45 pg/ml, Mean +/- SEM, n = 10) as well as those in liver cirrhosis (95 +/- 10 pg/ml, Mean +/- SEM, n = 15) compared to values in normal subjects, suggesting that 7B2 is mainly eliminated through the kidney and is partly metabolized in the liver. 10 references, 4 figures.

Natori, S.; Iguchi, H.; Nawata, H.; Kato, K.; Ibayashi, H.; Chretian, M.



Quantitative genetics of seminal receptacle length in Drosophila melanogaster  

E-print Network

Quantitative genetics of seminal receptacle length in Drosophila melanogaster GARY T. MILLER, has undergone rapid divergence within the Drosophila genus. Quantitative genetic analysis of seminal receptacle length was carried out on two laboratory strains of Drosophila melanogaster that had undergone

Pitnick, Scott


Influence of the normalized ion flux on the constitution of alumina films deposited by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Alumina thin films were deposited onto tempered hot working steel substrates from an AlCl{sub 3}-O{sub 2}-Ar-H{sub 2} gas mixture by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The normalized ion flux was varied during deposition through changes in precursor content while keeping the cathode voltage and the total pressure constant. As the precursor content in the total gas mixture was increased from 0.8% to 5.8%, the deposition rate increased 12-fold, while the normalized ion flux decreased by approximately 90%. The constitution, morphology, impurity incorporation, and the elastic properties of the alumina thin films were found to depend on the normalized ion flux. These changes in structure, composition, and properties induced by normalized ion flux may be understood by considering mechanisms related to surface and bulk diffusion.

Kurapov, Denis; Reiss, Jennifer; Trinh, David H.; Hultman, Lars; Schneider, Jochen M. [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Thin Films Physics Division, Linkoeping University, S-58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)



Plasma norepinephrine responses to cold challenge in depressed patients and normal controls.  


Thirty depressed patients were compared with 39 controls for their plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels in relation to a cold challenge (placing a hand in ice cold water for 1 minute). Depressed patients showed significantly higher plasma NE levels than controls. Unipolar, but not bipolar patients, had significantly higher plasma NE levels than age- and sex-matched controls. Unipolar melancholic patients who were nonsuppressors on the dexamethasone suppression test showed a strong trend to have higher plasma NE levels than suppressors. These results are further evidence that the NE system is dysregulated in depression. PMID:3615690

Roy, A; Guthrie, S; Pickar, D; Linnoila, M



Isolation and characterization of gelatin-binding bison seminal vesicle secretory proteins.  


Bovine seminal plasma (BSP) contains a family of major proteins designated BSP-A1/A2, BSP-A3, and BSP-30kDa (collectively called BSP proteins) that bind to sperm at ejaculation and potentiate sperm capacitation. Homologous proteins have been identified in stallion, boar, goat, and ram seminal plasma. We report here the isolation and characterization of homologous proteins from bison seminal vesicle secretions. Seminal vesicle secretory proteins were precipitated by adding cold ethanol and recovered by centrifugation. The precipitates were resuspended in ammonium bicarbonate, dialyzed, and lyophilized. Lyophilized proteins were dissolved in 0.05 M phosphate buffer (PB) and loaded onto a gelatin-agarose column. The unadsorbed proteins and adsorbed proteins were eluted with PB and 5 M urea in PB, respectively. The gelatin-adsorbed fraction was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and revealed the presence of four major proteins designated BiSV-16kDa, BiSV-17kDa, BiSV-18kDa, and BiSV-28kDa (BiSV: bison seminal vesicle proteins). Heparin-Sepharose chromatography allowed the separation of BiSV-16kDa, which did not bind heparin from other BiSV proteins, which bound heparin. Immunoblotting revealed that BiSV-16kDa cross-reacted with BSP-A3 antibodies, BiSV-17kDa and BiSV-18kDa cross-reacted with BSP-A1/-A2 antibodies, and BiSV-28kDa cross-reacted with BSP-30kDa antibodies. Radioimmunoassays indicated that approximately 25% of bison seminal vesicle total proteins are related to BSP proteins. The amino-terminal sequencing indicated that BiSV proteins share almost 100% sequence identity with BSP proteins. In addition, BiSV proteins bind to low-density lipoproteins isolated from hen's egg yolk. These results confirm that BSP protein homologs are present in mammalian seminal plasma and they may share the same biological role. PMID:14585808

Boisvert, Mélanie; Bergeron, Annick; Lazure, Claude; Manjunath, Puttaswamy



Circulating plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide and catecholamines in response to maximal exercise in normal and asthmatic subjects.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Intravenous infusion of atrial natriuretic peptide has been shown to cause bronchodilatation in patients with asthma and endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide is known to rise with exercise. Whether an aberration in release of atrial natriuretic peptide is concerned in the pathogenesis of exercise induced bronchoconstriction has not been studied. METHODS: The atrial natriuretic peptide response to exercise was studied in eight men with exercise induced asthma and eight age matched non-asthmatic men. Subjects exercised to exhaustion on a treadmill, using the Bruce protocol. Atrial natriuretic peptide and catecholamines were measured at the end of each stage of exercise and oxygen consumption and heart rate were monitored throughout. RESULTS: Both groups showed a 3.5 fold increase in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide during exercise (mean (SE): normal subjects 25 (4) pmol/l; asthmatic subjects 24 (5) pmol/l), with no difference between the two groups. There was a close correlation between plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations and oxygen uptake, catecholamine release, and heart rate in both groups. The catecholamine response was similar in the asthmatic and normal subjects, both groups showing a four fold rise in plasma adrenaline and a 4-5 fold rise in plasma noradrenaline. CONCLUSION: A defect in the release of circulating atrial natriuretic peptide does not account for exercise induced asthma; the concentrations of the circulating peptide that were achieved may effect a small reduction in airway reactivity. Our data do not support the idea that asthmatic patients have abnormal sympathoadrenal activity. PMID:1837626

Hulks, G; Mohammed, A F; Jardine, A G; Connell, J M; Thomson, N C



Tactic-specific differences in seminal fluid influence sperm performance  

PubMed Central

Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that of rivals. As a consequence males may be expected to allocate their investment in both sperm and seminal fluid in relation to the potential level of competition. Grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) is an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics, where sperm competition risk varies according to the tactic adopted. Here, we experimentally manipulated grass goby ejaculates by separately combining sperm and seminal fluid from territorial and sneaker males. While sperm of sneaker and territorial males did not differ in their performance when they interacted with their own seminal fluid only, sperm of sneakers increased their velocity and fertilization rate in the presence of territorial males' seminal fluid. By contrast, sneaker males' seminal fluid had a detrimental effect on the performance of territorial males' sperm. Sperm velocity was unaffected by the seminal fluid of males employing the same tactic, suggesting that seminal fluid's effect on rival-tactic sperm is not based on a self/non-self recognition mechanism. Our findings show that cross interactions of sperm and seminal fluid may influence the fertilization success of competing ejaculates with males investing in both sperm and seminal fluid in response to sperm competition risk. PMID:23363633

Locatello, Lisa; Poli, Federica; Rasotto, Maria B.



Tactic-specific differences in seminal fluid influence sperm performance.  


Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that of rivals. As a consequence males may be expected to allocate their investment in both sperm and seminal fluid in relation to the potential level of competition. Grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) is an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics, where sperm competition risk varies according to the tactic adopted. Here, we experimentally manipulated grass goby ejaculates by separately combining sperm and seminal fluid from territorial and sneaker males. While sperm of sneaker and territorial males did not differ in their performance when they interacted with their own seminal fluid only, sperm of sneakers increased their velocity and fertilization rate in the presence of territorial males' seminal fluid. By contrast, sneaker males' seminal fluid had a detrimental effect on the performance of territorial males' sperm. Sperm velocity was unaffected by the seminal fluid of males employing the same tactic, suggesting that seminal fluid's effect on rival-tactic sperm is not based on a self/non-self recognition mechanism. Our findings show that cross interactions of sperm and seminal fluid may influence the fertilization success of competing ejaculates with males investing in both sperm and seminal fluid in response to sperm competition risk. PMID:23363633

Locatello, Lisa; Poli, Federica; Rasotto, Maria B



Obesity is associated with increased seminal insulin and leptin alongside reduced fertility parameters in a controlled male cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity appears to be associated with male reproductive dysfunction and infertility, although this has been inconsistent and inconclusive. Insulin and leptin are known mediators and modulators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testes axis, contributing to the regulation of male reproductive potential and overall wellbeing. These hormones are also present in semen influencing sperm functions. Although abdominal obesity is closely associated with insulin resistance (hyperinsulinaemia), hyperleptinaemia and glucose dysfunction, changes in seminal plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin and glucose in obese males has not previously been investigated. Methods This small case controlled study assessed serum and seminal concentrations of insulin, leptin and glucose in obese (BMI?>?=30; n?=?23) and non-obese (BMI?seminal insulin and leptin, with no significant difference in seminal glucose. Serum and seminal concentrations of insulin and leptin were positively correlated. Furthermore, obesity was associated with decreased sperm concentration, sperm vitality and increased MMP and DF, with a non-significant impact on motility and morphology. Conclusions Hyperinsulinaemia and hyperleptinaemia are associated with increased seminal insulin and leptin concentrations, which may negatively impact male reproductive function in obesity. Insulin was also found to be highly concentrated in the seminal plasma of both groups. This data will contribute to the contradictive information available in the literature on the impact of obesity and male reproduction. PMID:24885899



Seminal Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and its relationship to infertility in Egyptian patients with varicocele.  


Germ cell apoptosis has been proposed as one of the mechanisms by which varicocele can influence fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between seminal tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) levels and male infertility in patients with varicocele. This study included 112 males: 30 fertile males with varicocele, 44 infertile males with varicocele and 38 healthy fertile control subjects without varicocele. Semen analysis was performed, and serum levels of reproductive hormones were measured. Seminal TRAIL levels in the infertile varicocele group were significantly higher than in the fertile varicocele and the control groups (P = 0.014). A significant negative correlation was found between seminal TRAIL and progressive (P < 0.001) and total motility scores (P < 0.001) in the infertile varicocele group. A significant negative correlation was also detected between seminal TRAIL levels and normal sperm morphology in the fertile varicocele (P = 0.007) and infertile varicocele patients (P = 0.047). Seminal TRAIL was significantly correlated with varicocele grade whether the patients were fertile (P = 0.001) or infertile (P = 0.035). Seminal TRAIL may thus have a potential role in varicocele-associated male infertility through its negative effect on sperm motility and morphology. PMID:25351208

Eid, A A; Younan, D N



Selective deamidation and enzymatic methylation of seminal ribonuclease.  


Isoenzymatic forms alpha 2, alpha beta, and beta 2 of bovine seminal ribonuclease are generated by the transformation of beta-type into alpha-type subunit through deamidation of a single amide group [Di Donato, A., & D'Alessio, G. (1981) Biochemistry 20, 7232-7237]. The residue involved in this selective deamidation has been identified as Asn67. Deamidation occurs by formation of a cyclic imide intermediate involving the Gly at position 68. Opening of the cyclic imide may occur on either side of the nitrogen, generating both the normal alpha-aspartyl and an isoaspartyl residue at position 67. The alpha-carboxyl of the isoaspartyl residue is effectively methylated by bovine brain protein carboxylmethyltransferase. PMID:3828285

Di Donato, A; Galletti, P; D'Alessio, G



Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Normalized Plasma Pressure on RMP ELM Suppression in DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

The effect of normalized plasma pressure as characterized by normalized pressure parameter (beta(N)) on the suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs) using resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is studied in low-collisionality (nu* <= 0.2) H-mode plasmas with low-triangularity ( = 0.25) and ITER similar shapes ( = 0.51). Experimental results have suggested that ELM suppression by RMPs requires a minimum threshold in plasma pressure as characterized by beta(N). The variations in the vacuum field topology with beta(N) due to safety factor profile and island overlap changes caused by variation of the Shafranov shift and pedestal bootstrap current are examined numerically with the field line integration code TRIP3D. The results show very small differences in the vacuum field structure in terms of the Chirikov (magnetic island overlap) parameter, Poincare sections and field line loss fractions. These differences do not appear to explain the observed threshold in beta(N) for ELM suppression. Linear peeling-ballooning stability analysis with the ELITE code suggests that the ELMs which persist during the RMPs when beta(N) is below the observed threshold are not type I ELMs, because the pedestal conditions are deep within the stable regime for peeling-ballooning modes. These ELMs have similarities to type III ELMs or low density ELMs.

Orlov, D. M. [University of California, San Diego & La Jolla; Moyer, R.A. [University of California, San Diego; Evans, T. E. [General Atomics, San Diego; Mordijck, S. [University of California, San Diego; Osborne, T. H. [General Atomics; Fenstermacher, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Snyder, P. B. [General Atomics; Unterberg, Ezekial A [ORNL



Some factors that influence the plasma lipoprotein 1H NMR spectra of normal and cancer patients: an oncolipid test?  

PubMed Central

Selected factors have been evaluated in order to determine their influences on the plasma lipoprotein proton NMR spectra of normal and cancer patients. The variables were donor's diet (fasting/non-fasting), temperature and time of sample storage, processing procedure, centrifugation speed, and water pre-saturation time. Plasma samples from fasting individuals that were placed immediately on ice, spun at 1,000 and 3,000 g for 15 minutes, and the proton NMR spectrum acquired with the Carr-Purcell Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence, using a two-second water pre-saturation time, consistently gave reproducible results. Resonances attributed to lactate were minimized under these processing conditions. Centrifugation speed and pre-saturation time did not affect the average line width; however, donor fasting state, processing temperature, and storage time did alter the line width. Most important, blood chemistry analysis revealed an inverse correlation between triglyceride levels and average methyl and methylene line widths. Thus, these factors alone caution against the indiscriminate use of proton NMR spectra to differentiate plasma from normal and cancer patients. PMID:1897263

Lim, H. M.; Price, T. B.; Marsh, J. C.; Rainey, P. M.; Gore, J. C.; Armitage, I. M.



Molecular Microheterogeneity of Prostate Specific Antigen in Seminal Fluid by Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Objectives Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used and clinically valuable marker for prostate disease. In order to enable the development of new PSA assays and progress the understanding of the biology of PSA we have analyzed PSA in seminal plasma. Design and Methods PSA in seminal plasma from men attending a fertility clinic and healthy controls was analyzed using SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and mass spectrometry. Results Using mass spectrometry, different forms of PSA could be identified in 1–9 bands seen on SDS-PAGE analysis of the respective sample. However, a majority of these molecular forms of PSA were not observed on Western blots. Enzymatic activity of PSA isoforms was demonstrated by sequencing data in zymogram gels. Multivariate analysis of clinical data revealed well-separated patient groups. Conclusions We demonstrated that PSA in seminal plasma occurs in several isoforms, yet not all were detectable using an antibody based clinical routine method. The heterogeneity of PSA expression might be of clinical significance, by an improved patient phenotyping. PMID:22209970

Végvári, Ákos; Rezeli, Melinda; Sihlbom, Carina; Häkkinen, Jari; Carlsohn, Elisabet; Malm, Johan; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas; Marko-Varga, György



An Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) For Detection of Seminal Fluid Using a Monoclonal Antibody to Prostatic Acid Phosphatase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microtitre plate format enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), employing commercially available PASE\\/4LJ mouse monoclonal hybridoma antibody is described. The technique is a solid phase indirect ELISA for prostatic acid phosphatase, applicable to specific detection of semen. Maximal detectability was found to be one hundred thousand fold dilution of pooled seminal plasma. No cross reactivities with human vaginal fluid, blood,

Stewart M. Allen



Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and change of cell viability induced by atmospheric pressure plasma in normal and cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on cancer cells (human lung carcinoma cells) and normal cells (embryonic kidney cells and bronchial epithelial cells) were investigated. Using a detection dye, the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found to be increased in plasma-treated cells compared to non-treated and gas flow-treated cells. A significant overproduction of ROS and a reduction in cell viability were induced by plasma exposure on cancer cells. Normal cells were observed to be less affected by the plasma-mediated ROS, and cell viability was less changed. The selective effect on cancer and normal cells provides a promising prospect of cold plasma as a cancer therapy.

Ja Kim, Sun; Min Joh, Hea; Chung, T. H.



Plasma Sphingolipids as Potential Indicators of Hepatic Necroinflammation in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase Level  

PubMed Central

Accurate estimation of hepatic necroinflammation caused by chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is crucial for prediction of prognosis and design of therapeutic strategy, which is particularly true for CHC patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Recent studies have shown that sphingolipids have a close relationship with hepatitis C virus infection. The present study aimed to identify plasma sphingolipids related to hepatic necroinflammation. We included 120 treatment-naïve CHC patients and 64/120 had normal ALT levels (<40 U/L). CHC patients who underwent liver biopsies were subjected to Scheuer scoring analysis for scope of hepatic inflammation. Plasma sphingolipids were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Our results showed 44 plasma sphingolipids were detected altogether. Of all detected sphingolipids, hexosylceramide (HexCer) (d18?1/22?0) and HexCer (d18?1/24?0) showed a significant difference among G0/G1, G2, and G3/G4 (P<0.05). For identifying hepatic necroinflammation (G?2), after adjusting other factors, the odds ratio (OR) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) reached 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00–1.02). Furthermore, the area under the curve (AUC) of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was 0.7 (P?=?0.01) and approached that of ALT (AUC?=?0.78). However, in CHC patients with normal ALT, HexCer (d18?1/22?0) was an independent factor (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01–1.03) to identify the hepatic necroinflammation (G?2). HexCer (d18?1/22?0) not only showed the largest AUC (0.78, P?=?0.001), but also exhibited the highest specificity of all indicators. These results indicate that plasma HexCer (d18?1/22?0) is a potential indicator to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation in CHC patients. For CHC with normal ALT, the ability of HexCer (d18?1/22?0) to distinguish hepatic necroinflammation might be superior to conventional serum indicators. PMID:24736528

Ren, Jin-Yu; Wu, Hui-Li; Liu, Mei; Liu, Hui; Ren, Feng; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Duan, Zhong-Ping



Contribution of nonesterified fatty acids to insulin resistance in the elderly with normal fasting but diabetic 2-hour postchallenge plasma glucose levels: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated postchallenge hyperglycemia (IPH) with normal fasting plasma glucose <100 mg\\/dL and plasma glucose with diabetic 2-hour plasma glucose ?200 mg\\/dL after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a common occurrence in the elderly. We sought to understand what unique characteristics this population might have that puts it at risk for this particular metabolic finding. We therefore conducted a

Olga D. Carlson; Jehan D. David; Jessica M. Schrieder; Dennis C. Muller; Hyeung-Jin Jang; Byung-Joon Kim; Josephine M. Egan



Exchange mechanism of tyrosine between plasma and red blood cells in normal subjects and psychiatric patients.  


The saturable mechanism of tyrosine (TYR) uptake by the membrane of red blood cells incubated at 37 degrees C has been studied in normal subjects and psychiatric patients. This uptake is markedly inhibited by incubation at 0 degree C, and weakly inhibited by iodoacetic acid and ouabain. The uptake of TYR is significantly lower in unipolar- and bipolar-depressed patients, and significantly higher in schizophrenics compared to normal controls. These results indicate a possible disturbance of functional capacity of membrane transport in some psychiatric diseases. PMID:7133368

Widmer, J; Gaillard, J M; Dick, P; Tissot, R



Insect Seminal Fluid Proteins: Identification and Function  

PubMed Central

Seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) produced in reproductive tract tissues of male insects and transferred to females during mating induce numerous physiological and behavioral post-mating changes in females. These changes include decreasing receptivity to re-mating, affecting sperm storage parameters, increasing egg production, modulating sperm competition, feeding behaviors, and mating plug formation. In addition, SFPs also have anti-microbial functions and induce expression of anti-microbial peptides in at least some insects. Here, we review recent identification of insect SFPs and discuss the multiple roles these proteins play in the post-mating processes of female insects. PMID:20868282

Avila, Frank W.; Sirot, Laura K.; LaFlamme, Brooke A.; Rubinstein, C. Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F.



Identification of multiple subclasses of plasma low density lipoproteins in normal humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density gradient ultracentrifugation of low density lipoproteins (LDL) from 12 normal subjects showed multiple, distinct isopycnic bands. Each band could be assigend to one of four density intervals and the boundaries of these intervals were consistent among all the subjects. Analytic ultracentrifuge flotation (S\\/sub f\\/°) rates were assigned to the four density intervals, and there was a strong correlation between

Ronald M. Krauss; David J. Burke



Differences in Postload Plasma Glucose Levels between 100-g and 75-g Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests in Normal Pregnant Women: A Potential Role of Early Insulin Secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To demonstrate a role of early insulin secretion on plasma glucose levels after different amounts of oral glucose loads in pregnant women. Material and Method: Forty-one pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance according to the Carpenter and Coustan' s criteria and 25 non-pregnant women (control group) with normal glucose tolerance according to the World Health Organization criteria were enrolled.

Karanrat Soonthornpun; Supamai Soonthornpun; Atchara Thamprasit BN; Jiraporn Aksonteing BN


Human sperm and other seminal constituents in male infertile patients from arsenic and cadmium rich areas of Southern Assam.  


In the present study the occurrence of two heavy metals, arsenic and cadmium, have been reported in the drinking water and seminal plasma of infertile male patients as compared to a control group. The study originated from a survey of geogenic groundwater contamination with the heavy metals arsenic and cadmium in Southern Assam, India as an increase in the incidence of male infertility was being reported from these areas. According to WHO protocol, patients with sperm concentration < 20 x 10(6)/ml were selected as cases (oligozoospermic and azoospermic), and those with > 20 x 10(6)/ml, without any extreme pathological disorders and having fathered a child within 1-2 years of marriage were the control (normozoospermic) group. The study reports an inverse relationship between total sperm count and heavy metal content in drinking water as well as seminal plasma of the subjects. Moreover, a high correlation between altered semenological parameters and lower expression of accessory sex gland markers like fructose, acid phosphatase, and neutral ?-glucosidase in the seminal plasma of patients is reported. The study also highlights significant differences of the sperm function parameters like hypo-osmotic swelling, acrosome reaction, and nuclear chromatin decondensation in the patient group as compared to controls. These findings are significant as they address a likely association between heavy metal stress and altered sperm function as well as seminal enzyme inhibition. PMID:23651453

Sengupta, Mahuya; Deb, Ishita; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Kar, Kushal Kumar



Effect of folic acid and zinc sulphate on endocrine parameters and seminal antioxidant level after varicocelectomy.  


Varicocele is among the most common problems which may lead to male infertility. Spermatogenesis is impaired as a consequence of this vascular defect, through mechanisms that are not well described. This study aimed to evaluate serum hormonal level (inhibin B, FSH and testosterone) and seminal plasma antioxidant defence levels after folic acid and zinc sulphate administration in varicocelectomised patients. Participants were randomly allocated to four experimental groups. Our randomisation schedule was as follows: zinc sulphate/folic acid, folic acid, zinc sulphate and placebo. The patients underwent varicocelectomy, before which a blood and semen sample were obtained and also three and six months after varicocelectomy for evaluation of blood hormonal level (FSH, testosterone, inhibin B) and seminal oxidative stress status (nitric oxide, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity). Patients in different groups took orally one capsule per day after dinner following varicocelectomy for 6 months. A significant rise in peripheral blood inhibin B and seminal plasma activity was detected in the zinc sulphate/folic acid group after 6 months. The present clinical trial indicates a change in the hormonal status of varicocelectomised patients following long-term administration of zinc sulphate and folic acid. PMID:23356505

Nematollahi-Mahani, S N; Azizollahi, G H; Baneshi, M R; Safari, Z; Azizollahi, S



Diurnal rhythms of plasma GLP-1 levels in normal and overweight/obese subjects: lack of effect of weight loss.  


Food intake is regulated by not only neurohormonal, but also social, educational, and even cultural factors. Within the former, there is a complex interaction between orexigenic (ghrelin) and anorexigenic (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)) factors in order to adjust the food intake to caloric expenditure; however, the number of subjects that are unable to properly balance appetite and body weight is increasing continuously. A loss of circadian or diurnal coordination of any of these factors may be implied in this situation. Special attention has retrieved GLP-1 due to its usefulness as a therapeutic agent against obesity and related alterations. Thus, the objective of the present study was to compare GLP-1 diurnal synthesis between normal weight and overweight/obese subjects, and to evaluate whether weight loss can restore the synthesis rhythms of GLP-1. Three groups of 25 subjects were divided attending to their body mass index (BMI) in normal weight, overweight, or obese subjects. Diurnal (5 points) GLP-1 levels were analyzed. Secondly, an intervention (behavioral-dietary treatment) study was conducted to analyze the effect of weight loss on plasma GLP-1 concentrations. Our results showed that baseline GLP-1 level was significantly lower in normal weight subjects (p?=?0.003); furthermore, our cosinor analysis revealed a higher amplitude (p?=?0.040) and daily GLP-1 variation (47 %) in these subjects. In fact, our ANOVA data showed a lack of rhythmicity in overweight/obese patients. Weight loss was not able to restore a diurnal rhythm of plasma GLP-1 levels. In summary, the present work shows a disruption of diurnal GLP-1 levels in overweight/obese subjects, which worsen as body fat progresses. The attenuation of the GLP-1 synthesis rhythms may be important to understand the impairment of food intake regulation in overweight/obese subjects. PMID:25543251

Muñoz, Joaquín Santiago Galindo; Rodríguez, Diana Jiménez; Morante, Juan José Hernández



Myelomatous plasma cells display an aberrant gene expression pattern similar to that observed in normal memory B cells  

PubMed Central

Memory B cells (MBCs) remain in a quiescent state for years, expressing pro-survival and anti-apoptotic factors while repressing cell proliferation and activation genes. During their differentiation into plasma cells (PCs), their expression pattern is reversed, with a higher expression of genes related to cell proliferation and activation, and a lower expression of pro-survival genes. To determine whether myelomatous PCs (mPCs) share characteristics with normal PCs and MBCs and to identify genes involved in the pathophysiology of multiple myeloma (MM), we compared gene expression patterns in these three cell sub-types. We observed that mPCs had features intermediate between those of MBCs and normal PCs, and identified 3455 genes differentially expressed in mPCs relative to normal PCs but with a similar expression pattern to that in MBCs. Most of these genes are involved in cell death and survival, cell growth and proliferation and protein synthesis. According to our findings, mPCs have a gene expression pattern closer to a MBC than a PC with a high expression of genes involved in cell survival. These genes should be physiologically inactivated in the transit from MBC to PC, but remain overexpressed in mPCs and thus may play a role in the pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:25628947

Báez, Alicia; Piruat, José I; Caballero-Velázquez, Teresa; Sánchez-Abarca, Luís I; Álvarez-Laderas, Isabel; Barbado, M Victoria; García-Guerrero, Estefanía; Millán-Uclés, África; Martín-Sánchez, Jesús; Medrano, Mayte; Pérez-Simón, José Antonio



21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...Test Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test...



21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...Test Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test...



21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...Test Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test...



21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...Test Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test...



21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...Test Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test...



Secretions from seminal vesicles lack characteristic markers for prostasomes  

PubMed Central

Background Prostasomes are suggested to be produced in the prostate gland. Although biochemical studies support this, some immunohistochemical findings indicate that also the seminal vesicles could be a source of prostasomes. Therefore, we have compared the secretion of the vesicles with that of the prostate using biochemical and ultrastructural techniques. Methods Ultracentrifuged pellets of substance from seminal vesicle secretions were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and flow cytometry. The secretory cells of the seminal vesicles were examined with transmission electron microscopy. These findings were then compared with published results from similar studies of the prostate secretory cells. Results In SDS-PAGE, the seminal vesicle pellets lacked the three prostasome-characteristic CD-markers, namely CD10, CD13, and CD26, but expressed two proteins of about 55 kDa and 70 kDa, corresponding to clusterin and heat shock protein (HSP70). Flow cytometry showed the presence of secretion particles in the seminal pellet, although of a smaller size than that of the prostasomes. Electron microscopy of the luminal part of the cells in the seminal vesicles demonstrated many secretion granules, each enclosed in a vesicle with a size of about 1 ?m. Conclusions Pelleted seminal vesicle secretion is different to prostate secretion in several ways. No prostasome characteristics were detected in the pelleted seminal vesicle secretion. PMID:19943818

Sahlén, Göran; Larsson, Anders; Carlsson, Lena; Norlén, Bo Johan; Ronquist, Gunnar



Effect of psychological stress on fertility hormones and seminal quality in male partners of infertile couples.  


The present study evaluated the effect of psychological stress on male fertility hormones and seminal quality in male partner of infertile couples. Seventy male partners of infertile couples were evaluated for level of psychological stress using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) questionnaire, serum total testosterone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) by electrochemiluminescence assay and serum GnRH by ELISA. Seminal analysis was performed as per WHO guideline. Nineteen (27%) of them had HADS anxiety and depression score ?8 (abnormal HADS score). The persons having abnormal HADS had lower serum total testosterone, higher serum FSH and LH than those of persons having normal HADS. Serum total testosterone correlated negatively with HADS, but LH and FSH correlated positively. There was no change in GnRH with the change in stress or testosterone levels. Sperm count, motility and morphologically normal spermatozoa were lower in persons having abnormal HADS. Sperm count correlated positively with total testosterone and negatively with FSH and LH. Abnormal sperm motility and morphology were related to lower testosterone and higher LH and FSH levels. Psychological stress primarily lowers serum total testosterone level with secondary rise in serum LH and FSH levels altering seminal quality. Stress management is warranted for male infertility cases. PMID:24673246

Bhongade, M B; Prasad, S; Jiloha, R C; Ray, P C; Mohapatra, S; Koner, B C



Unusual presentation of seminal vesiculitis in an infertile man.  


Seminal vesiculitis is generally not investigated in infertile men, since it is uncommon and often nonspecific in signs and symptoms. In this article, the author reports an unusual presentation of seminal vesiculitis, incidentally diagnosed in a man referred for semen analysis to investigate infertility. Analyses of physical properties of the ejaculate (coagulation, liquefaction, volume, viscosity and pH) and of biochemical markers of the prostate (total calcium and zinc) and seminal vesicle (fructose and inorganic phosphorus) detected a dysfunction of the seminal vesicles that was subsequently diagnosed as vesiculitis using transrectal ultrasound. After treatment with a single 500-mg dose of oral ciprofloxacin, the patient was referred again for semen analysis. The analysis showed considerable improvement of the seminal vesicle function. The clinical significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:18163927

Andrade-Rocha, Fernando Tadeu



Novel effects of deoxycorticosterone on testicular 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity and plasma testosterone levels in normal and adrenalectomized rats.  


The 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) protects the testis from the inhibitory effects of corticosterone on testosterone (T) production. The objectives of the present studies were to determine the effects of deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and its mechanism of actions on testicular 11beta-HSD activity and plasma T levels after 7 days of treatment. The results revealed that at the end of 7 days treatment, DOC significantly increased testicular 11beta-HSD activity and plasma T levels in normal rats. However, the time course showed that high plasma T levels lowered 11beta-HSD activity on day 14 and by 21 days both the levels normalized. In adrenalectomized (ADX) rats, only the enzyme activity increased significantly but not plasma T levels. Spironolactone, a competitive inhibitor of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), did not change testicular 11beta-HSD activity in both normal and DOC treated rats suggesting that DOC did not act through MR in increasing 11beta-HSD activity. On the other hand, spironolactone significantly decreased plasma T levels in DOC treated rats. Progesterone (P), a competitive inhibitor of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) or corticosterone significantly suppressed testicular enzyme activity and plasma T levels in DOC treated normal rats. Carbenoxolone which is an inhibitor of 11beta-HSD activity significantly depressed testicular 11beta-HSD activity and plasma T levels in DOC treated normal rats. This paper suggests that DOC increased testicular 11beta-HSD activity through GR; whilst increase in plasma T levels required functioning adrenal glands. The testicular 11beta-HSD is one of the regulators of T levels and vice versa. PMID:10482040

Nwe, K H; Morat, P B; Hamid, A; Fadzilah, S; Khalid, B A



Bleeding management with fibrinogen concentrate targeting a high-normal plasma fibrinogen level: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Bleeding diathesis after aortic valve operation and ascending aorta replacement (AV–AA) is managed with fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet concentrates. The aim was to compare haemostatic effects of conventional transfusion management and FIBTEM (thromboelastometry test)-guided fibrinogen concentrate administration. Methods A blood products transfusion algorithm was developed using retrospective data from 42 elective patients (Group A). Two units of platelet concentrate were transfused after cardiopulmonary bypass, followed by 4 u of FFP if bleeding persisted, if platelet count was ?100×103 µl?1 when removing the aortic clamp, and vice versa if platelet count was >100×103 µl?1. The trigger for each therapy step was ?60 g blood absorbed from the mediastinal wound area by dry swabs in 5 min. Assignment to two prospective groups was neither randomized nor blinded; Group B (n=5) was treated according to the algorithm, Group C (n=10) received fibrinogen concentrate (Haemocomplettan® P/Riastap, CSL Behring, Marburg, Germany) before the algorithm-based therapy. Results A mean of 5.7 (0.7) g fibrinogen concentrate decreased blood loss to below the transfusion trigger level in all Group C patients. Group C had reduced transfusion [mean 0.7 (range 0–4) u vs 8.5 (5.3) in Group A and 8.2 (2.3) in Group B] and reduced postoperative bleeding [366 (199) ml vs 793 (560) in Group A and 716 (219) in Group B]. Conclusions In this pilot study, FIBTEM-guided fibrinogen concentrate administration was associated with reduced transfusion requirements and 24 h postoperative bleeding in patients undergoing AV–AA. PMID:19411671

Rahe-Meyer, N.; Pichlmaier, M.; Haverich, A.; Solomon, C.; Winterhalter, M.; Piepenbrock, S.; Tanaka, K. A.



Effects of Orthosiphon stamineus aqueous extract on plasma glucose concentration and lipid profile in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. aqueous extract on plasma glucose concentration and lipid profile in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The chemical screening of the extract showed phenolic compound and flavonoid content were 13.24±0.33mg\\/g and 1.73±0.14?g\\/g, respectively. In oral glucose tolerance test, the extract (0.2–1.0g\\/kg) significantly decreased plasma glucose concentration in

K. Sriplang; S. Adisakwattana; A. Rungsipipat; S. Yibchok-anun



Identification and Function of Proteolysis Regulators in Seminal Fluid  

PubMed Central

Proteins in the seminal fluid of animals with internal fertilization effect numerous responses in mated females that impact both male and female fertility. Among these proteins is the highly represented class of proteolysis regulators (proteases and their inhibitors). Though proteolysis regulators have now been identified in the seminal fluid of all animals in which proteomic studies of the seminal fluid have been conducted (as well as several other species in which they have not), a unified understanding of the importance of proteolysis to male fertilization success and other reproductive processes has not yet been achieved. In this review, we provide an overview of the identification of proteolysis regulators in the seminal fluid of humans and Drosophila melanogaster, the two species with the most comprehensively known seminal fluid proteomes. We also highlight reports demonstrating the functional significance of specific proteolysis regulators in reproductive and post-mating processes. Finally, we make broad suggestions for the direction of future research into the roles of both active seminal fluid proteolysis regulators and their inactive homologs, another significant class of seminal fluid proteins. We hope that this review aids researchers in pursuing a coordinated study of the functional significance of proteolysis regulators in semen. PMID:23109270

LaFlamme, Brooke A.; Wolfner, Mariana F.



Seminal megavesicle in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.  


Retrospective analysis of 99 male autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients compared to an age-matched control population showed seminal vesicle ectasia >10 mm (megavesicle) in 23% (23/99) of ADPKD patients that was not present in any controls (P<.0001). Median (range) seminal vesicle convoluted tubule diameter in ADPKD patients was 4.2 (1.7-30) mm compared to 3.1 (1.7-6.8) mm in controls (P<.0001). Discrete cysts were identified in four ADPKD patients but in none of the control population (P=.12). Seminal megavesicles may explain the infertility sometimes observed in male ADPKD patients. PMID:25542752

Reig, Beatriu; Blumenfeld, Jon; Donahue, Stephanie; Prince, Martin R



Seminal Improvement Following Repair of Ultrasound Detected Subclinical Varicoceles  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe determined whether repair of subclinical varicoceles detected by scrotal duplex ultrasonography results in significant seminal improvement and identified the best ultrasonographic criteria to use in the selection of patients for subclinical varicocelectomy.

Jonathan P. Jarow; Samuel R. Ogle; L. Andrew Eskew



Seminal vesicle agenesis: An uncommon cause of azoospermia  

PubMed Central

Seminal vesicle malformations are a rare cause of obstructive azoospermia, often associated with other internal genitalia and upper urinary tract birth defects. We report 5 new cases of seminal vesicle agenesis in men presenting with hypospermia and azoospermia. Imaging showed seminal vesicle unilateral agenesis in all patients. The remaining seminal vesicle was hypoplastic in 3 cases, dilated in 1 case and with abnormally thick content in another case. Vas deferens agenesis was observed unilaterally in 2 patients and bilaterally in 2 other patients. No renal malformations were detected. Genetic study showed in all cases a 46 XY karyotype without any microdeletions. A single heterozygous cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene mutation was diagnosed in 1 man, but not found in his partner. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection using sperm from a testicular biopsy was performed in 3 couples, without success. PMID:24839497

Bouzouita, Abderrazak; Kerkeni, Walid; Abouda, Hassine; Khrouf, Mohamed; Elloumi, Hanene; Mnif, Najla; Messaoud, Taieb; Zhioua, Amel; Zhioua, Fethi; Chebil, Mohamed



Characterization and detection of naturally occurring antibodies against IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta in normal human plasma.  


During the development and testing of a radioreceptor assay (RRA) for human IL-1, we have detected and identified the presence of auto-antibodies to IL-1 in normal human plasma (NHP). The RRA is based on the competition between human 125I-labeled rIL-1 alpha and standard or unknown quantities of IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta for binding to a limited amounts of IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) isolated from the EL4 mouse thymoma cell line. NHP from 20 out of 100 unselected blood donors were found to completely inhibit the binding of 125I-labeled IL-1 alpha to its receptor, suggesting the presence in these NHP samples of either abnormal amounts of IL-1 or of a factor binding to the 125I-labeled IL-1 alpha. Special care was taken to ascertain that the inhibitory factors were antibodies and not soluble IL-1 receptor antagonist. When plasma samples with inhibiting activity were incubated with labeled IL-1 alpha and chromatographed on a Sephadex G200 column, they were found to contain 125I-labeled complexes with an apparent molecular weight of 150-200kD. The IL-1 binding factor could be eliminated from plasma by incubation with protein A-Sepharose, suggesting that it consisted in IgG antibodies directed against IL-1. Furthermore, the antibody nature of the inhibiting factor was confirmed by its binding to purified rIL-1 coupled to Sepharose. Screening of 200 NHP samples by incubation with 100 pg of 125I-labeled IL-1 followed by precipitation with 12% of polyethylene glycol (PEG) confirmed that about 25% of NHP contain detectable IgG antibodies to IL-1 alpha, while only 2% of NHP contain antibodies to IL-1 beta. No correlation between the presence of these anti-IL-1 antibodies and any particular major histocompatibility complex or any pathological conditions was detected. We suggest that all serum samples assayed for IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta content should be pretested with the PEG precipitation assay described here. PMID:1839507

Gallay, P; Mach, J P; Carrel, S



A new breakfast cereal containing guar gum reduces postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in normal-weight human subjects.  


A new guar-containing wheatflake product was developed to assess its effect on carbohydrate tolerance in normal-weight, healthy subjects. The extruded wheatflake breakfast cereals containing 0 (control) or approximately 90 g guar gum/kg DM were fed to ten fasting, normal-weight, healthy subjects using a repeated measures design. The meals were similar in energy (approximately 1.8 MJ), available carbohydrate (78 g), protein (15 g) and fat (5.4 g) content. The guar gum content of the test meals was 6.3 g. Venous blood samples were taken fasting and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 240 min after commencing each breakfast and analysed for plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide. The guar wheatflake meal produced a significant main effect for glucose and insulin at 0-60 min and 0-240 min time intervals respectively, but not for the C-peptide levels compared with the control meal. Significant reductions in postprandial glucose and insulin responses were seen following the guar wheatflake meal compared with the control meal at 15 and 60 min (glucose) and 15, 60, 90 and 120 min (insulin). The 60 and 120 min areas under the curve for glucose and insulin were significantly reduced by the guar gum meal, as was the 240 min area under the curve for insulin. Thus, it can be concluded that the use of a severe method of heat extrusion to produce guar wheatflakes does not diminish the physiological activity of the guar gum. PMID:8774217

Fairchild, R M; Ellis, P R; Byrne, A J; Luzio, S D; Mir, M A



Changes in the Plasma Levels of Type 1 and Type 2 Plasminogen Activator Inhibitors in Normal Pregnancy and in Patients With Severe Preeclampsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report defines the nature of the molecules responsible for the increased plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAl) activity in preeclamptic patients and the relationship of these inhibitors to the severity of placental damage in preeclampsia. Clinical groups consisting of pregnant women with either severe preeclampsia or chronic hyper- tension with superimposed severe preeclampsia, as well as normal pregnant and nonpregnant

Amparo Estell; Juan Gilabert; Justo Aznar; David J. Loskutoff; Raymond R. Schleef



Lipid and apolipoprotein concentrations in prenodal leg lymph of fasted humans: associations with plasma concentrations in normal subjects, lipoprotein lipase deficiency, and LCAT deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which lipid and apolipoprotein (apo) concentrations in tissue fluids are determined by those in plasma in normal humans is not known, as all studies to date have been performed on small numbers of subjects, often with dyslipidemia or lymphedema. Therefore, we quan- tified lipids, apolipoproteins, high density lipoprotein (HDL) lipids, and non-HDL lipids in prenodal leg lymph

M. N. Nanjee; C. J. Cooke; W. L. Olszewski; N. E. Miller


Comparison of total blood volume in normal, preeclamptic, and nonproteinuric gestational hypertensive pregnancy by simultaneous measurement of red blood cell and plasma volumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to demonstrate reduced blood volume in preeclampsia compared with nonproteinuric gestational hypertension and normal pregnancy by use of independent measures of red blood cell and plasma volumes.STUDY DESIGN: Red blood cells labeled with a nonradioactive stable isotope of chromium and Evans’ blue were infused in subjects with preeclampsia or gestational hypertension and normotensive pregnant controls. Blood

Helayne M. Silver; MaryAnn Seebeck; Rose Carlson



A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo study of plasma-induced damage of normal incidence collector optics used in extreme ultraviolet lithography  

E-print Network

A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo study of plasma-induced damage of normal incidence collector EUVL light source. The model is based on the particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo approach. The photoelectric effect and ionization by electron collisions are included. The time evolution of the low density

Zegeling, Paul


Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects  

SciTech Connect

SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values.

Itoh, S.; Tanaka, K.; Kumagae, M.; Takeda, F.; Morio, K.; Kogure, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Watabe, T.; Miyabe, S.



Usefulness of lyophilized calibration plasmas for International Normalized Ratio determination with the bovine combined thromboplastin (Thrombotest): results of a collaborative study.  


The logical solution to account for the influence of coagulometers on the International Sensitivity Index (ISI) is local calibration with freeze-dried plasmas. However, because of their unpredictable behavior these plasmas must be validated before large-scale implementation. We report on a collaborative exercise designed to evaluate the suitability of a set of such plasmas used with Thrombotest in combination with a coagulometer provided by the manufacturer to be used with that reagent. This was a two-step study. First, one lot of reagent was calibrated against the international standard OBT/79 in two expert laboratories. The calibrated lot was then used as an intermediate standard to calibrate two additional lots of the same reagent in four field laboratories where the ISI was determined for both plasma and native blood. The International Normalized Ratio (INR) for the patient plasmas tested in each laboratory were calculated using two algorithms: the World Health Organization-recommended ISI mode (gold standard), and the simplified calibration plasma mode. In the latter, the INR was derived from the local calibration curve constructed by plotting the certified INR versus local coagulation times obtained with calibration plasmas. The between-algorithm INR differences indicate that this set of calibration plasmas may be employed for local INR calibration of the investigated reagent/instrument combination, especially when plasma is used for INR determination where the average INR (range) difference is 5% (3-13%) or 2% (3-8%) according to whether the INRs to calibration plasmas were assigned by the manufacturer or by the two expert laboratories. A slight but measurable difference of the INR may be predicted [9% (6-20%) or 6% (8-15%)] if this set of calibration plasmas is used for local calibration when native blood is employed for INR determination. Whether this bias is of practical significance is to be determined. PMID:15741805

Chantarangkul, Veena; Frontoni, Rita; Gresele, Paolo; Oca, Gaetana; Paniccia, Rita; Pellegrini, Lucio; Tripodi, Armando



Albendazole sulphoxide concentrations in plasma of endemic normals from a lymphatic filariasis endemic region using liquid chromatography.  


A simple and sensitive reversed-phase isocratic HPLC method for the determination of albendazole and its metabolites has been developed. The mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-water-perchloric acid (70%) (30:110:0.06 (v/v/v)) was pumped at a flow rate of 0.80 ml/min on a 5 microm, reverse phase, Discovery RPamide C16 column with UV detection at 290 nm. The calibration graphs were linear in the range of 0.05- 1 microg/ml for albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide and albendazole sulphone. The limit of quantification was 50 ng/ml for albendazole, 25 ng/ml for albendazole sulphoxide and 30 ng/ml for albendazole sulphone. The within-day and day-to-day coefficient of variation averaged 4.98 and 6.95% for albendazole, 3.83 and 6.83% for albendazole sulphoxide and 3.44 and 5.51% for albendazole sulphone, respectively. The mean extraction recoveries of albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide and albendazole sulphone were 79.25, 93.03 and 88.78%, respectively. The method was applied to determine the plasma levels of albendazole sulphoxide in endemic normals administered with albendazole during pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:14670741

Sarin, Reema; Dash, A P; Dua, V K



Plasma glycocalicin levels are not elevated in patients with a history of transient ischaemic event and are normal in aspirinated normal volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycocalicin (GC) is the soluble portion of platelet membrane protein GP1b, and may be cleaved from the platelet surface during platelet activation. Previous study has indicated that plasma glycocalicin\\/platelet (GCplt) levels are elevated in patients presenting with acute stroke. The present study was undertaken to determine the GCplt levels in patients being treated for transient ischaemic episodes, to assess whether

Paul J Huggan; Alan A Milne; Hagop Bessos; Anne Atkinson; William G Murphy



Comparative N-Glycoproteomic and Phosphoproteomic Profiling of Human Placental Plasma Membrane between Normal and Preeclampsia Pregnancies with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy, which affects 2–8% of all pregnancies and is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in pathological development of placenta in preeclampsia, we used high-resolution LC-MS/MS technologies to construct a comparative N-glycoproteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling of human placental plasma membrane in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. A total of 1027 N-glyco- and 2094 phospho- sites were detected in human placental plasma membrane, and 5 N-glyco- and 38 phospho- proteins, respectively, with differentially expression were definitively identified between control and preeclamptic placental plasma membrane. Further bioinformatics analysis indicated that these differentially expressed proteins correlate with several specific cellular processes occurring during pathological changes of preeclamptic placental plasma membrane. PMID:24260401

Wang, Fuqiang; Wang, Ling; Shi, Zhonghua; Liang, Gaolin



4D tracking of clinical seminal samples for quantitative characterization of motility parameters  

PubMed Central

In this paper we investigate the use of a digital holographic microscope, with partial spatial coherent illumination, for the automated detection and tracking of spermatozoa. This in vitro technique for the analysis of quantitative parameters is useful for assessment of semen quality. In fact, thanks to the capabilities of digital holography, the developed algorithm allows us to resolve in-focus amplitude and phase maps of the cells under study, independently of focal plane of the sample image. We have characterized cell motility on clinical samples of seminal fluid. In particular, anomalous sperm cells were characterized and the quantitative motility parameters were compared to those of normal sperm. PMID:24688806

Di Caprio, Giuseppe; El Mallahi, Ahmed; Ferraro, Pietro; Dale, Roberta; Coppola, Gianfranco; Dale, Brian; Coppola, Giuseppe; Dubois, Frank



Seminal fluid analysis and testicular volume in adults with epilepsy receiving valproate.  


Epilepsy and its medications adversely affect reproductive and sexual functions and fertility. This study aimed to assess sperm parameters and testicular volume in men with epilepsy on valproate (VPA). Included were 55 patients with idiopathic epilepsy with a mean age of 31.86±standard deviation (SD) 6.55years, mean illness duration of 12.50±SD 5.10years, and a mean treatment time of 9.55±SD 0.85years. Sex hormone profile, semen analysis, testicular volume and total seminal plasma carnitine were determined. Compared to controls, patients had lower levels of free testosterone (p<0.01), sperm concentration (p<0.0001) and count (p<0.0001), carnitine (p<0.01), and testicular volume (p<0.01), and higher rates of immotile sperm (p<0.001) and abnormal forms (p<0.0001). Significant correlations were identified between sperm count, motility, immotile sperm, abnormal forms, testicular volume, carnitine levels and duration of illness, duration of treatment with VPA and VPA dose. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that duration of treatment with VPA, sperm count, motility and abnormal forms were significantly associated with seminal plasma carnitine. Long-term VPA treatment is adversely associated with reduced sperm count and motility, increased abnormal sperm count and reduced testicular volume. This may contribute to reduced fertility. PMID:25636832

Hamed, Sherifa A; Moussa, Ehab M M; Tohamy, Amal M; Mohamed, Khaled O; Mohamad, Mohamad E; Sherif, Tahra M K; Abdellah, Mostafa M



A dot-blot-immunoassay for semen identification using a polyclonal antibody against semenogelin, a powerful seminal marker.  


Among various seminal plasma proteins, semenogelin (Sg), produced in the seminal vesicle, has been considered a candidate for demonstrating the presence of semen. Sg consists of two proteins, one 52 kDa (Sg-I) in size, and the other a mixture of 71 and 76 kDa proteins (Sg-II). Recombinant Sg-I and Sg-II proteins were obtained using a baculovirus system and then injected into a rabbit to produce the respective antibodies [Characterization of recombinant precursor proteins of the human seminal plasma sperm motility inhibitor synthesized in insect cells, Int. J. Mol. Med. 2 (1998) 693]. When liquefied seminal plasma was immunoblotted with the anti-Sg-I and Sg-II antibodies, the anti-Sg-II antibody identified a wider range of the polypeptides originating from Sg than did the anti-Sg-I antibody. A dot-blot-immunoassay using anti-Sg-II antibody revealed a clear immunoreactive spot even when the semen was diluted 6400-fold. However, this assay showed that the Sg antigen was undetectable in saliva, urine, vaginal secretions, sweat, nasal secretions and serum. To determine the stability of Sg antigenic activity, filter paper with dried semen stains were kept at 37, 4 and 22 degrees C for 1, 6 and 18 months, respectively, and the Sg antigenic activity was examined. The activity was detectable in an area not less than 0.5 cm x 0.5 cm under all of the above environmental conditions during each period. Finally, semen was mixed with saliva or blood at various volumetric ratios, and used as a source of dried stains. The Sg antigenic activity was detectable in the stains until the ratio of semen to saliva or blood reached 1:8. These results suggest that Sg may be useful as a marker for semen identification. PMID:11587862

Sato, I; Yoshiike, M; Yamasaki, T; Yoshida, K; Takano, S; Mukai, T; Iwamoto, T



Modest decrements in plasma glucose concentration cause early impairment in cognitive function and later activation of glucose counterregulation in the absence of hypoglycemic symptoms in normal man.  

PubMed Central

To establish the glycemic threshold for onset of neuroglycopenia (impaired cognitive function, measured by the latency of the P300 wave), activation of hormonal counterregulation and hypoglycemic symptoms, 12 normal subjects were studied either under conditions of insulin-induced, glucose-controlled plasma glucose decrements, or during maintenance of euglycemia. A decrement in plasma glucose concentration from 88 +/- 3 to 80 +/- 1 mg/dl for 150 min did not result in changes in the latency of the P300 wave nor in an activation of counterregulatory hormonal response. In contrast, a greater decrement in plasma glucose concentration from 87 +/- 3 to 72 +/- 1 mg/dl for 120 min caused an increase in the latency of the P300 wave (from 301 +/- 12 to 348 +/- 20 ms, P less than 0.01), a subsequent increase in all counterregulatory hormones but no hypoglycemic symptoms. Finally, when plasma glucose concentration was decreased in a stepwise manner from 88 +/- 2 to 50 +/- 1 mg/dl within 75 min, the increase in the latency of the P300 wave was correlated with the corresponding plasma glucose concentration (r = -0.76, P less than 0.001). The glycemic threshold for hypoglycemic symptoms was 49 +/- 2 mg/dl. Thus, in normal man the glycemic threshold for neuroglycopenia (72 +/- 1 mg/dl) is greater than currently thought; the hormonal counterregulation follows the onset of neuroglycopenia; the hypoglycemic symptoms are a late indicator of advanced neuroglycopenia. PMID:3403713

De Feo, P; Gallai, V; Mazzotta, G; Crispino, G; Torlone, E; Perriello, G; Ventura, M M; Santeusanio, F; Brunetti, P; Bolli, G B



Cytochrome P450-2D6*4 polymorphism seminal relationship in infertile men.  


This study aimed to assess cytochrome (CY) P450-2D6*4 polymorphism relationship with semen variables in infertile men. In all, 308 men were included; fertile normozoospermia (N) (n = 77), asthenozoospermia (A) (n = 70), asthenoteratozoospermia (AT) (n = 75) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) (n = 86). They were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, semen analysis, sperm acrosin activity, seminal malondialdehyde (MDA) and CYP450-2D6*4 genotyping. CYP450-2D6*4 wild-type allele was represented in 76.5% of N, 70% of A, 66.7% of AT and 57.7% of OAT men where homozygous gene mutation was present in 5.9% of N, 20% of A, 26.6% of AT and 26.9% of OAT men, respectively. Sperm acrosin activity, sperm concentration, sperm motility, linear sperm velocity and sperm normal forms were significantly higher, and seminal MDA level was significantly lower in men with CYP450-2D6*4 wild-type allele compared with men with homozygous mutation. It is concluded that CYP450-2D6*4 wild-type allele has higher frequency where homozygous-type allele has lower frequency in N men compared with A, AT and OAT men. Sperm acrosin activity index, sperm concentration, sperm motility, linear sperm velocity and sperm normal forms were significantly higher, and seminal MDA level was significantly lower in men with CYP450-2D6*4 wild-type allele compared with men with homozygous mutation. PMID:24865344

Zalata, A; El-Samanoudy, A Z; Osman, G; Elhanbly, S; Nada, H A; Mostafa, T



Toward a self-consistent model of the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse with an overdense plasma  

SciTech Connect

Following a recent work by Sanz et al. [Phys. Rev. E 85, 046411 (2012)], we elaborate upon a one-dimensional model describing the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse and an overdense plasma. The analytical solutions of the reflected laser field, the electrostatic field, and the plasma surface oscillation are obtained within the cold-fluid approximation. The high-order harmonic spectrum is calculated from the exact solution of the plasma surface oscillations. In agreement with particle-in-cell simulations, two regimes of harmonic generation are predicted: for moderately relativistic laser intensities, or high plasma densities, the harmonic spectrum is determined by the discontinuity in the derivative of the reflected field when the electron plasma boundary oscillates across the fixed ion boundary. For higher intensities, the electron plasma boundary is confined inside the ion region and oscillates at relativistic velocities, giving rise to a train of reflected attosecond pulses. In both cases, the harmonic spectrum obeys an asymptotic ?{sup ?4} scaling. The acceleration of electrons and the related laser absorption efficiency are computed by a test particle method. The model self-consistently reproduces the transition between the “anomalous skin effect” and the “J × B” heating predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. Analytical estimates of the different scalings are presented.

Debayle, A. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France) [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); ETSI Aeronáuticos. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Sanz, J. [ETSI Aeronáuticos. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)] [ETSI Aeronáuticos. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Gremillet, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)] [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Mima, K. [School for the Creation of Photonic Industries, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan)] [School for the Creation of Photonic Industries, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan)



Seminal Fluid Affects Sperm Viability in a Cricket  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have suggested that males may vary the quality of their ejaculates in response to sperm competition, although the mechanisms by which they do so remain unclear. The viability of sperm is an important aspect of ejaculate quality that determines competitive fertilization success in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. Using in vitro mixtures of sperm and seminal fluid from pairs of male crickets, we show that seminal fluid can affect the viability of sperm in this species. We found that males who invest greatly in the viability of their own sperm can enhance the viability of rival sperm, providing the opportunity for males to exploit the investments in sperm competition made by their rivals. Transitive effects of seminal fluids across the ejaculates of different males are expected to have important implications for the dynamics of male investments in sperm competition. PMID:21455309

Simmons, Leigh W.; Beveridge, Maxine



Seminal parameters of chronic male genital inflammation are associated with disturbed sperm DNA integrity.  


Definition of chronic male genital tract inflammation and its impact on male infertility is still a matter of debate. In particular, DNA integrity has been reported to be disturbed in subfertile men. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate an association of DNA integrity to altered standard semen parameters as well as inflammatory parameters such as peroxidase-positive cells, macrophages and seminal interleukin-6 concentration. Macrophages were detected by CD18/HLA-Dr staining, and DNA integrity was analysed by acridine orange staining using flow cytometry. Interleukin-6 was detected by ELISA. Normal DNA integrity showed a significant correlation to sperm number and progressive motility. Moreover, a significant inverse correlation of DNA integrity to Interleukin-6 and macrophages could be demonstrated. Further on, seminal interleukin-6 also significantly correlated to macrophages. No association has been observed between the number of peroxidase-positive cells and normal DNA integrity. As disturbed DNA integrity has been reported to negatively influence spermatozoon-egg interaction and even fertilisation rates following ICSI, and as early miscarriages have been associated with sperm DNA damage, it should be screened very carefully for male genital tract inflammations in couples undergoing infertility treatment. Measuring Interleukin-6 seems superior to assessment of the number of leucocytes alone and additional assessment of DNA integrity into the diagnostic work-up should be considered. PMID:25708510

Haidl, F; Haidl, G; Oltermann, I; Allam, J P



Effects of weight loss in obese subjects with normal fasting plasma glucose or impaired glucose tolerance on insulin release and insulin resistance according to a minimal model analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated effects of weight loss from diet and exercise regimen in obese subjects with normal fasting plasma glucose or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) on insulin release capacity and insulin sensitivity. Eight subjects were recruited among visceral obesity patients (4 men, 4 women; age range, 24 to 57 years; body mass index [BMI], 32.8 to 60.3 kg\\/m2). All were admitted

Yuriko Yoshida; Naotake Hashimoto; Yoshiharu Tokuyama; Hiroshi Kitagawa; Kazuo Takahashi; Kazuo Yagui; Azuma Kanatsuka; Hideaki Bujo; Mayumi Higurashi; Saori Miyazawa; Shouji Yoshida; Yasushi Saito



Seminal fluid regulates accumulation of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in the preimplantation mouse uterus through expanding the FOXP3+ cell pool and CCL19-mediated recruitment.  


Regulatory T (Treg) cells facilitate maternal immune tolerance of the semiallogeneic conceptus in early pregnancy, but the origin and regulation of these cells at embryo implantation is unclear. During the preimplantation period, factors in the seminal fluid delivered at coitus cause expansion of a CD4(+)CD25(+) putative Treg cell population in the para-aortic lymph nodes draining the uterus. Using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the signature Treg cell transcription factor FOXP3, we confirmed the identity of the expanded lymph node population as FOXP3(+) Treg cells and showed that this is accompanied by a comparable increase in the uterus of FOXP3(+) Treg cells and expression of Foxp3 mRNA by Day 3.5 postcoitum. Seminal plasma was necessary for uterine Treg cell accumulation, as mating with seminal vesicle-deficient males failed to elicit an increase in uterine Treg cells. Furthermore seminal fluid induced expression of mRNA encoding the Treg chemokine CCL19 (MIP3beta), which acts through the CCR7 receptor to regulate Treg cell recruitment and retention in peripheral tissues. Glandular and luminal epithelial cells were identified as the major cellular origins of uterine CCL19, and exposure to both seminal plasma and sperm was required for maximum expression. Together, these results indicate that Treg cells accumulate in the uterus prior to embryo implantation and that seminal fluid is a key regulator of the uterine Treg cell population, operating by both increasing the pool of available Treg cells and promoting their CCL19-mediated recruitment from the circulation into the implantation site. PMID:21389340

Guerin, Leigh R; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M; Prins, Jelmer R; Bromfield, John J; Hayball, John D; Robertson, Sarah A



Flow Cytometric Differentiation of Abnormal and Normal Plasma Cells in the Bone Marrow in Patients with Multiple Myeloma and Its Precursor Diseases  

PubMed Central

Flow cytometric (FC) enumeration of abnormal plasma cells (APCs) for diagnosis and prognostication of plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD) is challenging. We studied antigen expression in normal plasma cells (NPC) (N=34) and APC in a series of unselected PCD (N=59). NPC subpopulations often demonstrated CD19(?), CD20(+), CD45(?) or dim and CD56(+), an immunophenotype observed in PCD. However abnormal CD81 was only observed in APCs (APC detection sensitivity 95%; specificity 100%). We evaluated differences in antigen expression patterns among MGUS (N=14), SMM (N=35) and MM (N=10), finding the combination of CD45 and CD56 helpful in differentiating MGUS from SMM and MM (p=0.0002). PMID:24462038

Tembhare, Prashant R.; Yuan, Constance M.; Venzon, David; Braylan, Raul; Korde, Neha; Manasanch, Elisabet; Zuchlinsky, Diamond; Calvo, Katherine; Kurlander, Roger; Bhutani, Manisha; Tageja, Nishant; Maric, Irina; Mulquin, Marcia; Roschewski, Mark; Kwok, Mary; Liewehr, David; Landgren, Ola; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice



Mechanism for Ion Acceleration along the Normal to the Axis of a Beam-Plasma Discharge in a Weak Magnetic Field  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism responsible for the previously discovered phenomenon of acceleration of an ion flow along the normal to the axis of a beam-plasma discharge in a weak magnetic field is investigated. It is suggested that the ions are accelerated in the field of a helicon wave excited in the discharge plasma column. It is shown theoretically that, under actual experimental conditions, a helicon wave can be excited at the expense of the energy of an electron beam. The spectral parameters and spatial structure of the waves excited in a beam-plasma discharge in the frequency ranges of Langmuir and helicon waves are studied experimentally and are shown to be related to the parameters of the ion flow. Theoretical estimates are found to agree well with the experimental results.

Isaev, N.V.; Shustin, E.G. [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Fryazino Branch), Russian Academy of Sciences, pl. Vvedenskogo 1, Fryazino, Moscow oblast, 141190 (Russian Federation); Rukhadze, A.A. [Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Vavilova 38, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)



Normal-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for chiral separation and quantification of clevudine and its enantiomer in human plasma.  


A new, simple and enantioselective normal-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was presented for the quantification of clevudine and its enantiomer in human plasma. A C18 cartridge was used in this method to extract the enantiomers in 200?L plasma followed by a chiral separation on a cellulose-based LC column with mobile phase consisted of hexane, methanol and ethanol (62:28:10, V/V/V). The eluate was directed to a mass spectrometry through an electrospray ionization interface. A transition of m/z 261.0 to m/z 126.8 was used for monitoring of clevudine and its enantiomer. This method showed good linearity (R>0.997), precision (<9.6%) and accuracy (within 95.48-105.9%) within a range of 10-1000ng/mL for the enantiomers and has been applied to the pharmacokinetics study of clevudine capsules in human plasma. PMID:22265667

Ding, Cungang; Ge, Qinghua; Wang, Yemu; Zhou, Zhen; Zhi, Xiaojin; Liu, Xiaofen; Li, Zhou



Plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine, a natural inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the change in the plasma concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, in early-, mid-, and late-gestation normotensive pregnancies and in gestational age–matched preeclamptic pregnancies and compared the observed changes with changes in blood pressure. STUDY DESIGN: Blood pressure and peripheral plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations were measured in 20 nonpregnant and 145 pregnant

Desmond P. Holden; Sara A. Fickling; Guy St. J. Whitley; Stephen S. Nussey



Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Berberine in Rat Plasma after Oral Administration of Berberine Hydrochloride in Normal and Post Inflammation Irritable Bowel Syndrome Rats  

PubMed Central

In the present study, post inflammation irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) rats were firstly established by intracolonic instillation of acetic acid with restraint stress. Then the pharmacokinetics of berberine in the rat plasma were compared after oral administration of berberine hydrochloride (25 mg/kg) to normal rats and PI-IBS rats. Quantification of berberine in the rat plasma was achieved by using a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method. Plasma samples were collected at 15 different points in time and the pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by WinNonlin software. Compared with the normal group, area under the plasma concentration vs. time curve from zero to last sampling time (AUC0–t) and total body clearance (CL/F) in the model group significantly increased or decreased, (2039.49 ± 492.24 vs. 2763.43 ± 203.14; 4999.34 ± 1198.79 vs. 3270.57 ± 58.32) respectively. The results indicated that the pharmacokinetic process of berberine could be altered in PI-IBS pathological conditions. PMID:24451127

Gong, Zipeng; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Ruijie; Wang, Yinghan; Guo, Yan; Yang, Qing; Zhang, Haixian; Dong, Yu; Weng, Xiaogang; Gao, Shuangrong; Zhu, Xiaoxin



Comparison of mean normal prothrombin time (PT) with PT of fresh normal pooled plasma or of a lyophilized control plasma (R82A) as denominator to express PT results: collaborative study of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry. IFCC Working Group Standardization of Coagulation Tests.  


The mean normal prothrombin time (MNPT) is currently recommended as the denominator term in the expression of PT ratio or International Normalized Ratio (INR) values. The PT of lyophilized normal control plasmas might also be used in calculating PT ratios, but the overall accuracy of this approach and its dependence on reagents and endpoint detectors have not been evaluated in detail. In an IFCC collaborative study involving 15 expert laboratories and 58 PT systems, the PT ratios of 30 apparently healthy subjects were expressed with the use of the MNPT, the PT of fresh normal pooled plasma (FNPP) obtained from the same apparently healthy subjects, or the PT of plasma R82A--a lyophilized normal pooled plasma prepared by the Verband der Deutschen Geräte-Hersteller for in-house calibration of a large amount of control plasma--as the denominator term. The total imprecision of the PT of plasma R82A averaged 2.16%. Mean PT ratios did not differ from 1.00 (mean 1.00, range 1.00-1.01) with the use of the MNPT as the denominator term. Mean PT ratios were > 1.00 with the FNPP-PT as the denominator term (1.02, 0.96-1.05), and differed according to endpoint detectors (P = 0.024). Mean PT ratios with plasma R82A-PT as the denominator term averaged 0.98 (range 0.91-1.06) with plain thromboplastins (n = 11), 1.02 (0.98-1.06) with combined thromboplastins (n = 3), and 0.93 (0.87-0.97) with recombinant thromboplastins (n = 2), but they differed according to the brand of plain or recombinant reagents (P = 0.00001), the endpoint detector (P < 0.0025), and the plasma citrate concentration (P < 0.0025). These findings underline the differences in the PT of lyophilized plasma R82A and the MNPT and PT of FNPP obtained from the same individuals and support the recommendation that the system-specific MNPT should be used as the ideal index of the normal PT in the calculation of INR values. PMID:9365404

D'Angelo, A; Galli, L; Lang, H



Symptomatic cystic seminal vesicle: a laparoscopic approach for effective treatment  

PubMed Central

This case report highlights a symptomatic cystic seminal vesicle lesion, treated laparoscopically. A young adult male known to have congenital right renal agenesis presented with a history of recurrent right iliac fossa pain, as well as deep pelvic discomfort. The preoperative evaluation revealed a 7 × 4.5 × 4 cm cystic seminal vesicle mass. After discovery of the mass, the patient underwent a transperitoneal laparoscopic excision of the lesion. The patient was discharged on the third postoperative day and had an uneventful recovery. There were no complications noted during a routine follow-up. The laparoscopic approach was shown to be effective in the management of this rare condition. PMID:20019960

Nassir, Anmar



Phallic and seminal masculinity: a theoretical and clinical confusion.  


Both inside and outside psychoanalysis, the word, 'seminal', is used to praise a creative contribution to science and culture. Rarely, however, does it refer to male procreativity, to the structures and functions that subserve it or to the anxiety related to a threat to it. This situation becomes evident in the concept of castration anxiety, which typically refers, with Freud, to cutting off the penis and not to extirpating the testicles. This phallic theory has been debated, repudiated and ignored. While there is an alternative literature on non-phallic masculinity, it is scattered and rarely refers to seminal function. Freud's theory meets his requirement for a well-articulated representation of absolute loss as an experience, but this clear structure--and its repudiation--obscure the observation and theory of the internal world of the male. I propose the concepts of 'seminal masculinity' and 'seminal castration', which I ground in Melanie Klein's concept of depressive anxiety. I contrast them with phallic masculinity and phallic castration anxiety, which I ground in her concept of paranoid-schizoid anxiety. I argue that they meet Freud's requirement that castration be a potential experience and that understanding masculinity demands such a basis. PMID:20433478

Figlio, Karl



Crystal structure of the dimeric unswapped form of bovine seminal ribonuclease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine seminal ribonuclease is a unique case of protein dimorphism, since it exists in two dimeric forms, with different biological and kinetic behavior, which interconvert into one another through three-dimensional swapping. Here we report the crystal structure, at 2.2 Å resolution, of the unswapped form of bovine seminal ribonuclease. Besides completing the structural definition of bovine seminal ribonuclease conformational dimorphism,

R Berisio; F Sica; C De Lorenzo; A Di Fiore; R Piccoli; A Zagari; L Mazzarella



Seminal vesicle secretion 2 acts as a protectant of sperm sterols and prevents ectopic sperm capacitation in mice.  


Seminal vesicle secretion 2 (SVS2) is a protein secreted by the mouse seminal vesicle. We previously demonstrated that SVS2 regulates fertilization in mice; SVS2 is attached to a ganglioside GM1 on the plasma membrane of the sperm head and inhibits sperm capacitation in in vitro fertilization as a decapacitation factor. Furthermore, male mice lacking SVS2 display prominently reduced fertility in vivo, which indicates that SVS2 protects spermatozoa from some spermicidal attack in the uterus. In this study, we tried to investigate the mechanisms by which SVS2 controls in vivo sperm capacitation. SVS2-deficient males that mated with wild-type partners resulted in decreased cholesterol levels on ejaculated sperm in the uterine cavity. SVS2 prevented cholesterol efflux from the sperm plasma membrane and incorporated liberated cholesterol in the sperm plasma membrane, thereby reversibly preventing the induction of sperm capacitation by bovine serum albumin and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin in vitro. SVS2 enters the uterus and the uterotubal junction, arresting sperm capacitation in this area. Therefore, our results show that SVS2 keeps sterols on the sperm plasma membrane and plays a key role in unlocking sperm capacitation in vivo. PMID:25395676

Araki, Naoya; Trencsényi, György; Krasznai, Zoárd T; Nizsalóczki, Enik?; Sakamoto, Ayako; Kawano, Natsuko; Miyado, Kenji; Yoshida, Kaoru; Yoshida, Manabu



Seminal, clinical and colour-Doppler ultrasound correlations of prostatitis-like symptoms in males of infertile couples.  


'Prostatitis-like symptoms' (PLS) are a cluster of bothersome conditions defined as 'perineal and/or ejaculatory pain or discomfort and National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) pain subdomain score ?4' (Nickel's criteria). PLS may originate from the prostate or from other portions of the male genital tract. Although PLS could be associated with 'prostatitis', they should not be confused. The NIH-CPSI is considered the gold-standard for assessing PLS severity. Although previous studies investigated the impact of prostatitis, vesiculitis or epididymitis on semen parameters, correlations between their related symptoms and seminal or scrotal/transrectal colour-Doppler ultrasound (CDU) characteristics have not been carefully determined. And no previous study evaluated the CDU features of PLS in infertile men. This study was aimed at investigating possible associations among NIH-CPSI (total and subdomain) scores and PLS, with seminal, clinical and scrotal/transrectal CDU parameters in a cohort of males of infertile couples. PLS of 400 men (35.8 ± 7.2 years) with a suspected male factor were assessed by the NIH-CPSI. All patients underwent, during the same day, semen analysis, seminal plasma interleukin 8 (sIL-8, a marker of male genital tract inflammation), biochemical evaluation, urine/seminal cultures, scrotal/transrectal CDU. PLS was detected in 39 (9.8%) subjects. After adjusting for age, waist and total testosterone (TT), no association among NIH-CPSI (total or subdomain) scores or PLS and sperm parameters was observed. However, we found a positive association with current positive urine and/or seminal cultures, sIL-8 levels and CDU features suggestive of inflammation of the epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate, but not of the testis. The aforementioned significant associations of PLS were further confirmed by comparing PLS patients with age-, waist- and TT-matched PLS-free patients (1 : 3 ratio). In conclusion, NIH-CPSI scores and PLS evaluated in males of infertile couples, are not related to sperm parameters, but mainly to clinical and CDU signs of infection/inflammation. PMID:24288243

Lotti, F; Corona, G; Mondaini, N; Maseroli, E; Rossi, M; Filimberti, E; Noci, I; Forti, G; Maggi, M



Teaching Normal Birth, Normally  

PubMed Central

Teaching normal-birth Lamaze classes normally involves considering the qualities that make birth normal and structuring classes to embrace those qualities. In this column, teaching strategies are suggested for classes that unfold naturally, free from unnecessary interventions. PMID:19436595

Hotelling, Barbara A



Prebeta-migrating high density lipoprotein: quantitation in normal and hyperlipidemic plasma by solid phase radioimmunoassay following electrophoretic transfer  

SciTech Connect

A quantitative solid phase immunoassay has been developed for the determination of the mass of electrophoretically separated prebeta apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in human plasma. Conditions have been identified for the quantitative transfer and immunoblotting of the apolipoprotein in the absence of organic solvents or detergents. In normolipidemic plasma, the prebeta-migrating fraction of apoA-I represented 4.2 +/- 1.8% of total apoA-I (61 +/- 26 micrograms of apoA-I per ml of plasma). Significantly higher levels were found in hypercholesterolemia of genetic origin, in primary and secondary hypertriglyceridemia, and in congenital lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency. In all cases prebeta-migrating apoA-I consisted in large part of low molecular weight lipoprotein species, compared to the size of the major, alpha-migrating apoA-I fraction.

Ishida, B.Y.; Frolich, J.; Fielding, C.J.



A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo study of plasma-induced damage of normal incidence collector optics used in extreme ultraviolet lithography  

SciTech Connect

We present a kinetic simulation of the plasma formed by photoionization in the intense flux of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) light source. The model is based on the particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo approach. The photoelectric effect and ionization by electron collisions are included. The time evolution of the low density argon plasma is simulated during and after the EUV pulse and the ion-induced sputtering of the coating material of a normal incidence collector mirror is computed. The relation between the time and position at which the ions are created and their final energy is studied, revealing how the evolution and the properties of the sheath influence the amount of sputtered material. The influence of the gas pressure and the source intensity is studied, evaluating the behavior of Ar{sup +} and Ar{sup 2+} ions. A way to reduce the damage to the collector mirror is presented.

Wieggers, R. C.; Goedheer, W. J.; Akdim, M. R.; Bijkerk, F.; Zegeling, P. A. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80010, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)



Establishing normal plasma and 24-hour urinary biochemistry ranges in C3H, BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice following acclimatization in metabolic cages.  


Physiological studies of mice are facilitated by normal plasma and 24-hour urinary reference ranges, but variability of these parameters may increase due to stress that is induced by housing in metabolic cages. We assessed daily weight, food and water intake, urine volume and final day measurements of the following: plasma sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, cholesterol and glucose; and urinary sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, glucose and protein in 24- to 30-week-old C3H/HeH, BALB/cAnNCrl and C57BL/6J mice. Between 15 and 20 mice of each sex from all three strains were individually housed in metabolic cages with ad libitum feeding for up to seven days. Acclimatization was evaluated using general linear modelling for repeated measures and comparison of biochemical data was by unpaired t-test and analysis of variance (SPSS version 12.0.1). Following an initial 5-10% fall in body weight, daily dietary intake, urinary output and weight in all three strains reached stable values after 3-4 days of confinement. Significant differences in plasma glucose, cholesterol, urea, chloride, calcium and albumin, and urinary glucose, sodium, phosphate, calcium and protein were observed between strains and genders. Thus, these results provide normal reference values for plasma and urinary biochemistry in three strains housed in metabolic cages and demonstrate that 3-4 days are required to reach equilibrium in metabolic cage studies. These variations due to strain and gender have significant implications for selecting the appropriate strain upon which to breed genetically-altered models of metabolic and renal disease. PMID:20457824

Stechman, Michael J; Ahmad, Bushra N; Loh, Nellie Y; Reed, Anita A C; Stewart, Michelle; Wells, Sara; Hough, Tertius; Bentley, Liz; Cox, Roger D; Brown, Steve D M; Thakker, Rajesh V



Subsequent influences of feeding intact green seaweed Ulva lactuca to growing lambs on the seminal and testicular characteristics in rams.  


The present experiment was designed to investigate the subsequent influences of supplementing different levels of intact green seaweed Ulva lactuca (0%, 3%, and 5% DM) to growing sexually immature lambs during the growth period (74 d) on the seminal and testicular characteristics of sexually mature rams. Ulva lactuca was manually collected, adequately prepared, and then incorporated into lambs' diets. Eighteen male 3-mo-old lambs of the Awassi breed with a mean BW of 22.57 kg (SD = 1.08) were randomly assigned into treatments. The obtained results indicate that offering Ulva lactuca at the level of 3% or 5% DM to lambs during the growth period had no subsequent impacts (P > 0.05) on liver and kidney functions as well as blood water balance in rams, thereby suggesting that Ulva lactuca can be safely supplemented to lambs during growing. However, our findings point out that feeding a lamb diet supplemented with intact Ulva lactuca failed to demonstrate any subsequent benefit (P > 0.05) on the growth performance, thermoregulatory responses, and plasma oxidative status in rams. Above all, it was clearly evident that supplementing intact Ulva lactuca to lambs had demonstrated subsequent negative influences (P < 0.05) on seminal and testicular characteristics of rams, more noticeably observed at the 5% DM inclusion rate than at 3%. These results were manifested by the inferior (P < 0.05) seminal quality, reduced (P < 0.05) testicular morphometry, changes (P < 0.05) in testicular histopathology, defective (P < 0.05) endocrine signaling, and increased (P < 0.05) seminal oxidative stress in rams fed diets supplemented with Ulva lactuca during the growth period compared to control rams. The deleterious impacts of feeding intact Ulva lactuca on spermatogenesis and germ cell loss were proven to be attributed to the dysfunction of Sertoli cells. Collectively, these results provide novel insights on the subsequent influences of dietary supplementation of intact Ulva lactuca to lambs. The consistent evidence of profound negative impacts on seminal and testicular characteristics as well as the resulting data of no improvement of subsequent growth, thermoregulation, and plasma oxidative status in rams prompts us to tentatively recommend the avoidance of feeding intact Ulva lactuca to lambs. PMID:24146153

Samara, E M; Okab, A B; Abdoun, K A; El-Waziry, A M; Al-Haidary, A A



Active immunization of prepubertal bulls against testosterone: Seminal and testicular characteristics after puberty.  


Twenty-four Holstein bull calves were immunized at 1.0 month of age against either testosterone-17-hemisuccinate-human serum albumin (treated bulls) or against human serum albumin alone (control bulls). Booster injections were given monthly through five months of age. Bulls were reimmunized at six months of age with testosterone-17-hemisuccinate-equine serum albumin (treated bulls) or equine serum albumin alone (control bulls). At 12 months of age, eight treated and eight control bulls were electroejaculated twice daily for two days and then castrated. The remaining four bulls in each group were electroejaculated and castrated at 18 months of age. Active immunization against testosterone significantly elevated the binding of (3)H-testosterone in plasma within four weeks. Body weights of bulls were not affected by treatment. Concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in plasma were generally not altered by treatment. At castration at 12 months of age, testosterone-immunized bulls tended to have greater (P < 0.15) parenchymal weights and had 30% greater (P < 0.07) daily sperm production (DSP) rates than control bulls; seminal characteristics (motility and intact acrosomes) were not affected. At 18 months of age, testosterone-immunized bulls had 21% greater (P < 0.07) parenchymal weights and 35% greater (P < 0.04) DSP rates than control bulls; again, seminal characteristics were not affected. It appears that prepubertal active immunization against testosterone is a potential means of increasing testicular size and sperm production rates in postpubertal bulls. PMID:16725959

Walker, M P; Thompson, D L; Godke, R A; Honey, P G



Normalization of elevated cardiac, kidney, and hemolysis plasma markers within 48 h in Mexican Tarahumara runners following a 78 km race at moderate altitude  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to examine to what extent extreme endurance exercise results in changes of plasma markers associated with cardiac and renal damage, as well as hemolysis in male, Mexican Tarahumara runners. Methods Ten Tarahumara runners (mean (sd) age of 38 (12) years) participated in a 78 km race in Chihuahua, Mexico at 2,400 m above sea level. Cardiac, kidney, and hematology plasma markers were measured pre-race and <5 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h post-race. Anthropometry, blood pressure, pulse rate, electrocardiography, HbA1c, hemoglobin and VO2max (estimated from heart rate following step test) were assessed pre-race, while physical activity energy expenditure and intensity were estimated during the race, and oxygen partial pressure saturation (SpO2) <30 min post-race. Results Estimated mean VO2max was 48 (9) mLO2 min?1 kg?1 and relative intensity during the race was 68 (11)%VO2max. Mean SpO2 was 92 (3)% <30 min post-race. Plasma concentrations of especially total creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB isoform, and haptoglobin changed significantly from pre-race values (P < 0.001) up to 24 h post-race, but had returned to pre-race values after 48 h. The plasma concentrations of mid-regional proatrial natiuretic peptide and copeptin returned to pre-race concentrations after 1 and 6 h, respectively. Conclusions Altered cardiac, renal, and hemolysis plasma markers were normalized after 48 h following 78 km of running, suggesting that the impact of exercise-induced cardiac and kidney damage as well as hemolysis in the Mexican Tarahumara is low. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 26:836–843, 2014. © 2014 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25145663

Christensen, Dirk L; Espino, Diana; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío; Brage, Soren; Terzic, Dijana; Goetze, Jens P; Kjaergaard, Jesper



Seminal quality in the first fraction of ejaculate.  


Semen samples from 40 patients were collected in consecutive fractions. The variability in semen quality of each fraction was then determined. The first ejaculated fraction (FEF) primarily contained prostatic secretions, while the second ejaculate fraction (SEF) held the majority of the spermatozoa suspended in the secretions from the seminal vesicle. Differences in sperm quality were observed when the FEF was compared to the SEF and the total ejaculate fraction (TEF). These included the seminal parameters (volume, sperm concentration, motility) and sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF). When compared to TEF and SEF, the FEF presented a lower volume, higher sperm concentration, higher motility rates, and lower SDF. The data suggest that the first fraction renders an improved subpopulation of spermatozoa, with lower SDF. Spermatozoa from this fraction and hence their use for ART may have a positive effect on fertilization and embryo development. PMID:25547665

Hebles, María; Dorado, Monica; Gallardo, Miguel; González-Martínez, Mercedes; Sánchez-Martín, Pacual



Plasma circulating-microRNA profiles are useful for assessing prognosis in patients with cytogenetically normal myelodysplastic syndromes.  


Myelodysplastic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of clonal bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and peripheral cytopenias. Chromosomal abnormalities and gene mutations have been shown to have essential roles in pathogenesis and correlate with prognosis. Molecular markers, however, are not integrated into currently used prognostic systems. The goal of this study is to identify plasma microRNAs useful for classification and risk stratification of myelodysplastic syndromes. We applied a novel, high-throughput digital quantification technology (NanoString) to profile microRNA expression in plasma samples of 72 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and 12 healthy individuals. We correlated these results with overall survival. In patients with myelodysplastic syndromes associated with a diploid karyotype, we identified and validated a 7-microRNA signature as an independent predictor of survival with a predictive power of 75% accuracy (P=0.008), better than those of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems and the MD Anderson Prognostic Lower Risk Prognostic Model. We also identified differentially expressed plasma microRNAs in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes versus healthy individuals and between patients with myelodysplastic syndromes associated with different cytogenetic features. These results validate the utility of circulating-microRNA levels as noninvasive biomarkers that can inform the management of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Our findings also shed light on interactions of gene regulation pathways that are likely involved in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:25216221

Zuo, Zhuang; Maiti, Sourindra; Hu, Shimin; Loghavi, Sanam; Calin, George A; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Cooper, Laurence Jn; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E



Enlargement of the ampullary gland and seminal vesicle, but not the prostate in int-2/Fgf-3 transgenic mice.  


Expression of the int2/Fgf-3 gene occurs during normal embryonic development and is associated with mammary cancer in mice. Overexpression of this gene under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV-LTR) in males was reported to result in prostatic enlargement. In this report male Fgf-3-overexpressing mice were shown to have enlarged ampullary glands, seminal vesicles, and ductus deferens; there was extensive epithelial hyperplasia in the ampullary glands and seminal vesicles. The prostates of these animals were of normal size and histology. The transgene was expressed in all of the enlarged organs, which are derived exclusively from the Wolffian duct. Male secondary sex organs derived from the urogenital sinus, e.g., the ventral prostate, coagulating gland, and bulbourethral glands, were normal and did not express the MMTV-LTR-driven Fgf-3 transgene. A dorsolateral prostate was also morphologically normal but did express the transgene. This study underscores the importance of careful organ identification in transgenic models in which gross organ enlargement or distortion occurs. It also highlights the heterogeneity of the response to Fgf-3 among the secondary sex organs and even within the prostate itself. PMID:9566308

Donjacour, A A; Thomson, A A; Cunha, G R



Evaluation of forensic examination of extremely aged seminal stains.  


The results of forensic tests, such as semen identification and short tandem repeat (STR) analysis of extremely aged seminal stains from unsolved sex crimes can provide important evidence. In this study we evaluated whether current forensic methods could be applied to seminal stains that were stored at room temperature for 33-56years (n=2, 33years old; n=1, 41years old; n=1, 44years old; n=1, 56years old). The prostatic acid phosphatase (SM-test reagent), microscopic (Baecchi stain method) and semenogelin (RSID™ Semen Laboratory Kit) tests were performed as discriminative tests for semen. In addition, the mRNA levels of the semen-specific proteins semenogelin 1 (SEMG1) and protamine 2 (PRM2) were investigated. STRs were analyzed using the AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ PCR Amplification Kit. All samples were positive in the prostatic acid phosphatase and semenogelin tests, and sperm heads were identified in all samples. The staining degree of the aged sperm heads was similar to that of fresh sperm. Although SEMG1 mRNA was not detected in any sample, PRM2 mRNA was detected in three samples. In the STR analysis, all loci were detected in the 33-years-old sample and five loci were detected in the 56-years-old sample. We confirmed that current forensic examinations - including STR analysis - could be applied to extremely aged seminal stains. These results could be useful for forensic practice. PMID:24844186

Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Hara, Masaaki; Takahashi, Shirushi; Takada, Aya; Saito, Kazuyuki



Ordered one-component plasmas: Phase transitions, normal modes, large systems, and experiments in a storage ring  

SciTech Connect

The property of cold one-component plasmas, confined by external forces, to form an ordered array has been known for some time both from simulations and from experiment. The purpose of this talk is to summarize some recent work on simulations and some new experimental results. The author discusses some experimental work on real storage rings, magnetic storage devices in which partials circulate with large kinetic energies and for which laser cooling is used on partially ionized ions to attain temperatures ten or more orders of magnitude lower than their kinetic energies.

Schiffer, J.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.]|[Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)



Small round blue cell tumor of seminal vesicle in a young patient.  


Seminal vesicle tumor is a rare disease with unclear origin. Generally, it is presented as a pelvic mass that can be detected by sonography and digital rectal exam. The authors report a 25-year-old patient with a pelvic mass which the magnetic resonance and surgical specimen reveal a seminal vesicle tumor. Immunohistochemical findings favored a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the seminal vesicle. Herein, the treatment, histological and histochemical findings of this entity are discussed. PMID:17081327

de Paula, Adriano A; Maltez, Adriano R; Mota, Eliane D



Relationship amongst teratozoospermia, seminal oxidative stress and male infertility  

PubMed Central

Background Spermatozoa morphology is an important and complex characteristic of the fertilization capacity of male germ cells. Morphological abnormalities have been observed to be accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and further damage to spermatozoa, ultimately leading to infertility. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between seminal ROS production and sperm morphology in infertile teratozoospermic patients as well as in healthy men of proven and unproven fertility. Methods Semen samples were collected from 79 patients classified as teratozoospermic and 56 healthy donors (control). Standard semen analysis was performed and spermatozoa morphology was assessed according to the WHO 2010 guidelines. Seminal ROS was measured by chemiluminescence assay. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated, and sensitivity, specificity, cutoff value and area under curve (AUC) were determined. Results Sperm morphology was significantly poor in the Teratozoospermic Group compared with the 3 Donor Groups (P?seminal ROS. Therefore, besides sperm concentration and motility, spermatozoa morphology should receive an equally important consideration in the overall assessment of male fertility. PMID:24884815



Bacterial Communities in Semen from Men of Infertile Couples: Metagenomic Sequencing Reveals Relationships of Seminal Microbiota to Semen Quality  

PubMed Central

Some previous studies have identified bacteria in semen as being a potential factor in male infertility. However, only few types of bacteria were taken into consideration while using PCR-based or culturing methods. Here we present an analysis approach using next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics analysis to investigate the associations between bacterial communities and semen quality. Ninety-six semen samples collected were examined for bacterial communities, measuring seven clinical criteria for semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, Kruger's strict morphology, antisperm antibody (IgA), Atypical, and leukocytes). Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) was also performed. Results showed that the most abundant genera among all samples were Lactobacillus (19.9%), Pseudomonas (9.85%), Prevotella (8.51%) and Gardnerella (4.21%). The proportion of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella was significantly higher in the normal samples, while that of Prevotella was significantly higher in the low quality samples. Unsupervised clustering analysis demonstrated that the seminal bacterial communities were clustered into three main groups: Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, and Prevotella predominant group. Remarkably, most normal samples (80.6%) were clustered in Lactobacillus predominant group. The analysis results showed seminal bacteria community types were highly associated with semen health. Lactobacillus might not only be a potential probiotic for semen quality maintenance, but also might be helpful in countering the negative influence of Prevotella and Pseudomonas. In this study, we investigated whole seminal bacterial communities and provided the most comprehensive analysis of the association between bacterial community and semen quality. The study significantly contributes to the current understanding of the etiology of male fertility. PMID:25340531

Weng, Shun-Long; Chiu, Chih-Min; Lin, Feng-Mao; Huang, Wei-Chih; Liang, Chao; Yang, Ting; Yang, Tzu-Ling; Liu, Chia-Yu; Wu, Wei-Yun; Chang, Yi-An; Chang, Tzu-Hao; Huang, Hsien-Da




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As-deposited HfO2 films were modified by CHF3, C4F8, and mixed C4F8/O2 plasmas in a dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasma chamber driven by radio frequency generators of 60 MHz as the high frequency (HF) source and 2 MHz as the low frequency source (60/2 MHz). The influences of various surface plasma treatments under CHF3, C4F8, and C4F8/O2 were investigated in order to understand the chemical and structural changes in thin-film systems, as well as their influence on the electrical properties. Fluorine atoms were incorporated into the HfO2 films by either CHF3 or C4F8 plasma treatment; meanwhile, the C/F films were formed on the surface of the HfO2 films. The formation of C/F layers decreased the k value of the gate stacks because of its low dielectric constant. However, the addition of O2 gas in the discharge gases suppressed the formation of C/F layers. After thermal annealing, tetragonal HfO2 phase was investigated in both samples treated with CHF3 and C4F8 plasmas. However, the samples treated with O-rich plasmas showed monoclinic phase, which indicated that the addition of O plasmas could influence the Hf/O ratio of the HfO2 films. The mechanism of the t-HfO2 formation was attributed to oxygen insufficiency generated by the incorporation of F atoms. The capacitors treated with C4F8/O2 plasmas displayed the highest k value, which ascribed that the C/F layers were suppressed and the tetragonal phase of HfO2 was formed. Good electrical properties, especially on the hysteresis voltage and frequency dispersion, were obtained because the bulk traps were passivated by the incorporation of F atoms. However, the H-related traps were generated during the CHF3 plasma treatments, which caused the performance degradation. All the treated samples showed lower leakage current density than the as-deposited HfO2 films at negative bias due to the reduced trap-assisted tunneling by the incorporation of F to block the electrons transferring from metal electrode to the trap level.

Zhang, H. Y.; Jin, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Ye, C.; Zhuge, L. J.; Wu, X. M.



Seminal vesicle abscess following prostate biopsy requiring transgluteal percutaneous drainage.  


Transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy (TRUSB) of the prostate directly contaminates the prostate with rectal flora. Patients commonly receive fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics to prevent infection. Infectious complications following TRUSB are increasing. The most common offending organism is Escherichia coli (E. coli), with isolates of this bacteria showing growing resistance to FQs. We present to our knowledge the first reported case of seminal vesicle abscess formation after TRUSB. The abscess was initially not seen on computed tomography and eventually treated with percutaneous drainage by a transgluteal approach. We review literature on infectious complications following TRUSB with implications for future antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:23783054

Bayne, Christopher E; Davis, William A; Rothstein, Christopher P; Engel, Jason D



Lesions of the Seminal Vesicles and their MRI Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Over the past few decades, MRI of the prostate has made great strides in improving cancer detection and is being embraced by more clinicians each day. This article aims to review the imaging characteristics of common and uncommon, but consequential lesions involving the seminal vesicles (SV), as seen predominantly on MRI. Many of these findings are seen incidentally during imaging of the prostate. Anatomy and embryology of the SV will be described which will help illustrate the associations of abnormalities seen. Congenital, infectious, neoplastic, and tumor mimics will be explored in detail, with discussion on clinical presentation and treatment strategies. PMID:25396077

Reddy, Mahati N; Verma, Sadhna



Effect of semen and seminal amyloid on vaginal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus  

PubMed Central

Background Semen and semen-derived amyloid fibrils boost HIV infection in vitro but their impact on sexual virus transmission in vivo is unknown. Here, we examined the effect of seminal plasma (SP) and semen-derived enhancer of virus infection (SEVI) on vaginal virus transmission in the SIV/rhesus macaque (Macacca mulatta) model. Results A total of 18 non-synchronized female rhesus macaques (six per group) were exposed intra-vaginally to increasing doses of the pathogenic SIVmac239 molecular clone in the presence or absence of SEVI and SP. Establishment of productive virus infection was assessed by measuring plasma viral RNA loads at weekly intervals. We found that the first infections occurred at lower viral doses in the presence of SP and SEVI compared to the control group. Furthermore, the average peak viral loads during acute infection were about 6-fold higher after exposure to SP- and SEVI-treated virus. Overall infection rates after a total of 27 intra-vaginal exposures to increasing doses of SIV, however, were similar in the absence (4 of 6 animals) and presence of SP (5 of 6), or SEVI (4 of 6). Furthermore, the infectious viral doses required for infection varied considerably and did not differ significantly between these three groups. Conclusions Semen and SEVI did not have drastic effects on vaginal SIV transmission in the present experimental setting but may facilitate spreading of virus infection after exposure to low viral doses that most closely approximate the in vivo situation. PMID:24308721



Microbiota of the seminal fluid from healthy and infertile men  

PubMed Central

Objective: To explore potential causes of male infertility by determining the composition and structure of commensal bacterial communities in seminal fluids. Design: Microscopy of gram stained semen samples and classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences to determine the species composition of semen bacterial communities. Setting(s): Clinical andrology laboratory and academic research laboratories. Patient(s): 19 sperm donors and 58 infertility patients. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences, clustering of seminal microbial communities, and multiple statistical tests. Result(s): High numbers of diverse kinds of bacteria were present in most samples of both sperm donors and infertility patients. The bacterial communities varied widely between subjects, but they could be clustered into six groups based on similarities in composition and the rank abundances of taxa. Overall there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients. However, multiple statistical tests showed a significant negative association between sperm quality and the presence of Anaerococcus. The results also indicated that many of the bacterial taxa identified in semen also occur in the vaginal communities of some women, especially those with bacterial vaginosis, which suggests heterosexual sex partners may share bacteria. Conclusion(s): Diverse kinds of bacteria were present in the human semen, there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients, The presence of Anaerococcus might be a biomarker for low sperm quality. PMID:23993888

Hou, Dongsheng; Zhou, Xia; Zhong, Xue; Settles, Matt; Herring, Jessica; Wang, Li; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J.; Xu, Chen



Senile seminal vesicle amyloid is derived from semenogelin I.  


Senile seminal vesicle amyloid (SSVA), one of the most common forms of localized amyloidosis, is associated with the male aging process. Although it had been posited that the amyloidogenic component originated from exocrine cells and that, on the basis of immunohistochemistry, that the amyloid was composed of lactoferrin, the nature of SSVA was never established definitively. To address this issue, we have used our microanalytic techniques to characterize the structure of the congophilic green birefringent protein extracted from 5 such amyloid-containing specimens. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that in all cases, the fibrils were composed mainly of polypeptide fragments identical in sequence to the N-terminal portion of the major secretory product of seminal vesicles, namely semenogelin I (SgI). Although lactoferrin was detected in 3 instances, the trace amount and seemingly intact form of this molecule indicated that it was not the amyloidogenic molecule. The SgI nature of the amyloid was confirmed through demonstration that the deposits were immunostained specifically with Sgl-reactive antibodies. The results of our research provide unequivocal evidence that SSVA is derived from SgI, and we provisionally designate this form of amyloidosis as ASgI. PMID:15962837

Linke, Reinhold P; Joswig, Reinhild; Murphy, Charles L; Wang, Shuching; Zhou, Hui; Gross, Ulrich; Rocken, Christoph; Westermark, Per; Weiss, Deborah T; Solomon, Alan



Seminal Fluid Regulation of Female Sexual Attractiveness in Drosophila melanogaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finding a willing and suitable mate is critical for sexual reproduction. Visual, auditory, and chemical cues aid in locating and/or attracting partners. After mating, females from many insect species become less attractive. This is caused by changes in the quantity and/or quality of pheromones synthesized by the female and to changes in the female's behavior. For example, female insects may stop releasing pheromones, assume a mate refusal posture, or move less in response to males. Many postmating changes in female insects are triggered by seminal fluid proteins from the male's accessory gland proteins (Acps) and by sperm. To determine the role of seminal fluid components in mediating changes in attractiveness, we measured the attractiveness of Drosophila melanogaster females that had been mated to genetically altered males that lack sperm and/or Acps. We found that the drop in female attractiveness occurs in two phases. A short-term drop in attractiveness is triggered independent of the receipt of sperm and Acps. Maintenance of lowered attractiveness is dependent upon sperm.

Tram, Uyen; Wolfner, Mariana F.



Maintenance of a normal meal-induced decrease in plasma ghrelin levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome.  


Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide recently identified in the stomach as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a). Ghrelin is a potent stimulator of GH secretion. It was recently shown that circulating ghrelin levels in humans rise shortly before and fall shortly after every meal, and that ghrelin administration increases voluntary food intake. The hypothesis that ghrelin hypersecretion might contribute to genetic obesity has never been investigated. In this context, Prader-Willi syndrome is the most common form of human syndromic obesity. As ghrelin affects appetite as well as GH secretion and both are abnormal in PWS, it has been surmised that these alterations might be due to ghrelin dysregulation. The aim of the study was to investigate whether ghrelin is suppressed by the meals differently in PWS children than in PWS adults. Overnight circulating fasting ghrelin levels and ghrelin levels 120 min after breakfast were assayed in 7 PWS children (10.2 +/- 1.7 yr), 7 subjects with morbid obesity (10.3 +/- 1.3 yr), and 5 normal controls (8.4 +/- 1.4 yr). Because of the data spread, no statistical difference was observed in fasting ghrelin levels between PWS and control children (p = NS); anyway, fasting ghrelin levels were significantly lower in obese children than in the other groups (p < 0.05 vs. control and PWS children). Ghrelin levels were slightly suppressed by the meal in control subjects (mean fasting ghrelin: 160.2 +/- 82 pg/ml; after the meal, 141.2 +/- 57 pg/ml, p = NS); the meal failed to suppress ghrelin levels in obese children (mean fasting ghrelin: 126.4 +/- 8.5 pg/ml; after the meal, 119.1 +/- 8.3 pg/ml, p = NS). Interestingly, the meal markedly suppressed ghrelin levels in PWS children (mean fasting ghrelin: 229.5 +/- 70.4 pg/ml; after the meal, 155.8 +/- 34.2 pg/ml, p < 0.01). In conclusion, since a lack of decrease in circulating ghrelin induced by the meal was previously reported in PWS adults, the finding of a meal-induced decrease in ghrelin levels in our population of young PWS would imply that the regulation of the ghrelin system involved in the orexigenic effects of the peptide is operative during childhood, although it progressively deteriorates and is absent in adulthood when hyperphagia and obesity progressively worsen. PMID:15057669

Bizzarri, C; Rigamonti, A E; Giannone, G; Berardinelli, R; Cella, S G; Cappa, M; Müller, E E



Yolk sac tumor of the seminal vesicles: A rare malignant cause of hematospermia.  


Extra-gonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare and generally associated with poor outcomes. Involvement of the seminal vesicles is extremely rare with only one previously described case. We report a case of a primary YST of the seminal vesicles and discuss the management strategy. PMID:25657559

Gill, Jonathan D; Bhattarai, Selina; Patel, Chirag N; Paul, Alan B



Seminal-type ribonuclease genes in ruminants, sequence conservation without protein expression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) is an interesting enzyme both for functional and structural reasons. The enzyme is the product of a gene duplication that occurred in an ancestral ruminant. It is possible to demonstrate the presence of seminal-type genes in all other investigated ruminant species, but they are not expressed and show features of pseudogenes. In this paper we report

Reinhard G Kleineidam; Peter A Jekel; Jaap J Beintema; Polmer Situmorang



Male Mating Rate Is Constrained by Seminal Fluid Availability in Bedbugs, Cimex lectularius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual selection, differences in reproductive success between individuals, continues beyond acquiring a mating partner and affects ejaculate size and composition (sperm competition). Sperm and seminal fluid have very different roles in sperm competition but both components encompass production costs for the male. Theoretical models predict that males should spend ejaculate components prudently and differently for sperm and seminal fluid but

Klaus Reinhardt; Richard Naylor; Michael T. Siva-Jothy



Yolk sac tumor of the seminal vesicles: A rare malignant cause of hematospermia  

PubMed Central

Extra-gonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare and generally associated with poor outcomes. Involvement of the seminal vesicles is extremely rare with only one previously described case. We report a case of a primary YST of the seminal vesicles and discuss the management strategy. PMID:25657559

Gill, Jonathan D.; Bhattarai, Selina; Patel, Chirag N.; Paul, Alan B.



Congenital dilation of seminal vesicle with agenesis of ipsilateral kidney: Symptoms and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-specific lower urinary tract symptoms appearing between 18 and 41 years of age, the period of maximal sexual and reproductive activity may be due to the presence of congenital seminal vesicle cyst. We present a case of young man with LUTS, congenital seminal vesicle cyst and ipsilateral renal agenesis.

V. Protogerou; M. Chorti; A. Kostakopoulos



Prevalence of epididymal, seminal vesicle, prostate, and testicular cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To assess the prevalence of cysts in the epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate, and testes of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and determine their clinical significance. Extrarenal cystic involvement is a well-known manifestation of ADPKD. Although a few reports exist about cysts in the epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate, and testes, the true prevalence of cysts in these

Umit Belet; Murat Danaci; ?aban Sarikaya; Ferda Odaba?; Cengiz Uta?; Bülent Tokgöz; Tu?rul Sezer; Tayfun Turgut; Nuri Erdo?an; Tekin Akpolat



Chemical composition of seminal and ovarian fluids of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and their effects on sperm motility traits  

E-print Network

Chemical composition of seminal and ovarian fluids of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha- ), osmolality, and pH of ovarian and seminal fluid of sexually mature chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

Montgomerie, Bob


Elevated 1?h postload plasma glucose levels identify adults with normal glucose tolerance but increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the ability of the proposed diagnostic value of a 1-h OGTT glucose ?155mg/dL to identify individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) diagnosed by ultrasonography in a cohort of adult white individuals. Design The study group comprised 710 white individuals participating to the CATAnzaro MEtabolic RIsk factors (CATAMERI) Study, a cross-sectional study assessing cardio-metabolic risk factors in individuals carrying at least one risk factor including dysglycemia, overweight/obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia. a 75 g oral Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) was performed with 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min sampling for plasma glucose and insulin measurements. Cardio-metabolic risk factors including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were assessed in the whole cohort. Results Of the 710 participants examined, 295 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with 1-hour post-load plasma glucose <155 mg/dL (NGT 1h-low), 109 individuals had NGT 1h-high, 104 had isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and 202 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). As compared with NGT 1h-low, NGT 1h-high and IGT subjects exhibited significantly higher body mass index (BMI), triglycerides, high sensitivity C reactive protein, ALT, GGT, and hepatic insulin resistance (IR), assessed by the liver IR index, as well as lower high density lipoprotein, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels. In a logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and BMI, NGT 1h-high participants had a 1.5-fold increased risk of having NAFLD and an even increased risk was observed in subjects with IGT (1.8-fold), but not in the isolated IFG group (1.01-fold). Conclusions These data suggest that the value of a 1-hour OGTT glucose ?155 mg/dL may be helpful to identify a subset of NGT individuals at risk for NAFLD. PMID:25452862

Sesti, Giorgio; Hribal, Marta Letizia; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco



Male mating rate is constrained by seminal fluid availability in bedbugs, Cimex lectularius.  


Sexual selection, differences in reproductive success between individuals, continues beyond acquiring a mating partner and affects ejaculate size and composition (sperm competition). Sperm and seminal fluid have very different roles in sperm competition but both components encompass production costs for the male. Theoretical models predict that males should spend ejaculate components prudently and differently for sperm and seminal fluid but empirical evidence for independent variation of sperm number and seminal fluid volume is scarce. It is also largely unknown how sperm and seminal fluid variation affect future mating rate. In bedbugs we developed a protocol to examine the role of seminal fluids in ejaculate allocation and its effect on future male mating rate. Using age-related changes in sperm and seminal fluid volume we estimated the lowest capacity at which mating activity started. We then showed that sexually active males allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid volume per mating and predicted that males would be depleted of seminal fluid but not of sperm. We tested (and confirmed) this prediction empirically. Finally, the slightly faster replenishment of seminal fluid compared to sperm did not outweigh the faster decrease during mating. Our results suggest that male mating rate can be constrained by the availability of seminal fluids. Our protocol might be applicable to a range of other organisms. We discuss the idea that economic considerations in sexual conflict research might benefit from distinguishing between costs and benefits that are ejaculate dose-dependent and those that are frequency-dependent on the mating rate per se. PMID:21779378

Reinhardt, Klaus; Naylor, Richard; Siva-Jothy, Michael T



Male Mating Rate Is Constrained by Seminal Fluid Availability in Bedbugs, Cimex lectularius  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection, differences in reproductive success between individuals, continues beyond acquiring a mating partner and affects ejaculate size and composition (sperm competition). Sperm and seminal fluid have very different roles in sperm competition but both components encompass production costs for the male. Theoretical models predict that males should spend ejaculate components prudently and differently for sperm and seminal fluid but empirical evidence for independent variation of sperm number and seminal fluid volume is scarce. It is also largely unknown how sperm and seminal fluid variation affect future mating rate. In bedbugs we developed a protocol to examine the role of seminal fluids in ejaculate allocation and its effect on future male mating rate. Using age-related changes in sperm and seminal fluid volume we estimated the lowest capacity at which mating activity started. We then showed that sexually active males allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid volume per mating and predicted that males would be depleted of seminal fluid but not of sperm. We tested (and confirmed) this prediction empirically. Finally, the slightly faster replenishment of seminal fluid compared to sperm did not outweigh the faster decrease during mating. Our results suggest that male mating rate can be constrained by the availability of seminal fluids. Our protocol might be applicable to a range of other organisms. We discuss the idea that economic considerations in sexual conflict research might benefit from distinguishing between costs and benefits that are ejaculate dose-dependent and those that are frequency-dependent on the mating rate per se. PMID:21779378

Reinhardt, Klaus; Naylor, Richard; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.



Laparoscopic Removal of a Congenital Seminal Vesicle Cyst in Zinner's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Seminal vesicle cysts are rarely diagnosed, but symptomatic congenital seminal vesicle cysts are reported in the literature describing Zinner syndrome. Case Description: We present the case of a 26-year-old patient admitted to the urology department because of abdominal pain. A left seminal vesicle cyst and left kidney agenesis were found on examination, and the patient qualified for laparoscopic removal of the left seminal vesicle cyst. The procedure was performed with transperitoneal access using 5 trocars. The peritoneum was incised between the bladder and the rectum to reveal the left seminal vesicle, which was resected from the surrounding tissue. A TachoSil (Takeda Pharmaceuticals, Zurich, Switzerland) hemostatic sponge was placed in the ledge after cutting the base of the seminal vesicle. Discussion: The aim of this study was to evaluate usefulness of the laparoscopic technique to remove a cystic seminal vesicle. The procedure lasted 180 minutes, and the estimated blood loss was 50 mL. We did not record any intra- or postoperative complications. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the third postoperative day and remains symptom-free after 12 months. Histopathologic examination confirmed the presence of a seminal vesicle cyst, and renal agenesis and stenosis of the vas deferens suggests Zinner syndrome. Symptomatic seminal vesicle cysts are a good indication for the application of a laparoscopic technique and, in our opinion, this is better than the open technique because of the view into the surgical area. Therefore, it should be used as the method of choice in treating seminal vesicle defects. PMID:24960509

Listopadzki, S?awomir; Kowalski, Marek



Selection on the Drosophila seminal fluid protein Acp62F  

PubMed Central

Sperm competition and sexual conflict are thought to underlie the rapid evolution of reproductive proteins in many taxa. While comparative data are generally consistent with these hypotheses, few manipulative tests have been conducted and those that have provided contradictory results in some cases. Here, we use both comparative and experimental techniques to investigate the evolution of the Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid protein Acp62F, a protease inhibitor for which extensive functional tests have yielded ambiguous results. Using between-species sequence comparisons, we show that Acp62F has been subject to recurrent positive selection. In addition, we experimentally evolved populations polymorphic for an Acp62F null allele over eight generations, manipulating the opportunities for natural and sexual selection. We found that the Acp62F null allele increased in frequency in the presence of natural selection, with no effect of sexual selection. PMID:23919141

Wong, Alex; Rundle, Howard



[Case of a laparoscopic seminal vesicle cyst excision].  


A 58-year-old man was referred to our hospital for investigation and treatment of a retrovesical cystic tumor that was detected during his annual health check-up. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a 5 cm cystic mass including a 1.5 cm solid mass between the bladder and rectum. Transrectal biopsy was performed successfully, and did not show any evidence of malignancy. Six months later, the cystic mass enlarged, and video-assisted laparoscopic excision of the cystic mass was performed. The mass was pathologically diagnosed as a seminal vesicle cyst. Because of the rarity of this lesion, only 11 cases of laparoscopic excision have been reported and, to our knowledge, this is the first case in the Japanese literature. Under the laparoscopic prostatectomy approach, we could safely resect the lesion. PMID:19827544

Goto, Takayuki; Sawada, Atsurou; Okinami, Takeshi; Shibasaki, Noboru; Ishitoya, Satoshi; Okumura, Kazuhiro



Gender and single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2R, and SCARB1 are significant predictors of plasma homocysteine normalized by RBC folate in healthy adults.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using linear regression models, we studied the main and two-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma homocysteine normalized by red blood cell...


Hominoid seminal protein evolution and ancestral mating behavior.  


Hominoid mating systems show extensive variation among species. The degree of sexual dimorphism in body size and canine size varies among primates in accordance with their mating system, as does the testes size and the consistency of ejaculated semen, in response to differing levels of sperm competition. To investigate patterns of evolution at hominoid seminal proteins and to make inferences regarding the mating systems of extinct taxa, we sequenced the entire coding region of the prostate-specific transglutaminase (TGM4) gene in human, chimpanzee, bonobo, western lowland gorilla, eastern lowland gorilla, orangutan, and siamang, including multiple humans, chimps, and gorillas. Partial DNA sequence of the coding regions was also obtained for one eastern lowland gorilla at the semenogelin genes (SEMG1 and SEMG2), which code for the predominant proteins in semen. Patterns of nucleotide variation and inferred protein sequence change were evaluated within and between species. Combining the present data with previous studies demonstrates a high rate of amino acid substitutions, and low intraspecific variation, at seminal proteins in Pan, presumably driven by strong sperm competition. Both gorilla species apparently possess nonfunctional TGM4, SEMG1, and SEMG2 genes, suggesting that gorillas have had low sperm competition, and therefore their current polygynous mating system, for a long time before their divergence. Similarly, orangutans show longstanding stasis at TGM4, which may be interpreted as evidence for an unchanging mating system for most of their evolution after their divergence from African apes. In contrast to the great apes, the data from humans could be interpreted as evidence of fluctuations between different mating systems or alternatively as a relaxed functional constraint in these proteins. It is our hope that this study is a first step toward developing a model to predict ancestral mating systems from extant molecular data to complement interpretations from the fossil record. PMID:18561295

Carnahan, Sarah J; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I



Seasonal emission of seminal coagulum and in vivo sperm dynamics in the black-handed spider monkey ( Ateles geoffroyi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ejaculate of diverse primate species consists of two portions, liquid and solid; the latter, known as the seminal coagulum, is thought to sequester large numbers of sperm. In the black-handed spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), ejaculates collected by electroejaculation did not always contain seminal coagulum. The objective of the present study was to determine seasonal emission of seminal coagulum and

L. Hernández-López; A. L. Cerda-Molina; L. D. Páez-Ponce; R. Mondragón-Ceballos



Seminal root morphology and coleoptile length in wild (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) and cultivated (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under drought conditions seminal roots may be more important than nodal roots and plants often reach maturity growing with their seminal roots only. This study was conducted to assess the differences, at an early stage of development, for seminal root characteristics and coleoptile length in three groups of barley germplasm: H. spontaneum, landraces, and modern cultivars. H. spontaneum had an

Stefania Grando; Salvatore Ceccarelli



Multi-element quantification of ancient/historic glasses by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using sum normalization calibration.  


Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for quantitative analysis of ancient/historic glasses is subject to calibration issues which have been addressed in this work. Since ancient/historic glasses have widely ranging matrix compositions, a complementary analysis by an alternative method is generally employed to determine at least one major element which can be used as an internal standard. We demonstrate that such a complementary analysis is unnecessary using a so-called sum normalization calibration technique (mathematically formulated) by simultaneous measurement of 54 elements and normalizing them to 100% [w/w] based on their corresponding oxide concentrations. The crux of this approach is that by assuming a random internal standard concentration of a particular major oxide, e.g. SiO2, the normalization algorithm varies the internal standard concentration until the cumulated concentrations of all 54 elemental oxides reach 100% [w/w]. The fact that 54 elements are measured simultaneously predetermines the laser ablation mode to rastering. Nine glass standards, some replicating historic compositions, were used for calibration. The linearity of the calibration graphs (forced through the origin) represented by the relative standard deviations in the slope were between 0.1 and 6.6% using SiO2 as an internal standard. This allows high-accuracy determination of elemental oxides as confirmed by good agreement between found and reported values for major and minor elemental oxides in some synthetic glasses with typical medieval composition (European Science Foundation 151 and 158). Also for trace elemental concentrations of lanthanides in a reference glass (P&H Developments Ltd. DLH7, a base glass composition with nominally 75 microg g(-1) elements added) accurate data were obtained. Interferences from polyatomic species and doubly charged species on the masses of trace elements are possible, depending on the base composition of the glass, with Ba and Sb glasses showing potential interferences on some lanthanides. We showed that they may be reduced to a great extent by using an Octopole Reaction System although the overall sensitivity decreases which may be a problem for some low-level determinations. PMID:19463554

van Elteren, Johannes T; Tennent, Norman H; Selih, Vid S



Biochemical and steroid concentrations in follicular fluid and blood plasma in different follicular waves of the estrous cycle from normal and superovulated beef cows.  


The objectives of the current study were to (i) define the changes in size and number of follicles populations, (ii) determine the follicular fluid (FF) biochemical and steroid concentrations collected from different-sized follicles (5-9 and ? 10 mm) and (iii) compare between biochemical and hormonal concentrations of FF with those in blood plasma in relation to the first two follicular waves of the estrous cycle (days 4 and 13) from normal and cows primed for superovulation. After estrus, cows (n=20) were assigned randomly to each of four treatment groups. Group 1: ovariectomy on day 4 (day 0 = ovulation). Group 2: FSH treatment and ovariectomy on day 4. Group 3: dominant follicle ablation (DFA) on day 8 and ovariectomy on day 13. Group 4: DFA on day 8, FSH treatment and ovariectomy on day 13. Blood samples were collected and FF was aspirated and pooled per follicle class within cow to determine glucose, urea, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatin phosphokinase, estradiol-17? and progesterone concentrations. Follicular class×follicular wave interaction was detected for albumin and lactate dehydrogenase. Results showed that FF concentrations of cholesterol increased from medium to large follicles and decreased for urea and aspartate aminotransferase. Tryglycerides and total protein were greater in the second than in the first follicular wave. FSH treatment decreased FF alkaline phosphatase, E2 and P4 concentrations. Quantitative differences between these fluids are discussed with respect to follicular development. PMID:24139762

Aller, J F; Callejas, S S; Alberio, R H



A Drosophila seminal fluid protein, Acp26Aa, stimulates egg laying in females for 1 day after mating.  

PubMed Central

Mating triggers behavioral and physiological changes in the Drosophila melanogaster female, including an elevation of egg laying. Seminal fluid molecules from the male accessory gland are responsible for initial behavioral changes, but persistence of these changes requires stored sperm. Using genetic analysis, we have identified a seminal fluid protein that is responsible for an initial elevation of egg laying. This molecule, Acp26Aa, has structural features of a prohormone and contains a region with amino acid similarity to the egg-laying hormone of Aplysia. Acp26Aa is transferred to the female during mating, where it undergoes processing. Here we report the generation and analysis of mutants, including a null, in Acp26Aa. Females mated to male flies that lack Acp26Aa lay fewer eggs than do mates of normal males. This effect is apparent only on the first day after mating. The null mutation has no other detectable physiological or behavioral effects on the male or the mated female. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7479736

Herndon, L A; Wolfner, M F



Reduced Seminal Concentration of CD45pos Cells after Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Treatment in Selected Patients with Idiopathic Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia  

PubMed Central

The present study evaluated the conventional sperm parameters and the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells (pan-leukocyte marker) of infertile patients with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT). The patients were arbitrarily divided into three groups treated with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone FSH: ? (Group A = 20 patients), recombinant FSH-? (Group B = 20 patients), and highly purified human FSH (Group C = 14 patients). All treated groups achieved a similar improvement of the main sperm parameters (density, progressive motility, and morphology), but only the increase in the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology was significant compared to the baseline in all three examined groups. Moreover, all groups had a significant reduction of the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells and of the percentage of immature germ cells. Before and after the treatment, the concentration of CD45pos cells showed a positive linear correlation with the percentage of immature germ cells and a negative correlation with the percentage of spermatozoa with regular morphology. These results demonstrate that treatment with FSH is effective in patients with idiopathic OAT and that there are no significant differences between the different preparations. The novelty of this study is in the significant reduction of the concentration of CD45pos cells observed after the treatment. PMID:24550984

Condorelli, Rosita A.; Calogero, Aldo E.; Vicari, Enzo; Mongioi', Laura; Cannarella, Rossella; Giacone, Filippo; Iacoviello, Linda; Favilla, Vincenzo; La Vignera, Sandro



Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of seminal vesicles: is there a role for relatively aggressive treatment modalities?  


A 50 year old white man received an incidental ultrasound diagnosis of hypoechoic mass interesting the right seminal vesicle. A CT scan showed the presence of a 7.8 cm roundish cyst, originating from the right seminal vesicle. He had been followed by the removal of the right seminal vesicle and both the cystic lesion. The histological findings of the specimen documented the presence of small round cells compatible with Ewing's sarcoma/PPNET. The patient received also adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation treatment. After 10 years, the follow-up is still negative. PMID:25641454

Crestani, Alessandro; Guttilla, Andrea; Gardi, Mario; Gardiman, Marina; Dal Moro, Fabrizio; Valotto, Claudio; Zattoni, Filiberto



Approximating Multivariate Normal Orthant Probabilities. ONR Technical Report. [Biometric Lab Report No. 90-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The probability integral of the multivariate normal distribution (ND) has received considerable attention since W. F. Sheppard's (1900) and K. Pearson's (1901) seminal work on the bivariate ND. This paper evaluates the formula that represents the "n x n" correlation matrix of the "chi(sub i)" and the standardized multivariate normal density…

Gibbons, Robert D.; And Others


Neurophysiological role of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on seminal parameters in diabetic males with and without neuropathy.  


Sildenafil citrate is a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) type-5 and represents a powerful therapy for male erectile and fertility dysfunctions of different etiologies. Present study demonstrates whether sildenafil administration modifies seminal parameters in diabetic neuropathic patients. In this investigation 50 insulin dependent (IDDM) and 50 non insulin dependent (NIDDM) diabetic male patients with and without an objective evidence of neuropathy and 50 age matched non diabetic male controls were selected. Every male had age between 20 to 65 years with duration of diabetes distributed over 1 to 20 years. Treatment with 100 mg of oral sildenafil citrate on seminal parameters was evaluated by semen analysis in these patients. In both IDDM and NIDDM diabetic neuropathic patients, chronic sildenafil treatment exhibited a significant decrease in total sperm output and sperm concentration (p<0.001). On the other hand, sperm motility and semen volume were found to be increased by about 40% and 48% respectively in these patients, where as sperm morphology and quality of sperm motility remained unaffected. However both types of non neuropathic diabetics showed a non significant difference in all the above mentioned parameters when compared with the untreated groups and their respective control subjects. A comparison between IDDM and NIDDM neuropathic and non neuropathic diabetic groups further indicated a non significant difference in all the parameters of semen analysis. These findings suggest a chronic neuro physiological effect of sildenafil treatment on male fertility profile exclusively in diabetic neuropathic condition with an improvement in testicular function which was probably arrested due to some kind of testicular hyperplasia resulted by testicular necrosis and promoted spermatogenesis. Sildenafil seems to be associated with an improvement in the entire smooth musculature of reproductive tract and testicular morphology which was altered due to neuropathy like a reduction in excess accumulation of interstitial collagen and calcification in the smooth muscles of seminiferous tubules which made them rigid leading to atonia of bladder and urethra which resulted in partial or retrograde ejaculation associated with a decreased sperm motility. Sildenafil treatment returned back the spermatogenesis to normal with a positive influence on sperm motility and ejaculate volume in these neuropathic patients irrespective of the type of diabetes. PMID:17337426

Ali, Syed Tabrez; Rakkah, Nabeeh I



Primary squamous cell carcinoma of seminal vesicle: an extremely rare case report with literature review.  


Primary squamous cell carcinoma of seminal vesicle is extremely rare, and most cases regarding seminal vesicle tumors failed to address this kind of tumor. A 54-year-old male patient presented with intermittent painless visual hematuria for 6 months was hospitalized. Ultrasonography, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a 4.4 cm × 3.6 cm × 3.0 cm mixed tumorous lesion in the left seminal vesicle. A transrectal needle biopsy revealed severe chronic inflammation. The mass was completely resected in a laparoscopic approach and was verified as a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in the seminal vesicle by post-surgical histopathological examination. The patient received totally 5 cycles of chemotherapy. A rectal metastasis was detected 7 months after the surgery. PMID:23292510

Wang, Jianzhong; Yue, Xuan; Zhao, Ruining; Cheng, Bochao; Wazir, Romel; Wang, Kunjie



Searching for candidate speciation genes using a proteomic approach: seminal proteins in field crickets  

PubMed Central

In many animals, male seminal proteins influence gamete interactions and fertilization ability and are probably involved in barriers to gene flow between diverging lineages. Here we use a proteomic approach to identify seminal proteins that are transferred to females during copulation and that may be involved in fertilization barriers between two hybridizing field crickets (Gryllus firmus and Gryllus pennsylvanicus). Analyses of patterns of divergence suggest that much of the field cricket genome has remained undifferentiated following the evolution of reproductive isolation. By contrast, seminal protein genes are highly differentiated. Tests of selection reveal that positive selection is likely to be responsible for patterns of differentiation. Together, our observations suggest that some of the loci encoding seminal proteins may indeed play a role in fertilization barriers in field crickets. PMID:18495616

Andrés, Jose A; Maroja, Luana S; Harrison, Richard G



Semin Immunopathol . Author manuscript Obstructive sleep apnea, immuno-inflammation, and atherosclerosis  

E-print Network

sleep disorder leading to cardiovascular and metabolic complications. OSA is also a multicomponentSemin Immunopathol . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Obstructive sleep apnea, immuno Arnaud Abstract Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent

Boyer, Edmond


Ectopic refluxing ureter entering a seminal vesicle cyst associated with ipsilateral renal dysplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unusual case of a 10-month-old infant with an ectopic refluxing ureter entering into a seminal vesical cyst associated\\u000a with ipsilateral renal dysplasia is described. The embryology, differential diagnosis, and therapy are discussed.

J. Steffens; D. Oberschulte-Beckmann; V. Siller; P. Röttger; M. S. Polsky



Seminal transmission of lumpy skin disease virus in heifers.  


It is known that lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) can be shed in bull semen following infection and also that artificial insemination (AI) poses a biosecurity risk. However, it is not known whether the use of LSDV infected semen in AI poses a biosecurity risk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LSDV, transmitted through semen, can infect cows and their embryos. Two controlled trials were performed simultaneously. Eleven young beef heifers, naïve to LSDV, were synchronized using an OvSynch protocol and inseminated on Day 0 with fresh semen spiked with a field strain of LSDV on day 0. Six of the heifers were superovulated on Day 1 using pregnant mare serum gonadotropin, and embryos were flushed from these heifers on Day 6. Blood and serum samples were collected from Day 4 until Day 27 to determine the presence of LSDV by PCR and virus isolation, and the presence of antibodies against LSDV by SNT. The first clinical signs of LSD were noticed on Day 10, followed by severe generalized LSD in three heifers and mild LSD in two more heifers. Two heifers were humanely euthanized due to severe unresponsive stranguria. LSDV was detected by PCR, virus isolation or electron microscopy in blood, embryos and organs of experimentally infected animals; and eight heifers had seroconverted by Day 27. Two control animals were not affected. This is the first report of experimental seminal transmission of LSDV in cattle. PMID:23289592

Annandale, C H; Holm, D E; Ebersohn, K; Venter, E H



Multiple advanced surgical techniques to treat acquired seminal duct obstruction  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of multiple advanced surgical treatments (i.e. microsurgery, laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic surgery) for acquired obstructive azoospermia. We analyzed the surgical outcomes of 51 patients with suspected acquired obstructive azoospermia consecutively who enrolled at our center between January 2009 and May 2013. Modified vasoepididymostomy, laparoscopically assisted vasovasostomy and transurethral incision of the ejaculatory duct with holmium laser were chosen and performed based on the different obstruction sites. The mean postoperative follow-up time was 22 months (range: 9 months to 52 months). Semen analyses were initiated at four postoperative weeks, followed by trimonthly (months 3, 6, 9 and 12) semen analyses, until no sperm was found at 12 months or until pregnancy was achieved. Patency was defined as >10,000 sperm ml?1 of semen. The obstruction sites, postoperative patency and natural pregnancy rate were recorded. Of 51 patients, 47 underwent bilateral or unilateral surgical reconstruction; the other four patients were unable to be treated with surgical reconstruction because of pelvic vas or intratesticular tubules obstruction. The reconstruction rate was 92.2% (47/51), and the patency rate and natural pregnancy rate were 89.4% (42/47) and 38.1% (16/42), respectively. No severe complications were observed. Using multiple advanced surgical techniques, more extensive range of seminal duct obstruction was accessible and correctable; thus, a favorable patency and pregnancy rate can be achieved. PMID:25337841

Jiang, Hong-Tao; Yuan, Qian; Liu, Yu; Liu, Zeng-Qin; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Xiao, Ke-Feng; Yang, Jiang-Gen



Multiple advanced surgical techniques to treat acquired seminal duct obstruction.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of multiple advanced surgical treatments (i.e. microsurgery, laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic surgery) for acquired obstructive azoospermia. We analyzed the surgical outcomes of 51 patients with suspected acquired obstructive azoospermia consecutively who enrolled at our center between January 2009 and May 2013. Modified vasoepididymostomy, laparoscopically assisted vasovasostomy and transurethral incision of the ejaculatory duct with holmium laser were chosen and performed based on the different obstruction sites. The mean postoperative follow-up time was 22 months (range: 9 months to 52 months). Semen analyses were initiated at four postoperative weeks, followed by trimonthly (months 3, 6, 9 and 12) semen analyses, until no sperm was found at 12 months or until pregnancy was achieved. Patency was defined as >10,000 sperm ml?¹ of semen. The obstruction sites, postoperative patency and natural pregnancy rate were recorded. Of 51 patients, 47 underwent bilateral or unilateral surgical reconstruction; the other four patients were unable to be treated with surgical reconstruction because of pelvic vas or intratesticular tubules obstruction. The reconstruction rate was 92.2% (47/51), and the patency rate and natural pregnancy rate were 89.4% (42/47) and 38.1% (16/42), respectively. No severe complications were observed. Using multiple advanced surgical techniques, more extensive range of seminal duct obstruction was accessible and correctable; thus, a favorable patency and pregnancy rate can be achieved. PMID:25337841

Jiang, Hong-Tao; Yuan, Qian; Liu, Yu; Liu, Zeng-Qin; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Xiao, Ke-Feng; Yang, Jiang-Gen



Seasonal variations in seminal characteristics and libido in Angus and Brahman bulls  

E-print Network

OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Animal Science SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN SEMINAL CHARACTERISTICS AND LIBIDO IN ANGUS AND BRAHMAN BULLS A Thesis CARLTON RAY SCOTT Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member...) ( ead of D artment) December 1980 gyg4469 ABSTRACT Seasonal Variations in Seminal Characteristics and Libido in Angus and Brahman Bulls. (December, 1980) Carlton Ray Scott, B. S. (Animal Science), Texas AgP1 University Chairman of Advisory...

Scott, Carlton Ray



Diverse Nitrogen Sources in Seminal Fluid Act in Synergy To Induce Filamentous Growth of Candida albicans.  


The pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is the leading cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). VVC represents a major quality-of-life issue for women during their reproductive years, a stage of life where the vaginal epithelium is subject to periodic hormonally induced changes associated with menstruation and concomitant exposure to serum as well as potential intermittent contact with seminal fluid. Seminal fluid potently triggers Candida albicans to switch from yeastlike to filamentous modes of growth, a developmental response tightly linked to virulence. Conversely, vaginal fluid inhibits filamentation. Here, we used artificial formulations of seminal and vaginal fluids that faithfully mimic genuine fluids to assess the contribution of individual components within these fluids to filamentation. The high levels of albumin, amino acids, and N-acetylglucosamine in seminal fluid act synergistically as potent inducers of filamentous growth, even at atmospheric levels of CO2 and reduced temperatures (30°C). Using a simplified in vitro model that mimics the natural introduction of seminal fluid into the vulvovaginal environment, a pulse of artificial seminal fluid (ASF) was found to exert an enduring potential to overcome the inhibitory efficacy of artificial vaginal fluid (AVF) on filamentation. These findings suggest that a transient but substantial change in the nutrient levels within the vulvovaginal environment during unprotected coitus can induce resident C. albicans cells to engage developmental programs associated with virulent growth. PMID:25662979

Alvarez, Francisco J; Ryman, Kicki; Hooijmaijers, Cornelis; Bulone, Vincent; Ljungdahl, Per O



Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.  


Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F



A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo study of plasma-induced damage of normal incidence collector optics used in extreme ultraviolet lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a kinetic simulation of the plasma formed by photoionization in the intense flux of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) light source. The model is based on the particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo approach. The photoelectric effect and ionization by electron collisions are included. The time evolution of the low density argon plasma is simulated during and after the EUV

R. C. Wieggers; W. J. Goedheer; M. R. Akdim; F. Bijkerk; P. A. Zegeling



Mixed epithelial-stromal tumor (MEST) of seminal vesicle: a proposal for unified nomenclature.  


In contrast to the common tumors of the prostate, seminal vesicle demonstrates low potential for neoplastic proliferation. Of the rare primary seminal vesicle tumors, adenocarcinoma is the most common, but there are also rare seminal vesicle neoplasms which demonstrate epithelial and stromal components. These neoplasms have been described in the literature under various names, including "epithelial-stromal tumor," "cystic epithelial-stromal tumor," "cystadenoma," "cystomyoma," "mesenchymoma," "Müllerian adenosarcoma-like tumor," "phyllodes tumor," and "cystosarcoma phyllodes." The spectrum of reported mixed epithelial-stromal tumors (MEST) of seminal vesicle encompasses low, intermediate and high-grade tumors, but the precise distinction and nomenclature for these tumors remain unsettled. We propose a common nomenclature for these tumors, based on the review of published cases and 2 index cases from our practice, which represent the low-grade category. The first patient was 46 years old and presented with seminal vesicle neoplasm detected on routine rectal examination. The neoplasm measured 4 cm in greatest dimension, and completely replaced the left seminal vesicle. The tumor was circumscribed and consisted of multiple cysts separated by spindle-cell stroma. The second patient was a 60-year-old man, who had an incidental seminal vesicle neoplasm, which was discovered when he underwent a radical prostatectomy for a prostatic adenocarcinoma, (Gleason score 3+4, stage 3a). Both neoplasms contained hypercellular stroma, which was composed of uniform spindle cells, arranged in fascicles and interspersed between the glands. Both tumors lacked worrisome morphology, such as infiltrative borders, cell atypia, increased mitotic activity, hemorrhage, and necrosis. The stromal cells were reactive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, and desmin. The cysts and dilated glands were lined by epithelial cells, which were positive for cytokeratin 7 and were negative for prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific acid phosphatase. The first patient underwent prostatectomy and was alive and without evidence of disease recurrence or progression after 11 years of follow-up. Similarly, the second patient had no evidence of disease recurrence or progression after 8 months of follow-up. We propose that term seminal vesicle "mixed epithelial-stromal tumor" be used to designate the tumors of the seminal vesicle containing epithelial and stromal components, with a distinction of grade based on the histologic features and the biological behavior. Histologic features to be evaluated for grade separation include stromal atypia, mitotic activity, nuclear pleomorphism, and tumor necrosis. Designations "low-grade MEST," "intermediate-grade MEST (uncertain malignant potential)," and "high-grade MEST" of seminal vesicle can be applied to these tumors to better characterize and study them in the future. PMID:25664946

Reikie, Brian A; Yilmaz, Asli; Medlicott, Shaun; Trpkov, Kiril



Early response of wheat seminal roots growing under copper excess.  


Growth reduction caused by copper excess during plant photoautotrophic metabolism has been widely investigated, but information regarding early responses of root apical meristem (RAM) to toxic concentrations of this metal at the initial heterotrophic stage is certainly scarce. We analysed some determinants of seminal root growth in developing wheat seedlings germinated in the presence of 1, 5 and 10 ?M CuCl2, focussing on oxidative damage to cell membrane and to proteins, and investigated the expression patterns of some genes relevant to cell cycle progression and cell expansion. The proliferation zone of the RAM was shorter under 5 and 10 ?M CuCl2. Cyclin D and CDKA levels remained unchanged in the root apexes of wheat seedlings grown under these Cu(2+) concentrations, but more carbonylated levels of both proteins and less ubiquitinated-cyclin D was detected under 10 ?M CuCl2. Increased levels of ROS were revealed by fluorescent probes at this Cu(2+) dose, and severe cell membrane damage took place at 5 and 10 ?M CuCl2. Several genes related to retinoblastome phosphorylation and therefore involved in the transition from G1 to S cell cycle stage were found to be downregulated at 10 ?M CuCl2, while most expansin genes here analysed were upregulated, even at a non-toxic concentration of 1 ?M. These results together with previous findings suggest that a "common" signal which involves oxidative posttranslational modifications of specific cell cycle proteins may be necessary to induce root growth arrest under Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) stress. PMID:25576839

Pena, Liliana B; Méndez, Andrea A E; Matayoshi, Carolina L; Zawoznik, Myriam S; Gallego, Susana M



Mechanisms underlying the inhibition of murine sperm capacitation by the seminal protein, SPINKL.  


SPINKL, a serine protease inhibitor kazal-type-like protein initially found in mouse seminal vesicle secretions, possesses structurally conserved six-cysteine residues of the kazal-type serine protease inhibitor family. However, it has no inhibitory activity against serine proteases. Previously, it was found to have the ability to suppress murine sperm capacitation in vitro. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the suppressive effect of SPINKL on sperm capacitation. Three in vitro capacitation-enhancing agents, including bovine serum albumin (BSA), methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD), and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP), coupled with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), were used to evaluate the influence of SPINKL on capacitation signaling. Preincubation of sperm with SPINKL suppressed BSA- and MBCD-induced sperm capacitation by blocking three upstream signals of capacitation that is the cholesterol efflux from sperm plasma membranes, extracellular calcium ion influx into sperm, and increases in intracellular cAMP. Moreover, SPINKL also inhibited downstream signal transduction of capacitation since it suppressed dbcAMP/IBMX and N(6) -phenyl cAMP (6-Phe-cAMP)-activated cAMP-dependent protein kinase-associated protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Such inhibition is probably mediated by attenuation of SRC tyrosine kinase activity. Furthermore, SPINKL could not reverse capacitation once sperm had been capacitated by capacitation-enhancing agents or capacitated in vivo in the oviduct. SPINKL bound to sperm existed in the uterus but had disappeared from sperm in the oviduct during the sperm's transit through the female reproductive tract. Therefore, SPINKL may serve as an uncapacitation factor in the uterus to prevent sperm from precocious capacitation and the subsequent acrosome reaction and thus preserve the fertilization ability of sperm. PMID:23097296

Tseng, Huan-Chin; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang; Hwu, Yuh-Ming; Lu, Chung-Hao; Lin, Ming-Huei; Li, Sheng-Hsiang



Multiparameter analyses of normal and malignant human plasma cells: CD38 ++ , CD56 + , CD54 + , cIg + is the common phenotype of myeloma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma cells obtained from bone marrow samples of 45 patients with MM, eight patients with MGUS, eight patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia (WM), one patient with immunocytoma, and 12 controls were characterized by immunophenotyping, estimation of DNA content, and labeling index, as well as by morphological analysis. Plasma cells from 37\\/45 myeloma and 5\\/8 MGUS patients expressed CD38 and CD56 (N-CAM)

R. Leo; M. Boeker; D. Peest; R. Hein; R. Bartl; J. E. Gessner; J. Seibach; G. Wacker; H. Deicher



Clarifying Normalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

Carpenter, Donald A.



Assessment of basic seminal characteristics, sperm cryopreservation and heterologous in vitro fertilisation in the fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus).  


Conservation of the fishing cat, a threatened south-east Asian felid, could benefit from effective ex situ genetic management and breeding programmes, including the use of assisted reproduction. The aims of the present study were to: (1) characterise basal seminal traits of fishing cats in Thailand zoos; and (2) investigate the effect of cryopreservation on sperm motility, acrosomal integrity and in vitro function. Seminal traits were evaluated in electroejaculates collected from eight males. Spermatozoa were diluted in n-tris(hydroxymethyl)-methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid Tris (TEST)-yolk buffer (TYB) without glycerol, then diluted further with TYB with glycerol (4% final concentration) at either 25 degrees C or after slow cooling to 5 degrees C and frozen in straws over liquid nitrogen vapour. After thawing, sperm function was assessed by insemination of viable domestic cat oocytes. Fishing cat ejaculates averaged (+/- s.e.m.) 43.6 +/- 14.2 x 10(6) motile spermatozoa with 33.5 +/- 6.8% normal sperm morphology. Semen processing had a negligible effect (P > 0.05) on sperm motility and acrosomal integrity, but values were reduced (P < 0.05) after thawing. All thawed samples fertilised domestic cat oocytes, with 62.1% (36/58) of mature oocytes cleaving. Glycerol addition at 5 degrees C resulted in higher (P < 0.05) post-thaw motility and intact acrosomes than glycerol addition at 25 degrees C. In conclusion, good-quality ejaculates can be obtained from Thai fishing cats and their spermatozoa exhibit adequate function after cryopreservation for in vitro fertilisation procedures. PMID:16554013

Thiangtum, Khongsak; Swanson, William F; Howard, JoGayle; Tunwattana, Wanchai; Tongthainan, Dakara; Wichasilpa, Wisid; Patumrattanathan, Pornchai; Pinyopoommintr, Tanu



Species- and organ-specificity of secretory proteins derived from human prostate and seminal vesicles.  


Polyclonal antibodies against semenogelin (SG) isolated from human seminal vesicle secretion and acid phosphatase (PAP), beta-microseminoprotein (beta-MSP), and Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) derived from human prostatic fluid, as well as a monoclonal antibody against beta-MSP were used for immunocytochemical detection of the respective antigens in different organs from different species. SG immunoreactivity was detected in the epithelium of the pubertal and adult human and in monkey seminal vesicle, ampulla of the vas deferens, and ejaculatory duct. PAP, beta-MSP, and PSA immunoreactivities were detected in the pubertal and adult human prostate and the cranial and caudal monkey prostate. With the exception of a weak PSA immunoreactivity in the proximal portions of the ejaculatory duct, none of the latter antisera reacted with seminal vesicle, ampullary, and ejaculatory duct epithelium. Among the non-primate species studied (dog, bull, rat, guinea pig) only the canine prostatic epithelium displayed a definite immunoreactivity with the PAP antibody and a moderate reaction with the PSA antibody. No immunoreaction was seen in bull and rat seminal vesicle and canine ampulla of the vas deferens with the SG antibody. The same was true for the (ventral) prostate of rat, bull, and dog for beta-MSP. The epithelium of the rat dorsal prostate showed a slight cross-reactivity with the monoclonal antibody against beta-MSP and one polyclonal antibody against PSA. The findings indicate a rather strict species-dependent expression of human seminal proteins which show some similarities in primates, but only marginal relationship to species with different physiology of seminal fluid. PMID:1696713

Aumüller, G; Seitz, J; Lilja, H; Abrahamsson, P A; von der Kammer, H; Scheit, K H




E-print Network

of tfie ion fluorescence was collected by a lens system and imaged onto the photocathode in a Penningtrap undergo a rotation about the symmetry axis of the trap. In thermal equilibrium the rotation sufficientlylong for the ions to evolve to thermal equilibrium. Due to the Iimager Microwave Horn-,, 9 ~ e +Plasma


Drosophila seminal fluid proteins enter the circulatory system of the mated female fly by crossing the posterior vaginal wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seminal fluid proteins from males of many insect species affect the behavior and physiology of their mates. In some cases, these effects result from entry of the proteins into the female's circulatory system. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, some seminal fluid proteins enter the female's circulatory system after transfer from the male while others remain confined within the reproductive

Oliver Lung; Mariana F. Wolfner



Diagnosis and Management of Seminal Vesicle Cysts Associated with Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis: A Pooled Analysis of 52 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Seminal vesicle cysts combined with ipsilateral renal agenesis represent a rare urological anomaly. We searched the literature to review the clinical presentation, diagnosis and therapeutic treatment options of this anomaly. Methods: A pooled analysis was performed of 52 cases of seminal vesicle cysts combined with ipsilateral renal agenesis, including our own observation. The evaluation included: patient age at diagnosis,

D. van den Ouden; J. H. M. Blom; C. Bangma; A. H. V. C. de Spiegeleer



Sexual behavior and seminal characteristics of fertile mature New Zealand White male rabbits of different body weights.  


Body weight in different mammalian species influences reproductive potential. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship of body weight at the time of semen collection with libido, seminal characteristics and number of semen doses for artificial insemination (AI) in New Zealand White mature fertile male rabbits. Data came from 728 semen collections of 14 rabbits, 15-months of age that were sexually experienced with proven semen quality and fertility. Semen collection was performed twice a week with two ejaculates at each collection time and lasted 14 weeks. A second ejaculation was collected at 1-2h after the first. Data from each male from first and second ejaculates from 1 day of semen collection throughout the trial were averaged (n=324) and partial correlation coefficients and regression equations were estimated to describe the relationship of male body weight to ejaculation reaction time and 12 semen and sperm characteristics. As body weight increased there was a linear (P<0.05) increase in reaction time, abnormal sperm with an intact membrane and abnormal sperm with a damaged membrane and a linear (P<0.05) decrease in semen volume, sperm concentration per ejaculate, normal sperm with an intact membrane, number of normal motile sperm with an intact membrane and suitable semen doses for AI. Body weight of the mature male rabbit at semen collection had some influence on libido, semen and sperm characteristics, with a general trend toward a lesser reproduction potential as body weight increases. PMID:25482591

Rodríguez-De Lara, R; Fallas-López, M; García-Muñiz, J G; Martínez-Hernández, P A; Rangel-Santos, R; Maldonado-Siman, E; Cadena-Meneses, J A



Normal Distribution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Generate a graphic and numerical display of the properties of the Normal Distribution. For a unit normal distribution, with M=0 and SD=�±1, enter 0 and 1 at the prompt. For a distribution with M=100 and SD=�±15, enter 100 and 15. And so forth

Lowry, Richard, 1940-


Effect of systemic inflammation on level of ferritin seminal in chronic renal male patient undergoing hemodialysis  

PubMed Central

Background Most hemodialysis patients present with chronic systemic inflammation characterized by the elevation of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and/or the production of proinflammatory interleukins by the immune system in response to the hemodialysis process. Plasma ferritin(PF) is one of the parameters used to correct anemia. An PF level of >500 ng/mL is not recommended for correction of anemia because of the uncertainty of whether these levels are elevated because of anemia or a mere reaction to inflammation. we aimed to study the effects of inflammation on seminal ferritin (SF) levels and hypothesized that SF is not affected because of the testicular immune privilege. Methods A prospective prevalence study was conducted at the Department of Hemodialysis of the University Hospital of Brasília (HuB) between June 2010 and July 2011. The sample included 60 chronic renal patients undergoing hemodialysis and 20 control subjects from the health promotion general outpatient clinic. All participants were males aged 18–60 years. Inflammation was assessed through serum CRP levels, and the testicular condition was determined by measuring sex hormone levels. In the patient group, inflammation was considered to be present when CRP was >5 mg/L (n?=?27) and absent when CRP was ?5 mg/L (n?=?33). Control group (n?=?20) CRP was ?1 mg/L. Blood and semen were collected via arm venoclysis and after voluntary masturbation, respectively. CRP was measured by turbidimetry; PF, SF, and sex hormone levels by immunochemoluminescence. Statistical significance was set at p?



Evaluation of Three Rapid Detection Methods for the Forensic Identification of Seminal Fluid in Rape Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to discover whether spermatozoa concentration and the delay between ejaculation and test influence the results of seminal fluid fast detection tests. Two hundred and twenty-seven anonymous samples divided into four groups (normospermia, oligospermia, azoospermia, and controls) after a semen analysis were subjected to three fast detection semen tests: Diff-Quick R ? fast coloration, Phosphatesmo Km Paper R ?

Nadia Khaldi; Alain Miras; Koffi Botti; Larbi Benali; Sophie Gromb



Immunosuppressive effect of bovine seminal ribonuclease on a model of corneal transplantation in rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

• Background: Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS RNase) was determined to have a specific suppressive effect on the proliferation of T lymphocytes in vitro. Its immunosuppressive effect was proven in skin grafting in mice as well. • Methods: The immunosuppressive effect of BS RNase was evaluated in tissue cultures and on a model of corneal transplantation in rabbits. The penetration of

Martin Filipec; Zdenka Hašková; Kate?ina Havrlíková; Erik Letko; Vladimír Holá?; Josef Matoušek; Ivan Kalousek



Cross-generational fitness benefits of mating and male seminal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many species, the physical act of mating and exposure to accessory gland proteins (Acps) in male seminal fluid reduces female survival and offspring production. It is not clear what males gain from harming their sexual partners or why females mate frequently despite being harmed. Using sterile strains of Drosophila melanogaster that differ in their production of Acps, we found

Nicholas K. Priest; Deborah A. Roach; Laura F. Galloway



Origin of the catalytic activity of bovine seminal ribonuclease against double-stranded RNA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bovine seminal ribonuclease (RNase) binds, melts, and (in the case of RNA) catalyzes the hydrolysis of double-stranded nucleic acid 30-fold better under physiological conditions than its pancreatic homologue, the well-known RNase A. Reported here are site-directed mutagenesis experiments that identify the sequence determinants of this enhanced catalytic activity. These experiments have been guided in part by experimental reconstructions of ancestral RNases from extinct organisms that were intermediates in the evolution of the RNase superfamily. It is shown that the enhanced interactions between bovine seminal RNase and double-stranded nucleic acid do not arise from the increased number of basic residues carried by the seminal enzyme. Rather, a combination of a dimeric structure and the introduction of two glycine residues at positions 38 and 111 on the periphery of the active site confers the full catalytic activity of bovine seminal RNase against duplex RNA. A structural model is presented to explain these data, the use of evolutionary reconstructions to guide protein engineering experiments is discussed, and a new variant of RNase A, A(Q28L K31C S32C D38G E111G), which contains all of the elements identified in these experiments as being important for duplex activity, is prepared. This is the most powerful catalyst within this subfamily yet observed, some 46-fold more active against duplex RNA than RNase A.

Opitz, J. G.; Ciglic, M. I.; Haugg, M.; Trautwein-Fritz, K.; Raillard, S. A.; Jermann, T. M.; Benner, S. A.



Fructolysis effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (leaves) in seminal vesicles of rat.  


50% ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (leaves) has been found to reduce the fructose synthesis in seminal vesicles; as a result of which the viability of spermatozoa seems to be altered. Fertility testing revealed sterile matings till 30 days of last treatment. PMID:1844325

Mathur, R



Psoriatic arthritis associated with adult polycystic kidney disease, seminal vesicle, and epididymal cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with seminal vesicle and epididymal cysts are mostly asymptomatic. To date, only one patient presenting with bloody ejaculate and acute scrotum has been reported. Different extrarenal manifestations and the association of adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD) with some connective tissue diseases are known. We report on a 60-year-old male patient with bloody ejaculate and acute scrotum who had been

Mehmet Riza Altiparmak; Ömer Nur? Pamuk; Tayfur Topta?; Gülsüm Emel Pamuk; Rezzan Ataman; Kam?l Serdengeçt?



Influence of Seminal Vesiculectomy on Certain Physical and Biochemical Properties of Bovine Semen[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A study was designed to investigate some of the changes in bovine semen characteristics following the extirpation of the seminal vesicles of four young bulls. Ejaculates from each bull were pooled on each collection day until a minimum of 5 nil. of semen was obtained. The pooling of ejaculates of each bull was necessitated by the number of tests

E. A. Hess; T. M. Ludwick; R. C. Martig; F. Ely



Effects of seminal vesicle fluid components on sperm motility in the house mouse.  


Fluid obtained by stripping dissected seminal vesicles was mixed with phosphate-buffered saline and the soluble proteins were separated by gel filtration on BioRad P150 into 4 fractions. Fractions were collected and concentrated using an Amicon ultrafiltration system using YM2 membranes with a molecular weight cut-off of 1000. Epididymal sperm suspensions were incubated in medium containing one of the 4 fractions or 1 mg BSA/ml, or no added protein. After incubation for 2 h the motility of the spermatozoa in each suspension was assessed by a videomicrographic procedure. Two aspects of motility, velocity and the shape of the swimming path, were monitored. The results indicate that the seminal vesicles produce at least three factors that influence sperm motility. Fraction 3 (Mr 12,000-24,000) was detrimental to motility; after incubation for 2 h almost all the spermatozoa were immotile. Fractions 2 (Mr 25,000-40,000) and 4 (Mr 7000-12,000) both influenced the shape of the swimming path: spermatozoa incubated in Fraction 2 had straighter trajectories while those incubated in Fraction 4 showed more progressive paths with less side-to-side movement of the head about the path. These effects of factors from the seminal vesicle fluid on sperm motility may influence the way in which the spermatozoa move in the female reproductive tract and could help to explain why removal of the seminal vesicles reduces fertility in the mouse. PMID:3397934

Peitz, B



Seminal fluid promotes in vitro sperm-oviduct binding in the domestic cat (Felis catus).  


From many endangered or threatened species which are expected to profit from assisted reproduction techniques, mainly epididymal sperm of dead or freshly castrated males are available. These sperm had contact to epididymal secretion products but not to seminal fluid components. Notably, products of accessory sex glands have been shown in domestic animals to condition sperm for fertilization, in particular by mediating sperm-oviduct interaction. We report for the first time that motile epididymal sperm from domestic cats are able to bind to fresh oviduct epithelial cell explants from preovulatory females (median [min, max] of 10 [8, 16] and 10 [8, 17] sperm per 0.01 mm(2) explant surface from both isthmic and ampullar regions, respectively). More sperm attach to the explants when epididymal sperm were preincubated for 30 minutes with seminal fluid separated from electroejaculates of mature tomcats (median [min, max] of 17 [13, 25] and 16 [12, 21] sperm per 0.01 mm(2) explant surface from isthmus and ampulla, respectively). The proportion of bound sperm increased from a median of 54% to 62% by seminal fluid treatment. Sperm-oviduct binding could be facilitated by the decelerated sperm motion which was observed in seminal fluid-treated samples or supported by seminal fluid proteins newly attached to the sperm surface. Seminal fluid had no effect on the proportion of sperm with active mitochondria. Extent and pattern of sperm interaction in vitro were independent of explant origin from isthmus or ampulla. Sperm were attached to both cilia and microvilli of the main epithelial cell types present in all explants. In contrast to published sperm-binding studies with porcine and bovine oviduct explants where predominantly the anterior head region of sperm was attached to ciliated cells, the tails of some cat sperm were firmly stuck to the oviduct cell surfaces, whereas the heads were wobbling. Whether this response is a preliminary step toward phagocytosis or a precondition to capacitation and fertilization remains to be determined. In conclusion, treatment of epididymal sperm with seminal fluid or particular protein components should be considered in future investigations for its potential to improve the outcome of artificial insemination in felids. PMID:25735636

Henry, F; Eder, S; Reynaud, K; Schön, J; Wibbelt, G; Fontbonne, A; Müller, K



Copulation without seminal expulsion: the consequence of sexual satiation and the Coolidge effect.  


The studies of sexual satiety in male rats under the Coolidge effect indicate that males reassume copulation until ejaculation. Recently, it was demonstrated that sexually satiated males preserve the motor patterns of intromission and ejaculation, also penile erection, but not seminal expulsion. The first aim was to investigate if penile erections displayed by sexually satiated males dislodge the seminal plugs from the vagina and its effect on sperm transcervical transport. The second aim was to determine the recovery time of seminal expulsion after sexual satiety and its optimal ability to induce pregnancy. Results show that during the Coolidge effect males were able to dislodge the seminal plugs deposited by others (experiment 1A) disturbing the sperm transport (experiment 1B) then interfering with pregnancy (experiment 1C). After satiation, the ejaculate parameters recover slowly: it starts after 10 days with the seminal plug formation, and continues with an increase in sperm count in the uterus 15 days post-satiety (experiment 2). Sexually satiated males impregnated only 28% of the females during 15 days of cohabitation, whereas, satiated males that rested for 15 days impregnated 89% of the females (experiment 3). We concluded that males with successive ejaculations remain potential rivals, because they may disrupt the sperm transport of other males. The ejaculate features recovery after sexual satiety is gradual, begins with the secretions of the sex accessory glands and is followed by the sperm count. Full fertility recovery is reached after 15 days of sexual abstinence when males are able to impregnate most females. PMID:24677685

Lucio, R A; Rodríguez-Piedracruz, V; Tlachi-López, J L; García-Lorenzana, M; Fernández-Guasti, A



The Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid protease "seminase" regulates proteolytic and post-mating reproductive processes.  


Proteases and protease inhibitors have been identified in the ejaculates of animal taxa ranging from invertebrates to mammals and form a major protein class among Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid proteins (SFPs). Other than a single protease cascade in mammals that regulates seminal clot liquefaction, no proteolytic cascades (i.e. pathways with at least two proteases acting in sequence) have been identified in seminal fluids. In Drosophila, SFPs are transferred to females during mating and, together with sperm, are necessary for the many post-mating responses elicited in females. Though several SFPs are proteolytically cleaved either during or after mating, virtually nothing is known about the proteases involved in these cleavage events or the physiological consequences of proteolytic activity in the seminal fluid on the female. Here, we present evidence that a protease cascade acts in the seminal fluid of Drosophila during and after mating. Using RNAi to knock down expression of the SFP CG10586, a predicted serine protease, we show that it acts upstream of the SFP CG11864, a predicted astacin protease, to process SFPs involved in ovulation and sperm entry into storage. We also show that knockdown of CG10586 leads to lower levels of egg laying, higher rates of sexual receptivity to subsequent males, and abnormal sperm usage patterns, processes that are independent of CG11864. The long-term phenotypes of females mated to CG10586 knockdown males are similar to those of females that fail to store sex peptide, an important elicitor of long-term post-mating responses, and indicate a role for CG10586 in regulating sex peptide. These results point to an important role for proteolysis among insect SFPs and suggest that protease cascades may be a mechanism for precise temporal regulation of multiple post-mating responses in females. PMID:22253601

LaFlamme, Brooke A; Ram, K Ravi; Wolfner, Mariana F



The Drosophila melanogaster Seminal Fluid Protease “Seminase” Regulates Proteolytic and Post-Mating Reproductive Processes  

PubMed Central

Proteases and protease inhibitors have been identified in the ejaculates of animal taxa ranging from invertebrates to mammals and form a major protein class among Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid proteins (SFPs). Other than a single protease cascade in mammals that regulates seminal clot liquefaction, no proteolytic cascades (i.e. pathways with at least two proteases acting in sequence) have been identified in seminal fluids. In Drosophila, SFPs are transferred to females during mating and, together with sperm, are necessary for the many post-mating responses elicited in females. Though several SFPs are proteolytically cleaved either during or after mating, virtually nothing is known about the proteases involved in these cleavage events or the physiological consequences of proteolytic activity in the seminal fluid on the female. Here, we present evidence that a protease cascade acts in the seminal fluid of Drosophila during and after mating. Using RNAi to knock down expression of the SFP CG10586, a predicted serine protease, we show that it acts upstream of the SFP CG11864, a predicted astacin protease, to process SFPs involved in ovulation and sperm entry into storage. We also show that knockdown of CG10586 leads to lower levels of egg laying, higher rates of sexual receptivity to subsequent males, and abnormal sperm usage patterns, processes that are independent of CG11864. The long-term phenotypes of females mated to CG10586 knockdown males are similar to those of females that fail to store sex peptide, an important elicitor of long-term post-mating responses, and indicate a role for CG10586 in regulating sex peptide. These results point to an important role for proteolysis among insect SFPs and suggest that protease cascades may be a mechanism for precise temporal regulation of multiple post-mating responses in females. PMID:22253601

LaFlamme, Brooke A.; Ravi Ram, K.; Wolfner, Mariana F.



Normal Distribution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students adjust the standard deviation and sample size of a normal distribution to see how it will affect a histogram of that distribution. This activity allows students to explore the effect of changing the sample size in an experiment and the effect of changing the standard deviation of a normal distribution. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.



Comparative metabolites in plasma and urine of normal and type 2 diabetic rats after oral administration of the traditional Chinese scutellaria-coptis herb couple by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  


Scutellaria-coptis herb couple is widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in treating type 2 diabetes; however, the in vivo integrated metabolism of its main bioactive components in type 2 diabetic rats remains unknown. In this paper, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) and the MetaboLynx™ software combined with mass defect filtering (MDF) together provided unique high throughput capabilities for drug metabolism study with excellent MS mass accuracy and enhanced MS(E) data acquisition. This rapid automated analysis method was successfully applied for screening and identification of the absorbed and metabolized constituents after oral administration of scutellaria-coptis extract to rats. The results showed that a total of 14 metabolites of two parent compounds were detected and tentatively identified in vivo based on the characteristics of their protonated ions. Main parent components of scutellaria-coptis extract such as baicalin and berberine were absorbed into the blood circulation of the rats. Differences of metabolite classes were not observed between normal and type 2 diabetic rat plasma and urine samples. However, the concentrations of baicalin and methylated berberine in type 2 diabetic rat plasma were much higher than those in normal sample. While, the concentrations of these two compounds in type 2 diabetic rat urine were remarkably lower than those in normal sample. This helped maintain a high blood drug concentration which might be beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Additionally, the developed method was simple and reliable, revealing that it could be used to rapid screen and propose the structures of active components responsible for pharmacological effects of scutellaria-coptis and to better clarify its action mechanism. This work suggests that the integrative metabolism approach makes a useful template for drug metabolism research of TCMs. PMID:24976485

Jiang, Shu; Xu, Jun; Qian, Da-Wei; Shang, Er-Xin; Liu, Pei; Su, Shu-Lan; Leng, Xue-Jiao; Guo, Jian-Ming; Duan, Jin-Ao; Du, Leyue; Zhao, Min



Motility and plasma membrane integrity of spermatozoa in fractionated stallion ejaculates after storage.  


With the aim of investigating properties of stallion seminal plasma to eventually improve semen-handling techniques, sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity were analysed in different fractions of the ejaculates after storage. Semen was collected using a computer-controlled automated phantom that separates the ejaculates into five successive cups. Samples containing seminal plasma and skim milk extender were compared with samples stored in skim milk extender after the removal of seminal plasma by centrifugation. Fractionated ejaculates were stored cooled for 24 h after dilution with extender (Expt 1) or frozen in liquid nitrogen (Expt 2). In Expt 1, cup 1 was pre-sperm fluid, cups 2 and 3 sperm-rich fractions, and cup 4 sperm-poor fractions. In Expt 2, cups 1 and 2 were sperm-rich fractions, and cups 3 and 4 sperm-poor fractions. One sample (WE) represented the whole ejaculate in both experiments. Motility parameters were determined with a Hamilton-Thorn Motility Analyzer, and plasma membrane integrity was assessed using carboxyfluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide staining and fluorescence microscopy. The removal of seminal plasma lowered motility values, but not plasma membrane integrity, in both experiments. No significant differences between cups were observed after cooled storage. The cups differed significantly in most post-thaw motility parameters, and the sperm-rich fraction showed higher post-thaw motility than the whole ejaculate. PMID:16420325

Kareskoski, A M; Reilas, T; Andersson, M; Katila, T



The Value of Prostate MRI with Endorectal Coil in Detecting Seminal Vesicle Involvement in Patients with Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: In prostate cancer, detection of seminal vesicle involvement is important because it influences the treatment planning and prognosis of the patients. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the value of prostate MRI with endorectal coil in the detection of seminal vesicle involvement in patients with prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: A total number of 238 biopsy-proven prostate cancer patients were examined by 1.5 Tesla MRI with a combination of pelvic and endorectal coils to detect seminal vesicle involvement. After radical prostatectomy, the MRI results were compared with pathology results. Results: Seminal vesicle involvement was detected in 67 (28.1%) patients. Pathology confirmed the involvement of seminal vesicles by prostate cancer in 63 patients. In two patients, seminal vesicle involvement was diagnosed by pathology but not detected by MRI. The sensitivity was 0.97 [95% confidence interval = 0.89-0.99], the specificity was 0.98 [95% confidence interval = 0.94-0.99], the positive predictive value was 0.94 [95% confidence interval = 0.85-0.98], and the negative predictive value was 0.99 [95% confidence interval = 0.96-0.99]. Conclusions: MRI with endorectal coil is a valuable imaging technique with suitable accuracy in detecting seminal vesicle involvement in prostate cancer.

Ghafoori, Mahyar; Alavi, Manijeh; Shakiba, Madjid; Hoseini, Kamal



Multivariate normality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sets of experimentally determined or routinely observed data provide information about the past, present and, hopefully, future sets of similarly produced data. An infinite set of statistical models exists which may be used to describe the data sets. The normal distribution is one model. If it serves at all, it serves well. If a data set, or a transformation of the set, representative of a larger population can be described by the normal distribution, then valid statistical inferences can be drawn. There are several tests which may be applied to a data set to determine whether the univariate normal model adequately describes the set. The chi-square test based on Pearson's work in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is often used. Like all tests, it has some weaknesses which are discussed in elementary texts. Extension of the chi-square test to the multivariate normal model is provided. Tables and graphs permit easier application of the test in the higher dimensions. Several examples, using recorded data, illustrate the procedures. Tests of maximum absolute differences, mean sum of squares of residuals, runs and changes of sign are included in these tests. Dimensions one through five with selected sample sizes 11 to 101 are used to illustrate the statistical tests developed.

Crutcher, H. L.; Falls, L. W.



Receipt of seminal fluid proteins causes reduction of male investment in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.  


Mating partners often have conflicting interests when copulating. One of the major agents affecting female mating partners is seminal fluid, transferred along with sperm. The role of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) in reproductive success is well studied in separate-sexed animals but is much less so in simultaneous hermaphrodites. The latter potentially have a unique target to exploit for the sperm donor's own benefit: the male function of their mating partners. Here we show that, in the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, receipt of specific SFPs reduces both sperm transfer and paternity success in a subsequent insemination event. Lowering investment in the mating partner's male function constitutes a novel role for SFPs. This demonstrates for the first time that hermaphrodites alter their mates' male as well as female reproductive output. Although it remains to be tested whether this represents mate manipulation or an adaptive response of recipients, our findings identify male investment as a new target for postcopulatory sexual selection. PMID:24684934

Nakadera, Yumi; Swart, Elferra M; Hoffer, Jeroen N A; den Boon, Onno; Ellers, Jacintha; Koene, Joris M



Perceptual effects of linguistic category priming: The Stapel and Semin (2007) paradigm revisited in twelve experiments.  


Linguistic category priming is a novel paradigm to examine automatic influences of language on cognition (Semin, 2008). An initial article reported that priming abstract linguistic categories (adjectives) led to more global perceptual processing, whereas priming concrete linguistic categories (verbs) led to more local perceptual processing (Stapel & Semin, 2007). However, this report was compromised by data fabrication by the first author, so that it remains unclear whether or not linguistic category priming influences perceptual processing. To fill this gap in the literature, the present article reports 12 studies among Dutch and US samples examining the perceptual effects of linguistic category priming. The results yielded no evidence of linguistic category priming effects. These findings are discussed in relation to other research showing cultural variations in linguistic category priming effects (IJzerman, Saddlemyer, & Koole, 2014). The authors conclude by highlighting the importance of conducting and publishing replication research for achieving scientific progress. PMID:25703607

IJzerman, Hans; Regenberg, Nina F E; Saddlemyer, Justin; Koole, Sander L



Sexual behavior in the bull: assessment by seminal vesicle size and response to gonadotropin releasing hormone  

E-print Network

. , 1987). The use of ultrasonography to assess male reproductive function has been limited. Studies of the genital organs and/or accessory sex glands of the stallion (Little and Woods, 1987; Weber and Woods, 1989), boar (Cartee et al. , 1980) and ram...SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE BULL: ASSESSMENT BY SEMINAL VESICLE SIZE AND RESPONSE TO GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE A Thesis by ANTONIO MADUREIRA ROCHA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment...

Rocha, Antonio Madureira



Primary isolated echinococcal cyst of the seminal vesicle: A rare case  

PubMed Central

Hydatid disease of the organs other than liver and lung is extremely rare. Although hydatid disease is endemic in India, we report a rare case of hydatid cyst in a young male primarily involving the seminal vesicle and aim to highlight the management of such cases. A 23 year old male farmer diagnosed with primary isolated echinococcal cyst of the seminal vesicle has been presented. Thorough investigations with radiological methods such as ultrasonography (abdominal and trans-rectal), and magnetic resonance imaging were carried out to aid in the diagnosis. Surgical excision of the lesion was carried out with careful removal of the cyst to prevent any bursting and spillage, leaving the seminal vesicle preserved. The cystic lesion was subjected to histopathological examination. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid disease. Postoperative period was uncomplicated and patient was discharged on seventh postoperative day. Patient was put on albendazole (10 mg/kg/day) for three cycles of 21 days each with a gap of one week between each cycle. There was no evidence of recurrence or development of cysts elsewhere in the body during the 2 year follow-up. Hydatid cyst of seminal vesicle is rare and should be kept in differential diagnosis of a cystic lesion in pelvis especially in regions where hydatid disease is endemic. Proper surgical and medical management to avoid any recurrences, and a regular follow-up, are of utmost importance to detect any late complications such as local recurrence of the disease and development of hydatidosis at the primary sites. PMID:22629014

Mushtaque, Majid; Mir, Mohammad Farooq; Nazir, Parvez; Khan, Parwez Sajad



[Advances in the study of Semenogelin I from human seminal vesicles].  


Sperm acquires capacity of motility and fertility during the process of semen coagulation and liquefaction. The main coagulative protein is Semenogelin I (Sg I), specifically produced by seminal vesicles, and then decomposed by prostate specific antigens (PSA) in sperm liquefaction into a series of small fragments. These fragments, with a variety of physiological functions, are very important for the regulation of sperm capacity acquisition and progressive movement. PMID:19472915

Su, Shi-Feng; Wang, Zeng-Jun



Fine structure of the deferent duct and the seminal vesicle of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'estudi ultrastructural de les cèl?lules que formen els tres trams anatomies del conducte deferent demostra el seu caire secretor. I efectivament, les cèl?lules epitelials \\u000apresenten un reticle endoplasmàtic rugós molt desenvolupat, nombrosos dictiosomes alhora que dues poblacions de mitocondris.
\\u000aLa riquesa d'estructures vesículo-membranoses minva a mesura que ens apropem a la vesícula seminal. Existeix, com és lògic, un paral?lelisme entre

Mercè Durfort i Coll; Montserrat Poquet i Miquel; Maria Gràcia Bozzo Duran



New sialoglycoprotein from rat seminal vesicle and its association with semen coagulum  

SciTech Connect

By radiolabeling using NaIO4/(/sup 3/H)KBH4, a new sialoglycoprotein with Mr of 19,000 was found in the secretion of rat seminal vesicle. It was shown to interact non-covalently with semen coagulum. It existed in three acidic forms with pI values of 4.1, 3.7 and 2.9 and possessed high contents of sialic acids and acidic amino acids.

Limpaseni, T.; Chulavatnatol, M.



The effects of breed and season on seminal quality of young Angus and Brahman bulls  

E-print Network

, respectively. The Angus bulls also had larger vesicular glands (P&. 05), and produced larger volumes of semen (P&. 05), higher sperm concentration (P&. . 05), lower percentages of' abaxial spermatozoa (P&. 05), and lower percentages of lost acrosomes (P..., abnormal, loosened, and damaged acrosomes, percent live spermatozoa, and semen score (all P&. 01), Vesicular glands volume, seminal volume, total secondary abnormalities, proximal cytoplasmic droplets, and lost acrosomes were significant at the 5 fo...

Romo, Salvador



Evaluation of MHS5 in detecting seminal fluid in vaginal swabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaginal swabs taken in 211 cases of alleged sexual assault were examined for seminal vesicle-specific antigen (SVSA) using an MHS-5-ELISA (SEMA kit). The results were compared with those obtained by sperm detection by means of light microscopy and the acid phosphatase reaction (ACP), using Phosphatesmo-KM papers. Especially in fresher samples (duration of storage between 10 days and 2 1\\/2 months),

W. Keil; J. Bachus; H. D. Tröger



Multi-scale feature learning on pixels and super-pixels for seminal vesicles MRI segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a learning-based approach to segment the seminal vesicles (SV) via random forest classifiers. The proposed discriminative approach relies on the decision forest using high-dimensional multi-scale context-aware spatial, textual and descriptor-based features at both pixel and super-pixel level. After affine transformation to a template space, the relevant high-dimensional multi-scale features are extracted and random forest classifiers are learned based on the masked region of the seminal vesicles from the most similar atlases. Using these classifiers, an intermediate probabilistic segmentation is obtained for the test images. Then, a graph-cut based refinement is applied to this intermediate probabilistic representation of each voxel to get the final segmentation. We apply this approach to segment the seminal vesicles from 30 MRI T2 training images of the prostate, which presents a particularly challenging segmentation task. The results show that the multi-scale approach and the augmentation of the pixel based features with the super-pixel based features enhances the discriminative power of the learnt classifier which leads to a better quality segmentation in some very difficult cases. The results are compared to the radiologist labeled ground truth using leave-one-out cross-validation. Overall, the Dice metric of 0:7249 and Hausdorff surface distance of 7:0803 mm are achieved for this difficult task.

Gao, Qinquan; Asthana, Akshay; Tong, Tong; Rueckert, Daniel; Edwards, Philip "Eddie"



Comparison of plasma levels of cytokines and in vitro generation of reactive oxygen species after nicotine infusion in nicotine users with normal and impaired renal function.  


Several in vitro and animal studies suggest effects of nicotine on the immune system, but little evidence exists regarding the in vivo immunomodulation of nicotine in humans. The increased use of nicotine replacement therapy to aid smoking cessation claims further understanding of how nicotine affects blood leukocytes. This is of particular importance when nicotine therapy is used in diseases associated with alterations of the immune system, such as chronic renal failure. The present study evaluates the acute effects of nicotine infusion (NI) on some immunoregulatory functions in seven healthy subjects and seven patients with renal failure. All subjects were nicotine users and had refrained from using nicotine for 36 h before NI. Blood was collected before, immediately after, and 2 h after NI. Plasma concentrations of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and the cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-10, interferon-gamma and RANTES were measured using specific immunoassays. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), Ristocetin, adenosine 5'-diphosphate, or collagen was registered in whole blood as luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Except for fMLP, these compounds induce leukocyte ROS generation by platelet mediated mechanisms. NI did not significantly affect the levels of the cytokines and ICAM-1 in any group. The peak and the persistent ROS production, induced by collagen and Ristocetin, was lower at some time points in patients with renal failure as compared to healthy subjects. Also in patients with renal failure, both peak height and persistent ROS generation induced by Ristocetin were reduced immediately after NI. Thus, nicotine inhibits some of the platelet-mediated activation of leukocyte ROS generation, and may be associated with platelet defects in renal failure. PMID:12784908

Whiss, Per A; Bengtsson, Torbjörn; Larsson, Rutger



Control of impurities in toroidal plasma devices  


A method and apparatus for plasma impurity control in closed flux plasma systems such as Tokamak reactors is disclosed. Local axisymmetrical injection of hydrogen gas is employed to reverse the normally inward flow of impurities into the plasma.

Ohkawa, Tihiro (La Jolla, CA)



Cortisol Binding in Uremic Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured cortisol binding to albumin in uremic plasma during a study to see if increased morning plasma free cortisol values, reported previously in chronic renal failure patients, could be explained by binding abnormalities of plasma proteins. Cortisol binding was measured in plasma from chronic renal failure patients and compared to values in normal controls. The unbound and albumin-bound fractions

Paul M. Rosman; Renrick Benn; Martin Kay; Eleanor Z. Wallace



Multiple effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and on vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility  

SciTech Connect

Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine and 5-HT reuptake largely used in the management of obesity. Although a fairly safe drug, postmarketing adverse effects of sibutramine were reported including abnormal ejaculation in men. This study investigates the effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility. Adult male rats received sibutramine (5; 20; or 50 mg kg{sup -1}, ip) and after 60 min were exposed to receptive females for determination of ejaculation parameters. The vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles of untreated rats were mounted in isolated organ baths for recording of isometric contractions and HEK293 cells loaded with fluorescent calcium indicator were used to measure intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transients. Sibutramine 5 and 20 mg kg{sup -1} reduced ejaculation latency whereas 50 mg kg{sup -1} increased ejaculation latency. Sibutramine 3 to 30 {mu}M greatly increased the sensitivity of the seminal vesicle and vas deferens to norepinephrine, but at concentrations higher than 10 {mu}M there were striking depressions of maximal contractions induced by norepinephrine, carbachol and CaCl{sub 2}. In HEK293 cells, sibutramine 10 to 100 {mu}M inhibited intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transients induced by carbachol. Depending on the doses, sibutramine either facilitates or inhibits ejaculation. Apart from its actions in the central nervous system, facilitation of ejaculation may result from augmented sensitivity of smooth muscles to norepinephrine while reductions of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} may be involved in the delayed ejaculation observed with high doses of sibutramine.

Nojimoto, Fernanda D.; Piffer, Renata C.; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo de A. [Department of Pharmacology, Instituto de Biociencias, UNESP, Botucatu, SP 18618000 (Brazil); Lameu, Claudiana; Camargo, Antonio C.M. de [Center for Applied Toxinology-CAT/CEPID, Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pereira, Oduvaldo C.M. [Department of Pharmacology, Instituto de Biociencias, UNESP, Botucatu, SP 18618000 (Brazil); Pupo, Andre S. [Department of Pharmacology, Instituto de Biociencias, UNESP, Botucatu, SP 18618000 (Brazil)], E-mail:



The Mozart effect: questions about the seminal findings of Rauscher, Shaw, and colleagues.  


Seminal evidence for the Mozart effect was presented by Rauscher, Shaw, and colleagues in 1993 and 1994. A critical evaluation of their methodologies and interpretation of findings raises questions that must be answered before this evidence can be regarded as valid. We discuss issues such as their scoring of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, the experimental design used in their 1993 study, the validity of their 1993 IQ measure, the duration of the Mozart effect, their choice of experimental tasks in relation to predictions of the trion model of neural functioning, and the statistical analyses and interpretation of results in the 1993 and 1994 studies. PMID:15141902

Fudin, Robert; Lembessis, Elizabeth



An Odorant-Binding Protein Is Abundantly Expressed in the Nose and in the Seminal Fluid of the Rabbit  

PubMed Central

We have purified an abundant lipocalin from the seminal fluid of the rabbit, which shows significant similarity with the sub-class of pheromone carriers “urinary” and “salivary” and presents an N-terminal sequence identical with that of an odorant-binding protein (rabOBP3) expressed in the nasal tissue of the same species. This protein is synthesised in the prostate and found in the seminal fluid, but not in sperm cells. The same protein is also expressed in the nasal epithelium of both sexes, but is completely absent in female reproductive organs. It presents four cysteines, among which two are arranged to form a disulphide bridge, and is glycosylated. This is the first report of an OBP identified at the protein level in the seminal fluid of a vertebrate species. The protein purified from seminal fluid is bound to some organic chemicals whose structure is currently under investigation. We reasonably speculate that, like urinary and salivary proteins reported in other species of mammals, this lipocalin performs a dual role, as carrier of semiochemicals in the seminal fluid and as detector of chemical signals in the nose. PMID:25391153

Niccolini, Alberto; Serra, Andrea; Gazzano, Angelo; Scaloni, Andrea; Pelosi, Paolo



Seminal fluid characterization for male fertility and prostate cancer: kallikrein-related serine proteases and whole proteome approaches.  


The kallikrein-related ( KLK) protease gene family encodes a subgroup of 15 serine proteases that includes prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or KLK3, the well-known biomarker for prostate cancer. PSA is also a major component of seminal fluid. To date, 10 other KLK serine proteases have been documented as present in seminal fluid (KLKs 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 13, and 14) and, like PSA, have the potential to contribute to male fertility, either directly or indirectly, by means of their proteolytic activity on seminal coagulum proteins. These KLK enzymes arise predominantly from the glandular epithelium of the prostate and are secreted into the lumen of the prostatic ducts that empty into the urethra upon ejaculation. Given their prostatic origin, they are also being considered increasingly as diagnostic/prognostic targets for prostate cancer. This article reviews the literature on seminal fluid PSA and more recent reports on the detection of other KLKs enzymes in this milieu, and their potential roles in male fertility and prostate cancer. We also discuss recent efforts to determine the proteomic profile of seminal fluid to identify new biomarkers for prostate disease. PMID:17253195

Veveris-Lowe, Tara L; Kruger, Sarah J; Walsh, Terry; Gardiner, Robert A; Clements, Judith A



Sperm Bundles in the Seminal Vesicles of Sexually Mature Lasius Ant Males  

PubMed Central

In many insects, sperm cells are produced in bundles with their heads being held together by a glycoprotein matrix secreted by a cyst cell. Mature sperm cells in the seminal vesicles are usually free, but in sawflies and several other insects, such structures (spermatodesmata) remain intact and sperm cells may be ejaculated as bundles. Here we report the occurrence of spermatodesmata in mature males of the ant Lasius pallitarsis. Microscopic investigations of the abdominal contents of males immediately prior to their nuptial flights showed that the anterior ends of numerous sperm cells were embedded in an oval-shaped 20 by 30 micrometer extracellular fibrous cap. Individual sperm ranged in length from 55 to 75 micrometers with an average overall length of 65 micrometers. The bulb-shaped heads of the sperm were relatively small, only about 1.5 micrometers in length and about 1.1 micrometers in diameter. The diameter of the sperm tails was approximately 1 micrometer. Observations of live preparations of the spermatodesmata showed increasingly active undulating wave-like movement of the sperm tails as the slide preparations aged. This appears to be the first case of sperm bundles being present in the seminal vesicles of mature ant males – males that are immediately poised to complete their nuptial mating flight. PMID:24671307

Burnett, William E.; Heinze, Jürgen



Percentage change of FSH value: new variable to predict the seminal outcome after varicocelectomy.  


In the literature, there is no good agreement with variables to predict seminal outcome after varicocelectomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the FSH percentage change (?% FSH) as a predictor of the seminal outcome after varicocelectomy together with other known predictors. We evaluated 118 patients who underwent varicocelectomy. We assessed factors that could be predictors of the improvement of semen characteristics: LH, FSH, total and free testosterone before operation, testis volume, age, testicular pain, body mass index (BMI), ?% FSH, varicocele Doppler ultrasound grade using regression analysis. Mean sperm concentration increased from 27 ± 12 to 52 ± 15 million per ml post-operatively (P < 0.003), mean sperm motility increased from 31 ± 12 to 40 ± 13 million per ml following the operation (P < 0.02), also mean FSH value changed from 10.2 ± 8.3 to 6.7 ± 7.2 UI/L (P < 0.01). In unvaried regression analysis, ?% FSH, BMI and age were predictors of the improvement of semen characteristics. In multiple regression analysis, only ?% FSH and age were predictors. Negative correlation with age and positive correlation with ?% FSH were observed. Our findings suggest that ?% FSH (before and after varicocelectomy) and age are significant factors predicting the improvement of semen characteristics. PMID:24698207

Cantoro, U; Catanzariti, F; Lacetera, V; Quaresima, L; Giovanni, M; Polito, M



Ion transport in seminal and adventitious roots of cereals during O2 deficiency.  


O(2) deficiency during soil waterlogging inhibits respiration in roots, resulting in severe energy deficits. Decreased root-to-shoot ratio and suboptimal functioning of the roots, result in nutrient deficiencies in the shoots. In N(2)-flushed nutrient solutions, wheat seminal roots cease growth, while newly formed adventitious roots develop aerenchyma, and grow, albeit to a restricted length. When reliant on an internal O(2) supply from the shoot, nutrient uptake by adventitious roots was inhibited less than in seminal roots. Epidermal and cortical cells are likely to receive sufficient O(2) for oxidative phosphorylation and ion transport. By contrast, stelar hypoxia-anoxia can develop so that H(+)-ATPases in the xylem parenchyma would be inhibited; the diminished H(+) gradients and depolarized membranes inhibit secondary energy-dependent ion transport and channel conductances. Thus, the presence of two transport steps, one in the epidermis and cortex to accumulate ions from the solution and another in the stele to load ions into the xylem, is important for understanding the inhibitory effects of root zone hypoxia on nutrient acquisition and xylem transport, as well as the regulation of delivery to the shoots of unwanted ions, such as Na(+). Improvement of waterlogging tolerance in wheat will require an increased capacity for root growth, and more efficient root functioning, when in anaerobic media. PMID:20847100

Colmer, Timothy David; Greenway, Hank



Intraluminal occlusion of the seminal duct by laser and Histoacryl: Two non-invasive alternatives for vasectomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction and objective: Vasectomy is a well-established method in family control. Even though it is a safe and low risk operation, this surgery is invasive and difficult to reverse. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate new non-invasive methods for occlusion of the seminal duct. Material and Methods: Seminal duct tissue was obtained from patients (n=30) suffering from prostate cancer and therefore undergoing prostatectomy. In a first set of experiments, the seminal duct was occluded by intraluminal application of Histoacryl® (Braun Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany). In a 2nd set of experiments, endoluminal laser induced occlusion was performed. Four different laser wavelengths (1940nm, 1470nm, 1064nm, 940nm) and different sets of laser parameters (e.g. power, exposure duration, fibre diameter, energy applied) were compared. Effectiveness of occlusion of the seminal duct was proven by post-treatment irrigation flow measurement, as well as by morphological analyses. To evaluate a potential damage of the surrounding tissue, external temperature was measured using a thermometer during laser application. Results: Intraluminal application of Histoacryl® induced an immediate and complete occlusion of the seminal duct. The underlying connective tissue maintained its functional integrity after this treatment. By laser light application to a Histoacryl® block, a hole could be created into the block thus indicating the possibility of recanalization. Treatment with laser energy resulted in shrinkage of the ductal lumen. The laser application generally caused necrosis in the epithelium and induced formation of vacuoles in the underlying connective tissue. As described for endoluminal varicose treatment, this distinct local reaction might result in an intense inflammation leading to a functional occlusion of the vas deferens. Conclusions: Both laser-induced occlusion and application of Histoacryl® are fast and simple techniques which may be able to achieve a functional occlusion of the seminal duct. The application of Histoacryl® additionally may be easily reversible by laser treatment.

Freitag, B.; Sroka, R.; Koelle, S.; Becker, A. J.; Khoder, W.; Pongratz, T.; Stief, C. G.; Trottmann, M.



Multiple recognition assay reveals prostasomes as promising plasma biomarkers for prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Prostasomes are microvesicles (mean diameter, 150 nm) that are produced and secreted by normal and malignant prostate acinar cells. It has been hypothesized that invasive growth of malignant prostate cells may cause these microvesicles, normally released into seminal fluid, to appear in interstitial space and therewith into peripheral circulation. The suitability of prostasomes as blood biomarkers in patients with prostate cancer was tested by using an expanded variant of the proximity ligation assay (PLA). We developed an extremely sensitive and specific assay (4PLA) for detection of complex target structures such as microvesicles in which the target is first captured via an immobilized antibody and subsequently detected by using four other antibodies with attached DNA strands. The requirement for coincident binding by five antibodies to generate an amplifiable reporter results in both increased specificity and sensitivity. The assay successfully detected significantly elevated levels of prostasomes in blood samples from patients with prostate cancer before radical prostatectomy, compared with controls and men with benign biopsy results. The medians for prostasome levels in blood plasma of patients with prostate cancer were 2.5 to sevenfold higher compared with control samples in two independent studies, and the assay also distinguished patients with high and medium prostatectomy Gleason scores (8/9 and 7, respectively) from those with low score (?6), thus reflecting disease aggressiveness. This approach that enables detection of prostasomes in peripheral blood may be useful for early diagnosis and assessment of prognosis in organ-confined prostate cancer. PMID:21555566

Tavoosidana, Gholamreza; Ronquist, Gunnar; Darmanis, Spyros; Yan, Junhong; Carlsson, Lena; Wu, Di; Conze, Tim; Ek, Pia; Semjonow, Axel; Eltze, Elke; Larsson, Anders; Landegren, Ulf D.; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood



Rate of molecular evolution of the seminal protein gene SEMG2 correlates with levels of female promiscuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

in mammals, particularly primates, showed that, owing to greater sperm competition, polyandrous taxa generally have physiological traits that make them better adapted for fertilization than monandrous species, including bigger testes, larger seminal vesicles, higher sperm counts, richer mitochondrial loading in sperm and more prominent semen coagulation2,5-8. Here, we show that the degree of polyandry can also impact the dynamics of

Steve Dorus; Patrick D Evans; Gerald J Wyckoff; Sun Shim Choi; Bruce T Lahn



Premature Ejaculation – Dose and Duration Dependent Effect of Fluoxetine: A Histological Study on Seminal Vesicle of Albino Rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Fluoxetine is a prototype drug of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Its active demethylated metabolite has a half life of 7-10 d. Fluoxetine is used to treat depression and is also prescribed in premature ejaculation. Aim: In the present study dose and duration dependent effects of Fluoxetine on histology of seminal vesicle of the albino rats were observed. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 36 adult male albino rats. Fluoxetine was administered intraperitoneally for 2 wk, 4 wk and 12 wk with mild (10mg/kg/day), moderate (20mg/kg/day) and severe doses (40mg/kg/day). Histological slides of Seminal vesicle were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Results: On examination through the light microscope, the proliferation of primary, secondary and tertiary villi, increased crypt/alveoli, increased thickness of lamina propria, decreased epithelial cell height, metaplasia, changes in the amount of luminal eosinophilic secretory material in the form of scanty secretion in lumen of seminal vesicle. Conclusion: Low doses for long duration and high doses for short duration of Fluoxetine produce histological changes in seminal vesicle of albino rats. PMID:25386416

Jethani, SL; Rohatagi, RK; Kalra, Juhi



Sperm and seminal fluid proteomes of the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus: identification of novel proteins transferred to females at mating.  


Reproductive proteins are amongst the most evolutionarily divergent proteins known, and research on genetically well-characterized species suggests that postcopulatory sexual selection might be important in their evolution; however, we lack the taxonomic breadth of information on reproductive proteins that is required to determine the general importance of sexual selection for their evolution. We used transcriptome sequencing and proteomics to characterize the sperm and seminal fluid proteins of a cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, that has been widely used in the study of postcopulatory sexual selection. We identified 57 proteins from the sperm of these crickets. Many of these had predicted function in glycolysis and metabolism, or were structural, and had sequence similarity to sperm proteins found across taxa ranging from flies to humans. We identified 21 seminal fluid proteins, some of which resemble those found to be involved in postmating changes to female reproduction in other species. Some 27% of sperm proteins and 48% of seminal fluid proteins were of unknown function. The characterization of seminal fluid proteins in this species will allow us to explore their adaptive significance, and to contribute comparative data that will facilitate a general appreciation of the evolution of reproductive proteins within and among animal taxa. PMID:23211034

Simmons, L W; Tan, Y-F; Millar, A H



In the 1950s, seminal electron microscopy studies led to the canonical view of mitochondria as bean-shaped  

E-print Network

In the 1950s, seminal electron microscopy studies led to the canonical view of mitochondria as bean-shaped organelles. These studies revealed the ultrastructural hallmarks of mitochondria, which include double lipid for the fact that the mitochondrial structure is highly dynamic1,2 . Mitochondria have drastically different

Chan, David



EPA Science Inventory

TIME-DEPENDENT EFFECTS ON GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT SEMINAL VESICLE DEVELOPMENTALLY ALTERED BY IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO TCDD. V M Richardson', J T Hamm2, and L S Birnbaum1. 'USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, 'Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, ...


PII S0361-9230(99)00124-0 cAMP and memory: A seminal lesson from Drosophila  

E-print Network

] BACKGROUND Uncovering the molecular and cellular nature of learning and memory is perhaps one of the most farPII S0361-9230(99)00124-0 cAMP and memory: A seminal lesson from Drosophila and Aplysia Alcino J a critical role in learning and memory processes. Because molecular neurobiology currently permeates almost

Silva, Alcino


A new Stygarctus (Arthrotardigrada: Stygarctidae) from Japan, with entangled seminal receptacle ducts.  


Stygarctus ayatori sp. nov. (Arthrotardigrada: Stygarctidae), is described from a sandy beach located at Okinoshima, Tateyama Bay, Boso Peninsula, Honshu, Japan. The most prominent characters were observed in the female genital structure, with the seminal receptacle ducts forming a three-dimensional entanglement near the exterior opening, and internal thickening situated peripheral to the gonopore and between the gonopore and anus. The new species is distinguished from the congeners by these characters; excluding S. abornatus McKirdy et al., 1976 for which there is no information on the genital structure. However, S. ayatori sp. nov. and S. abornatus can be differentiated by the presence of dorsal spines on the former species, which are absent from the latter. PMID:24872047

Fujimoto, Shinta



Seminal vesicles and diabetic neuropathy: ultrasound evaluation after prolonged treatment with a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor.  


We have previously reported that infertile patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a particular ultrasound features of the seminal vesicles (SV) characterized by higher fundus-to-body ratio and lower pre- and post-ejaculatory difference in body antero-posterior diameter (APD). Based on these premises the aim of the present study was to investigate possible ultrasound SV changes in infertile patients with DM and diabetic neuropathy (DN), after prolonged administration of tadalafil (TAD) (a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor). To accomplish this, 20 infertile patients with symptomatic DN and erectile dysfunction were selected and arbitrarily divided into two groups which were assigned to: daily administration of 5 mg TAD for 3 months (Group A) (n = 10) and administration of placebo (Group B) (n = 10). All patients underwent to scrotal and prostate-vesicular transrectal ultrasound evaluation and semen analysis (Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen, WHO, 2010) before and after treatment. The following SV US parameters were recorded: (i) body APD; (ii) fundus APD; (iii) parietal thickness of the right and left SVs; and (iv) number of polycyclic areas within both SVs. We then calculated the following parameters: (i) fundus/body (F/B) ratio; (ii) difference of the parietal thickness between the right and the left SV and (iii) pre- and post-ejaculatory APD difference. In addition, we also evaluated the SV ejection fraction. Group A patients showed a significant reduction in F/B ratio and higher pre- and post-ejaculatory body SV APD difference compared with baseline or Group B after 3 months. These patients showed also a significant increase in SV ejection fraction and a significant improvement of the total sperm count, progressive motility, seminal levels of fructose, leucocytes and ejaculate volume. In conclusion, these results suggest that infertile DM patients with DN and erectile dysfunction had an improvement of ultrasound features suggestive of diabetic neuropathy after daily treatment with low doses of TAD. PMID:23413137

La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R A; Vicari, E; Lotti, F; Favilla, V; Morgia, G; Maggi, M; Calogero, A E



Variability in prostate and seminal vesicle delineations defined on magnetic resonance images, a multi-observer, -center and -sequence study  

PubMed Central

Background The use of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a part of preparation for radiotherapy is increasing. For delineation of the prostate several publications have shown decreased delineation variability using MR compared to computed tomography (CT). The purpose of the present work was to investigate the intra- and inter-physician delineation variability for prostate and seminal vesicles, and to investigate the influence of different MR sequence settings used clinically at the five centers participating in the study. Methods MR series from five centers, each providing five patients, were used. Two physicians from each center delineated the prostate and the seminal vesicles on each of the 25 image sets. The variability between the delineations was analyzed with respect to overall, intra- and inter-physician variability, and dependence between variability and origin of the MR images, i.e. the MR sequence used to acquire the data. Results The intra-physician variability in different directions was between 1.3 - 1.9 mm and 3 – 4 mm for the prostate and seminal vesicles respectively (1 std). The inter-physician variability for different directions were between 0.7 – 1.7 mm and approximately equal for the prostate and seminal vesicles. Large differences in variability were observed for individual patients, and also for individual imaging sequences used at the different centers. There was however no indication of decreased variability with higher field strength. Conclusion The overall delineation variability is larger for the seminal vesicles compared to the prostate, due to a larger intra-physician variability. The imaging sequence appears to have a large influence on the variability, even for different variants of the T2-weighted spin-echo based sequences, which were used by all centers in the study. PMID:23706145



Lipid and phospholipid fatty acid composition of plasma, red blood cells, and platelets and how they are affected by dietary lipids: a study of normal subjects from Italy, Finland, and the USA1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot study was conducted of males 40-45 years old from rural areas of three countries to study the long-term efects of dietary fats on the lipids of plasma, red blood cells (RBCs), and platelets. Differences were observed in cholesterol and phospholipid levels of plasma. Total phospholipids of RBCs and platelets were similar in all three countries. The pattern of

Rita M Dougherty; Anna Ferro-Luzzi; James M Jacono


Dihydroisoxazole inhibitors of Anopheles gambiae seminal transglutaminase AgTG3  

PubMed Central

Background Current vector-based malaria control strategies are threatened by the rise of biochemical and behavioural resistance in mosquitoes. Researching mosquito traits of immunity and fertility is required to find potential targets for new vector control strategies. The seminal transglutaminase AgTG3 coagulates male Anopheles gambiae seminal fluids, forming a ‘mating plug’ that is required for male reproductive success. Inhibitors of AgTG3 can be useful both as chemical probes of A. gambiae reproductive biology and may further the development of new chemosterilants for mosquito population control. Methods A targeted library of 3-bromo-4,5-dihydroxoisoxazole inhibitors were synthesized and screened for inhibition of AgTG3 in a fluorescent, plate-based assay. Positive