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Sample records for normal sleep circuitry

  1. Unraveling a new circuitry for sleep regulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Targa, Adriano D S; Rodrigues, Lais S; Noseda, Ana Carolina D; Aurich, Mariana F; Andersen, Monica L; Tufik, Sergio; da Cunha, Cláudio; Lima, Marcelo M S

    2016-09-01

    Sleep disturbances are among the most disabling non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal ganglia are likely involved in these dysfunctions, as they are affected by neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease and have a role in sleep regulation. To investigate this, we promoted a lesion in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus or substantia nigra pars compacta of male rats, followed by 24 h of REM sleep deprivation. Then, we administrated a dopaminergic D2 receptor agonist, antagonist or vehicle directly in the striatum. After a period of 24 h of sleep-wake recording, we observed that the ibotenic acid infusion in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus blocked the so-called sleep rebound effect mediated by REM sleep deprivation, which was reversed by striatal D2 receptors activation. Rotenone infusion in the substantia nigra pars compacta also blocked the sleep rebound, however, striatal D2 receptors activation did not reverse it. In addition, rotenone administration decreased the time spent in NREM sleep, which was corroborated by positive correlations between dopamine levels in both substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum and the time spent in NREM sleep. These findings suggest a new circuitry for sleep regulation in Parkinson's disease, involving the triad composed by pedunculopontine nucleus, substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum, evidencing a potential therapeutic target for the sleep disturbances associated to this pathology. PMID:27091486

  2. Pre-sleep behaviour in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Ellis; Lemmens; Parkes

    1995-12-01

    Behaviour in the 2-h period before sleep onset was evaluated in 90 subjects with normal sleep/wake habits using an anonymous self-report questionnaire. This determined the timing of events from the initial preparation for sleep. The nature of the pre-sleep environment, the level of physical activity, and patterns of feeding behaviour were recorded together with self-ratings of tiredness, mood and security. Estimated sleep duration and sleep quality were determined. Ninety of 120 subjects responded. Sleep 'preparatory latency', from the time of initial sleep preparation to sleep onset, was 77 +/- 48 min; bed time to sleep onset time (sleep latency) was 41 +/- 42 min; lights out to sleep onset latency was 26 +/- 45 min. The estimated total sleep time was 7 +/- 1 h. In the pre-sleep period, mean noise and illumination levels were low and environmental temperature rating was at the median point on a very cold-very hot scale (mean scale scores: 23, 28 and 50, respectively). All subjects went to the bathroom before going to bed. Twenty-five percent of normal subjects had a snack or meal in the 2-h period before sleep onset. Sixty percentage recorded setting an alarm, 27% had a bath or shower, 23% checked door locks or windows and 49% read in bed. Nine percent of subjects slept with a cat on the bed. Humans, like other animal species, show a complex behavioural sequence in the 2-h period before falling asleep. A constant environment with limited metabolic activity may predispose to thermoregulatory changes prior to sleep onset. PMID:10607159

  3. A global quantification of "normal" sleep schedules using smartphone data.

    PubMed

    Walch, Olivia J; Cochran, Amy; Forger, Daniel B

    2016-05-01

    The influence of the circadian clock on sleep scheduling has been studied extensively in the laboratory; however, the effects of society on sleep remain largely unquantified. We show how a smartphone app that we have developed, ENTRAIN, accurately collects data on sleep habits around the world. Through mathematical modeling and statistics, we find that social pressures weaken and/or conceal biological drives in the evening, leading individuals to delay their bedtime and shorten their sleep. A country's average bedtime, but not average wake time, predicts sleep duration. We further show that mathematical models based on controlled laboratory experiments predict qualitative trends in sunrise, sunset, and light level; however, these effects are attenuated in the real world around bedtime. Additionally, we find that women schedule more sleep than men and that users reporting that they are typically exposed to outdoor light go to sleep earlier and sleep more than those reporting indoor light. Finally, we find that age is the primary determinant of sleep timing, and that age plays an important role in the variability of population-level sleep habits. This work better defines and personalizes "normal" sleep, produces hypotheses for future testing in the laboratory, and suggests important ways to counteract the global sleep crisis. PMID:27386531

  4. Cerebral blood flow in normal and abnormal sleep and dreaming

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hata, T.; Karacan, I.

    1987-07-01

    Measurements of regional or local cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the xenon-133 inhalation method and stable xenon computerized tomography CBF (CTCBF) method were made during relaxed wakefulness and different stages of REM and non-REM sleep in normal age-matched volunteers, narcoleptics, and sleep apneics. In the awake state, CBF values were reduced in both narcoleptics and sleep apneics in the brainstem and cerebellar regions. During sleep onset, whether REM or stage I-II, CBF values were paradoxically increased in narcoleptics but decreased severely in sleep apneics, while in normal volunteers they became diffusely but more moderately decreased. In REM sleep and dreaming CBF values greatly increased, particularly in right temporo-parietal regions in subjects experiencing both visual and auditory dreaming.

  5. Cardiovascular and respiratory dynamics during normal and pathological sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penzel, Thomas; Wessel, Niels; Riedl, Maik; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Rostig, Sven; Glos, Martin; Suhrbier, Alexander; Malberg, Hagen; Fietze, Ingo

    2007-03-01

    Sleep is an active and regulated process with restorative functions for physical and mental conditions. Based on recordings of brain waves and the analysis of characteristic patterns and waveforms it is possible to distinguish wakefulness and five sleep stages. Sleep and the sleep stages modulate autonomous nervous system functions such as body temperature, respiration, blood pressure, and heart rate. These functions consist of a sympathetic tone usually related to activation and to parasympathetic (or vagal) tone usually related to inhibition. Methods of statistical physics are used to analyze heart rate and respiration to detect changes of the autonomous nervous system during sleep. Detrended fluctuation analysis and synchronization analysis and their applications to heart rate and respiration during sleep in healthy subjects and patients with sleep disorders are presented. The observed changes can be used to distinguish sleep stages in healthy subjects as well as to differentiate normal and disturbed sleep on the basis of heart rate and respiration recordings without direct recording of brain waves. Of special interest are the cardiovascular consequences of disturbed sleep because they present a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders such as arterial hypertension, cardiac ischemia, sudden cardiac death, and stroke. New derived variables can help to find indicators for these health risks.

  6. Elicitation of sleep-onset REM periods in normal individuals using the sleep interruption technique (SIT).

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Tomoka; Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Murphy, Timothy I

    2002-11-01

    Use of the sleep interruption technique (SIT) to elicit sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs) in normal individuals is introduced along with its theoretical bases, empirical findings, and potential applications. Capitalizing upon the circadian and ultradian nature of REM sleep, the SIT has been developed to examine various psychophysiological characteristics related to REM sleep. The SIT allows us to: (1) obtain SOREMPs at the discretion of the researcher; (2) avoid the contaminating effects of preceding non-REM (NREM)-REM stage ordering on subsequent target sleep episodes; and (3) obtain many REM episodes in a short time by repeating the sleep interruptions. The SIT has been applied in several studies, such as examination of physiological precursors to REM periods, correlates of dream mechanisms, and induction of sleep paralysis in normal individuals. Guidelines for eliciting SOREMP using the SIT, including the parameters to be manipulated, are provided, e.g. NREM duration before sleep interruption, time of night of awakenings, duration of sleep interruption and tasks employed. Directions for further research such as determining optimal type of task to promote SOREMP occurrences, generalization of SOREMP as usual REM periods, and forms of SOREMP occurrences under different conditions in normal individuals and clinical patients are discussed. Finally, possible future uses of the SIT, including combining this technique with new technologies, are also suggested. PMID:14592142

  7. [Unusual behaviors in sleep as "compensatory" reactions, aimed at normalizing sleep-alertness cycles].

    PubMed

    Gol'bin, A Ts; Guzeva, V I; Shepoval'nikov, A N

    2013-01-01

    The present article is an attempt to perform a conceptual clinical and physiological analysis of a large spec- trum of sleep-related phenomena called parasomnias in children, based on data from three independent in- stitutions. Parasonmias appear in the process of falling asleep, at the time of sleep stage changes, and upon awakening. They are common for both healthy children and those with neurological and psychiatric disorders. Brief descriptions of clinical pictures of several groups of parasomnias and their polysomnographic characteristics are presented. Instances of stereotyped rhythmic movements (e.g. head rocking), paroxysmal somatic and behavioral episodes (night terrors and nightmares), "static" phenomena (sleep with open eyes, strange body positions), as well as somnambulism are specifically described. Common features of parasomnias as a group have been identified (the "Parasomnia syndrome"). It was found that sleep architecture frequently normalizes after a parasomnia episode, whereas parasomnias are self-liquidated after sleep matures (self-cure). The significance of gender differences in parasomnias have been reviewed. Possible compensatory physiological functions of parasomnias acting as "switches" or "stabilizers" of sleep stages to "off-set" deviated or immature sleep-wake mechanisms were discussed. PMID:25509175

  8. Self-reported consistency of normal habitual sleep durations of college students.

    PubMed

    Hicks, R A; Pellegrini, R J; Hawkins, J; Moore, J D

    1978-10-01

    A relationship between hours of sleep/night and the consistency of this normal daily sleep duration was observed for 763 college students who had rated themselves as good sleepers with stable and fairly well established patterns of sleep. Congruent with a limited literature, these data suggest that shorter sleep durations are likely, for college students, to be relatively recently acquired patterns of sleep. PMID:724383

  9. Quantitative genetic research on sleep: a review of normal sleep, sleep disturbances and associated emotional, behavioural, and health-related difficulties.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Nicola L; Gregory, Alice M

    2013-02-01

    Over the past 50 years, well over 100 twin studies have focussed on understanding factors contributing to variability in normal sleep-wake characteristics and sleep disturbances. Whilst we have gained a great deal from these studies, there is still much to be learnt. Twin studies can be used in multiple ways to answer questions beyond simply estimating heritability. This paper provides a comprehensive review of some of the most important findings from twin studies relating to sleep to date, with a focus on studies investigating genetic and environmental influences contributing to i) objective and subjective measures of normal sleep characteristics (e.g., sleep stage organisation, sleep quality); as well as sleep disturbances and disorders such as dyssomnias (e.g., insomnia, narcolepsy) and parasomnias (e.g., sleepwalking, bruxism); ii) the persistence of sleep problems from childhood to adulthood, and the possibility that the aetiological influences on sleep change with age; iii) the associations between sleep disturbances, emotional, behavioural and health-related problems; and iv) processes of gene-environment correlation and interaction. We highlight avenues for further research, emphasising the need to further consider the aetiology of longitudinal associations between sleep disturbances and psychopathology; the genetic and environmental overlap between sleep and numerous phenotypes; and processes of gene-environment interplay and epigenetics. PMID:22560641

  10. Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? Can certain diseases/conditions disrupt sleep? What is ... sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? Can certain diseases/conditions disrupt sleep? What is ...

  11. Cataplexy with Normal Sleep Studies and Normal CSF Hypocretin: An Explanation?

    PubMed

    Drakatos, Panagis; Leschziner, Guy

    2016-03-01

    Patients with narcolepsy usually develop excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) before or coincide with the occurrence of cataplexy, with the latter most commonly associated with low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 levels. Cataplexy preceding the development of other features of narcolepsy is a rare phenomenon. We describe a case of isolated cataplexy in the context of two non-diagnostic multiple sleep latency tests and normal CSF-hypocretin-1 levels (217 pg/mL) who gradually developed EDS and low CSF-hypocretin-1 (< 110 pg/mL). PMID:26564387

  12. Effects of naloxone on upper airway collapsibility in normal sleeping subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Meurice, J. C.; Marc, I.; Sériès, F.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the possible influence of endorphin release on upper airway collapsibility the effects of naloxone, an opiate receptor antagonist, were measured. METHODS: The effects of naloxone on upper airway collapsibility were studied in five normal sleeping men in a pilot study. During a sleep fragmentation night the subjects received either naloxone or a volume matched saline placebo in a double blind crossover design. Critical pressure (Pcrit) was measured during a morning nap following sleep fragmentation. RESULTS: The plasma levels of endorphins increased during sleep fragmentation nights. Pcrit was significantly greater after placebo than after naloxone infusion. CONCLUSIONS: Naloxone may reduce upper airway collapsibility in normal sleeping subjects following sleep fragmentation. PMID:8795677

  13. Dynamics of sleep/wake determination--Normal and abnormal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahowald, Mark W.; Schenck, Carlos H.; O'Connor, Kevin A.

    1991-10-01

    Virtually all members of the animal kingdom experience a relentless and powerful cycling of states of being: wakefulness, rapid eye movement sleep, and nonrapid eye movement sleep. Each of these states is composed of a number of physiologic variables generated in a variety of neural structures. The predictable oscillations of these states are driven by presumed neural pacemakers which are entrained to the 24 h geophysical environment by the light/dark cycle. Experiments in nature have indicated that wake/sleep rhythm perturbations may occur either involving desynchronization of the basic 24 h wake/sleep cycle within the geophysical 24 h cycle (circadian rhythm disturbances) or involving the rapid oscillation or incomplete declaration of state (such as narcolepsy). The use of phase spaces to describe states of being may be of interest in the description of state determination in both illness and health. Some fascinating clinical and experimental phenomena may represent bifurcations in the sleep/wake control system.

  14. Longitudinal Study of Sleep Behavior in Normal Infants during the First Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, Oliviero; Baumgartner, Emma; Sette, Stefania; Ancona, Mario; Caso, Gianni; Di Cosimo, Maria Elisabetta; Mannini, Andrea; Ometto, Mariangela; Pasquini, Anna; Ulliana, Antonella; Ferri, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To longitudinally examine sleep patterns, habits, and parent-reported sleep problems during the first year of life. Methods: Seven hundred four parent/child pairs participated in a longitudinal cohort study. Structured interview recording general demographic data, feeding habits, intercurrent diseases, family history, sleep habits, and parental evaluation of the infant's sleep carried out at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months Results: Nocturnal, daytime, and total sleep duration showed a high inter-individual variability in the first year of life associated with changes in the first 6 months and stability from 6 to 12 months. Bedtime was at around 22:00 and remained stable at 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Approximately 20% of the infants had more than 2 awakenings and slept more often in the parent bed. Nearly 10% of the infants were considered as having a problematic sleep by parents and this significantly correlated with nocturnal awakenings and difficulties falling asleep. Conclusions: Sleep patterns change during the first year of life but most sleep variables (i.e., sleep latency and duration) show little variation from 6 to 12 months. Our data provide a context for clinicians to discuss sleep issues with parents and suggest that prevention efforts should focus to the first 3-6 months, since sleep patterns show stability from that time point to 12 months. Citation: Bruni O, Baumgartner E, Sette S, Ancona M, Caso G, Di Cosimo ME, Mannini A, Ometto M, Pasquini A, Ulliana A, Ferri R. Longitudinal study of sleep behavior in normal infants during the first year of life. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(10):1119-1127. PMID:25317093

  15. The preproghrelin gene is required for the normal integration of thermoregulation and sleep in mice.

    PubMed

    Szentirmai, Eva; Kapás, Levente; Sun, Yuxiang; Smith, Roy G; Krueger, James M

    2009-08-18

    Peptidergic mechanisms controlling feeding, metabolism, thermoregulation, and sleep overlap in the hypothalamus. Low ambient temperatures and food restriction induce hypothermic (torpor) bouts and characteristic metabolic and sleep changes in mice. We report that mice lacking the preproghrelin gene, but not those lacking the ghrelin receptor, have impaired abilities to manifest and integrate normal sleep and thermoregulatory responses to metabolic challenges. In response to fasting at 17 degrees C (a subthermoneutral ambient temperature), preproghrelin knockout mice enter hypothermic bouts associated with reduced sleep, culminating in a marked drop in body temperature to near-ambient levels. Prior treatment with obestatin, another preproghrelin gene product, attenuates the hypothermic response of preproghrelin knockout mice. Results suggest that obestatin is a component in the coordinated regulation of metabolism and sleep during torpor. PMID:19666521

  16. Rhythms of ghrelin, leptin, and sleep in rats: effects of the normal diurnal cycle, restricted feeding, and sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Bodosi, B; Gardi, J; Hajdu, I; Szentirmai, E; Obal, F; Krueger, J M

    2004-11-01

    To determine the relationships among plasma ghrelin and leptin concentrations and hypothalamic ghrelin contents, and sleep, cortical brain temperature (Tcrt), and feeding, we determined these parameters in rats in three experimental conditions: in free-feeding rats with normal diurnal rhythms, in rats with feeding restricted to the 12-h light period (RF), and in rats subjected to 5-h of sleep deprivation (SD) at the beginning of the light cycle. Plasma ghrelin and leptin displayed diurnal rhythms with the ghrelin peak preceding and the leptin peak following the major daily feeding peak in hour 1 after dark onset. RF reversed the diurnal rhythm of these hormones and the rhythm of rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and significantly altered the rhythm of Tcrt. In contrast, the duration and intensity of non-REMS (NREMS) were hardly responsive to RF. SD failed to change leptin concentrations, but it promptly stimulated plasma ghrelin and induced eating. SD elicited biphasic variations in the hypothalamic ghrelin contents. SD increased plasma corticosterone, but corticosterone did not seem to influence either leptin or ghrelin. The results suggest a strong relationship between feeding and the diurnal rhythm of leptin and that feeding also fundamentally modulates the diurnal rhythm of ghrelin. The variations in hypothalamic ghrelin contents might be associated with sleep-wake activity in rats, but, unlike the previous observations in humans, obvious links could not be detected between sleep and the diurnal rhythms of plasma concentrations of either ghrelin or leptin in the rat. PMID:15475503

  17. Sleep and nocturnal acid reflux in normal subjects and patients with reflux oesophagitis.

    PubMed Central

    Freidin, N; Fisher, M J; Taylor, W; Boyd, D; Surratt, P; McCallum, R W; Mittal, R K

    1991-01-01

    Nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux may be important in the pathogenesis of reflux oesophagitis. This study aimed to determine whether: (1) gastro-oesophageal reflux occurs during sleep in patients with reflux oesophagitis and, if so, to explore the mechanism, and (2) the sleep pattern of patients with oesophagitis is different from that of control subjects. After a standard evening meal, simultaneous manometric, oesophageal pH, and polysomnographic recordings were obtained in 11 patients with endoscopic oesophagitis and 11 control subjects. Patients with gastrooesophageal reflux disease had significantly more total reflux episodes throughout the nocturnal monitoring period than control subjects (105 v 6). Ninety two of 105 episodes of gastro-oesophageal reflux in patients occurred during the awake state and 10 during sleep stage II. A number of reflux episodes occurred during brief periods of arousal from the various sleep stages. Of the 105 reflux events recorded in patients, 42 were induced by transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation, 20 by stress reflux, 22 by free reflux mechanisms, and in 21 the mechanism was unclear. The sleep pattern and the time spent in each sleep stage was not different between the two groups. It is concluded that the awake state is crucial for the occurrence of nocturnal reflux episodes in normal subjects as well as in patients with reflux oesophagitis and that the difference between the frequency of gastro-oesophageal reflux between normal subjects and patients cannot be explained by different sleep patterns. PMID:1752454

  18. The effect of sleep restriction on neurobehavioural functioning in normally developing children and adolescents: insights from the Attention, Behaviour and Sleep Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Cassoff, J; Bhatti, J A; Gruber, R

    2014-10-01

    In the current paper, we first introduce the research themes of the attention, behaviour and sleep (ABS) laboratory, namely, sleep and ADHD, sleep and obesity, and sleep and academic performance. We then focus in on the topic to be reviewed in the current paper - the association between sleep restriction and neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) in typically developing children. We review the research thus far conducted by the ABS lab specific to this topic and posit the unique methodological contributions of the ABS lab (e.g. home-based assessment of sleep architecture and patterns, extensive phenotyping, etc.) in terms of advancing this research area. In the second section of the paper, we review 13 studies investigating the causal association between experimental sleep restriction and NBF in normally developing pediatric populations. Eight of the 13 studies found that sleep restriction causes impairments in neurobehavioural functioning. However, given the inconsistency in outcome measures, experimental protocols and statistical power, the studies reviewed herein are difficult to interpret. Strategies used by the ABS including implementing home assessments of sleep, restricting sleep relative to the participants' typical sleep schedules, blinding raters who assess NBF, and using valid and reliable NBF assessments are an attempt to address the gaps in this research area and clarify the causal relationship between sleep restriction and NBF in typically developing children and adolescents. PMID:25110282

  19. Cyclic alternating patterns in normal sleep and insomnia: structure and content differences.

    PubMed

    Chouvarda, Ioanna; Mendez, Martin Oswaldo; Rosso, V; Bianchi, Anna M; Parrino, Liborio; Grassi, Andrea; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Cerutti, Sergio; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2012-09-01

    This work aims to investigate new markers for the quantitative characterization of insomnia, in the context of sleep microstructure, as expressed by cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) sleep. The study group includes 11 subjects with normal sleep and 10 subjects with diagnosed primary insomnia. Differences between normal sleepers and insomniacs are investigated, in terms of dynamics and content of CAP events. The overall rate of CAP and of different phases is considered. The dynamic in the structure and alternation of CAP events is further studied in different scales by use of wavelet analysis, and calculation of energy/entropy features. The content of CAP events is studied in terms of electroencephalography (EEG) complexity analysis for the different types of events. Statistically significant differences are highlighted, both in structure and content. Besides confirming the increase in CAP rate, main findings regarding the microstructure difference in insomnia include: 1) as regards the deep sleep building phases, more irregular activation-deactivation patterns, with bigger deactivation time, i.e., distance between consecutive activation events, and appearing with higher EEG complexity in deactivation, and 2) a bigger duration of desynchronisation phases, with increased EEG complexity and more irregular patterns. This analysis extends previous findings on the relation between CAPrate increase and sleep instability mechanisms, proposing specific features of CAP that seem to play a role in insomnia (as consistently presented via classification analysis). This opens new perspectives for the understanding of the role of CAP in the quantitative characterization of sleep and its disorders. PMID:22855235

  20. Power spectral analysis of blood pressure fluctuations during sleep in normal and decerebrate cats.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, N; Sakai, K; Sei, H; Salvert, D; Vanni-Mercier, G; Yamamoto, M; Jouvet, M

    1994-03-01

    Arterial blood pressure fluctuations during sleep were investigated with power analysis technique in both normal and decerebrate cats. In the initial postoperative stage lasting about 3 to 4 days, intact cats displayed, during paradoxical sleep, phasic increases in arterial blood pressure which were superimposed on a tonic hypotension. In the later chronic stage, however, the animals showed the phasic hypertension being superimposed on the background of a tonic hypertension. Regardless of these stages, the blood pressure during paradoxical sleep exhibited a 1/f-like spectrum, expressed by the power spectral density which is inversely proportional to the Fourier frequency f. On the other hand, a power spectral profile of the blood pressure during slow wave sleep presented a white noise-like pattern within the same frequency range of 0.1-0.01 Hz. After brainstem transections at the pontomesencephalic border, the cats exhibited consistently a sustained fall in blood pressure during paradoxical sleep and the power spectral density of the blood pressure displayed a white noise-like pattern throughout the survival periods of one month or more. These observations indicate that the blood pressure fluctuations in the 1/f spectrum during paradoxical sleep originate in rostral brain structures. PMID:8042895

  1. No effects of short-term sleep restriction, in a controlled feeding setting, on lipid profiles in normal weight adults

    PubMed Central

    O’Keeffe, Majella; Roberts, Amy L.; Kelleman, Michael; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Summary Short sleep has been associated with cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of short-term sleep restriction on lipid profiles and resting blood pressure factors in young, normal weight individuals (14 men, 13 women). Participants were randomized to 5 nights of either habitual (9 h) or short (4 h) sleep in a crossover design separated by a 3 wk washout period. There was no sleep x day interaction on lipid profile and blood pressure. Short-term sleep restriction does not alter lipid profiles and resting blood pressure in healthy, normal weight individuals. The association between short sleep and increased cardiovascular risk reported in the epidemiological literature may be the result of long-term sleep restriction and poor lifestyle choices. PMID:23682639

  2. Interpretation of Normalized Spectral Heart Rate Variability Indices In Sleep Research: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Burr, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    The normalized spectral heart rate variability (HRV) measures low-frequency (LF)nu and high-frequency (HF)nu are frequently used in contemporary sleep research studies to quantify modulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. The purpose of this tutorial and methodologic critique is to concisely demonstrate the structural algebraic redundancy inherent in the normalized spectral HRV measures with respect to each other, and also with respect to the well-known HRV index of sympathovagal balance, LF:HF ratio. The statistical problems and interpretational paradoxes related to the mathematical definitions of LFnu and HFnu are briefly outlined. Examples of use of normalized spectral HRV measures in recent articles from the sleep-relevant research literature are critically reviewed. LFnu, HFnu, and LF:HF ratio should be considered equivalent carriers of information about sympathovagal balance. Citation: Burr RL. Interpretation of normalized spectral heart rate variability indices in sleep research: a critical review. SLEEP 2007;30(7):913-919. PMID:17682663

  3. Reduced Sleep Acutely Influences Sedentary Behavior and Mood But Not Total Energy Intake in Normal-Weight and Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Romney, Lora; Larson, Michael J; Clark, Tyler; Tucker, Larry A; Bailey, Bruce W; LeCheminant, James D

    2016-01-01

    Using a crossover design, 22 normal-weight and 22 obese women completed two free-living sleep conditions: (a) Normal Sleep: night of ~8 hr time in bed; and (b) Reduced Sleep: night of < 5 hr time in bed). Outcome measures were energy intake, physical activity and sedentary time, and mood. Sleep time was 7.7 ± 0.3 and 4.8 ± 0.2 hrs during the Normal Sleep and Reduced Sleep conditions, respectively (F = 1791.94; p < 0.0001). Energy intake did not differ between groups or as a function of sleep condition (F = 2.46; p = 0.1244). Sedentary time was ~ 30 min higher after the Reduced Sleep condition (F = 4.98; p = 0.0318); other physical activity outcomes were not different by condition (p > 0.05). Total mood score, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, and confusion were worse after Reduced Sleep (p < 0.05). Reducing sleep acutely and negatively influenced sedentary time and mood in normal-weight and obese women. PMID:26485109

  4. Sleep in space as a new medical frontier: the challenge of preserving normal sleep in the abnormal environment of space missions.

    PubMed

    Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Gonfalone, Alain A

    2016-01-01

    Space agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States, the Russian Federal Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the China National Space Administration, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Indian Space Research Organization, although differing in their local political agendas, have a common interest in promoting all applied sciences that may facilitate man's adaptation to life beyond the earth. One of man's most important adaptations has been the evolutionary development of sleep cycles in response to the 24 hour rotation of the earth. Less well understood has been man's biological response to gravity. Before humans ventured into space, many questioned whether sleep was possible at all in microgravity environments. It is now known that, in fact, space travelers can sleep once they leave the pull of the earth's gravity, but that the sleep they do get is not completely refreshing and that the associated sleep disturbances can be elaborate and variable. According to astronauts' subjective reports, the duration of sleep is shorter than that on earth and there is an increased incidence of disturbed sleep. Objective sleep recordings carried out during various missions including the Skylab missions, space shuttle missions, and Mir missions all support the conclusion that, compared to sleep on earth, the duration in human sleep in space is shorter, averaging about six hours. In the new frontier of space exploration, one of the great practical problems to be solved relates to how man can preserve "normal" sleep in a very abnormal environment. The challenge of managing fatigue and sleep loss during space mission has critical importance for the mental efficiency and safety of the crew and ultimately for the success of the mission itself. Numerous "earthly" examples now show that crew fatigue on ships, trucks, and long-haul jetliners can lead to inadequate performance and sometimes fatal consequences, a reality which has

  5. Sleep restriction increases the neuronal response to unhealthy food in normal-weight individuals

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, M-P; Wolfe, S; Sy, M; Shechter, A; Hirsch, J

    2013-01-01

    Context Sleep restriction alters responses to food. However, the underlying neural mechanisms for this effect are not well understood. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a neural system that is preferentially activated in response to unhealthy compared with healthy foods. Participants Twenty-five normal-weight individuals, who normally slept 7–9 h per night, completed both phases of this randomized controlled study. Intervention Each participant was tested after a period of five nights of either 4 or 9 h in bed. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in the fasted state, presenting healthy and unhealthy food stimuli and objects in a block design. Neuronal responses to unhealthy, relative to healthy food stimuli after each sleep period were assessed and compared. Results After a period of restricted sleep, viewing unhealthy foods led to greater activation in the superior and middle temporal gyri, middle and superior frontal gyri, left inferior parietal lobule, orbitofrontal cortex, and right insula compared with healthy foods. These same stimuli presented after a period of habitual sleep did not produce marked activity patterns specific to unhealthy foods. Further, food intake during restricted sleep increased in association with a relative decrease in brain oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activity observed in the right insula. Conclusion This inverse relationship between insula activity and food intake and enhanced activation in brain reward and food-sensitive centers in response to unhealthy foods provides a model of neuronal mechanisms relating short sleep duration to obesity. PMID:23779051

  6. Parental Perception of Sleep Problems in Children of Normal Intelligence with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Prevalence, Severity, and Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couturier, Jennifer L.; Speechley, Kathy N.; Steele, Margaret; Norman, Ross; Stringer, Bernadette; Nicolson, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study compares parents' perceptions of the prevalence, severity, and pattern of sleep problems in children of normal intelligence with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) with a normative comparison group of children. Method: A survey including the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was mailed to a sample of parents of…

  7. Short sleep duration increases energy intakes but does not change energy expenditure in normal-weight individuals123

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Roberts, Amy L; Chen, Jinya; Kelleman, Michael; O'Keeffe, Majella; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Jones, Peter JH

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests a relation between short sleep duration and obesity. Objective: We assessed energy balance during periods of short and habitual sleep in normal-weight men and women. Design: Fifteen men and 15 women aged 30–49 y with a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 22–26, who regularly slept 7–9 h/night, were recruited to participate in this crossover inpatient study. All participants were studied under short (4 h/night) and habitual (9 h/night) sleep conditions, in random order, for 5 nights each. Food intake was measured on day 5, and energy expenditure was measured with the doubly labeled water method over each period. Results: Participants consumed more energy on day 5 during short sleep (2813.6 ± 593.0 kcal) than during habitual sleep (2517.7 ± 593.0 kcal; P = 0.023). This effect was mostly due to increased consumption of fat (20.7 ± 37.4 g; P = 0.01), notably saturated fat (8.7 ± 20.4 g; P = 0.038), during short sleep. Resting metabolic rate (short sleep: 1455.4 ± 129.0 kcal/d; habitual sleep: 1486.5 ± 129.5 kcal/d; P = 0.136) and total energy expenditure (short sleep: 2589.2 ± 526.5 kcal/d; habitual sleep: 2611.1 ± 529.0 kcal/d; P = 0.832) did not differ significantly between sleep phases. Conclusions: Our data show that a reduction in sleep increases energy and fat intakes, which may explain the associations observed between sleep and obesity. If sustained, as observed, and not compensated by increased energy expenditure, the dietary intakes of individuals undergoing short sleep predispose to obesity. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00935402. PMID:21715510

  8. Mother-infant cosleeping, breastfeeding and sudden infant death syndrome: what biological anthropology has discovered about normal infant sleep and pediatric sleep medicine.

    PubMed

    McKenna, James J; Ball, Helen L; Gettler, Lee T

    2007-01-01

    Twenty years ago a new area of inquiry was launched when anthropologists proposed that an evolutionary perspective on infancy could contribute to our understanding of unexplained infant deaths. Here we review two decades of research examining parent-infant sleep practices and the variability of maternal and infant sleep physiology and behavior in social and solitary sleeping environments. The results challenge clinical wisdom regarding "normal" infant sleep, and over the past two decades the perspective of evolutionary pediatrics has challenged the supremacy of pediatric sleep medicine in defining what are appropriate sleep environments and behaviors for healthy human infants. In this review, we employ a biocultural approach that integrates diverse lines of evidence in order to illustrate the limitations of pediatric sleep medicine in adopting a view of infants that prioritizes recent western social values over the human infant's biological heritage. We review what is known regarding infant sleeping arrangements among nonhuman primates and briefly explore the possible paleoecological context within which early human sleep patterns and parent-infant sleeping arrangements might have evolved. The first challenges made by anthropologists to the pediatric and SIDS research communities are traced, and two decades of studies into the behavior and physiology of mothers and infants sleeping together are presented up to the present. Laboratory, hospital and home studies are used to assess the biological functions of shared mother-infant sleep, especially with regard to breastfeeding promotion and SIDS reduction. Finally, we encourage other anthropologists to participate in pediatric sleep research using the unique skills and insights anthropological data provide. By employing comparative, evolutionary and cross-cultural perspectives an anthropological approach stimulates new research insights that influence the traditional medical paradigm and help to make it more inclusive

  9. Changes in oxygen saturation and heart frequency during sleep in young normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, F; Peset, R

    1984-01-01

    Changes in oxygen saturation and heart frequency were measured during sleep in a group of 21 normal subjects (9 women and 12 men) aged 19-25. At the time of the investigation all were non-smokers, they had no respiratory complaints, and indices of lung function (lung volumes, volume-pressure diagram, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide) were within normal limits. In contrast to published data, there were no major changes in oxygen saturation and no differences between men and women. PMID:6474401

  10. Long-term facilitation of genioglossus activity is present in normal humans during NREM sleep

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhuri, Susmita; Pierchala, Lisa; Aboubakr, Salah E.; Shkoukani, Mahdi; Badr, M. Safwan

    2008-01-01

    Episodic hypoxia (EH) is followed by increased ventilatory motor output in the recovery period indicative of long-term facilitation (LTF). We hypothesized that episodic hypoxia evokes LTF of genioglossus (GG) muscle activity in humans during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) sleep. We studied 12 normal non-flow limited humans during stable NREM sleep. We induced 10 brief (3 minute) episodes of isocapnic hypoxia followed by 5 minutes of room air. Measurements were obtained during control, hypoxia, and at 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes of recovery, respectively, for minute ventilation (V̇I), supraglottic pressure (PSG), upper airway resistance (RUA) and phasic GG electromyogram (EMGGG). In addition, sham studies were conducted on room air. During hypoxia there was a significant increase in phasic EMGGG (202.7±24.1% of control, p<0.01) and in V̇I (123.0±3.3% of control, p<0.05); however, only phasic EMGGG demonstrated a significant persistent increase throughout recovery (198.9±30.9%, 203.6±29.9% and 205.4±26.4% of control, at 5, 10, and 20 minutes of recovery, respectively, p<0.01). In multivariate regression analysis, age and phasic EMGGG activity during hypoxia were significant predictors of EMGGG at recovery 20 minutes. No significant changes in any of the measured parameters were noted during sham studies. Conclusion: 1) EH elicits LTF of GG in normal non-flow limited humans during NREM sleep, without ventilatory or mechanical LTF. 2) GG activity during the recovery period correlates with the magnitude of GG activation during hypoxia, and inversely with age. PMID:17945544

  11. Heritability of Craniofacial Structures in Normal Subjects and Patients with Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Luqi; Comyn, Francois-Louis; Keenan, Brendan T.; Cater, Jacqueline; Maislin, Greg; Pack, Allan I.; Schwab, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Accumulating evidence has shown that there is a genetic contribution to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).The objectives were to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cephalometry to (1) confirm heritability of craniofacial risk factors for OSA previously shown by cephalometrics; and (2) examine the heritability of new craniofacial structures that are measurable with MRI. Design: A sib pair “quad” design examining apneics, apneic siblings, controls, and control siblings. The study design used exact matching on ethnicity and sex, frequency matching on age, and statistical control for differences in age, sex, ethnicity, height, and weight. Setting: Academic medical center. Patients: We examined 55 apneic probands (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]: 46.8 ± 33.5 events/h), 55 proband siblings (AHI: 11.1 ± 15.9 events/h), 55 controls (AHI: 2.2 ± 1.7 events/h), and 55 control siblings (AHI: 4.1 ± 4.0 events/h). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Five independent domains reflecting different aspects of the craniofacial structure were examined. We confirmed heritability of sella–nasion–subspinale (38%, P = 0.002), saddle angle (55%, P < 0.0001), mandibular length (24%, P = 0.02) and lower facial height (33%, P = 0.006) previously measured by cephalometry. In addition, the current study added new insights by demonstrating significant heritability of mandibular width (30%, P = 0.005), maxillary width (47%, P < 0.0001), distance from the hyoid bone to the retropogonion (36%, P = 0.0018) and size of the oropharyngeal space (31%, P = 0.004). Finally, our data indicate that heritability of the craniofacial structures is similar in normal patients and those with apnea. Conclusions: The data support our a priori hypothesis that the craniofacial structures that have been associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are heritable. We have demonstrated heritability for several intermediate craniofacial phenotypes for OSA. Thus, we believe that future studies

  12. Sleep deprivation amplifies striatal activation to monetary reward

    PubMed Central

    Mullin, Benjamin C.; Phillips, Mary L.; Siegle, Greg J.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Forbes, Erika E.; Franzen, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep loss produces abnormal increases in reward-seeking, though the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. The present study examined the influence of one night of sleep deprivation on neural responses to a monetary reward task in a sample of late adolescents/young adults. Methods Using a within-subjects crossover design, 27 healthy, right-handed late-adolescents/young adults (16 females, 11 males; mean age 23.1 years) completed functional magnetic resonance imaging following a night of sleep deprivation and following a night of normal sleep. Participants’ recent sleep history was monitored using actigraphy for one week prior to each sleep condition. Results Following sleep deprivation, participants exhibited increased activity in the ventral striatum and reduced deactivation in medial prefrontal cortex during the winning of monetary reward, relative to the same task following normal sleep conditions. Shorter total sleep time over the five nights before the sleep deprived testing condition was associated with reduced deactivation in the medial prefrontal cortex during reward. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that sleep loss produces aberrant functioning in reward neural circuitry, increasing the salience of positively-reinforcing stimuli. Aberrant reward functioning related to insufficient sleep may contribute to the development and maintenance of reward dysfunction-related disorders, such as compulsive gambling, eating, substance abuse, and mood disorders. PMID:23286303

  13. Oro-facial activities in sleep bruxism patients and in normal subjects: a controlled polygraphic and audio-video study.

    PubMed

    Dutra, K M C; Pereira, F J; Rompré, P H; Huynh, N; Fleming, N; Lavigne, G J

    2009-02-01

    To our knowledge, the large spectrum of sleep motor activities (SMA) present in the head and neck region has not yet been systematically estimated in normal and sleep bruxism (SB) subjects. We hypothesized that in the absence of audio-video signal recordings, normal and SB subjects would present a high level of SMA that might confound the scoring specificity of SB. A retrospective analysis of several SMA, including oro-facial activities (OFA) and rhythmic masticatory muscle activities (RMMA), was made from polygraphic and audio-video recordings of 21 normal subjects and 25 SB patients. Sleep motor activities were scored, blind to subject status, from the second night of sleep recordings. Discrimination of OFA included the following types of activities: lip sucking, head movements, chewing-like movements, swallowing, head rubbing and scratching, eye opening and blinking. These were differentiated from RMMA and tooth grinding. The frequency of SMA per hour of sleep was lower in normal subjects in comparison with SB patients (P < 0.001). Up to 85% of all SMA in normal subjects were related to OFA while 30% of SMA in SB patients were related to OFA scoring (P < 0.001). The frequency of RMMA was seven times higher in SB patients than in normal subjects (P < 0.001). Several SMA can be observed in normal and SB subjects. In the absence of audio-video signal recordings, the discrimination of various types of OFA is difficult to achieve and may lead to erroneous estimation of SB-related activities. PMID:18976258

  14. Sleep, Cognition, and Normal Aging: Integrating a Half-Century of Multidisciplinary Research

    PubMed Central

    Scullin, Michael K.; Bliwise, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is implicated in cognitive functioning in young adults. With increasing age there are substantial changes to sleep quantity and quality including changes to slow wave sleep, spindle density, and sleep continuity/fragmentation. A provocative question for the field of cognitive aging is whether such changes in sleep physiology affect cognition (e.g., memory consolidation). We review nearly a half-century of research studies across 7 diverse correlational and experimental literature domains, which historically have had little crosstalk. Broadly speaking, sleep and cognitive functions are often related in advancing age, though the prevalence of null effects (including correlations in the unexpected, negative direction) in healthy older adults indicates that age may be an effect modifier of these associations. We interpret the literature as suggesting that maintaining good sleep quality, at least in young adulthood and middle age, promotes better cognitive functioning and serves to protect against age-related cognitive declines. PMID:25620997

  15. Sleep, cognition, and normal aging: integrating a half century of multidisciplinary research.

    PubMed

    Scullin, Michael K; Bliwise, Donald L

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is implicated in cognitive functioning in young adults. With increasing age, there are substantial changes to sleep quantity and quality, including changes to slow-wave sleep, spindle density, and sleep continuity/fragmentation. A provocative question for the field of cognitive aging is whether such changes in sleep physiology affect cognition (e.g., memory consolidation). We review nearly a half century of research across seven diverse correlational and experimental domains that historically have had little crosstalk. Broadly speaking, sleep and cognitive functions are often related in advancing age, though the prevalence of null effects in healthy older adults (including correlations in the unexpected, negative direction) indicates that age may be an effect modifier of these associations. We interpret the literature as suggesting that maintaining good sleep quality, at least in young adulthood and middle age, promotes better cognitive functioning and serves to protect against age-related cognitive declines. PMID:25620997

  16. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Snoring and Sleep Apnea Snoring and Sleep Apnea Patient Health Information ... newsroom@entnet.org . Insight into sleeping disorders and sleep apnea Forty-five percent of normal adults snore ...

  17. New Data Pre-processing on Assessing of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Line Based Normalization Method (LBNM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdemir, Bayram; Güneş, Salih; Yosunkaya, Şebnem

    Sleep disorders are a very common unawareness illness among public. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is characterized with decreased oxygen saturation level and repetitive upper respiratory tract obstruction episodes during full night sleep. In the present study, we have proposed a novel data normalization method called Line Based Normalization Method (LBNM) to evaluate OSAS using real data set obtained from Polysomnography device as a diagnostic tool in patients and clinically suspected of suffering OSAS. Here, we have combined the LBNM and classification methods comprising C4.5 decision tree classifier and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to diagnose the OSAS. Firstly, each clinical feature in OSAS dataset is scaled by LBNM method in the range of [0,1]. Secondly, normalized OSAS dataset is classified using different classifier algorithms including C4.5 decision tree classifier and ANN, respectively. The proposed normalization method was compared with min-max normalization, z-score normalization, and decimal scaling methods existing in literature on the diagnosis of OSAS. LBNM has produced very promising results on the assessing of OSAS. Also, this method could be applied to other biomedical datasets.

  18. The effect of total sleep deprivation on cognitive functions in normal adult male subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, D J; Lee, H P; Kim, M S; Park, Y J; Go, H J; Kim, K S; Lee, S P; Chae, J H; Lee, C T

    2001-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of acute sleep deprivation on cognitive functions. A total of 18 healthy right handed males were deprived of sleep for 24 hours. Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery and calculation & digit-span subtest of K-WAIS were administered before and after sleep deprivation in order to examine the changes of cognitive functions. There were no differences in freedom from distractibility, tacile function, visual function, reading, writing, arithmetic and intellectual process function. However, the cognitive functions such as motor, rhythm, receptive & expressive speech, memory and complex verbal arithmetic function were decreased after sleep deprivation. All of these functions are known to be related to the right anterior hemisphere. For localization scales, the scores of right frontal and right temporal dysfunction scale were increased after sleep deprivation. These results indicate that sleep deprivation has a negative effect on cognitive functions, especially those associated with right anterior hemisphere or subcortical areas. PMID:11699337

  19. Sleep normalization and decrease in dissociative experiences: evaluation in an inpatient sample.

    PubMed

    van der Kloet, Dalena; Giesbrecht, Timo; Lynn, Steven Jay; Merckelbach, Harald; de Zutter, André

    2012-02-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the relation between sleep experiences and dissociative symptoms in a mixed inpatient sample at a private clinic evaluated on arrival and at discharge 6 to 8 weeks later. Using hierarchical regression analyses and structural equation modeling, we found a link between sleep experiences and dissociative symptoms and determined that specifically decreases in narcoleptic experiences rather than insomnia accompany a reduction in dissociative symptoms. Although sleep improvements were associated with a general reduction in psychopathology, this reduction could not fully account for the substantial and specific effect that we found for dissociation. Our findings are consistent with Watson's (2001) hypothesis that disruptions in the sleep-wake cycle lead to intrusions of sleep phenomena into waking consciousness, resulting in dissociative experiences. Accordingly, sleep hygiene may contribute to the treatment or prevention of dissociative symptoms. PMID:21842964

  20. Stimulatory effect of butoctamide hydrogen succinate on REM sleep in normal humans.

    PubMed

    Mizuki, Y; Suetsugi, M; Hotta, H; Ushijima, I; Yamada, M

    1995-05-01

    1. The efficacy of butoctamide hydrogen succinate (BAHS) was compared with that of nitrazepam on the basis of the polysomnograms and the subjective assessments. 2. Twelve healthy male students were divided into three groups consisting of 4 subjects each with were administered BAHS 600 mg, nitrazepam 5 mg, and BAHS 600 mg + nitrazepam 5 mg, respectively. 3. Polygraphic recordings were made for 8 consecutive nights for each subject, and the polysomnograms were evaluated by computerized automatic analysis using the interval histogram method. 4. An inert placebo was administered on the first 3 nights and on the seventh and eighth nights, and the test article regimen was administered on the fourth, fifth and sixth nights. 5. The test articles and the placebo were administered orally at 22:30 hr, and the recording of polysomnograms was started at 23:00 hr and ended at 8:00 hr the next morning. 6. The subjects were requested to fill out the subjective assessment of sleep before falling asleep and after arising the next morning. 7. BAHS increased REM sleep and decreased stage 2 sleep significantly; however, it failed to affect stage 1, 3 or 4 sleep. 8. Nitrazepam increased significantly the total sleep time and stage 2 sleep but decreased significantly the stage 3 sleep and decreased slightly the stages 1, 4 and REM sleep. 9. The combined treatment with BAHS and nitrazepam did not alter the sleep parameters except for increasing the total sleep time. 10. No obvious changes were observed in the subjective assessments after administration of the drugs. 11. These findings suggest that BAHS results in a unique sleep pattern different from benzodiazepines, and that BAHS may be suitable for treating insomnia in elderly patients and those with drug abuse, manic-depressive illness or schizophrenia. PMID:7624490

  1. Long-Term Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy Normalizes High Exhaled Nitric Oxide Levels in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Ai-Ping; Aboussouan, Loutfi S.; Minai, Omar A.; Paschke, Kelly; Laskowski, Daniel; Dweik, Raed A.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Upper airway inflammation and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and may be linked to cardiovascular consequences. We prospectively examined fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), a surrogate marker of upper airway inflammation using a portable nitric oxide analyzer (NIOX MINO). Design: In consecutive adult nonsmokers with suspected OSA, FENO was measured immediately before and after polysomnographic studies, and within 1-3 months following continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Measurement and Results: FENO levels were increased in the 75 patients with OSA compared to the 29 controls, both before sleep (13.4 ± 6.5 ppb vs. 6.5 ± 3.5; p < 0.001) and after sleep (19.0 ± 7.7 ppb vs. 6.9 ± 3.7; p < 0.001). Furthermore, in patients with OSA, FENO levels were significantly higher post-sleep than pre-sleep (19.0 ± 7.7 ppb vs. 13.4 ± 6.5; p < 0.001), while there was no significant overnight change in patients without OSA. The rise in FENO correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (r = 0.65, p < 0.001), nadir oxygen saturation (r = 0.54, p < 0.001), and arousal index (r = 0.52, p < 0.001). Thirty-seven of these patients underwent CPAP titration and treatment. Successful titration was associated with a lower overnight increase in FENO (7.2 ± 3.3 vs. 11.0 ± 4.3, p = 0.02). FENO levels declined after 1-3 months of CPAP therapy (11.7 ± 4.4 ppb, p < 0.001). Conclusions: FENO levels are elevated in OSA, correlate with severity, and decrease after positive pressure therapy. This study supports the role of upper airway inflammation in OSA pathogenesis and a possible role for FENO in monitoring CPAP therapy. Citation: Chua AP; Aboussouan LS; Minai OA; Paschke K; Laskowski D; Dweik RA. Long-term continuous positive airway pressure therapy normalizes high exhaled nitric oxide levels in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(6):529-535. PMID:23772184

  2. Sleep biological rhythms in normal infants and those at high risk for SIDS.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Anne Christake; Feigenbaum, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this study was on daytime and nighttime sleep and wakefulness during the peak age for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), two to four months, to determine whether there are differences between at-risk for SIDS (R) and control (C) infants. Such differences may provide insight on the frequent occurrence of SIDS in the early morning hours, when most babies are asleep. This is the only study in which R and C infants were continuously monitored for long periods of time (24-48 h) and then followed and recorded at monthly intervals until the age of 4-6 months. Data analyses indicate that ultradian REM/NREM cyclicity becomes stabilized into a regular pattern at three months of age. Infants at this age convert from a polyphasic sleep/wakefulness pattern to a circadian one. Among the changes that occur is a lengthening of short sleep periods that consolidate at night and wake periods that consolidate in the daytime. The most striking effects are related to sleep state and vary according to age and sex. The lengthening of single sleep and wakeful periods is coupled with the maturation of the brain. The development of the central nervous system facilitates the synchronization of sleeping patterns with external light input and social entrainment. One or more biological clocks or oscillators may be responsible for these REM/NREM patterns and circadian cycles. These differences during the early morning hours, when the occurrence of SIDS peaks, may have important implications for understanding the pathophysiological mechanism of SIDS. PMID:17050210

  3. Analysis of A-phase transitions during the cyclic alternating pattern under normal sleep.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Martin Oswaldo; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Alba, Alfonso; Bianchi, Anna Maria; Grassi, Andrea; Arce-Santana, Edgar; Milioli, Guilia; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Parrino, Liborio

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of the EEG signal during the B-phase and A-phases transitions of the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) during sleep is presented. CAP is a sleep phenomenon composed by consecutive sequences of A-phases (each A-phase could belong to a possible group A1, A2 or A3) observed during the non-REM sleep. Each A-phase is separated by a B-phase which has the basal frequency of the EEG during a specific sleep stage. The patterns formed by these sequences reflect the sleep instability and consequently help to understand the sleep process. Ten recordings from healthy good sleepers were included in this study. The current study investigates complexity, statistical and frequency signal properties of electroencephalography (EEG) recordings at the transitions: B-phase-A-phase. In addition, classification between the onset-offset of the A-phases and B-phase was carried out with a kNN classifier. The results showed that EEG signal presents significant differences (p < 0.05) between A-phases and B-phase for the standard deviation, energy, sample entropy, Tsallis entropy and frequency band indices. The A-phase onset showed values of energy three times higher than B-phase at all the sleep stages. The statistical analysis of variance shows that more than 80 % of the A-phase onset and offset is significantly different from the B-phase. The classification performance between onset or offset of A-phases and background showed classification values over 80 % for specificity and accuracy and 70 % for sensitivity. Only during the A3-phase, the classification was lower. The results suggest that neural assembles that generate the basal EEG oscillations during sleep present an over-imposed coordination for a few seconds due to the A-phases. The main characteristics for automatic separation between the onset-offset A-phase and the B-phase are the energy at the different frequency bands. PMID:26253282

  4. Neurobiological aspects of sleep physiology.

    PubMed

    Moszczynski, Alex; Murray, Brian James

    2012-11-01

    Sleep is characterized by changes in neural firing and chemistry compared with wakefulness. Many neurologic diseases affect pathways that regulate control of sleep state and some primary sleep disorders have abnormalities of this circuitry. Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep alternate in an approximately 90-minute cycle. Recent findings have expanded understanding of the control of sleep state, and will facilitate development of novel therapeutics to assist patients with a variety of disorders of sleep and wakefulness. Treatment of sleep and wake disorders can assist patients with a variety of neurologic problems. PMID:23099125

  5. Sexual circuitry in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Auer, Thomas O; Benton, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The sexual behavior of Drosophila melanogaster is an outstanding paradigm to understand the molecular and neuronal basis of sophisticated animal actions. We discuss recent advances in our knowledge of the genetic hardwiring of the underlying neuronal circuitry, and how pertinent sensory cues are differentially detected and integrated in the male and female brain. We also consider how experience influences these circuits over short timescales, and the evolution of these pathways over longer timescales to endow species-specific sexual displays and responses. PMID:26851712

  6. New neurons in the adult brain: The role of sleep and consequences of sleep loss

    PubMed Central

    Meerlo, Peter; Mistlberger, Ralph E.; Jacobs, Barry L.; Heller, H. Craig; McGinty, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Research over the last few decades has firmly established that new neurons are generated in selected areas of the adult mammalian brain, particularly the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. The function of adult-born neurons is still a matter of debate. In the case of the hippocampus, integration of new cells in to the existing neuronal circuitry may be involved in memory processes and the regulation of emotionality. In recent years, various studies have examined how the production of new cells and their development into neurons is affected by sleep and sleep loss. While disruption of sleep for a period shorter than one day appears to have little effect on the basal rate of cell proliferation, prolonged restriction or disruption of sleep may have cumulative effects leading to a major decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation, cell survival and neurogenesis. Importantly, while short sleep deprivation may not affect the basal rate of cell proliferation, one study in rats shows that even mild sleep restriction may interfere with the increase in neurogenesis that normally occurs with hippocampus-dependent learning. Since sleep deprivation also disturbs memory formation, these data suggest that promoting survival, maturation and integration of new cells may be an unexplored mechanism by which sleep supports learning and memory processes. Most methods of sleep deprivation that have been employed affect both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Available data favor the hypothesis that decreases in cell proliferation are related to a reduction in REM sleep, whereas decreases in the number of cells that subsequently develop into adult neurons may be related to reductions in both NREM and REM sleep. The mechanisms by which sleep loss affects different aspects of adult neurogenesis are unknown. It has been proposed that adverse effects of sleep disruption may be mediated by stress and

  7. Waking genioglossal electromyogram in sleep apnea patients versus normal controls (a neuromuscular compensatory mechanism).

    PubMed Central

    Mezzanotte, W S; Tangel, D J; White, D P

    1992-01-01

    Pharyngeal collapse in obstructive sleep apnea patients is likely a product of a sleep-related decrement in pharyngeal dilator muscle activity superimposed upon abnormal airway anatomy. We postulate that during wakefulness, increased pharyngeal dilator muscle activity in apnea patients compensates for diminished airway size thus maintaining patency. We studied the waking genioglossus (GG) electromyogram (EMG) activity in 11 OSA patients and 14 age-matched controls to determine if GG activity is higher in the awake state in apnea patients than controls. To make this determination, we developed a reproducible methodology whereby true maximal GG EMG could be defined and thus basal activity quantitated as a percentage of this maximal value. Therefore, direct comparisons of basal activity between individuals was possible. We observed apnea patients to have significantly greater basal genioglossal activity compared to controls (40.6 +/- 5.6% vs. 12.7 +/- 1.7% of maximum). This difference persisted when size-matched subsets were compared. This augmented GG activity in apnea patients could be reduced with positive airway pressure. We speculate that this neuromuscular compensation present during wakefulness in apnea patients may be lost during sleep leading to airway collapse. PMID:1569196

  8. Connectivity pattern differences bilaterally in the cerebellum posterior lobe in healthy subjects after normal sleep and sleep deprivation: a resting-state functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuming; Yan, Zhihan; Wang, Tingyu; Yang, Xiaokai; Feng, Feng; Fan, Luping; Jiang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) differences of the bilaterial cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL) after normal sleep (NS) and after sleep deprivation (SD). Methods A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight males, eight females) underwent an fMRI scan twice at random: once following NS and the other following 24 hours’ SD, with an interval of 1 month between the two scans. The fMRI scanning included resting state and acupuncture stimulation. The special activated regions located during the acupuncture stimulation were selected as regions of interest for rsFC analysis. Results Bilateral CPLs were positively activated by acupuncture stimulation. In the NS group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral CPL, bilateral frontal lobe (BFL), left precuneus and right inferior parietal lobule, while the right CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral temporal lobe, right cerebellum anterior lobe, right CPL, left frontal lobe, left anterior cingulate, right posterior cingulate, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule. In the SD group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the left posterior cingulate gyrus bilateral CPL, left precuneus, left precentral gyrus, BFL, and the left parietal lobe, while the right CPL showed rsFC with bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, bilateral CPL, left frontal lobe and left temporal lobe. Compared with the NS group, the left CPL had increased rsFC in the SD group with the right inferior frontal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, right thalamus, and bilateral precuneus, and decreased rsFC with the BFL, while the right CPL had increased rsFC with the left superior frontal gyrus and decreased rsFC with the left precentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and the BFL. Conclusion Bilateral CPL are possibly involved in acupuncture stimulation in different manners, and the right CPL showed more rsFC impairment. PMID:26064046

  9. Neural circuitry and immunity.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Valentin A; Tracey, Kevin J

    2015-12-01

    Research during the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the interface between the nervous system and the immune system. Insight into bidirectional neuro-immune communication has characterized the nervous system as an important partner of the immune system in the regulation of inflammation. Neuronal pathways, including the vagus nerve-based inflammatory reflex, are physiological regulators of immune function and inflammation. In parallel, neuronal function is altered in conditions characterized by immune dysregulation and inflammation. Here, we review these regulatory mechanisms and describe the neural circuitry modulating immunity. Understanding these mechanisms reveals possibilities to use targeted neuromodulation as a therapeutic approach for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. These findings and current clinical exploration of neuromodulation in the treatment of inflammatory diseases define the emerging field of Bioelectronic Medicine. PMID:26512000

  10. Sleep in space as a new medical frontier: the challenge of preserving normal sleep in the abnormal environment of space missions

    PubMed Central

    Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.; Gonfalone, Alain A.

    2016-01-01

    Space agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States, the Russian Federal Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the China National Space Administration, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Indian Space Research Organization, although differing in their local political agendas, have a common interest in promoting all applied sciences that may facilitate man’s adaptation to life beyond the earth. One of man’s most important adaptations has been the evolutionary development of sleep cycles in response to the 24 hour rotation of the earth. Less well understood has been man’s biological response to gravity. Before humans ventured into space, many questioned whether sleep was possible at all in microgravity environments. It is now known that, in fact, space travelers can sleep once they leave the pull of the earth’s gravity, but that the sleep they do get is not completely refreshing and that the associated sleep disturbances can be elaborate and variable. According to astronauts’ subjective reports, the duration of sleep is shorter than that on earth and there is an increased incidence of disturbed sleep. Objective sleep recordings carried out during various missions including the Skylab missions, space shuttle missions, and Mir missions all support the conclusion that, compared to sleep on earth, the duration in human sleep in space is shorter, averaging about six hours. In the new frontier of space exploration, one of the great practical problems to be solved relates to how man can preserve “normal” sleep in a very abnormal environment. The challenge of managing fatigue and sleep loss during space mission has critical importance for the mental efficiency and safety of the crew and ultimately for the success of the mission itself. Numerous "earthly" examples now show that crew fatigue on ships, trucks, and long-haul jetliners can lead to inadequate performance and sometimes fatal consequences, a reality

  11. Recognition of sleep paralysis among normal adults in Canada and in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, K; Ogilvie, R D; Takeuchi, T

    2000-06-01

    There were no differences between Canada and Japan in the prevalence and symptoms of sleep paralysis (SP), but many more Canadians considered SP to be a dream. The difference was considered to be derived from the fact that there is a common expression for SP in Japan but there is not one in Canada. Then, we investigated why there are individuals who consider SP to be a dream and others who do not, and found that many Japanese who regarded it as a dream did not report the symptom of 'unable to move', while in Canada, self-evaluation of spirituality was different between the two groups. PMID:11186082

  12. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Stephen B.; McMullan, D. Michael; Bartlett, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    The extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit is made of a number of components that have been customized to provide adequate tissue oxygen delivery in patients with severe cardiac and/or respiratory failure for a prolonged period of time (days to weeks). A standard ECMO circuit consists of a mechanical blood pump, gas exchange device, and a heat exchanger all connected together with circuit tubing. ECMO circuits can vary from simple to complex and may include a variety of blood flow and pressure monitors, continuous oxyhemoglobin saturation monitors, circuit access sites and a bridge connecting the venous access and arterial infusion limbs of the circuit. Significant technical advancements have been made in the equipment available for short and long term ECMO applications. Contemporary ECMO circuits have greater biocompatibility and allow for more prolonged cardiopulmonary support time, while minimizing the procedure-related complications of bleeding, thrombosis and other physiologic derangements that were so common with the early application of ECMO. Modern era ECMO circuitry and components are simpler, safer, more compact and can be used across a wide variety of patient sizes from neonates to adults. PMID:23735989

  13. Cone-beam CT analysis of patients with obstructive sleep apnea compared to normal controls

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ruben; Looney, Stephen; Kalathingal, Sajitha; De Rossi, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the upper airway dimensions of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and control subjects using a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) unit commonly applied in clinical practice in order to assess airway dimensions in the same fashion as that routinely employed in a clinical setting. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis utilizing existing CBCT scans to evaluate the dimensions of the upper airway in OSA and control subjects. The CBCT data of sixteen OSA and sixteen control subjects were compared. The average area, average volume, total volume, and total length of the upper airway were computed. Width and anterior-posterior (AP) measurements were obtained on the smallest axial slice. Results OSA subjects had a significantly smaller average airway area, average airway volume, total airway volume, and mean airway width. OSA subjects had a significantly larger airway length measurement. The mean A-P distance was not significantly different between groups. Conclusion OSA subjects have a smaller upper airway compared to controls with the exception of airway length. The lack of a significant difference in the mean A-P distance may indicate that patient position during imaging (upright vs. supine) can affect this measurement. Comparison of this study with a future prospective study design will allow for validation of these results. PMID:27051634

  14. Science and Teachers: Cardboard Circuitry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Diagrams a quick, improvised cardboard circuitry for battery holder, bulb socket, and switches. Materials include corrugated cardboard, paper clips, and rubber bands. Assembly useful in determining the electrical conductivity of substances. (CS)

  15. Irregular sleep-wake syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep-wake syndrome - irregular ... routine during the day. The amount of total sleep time is normal, but the body clock loses ... have a different condition, such as shift work sleep disorder or jet lag syndrome.

  16. Sleep for cognitive enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is essential for effective cognitive functioning. Loosing even a few hours of sleep can have detrimental effects on a wide variety of cognitive processes such as attention, language, reasoning, decision making, learning and memory. While sleep is necessary to ensure normal healthy cognitive functioning, it can also enhance performance beyond the boundaries of the normal condition. This article discusses the enhancing potential of sleep, mainly focusing on the domain of learning and memory. Sleep is known to facilitate the consolidation of memories learned before sleep as well as the acquisition of new memories to be learned after sleep. According to a widely held model this beneficial effect of sleep relies on the neuronal reactivation of memories during sleep that is associated with sleep-specific brain oscillations (slow oscillations, spindles, ripples) as well as a characteristic neurotransmitter milieu. Recent research indicates that memory processing during sleep can be boosted by (i) cueing memory reactivation during sleep; (ii) stimulating sleep-specific brain oscillations; and (iii) targeting specific neurotransmitter systems pharmacologically. Olfactory and auditory cues can be used, for example, to increase reactivation of associated memories during post-learning sleep. Intensifying neocortical slow oscillations (the hallmark of slow wave sleep (SWS)) by electrical or auditory stimulation and modulating specific neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and glutamate likewise facilitates memory processing during sleep. With this evidence in mind, this article concludes by discussing different methodological caveats and ethical issues that should be considered when thinking about using sleep for cognitive enhancement in everyday applications. PMID:24765066

  17. Neuroimmunologic aspects of sleep and sleep loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, N. L.; Szuba, M. P.; Staab, J. P.; Evans, D. L.; Dinges, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    The complex and intimate interactions between the sleep and immune systems have been the focus of study for several years. Immune factors, particularly the interleukins, regulate sleep and in turn are altered by sleep and sleep deprivation. The sleep-wake cycle likewise regulates normal functioning of the immune system. Although a large number of studies have focused on the relationship between the immune system and sleep, relatively few studies have examined the effects of sleep deprivation on immune parameters. Studies of sleep deprivation's effects are important for several reasons. First, in the 21st century, various societal pressures require humans to work longer and sleep less. Sleep deprivation is becoming an occupational hazard in many industries. Second, to garner a greater understanding of the regulatory effects of sleep on the immune system, one must understand the consequences of sleep deprivation on the immune system. Significant detrimental effects on immune functioning can be seen after a few days of total sleep deprivation or even several days of partial sleep deprivation. Interestingly, not all of the changes in immune physiology that occur as a result of sleep deprivation appear to be negative. Numerous medical disorders involving the immune system are associated with changes in the sleep-wake physiology--either being caused by sleep dysfunction or being exacerbated by sleep disruption. These disorders include infectious diseases, fibromyalgia, cancers, and major depressive disorder. In this article, we will describe the relationships between sleep physiology and the immune system, in states of health and disease. Interspersed will be proposals for future research that may illuminate the clinical relevance of the relationships between sleeping, sleep loss and immune function in humans. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  18. Brain circuitry of compulsivity.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Odile A; van Wingen, Guido; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Alonso, Pino; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Nakamae, Takashi; Denys, Damiaan; Goudriaan, Anna E; Veltman, Dick J

    2016-05-01

    Compulsivity is associated with alterations in the structure and the function of parallel and interacting brain circuits involved in emotional processing (involving both the reward and the fear circuits), cognitive control, and motor functioning. These brain circuits develop during the pre-natal period and early childhood under strong genetic and environmental influences. In this review we bring together literature on cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in compulsivity, based mainly on studies in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and addiction. Disease symptoms normally change over time. Goal-directed behaviors, in response to reward or anxiety, often become more habitual over time. During the course of compulsive disorders the mental processes and repetitive behaviors themselves contribute to the neuroplastic changes in the involved circuits, mainly in case of chronicity. On the other hand, successful treatment is able to normalize altered circuit functioning or to induce compensatory mechanisms. We conclude that insight in the neurobiological characteristics of the individual symptom profile and disease course, including the potential targets for neuroplasticity is an unmet need to advance the field. PMID:26711687

  19. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-01

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer. PMID:26959472

  20. Review of Disrupted Sleep Patterns in Smith-Magenis Syndrome and Normal Melatonin Secretion in a Patient with an Atypical Interstitial 17p11.2 Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Eilis A.; Johnson, Kyle P.; Jackman, Angela R.; Blancato, Jan; Huizing, Marjan; Bendavid, Claude; Jones, MaryPat; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C.; Lewy, Alfred J.; Smith, Ann C. M.; Magenis, R. Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and behavior problems, including abnormal sleep patterns. It is most commonly due to a 3.5 Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. Secretion of melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, is the body’s signal for nighttime darkness. Published reports of 24-hour melatonin secretion patterns in two independent SMS cohorts (US & France) document an inverted endogenous melatonin pattern in virtually all cases (96%), suggesting that this finding is pathognomic for the syndrome. We report on a woman with SMS due to an atypical large proximal deletion (∼6Mb; cen<->TNFRSFproteinB) of chromosome band (17)(p11.1p11.2) who presents with typical sleep disturbances but a normal pattern of melatonin secretion. We further describe a melatonin light suppression test in this patient. This is the second reported patient with a normal endogenous melatonin rhythm in SMS associated with an atypical large deletion. These two patients are significant because they suggest that the sleep disturbances in SMS cannot be solely attributed to the abnormal diurnal melatonin secretion versus the normal nocturnal pattern. PMID:19530184

  1. Comparison of Detection of Normal Puberty in Boys by a Hormonal Sleep Test and a Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Test

    PubMed Central

    Bordini, Brian; Yu, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Context: The magnitude of sleep-related gonadotropin rise required to activate pubertal gonadal function is not established. Objective: Our objective was to determine the normal relationship between sleep-related pubertal hormone levels and pituitary-testicular responsiveness to a GnRH agonist (GnRHag) test across the pubertal transition. Design/Setting and Participants: We conducted a prospective study in a General Clinical Research Center with healthy 9- to 15-yr-old volunteer boys. Interventions: Interventions included overnight blood sampling followed by leuprolide acetate injection (10 μg/kg). Primary Outcome Variables: LH, FSH, and testosterone levels were evaluated. Results: LH levels during sleep and post-GnRHag rose steadily during the late prepubertal years. Sleep peak LH correlated highly with the LH response to GnRHag across groups (r = 0.913). A sleep peak LH level of at least 3.7 U/liter predicted pubertal testicular activation with 100% accuracy. LH of at least 14.8 and at least 19.0 U/liter 4 h after GnRHag, respectively, predicted puberty with 100% sensitivity/94% specificity and 100% specificity/94% sensitivity. Overweight pubertal boys had transiently prolonged responses to GnRHag. FSH rose during both waking and sleeping hours during the prepubertal years, and all pubertal boys had an FSH level of at least 0.9 U/liter awake and at least 1.2 U/liter asleep. Sleep LH was more closely related than FSH to testicular size. Conclusions: These data suggest that a critical LH level during sleep (≥3.7 U/liter) heralds the onset of pubertal virilization and that this level is predictable by LH of at least 14.8–19 U/liter 4 h after GnRHag. These data also suggest that LH stimulation of testicular androgen production plays a role in stimulating testicular tubule growth once a critical level of FSH is achieved. PMID:23043188

  2. Sleep and sleep disorders in older adults.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Kate

    2011-03-01

    A common but significant change associated with aging is a profound disruption to the daily sleep-wake cycle. It has been estimated that as many as 50% of older adults complain about difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep. Poor sleep results in increased risk of significant morbidity and mortality. Moreover, in younger adults, compromised sleep has been shown to have a consistent effect on cognitive function, which may suggest that sleep problems contribute to the cognitive changes that accompany older age. The multifactorial nature of variables affecting sleep in old age cannot be overstated. Changes in sleep have been thought to reflect normal developmental processes, which can be further compromised by sleep disturbances secondary to medical or psychiatric diseases (e.g., chronic pain, dementia, depression), a primary sleep disorder that can itself be age-related (e.g., Sleep Disordered Breathing and Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep), or some combination of any of these factors. Given that changes in sleep quality and quantity in later life have implications for quality of life and level of functioning, it is imperative to distinguish the normal age-related sleep changes from those originating from pathological processes. PMID:21225347

  3. Comparison of Detection of Normal Puberty in Girls by a Hormonal Sleep Test and a Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Test

    PubMed Central

    Bordini, Brian; Yu, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Context: The magnitude of sleep-related gonadotropin rise required to activate pubertal feminization is not established. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the normal relationship of pubertal hormone responses to sleep and to GnRH agonist (GnRHag) challenge across the female pubertal transition. Design/Setting: This was a prospective study in a General Clinical Research Center. Participants: Sixty-two healthy 6- to 13-year-old volunteer girls participated in the study. Interventions: Interventions included overnight blood sampling followed by GnRHag (leuprolide acetate) injection. Primary Outcome Variables: The primary outcome variables included LH, FSH, and estradiol. Results: LH levels rose steadily during sleep and after GnRHag throughout the prepubertal years. The LH response to sleep and GnRHag correlated well across groups (eg, r = 0.807, peak vs 4 h post-GnRHag value); however, this correlation was less robust than in boys (r = 0.964, P < .01). Sleep peak LH of 1.3 U/L or greater had 85% sensitivity and 2.1 U/L or greater 96% specificity for detecting puberty (thelarche). The LH 1-hour post-GnRHag value of 3.2 U/L or greater had 95% sensitivity and 5.5 U/L or greater 96% specificity for detecting puberty. Girls entered puberty at lower LH levels than boys. FSH levels rose day and night during the prepubertal years to reach 1.0 U/L or greater during puberty but discriminated puberty poorly. Estradiol of 34 pg/mL or greater at 20–24 hours after GnRHag was 95% sensitive and 60 pg/mL or greater was 95% specific for puberty. Thirty-six percent of overweight early pubertal girls had meager hormonal evidence of puberty. Conclusions: These data suggest that sleep-related pubertal hormone levels critical for puberty are normally reflected in the responses to GnRHag testing across the normal female pubertal transition. Inconsistencies between clinical and hormonal staging may arise from peripubertal cyclicity of neuroendocrine function and from

  4. Nonlinear analysis of the change points between A and B phases during the Cyclic Alternating Pattern under normal sleep.

    PubMed

    Chouvarda, I; Mendez, M O; Alba, A; Bianchi, A M; Grassi, A; Arce-Santana, E; Rosso, V; Terzano, M G; Parrino, L

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the nonlinear properties of the EEG at transition points of the sequences that build the Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP). CAP is a sleep phenomenon built up by consecutive sequences of activations and non-activations observed during the sleep time. The sleep condition can be evaluated from the patterns formed by these sequences. Eleven recordings from healthy and good sleepers were included in this study. We investigated the complexity properties of the signal at the onset and offset of the activations. The results show that EEG signals present significant differences (p<0.05) between activations and non-activations in the Sample Entropy and Tsallis Entropy indices. These indices could be useful in the development of automatic methods for detecting the onset and offset of the activations, leading to significant savings of the physician's time by simplifying the manual inspection task. PMID:23366075

  5. Sleep disordered breathing at the extremes of age: infancy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui-Leng

    2016-01-01

    Educational aims The reader will be able to: Understand normal sleep patterns in infancyAppreciate disorders of breathing in infancyAppreciate disorders of respiratory control Normal sleep in infancy is a time of change with alterations in sleep architecture, sleep duration, sleep patterns and respiratory control as an infant grows older. Interactions between sleep and respiration are key to the mechanisms by which infants are vulnerable to sleep disordered breathing. This review discusses normal sleep in infancy, as well as normal sleep breathing in infancy. Sleep disordered breathing (obstructive and central) as well as disorders of ventilatory control and infant causes of hypoventilation are all reviewed in detail. PMID:27064478

  6. Sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Hoban, Timothy F

    2010-01-01

    Although sleep disorders such as insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea are common in both children and adults, the clinical features and treatments for these conditions differ considerably between these two populations. Whereas an adult with obstructive sleep apnea typically presents with a history of obesity, snoring, and prominent daytime somnolence, a child with the condition is more likely to present with normal body weight, tonsillar hypertrophy, and inattentiveness during school classes. The adult with suspected sleep apnea almost always undergoes a baseline polysomnogram and proceeds to treatment only if this test confirms the diagnosis, while many children with suspected sleep apnea are treated empirically with adenotonsillectomy without ever receiving a sleep study to verify the diagnosis. This article reviews sleep disorders in children, with a particular focus on age-related changes in sleep, conditions that primarily affect children, and disorders for which clinical manifestations and treatment differ substantially from the adult population. PMID:20146688

  7. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:1621022

  8. Sleep in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Vermaelen, James; Greiffenstein, Patrick; deBoisblanc, Bennett P

    2015-07-01

    More than one-half million patients are hospitalized annually for traumatic brain injury (TBI). One-quarter demonstrate sleep-disordered breathing, up to 50% experience insomnia, and half have hypersomnia. Sleep disturbances after TBI may result from injury to sleep-regulating brain tissue, nonspecific neurohormonal responses to systemic injury, ICU environmental interference, and medication side effects. A diagnosis of sleep disturbances requires a high index of suspicion and appropriate testing. Treatment starts with a focus on making the ICU environment conducive to normal sleep. Treating sleep-disordered breathing likely has outcome benefits in TBI. The use of sleep promoting sedative-hypnotics and anxiolytics should be judicious. PMID:26118920

  9. Sleep and Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper ... Work SIDS Sleep apnea Sleep Debt Sleep Deprivation Sleep Disorders Sleep history Sleep hygiene sleep length Sleep Need ...

  10. Interaction between sleep-disordered breathing and apolipoprotein E genotype on cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease in cognitively normal elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Ricardo S; Ayappa, Indu; Mantua, Janna; Gumb, Tyler; Varga, Andrew; Mooney, Anne M; Burschtin, Omar E; Taxin, Zachary; During, Emmanuel; Spector, Nicole; Biagioni, Milton; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Lau, Hiuyan; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Lu, Shou-En; Mosconi, Lisa; Glodzik, Lidia; Rapoport, David M; de Leon, Mony J

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested a link between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and dementia risk. In the present study, we analyzed the relationship between SDB severity, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease-biomarkers, and the ApoE alleles. A total of 95 cognitively normal elderly participants were analyzed for SDB severity, CSF measures of phosphorylated-tau (p-tau), total-tau (t-tau), and amyloid beta 42 (Aβ-42), as well as ApoE allele status. In ApoE3+ subjects, significant differences were found between sleep groups for p-tau (F[df2] = 4.3, p = 0.017), and t-tau (F[df2] = 3.3, p = 0.043). Additionally, among ApoE3+ subjects, the apnea and/or hypopnea with 4% O2-desaturation index was positively correlated with p-tau (r = 0.30, p = 0.023), t-tau (r = 0.31, p = 0.021), and Aβ-42 (r = 0.31, p = 0.021). In ApoE2+ subjects, the apnea and/or hypopnea with 4% O2-desaturation index was correlated with lower levels of CSF Aβ-42 (r = -0.71, p = 0.004), similarly to ApoE4+ subjects where there was also a trend toward lower CSF Aβ-42 levels. Our observations suggest that there is an association between SDB and CSF Alzheimer's disease-biomarkers in cognitively normal elderly individuals. Existing therapies for SDB such as continuous positive airway pressure could delay the onset to mild cognitive impairment or dementia in normal elderly individuals. PMID:24439479

  11. The interaction between sleep-disordered breathing and ApoE genotype on cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease in cognitively normal elderly

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Ricardo S.; Ayappa, Indu; Mantua, Janna; Gumb, Tyler; Varga, Andrew; Mooney, Anne M.; Burschtin, Omar E.; Taxin, Zachary; During, Emmanuel; Spector, Nicole; Biagioni, Milton; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Lau, Hiuyan; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Lu, Shou-En; Mosconi, Lisa; Glodzik, Lidia; Rapoport, David M.; de Leon, Mony J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested a link between Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) and dementia risk. In the present study, we analyzed the relationship between SDB severity, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers, and the ApoE alleles. Methods 95 cognitively normal elderly participants were analyzed for SDB severity, CSF measures of phosphorylated-tau (P-Tau), total-tau (T-Tau), and amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42), as well as ApoE allele status. Findings In ApoE3+ subjects, significant differences were found between sleep groups for P-Tau (F[df2]=4.3, p=0.017), and T-Tau (F[df2]=3.3, p=0.043). Additionally, among ApoE3+ subjects, the apnea/hypopnea with 4% O2-desaturation index (AHI4%) was positively correlated with P-Tau (r=0.30, p=0.023), T-Tau (r=0.31, p=0.021), and Aβ42 (r=0.31, p=0.021). In ApoE2+ subjects, AHI4% was correlated with lower levels of CSF Aβ42 (r=−0.71, p=0.004), similarly to ApoE4+ subjects where there was also a trend towards lower CSF Aβ42 levels Interpretation Our observations suggest that there is an association between SDB and CSF AD- biomarkers in cognitively normal elderly. Existing therapies for SDB such as CPAP could delay the onset to mild cognitive impairment or dementia in normal elderly. PMID:24439479

  12. Ganzfeld Stimulation or Sleep Enhance Long Term Motor Memory Consolidation Compared to Normal Viewing in Saccadic Adaptation Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Voges, Caroline; Helmchen, Christoph; Heide, Wolfgang; Sprenger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation of saccade amplitude in response to intra-saccadic target displacement is a type of implicit motor learning which is required to compensate for physiological changes in saccade performance. Once established trials without intra-saccadic target displacement lead to de-adaptation or extinction, which has been attributed either to extra-retinal mechanisms of spatial constancy or to the influence of the stable visual surroundings. Therefore we investigated whether visual deprivation (“Ganzfeld”-stimulation or sleep) can partially maintain this motor learning compared to free viewing of the natural surroundings. Thirty-five healthy volunteers performed two adaptation blocks of 100 inward adaptation trials – interspersed by an extinction block – which were followed by a two-hour break with or without visual deprivation (VD). Using additional adaptation and extinction blocks short and long (4 weeks) term memory of this implicit motor learning were tested. In the short term, motor memory tested immediately after free viewing was superior to adaptation performance after VD. In the long run, however, effects were opposite: motor memory and relearning of adaptation was superior in the VD conditions. This could imply independent mechanisms that underlie the short-term ability of retrieving learned saccadic gain and its long term consolidation. We suggest that subjects mainly rely on visual cues (i.e., retinal error) in the free viewing condition which makes them prone to changes of the visual stimulus in the extinction block. This indicates the role of a stable visual array for resetting adapted saccade amplitudes. In contrast, visual deprivation (GS and sleep), might train subjects to rely on extra-retinal cues, e.g., efference copy or prediction to remap their internal representations of saccade targets, thus leading to better consolidation of saccadic adaptation. PMID:25867186

  13. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea exhibit genioglossus dysfunction that is normalized after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure.

    PubMed

    Carrera, M; Barbé, F; Sauleda, J; Tomás, M; Gómez, C; Agustí, A G

    1999-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by repetitive episodes of pharyngeal closure during sleep. The pathogenesis of OSAS is unclear. We hypothesized that the genioglossus (GG), the most important pharyngeal dilator muscle, would be abnormal in patients with OSAS. Further, because treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is very effective clinically in these patients, we investigated the effects of CPAP upon the structure and function of the GG. We studied 16 patients with OSAS (nine of them at diagnosis and seven after having been under treatment with CPAP for at least 1 yr) and 11 control subjects in whom OSAS was excluded clinically. A biopsy of the GG was obtained in each subject, mounted in a tissue bath, and stimulated through platinum electrodes. The following measurements were obtained: maximal twitch tension, contraction time, half-relaxation time, the force-frequency relationship, and the response to a fatiguing protocol. The percentage of type I ("slow twitch") and type II ("fast twitch") fibers was also quantified. Patients with OSAS showed a greater GG fatigability than did control subjects (ANOVA, p < 0.001). Interestingly, this abnormality was entirely corrected by CPAP. Likewise, the percentage of type II fibers was significantly higher in patients with OSAS (59 +/- 4%) than in control subjects (39 +/- 4%, p < 0.001) and, again, these structural changes were corrected by CPAP (40 +/- 3%, p < 0.001). These results show that the function and structure of the GG is abnormal in patients with OSAS. Because these abnormalities are corrected by CPAP, we suggest that they are likely a consequence, not a cause, of the disease. PMID:10351945

  14. Sleep disorders in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Bourjeily, Ghada

    2009-01-01

    Sleep complaints are a common occurrence in pregnancy that are in part due to pregnancy-associated anatomic and physiological changes but may also be due to pathological causes. In the non-pregnant population, sleep deprivation has been associated with physical and cognitive issues; poor sleep may even be associated with adverse maternal outcomes. Maternal obesity, one of the most prevalent risk factors in obstetric practices, together with physiologic changes of pregnancy predispose to the development of sleep disordered breathing. Symptoms of sleep disordered breathing have also been associated with poor maternal outcomes. Management options of restless legs syndrome and narcolepsy pose a challenge in pregnancy; benefits of therapy need to be weighed against the potential harm to the fetus. This article briefly reviews the normal changes in pregnancy affecting sleep, gives an overview of certain sleep disorders occurring in pregnancy, and suggests management options specific for this population.

  15. Sleep and respiratory physiology in children.

    PubMed

    Ross, Kristie R; Rosen, Carol L

    2014-09-01

    Maturational changes of breathing during sleep contribute to the unique features of childhood sleep disorders. The clinician's ability to evaluate common disorders related to sleep in children relies on an understanding of normal patterns of breathing during sleep across the ages. This article reviews respiratory physiology during sleep throughout childhood. Specific topics include an overview of respiration during sleep, normal parameters through childhood including respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and measures of carbon dioxide, normal patterns of apneas throughout childhood, and features of breathing during sleep seen in term and preterm infants. PMID:25156762

  16. The Neuroprotective Aspects of Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is an important component of human life, yet many people do not understand the relationship between the brain and the process of sleeping. Sleep has been proven to improve memory recall, regulate metabolism, and reduce mental fatigue. A minimum of 7 hours of daily sleep seems to be necessary for proper cognitive and behavioral function. The emotional and mental handicaps associated with chronic sleep loss as well as the highly hazardous situations which can be contributed to the lack of sleep is a serious concern that people need to be aware of. When one sleeps, the brain reorganizes and recharges itself, and removes toxic waste byproducts which have accumulated throughout the day. This evidence demonstrates that sleeping can clear the brain and help maintain its normal functioning. Multiple studies have been done to determine the effects of total sleep deprivation; more recently some have been conducted to show the effects of sleep restriction, which is a much more common occurrence, have the same effects as total sleep deprivation. Each phase of the sleep cycle restores and rejuvenates the brain for optimal function. When sleep is deprived, the active process of the glymphatic system does not have time to perform that function, so toxins can build up, and the effects will become apparent in cognitive abilities, behavior, and judgment. As a background for this paper we have reviewed literature and research of sleep phases, effects of sleep deprivation, and the glymphatic system of the brain and its restorative effect during the sleep cycle. PMID:26594659

  17. Sleep Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  18. Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. Sleep ... sleepy during the day, you may have a sleep disorder. _____4. Opening the car window or turning the ...

  19. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  20. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard ... problems called parasomnias. There are treatments for most sleep disorders. Sometimes just having regular sleep habits can help.

  1. Expert and crowd-sourced validation of an individualized sleep spindle detection method employing complex demodulation and individualized normalization.

    PubMed

    Ray, Laura B; Sockeel, Stéphane; Soon, Melissa; Bore, Arnaud; Myhr, Ayako; Stojanoski, Bobby; Cusack, Rhodri; Owen, Adrian M; Doyon, Julien; Fogel, Stuart M

    2015-01-01

    A spindle detection method was developed that: (1) extracts the signal of interest (i.e., spindle-related phasic changes in sigma) relative to ongoing "background" sigma activity using complex demodulation, (2) accounts for variations of spindle characteristics across the night, scalp derivations and between individuals, and (3) employs a minimum number of sometimes arbitrary, user-defined parameters. Complex demodulation was used to extract instantaneous power in the spindle band. To account for intra- and inter-individual differences, the signal was z-score transformed using a 60 s sliding window, per channel, over the course of the recording. Spindle events were detected with a z-score threshold corresponding to a low probability (e.g., 99th percentile). Spindle characteristics, such as amplitude, duration and oscillatory frequency, were derived for each individual spindle following detection, which permits spindles to be subsequently and flexibly categorized as slow or fast spindles from a single detection pass. Spindles were automatically detected in 15 young healthy subjects. Two experts manually identified spindles from C3 during Stage 2 sleep, from each recording; one employing conventional guidelines, and the other, identifying spindles with the aid of a sigma (11-16 Hz) filtered channel. These spindles were then compared between raters and to the automated detection to identify the presence of true positives, true negatives, false positives and false negatives. This method of automated spindle detection resolves or avoids many of the limitations that complicate automated spindle detection, and performs well compared to a group of non-experts, and importantly, has good external validity with respect to the extant literature in terms of the characteristics of automatically detected spindles. PMID:26441604

  2. Expert and crowd-sourced validation of an individualized sleep spindle detection method employing complex demodulation and individualized normalization

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Laura B.; Sockeel, Stéphane; Soon, Melissa; Bore, Arnaud; Myhr, Ayako; Stojanoski, Bobby; Cusack, Rhodri; Owen, Adrian M.; Doyon, Julien; Fogel, Stuart M.

    2015-01-01

    A spindle detection method was developed that: (1) extracts the signal of interest (i.e., spindle-related phasic changes in sigma) relative to ongoing “background” sigma activity using complex demodulation, (2) accounts for variations of spindle characteristics across the night, scalp derivations and between individuals, and (3) employs a minimum number of sometimes arbitrary, user-defined parameters. Complex demodulation was used to extract instantaneous power in the spindle band. To account for intra- and inter-individual differences, the signal was z-score transformed using a 60 s sliding window, per channel, over the course of the recording. Spindle events were detected with a z-score threshold corresponding to a low probability (e.g., 99th percentile). Spindle characteristics, such as amplitude, duration and oscillatory frequency, were derived for each individual spindle following detection, which permits spindles to be subsequently and flexibly categorized as slow or fast spindles from a single detection pass. Spindles were automatically detected in 15 young healthy subjects. Two experts manually identified spindles from C3 during Stage 2 sleep, from each recording; one employing conventional guidelines, and the other, identifying spindles with the aid of a sigma (11–16 Hz) filtered channel. These spindles were then compared between raters and to the automated detection to identify the presence of true positives, true negatives, false positives and false negatives. This method of automated spindle detection resolves or avoids many of the limitations that complicate automated spindle detection, and performs well compared to a group of non-experts, and importantly, has good external validity with respect to the extant literature in terms of the characteristics of automatically detected spindles. PMID:26441604

  3. Sleep physiology, abnormal States, and therapeutic interventions.

    PubMed

    Wickboldt, Alvah T; Bowen, Alex F; Kaye, Aaron J; Kaye, Adam M; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  4. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  5. Cued memory reactivation during sleep influences skill learning.

    PubMed

    Antony, James W; Gobel, Eric W; O'Hare, Justin K; Reber, Paul J; Paller, Ken A

    2012-08-01

    Information acquired during waking can be reactivated during sleep, promoting memory stabilization. After people learned to produce two melodies in time with moving visual symbols, we enhanced relative performance by presenting one melody during an afternoon nap. Electrophysiological signs of memory processing during sleep corroborated the notion that appropriate auditory stimulation that does not disrupt sleep can nevertheless bias memory consolidation in relevant brain circuitry. PMID:22751035

  6. Effects of adenoidectomy on markers of endothelial function and inflammation in normal-weight and overweight prepubescent children with sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Nilforoushan, Neshat; Okhovat, Ahmadreza; Amra, Babak; Poursafa, Parinaz; Rogha, Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This trial study aimed to assess the effects of adenoidectomy on the markers of endothelial function and inflammation in normal-weight and overweight prepubescent children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: This trial study was conducted in Isfahan, Iran in 2009. The study population was comprised of 90 prepubescent children (45 normal-weight and 45 overweight children), aged between 4-10 years old, who volunteered for adenoidectomy and had OSA documented by validated questionnaire. The assessment included filling questionnaire, physical examination, and laboratory tests; it was conducted before the surgery and was repeated two weeks and six months after the surgery. RESULTS: Out of the 90 children evaluated, 83 completed the 2-week evaluation and 72 patients continued with the study for the 6-month follow up. Markers of endothelial function, i.e., serum adhesion molecules including endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule (E-selectin), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and the markers of inflammation, i.e., interleukin-6, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) decreased significantly in both normal-weight and overweight children after both two weeks and six months. After six months, the total and LDL-cholesterol showed a significant decrease in the overweight children. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study demonstrated that irrespective of the weight status, children with OSA had increased levels of the endothelial function and inflammation markers, which improved after OSA treatment by adenoidectomy. This might be a form of confirmatory evidence on the onset of atherogenesis from the early stages of the life, and the role of inflammation in the process. The reversibility of endothelial dysfunction after improvement of OSA underscores the importance of primordial and primary prevention of chronic diseases from the early stages of the life. PMID:22247723

  7. Signal conditioning circuitry design for instrumentation systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Cory A.

    2012-01-01

    This report details the current progress in the design, implementation, and validation of the signal conditioning circuitry used in a measurement instrumentation system. The purpose of this text is to document the current progress of a particular design in signal conditioning circuitry in an instrumentation system. The input of the signal conditioning circuitry comes from a piezoresistive transducer and the output will be fed to a 250 ksps, 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an input range of 0-5 V. It is assumed that the maximum differential voltage amplitude input from the sensor is 20 mV with an unknown, but presumably high, sensor bandwidth. This text focuses on a specific design; however, the theory is presented in such a way that this text can be used as a basis for future designs.

  8. Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » About the NHLBI » Organization » National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) » Patient & Public Information » Sleep Quiz National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Research Professional Education Patient & Public Information Communications ...

  9. Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sleep Quiz Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. ...

  10. Sleep in Children with Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Thornton B.A.; Arens, Raanan; Sharman, Jaclyn; Bintliff-Janisak, Brooke; Schultz, Brian; Walters, Arthur S.; Cater, Jacqueline R.; Kaplan, Paige; Pack, Allan I.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze sleep in children with Williams Syndrome (WS) compared to normal healthy controls in order to determine whether particular sleep features are characteristic of WS, and to explore associations between disturbed sleep and behavior. Methods 35 children with genetically-confirmed WS and 35 matched controls underwent overnight polysomnography and performance testing in the Sleep Center at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. Parents completed questionnaires regarding the subjects’ sleep and behavior. Results WS subjects had significantly different sleep than controls, with decreased sleep efficiency, increased respiratory-related arousals, and increased slow wave sleep on overnight polysomnography. WS subjects were also noted to have more difficulty falling asleep, with greater restlessness and more arousals from sleep than controls. 52% of WS subjects had features of attention deficit- hyperactivity disorder. Conclusions Children with WS had significantly different sleep than controls in our sample. These differences demonstrated in our study may reflect genetic influences on sleep. PMID:21940205

  11. Sleeping worries away or worrying away sleep? Physiological evidence on sleep-emotion interactions.

    PubMed

    Talamini, Lucia M; Bringmann, Laura F; de Boer, Marieke; Hofman, Winni F

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that sleep might serve a role in emotional coping. However, most findings are based on subjective reports of sleep quality, while the relation with underlying sleep physiology is still largely unknown. In this study, the impact of an emotionally distressing experience on the EEG correlates of sleep was assessed. In addition, the association between sleep physiological parameters and the extent of emotional attenuation over sleep was determined. The experimental set up involved presentation of an emotionally neutral or distressing film fragment in the evening, followed by polysomnographic registration of undisturbed, whole-night sleep and assessment of emotional reactivity to film cues on the next evening. We found that emotional distress induced mild sleep deterioration, but also an increase in the proportion of slow wave sleep (SWS) and altered patterning of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Indeed, while REM sleep occurrence normally increases over the course of the night, emotional distress flattened this distribution and correlated with an increased number of REM periods. While sleep deterioration was negatively associated to emotional attenuation over sleep, the SWS response was positively related to such attenuation and may form part of a compensatory response to the stressor. Interestingly, trait-like SWS characteristics also correlated positively with the extent of emotion attenuation over sleep. The combined results provide strong evidence for an intimate reciprocal relation between sleep physiology and emotional processing. Moreover, individual differences in subjects' emotional and sleep responses suggest there may be a coupling of certain emotion and sleep traits into distinct emotional sleep types. PMID:23671601

  12. Sleep Perception in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Study Using Polysomnography and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyunwoo; Lim, Jae-Sung; Kim, Jun-Soon; Lee, Keon-Joo; Koo, Dae Lim

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Discrepancies between objectively measured sleep and subjective sleep perception in patients with insomnia have been reported. However, few studies have investigated sleep-state misperception in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We designed this study to 1) delineate the factors that could affect this discrepancy and 2) infer an underlying mechanism in patients with OSA. Methods We recruited patients who visited our sleep clinic for the evaluation of their snoring and/or observed OSA. Participants completed a structured questionnaire and underwent overnight polysomnography. On the following day, five sessions of the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) were applied. We divided the patients into two groups: normal sleep perception and abnormal perception. The abnormal-perception group included patients whose perceived total sleep time was less than 80% of that measured in polysomnography. Results Fifty OSA patients were enrolled from a university hospital sleep clinic. Excessive daytime sleepiness, periodic limb movement index (PLMI), and the presence of dreaming were positively associated with poor sleep perception. REM sleep near the sleep termination exerted important effects. Respiratory disturbance parameters were not related to sleep perception. There was a prolongation in the sleep latency in the first session of the MSLT and we suspected that a delayed sleep phase occurred in poor-sleep perceivers. Conclusions As an objectively good sleep does not match the subjective good-sleep perception in OSA, physicians should keep in mind that OSA patients who perceive that they have slept well does not mean that their OSA is less severe. PMID:27074296

  13. Interface Electronic Circuitry for an Electronic Tongue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keymeulen, Didier; Buehler, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Electronic circuitry has been developed to serve as an interface between an electronic tongue and digital input/output boards in a laptop computer that is used to control the tongue and process its readings. Electronic tongues can be used for a variety of purposes, including evaluating water quality, analyzing biochemicals, analyzing biofilms, and measuring electrical conductivities of soils.

  14. Development of Cortical Circuitry and Cognitive Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman-Rakic, Patricia S.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies on the biological development of the prefrontal cortex in rhesus monkeys are reviewed. These studies have elucidated the basic neural circuitry underlying the delayed-response function in adult nonhuman primates and suggest that a critical mass of cortical synapses is important for the emergence of this cognitive function. (BN)

  15. Clock and cycle limit starvation-induced sleep loss in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Keene, Alex C.; Duboué, Erik R.; McDonald, Daniel M.; Dus, Monica; Suh, Greg S.B.; Waddell, Scott; Blau, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Summary Neural systems controlling the vital functions of sleep and feeding in mammals are tightly inter-connected: sleep deprivation promotes feeding, while starvation suppresses sleep. Here we show that starvation in Drosophila potently suppresses sleep suggesting that these two homeostatically regulated behaviors are also integrated in flies. The sleep suppressing effect of starvation is independent of the mushroom bodies, a previously identified sleep locus in the fly brain, and therefore is regulated by distinct neural circuitry. The circadian clock genes Clock (Clk) and cycle (cyc) are critical for proper sleep suppression during starvation. However, the sleep suppression is independent of light cues and of circadian rhythms because starved period mutants sleep like wild type flies. By selectively targeting subpopulations of Clk-expressing neurons we localize the observed sleep phenotype to the dorsally located circadian neurons. These findings show that Clk and cyc act during starvation to modulate the conflict of whether flies sleep or search for food. PMID:20541409

  16. [Sleep psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders are serious issues in modern society. There has been marked scientific interest in sleep for a century, with the discoveries of the electrical activity of the brain (EEG), sleep-wake system, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and circadian rhythm system. Additionally, the advent of video-polysomnography in clinical research has revealed some of the consequences of disrupted sleep and sleep deprivation in psychiatric disorders. Decades of clinical research have demonstrated that sleep disorders are intimately tied to not only physical disease (e. g., lifestyle-related disease) but psychiatric illness. According to The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2005), sleep disorders are classified into 8 major categories: 1) insomnia, 2) sleep-related breathing disorders, 3) hypersomnias of central origin, 4) circadian rhythm sleep disorders, 5) parasomnias, 6) sleep-related movement disorders, 7) isolated symptoms, and 8) other sleep disorders. Several sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleepwalking, REM sleep behavior disorder, and narcolepsy, may be comorbid or possibly mimic numerous psychiatric disorders, and can even occur due to psychiatric pharmacotherapy. Moreover, sleep disorders may exacerbate underlying psychiatric disorders when left untreated. Therefore, psychiatrists should pay attention to the intimate relationship between sleep disorders and psychiatric symptoms. Sleep psychiatry is an academic field focusing on interrelations between sleep medicine and psychiatry. This mini-review summarizes recent findings in sleep psychiatry. Future research on the bidirectional relation between sleep disturbance and psychiatric symptoms will shed light on the pathophysiological view of psychiatric disorders and sleep disorders. PMID:24050022

  17. Sleep Loss and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Norah S.; Meier-Ewert, Hans K.; Haack, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Controlled, experimental studies on the effects of acute sleep loss in humans have shown that mediators of inflammation are altered by sleep loss. Elevations in these mediators have been found to occur in healthy, rigorously screened individuals undergoing experimental vigils of more than 24 hours, and have also been seen in response to various durations of sleep restricted to between 25 and 50% of a normal 8 hour sleep amount. While these altered profiles represent small changes, such sub-clinical shifts in basal inflammatory cytokines are known to be associated with the future development of metabolic syndrome disease in healthy, asymptomatic individuals. Although the mechanism of this altered inflammatory status in humans undergoing experimental sleep loss is unknown, it is likely that autonomic activation and metabolic changes play key roles. PMID:21112025

  18. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Sleep and Sleep Disorders Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep and Chronic Disease How Much Sleep Do ...

  19. Sleep, its regulation and possible mechanisms of sleep disturbances.

    PubMed

    Porkka-Heiskanen, T; Zitting, K-M; Wigren, H-K

    2013-08-01

    The state of sleep consists of different phases that proceed in successive, tightly regulated order through the night forming a physiological program, which for each individual is different but stabile from one night to another. Failure to accomplish this program results in feeling of unrefreshing sleep and tiredness in the morning. The program core is constructed by genetic factors but regulated by circadian rhythm and duration and intensity of day time brain activity. Many environmental factors modulate sleep, including stress, health status and ingestion of vigilance-affecting nutrients or medicines (e.g. caffeine). Acute sleep loss results in compromised cognitive performance, memory deficits, depressive mood and involuntary sleep episodes during the day. Moreover, prolonged sleep curtailment has many adverse health effects, as evidenced by both epidemiological and experimental studies. These effects include increased risk for depression, type II diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. In addition to voluntary restriction of sleep, shift work, irregular working hours, jet lag and stress are important factors that induce curtailed or bad quality sleep and/or insomnia. This review covers the current theories on the function of normal sleep and describes current knowledge on the physiologic effects of sleep loss. It provides insights into the basic mechanisms of the regulation of wakefulness and sleep creating a theoretical background for understanding different disturbances of sleep. PMID:23746394

  20. Normal breathing pattern and arterial blood gases in awake and sleeping goats after near total destruction of the presumed pre-Bötzinger complex and the surrounding region

    PubMed Central

    Krause, K. L.; Forster, H. V.; Kiner, T.; Davis, S. E.; Bonis, J. M.; Qian, B.; Pan, L. G.

    2009-01-01

    Abrupt neurotoxic destruction of >70% of the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötzC) in awake goats results in respiratory and cardiac failure (Wenninger JM, Pan LG, Klum L, Leekley T, Bastastic J, Hodges MR, Feroah TR, Davis S, Forster HV. J Appl Physiol 97: 1629–1636, 2004). However, in reduced preparations, rhythmic respiratory activity has been found in other areas of the brain stem (Huang Q, St. John WM. J Appl Physiol 64: 1405–1411, 1988; Janczewski WA, Feldman JL. J Physiol 570: 407–420, 2006; Lieske SP, Thoby-Brisson M, Telgkamo P, Ramierz JM. Nature Neurosci 3: 600–607, 2000; St. John WM, Bledsoe TA. J Appl Physiol 59: 684–690, 1985); thus we hypothesized that, when the preBötzC is destroyed incrementally over weeks, time-dependent plasticity within the respiratory network will result in a respiratory rhythm capable of maintaining normal blood gases. Microtubules were bilaterally implanted into the presumed preBötzC of seven goats. After recovery from surgery, studies were completed to establish baseline values for respiratory parameters. At weekly intervals, increasing volumes (in order 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 μl) of ibotenic acid (IA; 50 mM) were then injected into the preBötzC. All IA injections resulted in an acute tachypnea and dysrhythmia featuring augmented breaths, apneas, and increased breath-to-breath variation in breathing. In studies at night, apneas were nearly all central and occurred in the awake state. Breath-to-breath variation in breathing was greater (P < 0.05) during wakefulness than during non-rapid eye movement sleep. However, one week after the final IA injection, the breathing pattern, breath-to-breath variation, and arterial blood gases and pH were unchanged from baseline, but there was a 20% decrease in respiratory frequency (f) and CO2 sensitivity (P < 0.05), as well as a 40% decrease in the ventilatory response to hypoxia (P < 0.001). In subsequent histological analysis of the presumed preBötzC region of lesioned goats, it

  1. Neurofeedback in ADHD and insomnia: vigilance stabilization through sleep spindles and circadian networks.

    PubMed

    Arns, Martijn; Kenemans, J Leon

    2014-07-01

    In this review article an overview of the history and current status of neurofeedback for the treatment of ADHD and insomnia is provided. Recent insights suggest a central role of circadian phase delay, resulting in sleep onset insomnia (SOI) in a sub-group of ADHD patients. Chronobiological treatments, such as melatonin and early morning bright light, affect the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This nucleus has been shown to project to the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) thereby explaining the vigilance stabilizing effects of such treatments in ADHD. It is hypothesized that both Sensori-Motor Rhythm (SMR) and Slow-Cortical Potential (SCP) neurofeedback impact on the sleep spindle circuitry resulting in increased sleep spindle density, normalization of SOI and thereby affect the noradrenergic LC, resulting in vigilance stabilization. After SOI is normalized, improvements on ADHD symptoms will occur with a delayed onset of effect. Therefore, clinical trials investigating new treatments in ADHD should include assessments at follow-up as their primary endpoint rather than assessments at outtake. Furthermore, an implication requiring further study is that neurofeedback could be stopped when SOI is normalized, which might result in fewer sessions. PMID:23099283

  2. Additional Drive Circuitry for Piezoelectric Screw Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert; Palmer, Dean; Gursel, Yekta; Reder, Leonard; Savedra, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Modules of additional drive circuitry have been developed to enhance the functionality of a family of commercially available positioning motors (Picomotor . or equivalent) that provide linear motion controllable, in principle, to within increments .30 nm. A motor of this type includes a piezoelectric actuator that turns a screw. Unlike traditional piezoelectrically actuated mechanisms, a motor of this type does not rely on the piezoelectric transducer to hold position: the screw does not turn except when the drive signal is applied to the actuator.

  3. Metabolic consequences of sleep and circadian disorders

    PubMed Central

    Depner, Christopher M.; Stothard, Ellen R.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms modulate or control daily physiological patterns with importance for normal metabolic health. Sleep deficiencies associated with insufficient sleep schedules, insomnia with short-sleep duration, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, circadian misalignment, shift work, night eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder may all contribute to metabolic dysregulation. Sleep deficiencies and circadian disruption associated with metabolic dysregulation may contribute to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes potentially by altering timing and amount of food intake, disrupting energy balance, inflammation, impairing glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Given the rapidly increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases, it is important to recognize the role of sleep and circadian disruption in the development, progression, and morbidity of metabolic disease. Some findings indicate sleep treatments and countermeasures improve metabolic health, but future clinical research investigating prevention and treatment of chronic metabolic disorders through treatment of sleep and circadian disruption is needed. PMID:24816752

  4. Advanced Data Acquisition Systems with Self-Healing Circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Medelius, Pedro J.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center's Spaceport Engineering & Technology Directorate has developed a data acquisition system that will help drive down the cost of ground launch operations. This system automates both the physical measurement set-up function as well as configuration management documentation. The key element of the system is a self-configuring, self-calibrating, signal-conditioning amplifier that automatically adapts to any sensor to which it is connected. This paper will describe the core technology behind this device and the automated data system in which it has been integrated. The paper will also describe the revolutionary enhancements that are planned for this innovative measurement technology. All measurement electronics devices contain circuitry that, if it fails or degrades, requires the unit to be replaced, adding to the cost of operations. Kennedy Space Center is now developing analog circuits that will be able to detect their own failure and dynamically reconfigure their circuitry to restore themselves to normal operation. This technology will have wide ranging application in all electronic devices used in space and ground systems.

  5. Optogenetic dissection of medial prefrontal cortex circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Riga, Danai; Matos, Mariana R.; Glas, Annet; Smit, August B.; Spijker, Sabine; Van den Oever, Michel C.

    2014-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is critically involved in numerous cognitive functions, including attention, inhibitory control, habit formation, working memory and long-term memory. Moreover, through its dense interconnectivity with subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus), the mPFC is thought to exert top-down executive control over the processing of aversive and appetitive stimuli. Because the mPFC has been implicated in the processing of a wide range of cognitive and emotional stimuli, it is thought to function as a central hub in the brain circuitry mediating symptoms of psychiatric disorders. New optogenetics technology enables anatomical and functional dissection of mPFC circuitry with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. This provides important novel insights in the contribution of specific neuronal subpopulations and their connectivity to mPFC function in health and disease states. In this review, we present the current knowledge obtained with optogenetic methods concerning mPFC function and dysfunction and integrate this with findings from traditional intervention approaches used to investigate the mPFC circuitry in animal models of cognitive processing and psychiatric disorders. PMID:25538574

  6. Method for integrating microelectromechanical devices with electronic circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Montague, S.; Smith, J.H.; Sniegowski, J.J.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1998-08-25

    A method is disclosed for integrating one or more microelectromechanical (MEM) devices with electronic circuitry. The method comprises the steps of forming each MEM device within a cavity below a device surface of the substrate; encapsulating the MEM device prior to forming electronic circuitry on the substrate; and releasing the MEM device for operation after fabrication of the electronic circuitry. Planarization of the encapsulated MEM device prior to formation of the electronic circuitry allows the use of standard processing steps for fabrication of the electronic circuitry. 13 figs.

  7. Method for integrating microelectromechanical devices with electronic circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Montague, Stephen; Smith, James H.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; McWhorter, Paul J.

    1998-01-01

    A method for integrating one or more microelectromechanical (MEM) devices with electronic circuitry. The method comprises the steps of forming each MEM device within a cavity below a device surface of the substrate; encapsulating the MEM device prior to forming electronic circuitry on the substrate; and releasing the MEM device for operation after fabrication of the electronic circuitry. Planarization of the encapsulated MEM device prior to formation of the electronic circuitry allows the use of standard processing steps for fabrication of the electronic circuitry.

  8. Neuronal Machinery of Sleep Homeostasis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Donlea, Jeffrey M.; Pimentel, Diogo; Miesenböck, Gero

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sleep is under homeostatic control, but the mechanisms that sense sleep need and correct sleep deficits remain unknown. Here, we report that sleep-promoting neurons with projections to the dorsal fan-shaped body (FB) form the output arm of Drosophila’s sleep homeostat. Homeostatic sleep control requires the Rho-GTPase-activating protein encoded by the crossveinless-c (cv-c) gene in order to transduce sleep pressure into increased electrical excitability of dorsal FB neurons. cv-c mutants exhibit decreased sleep time, diminished sleep rebound, and memory deficits comparable to those after sleep loss. Targeted ablation and rescue of Cv-c in sleep-control neurons of the dorsal FB impair and restore, respectively, normal sleep patterns. Sleep deprivation increases the excitability of dorsal FB neurons, but this homeostatic adjustment is disrupted in short-sleeping cv-c mutants. Sleep pressure thus shifts the input-output function of sleep-promoting neurons toward heightened activity by modulating ion channel function in a mechanism dependent on Cv-c. PMID:24559676

  9. Respiratory rate variability in sleeping adults without obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Williams, Jeffrey; Alrehaili, Ghadah A; McLean, Anna; Pirouz, Ramin; Amdur, Richard; Jain, Vivek; Ahari, Jalil; Bawa, Amandeep; Kimbro, Shawn

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing respiratory rate variability (RRV) in humans during sleep is challenging, since it requires the analysis of respiratory signals over a period of several hours. These signals are easily distorted by movement and volitional inputs. We applied the method of spectral analysis to the nasal pressure transducer signal in 38 adults with no obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index <5, who underwent all-night polysomnography (PSG). Our aim was to detect and quantitate RRV during the various sleep stages, including wakefulness. The nasal pressure transducer signal was acquired at 100 Hz and consecutive frequency spectra were generated for the length of the PSG with the Fast Fourier Transform. For each spectrum, we computed the amplitude ratio of the first harmonic peak to the zero frequency peak (H1/DC), and defined as RRV as (100 - H1/DC) %. RRV was greater during wakefulness compared to any sleep stage, including rapid-eye-movement. Furthermore, RRV correlated with the depth of sleep, being lowest during N3. Patients spent most their sleep time supine, but we found no correlation between RRV and body position. There was a correlation between respiratory rate and sleep stage, being greater in wakefulness than in any sleep stage. We conclude that RRV varies according to sleep stage. Moreover, spectral analysis of nasal pressure signal appears to provide a valid measure of RRV during sleep. It remains to be seen if the method can differentiate normal from pathological sleep patterns. PMID:27597768

  10. The Development of Micromachined Gyroscope Structure and Circuitry Technology

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Dunzhu; Yu, Cheng; Kong, Lun

    2014-01-01

    This review surveys micromachined gyroscope structure and circuitry technology. The principle of micromachined gyroscopes is first introduced. Then, different kinds of MEMS gyroscope structures, materials and fabrication technologies are illustrated. Micromachined gyroscopes are mainly categorized into micromachined vibrating gyroscopes (MVGs), piezoelectric vibrating gyroscopes (PVGs), surface acoustic wave (SAW) gyroscopes, bulk acoustic wave (BAW) gyroscopes, micromachined electrostatically suspended gyroscopes (MESGs), magnetically suspended gyroscopes (MSGs), micro fiber optic gyroscopes (MFOGs), micro fluid gyroscopes (MFGs), micro atom gyroscopes (MAGs), and special micromachined gyroscopes. Next, the control electronics of micromachined gyroscopes are analyzed. The control circuits are categorized into typical circuitry and special circuitry technologies. The typical circuitry technologies include typical analog circuitry and digital circuitry, while the special circuitry consists of sigma delta, mode matching, temperature/quadrature compensation and novel special technologies. Finally, the characteristics of various typical gyroscopes and their development tendency are discussed and investigated in detail. PMID:24424468

  11. In-school Snacking, Breakfast Consumption, and Sleeping Patterns of Normal and Overweight Iranian High School Girls: A Study in Urban and Rural Areas in Guilan, Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddah, Mohsen; Rashidi, Arash; Mohammadpour, Behnoush; Vafa, Reza; Karandish, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship of snacking during school hours, sleep time, and breakfast consumption by weight status of Iranian high school girls in urban and rural areas in Guilan Province, Iran. Design: Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire and measure of body weight and height. Setting: High schools in urban and…

  12. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  13. Sleep Talking (Somniloquy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  14. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Sleep Apnea? Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder characterized by brief interruptions of breathing during sleep. ... better ways to prevent, treat, and ultimately cure sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea. NIH Patient Recruitment for ...

  15. Healthy Sleep Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  16. Changing your sleep habits

    MedlinePlus

    Insomnia - sleep habits; Sleep disorder - sleep habits; Problems falling asleep; Sleep hygiene ... People who have insomnia are often worried about getting enough sleep. The more they try to sleep, the more frustrated and upset they ...

  17. Sleep disorders - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep (sleep-disruptive behaviors) PROBLEMS FALLING AND ...

  18. Processing circuitry for single channel radiation detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Samuel D. (Inventor); Delaune, Paul B. (Inventor); Turner, Kathryn M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Processing circuitry is provided for a high voltage operated radiation detector. An event detector utilizes a comparator configured to produce an event signal based on a leading edge threshold value. A preferred event detector does not produce another event signal until a trailing edge threshold value is satisfied. The event signal can be utilized for counting the number of particle hits and also for controlling data collection operation for a peak detect circuit and timer. The leading edge threshold value is programmable such that it can be reprogrammed by a remote computer. A digital high voltage control is preferably operable to monitor and adjust high voltage for the detector.

  19. Use of SX Series Devices and IEEE 1149.1 JTAG Circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard B.; Wang, J. J.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the use of SX series devices and their JTAG 1149.1 circuitry. 'JTAG' circuitry was originally designed to standardize testing of boards via a simple control port interface electrically without having to use devices such as a bed of nails tester. JTAG is also used for other functions such as executing built-in-test sequences, identifying devices, or, through custom instructions, other functions designed in by the chip designer. The JTAG circuitry is designed for test only; it has no functional use in the integrated circuit during normal operations. The JTAG circuitry and the mode of the device is controlled by a circuit block known as the 'TAP controller,' which is a sixteen-state state machine along with various registers. The controller is normally in an operational state known as TEST-LOGIC-RESET. In this state, the device is held in a fully functional, operational mode. However, a Single Event Upset (SEU) may remove the TAP controller from this state, causing a loss of control of the integrated circuit, unless certain precautions are taken, such as grounding the optional JTAG TRST signal.

  20. Use of SX Series Devices and IEEE 1149.1 JTAG Circuitry. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard B.; Wang, J. J.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the use of SX series devices and their JTAG 1149.1 circuitry. 'JTAG' circuitry was originally designed to standardize testing of boards via a simple control port interface electrically without having to use devices such as a bed of nails tester. JTAG is also used for other functions such as executing built-in-test sequences, identifying devices, or, through custom instructions, other functions designed in by the chip designer. The JTAG circuitry is designed for test only; it has no functional use in the integrated circuit during normal operations. The JTAG circuitry and the mode of the device is controlled by a circuit block known as the 'TAP controller,' which is a sixteen-state state machine along with various registers. The controller is normally in an operational state known as TEST-LOGIC-RESET. In this state, the device is held in a fully functional, operating mode. However, a Single Event Upset (SEU) may remove the TAP controller from this state, causing a loss of control of the integrated circuit, unless certain precautions are taken, such as grounding the optional JTAG TRST signal.

  1. Sleep Patterns in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hering, Eli; Epstein, Rachel; Elroy, Sarit; Iancu, Daisy R.; Zelnik, Nathanel

    1999-01-01

    This study compared data on sleep disturbances of 22 autistic children obtained by questionnaires with data obtained with actigraphy. Questionnaire responses indicated that autistic children had an earlier morning awakening time and multiple and early night arousals; actigraphic monitoring, however, showed their sleep patterns were normal except…

  2. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  3. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing pauses ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or become ...

  4. The role of sleep in the regulation of body weight.

    PubMed

    Leger, Damien; Bayon, Virginie; de Sanctis, Alice

    2015-12-15

    Sleep participates in the regulation of body weight. The amount of sleep and synchronization of the biological clock are both necessary to achieve the energy balance and the secretion of hormones that contribute to weight regulation. In this review, we first reconsider what normal physiological sleep is and what the normative values of sleep are in the general population. Second, we explain how the biological clock regulates the hormones that may be involved in weight control. Third, we provide some recent data on how sleep may be disturbed by sleep disorders or reduced by sleep debt with consequences on weight. Finally, we explore the relationships between sleep debt and obesity. PMID:26123586

  5. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase. PMID:26758201

  6. CONTROL OF SLEEP AND WAKEFULNESS

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ritchie E.; Basheer, Radhika; McKenna, James T.; Strecker, Robert E.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the brain mechanisms controlling sleep and wakefulness. Wakefulness promoting systems cause low-voltage, fast activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Multiple interacting neurotransmitter systems in the brain stem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain converge onto common effector systems in the thalamus and cortex. Sleep results from the inhibition of wake-promoting systems by homeostatic sleep factors such as adenosine and nitric oxide and GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, resulting in large-amplitude, slow EEG oscillations. Local, activity-dependent factors modulate the amplitude and frequency of cortical slow oscillations. Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep results in conservation of brain energy and facilitates memory consolidation through the modulation of synaptic weights. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep results from the interaction of brain stem cholinergic, aminergic, and GABAergic neurons which control the activity of glutamatergic reticular formation neurons leading to REM sleep phenomena such as muscle atonia, REMs, dreaming, and cortical activation. Strong activation of limbic regions during REM sleep suggests a role in regulation of emotion. Genetic studies suggest that brain mechanisms controlling waking and NREM sleep are strongly conserved throughout evolution, underscoring their enormous importance for brain function. Sleep disruption interferes with the normal restorative functions of NREM and REM sleep, resulting in disruptions of breathing and cardiovascular function, changes in emotional reactivity, and cognitive impairments in attention, memory, and decision making. PMID:22811426

  7. The Role of Sleep and Sleep Disorders in the Development, Diagnosis, and Management of Neurocognitive Disorders.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that sleep plays an important role in the maintenance, disease prevention, repair, and restoration of both mind and body. The sleep and wake cycles are controlled by the pacemaker activity of the superchiasmic nucleus in the hypothalamus but can be disrupted by diseases of the nervous system causing disordered sleep. A lack of sleep has been associated with an increase in all-cause mortality. Likewise, sleep disturbances and sleep disorders may disrupt neuronal pathways and have an impact on neurological diseases. Sleep deprivation studies in normal subjects demonstrate that a lack of sleep can cause attention and working memory impairment. Moreover, untreated sleep disturbances and sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnoe (OSA) can also lead to cognitive impairment. Poor sleep and sleep disorders may present a significant risk factor for the development of dementia. In this review, the underlying mechanisms and the role of sleep and sleep disorders in the development of neurocognitive disorders [dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)] and how the presence of sleep disorders could direct the process of diagnosis and management of neurocognitive disorders will be discussed. PMID:26557104

  8. The Role of Sleep and Sleep Disorders in the Development, Diagnosis, and Management of Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that sleep plays an important role in the maintenance, disease prevention, repair, and restoration of both mind and body. The sleep and wake cycles are controlled by the pacemaker activity of the superchiasmic nucleus in the hypothalamus but can be disrupted by diseases of the nervous system causing disordered sleep. A lack of sleep has been associated with an increase in all-cause mortality. Likewise, sleep disturbances and sleep disorders may disrupt neuronal pathways and have an impact on neurological diseases. Sleep deprivation studies in normal subjects demonstrate that a lack of sleep can cause attention and working memory impairment. Moreover, untreated sleep disturbances and sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnoe (OSA) can also lead to cognitive impairment. Poor sleep and sleep disorders may present a significant risk factor for the development of dementia. In this review, the underlying mechanisms and the role of sleep and sleep disorders in the development of neurocognitive disorders [dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)] and how the presence of sleep disorders could direct the process of diagnosis and management of neurocognitive disorders will be discussed. PMID:26557104

  9. Neural Circuitry of Impaired Emotion Regulation in Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Pommy, Jessica M; Adinoff, Bryon

    2016-04-01

    Impaired emotion regulation contributes to the development and severity of substance use disorders (substance disorders). This review summarizes the literature on alterations in emotion regulation neural circuitry in substance disorders, particularly in relation to disorders of negative affect (without substance disorder), and it presents promising areas of future research. Emotion regulation paradigms during functional magnetic resonance imaging are conceptualized into four dimensions: affect intensity and reactivity, affective modulation, cognitive modulation, and behavioral control. The neural circuitry associated with impaired emotion regulation is compared in individuals with and without substance disorders, with a focus on amygdala, insula, and prefrontal cortex activation and their functional and structural connectivity. Hypoactivation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (rACC/vmPFC) is the most consistent finding across studies, dimensions, and clinical populations (individuals with and without substance disorders). The same pattern is evident for regions in the cognitive control network (anterior cingulate and dorsal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices) during cognitive modulation and behavioral control. These congruent findings are possibly related to attenuated functional and/or structural connectivity between the amygdala and insula and between the rACC/vmPFC and cognitive control network. Although increased amygdala and insula activation is associated with impaired emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders, it is not consistently observed in substance disorders. Emotion regulation disturbances in substance disorders may therefore stem from impairments in prefrontal functioning, rather than excessive reactivity to emotional stimuli. Treatments for emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders that normalize prefrontal functioning may offer greater efficacy for substance disorders

  10. Neural Circuitry of Impaired Emotion Regulation in Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E.; Pommy, Jessica M.; Adinoff, Bryon

    2016-01-01

    Impaired emotion regulation contributes to the development and severity of substance use disorders (substance disorders). This review summarizes the literature on alterations in emotion regulation neural circuitry in substance disorders, particularly in relation to disorders of negative affect (without substance disorder), and it presents promising areas of future research. Emotion regulation paradigms during functional magnetic resonance imaging are conceptualized into four dimensions: affect intensity and reactivity, affective modulation, cognitive modulation, and behavioral control. The neural circuitry associated with impaired emotion regulation is compared in individuals with and without substance disorders, with a focus on amygdala, insula, and prefrontal cortex activation and their functional and structural connectivity. Hypoactivation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (rACC/vmPFC) is the most consistent finding across studies, dimensions, and clinical populations (individuals with and without substance disorders). The same pattern is evident for regions in the cognitive control network (anterior cingulate and dorsal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices) during cognitive modulation and behavioral control. These congruent findings are possibly related to attenuated functional and/or structural connectivity between the amygdala and insula and between the rACC/vmPFC and cognitive control network. Although increased amygdala and insula activation is associated with impaired emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders, it is not consistently observed in substance disorders. Emotion regulation disturbances in substance disorders may therefore stem from impairments in prefrontal functioning, rather than excessive reactivity to emotional stimuli. Treatments for emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders that normalize prefrontal functioning may offer greater efficacy for substance disorders

  11. Sleep and Respiration in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.; Elliott, Ann R.; Prisk, G. Kim; Paiva, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Sleep is often reported to be of poor quality in microgravity, and studies on the ground have shown a strong relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and sleep disruption. During the 16-day Neurolab mission, we studied the influence of possible changes in respiratory function on sleep by performing comprehensive sleep recordings on the payload crew on four nights during the mission. In addition, we measured the changes in the ventilatory response to low oxygen and high carbon dioxide in the same subjects during the day, hypothesizing that changes in ventilatory control might affect respiration during sleep. Microgravity caused a large reduction in the ventilatory response to reduced oxygen. This is likely the result of an increase in blood pressure at the peripheral chemoreceptors in the neck that occurs when the normally present hydrostatic pressure gradient between the heart and upper body is abolished. This reduction was similar to that seen when the subjects were placed acutely in the supine position in one-G. In sharp contrast to low oxygen, the ventilatory response to elevated carbon dioxide was unaltered by microgravity or the supine position. Because of the similarities of the findings in microgravity and the supine position, it is unlikely that changes in ventilatory control alter respiration during sleep in microgravity. During sleep on the ground, there were a small number of apneas (cessation of breathing) and hypopneas (reduced breathing) in these normal subjects. During sleep in microgravity, there was a reduction in the number of apneas and hypopneas per hour compared to preflight. Obstructive apneas virtually disappeared in microgravity, suggesting that the removal of gravity prevents the collapse of upper airways during sleep. Arousals from sleep were reduced in microgravity compared to preflight, and virtually all of this reduction was as a result of a reduction in the number of arousals from apneas and hypopneas. We conclude that any sleep

  12. Posthypoxic ventilatory decline during NREM sleep: influence of sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Omran, Amal M; Aboubakr, Salah E; Aboussouan, Loutfi S; Pierchala, Lisa; Badr, M Safwan

    2004-06-01

    We wished to determine the severity of posthypoxic ventilatory decline in patients with sleep apnea relative to normal subjects during sleep. We studied 11 men with sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome and 11 normal men during non-rapid eye movement sleep. We measured EEG, electrooculogram, arterial O(2) saturation, and end-tidal P(CO2). To maintain upper airway patency in patients with sleep apnea, nasal continuous positive pressure was applied at a level sufficient to eliminate apneas and hypopneas. We compared the prehypoxic control (C) with posthypoxic recovery breaths. Nadir minute ventilation in normal subjects was 6.3 +/- 0.5 l/min (83.8 +/- 5.7% of room air control) vs. 6.7 +/- 0.9 l/min, 69.1 +/- 8.5% of room air control in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients; nadir minute ventilation (% of control) was lower in patients with OSA relative to normal subjects (P < 0.05). Nadir tidal volume was 0.55 +/- 0.05 liter (80.0 +/- 6.6% of room air control) in OSA patients vs. 0.42 +/- 0.03 liter, 86.5 +/- 5.2% of room air control in normal subjects. In addition, prolongation of expiratory time (Te) occurred in the recovery period. There was a significant difference in Te prolongation between normal subjects (2.61 +/- 0.3 s, 120 +/- 11.2% of C) and OSA patients (5.6 +/- 1.5 s, 292 +/- 127.6% of C) (P < 0.006). In conclusion, 1) posthypoxic ventilatory decline occurred after termination of hypocapnic hypoxia in normal subjects and patients with sleep apnea and manifested as decreased tidal volume and prolongation of Te; and 2) posthypoxic ventilatory prolongation of Te was more pronounced in patients with sleep apnea relative to normal subjects. PMID:14990552

  13. Cutaneous warming promotes sleep onset.

    PubMed

    Raymann, Roy J E M; Swaab, Dick F; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2005-06-01

    Sleep occurs in close relation to changes in body temperature. Both the monophasic sleep period in humans and the polyphasic sleep periods in rodents tend to be initiated when core body temperature is declining. This decline is mainly due to an increase in skin blood flow and consequently skin warming and heat loss. We have proposed that these intrinsically occurring changes in core and skin temperatures could modulate neuronal activity in sleep-regulating brain areas (Van Someren EJW, Chronobiol Int 17: 313-54, 2000). We here provide results compatible with this hypothesis. We obtained 144 sleep-onset latencies while directly manipulating core and skin temperatures within the comfortable range in eight healthy subjects under controlled conditions. The induction of a proximal skin temperature difference of only 0.78 +/- 0.03 degrees C (mean +/- SE) around a mean of 35.13 +/- 0.11 degrees C changed sleep-onset latency by 26%, i.e., by 3.09 minutes [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.91 to 4.28] around a mean of 11.85 min (CI, 9.74 to 14.41), with faster sleep onsets when the proximal skin was warmed. The reduction in sleep-onset latency occurred despite a small but significant decrease in subjective comfort during proximal skin warming. The induction of changes in core temperature (delta = 0.20 +/- 0.02 degrees C) and distal skin temperature (delta = 0.74 +/- 0.05 degrees C) were ineffective. Previous studies have demonstrated correlations between skin temperature and sleep-onset latency. Also, sleep disruption by ambient temperatures that activate thermoregulatory defense mechanisms has been shown. The present study is the first to experimentally demonstrate a causal contribution to sleep-onset latency of skin temperature manipulations within the normal nocturnal fluctuation range. Circadian and sleep-appetitive behavior-induced variations in skin temperature might act as an input signal to sleep-regulating systems. PMID:15677527

  14. Epigenetics of Sleep and Chronobiology

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Irfan A.; Mehler, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    The circadian clock choreographs fundamental biological rhythms. This system is comprised of the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and associated pacemakers in other tissues that coordinate complex physiological processes and behaviors, such as sleep, feeding, and metabolism. The molecular circuitry that underlies these clocks and orchestrates circadian gene expression has been the focus of intensive investigation, and it is becoming clear that epigenetic factors are highly integrated into these networks. In this review, we draw attention to the fundamental roles played by epigenetic mechanisms in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation within the circadian clock system. We also highlight how alterations in epigenetic factors and mechanisms are being linked with sleep-wake disorders. These observations provide important insights into the pathogenesis and potential treatment of these disorders and implicate epigenetic deregulation in the significant but poorly understood interconnections now emerging between circadian processes and neurodegeneration, metabolic diseases, cancer, and aging. PMID:24477387

  15. The Brain Reward Circuitry in Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Scott J.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Mood disorders are common and debilitating conditions characterized in part by profound deficits in reward-related behavioral domains. A recent literature has identified important structural and functional alterations within the brain’s reward circuitry —particularly in the ventral tegmental area to nucleus accumbens pathway — that are associated with symptoms such as anhedonia and aberrant reward-associated perception and memory. This review synthesizes recent data from human and rodent studies from which emerges a circuit-level framework for understanding reward deficits in depression. We also discuss some of the molecular and cellular underpinnings of this framework, ranging from adaptations in glutamatergic synapses and neurotrophic factors to transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:23942470

  16. Spinal circuitry of sensorimotor control of locomotion

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, David A

    2001-01-01

    During locomotion many segmental hindlimb reflex pathways serve not only to regulate the excitability of local groups of motoneurones, but also to control the basic operation of the central pattern-generating circuitry responsible for locomotion. This is accomplished through a reorganization of reflexes that includes the suppression of reflex pathways operating at rest and the recruitment during locomotion of previously unrecognized types of spinal interneurones. In addition presynaptic inhibition of transmission from segmental afferents serves to regulate the gain of segmental reflexes and may contribute to the selection of particular reflex pathways during locomotion. The fictive locomotion preparation in adult decerebrate cats has proved to be an important tool in understanding reflex pathway reorganization. Further identification of the spinal interneurones involved in locomotor-dependent reflexes will contribute to our understanding not only of reflex pathway organization but also of the organization of the mammalian central pattern generator. PMID:11351011

  17. Integrator Circuitry for Single Channel Radiation Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Samuel D. (Inventor); Delaune, Paul B. (Inventor); Turner, Kathryn M. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Input circuitry is provided for a high voltage operated radiation detector to receive pulses from the detector having a rise time in the range of from about one nanosecond to about ten nanoseconds. An integrator circuit, which utilizes current feedback, receives the incoming charge from the radiation detector and creates voltage by integrating across a small capacitor. The integrator utilizes an amplifier which closely follows the voltage across the capacitor to produce an integrator output pulse with a peak value which may be used to determine the energy which produced the pulse. The pulse width of the output is stretched to approximately 50 to 300 nanoseconds for use by subsequent circuits which may then use amplifiers with lower slew rates.

  18. Mammalian sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  19. Alternative neural circuitry that might be impaired in the development of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Jesus; Perry, George; Strange, Bryan A.; Hernandez, Felix

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that some individuals with normal cognitive capacity have abundant senile plaques in their brains. It has been proposed that those individuals are resilient or have compensation factors to prevent cognitive decline. In this comment, we explore an alternative mechanism through which cognitive capacity is maintained. This mechanism could involve the impairment of alternative neural circuitry. Also, the proportion of molecules such as Aβ or tau protein present in different areas of the brain could be important. PMID:25954151

  20. Mapping the brain's metaphor circuitry: metaphorical thought in everyday reason

    PubMed Central

    Lakoff, George

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the basics of metaphorical thought and language from the perspective of Neurocognition, the integrated interdisciplinary study of how conceptual thought and language work in the brain. The paper outlines a theory of metaphor circuitry and discusses how everyday reason makes use of embodied metaphor circuitry. PMID:25566012

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... the upper airway for obstructive sleep apnea in adults. Sleep . 2010;33:1408-1413. PMID: 21061864 www. ...

  2. National Sleep Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Turkish Ukrainian Urdu Vietnamese Welsh Yiddish Choose a Sleep Topic sleep.org Sleep Disorders View More Items ... Recommendations. More Join Now Become a Professional Member Sleep.org Footer Redirect Learn about how sleep impacts ...

  3. Sleep disorders - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Insomnia; Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... excessive daytime sleepiness) Problems sticking to a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep ( ...

  4. Sleep in disorders of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Cologan, Victor; Schabus, Manvel; Ledoux, Didier; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre; Laureys, Steven

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY From a behavioral as well as neurobiological point of view, sleep and consciousness are intimately connected. A better understanding of sleep cycles and sleep architecture of patients suffering from disorders of consciousness (DOC) might therefore improve the clinical care for these patients as well as our understanding of the neural correlations of consciousness. Defining sleep in severely brain-injured patients is however problematic as both their electrophysiological and sleep patterns differ in many ways from healthy individuals. This paper discusses the concepts involved in the study of sleep of patients suffering from DOC and critically assesses the applicability of standard sleep criteria in these patients. The available literature on comatose and vegetative states as well as that on locked-in and related states following traumatic or non-traumatic severe brain injury will be reviewed. A wide spectrum of sleep disturbances ranging from almost normal patterns to severe loss and architecture disorganization are reported in cases of DOC and some patterns correlate with diagnosis and prognosis. At the present time the interactions of sleep and consciousness in brain-injured patients are a little studied subject but, the authors suggest, a potentially very interesting field of research. PMID:19524464

  5. Sleep in disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Cologan, Victor; Schabus, Manvel; Ledoux, Didier; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre; Laureys, Steven

    2010-04-01

    From a behavioral as well as neurobiological point of view, sleep and consciousness are intimately connected. A better understanding of sleep cycles and sleep architecture of patients suffering from disorders of consciousness (DOC) might therefore improve the clinical care for these patients as well as our understanding of the neural correlations of consciousness. Defining sleep in severely brain-injured patients is however problematic as both their electrophysiological and sleep patterns differ in many ways from healthy individuals. This paper discusses the concepts involved in the study of sleep of patients suffering from DOC and critically assesses the applicability of standard sleep criteria in these patients. The available literature on comatose and vegetative states as well as that on locked-in and related states following traumatic or non-traumatic severe brain injury will be reviewed. A wide spectrum of sleep disturbances ranging from almost normal patterns to severe loss and architecture disorganization are reported in cases of DOC and some patterns correlate with diagnosis and prognosis. At the present time the interactions of sleep and consciousness in brain-injured patients are a little studied subject but, the authors suggest, a potentially very interesting field of research. PMID:19524464

  6. Classification and epidemiology of childhood sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Owens, Judith

    2008-09-01

    Approximately 25% of all children experience some type of sleep problem at some point during childhood. A number of studies have examined the prevalence of parent- and child-reported sleep complaints in large samples of healthy, typically developing children and adolescents; many of these have also further delineated the association between disrupted sleep and behavioral concerns. Sleep problems are even more prevalent in children and adolescents with chronic medical, neurodevelopmental, and psychiatric conditions. It is important to note that definitions of normal sleep patterns, sleep requirements, and sleep disorders in childhood must necessarily incorporate the wide range of normal developmental and physical maturational changes across childhood and adolescence, and cultural, environmental, and social influences. PMID:18710669

  7. Physical activity and sleep among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Borodulin, Katja; Evenson, Kelly R; Monda, Keri; Wen, Fang; Herring, Amy H; Dole, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among pregnant women and safe treatments to improve sleep are needed. Generally, physical activity improves sleep, but studies are lacking on the associations of physical activity with sleep among pregnant women. Our aim was to investigate the cross-sectional association of various modes of physical activity and activity clusters with sleep quality and duration among 1259 pregnant women. Participants were recruited into the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study from prenatal clinics at the University of North Carolina Hospitals. Women self-reported sleep quality and duration and physical activity in the past week. We used cluster analysis to create seven physical activity profiles and multivariable logistic regression analysis, with adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, parity, self-rated general health, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Women with higher levels of occupational physical activity were more likely to report either short or normal sleep duration than longer duration. Women with higher levels of indoor household physical activity were less likely to report normal sleep duration than shorter duration. Women in the recreational-indoor household activity cluster were less likely than women in the inactivity cluster to report normal sleep duration as compared with longer duration. Our data suggest weak associations of physical activity with sleep duration and quality in late pregnancy. Physical activity is recommended to pregnant women for health benefits, yet more research is needed to understand if physical activity should be recommended for improving sleep. PMID:20078829

  8. Sleep in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Beltrami, Flávia Gabe; Nguyen, Xuân-Lan; Pichereau, Claire; Maury, Eric; Fleury, Bernard; Fagondes, Simone

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Poor sleep quality is a consistently reported by patients in the ICU. In such a potentially hostile environment, sleep is extremely fragmented and sleep architecture is unconventional, with a predominance of superficial sleep stages and a limited amount of time spent in the restorative stages. Among the causes of sleep disruption in the ICU are factors intrinsic to the patients and the acute nature of their condition, as well as factors related to the ICU environment and the treatments administered, such as mechanical ventilation and drug therapy. Although the consequences of poor sleep quality for the recovery of ICU patients remain unknown, it seems to influence the immune, metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurological systems. There is evidence that multifaceted interventions focused on minimizing nocturnal sleep disruptions improve sleep quality in ICU patients. In this article, we review the literature regarding normal sleep and sleep in the ICU. We also analyze sleep assessment methods; the causes of poor sleep quality and its potential implications for the recovery process of critically ill patients; and strategies for sleep promotion. PMID:26785964

  9. Does sleep improve memory organization?

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masashi; Furuta, Hisakazu; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Suzuki, Michio; Ochiai, Yoko; Hosokawa, Munehito; Matsui, Mie; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep can integrate information into existing memory networks, look for common patterns and distil overarching rules, or simply stabilize and strengthen the memory exactly as it was learned. Recent research has shown that sleep facilitates abstraction of gist information as well as integration across multiple memories, insight into hidden solutions, and even the ability to make creative connections between distantly related ideas and concepts. To investigate the effect of sleep on memory organization, 35 normal volunteers were randomly assigned either to the sleep (n = 17) or wake group (n = 18). The sleep subjects performed the Japanese Verbal Learning Test (JVLT), a measure of learning and memory, three times in the evening, and slept. On the following morning (9 h later), they were asked to recall the words on the list. The wake subjects took the same test in the morning, and were asked to recall the words in the same time interval as in the sleep group. The semantic clustering ratio (SCR), divided by the total number of words recalled, was used as an index of memory organization. Our main interest was whether the sleep subjects elicit a greater increase in this measure from the third to the fourth assessments. Time × Group interaction effect on SCR was not significant between the sleep group and wake group as a whole. Meanwhile, the change in the SCR between the third and fourth trials was negatively correlated with duration of nocturnal waking in the sleep group, but not other sleep indices. Based on this observation, further analysis was conducted for subjects in the sleep group who awoke nocturnally for <60 min for comparison with the wake group. A significant Time × Group interaction was noted; these "good-sleepers" showed a significantly greater improvement in the memory index compared with the wake subjects. These results provide the first suggestion that sleep may enhance memory organization, which requires further study. PMID

  10. Sleep quality in professional ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Fietze, Ingo; Strauch, Jutta; Holzhausen, Martin; Glos, Martin; Theobald, Christiane; Lehnkering, Hanna; Penzel, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Ballet dancers are competitive athletes who undergo extreme physical and mental stress and work according to an irregular schedule, with long days of training, rehearsal, and performance. Their most significant potential risks entail physical injury and altered sleep. The elaborate training requirements for ballet dancers do not allow regular chronobiological patterns or a normal sleep-wake rhythm. Our aim was to investigate the sleep-wake rhythm and sleep quality during rehearsal phases prior to a ballet premiere. We used wrist actigraphy and sleep diaries for a period of 67 days before the ballet premiere performance to study 24 classical ballet dancers. We likewise applied the Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), SF-12 Quality of life Assessment, and d2 Test of Attention to assess quality of sleep, aspects of cognitive performance, and health status. We found significant reduction in sleep duration, from 418+/-43 min to 391+/-42 min, and sleep efficiency, from 81+/-4% to 79+/-5%, over the 67-day course of the rehearsal. We also found a decline in time in bed and an increase in wakefulness after sleep onset. Sleep onset latency did not change. However, the changes in sleep as documented by actigraphy were not reflected by the subjective data of the sleep diaries and sleep scores. As a result of the facts that total sleep efficiency and sleep duration values were already lower than usual for the dancers' age group at the beginning of the study and that mental acuity, concentration, and speed were likewise impaired, we observed exacerbated health deterioration in terms of sleep deprivation in ballet dancers during preparation for a premier. We conclude that individual activity-rest schedules, including daytime naps, may be helpful, especially during the stressful training and rehearsal experienced prior to ballet premieres. PMID:19731116

  11. Mean Platelet Volume, Vitamin D and C Reactive Protein Levels in Normal Weight Children with Primary Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Di Mauro, Federica; Lollobrigida, Valeria; Di Fraia, Marco; Savastano, Vincenzo; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Nicita, Francesco; Spalice, Alberto; Duse, Marzia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Studies on Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) in children with Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) report conflicting results and the hypothesis of an intermittent hypoxemia leading to a systemic inflammation is reaching consensus. Vitamin D exerts anti-inflammatory properties and its deficiency has been supposed to play a role in sleep disorders. Emerging interest is rising about Primary Snoring (PS) since it is reasonable that also undetectable alteration of hypoxia might predispose to an increased production of inflammatory mediators. In this perspective, in a group of children affected by SDB, our aim was to investigate MPV, vitamin D and C Reactive Protein (CRP) levels, which had been previously evaluated separately in different studies focused only on Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Materials and Methods We enrolled 137 children: 70 healthy controls (HC), 67 affected by SDB undergoing a polysomnographic evaluation, 22 with a diagnosis of PS and 45 with a diagnosis of OSAS. All patients underwent routine biochemical evaluations including blood cell counts, CRP and vitamin D. Results Children affected by SDB had a mean age of 8.49±2.19 and were prevalently males (23 females, 34%; 44 males, 66%). MPV levels were higher in OSAS and PS when compared to HC; platelet count (PLT) and CRP levels were higher while Vitamin D levels were lower in children with SDB when compared to HC. MPV levels were correlated with PLT (r = -0.54; p<0.001), vitamin D (r = -0.39; p<0.001) and CRP (r = 0.21; p<0.01). A multiple regression was run to predict MPV levels from vitamin D, CRP and PLT and these variables significantly predicted MPV (F = 17.42, p<0.0001; adjusted R2 = 0.37). Only platelet count and vitamin D added statistically significantly to the prediction (p<0.05). Conclusion The present study provides evidence of higher MPV and lower vitamin D levels in children with PS as well as in children with OSAS, and supports the underlying inflammation, hence

  12. GPS Position and Heading Circuitry for Ships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Michael P.; Yim, Hester J.; Gomez, Susan F.

    2003-01-01

    Circuit boards that contain radio-frequency (RF) and digital circuitry have been developed by NASA to satisfy a requirement of the Port of Houston Authority for relatively inexpensive Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers that indicate the azimuthal headings as well as the positions of ships. The receiver design utilizes the unique architecture of the Mitel commercial chip-set, which provides for an accurate GPS-based heading-determination device. The major components include two RF front ends (each connected to a separate antenna), a surface-acoustic-wave intermediate-frequency filter between second- and third-stage mixers, a correlator, and a reduced-instruction- set computer. One of the RF front ends operates as a master, the other as a slave. Both RF front ends share a 10-MHz sinusoidal clock oscillator, which provides for more accurate carrier phase measurements between the two antennas. The outputs of the RF front ends are subjected to conventional GPS processing. The commercial-based chip-set design approach provides an inexpensive open architecture GPS platform, which can be used in developing and implementing unique GPS-heading and attitude-determination algorithms for specific applications. The heading is estimated from the GPS position solutions of the two antennas by an algorithm developed specifically for this application. If a third (and preferably a fourth) antenna were added, it would be possible to estimate the attitude of the GPS receiver in three dimensions instead of only its heading in a horizontal plane.

  13. Superconducting circuitry for quantum electromechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaHaye, Matthew D.; Rouxinol, Francisco; Hao, Yu; Shim, Seung-Bo; Irish, Elinor K.

    2015-05-01

    Superconducting systems have a long history of use in experiments that push the frontiers of mechanical sensing. This includes both applied and fundamental research, which at present day ranges from quantum computing research and e orts to explore Planck-scale physics to fundamental studies on the nature of motion and the quantum limits on our ability to measure it. In this paper, we first provide a short history of the role of superconducting circuitry and devices in mechanical sensing, focusing primarily on efforts in the last decade to push the study of quantum mechanics to include motion on the scale of human-made structures. This background sets the stage for the remainder of the paper, which focuses on the development of quantum electromechanical systems (QEMS) that incorporate superconducting quantum bits (qubits), superconducting transmission line resonators and flexural nanomechanical elements. In addition to providing the motivation and relevant background on the physical behavior of these systems, we discuss our recent efforts to develop a particular type of QEMS that is based upon the Cooper-pair box (CPB) and superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) cavities, a system which has the potential to serve as a testbed for studying the quantum properties of motion in engineered systems.

  14. Modeling of Biological Neurons using Superconducting Circuitry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, Shreeya; Svitelskiy, Oleksiy; Kaplan, Steve; Segall, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    With the goal of understanding the collective behavior of large network of neurons, we purpose a new analog method based on superconducting Josephson junction (JJ) circuitry. Through numerical simulations, we were able to show that these JJ neurons reproduce many characteristic features of biological neurons such as action potential, firing threshold and refractory period. For preliminary testing, we have designed and fabricated a superconducting chip consisting of two coupled JJ neurons, connected to each other in a closed loop. The numerical simulations of the two synchronized coupled neurons, showed a characteristic phase-flip-bifurcation where the two neurons would fire either in-phase or out-of-phase depending on their coupling strength. Thus, we are looking for the characteristic phase-flip-bifurcation in the experiment also. If these encouraging observations find further confirmation, our JJ model will open a way for developing a fast and low power method of studying the dynamics of large neural networks. We would like to thank Zictools/WRSpice for layout and simulation, and Hypres Inc. for fabricating the chip.

  15. Sleep habits and sleep disturbances in Dutch children: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Waumans, Ruth C.; van den Berg, Gerrit; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disorders can lead to significant morbidity. Information on sleep in healthy children is necessary to evaluate sleep disorders in clinical practice, but data from different societies cannot be simply generalized. The aims of this study were to (1) assess the prevalence of sleep disturbances in Dutch healthy children, (2) describe sleep habits and problems in this population, (3) collect Dutch norm data for future reference, and (4) compare sleep in children from different cultural backgrounds. A population-based descriptive study was conducted using the Children’s sleep habits questionnaire and the sleep self-report. One thousand five hundred seven proxy-reports and 262 self-reports were analyzed. Mean age was 8.5 years (95% confidence interval, 8.4–8.6), 52% were boys. Sleep problems in Dutch children were present in 25%, i.e., comparable to other populations. Sleep habits were age-related. Problem sleepers scored significantly higher on all scales. Correlations between parental and self-assessments were low to moderate. Dutch children had significantly more sleep disturbances than children from the USA and less than Chinese children. Cognitions and attitudes towards what is considered normal sleep seem to affect the appraisal of sleep, this probably accounts partly for cultural differences. For a better understanding of cultural influences on sleep, more information on these determinants and the establishment of cultural norms are mandatory. PMID:20191392

  16. Pathophysiology of central sleep apneas.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Adam B; Patil, Susheel P

    2016-05-01

    The transition from wake to sleep is accompanied by a host of physiologic changes, which result in major alterations in respiratory control and may result in sleep-related breathing disorders. The central sleep apneas are a group of sleep-related breathing disorders that are characterized by recurrent episodes of airflow reduction or cessation due to a temporary reduction or absence of central respiratory drive. The fundamental hallmark of central sleep apnea (CSA) disorders is the presence of ventilatory control instability; however, additional mechanisms play a role in one or more specific manifestations of CSA. CSA may manifest during conditions of eucapnia/hypocapnia or chronic hypercapnia, which is a useful clinical classification that lends understanding to the underlying pathophysiology and potential therapies. In this review, an overview of normal breathing physiology is provided, followed by a discussion of pathophysiologic mechanisms that promote CSA and the mechanisms that are specific to different manifestations of CSA. PMID:26782104

  17. Spontaneous sleep and homeostatic sleep regulation in ghrelin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Szentirmai, Eva; Kapás, Levente; Sun, Yuxiang; Smith, Roy G; Krueger, James M

    2007-07-01

    Ghrelin is well known for its feeding and growth hormone-releasing actions. It may also be involved in sleep regulation; intracerebroventricular administration and hypothalamic microinjections of ghrelin stimulate wakefulness in rats. Hypothalamic ghrelin, together with neuropeptide Y and orexin form a food intake-regulatory circuit. We hypothesized that this circuit also promotes arousal. To further investigate the role of ghrelin in the regulation of sleep-wakefulness, we characterized spontaneous and homeostatic sleep regulation in ghrelin knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Both groups of mice exhibited similar diurnal rhythms with more sleep and less wakefulness during the light period. In ghrelin KO mice, spontaneous wakefulness and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) were slightly elevated, and non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS) was reduced. KO mice had more fragmented NREMS than WT mice, as indicated by the shorter and greater number of NREMS episodes. Six hours of sleep deprivation induced rebound increases in NREMS and REMS and biphasic changes in electroencephalographic slow-wave activity (EEG SWA) in both genotypes. Ghrelin KO mice recovered from NREMS and REMS loss faster, and the delayed reduction in EEG SWA, occurring after sleep loss-enhanced increases in EEG SWA, was shorter-lasting compared with WT mice. These findings suggest that the basic sleep-wake regulatory mechanisms in ghrelin KO mice are not impaired and they are able to mount adequate rebound sleep in response to a homeostatic challenge. It is possible that redundancy in the arousal systems of the brain or activation of compensatory mechanisms during development allow for normal sleep-wake regulation in ghrelin KO mice. PMID:17409264

  18. 76 FR 79215 - Certain Semiconductor Chips With Dram Circuitry, and Modules and Products Containing Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Chips With Dram Circuitry, and Modules and Products Containing Same... importation of certain semiconductor chips with DRAM circuitry, and modules and products containing same by... after importation of certain semiconductor chips with DRAM circuitry, and modules and...

  19. Sleep and Anesthesia Interactions: A Pharmacological Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, Matthew T.; Kelz, Max B.

    2013-01-01

    Anesthetics have been used in clinical practice for over a hundred years, yet their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. One tempting hypothesis to explain their hypnotic properties posits that anesthetics exert a component of their effects by “hijacking” the endogenous arousal circuitry of the brain. Modulation of activity within sleep- and wake-related neuroanatomic systems could thus explain some of the varied effects produced by anesthetics. There has been a recent explosion of research into the neuroanatomic substrates affected by various anesthetics. In this review, we will highlight the relevant sleep architecture and systems and focus on studies over the past few years that implicate these sleep-related structures as targets of anesthetics. These studies highlight a promising area of investigation regarding the mechanisms of action of anesthetics and provide an important model for future study. PMID:23440738

  20. Sleep and Anesthesia Interactions: A Pharmacological Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Matthew T; Kelz, Max B

    2013-03-01

    Anesthetics have been used in clinical practice for over a hundred years, yet their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. One tempting hypothesis to explain their hypnotic properties posits that anesthetics exert a component of their effects by "hijacking" the endogenous arousal circuitry of the brain. Modulation of activity within sleep- and wake-related neuroanatomic systems could thus explain some of the varied effects produced by anesthetics. There has been a recent explosion of research into the neuroanatomic substrates affected by various anesthetics. In this review, we will highlight the relevant sleep architecture and systems and focus on studies over the past few years that implicate these sleep-related structures as targets of anesthetics. These studies highlight a promising area of investigation regarding the mechanisms of action of anesthetics and provide an important model for future study. PMID:23440738

  1. [Sleep related eating disorder].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuichi; Komada, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) or night eating syndrome (NES). Critical reviews of the literature on both disorders have suggested that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. The feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with amnesia. Conversely, NES could be considered as an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Both conditions clearly concentrate to occur during young adulthood, and are often relentless and chronic. Misunderstanding and low awareness of SRED and NES have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of the two disorders. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias such as sleep walking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is ineffective, but pharmacotherapy is very effective in controlling SRED. Especially, studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED. PMID:21077298

  2. Sleep and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are two types of sleep: non-rapid eye movement -- or NREM sleep -- and rapid eye movement -- or REM sleep. NREM sleep includes four stages, ranging from light to deep sleep. Then we go into REM sleep, the most active ... During REM sleep, the eyes move back and forth beneath the eyelids and ...

  3. Sleep and behavioral problems in rolandic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Samaitienė, Rūta; Norkūnienė, Jolita; Tumienė, Birutė; Grikinienė, Jurgita

    2013-02-01

    Although patients with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes exhibit a benign course of the disease, some of them display sleep and behavioral problems. Sixty-one patients with rolandic epilepsy, aged 6-11 years, were included in this study. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the presence of seizures over the preceding 6 months. The control group comprised 25 patients without epilepsy and with similar characteristics in terms of age and sex. All patients underwent evaluation of sleep (Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children) and behavior (Lithuanian version of the Child Behaviour Checklist). Only patients who had had seizures over the preceding 6 months displayed significantly higher scores for sleep problems (disorders of excessive daytime sleepiness, disorders of sleep-wake transition, and scores for total sleep problems), worse sleep quality (longer sleep-onset latency), and behavioral problems (anxiety/depression, social problems, thought problems, attention problems, and aggressive behavior) than the patients of the control group. Our data add to evidence that active epilepsy has an impact on sleep and behavior. Clinically significant sleep problems were related to the higher risk of behavioral problems. Parents' ratings for existing sleep problems were sensitive to Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children scores above normal values. PMID:23337004

  4. Sleep and Development in Genetically Tractable Model Organisms.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Matthew S; Biron, David

    2016-05-01

    Sleep is widely recognized as essential, but without a clear singular function. Inadequate sleep impairs cognition, metabolism, immune function, and many other processes. Work in genetic model systems has greatly expanded our understanding of basic sleep neurobiology as well as introduced new concepts for why we sleep. Among these is an idea with its roots in human work nearly 50 years old: sleep in early life is crucial for normal brain maturation. Nearly all known species that sleep do so more while immature, and this increased sleep coincides with a period of exuberant synaptogenesis and massive neural circuit remodeling. Adequate sleep also appears critical for normal neurodevelopmental progression. This article describes recent findings regarding molecular and circuit mechanisms of sleep, with a focus on development and the insights garnered from models amenable to detailed genetic analyses. PMID:27183564

  5. Sleep extension versus nap or coffee, within the context of 'sleep debt'.

    PubMed

    Horne, James; Anderson, Clare; Platten, Charlotte

    2008-12-01

    Though extended night-time sleep mostly reduces the 'afternoon dip', little is known about evening benefits to alertness, or about comparisons with an afternoon nap or caffeine. Twenty healthy carefully screened adults, normal waking alertness levels, underwent four counterbalanced conditions: usual night sleep; night sleep extended<90 min (usual bed-time); up to 20 min afternoon nap; and 150 mg afternoon caffeine (versus decaffeinated coffee). Sleepiness was measured by afternoon and evening multiple sleep latency test (MSLTs), longer psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) sessions and a subjective sleepiness scale. Sleep was extended by average of 74 min, and all participants could nap 15-20 min. Sleep extension had little effect on PVT determined modest levels of morning sleepiness. Afternoon and evening MSLTs showed all active treatments significantly reduced the 'dip', with nap most effective until mid-evening; next effective was caffeine, then extension. Late evening sleepiness and subsequent sleep did not differ between conditions. Arguably, participants may have experienced some 'sleep debt', given they extended sleep and reflected some sleepiness within settings sensitive to sleepiness. Nevertheless, extended sleep seemed largely superfluous and inefficient in reducing modest levels of sleepiness when compared with a timely nap, and even caffeine. Sleep, such as food and fluid intakes, can be taken to excess of real biological needs, and for many healthy adults, there is a level of modest daytime sleepiness, only unmasked by very sensitive laboratory measures. It may reflect a requirement for more sleep or simply be within the bounds of normal acceptability. PMID:19021851

  6. Circuitry, systems and methods for detecting magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K [Shelley, ID; Spencer, David F [Idaho Falls, ID; Roybal, Lyle G [Idaho Falls, ID; Rohrbaugh, David T [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-14

    Circuitry for detecting magnetic fields includes a first magnetoresistive sensor and a second magnetoresistive sensor configured to form a gradiometer. The circuitry includes a digital signal processor and a first feedback loop coupled between the first magnetoresistive sensor and the digital signal processor. A second feedback loop which is discrete from the first feedback loop is coupled between the second magnetoresistive sensor and the digital signal processor.

  7. Troubled sleep

    PubMed Central

    Haig, David

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted sleep is probably the most common complaint of parents with a new baby. Night waking increases in the second half of the first year of infant life and is more pronounced for breastfed infants. Sleep-related phenotypes of infants with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes suggest that imprinted genes of paternal origin promote greater wakefulness whereas imprinted genes of maternal origin favor more consolidated sleep. All these observations are consistent with a hypothesis that waking at night to suckle is an adaptation of infants to extend their mothers’ lactational amenorrhea, thus delaying the birth of a younger sib and enhancing infant survival. PMID:24610432

  8. Cell Injury and Repair Resulting from Sleep Loss and Sleep Recovery in Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Everson, Carol A.; Henchen, Christopher J.; Szabo, Aniko; Hogg, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Increased cell injury would provide the type of change in constitution that would underlie sleep disruption as a risk factor for multiple diseases. The current study was undertaken to investigate cell injury and altered cell fate as consequences of sleep deprivation, which were predicted from systemic clues. Design: Partial (35% sleep reduction) and total sleep deprivation were produced in rats for 10 days, which was tolerated and without overtly deteriorated health. Recovery rats were similarly sleep deprived for 10 days, then allowed undisturbed sleep for 2 days. The plasma, liver, lung, intestine, heart, and spleen were analyzed and compared to control values for damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids; apoptotic cell signaling and death; cell proliferation; and concentrations of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements and Results: Oxidative DNA damage in totally sleep deprived rats was 139% of control values, with organ-specific effects in the liver (247%), lung (166%), and small intestine (145%). Overall and organ-specific DNA damage was also increased in partially sleep deprived rats. In the intestinal epithelium, total sleep deprivation resulted in 5.3-fold increases in dying cells and 1.5-fold increases in proliferating cells, compared with control. Two days of recovery sleep restored the balance between DNA damage and repair, and resulted in normal or below-normal metabolic burdens and oxidative damage. Conclusions: These findings provide physical evidence that sleep loss causes cell damage, and in a manner expected to predispose to replication errors and metabolic abnormalities; thereby providing linkage between sleep loss and disease risk observed in epidemiological findings. Properties of recovery sleep include biochemical and molecular events that restore balance and decrease cell injury. Citation: Everson CA, Henchen CJ, Szabo A, Hogg N. Cell injury and repair resulting from sleep loss and sleep recovery in laboratory rats

  9. The Neurobiological Mechanisms and Treatments of REM Sleep Disturbances in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Qun; Li, Rui; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Zhang, Ze; Qu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2015-01-01

    Most depressed patients suffer from sleep abnormalities, which are one of the critical symptoms of depression. They are robust risk factors for the initiation and development of depression. Studies about sleep electroencephalograms have shown characteristic changes in depression such as reductions in non-rapid eye movement sleep production, disruptions of sleep continuity and disinhibition of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. REM sleep alterations include a decrease in REM sleep latency, an increase in REM sleep duration and REM sleep density with respect to depressive episodes. Emotional brain processing dependent on the normal sleep-wake regulation seems to be failed in depression, which also promotes the development of clinical depression. Also, REM sleep alterations have been considered as biomarkers of depression. The disturbances of norepinephrine and serotonin systems may contribute to REM sleep abnormalities in depression. Lastly, this review also discusses the effects of different antidepressants on REM sleep disturbances in depression. PMID:26412074

  10. Exercise & Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... helps kids. Photo: iStock 6 "Bests" About Kids' Exercise At least one hour of physical activity a ...

  11. Sleeping sickness

    MedlinePlus

    Human African trypanosomiasis ... Kirchoff LV. Agents of African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolan R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ...

  12. Isolated sleep paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... from sleep. It is not associated with another sleep disorder. ... Sleep paralysis can be a symptom of narcolepsy . But if you do not have other symptoms of narcolepsy, there is usually no need to have sleep studies done.

  13. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many of the body's cells also show increased production and reduced breakdown of proteins during deep sleep. ... deep sleep, REM sleep is associated with increased production of proteins. One study found that REM sleep ...

  14. Pediatric sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... Untreated pediatric sleep apnea may lead to: High blood pressure Heart or lung problems Slow growth and development

  15. Isolated sleep paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... from sleep. It is not associated with another sleep disorder. Symptoms Episodes of isolated sleep paralysis last from ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Sleep Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  16. American Sleep Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... of sleep. Why we sleep. Why do we dream? Sleep Hygiene Tips Get good sleep now. What ... Forum Posts 90 minute rule. _ Re: Insomnia question _ Artificial foods acting as stimulant and causing insomnia _ DNP ...

  17. Pediatric sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... During sleep, all of the muscles in the body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep ...

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  19. American Sleep Apnea Association

    MedlinePlus

    American Sleep Apnea Association Learn About the CPAP Assistance Program About ASAA News about ASAA Who we are Leadership Team Supporting the ASAA Financials Learn Healthy sleep Sleep apnea Other sleep disorders Personal stories Treat Test Yourself ...

  20. Sleep Disorders Associated with Primary Mitochondrial Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani, Ryan J.; Stacpoole, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Primary mitochondrial diseases are caused by heritable or spontaneous mutations in nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA. Such pathological mutations are relatively common in humans and may lead to neurological and neuromuscular complication that could compromise normal sleep behavior. To gain insight into the potential impact of primary mitochondrial disease and sleep pathology, we reviewed the relevant English language literature in which abnormal sleep was reported in association with a mitochondrial disease. Design: We examined publications reported in Web of Science and PubMed from February 1976 through January 2014, and identified 54 patients with a proven or suspected primary mitochondrial disorder who were evaluated for sleep disturbances. Measurements and Results: Both nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA mutations were associated with abnormal sleep patterns. Most subjects who underwent polysomnography had central sleep apnea, and only 5 patients had obstructive sleep apnea. Twenty-four patients showed decreased ventilatory drive in response to hypoxia and/or hypercapnia that was not considered due to weakness of the intrinsic muscles of respiration. Conclusions: Sleep pathology may be an underreported complication of primary mitochondrial diseases. The probable underlying mechanism is cellular energy failure causing both central neurological and peripheral neuromuscular degenerative changes that commonly present as central sleep apnea and poor ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Increased recognition of the genetics and clinical manifestations of mitochondrial diseases by sleep researchers and clinicians is important in the evaluation and treatment of all patients with sleep disturbances. Prospective population-based studies are required to determine the true prevalence of mitochondrial energy failure in subjects with sleep disorders, and conversely, of individuals with primary mitochondrial diseases and sleep pathology. Citation: Ramezani RJ

  1. Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder In Temporal Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Scott S.; Murphy, Patricia J.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study sought to characterize sleep and the circadian rhythm of body core temperature of an individual with delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) in the absence of temporal cues and social entrainment and to compare those measures to age-matched normal control subjects studied under identical conditions. Design: Polysomnography and body temperature were recorded continuously for 4 days in entrained conditions, followed immediately by 17 days in a “free-running” environment. Setting: Temporal isolation facility in the Laboratory of Human Chronobiology, Weill Cornell Medical College. Participants: One individual who met criteria for delayed sleep phase disorder according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders Diagnostic and Coding Manual (ICSD-2) and 3 age-matched control subjects. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: The DSPD subject had a spontaneous period length (tau) of 25.38 hours compared to an average tau of 24.44 hours for the healthy controls. The DSPD subject also showed an altered phase relationship between sleep/wake and body temperature rhythms, as well as longer sleep latency, poorer sleep efficiency, and altered distribution of slow wave sleep (SWS) within sleep episodes, compared to control subjects. Conclusions: Delayed sleep phase disorder may be the reflection of an abnormal circadian timing system characterized not only by a long tau, but also by an altered internal phase relationship between the sleep/wake system and the circadian rhythm of body temperature. The latter results in significantly disturbed sleep, even when DSPD patients are permitted to sleep and wake at their preferred times. Citation: Campbell SS; Murphy PJ. Delayed sleep phase disorder in temporal isolation. SLEEP 2007;30(9):1225-1228. PMID:17910395

  2. Refreshing Sleep and Sleep Continuity Determine Perceived Sleep Quality

    PubMed Central

    Fichten, Catherine; Creti, Laura; Conrod, Kerry; Tran, Dieu-Ly; Grad, Roland; Jorgensen, Mary; Amsel, Rhonda; Rizzo, Dorrie; Baltzan, Marc; Pavilanis, Alan; Bailes, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Sleep quality is a construct often measured, employed as an outcome criterion for therapeutic success, but never defined. In two studies we examined appraised good and poor sleep quality in three groups: a control group, individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, and those with insomnia disorder. In Study 1 we used qualitative methodology to examine good and poor sleep quality in 121 individuals. In Study 2 we examined sleep quality in 171 individuals who had not participated in Study 1 and evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality. Across all six samples and both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the daytime experience of feeling refreshed (nonrefreshed) in the morning and the nighttime experience of good (impaired) sleep continuity characterized perceived good and poor sleep. Our results clarify sleep quality as a construct and identify refreshing sleep and sleep continuity as potential clinical and research outcome measures. PMID:27413553

  3. Refreshing Sleep and Sleep Continuity Determine Perceived Sleep Quality.

    PubMed

    Libman, Eva; Fichten, Catherine; Creti, Laura; Conrod, Kerry; Tran, Dieu-Ly; Grad, Roland; Jorgensen, Mary; Amsel, Rhonda; Rizzo, Dorrie; Baltzan, Marc; Pavilanis, Alan; Bailes, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Sleep quality is a construct often measured, employed as an outcome criterion for therapeutic success, but never defined. In two studies we examined appraised good and poor sleep quality in three groups: a control group, individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, and those with insomnia disorder. In Study 1 we used qualitative methodology to examine good and poor sleep quality in 121 individuals. In Study 2 we examined sleep quality in 171 individuals who had not participated in Study 1 and evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality. Across all six samples and both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the daytime experience of feeling refreshed (nonrefreshed) in the morning and the nighttime experience of good (impaired) sleep continuity characterized perceived good and poor sleep. Our results clarify sleep quality as a construct and identify refreshing sleep and sleep continuity as potential clinical and research outcome measures. PMID:27413553

  4. Sleep disorders of early childhood: a review.

    PubMed

    Benhamou, I

    2000-01-01

    Night awakening and refusal to go to sleep are common problems during the first three years of life, comprising 6-30% of children in the general population. The organization and regulation of child sleep is thought to be closely related to his mode of attachment to his mother. Sleep aids (pacifier, teddy bear, etc.) during the night seem to reduce the occurrence of sleep disorders whereas prolonged breastfeeding and co-sleep with the parents interfere with the normal development of sleep. During the preschool years, the main issue affecting sleep is the ability of parents to set firm limits while respecting the sense of autonomy of the child. Sleep disorders are considered to be more common among physically and mentally handicapped children. Children with a difficult temperament sleep less than those with an easy one. A clear association is found between sleep patterns and psychopathology of the mother probably due to emotional unavailability and inappropriate behavior. Evaluation of the disorder should follow medical examination. It should take place in the presence of the child in order to view the real interaction as well as given information about the reported interaction between the child and his mother. Therapeutic interventions in cases of early childhood sleep disorders can be behavioral or psychodynamic and are advised to be focused and brief, unless there is psychopathology in the parents. PMID:11084806

  5. Electroencephalographic studies of sleep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. B.; Agnew, H. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Various experimental studies on sleep are described. The following areas are discussed: (1) effect of altered day length on sleep, (2) effect of a partial loss of sleep on subsequent nocturnal sleep; (3) effect of rigid control over sleep-wake-up times; (4) sleep and wakefulness in a time-free environment; (5) distribution of spindles during a full night of sleep; and (6) effect on sleep and performance of swiftly changing shifts of work.

  6. Reward Circuitry is Perturbed in the Absence of the Serotonin Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Bearer, Elaine L.; Zhang, Xiaowei; Janvelyan, Davit; Boulat, Benoit; Jacobs, Russell E.

    2009-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) modulates the entire serotonergic system in the brain and influences both the dopaminergic and norepinephrinergic systems. These three systems are intimately involved in normal physiological functioning of the brain and implicated in numerous pathological conditions. Here we use high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy to elucidate the effects of disruption of the serotonin transporter in an animal model system: the SERT knock-out mouse. Employing manganese-enhanced MRI, we injected Mn2+ into the prefrontal cortex and obtained 3D MR images at specific time points in cohorts of SERT and normal mice. Statistical analysis of co-registered datasets demonstrated that active circuitry originating in the prefrontal cortex in the SERT knock-out is dramatically altered, with a bias towards more posterior areas (substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and Raphé nuclei) directly involved in the reward circuit. Injection site and tracing were confirmed with traditional track tracers by optical microscopy. In contrast, metabolite levels were essentially normal in the SERT knock-out by in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy and little or no anatomical differences between SERT knock-out and normal mice were detected by MRI. These findings point to modulation of the limbic cortical-ventral striatopallidal by disruption of SERT function. Thus, molecular disruptions of SERT that produce behavioral changes also alter the functional anatomy of the reward circuitry in which all the monoamine systems are involved. PMID:19306930

  7. Cortical Processing of Respiratory Afferent Stimuli during Sleep in Children with the Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jingtao; Colrain, Ian M.; Melendres, M. Cecilia; Karamessinis, Laurie R.; Pepe, Michelle E.; Samuel, John M.; Abi-Raad, Ronald F.; Trescher, William H.; Marcus, Carole L.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Children with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) have blunted upper airway responses to negative pressure, but the underlying cause remains unknown. Cortical processing of respiratory afferent information can be tested by measuring respiratory-related evoked potentials (RREPs). We hypothesized that children with OSAS have blunted RREP responses compared to normal children during sleep. Design: During sleep, RREPs were obtained from EEG electrodes Fz, Cz, Pz during stage 2 sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS), and REM sleep. RREPs were produced with multiple short occlusions of the upper airway. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: 9 children with OSAS and 12 normal controls. Measurements and Results: Children with OSAS had significantly decreased evoked K-complex production in stage 2 sleep and slow wave sleep and significantly reduced RREP N350 and P900 components in slow wave sleep. There were no significant differences in any of the measured RREP components in stage 2 sleep, and the only REM difference was decreased P2 amplitude. Conclusions: Results indicate that in children with OSAS, cortical processing of respiratory-related information measured with RREPs persists throughout sleep; however, RREPs during SWS are blunted compared to those seen in control children. Possible causes for this difference include a congenital deficit in neural processing reflective of a predisposition to develop OSAS, or changes in the upper airway rendering the airway less capable of transducing pressure changes following occlusion. Further research is required to evaluate RREPs after effective surgical treatment of OSAS in children, in order to distinguish between these alternatives. Citation: Huang J; Colrain IM; Melendres MC; Karamessinis LR; Pepe ME; Samuel JM; Abi-Raad RF; Trescher WH; Marcus CL. Cortical processing of respiratory afferent stimuli during sleep in children with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. SLEEP 2007;31(3):403-410. PMID:18363317

  8. Personality characteristics and sleep variables.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Y; Kotorii, M; Arikawa, K; Horikawa, S; Hasuzawa, H

    1975-01-01

    In a sleep study of 14 normal healthy adults an investigation was made of sleep measurements of a baseline record for its eventual relationship to the percentage of increase of REM percentage of the 1st recovery night following partial differential REM deprivation (PDRD), as well as to personality characteristics. The percentage of change in NREM sleep of the 1st recovery night was compared with the baseline record andthen compared with corresponding values of REM sleep. The results are summarized as follows. No significant correlation exists between the percentage of increase in the REM percentage of the 1st recovery night and sleep measures of the baseline record. An investigation of the relationship between sleep measures of the baseline record and personality characteristics revealed that stage SWS(%) was significantly greater in the introvert than in the extrovert, in the neurotic than in the non-neurotic, and in the nervous than in the optimistic. Comparison of the changes in NREM and REM sleep percentages of the 1st recovery night with the baseline record was made between paired personality characteristics. A significantly high percentage of increase in REM percentage was almost always associated with a significantly high percentage of decrease in stage 2 percentage. From these results it was inferred that an increase in REM percentage occurs at the expense of stage 2 percentage. PMID:170175

  9. Sleep-wake disorders and dermatology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K

    2013-01-01

    Sleep is an active process that occupies about one-third of the lives of humans; however, there are relatively few studies of skin disorders during sleep. Sleep disruption in dermatologic disorders can significantly affect the quality of life and mental health of the patient and in some situations may even lead to exacerbations of the dermatologic condition. Sleep and skin disorders interface at several levels: (1) the role of the skin in normal sleep physiology, such as thermoregulation, core body temperature control, and sleep onset; (2) the effect of endogenous circadian rhythms and peripheral circadian "oscillators" on cutaneous symptoms, such as the natural trough in cortisol levels during the evening in patients with inflammatory dermatoses, which most likely results in increased pruritus during the evening and night; (3) the effect of symptoms such as pruritus, hyperhidrosis, and problems with thermoregulation, on sleep and sleep-related quality of life of the patients and their families; (4) the possible effect of primary sleep disorders, such as insomnia, sleep apnea, sleep deprivation, and circadian rhythm disorders, on dermatologic disorders; for example, central nervous system arousals from sleep in sleep apnea can result in increased sympathetic neural activity and increased inflammation; and (5) comorbidity of some dermatologic disorders with stress and psychiatric disorders, for example, major depressive disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that are also associated with sleep-related complaints. Sleep loss in atopic dermatitis (AD) is likely involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD-like symptoms in AD. Scratching during sleep, which may be proportional to the overall level of sympathetic nervous activity during the respective stages of sleep, usually occurs most frequently during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) stages 1 and 2 (vs stages 3 and 4 which are the deeper stages of sleep), and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, where the

  10. Method for integrating microelectromechanical devices with electronic circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Barron, Carole C.; Fleming, James G.; Montague, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    A method is disclosed for integrating one or more microelectromechanical (MEM) devices with electronic circuitry on a common substrate. The MEM device can be fabricated within a substrate cavity and encapsulated with a sacrificial material. This allows the MEM device to be annealed and the substrate planarized prior to forming electronic circuitry on the substrate using a series of standard processing steps. After fabrication of the electronic circuitry, the electronic circuitry can be protected by a two-ply protection layer of titanium nitride (TiN) and tungsten (W) during an etch release process whereby the MEM device is released for operation by etching away a portion of a sacrificial material (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) that encapsulates the MEM device. The etch release process is preferably performed using a mixture of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and hydrochloric acid (HCI) which reduces the time for releasing the MEM device compared to use of a buffered oxide etchant. After release of the MEM device, the TiN:W protection layer can be removed with a peroxide-based etchant without damaging the electronic circuitry.

  11. Method for integrating microelectromechanical devices with electronic circuitry

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, C.C.; Fleming, J.G.; Montague, S.

    1999-10-05

    A method is disclosed for integrating one or more microelectromechanical (MEM) devices with electronic circuitry on a common substrate. The MEM device can be fabricated within a substrate cavity and encapsulated with a sacrificial material. This allows the MEM device to be annealed and the substrate planarized prior to forming electronic circuitry on the substrate using a series of standard processing steps. After fabrication of the electronic circuitry, the electronic circuitry can be protected by a two-ply protection layer of titanium nitride (TiN) and tungsten (W) during an etch release process whereby the MEM device is released for operation by etching away a portion of a sacrificial material (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) that encapsulates the MEM device. The etch release process is preferably performed using a mixture of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) which reduces the time for releasing the MEM device compared to use of a buffered oxide etchant. After release of the MEM device, the TiN:W protection layer can be removed with a peroxide-based etchant without damaging the electronic circuitry.

  12. Epigenetic program and transcription factor circuitry of dendritic cell development.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiong; Chauvistré, Heike; Costa, Ivan G; Gusmao, Eduardo G; Mitzka, Saskia; Hänzelmann, Sonja; Baying, Bianka; Klisch, Theresa; Moriggl, Richard; Hennuy, Benoit; Smeets, Hubert; Hoffmann, Kurt; Benes, Vladimir; Seré, Kristin; Zenke, Martin

    2015-11-16

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that develop from hematopoietic stem cells through successive steps of lineage commitment and differentiation. Multipotent progenitors (MPP) are committed to DC restricted common DC progenitors (CDP), which differentiate into specific DC subsets, classical DC (cDC) and plasmacytoid DC (pDC). To determine epigenetic states and regulatory circuitries during DC differentiation, we measured consecutive changes of genome-wide gene expression, histone modification and transcription factor occupancy during the sequel MPP-CDP-cDC/pDC. Specific histone marks in CDP reveal a DC-primed epigenetic signature, which is maintained and reinforced during DC differentiation. Epigenetic marks and transcription factor PU.1 occupancy increasingly coincide upon DC differentiation. By integrating PU.1 occupancy and gene expression we devised a transcription factor regulatory circuitry for DC commitment and subset specification. The circuitry provides the transcription factor hierarchy that drives the sequel MPP-CDP-cDC/pDC, including Irf4, Irf8, Tcf4, Spib and Stat factors. The circuitry also includes feedback loops inferred for individual or multiple factors, which stabilize distinct stages of DC development and DC subsets. In summary, here we describe the basic regulatory circuitry of transcription factors that drives DC development. PMID:26476451

  13. Epigenetic program and transcription factor circuitry of dendritic cell development

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qiong; Chauvistré, Heike; Costa, Ivan G.; Gusmao, Eduardo G.; Mitzka, Saskia; Hänzelmann, Sonja; Baying, Bianka; Klisch, Theresa; Moriggl, Richard; Hennuy, Benoit; Smeets, Hubert; Hoffmann, Kurt; Benes, Vladimir; Seré, Kristin; Zenke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that develop from hematopoietic stem cells through successive steps of lineage commitment and differentiation. Multipotent progenitors (MPP) are committed to DC restricted common DC progenitors (CDP), which differentiate into specific DC subsets, classical DC (cDC) and plasmacytoid DC (pDC). To determine epigenetic states and regulatory circuitries during DC differentiation, we measured consecutive changes of genome-wide gene expression, histone modification and transcription factor occupancy during the sequel MPP-CDP-cDC/pDC. Specific histone marks in CDP reveal a DC-primed epigenetic signature, which is maintained and reinforced during DC differentiation. Epigenetic marks and transcription factor PU.1 occupancy increasingly coincide upon DC differentiation. By integrating PU.1 occupancy and gene expression we devised a transcription factor regulatory circuitry for DC commitment and subset specification. The circuitry provides the transcription factor hierarchy that drives the sequel MPP-CDP-cDC/pDC, including Irf4, Irf8, Tcf4, Spib and Stat factors. The circuitry also includes feedback loops inferred for individual or multiple factors, which stabilize distinct stages of DC development and DC subsets. In summary, here we describe the basic regulatory circuitry of transcription factors that drives DC development. PMID:26476451

  14. Evidence that birds sleep in mid-flight

    PubMed Central

    Rattenborg, Niels C; Voirin, Bryson; Cruz, Sebastian M.; Tisdale, Ryan; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Wikelski, Martin; Vyssotski, Alexei L.

    2016-01-01

    Many birds fly non-stop for days or longer, but do they sleep in flight and if so, how? It is commonly assumed that flying birds maintain environmental awareness and aerodynamic control by sleeping with only one eye closed and one cerebral hemisphere at a time. However, sleep has never been demonstrated in flying birds. Here, using electroencephalogram recordings of great frigatebirds (Fregata minor) flying over the ocean for up to 10 days, we show that they can sleep with either one hemisphere at a time or both hemispheres simultaneously. Also unexpectedly, frigatebirds sleep for only 0.69 h d−1 (7.4% of the time spent sleeping on land), indicating that ecological demands for attention usually exceed the attention afforded by sleeping unihemispherically. In addition to establishing that birds can sleep in flight, our results challenge the view that they sustain prolonged flights by obtaining normal amounts of sleep on the wing. PMID:27485308

  15. Evidence that birds sleep in mid-flight.

    PubMed

    Rattenborg, Niels C; Voirin, Bryson; Cruz, Sebastian M; Tisdale, Ryan; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Wikelski, Martin; Vyssotski, Alexei L

    2016-01-01

    Many birds fly non-stop for days or longer, but do they sleep in flight and if so, how? It is commonly assumed that flying birds maintain environmental awareness and aerodynamic control by sleeping with only one eye closed and one cerebral hemisphere at a time. However, sleep has never been demonstrated in flying birds. Here, using electroencephalogram recordings of great frigatebirds (Fregata minor) flying over the ocean for up to 10 days, we show that they can sleep with either one hemisphere at a time or both hemispheres simultaneously. Also unexpectedly, frigatebirds sleep for only 0.69 h d(-1) (7.4% of the time spent sleeping on land), indicating that ecological demands for attention usually exceed the attention afforded by sleeping unihemispherically. In addition to establishing that birds can sleep in flight, our results challenge the view that they sustain prolonged flights by obtaining normal amounts of sleep on the wing. PMID:27485308

  16. Sleeping on a problem: the impact of sleep disturbance on intensive care patients - a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Lori J; Van Haren, Frank; Lopez, Violeta

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is commonly encountered amongst intensive care patients and has significant psychophysiological effects, which protract recovery and increases mortality. Bio-physiological monitoring of intensive care patients reveal alterations in sleep architecture, with reduced sleep quality and continuity. The etiological causes of sleep disturbance are considered to be multifactorial, although environmental stressors namely, noise, light and clinical care interactions have been frequently cited in both subjective and objective studies. As a result, interventions are targeted towards modifiable factors to ameliorate their impact. This paper reviews normal sleep physiology and the impact that sleep disturbance has on patient psychophysiological recovery, and the contribution that the clinical environment has on intensive care patients' sleep. PMID:25852963

  17. Effects of sleep on memory for conditioned fear and fear extinction

    PubMed Central

    Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Germain, Anne; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2015-01-01

    Learning and memory for extinction of conditioned fear is a basic mammalian mechanism for regulating negative emotion. Sleep promotes both the consolidation of memory and the regulation of emotion. Sleep can influence consolidation and modification of memories associated with both fear and its extinction. After brief overviews of the behavior and neural circuitry associated with fear conditioning, extinction learning and extinction memory in the rodent and human, interactions of sleep with these processes will be examined. Animal and human studies suggest that sleep can serve to consolidate both fear and extinction memory. In humans, sleep also promotes generalization of extinction memory. Time-of-day effects on extinction learning and generalization are also seen. REM may be a sleep stage of particular importance for the consolidation of both fear and extinction memory as evidenced by selective REM deprivation experiments. REM sleep is accompanied by selective activation of the same limbic structures implicated in the learning and memory of fear and extinction. Preliminary evidence also suggests extinction learning can take place during slow wave sleep. Study of low-level processes such as conditioning, extinction and habituation may allow sleep effects on emotional memory to be identified and inform study of sleep’s effects on more complex, emotionally salient declarative memories. Anxiety disorders are marked by impairments of both sleep and extinction memory. Improving sleep quality may ameliorate anxiety disorders by strengthening naturally acquired extinction. Strategically timed sleep may be used to enhance treatment of anxiety by strengthening therapeutic extinction learned via exposure therapy. PMID:25894546

  18. Subjective sleep complaints indicate objective sleep problems in psychosomatic patients: a prospective polysomnographic study

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Michael; Dietz, Marie; Veauthier, Christian; Fietze, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the relationship between subjective complaints and polysomnographical parameters in psychosomatic patients. Method A convenience sample of patients from a psychosomatic inpatient unit were classified according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) as very poor sleepers (PSQI >10, n=80) and good sleepers (PSQI <6, n=19). They then underwent a polysomnography and in the morning rated their previous night’s sleep using a published protocol (Deutschen Gesellschaft für Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin morning protocol [MP]). Results In the polysomnography, significant differences were found between very poor and good sleepers according to the PSQI with respect to sleep efficiency and time awake after sleep onset. When comparing objective PSG and subjective MP, the polysomnographical sleep onset latency was significantly positively correlated with the corresponding parameters of the MP: the subjective sleep onset latency in minutes and the subjective evaluation of sleep onset latency (very short, short, normal, long, very long) were positively correlated with the sleep latency measured by polysomnography. The polysomnographical time awake after sleep onset (in minutes) was positively correlated with the subjective time awake after sleep onset (in minutes), evaluation of time awake after sleep onset (seldom, normal often), and subjective restfulness. The polysomnographical total sleep time (TST) was positively correlated with the subjective TST. Conversely, the polysomnographical TST was negatively correlated with the evaluation of TST (high polysomnographical TST was correlated with the subjective evaluation of having slept short or normal and vice versa). The polysomnographical sleep efficiency was positively correlated with subjective feeling of current well-being in the morning and subjective TST and negatively with subjective restfulness, subjective sleep onset latency, subjective evaluation of sleep onset latency, and evaluation of

  19. On the Individuality of Sleep EEG Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Achim; Rosipal, Roman; Dorffner, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Research in recent years has supported the hypothesis that many properties of the electroencephalogram (EEG) are specific to an individual. In this study, the intra- and inter-individual variations of sleep EEG signals were investigated. This was carried out by analyzing the stability of the average EEG spectra individually computed for the Rechtschaffen and Kales (RK) sleep stages. Six EEG channels were used to account for the topographical aspect of the analysis. Validity of the results was supported by considering a wide dataset of 174 subjects with normal sleep. Subjects spent two consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory during which EEG recordings were obtained. High similarity between average spectra of two consecutive nights was found considering an individual. More than 89% of the second night recordings were correctly assigned to their counterparts of the first night. The average spectra of sleep EEG computed for each RK sleep stage have shown a high degree of individuality. PMID:23997385

  20. Elevated ghrelin predicts food intake during experimental sleep restriction

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Josiane L.; Kilkus, Jennifer M.; Delebecque, Fanny; Abraham, Varghese; Day, Andrew; Whitmore, Harry R.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sleep curtailment has been linked to obesity, but underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We assessed whether sleep restriction alters 24-hour profiles of appetite-regulating hormones ghrelin, leptin and pancreatic polypeptide during a standardized diet, and whether these hormonal alterations predict food intake during ad libitum feeding. Methods Nineteen healthy, lean men were studied under normal sleep and sleep restriction in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected for 24-hours during standardized meals. Subsequently, participants had an ad libitum feeding opportunity (buffet meals and snacks) and caloric intake was measured. Results Ghrelin levels were increased after sleep restriction as compared to normal sleep (p<0.01). Overall, sleep restriction did not alter leptin or pancreatic polypeptide profiles. Sleep restriction was associated with an increase in total calories from snacks by 328 ± 140 Kcal (p=0.03), primarily from carbohydrates (p=0.02). The increase in evening ghrelin during sleep restriction was correlated with higher consumption of calories from sweets (r=0.48, p=0.04). Conclusions Sleep restriction as compared to normal sleep significantly increases ghrelin levels. The increase in ghrelin is associated with more consumption of calories. Elevated ghrelin may be a mechanism by which sleep loss leads to increased food intake and the development of obesity. PMID:26467988

  1. Polysomnographic study of nocturnal sleep in idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Fabio; Ferri, Raffaele; Poli, Francesca; Vandi, Stefano; Cosentino, Filomena I I; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    We investigated nocturnal sleep abnormalities in 19 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time (IH) in comparison with two age- and sex- matched control groups of 13 normal subjects (C) and of 17 patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC), the latter considered as the extreme of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Sleep macro- and micro- (i.e. cyclic alternating pattern, CAP) structure as well as quantitative analysis of EEG, of periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), and of muscle tone during REM sleep were compared across groups. IH and NC patients slept more than C subjects, but IH showed the highest levels of sleep fragmentation (e.g. awakenings), associated with a CAP rate higher than NC during lighter sleep stages and lower than C during slow wave sleep respectively, and with the highest relative amount of A3 and the lowest of A1 subtypes. IH showed a delta power in between C and NC groups, whereas muscle tone and PLMS had normal characteristics. A peculiar profile of microstructural sleep abnormalities may contribute to sleep fragmentation and, possibly, EDS in IH. PMID:23061443

  2. Dicholine succinate, the neuronal insulin sensitizer, normalizes behavior, REM sleep, hippocampal pGSK3 beta and mRNAs of NMDA receptor subunits in mouse models of depression

    PubMed Central

    Cline, Brandon H.; Costa-Nunes, Joao P.; Cespuglio, Raymond; Markova, Natalyia; Santos, Ana I.; Bukhman, Yury V.; Kubatiev, Aslan; Steinbusch, Harry W. M.; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Strekalova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Central insulin receptor-mediated signaling is attracting the growing attention of researchers because of rapidly accumulating evidence implicating it in the mechanisms of plasticity, stress response, and neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. Dicholine succinate (DS), a mitochondrial complex II substrate, was shown to enhance insulin-receptor mediated signaling in neurons and is regarded as a sensitizer of the neuronal insulin receptor. Compounds enhancing neuronal insulin receptor-mediated transmission exert an antidepressant-like effect in several pre-clinical paradigms of depression; similarly, such properties for DS were found with a stress-induced anhedonia model. Here, we additionally studied the effects of DS on several variables which were ameliorated by other insulin receptor sensitizers in mice. Pre-treatment with DS of chronically stressed C57BL6 mice rescued normal contextual fear conditioning, hippocampal gene expression of NMDA receptor subunit NR2A, the NR2A/NR2B ratio and increased REM sleep rebound after acute predation. In 18-month-old C57BL6 mice, a model of elderly depression, DS restored normal sucrose preference and activated the expression of neural plasticity factors in the hippocampus as shown by Illumina microarray. Finally, young naïve DS-treated C57BL6 mice had reduced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and, similarly to imipramine-treated mice, preserved hippocampal levels of the phosphorylated (inactive) form of GSK3 beta that was lowered by forced swimming in pharmacologically naïve animals. Thus, DS can ameliorate behavioral and molecular outcomes under a variety of stress- and depression-related conditions. This further highlights neuronal insulin signaling as a new factor of pathogenesis and a potential pharmacotherapy of affective pathologies. PMID:25767439

  3. Dicholine succinate, the neuronal insulin sensitizer, normalizes behavior, REM sleep, hippocampal pGSK3 beta and mRNAs of NMDA receptor subunits in mouse models of depression.

    PubMed

    Cline, Brandon H; Costa-Nunes, Joao P; Cespuglio, Raymond; Markova, Natalyia; Santos, Ana I; Bukhman, Yury V; Kubatiev, Aslan; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Strekalova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Central insulin receptor-mediated signaling is attracting the growing attention of researchers because of rapidly accumulating evidence implicating it in the mechanisms of plasticity, stress response, and neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. Dicholine succinate (DS), a mitochondrial complex II substrate, was shown to enhance insulin-receptor mediated signaling in neurons and is regarded as a sensitizer of the neuronal insulin receptor. Compounds enhancing neuronal insulin receptor-mediated transmission exert an antidepressant-like effect in several pre-clinical paradigms of depression; similarly, such properties for DS were found with a stress-induced anhedonia model. Here, we additionally studied the effects of DS on several variables which were ameliorated by other insulin receptor sensitizers in mice. Pre-treatment with DS of chronically stressed C57BL6 mice rescued normal contextual fear conditioning, hippocampal gene expression of NMDA receptor subunit NR2A, the NR2A/NR2B ratio and increased REM sleep rebound after acute predation. In 18-month-old C57BL6 mice, a model of elderly depression, DS restored normal sucrose preference and activated the expression of neural plasticity factors in the hippocampus as shown by Illumina microarray. Finally, young naïve DS-treated C57BL6 mice had reduced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and, similarly to imipramine-treated mice, preserved hippocampal levels of the phosphorylated (inactive) form of GSK3 beta that was lowered by forced swimming in pharmacologically naïve animals. Thus, DS can ameliorate behavioral and molecular outcomes under a variety of stress- and depression-related conditions. This further highlights neuronal insulin signaling as a new factor of pathogenesis and a potential pharmacotherapy of affective pathologies. PMID:25767439

  4. Total Sleep Time Severely Drops during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Leger, Damien; Beck, François; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    Restricted sleep duration among young adults and adolescents has been shown to increase the risk of morbidities such as obesity, diabetes or accidents. However there are few epidemiological studies on normal total sleep time (TST) in representative groups of teen-agers which allow to get normative data. Purpose To explore perceived total sleep time on schooldays (TSTS) and non schooldays (TSTN) and the prevalence of sleep initiating insomnia among a nationally representative sample of teenagers. Methods Data from 9,251 children aged 11 to 15 years-old, 50.7% of which were boys, as part of the cross-national study 2011 HBSC were analyzed. Self-completion questionnaires were administered in classrooms. An estimate of TSTS and TSTN (week-ends and vacations) was calculated based on specifically designed sleep habits report. Sleep deprivation was estimated by a TSTN – TSTS difference >2 hours. Sleep initiating nsomnia was assessed according to International classification of sleep disorders (ICSD 2). Children who reported sleeping 7 hours or less per night were considered as short sleepers. Results A serious drop of TST was observed between 11 yo and 15 yo, both during the schooldays (9 hours 26 minutes vs. 7 h 55 min.; p<0.001) and at a lesser extent during week-ends (10 h 17 min. vs. 9 h 44 min.; p<0.001). Sleep deprivation concerned 16.0% of chidren aged of 11 yo vs. 40.5% of those of 15 yo (p<0.001). Too short sleep was reported by 2.6% of the 11 yo vs. 24.6% of the 15 yo (p<0.001). Conclusion Despite the obvious need for sleep in adolescence, TST drastically decreases with age among children from 11 to 15 yo which creates significant sleep debt increasing with age. PMID:23082111

  5. Extreme Violation of Sleep Hygiene: Sleeping Against the Biological Clock During a Multiday Relay Event

    PubMed Central

    van Maanen, Annette; Roest, Bas; Moen, Maarten; Oort, Frans; Vergouwen, Peter; Paul, Ingrid; Groenenboom, Petra; Smits, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep hygiene is important for sleep quality and optimal performance during the day. However, it is not always possible to follow sleep hygiene requirements. In multiday relay events, athletes have to sleep immediately after physical exertion and sometimes against their biological clock. Objectives: In this pilot study we investigated the effect of having to sleep at an abnormal circadian time on sleep duration. Patients and Methods: Eight runners and two cyclists performing a 500 km relay race were followed. They were divided into two groups that took turns in running and resting. Each group ran four times for approximately five hours while the other group slept. As a result, sleep times varied between normal and abnormal times. All athletes wore actigraphs to record the duration and onset of sleep. Results: Linear mixed model analyses showed that athletes slept on average 43 minutes longer when they slept during usual (night) times than during abnormal (day) times. In general, sleep duration decreased during the race with on average 18 minutes per period. Conclusions: This pilot study shows that, even under extreme violation of sleep hygiene rules, there still is an apparent effect of circadian rhythm on sleep duration in relay race athletes. PMID:26715971

  6. Individual Differences in Response to Sleep Deprivation: Assessment of Fatigue Following Sleep Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carskadon, Mary A.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that a small but significant number of participants in sleep deprivation studies or in simulated shift work experiments manifests an exaggerated performance decrement when they reach a critical point in the experiment, usually near the trough of the circadian cycle or the middle of the night. Those who show this exaggerated response do not appear to differ from other normal volunteers in any substantial way according to usual screening criteria or baseline values. The present study aims to examine factors that may provide the basis for this extreme response. We propose that a preexisting sleep deficit-as manifested by low values on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)-may account for extreme responders. Roth and colleagues (1993) have shown that among normal volunteers screened for a variety of studies, approximately 20 to 25 percent show low (< or = 6 minutes) MSLT scores on a consistent basis, whereas a like proportion shows consistently high MSLT scores (> or = 13 minutes). Additionally, studies by this group have indicated that subjects with low MSLT scores may suffer from chronic insufficient sleep (Roth et al., 1993), as further substantiated by the finding that they have consistently higher nocturnal sleep efficiency and that their MSLT scores rise to normal values when sleep is extended (Roehrs et al., 1996). We hypothesize that the short MSLT subjects have a significant long-term sleep deficit that leads to a marked intolerance for sleep deprivation or shift work. We further suggest that this sleep debt may signify an increased sleep need in these individuals that is not met either due to personal preference or to societal pressures (or both). If this speculation is accurate, then we predict that the tolerance for sleep deprivation in such individuals can be increased by "pretreatment" with sleep extension. Thus, the present study is designed to test the following two hypotheses: subjects with nominal sleep patterns who have

  7. Sleep in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Disorders of sleep are an integral part of neurodegenerative diseases and include insomnia, sleep-wake cycle disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness that may be manifested as persistent somnolence or sudden onset of sleep episodes, obstructive and central sleep apnea, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and restless legs syndrome. The origin of these sleep disorders is multifactorial including degeneration of the brain areas that modulate sleep, the symptoms of the disease, and the effect of medications. Treatment of sleep disorders in patients with neurodegenerative diseases should be individualized and includes behavioral therapy, sleep hygiene, bright light therapy, melatonin, hypnotics, waking-promoting agents, and continuous positive airway pressure. PMID:26972029

  8. Partial sleep in the context of augmentation of brain function

    PubMed Central

    Pigarev, Ivan N.; Pigareva, Marina L.

    2014-01-01

    Inability to solve complex problems or errors in decision making is often attributed to poor brain processing, and raises the issue of brain augmentation. Investigation of neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex in the sleep-wake cycle offers insights into the mechanisms underlying the reduction in mental abilities for complex problem solving. Some cortical areas may transit into a sleep state while an organism is still awake. Such local sleep would reduce behavioral ability in the tasks for which the sleeping areas are crucial. The studies of this phenomenon have indicated that local sleep develops in high order cortical areas. This is why complex problem solving is mostly affected by local sleep, and prevention of local sleep might be a potential way of augmentation of brain function. For this approach to brain augmentation not to entail negative consequences for the organism, it is necessary to understand the functional role of sleep. Our studies have given an unexpected answer to this question. It was shown that cortical areas that process signals from extero- and proprioreceptors during wakefulness, switch to the processing of interoceptive information during sleep. It became clear that during sleep all “computational power” of the brain is directed to the restoration of the vital functions of internal organs. These results explain the logic behind the initiation of total and local sleep. Indeed, a mismatch between the current parameters of any visceral system and the genetically determined normal range would provide the feeling of tiredness, or sleep pressure. If an environmental situation allows falling asleep, the organism would transit to a normal total sleep in all cortical areas. However, if it is impossible to go to sleep immediately, partial sleep may develop in some cortical areas in the still behaviorally awake organism. This local sleep may reduce both the “intellectual power” and the restorative function of sleep for visceral organs. PMID

  9. Rugged microelectronic module package supports circuitry on heat sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, A. L.

    1966-01-01

    Rugged module package for thin film hybrid microcircuits incorporated a rigid, thermally conductive support structure, which serves as a heat sink, and a lead wire block in which T-shaped electrical connectors are potted. It protects the circuitry from shock and vibration loads, dissipates internal heat, and simplifies electrical connections between adjacent modules.

  10. Reward Circuitry Function in Autism during Face Anticipation and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dichter, Gabriel S.; Richey, J. Anthony; Rittenberg, Alison M.; Sabatino, Antoinette; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate reward circuitry responses in autism during reward anticipation and outcomes for monetary and social rewards. During monetary anticipation, participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) showed hypoactivation in right nucleus accumbens and hyperactivation in right hippocampus, whereas during monetary…

  11. The Origin of Behavioral Bursts in Decision-Making Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Pigozzi, Diego; Murga, Cristina; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G.

    2011-01-01

    From ants to humans, the timing of many animal behaviors comes in bursts of activity separated by long periods of inactivity. Recently, mathematical modeling has shown that simple algorithms of priority-driven behavioral choice can result in bursty behavior. To experimentally test this link between decision-making circuitry and bursty dynamics, we have turned to Drosophila melanogaster. We have found that the statistics of intervals between activity periods in endogenous activity-rest switches of wild-type Drosophila are very well described by the Weibull distribution, a common distribution of bursty dynamics in complex systems. The bursty dynamics of wild-type Drosophila walking activity are shown to be determined by this inter-event distribution alone and not by memory effects, thus resembling human dynamics. Further, using mutant flies that disrupt dopaminergic signaling or the mushroom body, circuitry implicated in decision-making, we show that the degree of behavioral burstiness can be modified. These results are thus consistent with the proposed link between decision-making circuitry and bursty dynamics, and highlight the importance of using simple experimental systems to test general theoretical models of behavior. The findings further suggest that analysis of bursts could prove useful for the study and evaluation of decision-making circuitry. PMID:21731478

  12. Statistical physics approaches to quantifying sleep-stage transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Chung-Chuan

    Sleep can be viewed as a sequence of transitions in a very complex neuronal system. Traditionally, studies of the dynamics of sleep control have focused on the circadian rhythm of sleep-wake transitions or on the ultradian rhythm of the sleep cycle. However, very little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the time structure or even the statistics of the rapid sleep-stage transitions that appear without periodicity. I study the time dynamics of sleep-wake transitions for different species, including humans, rats, and mice, and find that the wake and sleep episodes exhibit completely different behaviors: the durations of wake episodes are characterized by a scale-free power-law distribution, while the durations of sleep episodes have an exponential distribution with a characteristic time scale. The functional forms of the distributions of the sleep and wake durations hold for human subjects of different ages and for subjects with sleep apnea. They also hold for all the species I investigate. Surprisingly, all species have the same power-law exponent for the distribution of wake durations, but the exponential characteristic time of the distribution of sleep durations changes across species. I develop a stochastic model which accurately reproduces our empirical findings. The model suggests that the difference between the dynamics of the sleep and wake states arises from the constraints on the number of microstates in the sleep-wake system. I develop a measure of asymmetry in sleep-stage transitions using a transition probability matrix. I find that both normal and sleep apnea subjects are characterized by two types of asymmetric sleep-stage transition paths, and that the sleep apnea group exhibits less asymmetry in the sleep-stage transitions.

  13. Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Plasticity Harnesses Endocytic Circuitries

    PubMed Central

    Corallino, Salvatore; Malabarba, Maria Grazia; Zobel, Martina; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Scita, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The ability of cells to alter their phenotypic and morphological characteristics, known as cellular plasticity, is critical in normal embryonic development and adult tissue repair and contributes to the pathogenesis of diseases, such as organ fibrosis and cancer. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a type of cellular plasticity. This transition involves genetic and epigenetic changes as well as alterations in protein expression and post-translational modifications. These changes result in reduced cell-cell adhesion, enhanced cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix, and altered organization of the cytoskeleton and of cell polarity. Among these modifications, loss of cell polarity represents the nearly invariable, distinguishing feature of EMT that frequently precedes the other traits or might even occur in their absence. EMT transforms cell morphology and physiology, and hence cell identity, from one typical of cells that form a tight barrier, like epithelial and endothelial cells, to one characterized by a highly motile mesenchymal phenotype. Time-resolved proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of cells undergoing EMT recently identified thousands of changes in proteins involved in many cellular processes, including cell proliferation and motility, DNA repair, and – unexpectedly – membrane trafficking (1). These results have highlighted a picture of great complexity. First, the EMT transition is not an all-or-none response but rather a gradual process that develops over time. Second, EMT events are highly dynamic and frequently reversible, involving both cell-autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms. The net results is that EMT generates populations of mixed cells, with partial or full phenotypes, possibly accounting (at least in part) for the physiological as well as pathological cellular heterogeneity of some tissues. Endocytic circuitries have emerged as complex connectivity infrastructures for numerous cellular networks required for the

  14. Cardiovascular, Inflammatory and Metabolic Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Mullington, Janet M.; Haack, Monika; Toth, Maria; Serrador, Jorge; Meier-Ewert, Hans

    2009-01-01

    That insufficient sleep is associated with poor attention and performance deficits is becoming widely recognized. Fewer people are aware that chronic sleep complaints in epidemiological studies have also been associated with an increase in overall mortality and morbidity. This article summarizes findings of known effects of insufficient sleep on cardiovascular risk factors including blood pressure, glucose metabolism, hormonal regulation and inflammation with particular emphasis on experimental sleep loss, using models of total and partial sleep deprivation, in healthy individuals who normally sleep in the range of 7-8 hours and have no sleep disorders. These studies show that insufficient sleep alters established cardiovascular risk factors in a direction that is known to increase the risk of cardiac morbidity. PMID:19110131

  15. Sleep Changes in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... ages can have a sleep disorder such as sleep apnea. Restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder ... that can cause problems with sleep. What is sleep apnea? Sleep apnea is a disorder in which a ...

  16. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation. PMID:26414625

  17. Medicines for sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000758.htm Medicines for sleep To use the sharing features on ... or illegal drug use Over-the-counter sleep medicines Most over-the-counter (OTC) sleeping pills contain ...

  18. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contributing medical factors Non-drug strategies Medications Common sleep changes Many people with Alzheimer’s experience changes in ... at night. Subscribe now Non-drug treatments for sleep changes Non-drug treatments aim to improve sleep ...

  19. Good Night's Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms to see if you might have a sleep disorder like insomnia, sleep apnea, or a movement disorder. ... periodic limb movement disorder, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder are common in older adults. These movement disorders ...

  20. Sleep and your health

    MedlinePlus

    ... and awake, even when you are very tired. Sleep disorders Sleep problems are a big reason why many ... through the night. It is the most common sleep disorder. Insomnia can last for a night, a couple ...

  1. Aging changes in sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... CHANGES Sleeping difficulty is an annoying problem. Chronic insomnia is a major cause of auto accidents and ... health condition is affecting your sleep. COMMON PROBLEMS Insomnia is one of the more common sleep problems ...

  2. Sleep Apnea Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Sleep > Sleep Apnea ...

  3. Excessive daytime sleepiness in sleep disorders

    PubMed Central

    Steier, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness is a significant public health problem, with prevalence in the community estimated to be as high as 18%. Sleepiness is caused by abnormal sleep quantity or sleep quality. Amongst others, multiple neurological, psychological, cardiac and pulmonary disorders may contribute. Risk factors for excessive sleepiness include obesity, depression, extremes of age and insufficient sleep. In the clinical setting, two of the most commonly encountered causes are obstructive sleep apnoea and periodic limb movement disorder. There is continuing discussion of the mechanisms by which these disorders cause daytime symptoms, with intermittent nocturnal hypoxia, sleep fragmentation and autonomic dysregulation identified as important factors. The increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea in obese subjects does not fully account for the increased rates of daytime sleepiness in this population and there is evidence to suggest that it is caused by metabolic factors and chronic inflammation in obese individuals. Sleepiness is also more common in those reporting symptoms of depression or anxiety disorders and significantly impacts their quality of life. Clinicians should be aware of factors which put their patients at high risk of daytime sleepiness, as it is a debilitating and potentially dangerous symptom with medico-legal implications. Treatment option should address underlying contributors and promote sleep quantity and sleep quality by ensuring good sleep hygiene. However, stimulant medication may be indicated in some cases to allow for more normal daytime functioning. PMID:23205286

  4. Consumer sleep tracking devices: a review of mechanisms, validity and utility.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Bhanu Prakash; Mansukhani, Subir; Mansukhani, Meghna P

    2016-05-01

    Consumer sleep tracking devices such as fitness trackers and smartphone apps have become increasingly popular. These devices claim to measure the sleep duration of their users and in some cases purport to measure sleep quality and awaken users from light sleep, potentially improving overall sleep. Most of these devices appear to utilize data generated from in-built accelerometers to determine sleep parameters but the exact mechanisms and algorithms are proprietary. The growing literature comparing these devices against polysomnography/actigraphy shows that they tend to underestimate sleep disruptions and overestimate total sleep times and sleep efficiency in normal subjects. In this review, we evaluate the current literature comparing the accuracy of consumer sleep tracking devices against more conventional methods used to measure sleep duration and quality. We discuss the current technology that these devices utilize as well as summarize the value of these devices in clinical evaluations and their potential limitations. PMID:27043070

  5. Individual Differences in Response to Sleep Deprivation: Assessment of Fatigue Following Sleep Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carskadon, Mary A.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that a small but significant number of participants in sleep deprivation studies or in simulated shift work experiments manifests an exaggerated performance decrement when they reach a critical point in the experiment, usually near the trough of the circadian cycle or the middle of the night. Those who show this exaggerated response do not appear to differ from other non-nal volunteers in any substantial way according to usual screening criteria or baseline values. The present study aims to examine factors that may provide the basis for this extreme response. We propose that a preexisting sleep deficit-as manifested by low values on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)-may account for extreme responders. Roth and colleagues (1993) have shown that among normal volunteers screened for a variety of studies, approximately 20 to 25 percent show low (< 6 minutes) MSLT scores on a consistent basis, whereas a like proportion shows consistently high MSLT scores (> 13 minutes). Additionally, studies by this group have indicated that subjects with low MSLT scores may suffer from chronic insufficient sleep (Roth et al., 1993), as further substantiated by the finding that they have consistently higher nocturnal sleep efficiency and that their MSLT scores rise to normal values when sleep is extended (Roehrs et al., 1996). We hypothesize that the short MSLT subjects have a significant long-term sleep deficit that leads to a marked intolerance for sleep deprivation or shift work. We further suggest that this sleep debt may signify an increased sleep need in these individuals that is not met either due to personal preference or to societal pressures (or both). If this speculation is accurate, then we predict that the tolerance for sleep deprivation in such individuals can be increased by "pretreatment" with sleep extension. Thus, the present study is designed to test the following two hypotheses: subjects with nominal sleep patterns who have low MSLT

  6. Individual Differences in Response to Sleep Deprivation: Assessment of Fatigue Following Sleep Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carskadon, Mary A.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that a small but significant number of participants in sleep deprivation studies or in simulated shift work experiments manifests an exaggerated performance decrement when they reach a critical point in the experiment, usually near the trough of the circadian cycle or the middle of the night. Those who show this exaggerated response do not appear to differ from other non-nal volunteers in any substantial way according to usual screening criteria or baseline values. The present study aims to examine factors that may provide the basis for this extreme response. We propose that a preexisting sleep deficit-as manifested by low values on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)-may account for extreme responders. It has been shown that among normal volunteers screened for a variety of studies, approximately 20 to 25 percent show low (< 6 minutes) MSLT scores on a consistent basis, whereas a like proportion shows consistently high MSLT scores (> 13 minutes). Additionally, studies by this group have indicated that subjects with low MSLT scores may suffer from chronic insufficient sleep, as further substantiated by the finding that they have consistently higher nocturnal sleep efficiency and that their MSLT scores rise to normal values when sleep is extended. We hypothesize that the short MSLT subjects have a significant long-term sleep deficit that leads to a marked intolerance for sleep deprivation or shift work. We further suggest that this sleep debt may signify an increased sleep need in these individuals that is not met either due to personal preference or to societal pressures (or both). If this speculation is accurate, then we predict that the tolerance for sleep deprivation in such individuals can be increased by "pretreatment" with sleep extension. Thus, the present study is designed to test the following two hypotheses: (1) subjects with nominal sleep patterns who have low MSLT scores (e.g., Sleepy subjects) will show an exaggerated

  7. Overview of sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Roldan, Glenn; Ang, Robert C

    2006-03-01

    Sleep disorders are common and can affect anyone, from every social class and every ethnic background. It is estimated that more than 70 million Americans are afflicted by chronic sleep disorders. Currently about 88 sleep disorders are described by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders as established by The American Academy of Sleep Medicine. This article describes the dyssomnias and parasomnias most commonly seen in the clinical setting of the sleep disorder clinic or laboratory. PMID:16530646

  8. Forced splitting of human sleep in free-running rhythms.

    PubMed

    Zulley; Carr

    1992-06-01

    The assumption of polyphasic sleep/wake regulation is based on the occurrence of nap-sleep at specific phase positions in the circadian cycle. Further support would be the split of the normal long major sleep episode into shorter components. Evidence for this hypothesis comes from the discovery of bimodal distribution in sleep duration. An experimental approach to test this hypothesis has been carried out by restricting sleep duration in free-running rhythms. The outcome was a biphasic distribution of sleep within a circadian cycle with sections of dissociation and synchronization of the two sleep blocks. The results show similarities with 'splitting', a phenomenon which has been found in animal studies. The relatively short duration of the different sections as well as the asymmetric distribution of the two sleep blocks in the circadian cycle leads to the assumption of a splitting of the major sleep episode and not of the circadian rhythm. Sleep split into two, relatively short sleep episodes of comparable duration contrasts with napping, which is characterized by an extra sleep episode in addition to the long major sleep. PMID:10607035

  9. Sleep disruption and the sequelae associated with traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P.; Smith, Kelly E.; Nguyen, Linda; Turner, Ryan C.; Logsdon, Aric F.; Jackson, Garrett J.; Huber, Jason D.; Rosen, Charles L.; Miller, Diane B.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disruption, which includes a loss of sleep as well as poor quality fragmented sleep, frequently follows traumatic brain injury (TBI) impacting a large number of patients each year in the United States. Fragmented and/or disrupted sleep can worsen neuropsychiatric, behavioral, and physical symptoms of TBI. Additionally, sleep disruption impairs recovery and can lead to cognitive decline. The most common sleep disruption following TBI is insomnia, which is difficulty staying asleep. The consequences of disrupted sleep following injury range from deranged metabolomics and blood brain barrier compromise to altered neuroplasticity and degeneration. There are several theories for why sleep is necessary (e.g., glymphatic clearance and metabolic regulation) and these may help explain how sleep disruption contributes to degeneration within the brain. Experimental data indicate disrupted sleep allows hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid β plaques to accumulate. As sleep disruption may act as a cellular stressor, target areas warranting further scientific investigation include the increase in endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress following acute periods of sleep deprivation. Potential treatment options for restoring the normal sleep cycle include melatonin derivatives and cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:25956251

  10. Sleep disruption and the sequelae associated with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Smith, Kelly E; Nguyen, Linda; Turner, Ryan C; Logsdon, Aric F; Jackson, Garrett J; Huber, Jason D; Rosen, Charles L; Miller, Diane B

    2015-08-01

    Sleep disruption, which includes a loss of sleep as well as poor quality fragmented sleep, frequently follows traumatic brain injury (TBI) impacting a large number of patients each year in the United States. Fragmented and/or disrupted sleep can worsen neuropsychiatric, behavioral, and physical symptoms of TBI. Additionally, sleep disruption impairs recovery and can lead to cognitive decline. The most common sleep disruption following TBI is insomnia, which is difficulty staying asleep. The consequences of disrupted sleep following injury range from deranged metabolomics and blood brain barrier compromise to altered neuroplasticity and degeneration. There are several theories for why sleep is necessary (e.g., glymphatic clearance and metabolic regulation) and these may help explain how sleep disruption contributes to degeneration within the brain. Experimental data indicate disrupted sleep allows hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid β plaques to accumulate. As sleep disruption may act as a cellular stressor, target areas warranting further scientific investigation include the increase in endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress following acute periods of sleep deprivation. Potential treatment options for restoring the normal sleep cycle include melatonin derivatives and cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:25956251

  11. Paradoxical sleep as a programming system.

    PubMed

    Jouvet, M

    1998-01-01

    The concept of 'psychological individuation' i.e 'intraspecific variability' is essential for evolution as stated by Mayr (1958). It has been recently revived by the study of Bouchard (1990) in homozygous twins separated at birth and reared in different environments. These twins still retain identical psychological idiosyncratic reactions. Even if their brains are almost identical at birth, it is most likely that the different epigenetic stimuli from the external world have differently altered many cerebral synaptic circuitry due to the plasticity of the brain. Therefore, in order to maintain an identical psychological profile, there should be a mechanism which would reinforce the genetic programmation of the central nervous system either in reinforcing or erasing special genetic circuitry which would be stimulated during previous and/or subsequent waking periods. In ectothermic vertebrates, in immature mammals or sometimes in mature birds, this programming can be effectuated by neurogenesis. After neurogenesis has stopped in mammals, paradoxical sleep would be well suited for reinforcing the genetic programming during sleep. The patterns of portogeniculo-occipital (PGO) activity (which depend upon genetic factors) would be responsible for this function, together with the theta activity of the hippocampus (read out of previous waking events) and fast cortical EEG. This programming would activate all the brain including the pyramidal motor system while movements would be suppressed by the system controlling muscle atonia. PMID:9682187

  12. Symposium: Cognitive processes and sleep disturbances: Sleep, dreams and memory: an overview.

    PubMed

    Cipolli

    1995-03-01

    Investigations into the role played by sleep in information processing have consistently shown that the retention of information is better when the memory storage is followed by a period of sleep than of waking. Less definitive evidence, however, is available as to whether the better performance is mainly due to (a) reduction of interference during sleep, (b) slowing down of decay, or (c) consolidation processes at work during sleep. Important insights as to whether consolidation takes place during sleep have recently been provided by the thematic continuity of dreams elaborated in the same night and by the repeated incorporation of pre-sleep stimuli into dream contents. The analysis of such aspects of dreaming indicates that the items of information which are repeatedly accessed during sleep and elaborated for insertion into the ongoing dream experience are better retained at delayed recall. Finally, it is suggested that the use of the strategies applied in studying the information processing in normals may also be extended to sleep-disturbed individuals, in order to establish how memory functioning during sleep is influenced by sleep disturbances. PMID:10607134

  13. 76 FR 72214 - Certain Semiconductor Chips with DRAM Circuitry, and Modules and Products Containing Same Receipt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Chips with DRAM Circuitry, and Modules and Products Containing Same Receipt... Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Semiconductor Chips with DRAM Circuitry, and... importation of certain semiconductor chips with dram circuitry, and modules and products containing same....

  14. Sleep: A Health Imperative

    PubMed Central

    Luyster, Faith S.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Walsh, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic sleep deficiency, defined as a state of inadequate or mistimed sleep, is a growing and underappreciated determinant of health status. Sleep deprivation contributes to a number of molecular, immune, and neural changes that play a role in disease development, independent of primary sleep disorders. These changes in biological processes in response to chronic sleep deficiency may serve as etiological factors for the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and, ultimately, a shortened lifespan. Sleep deprivation also results in significant impairments in cognitive and motor performance which increase the risk of motor vehicle crashes and work-related injuries and fatal accidents. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society have developed this statement to communicate to national health stakeholders the current knowledge which ties sufficient sleep and circadian alignment in adults to health. Citation: Luyster FS; Strollo PJ; Zee PC; Walsh JK. Sleep: a health imperative. SLEEP 2012;35(6):727-734. PMID:22654183

  15. Sleep Discrepancy, Sleep Complaint, and Poor Sleep Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Discrepancy between self-report- and actigraphy-measured sleep, often considered an artifact of measurement error, has been well documented among insomnia patients. Sleep problems are common among older adults, and this discrepancy may represent meaningful sleep-related phenomenon, which could have clinical and research significance. Method. Sleep discrepancy was examined in 4 groups of older adults (N = 152, mean age = 71.93 years) based on sleep complaint versus no complaint and presence versus absence of insomnia symptoms. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II) and 14 nights of sleep diaries and actigraphy. Results. Controlling for covariates, group differences were found in the duration and frequency of discrepancy in sleep onset latency (SOLd) and wake after sleep onset (WASOd). Those with insomnia symptoms and complaints reported greater duration and frequency of WASOd than the other 3 groups. Quantities of SOLd and WASOd were related to BDI-II score and group status, indicating that sleep discrepancy has meaningful clinical correlates. Discussion. Discrepancy occurred across all groups but was pronounced among the group with both insomnia symptoms and complaints. This discrepancy may provide a means of quantifying and conceptualizing the transition from wake to sleep among older adults, particularly those with sleeping problems. PMID:23804432

  16. Separate Circuitries Encode the Hedonic and Nutritional Values of Sugar

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Luis A.; Han, Wenfei; Zhang, Xiaobing; Ferreira, Tatiana L.; Perez, Isaac O.; Shammah-Lagnado, Sara J.; van den Pol, Anthony N.; de Araujo, Ivan E.

    2016-01-01

    Sugar exerts its potent reinforcing effects via both gustatory and post-ingestive pathways. It is however unknown if sweetness and nutritional signals engage segregated brain networks to motivate ingestion. We show in mice that separate basal ganglia circuitries mediate the hedonic and nutritional actions of sugar. We found that, during sugar intake, suppressing hedonic value inhibited dopamine release in ventral but not dorsal striatum, whereas suppressing nutritional value inhibited dopamine release in dorsal but not ventral striatum. Consistently, cell-specific ablation of dopamine-excitable cells in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum inhibited sugar’s ability to drive the ingestion of unpalatable solutions. Conversely, optogenetic stimulation of dopamine-excitable cells in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum substituted for sugar in its ability to drive the ingestion of unpalatable solutions. Our data demonstrate that sugar recruits a distributed dopamine-excitable striatal circuitry that acts to prioritize energy seeking over taste quality. PMID:26807950

  17. Separate circuitries encode the hedonic and nutritional values of sugar.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Luis A; Han, Wenfei; Zhang, Xiaobing; Ferreira, Tatiana L; Perez, Isaac O; Shammah-Lagnado, Sara J; van den Pol, Anthony N; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2016-03-01

    Sugar exerts its potent reinforcing effects via both gustatory and post-ingestive pathways. It is, however, unknown whether sweetness and nutritional signals engage segregated brain networks to motivate ingestion. We found in mice that separate basal ganglia circuitries mediated the hedonic and nutritional actions of sugar. During sugar intake, suppressing hedonic value inhibited dopamine release in ventral, but not dorsal, striatum, whereas suppressing nutritional value inhibited dopamine release in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum. Consistently, cell-specific ablation of dopamine-excitable cells in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum inhibited sugar's ability to drive the ingestion of unpalatable solutions. Conversely, optogenetic stimulation of dopamine-excitable cells in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum substituted for sugar in its ability to drive the ingestion of unpalatable solutions. Our data indicate that sugar recruits a distributed dopamine-excitable striatal circuitry that acts to prioritize energy-seeking over taste quality. PMID:26807950

  18. In short photoperiods, human sleep is biphasic.

    PubMed

    Wehr

    1992-06-01

    Results of a photoperiod experiment show that human sleep can be unconsolidated and polyphasic, like the sleep of other animals. When normal individuals were transferred from a conventional 16-h photoperiod to an experimental 10-h photo-period, their sleep episodes expanded and usually divided into two symmetrical bouts, several hours in duration, with a 1-3 h waking interval between them. The durations of nocturnal melatonin secretion and of the nocturnal phase of rising sleepiness (measured in a constant routine protocol) also expanded, indicating that the timing of internal processes that control sleep and melatonin, such as circadian rhythms, had been modified by the change in photoperiod. Previous work suggests that the experimental results could be simulated with dual-oscillators, entrained separately to dawn and dusk, or with a two-process model, having a lowered threshold for sleep-onset during the scotoperiod. PMID:10607034

  19. Heightened sexual interest and sleep disturbance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zarcone, V.; De La Pena, A.; Dement, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    The study demonstrates a behavioral effect of selective sleep disturbance in normal human subjects. Ten male subjects were selectively REM-deprived for two nights by awakening them at the onset of REM sleep. In addition, there were baseline and non-REM awakening conditions. Heightened sexual interest was defined by the number of film frames (using a Mackworth camera) in which subjects fixated on parts of the female figure in photographs. The largest mean difference in sexual interest was found between baseline and REM-deprivation. Both the non-REM awakenings and REM-sleep deprivation enhanced sexual interest. The failure to demonstrate a significant difference between REM-deprivation and non-REM awakenings may be due to the fact that subjects were REM-sleep-deprived in both conditions. It is suggested that REM-sleep loss may lead to increased selective attention and preoccupation with any cues which are usually interesting.

  20. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  1. Upper Airway Collapsibility During REM Sleep in Children with the Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jingtao; Karamessinis, Laurie R.; Pepe, Michelle E.; Glinka, Stephen M.; Samuel, John M.; Gallagher, Paul R.; Marcus, Carole L.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: In children, most obstructive events occur during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. We hypothesized that children with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), in contrast to age-matched control subjects, would not maintain airflow in the face of an upper airway inspiratory pressure drop during REM sleep. Design: During slow wave sleep (SWS) and REM sleep, we measured airflow, inspiratory time, inspiratory time/total respiratory cycle time, respiratory rate, tidal volume, and minute ventilation at a holding pressure at which flow limitation occurred and at 5 cm H2O below the holding pressure in children with OSAS and in control subjects. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Fourteen children with OSAS and 23 normal control subjects. Results: In both sleep states, control subjects were able to maintain airflow, whereas subjects with OSAS preserved airflow in SWS but had a significant decrease in airflow during REM sleep (change in airflow of 18.58 ± 12.41 mL/s for control subjects vs −44.33 ± 14.09 mL/s for children with OSAS, P = 0.002). Although tidal volume decreased, patients with OSAS were able to maintain minute ventilation by increasing the respiratory rate and also had an increase in inspiratory time and inspiratory time per total respiratory cycle time Conclusion: Children with OSAS do not maintain airflow in the face of upper-airway inspiratory-pressure drops during REM sleep, indicating a more collapsible upper airway, compared with that of control subjects during REM sleep. However, compensatory mechanisms exist to maintain minute ventilation. Local reflexes, central control mechanisms, or both reflexes and control mechanisms need to be further explored to better understand the pathophysiology of this abnormality and the compensation mechanism. Citation: Huang J; Karamessinis LR; Pepe ME; Glinka SM; Samuel JM; Gallagher PR; Marcus CL. Upper airway collapsibility during REM sleep in children with the obstructive sleep apnea

  2. Microstructural Abnormalities in Subcortical Reward Circuitry of Subjects with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blood, Anne J.; Iosifescu, Dan V.; Makris, Nikos; Perlis, Roy H.; Kennedy, David N.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Kim, Byoung Woo; Lee, Myung Joo; Wu, Shirley; Lee, Sang; Calhoun, Jesse; Hodge, Steven M.; Fava, Maurizio; Rosen, Bruce R.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Gasic, Gregory P.; Breiter, Hans C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) have focused on abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex and medial temporal regions. There has been little investigation in MDD of midbrain and subcortical regions central to reward/aversion function, such as the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN), and medial forebrain bundle (MFB). Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the microstructural integrity of this circuitry using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 22 MDD subjects and compared them with 22 matched healthy control subjects. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were increased in the right VT and reduced in dorsolateral prefrontal white matter in MDD subjects. Follow-up analysis suggested two distinct subgroups of MDD patients, which exhibited non-overlapping abnormalities in reward/aversion circuitry. The MDD subgroup with abnormal FA values in VT exhibited significantly greater trait anxiety than the subgroup with normal FA values in VT, but the subgroups did not differ in levels of anhedonia, sadness, or overall depression severity. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that MDD may be associated with abnormal microstructure in brain reward/aversion regions, and that there may be at least two subtypes of microstructural abnormalities which each impact core symptoms of depression. PMID:21124764

  3. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  4. Sleep Disorders in ESRD Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Abassi, Mohammad Reza; Safavi, Amin; Haghverdi, Masoumeh; Saedi, Babak

    2016-03-01

    Kidney failure affects different aspects of normal life. Among different manifestations, sleep problem can be considered as a common complaint of ESRD (End Stage Renal Disease) patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate the interrelationship between sleep disorders in ESRD patients and their characteristics. Through a cross-sectional study (2010-2011), 88 ESRD patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis thrice weekly were recruited to enter the study. We used a self-administered questionnaire into which the data were reflected. The patients selected their specific sleep disorders using a nine-item scale while the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) determined both the presence and severity of sleep disorders. The data was finally analyzed with their baseline characteristics, dialysis characteristics, medication/stimulants use, and clinical and biochemical parameters. Over 95% of the patients had, at least, one specific sleep disorder while the ESS revealed 36.36% of patients as normal, 59.09% as having mild sleep disorders, and 4.54% as having moderate to severe sleep disorders. Sleep disorders were significantly correlated with older ages (P=0.035), dialysis dose (P=0.001), blood creatinine levels (P=0.037), upper airways obstruction (P=0.035), hepatomegaly (P=0.006), hepatic failure (P=0.001), higher blood TSH levels (P=0.039), history of hypothyroidism (P=0.005), and the use of levodopa (P=0.004), anti-hypertensive medications (P=0.006), benzodiazepines (P=0.006), Eprex (Erythropoietin) (P=0.001), Venofer (Iron Sucrose Injection) (P=0.013), and phosphate-binders agents (P=0.018). Sleep disorders are common findings among ESRD patients and seem to be a more complicated issue than a simple accumulation of the wastes products in the body. Whatever the causes of sleep disorders are, disorder-specific treatments should be considered. PMID:27107522

  5. Sleep Apnea Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Apnea Facts Sleep Apnea Links Sleep Apnea Facts Sleep apnea affects up to 18 million Americans The condition was ... member is the first to notice signs of sleep apnea in someone with the ... diagnosed. The condition affects about 4 percent of middle-aged men and ...

  6. Sleep and Infant Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Balsam, Peter D.; Fifer, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Human neonates spend the majority of their time sleeping. Despite the limited waking hours available for environmental exploration, the first few months of life are a time of rapid learning about the environment. The organization of neonate sleep differs qualitatively from adult sleep, and the unique characteristics of neonatal sleep may promote…

  7. Sleep Disorders (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... The two main phases of sleep are rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM): REM sleep, also known as "dream sleep," ... taken during sleep that show: Brain wave changes. Eye movements. Breathing rate. Blood pressure . Heart rate and electrical ...

  8. A mathematical model of the sleep/wake cycle.

    PubMed

    Rempe, Michael J; Best, Janet; Terman, David

    2010-05-01

    We present a biologically-based mathematical model that accounts for several features of the human sleep/wake cycle. These features include the timing of sleep and wakefulness under normal and sleep-deprived conditions, ultradian rhythms, more frequent switching between sleep and wakefulness due to the loss of orexin and the circadian dependence of several sleep measures. The model demonstrates how these features depend on interactions between a circadian pacemaker and a sleep homeostat and provides a biological basis for the two-process model for sleep regulation. The model is based on previous "flip-flop" conceptual models for sleep/wake and REM/NREM and we explore whether the neuronal components in these flip-flop models, with the inclusion of a sleep-homeostatic process and the circadian pacemaker, are sufficient to account for the features of the sleep/wake cycle listed above. The model is minimal in the sense that, besides the sleep homeostat and constant cortical drives, the model includes only those nuclei described in the flip-flop models. Each of the cell groups is modeled by at most two differential equations for the evolution of the total population activity, and the synaptic connections are consistent with those described in the flip-flop models. A detailed analysis of the model leads to an understanding of the mathematical mechanisms, as well as insights into the biological mechanisms, underlying sleep/wake dynamics. PMID:19557415

  9. Sleep in Persons with Frontotemporal Dementia and Their Family Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Merrilees, Jennifer; Hubbard, Erin; Mastick, Judy; Miller, Bruce L.; Dowling, Glenna A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dementia is associated with disruptions in sleep and sleep quality for patients and their family caregivers. Little is known about the impact of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) on sleep. Objective The purpose of this study was to characterize sleep in patients with frontotemporal dementia and their family caregivers. Methods Twenty-two patient-caregiver dyads were enrolled: Thirteen behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) and nine semantic dementia (SD). Sleep and sleep quality data were collected for two weeks using diaries and Actiwatches. Results Patients with bvFTD and SD spent more time in bed at night compared to their caregivers. Nighttime behaviors were reported more frequently by caregivers for the bvFTD patients and strongly correlated with caregiver distress. Actigraphy data demonstrated normal sleep efficiency and timing of the nighttime sleep period for both patients and their caregivers. Caregivers of patients with bvFTD reported poorer sleep quality compared to the SD caregivers. A greater number of bvFTD caregivers compared to SD reported negative aspects of sleep quality for themselves and used sleep medications more frequently. Conclusion The clinical manifestations of bvFTD appear to be associated with different and more distressing impacts on the caregiver sleep quality than SD. PMID:24589648

  10. Female impulsive aggression: a sleep research perspective.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Putkonen, Hanna; Sailas, Eila; Takala, Pirjo; Eronen, Markku; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-01-01

    The rate of violent crimes among girls and women appears to be increasing. One in every five female prisoners has been reported to have antisocial personality disorder. However, it has been quite unclear whether the impulsive, aggressive behaviour among women is affected by the same biological mechanisms as among men. Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Most psychiatric disorders are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep (SWS), the physiologically significant, refreshing part of sleep. Among men with antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, increased SWS has been reported, reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of human sleep patterns. In our preliminary study among medication-free, detoxified female homicidal offenders with antisocial personality disorder, the same profound abnormality in sleep architecture was found. From the perspective of sleep research, the biological correlates of severe impulsive aggression seem to share similar features in both sexes. PMID:19095304

  11. Occupational Sleep Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Philip; Drake, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms significantly impact almost all aspects of human behavior and are therefore relevant to occupational sleep medicine, which is focused predominantly around workplace productivity, safety, and health. In this article, 5 main factors that influence occupational functioning are reviewed: (1) sleep deprivation, (2) disordered sleep, (3) circadian rhythms, (4) common medical illnesses that affect sleep and sleepiness, and (5) medications that affect sleep and sleepiness. Consequences of disturbed sleep and sleepiness are also reviewed, including cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor functioning and drowsy driving. PMID:26972034

  12. Sleep and Stroke.

    PubMed

    Mims, Kimberly Nicole; Kirsch, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Evidence increasingly suggests sleep disorders are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular events, including stroke. Strong data correlate untreated sleep apnea with poorer stroke outcomes and more recent evidence implicates sleep disruption as a possible etiology for increased cerebrovascular events. Also, sleep duration may affect incidence of cardiovascular events. In addition, sleep-disordered breathing, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and parasomnias can occur as a result of cerebrovascular events. Treatment of sleep disorders improve sleep-related symptoms and may also improve stroke recovery and risk of future events. PMID:26972032

  13. Stress-free automatic sleep deprivation using air puffs

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Brooks A.; Vanderheyden, William M.; Urpa, Lea M.; Davis, Devon E.; Fitzpatrick, Christopher J.; Prabhu, Kaustubh; Poe, Gina R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation via gentle handling is time-consuming and personnel-intensive. New Method We present here an automated sleep deprivation system via air puffs. Implanted EMG and EEG electrodes were used to assess sleep/waking states in six male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood samples were collected from an implanted intravenous catheter every 4 hours during the 12-hour light cycle on baseline, 8 hours of sleep deprivation via air puffs, and 8 hours of sleep deprivation by gentle handling days. Results The automated system was capable of scoring sleep and waking states as accurately as our offline version (~90% for sleep) and with sufficient speed to trigger a feedback response within an acceptable amount of time (1.76 s). Manual state scoring confirmed normal sleep on the baseline day and sleep deprivation on the two manipulation days (68% decrease in non-REM, 63% decrease in REM, and 74% increase in waking). No significant differences in levels of ACTH and corticosterone (stress hormones indicative of HPA axis activity) were found at any time point between baseline sleep and sleep deprivation via air puffs. Comparison with Existing Method There were no significant differences in ACTH or corticosterone concentrations between sleep deprivation by air puffs and gentle handling over the 8-hour period. Conclusions Our system accurately detects sleep and delivers air puffs to acutely deprive rats of sleep with sufficient temporal resolution during the critical 4-5 h post learning sleep-dependent memory consolidation period. The system is stress-free and a viable alternative to existing sleep deprivation techniques. PMID:26014662

  14. Dynamics of Sleep Stage Transitions in Health and Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishi, Akifumi; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Natelson, Benjamin H.; Togo, Fumiharu; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2007-07-01

    Sleep dynamics emerges from complex interactions between neuronal populations in many brain regions. Annotated sleep stages from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings could potentially provide a non-invasive way to obtain valuable insights into the mechanisms of these interactions, and ultimately into the very nature of sleep regulation. However, to date, sleep stage analysis has been restricted, only very recently expanding the scope of the traditional descriptive statistics to more dynamical concepts of the duration of and transitions between vigilance states and temporal evaluation of transition probabilities among different stages. Physiological and/or pathological implications of the dynamics of sleep stage transitions have, to date, not been investigated. Here, we study detailed duration and transition statistics among sleep stages in healthy humans and patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, known to be associated with disturbed sleep. We find that the durations of waking and non-REM sleep, in particular deep sleep (Stages III and IV), during the nighttime, follow a power-law probability distribution function, while REM sleep durations follow an exponential function, suggestive of complex underlying mechanisms governing the onset of light sleep. We also find a substantial number of REM to non-REM transitions in humans, while this transition is reported to be virtually non-existent in rats. Interestingly, the probability of this REM to non-REM transition is significantly lower in the patients than in controls, resulting in a significantly greater REM to awake, together with Stage I to awake, transition probability. This might potentially account for the reported poor sleep quality in the patients because the normal continuation of sleep after either the lightest or REM sleep is disrupted. We conclude that the dynamical transition analysis of sleep stages is useful for elucidating yet-to-be-determined human sleep regulation mechanisms with a

  15. Sleep complaints: Whenever possible, avoid the use of sleeping pills.

    PubMed

    2008-10-01

    and altered vigilance, and atropinic effects; (9) Case-control studies showed a statistical link between benzodiazepine use in early pregnancy and birth defects such as cleft lip. In contrast, data on the use of doxylamine during pregnancy are reassuring; (10) Other sedative psychotropics have not been adequately tested in this setting or have been shown to have a negative risk-benefit balance; (11) In practice, patients who complain of poor-quality sleep should be given appropriate information on the mechanisms of normal sleep and related misconceptions, on the best methods for getting to sleep, and on the dangers of sedative psychotropics (dependence, withdrawal syndrome). When prescribing or dispensing a benzodiazepine to a woman of child-bearing age, the risk of birth defects, although not clearly demonstrated, must be mentioned. PMID:19536941

  16. Sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Ward, Teresa; Mason, Thornton B A

    2002-12-01

    Sleep disorders are common in childhood, and may affect multiple aspects of a child's life and the lives of other family members. A sleep disorder assessment should begin with detailed sleep history and a review of interrelated health issues. Factors contributing to disturbed sleep may be discovered or confirmed by a thorough physical examination. Thereafter, appropriate ancillary testing can provide support for a specific clinical diagnosis. The spectrum of childhood sleep disorders includes OSA, narcolepsy, RLS/PLMD, sleep onset association disorder, and parasomnias. Diagnosing sleep disorders in children remains a challenge; however, a multidisciplinary approach may provide an opportunity for productive collaboration and, thereby, more effective patient management. Centers treating pediatric sleep disorders may include providers from a variety of disciplines in pediatric healthcare, such as child psychology, pulmonology, neurology, psychiatry, nursing, and otolaryngology. Over the last decade, research in pediatric sleep disorders has expanded greatly, paralleled by an increased awareness of the importance of adequate, restorative sleep in childhood. PMID:12587368

  17. Call it Worm Sleep.

    PubMed

    Trojanowski, Nicholas F; Raizen, David M

    2016-02-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans stops feeding and moving during a larval transition stage called lethargus and following exposure to cellular stressors. These behaviors have been termed 'sleep-like states'. We argue that these behaviors should instead be called sleep. Sleep during lethargus is similar to sleep regulated by circadian timers in insects and mammals, and sleep in response to cellular stress is similar to sleep induced by sickness in other animals. Sleep in mammals and Drosophila shows molecular and functional conservation with C. elegans sleep. The simple neuroanatomy and powerful genetic tools of C. elegans have yielded insights into sleep regulation and hold great promise for future research into sleep regulation and function. PMID:26747654

  18. Dietary nutrients associated with short and long sleep duration. Data from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Grandner, Michael A; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R; Knutson, Kristen L

    2013-05-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with weight gain and obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, psychiatric illness, and performance deficits. Likewise, long sleep duration is also associated with poor physical and mental health. The role of a healthy diet in habitual sleep duration represents a largely unexplored pathway linking sleep and health. This study evaluated associations between habitual sleep parameters and dietary/nutritional variables obtained via the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2008. We hypothesized that habitual very short (<5h) short (5-6h) and long (9+h) sleep durations are associated with intake of a number of dietary nutrient variables. Overall, energy intake varied across very short (2036kcal), short (2201kcal), and long (1926kcal) sleep duration, relative to normal (2151kcal) sleep duration (p=0.001). Normal sleep duration was associated with the greatest food variety (17.8), compared to very short (14.0), short (16.5) and long (16.3) sleep duration (p<0.001). Associations between sleep duration were found across nutrient categories, with significant associations between habitual sleep duration and proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. In stepwise analyses, significant contributors of unique variance included theobromine (long sleep RR=0.910, p<0.05), vitamin C (short sleep RR=0.890, p<0.05), tap water (short sleep RR=0.952, p<0.001; very short (<5h) sleep RR=0.941, p<0.05), lutein+zeaxanthin (short sleep RR=1.123, p<0.05), dodecanoic acid (long sleep RR=0.812, p<0.05), choline (long sleep RR=0.450, p=0.001), lycopene (very short (<5h) sleep RR=0.950, p<0.05), total carbohydrate (very short (<5h) sleep RR=0.494, p<0.05; long sleep RR=0.509, p<0.05), selenium (short sleep RR=0.670, p<0.01) and alcohol (long sleep RR=1.172, p<0.01). Overall, many nutrient variables were associated with short and/or long sleep duration, which may be explained by differences in food variety. Future studies should

  19. Intrinsic dreams are not produced without REM sleep mechanisms: evidence through elicitation of sleep onset REM periods.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Inugami, M; Yamamoto, Y

    2001-03-01

    The hypothesis that there is a strict relationship between dreams and a specific rapid eye movement (REM) sleep mechanism is controversial. Many researchers have recently denied this relationship, yet none of their studies have simultaneously controlled both sleep length and depth prior to non-REM (NREM) and REM sleep awakenings, due to the natural rigid order of the NREM--REM sleep cycle. The failure to control sleep length and depth prior to arousal has confounded interpretations of the REM-dreams relationship. We have hypothesised that different physiological mechanisms underlie dreaming during REM and NREM sleep, based on recent findings concerning the specificity of REM sleep for cognitive function. Using the Sleep Interruption Technique, we elicited sleep onset REM periods (SOREMP) from 13 normal subjects to collect SOREMP and sleep onset NREM (NREMP) dreams without the confounds described above. Regression analyses showed that SOREMP dream occurrences were significantly related to the amount of REM sleep, while NREMP dream occurrences were related to arousals from NREM sleep. Dream properties evaluated using the Dream Property Scale showed qualitative differences between SOREMP and NREMP dream reports. These results support our hypothesis and we have concluded that although 'dreaming' may occur during both REM and NREM periods as previous researchers have suggested, the dreams obtained from these distinct periods differ significantly in their quantitative and qualitative aspects and are likely to be produced by different mechanisms. PMID:11285054

  20. Ostriches Sleep like Platypuses

    PubMed Central

    Lesku, John A.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Fuller, Andrea; Maloney, Shane K.; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas), the most basal (or ‘ancient’) group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus), a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals. PMID:21887239

  1. Patterns of respiration and heart rate during wakefulness and sleep in elephant seal pups.

    PubMed

    Castellini, M A; Milsom, W K; Berger, R J; Costa, D P; Jones, D R; Castellini, J M; Rea, L D; Bharma, S; Harris, M

    1994-03-01

    Although breath holding during diving has been studied extensively in seals, the recent observation that these mammals also exhibit long-duration apnea while apparently sleeping has not been systematically examined. This project examined sleep apnea in northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris). The animals exhibited a sequential sleep pattern of wakefulness-slow-wave sleep (SWS)-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep that resembled the normal pattern of mammalian sleep. The typical respiratory pattern during sleep in 4-mo-old pups consisted of short periods of continuous breathing separated by periods of apnea of up to 12 min. Several cycles of apnea and eupnea could occur during a single sleep episode. Breathing during a sleep cycle occurred only in SWS, never during REM sleep. The eupneic heart rate was characterized by significant sinus arrhythmia, and the apneic heart rate was similar to the minimum value during normal sinus arrhythmia. Patterns of change in breathing and heart rate associated with wakefulness and sleep were similar in seals sleeping underwater and on land. When sleeping underwater, the seals raised their heads to the surface to breathe without awakening. The changes in heart rate associated with normal sinus arrhythmia, sleep apnea, and diving apnea appear to be similar, suggesting regulation by a common homeostatic control mechanism. PMID:8160882

  2. Evaluation of sleep in women with menopause: results of the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and polysomnography

    PubMed Central

    Ağan, Kağan; Özmerdivenli, Recep; Değirmenci, Yıldız; Çağlar, Mete; Başbuğ, Alper; Balbay, Ege Güleç; Sungur, Mehmet Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate subjective sleep quality among women in the menopausal period and to confirm and diagnose the possible sleep disturbances with polysomnographic (PSG) evaluation objectively. Material and Methods Sixty-seven women with menopause were enrolled in the study. Sociodemographic characteristics and the features of menopause were recorded. We assessed subjective sleep quality with Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). To confirm sleep disturbances and further diagnose the underlying cause, PSG evaluation was performed to women with PSQI scores of >5 who gave their approval. Results Mean PSQI score of women with normal PSG evaluation was 12.00±3.16, while it was 11.00±2.32 in women with abnormal PSG evaluation (p=0.466); 59.7% (n=40) of women had poor sleep quality. Among these, 11 (64.7%) had abnormal results in the PSG evaluation and were diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS); 54.5% had mild OSAS, 27.3% had moderate, and 18.2% had severe OSAS. Conclusion PSQI and PSG evaluations would give a chance to demonstrate sleep problems and shed a light on treatment options according to the underlying causes of sleep disturbances in menopause. PMID:26401107

  3. Cumulative Association of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity and Short Sleep Duration with the Risk for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Priou, Pascaline; Le Vaillant, Marc; Meslier, Nicole; Paris, Audrey; Pigeanne, Thierry; Nguyen, Xuan-Lan; Alizon, Claire; Bizieux-Thaminy, Acya; Leclair-Visonneau, Laurene; Humeau, Marie-Pierre; Gagnadoux, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and short sleep duration are individually associated with an increased risk for hypertension (HTN). The aim of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis of a cumulative association of OSA severity and short sleep duration with the risk for prevalent HTN. Among 1,499 patients undergoing polysomnography for suspected OSA, 410 (27.3%) previously diagnosed as hypertensive and taking antihypertensive medication were considered as having HTN. Patients with total sleep time (TST) <6 h were considered to be short sleepers. Logistic regression procedures were performed to determine the independent association of HTN with OSA and sleep duration. Considering normal sleepers (TST ≥6 h) without OSA as the reference group, the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals) for having HTN was 2.51 (1.35–4.68) in normal sleepers with OSA and 4.37 (2.18–8.78) in short sleepers with OSA after adjustment for age, gender, obesity, diabetes, depression, current smoking, use of thyroid hormones, daytime sleepiness, poor sleep complaint, time in bed, sleep architecture and fragmentation, and study site. The risk for HTN appeared to present a cumulative association with OSA severity and short sleep duration (p<0.0001 for linear trend). The higher risk for HTN was observed in short sleepers with severe OSA (AHI ≥30) (OR, 4.29 [2.03–9.07]). In patients investigated for suspected OSA, sleep-disordered breathing severity and short sleep duration have a cumulative association with the risk for prevalent HTN. Further studies are required to determine whether interventions to optimize sleep may contribute to lower BP in patients with OSA. PMID:25531468

  4. How (and why) the immune system makes us sleep

    PubMed Central

    Imeri, Luca; Opp, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Good sleep is necessary for physical and mental health. For example, sleep loss impairs immune function, and sleep is altered during infection. Immune signalling molecules are present in the healthy brain, where they interact with neurochemical systems to contribute to the regulation of normal sleep. Animal studies have shown that interactions between immune signalling molecules (such as the cytokine interleukin 1) and brain neurochemical systems (such as the serotonin system) are amplified during infection, indicating that these interactions might underlie the changes in sleep that occur during infection. Why should the immune system cause us to sleep differently when we are sick? We propose that the alterations in sleep architecture during infection are exquisitely tailored to support the generation of fever, which in turn imparts survival value. PMID:19209176

  5. Total sleep deprivation decreases flow experience and mood status

    PubMed Central

    Kaida, Kosuke; Niki, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sleep deprivation on flow experience. Methods Sixteen healthy male volunteers of mean age 21.4±1.59 (21–24) years participated in two experimental conditions, ie, sleep-deprivation and normal sleep. In the sleep-deprived condition, participants stayed awake at home for 36 hours (from 8 am until 10 pm the next day) beginning on the day prior to an experimental day. In both conditions, participants carried out a simple reaction time (psychomotor vigilance) task and responded to a questionnaire measuring flow experience and mood status. Results Flow experience was reduced after one night of total sleep deprivation. Sleep loss also decreased positive mood, increased negative mood, and decreased psychomotor performance. Conclusion Sleep deprivation has a strong impact on mental and behavioral states associated with the maintenance of flow, namely subjective well-being. PMID:24376356

  6. Understanding the molecular circuitry of cell lineage specification in the early mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Bergsmedh, Anna; Donohoe, Mary E; Hughes, Rebecca-Ayme; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2011-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine. However, critical to understanding and exploiting mechanisms of cell lineage specification, epigenetic reprogramming, and the optimal environment for maintaining and differentiating pluripotent stem cells is a fundamental knowledge of how these events occur in normal embryogenesis. The early mouse embryo has provided an excellent model to interrogate events crucial in cell lineage commitment and plasticity, as well as for embryo-derived lineage-specific stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Here we provide an overview of cell lineage specification in the early (preimplantation) mouse embryo focusing on the transcriptional circuitry and epigenetic marks necessary for successive differentiation events leading to the formation of the blastocyst. PMID:24710206

  7. Neuronal ensembles sufficient for recovery sleep and the sedative actions of α2 adrenergic agonists

    PubMed Central

    Güntan, İlke; Moro, Alessandro; Steinberg, Eleonora A.; Ye, Zhiwen; Zecharia, Anna Y.; Yu, Xiao; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Brickley, Stephen G.; Yustos, Raquel; Pillidge, Zoe E.; Harding, Edward C.; Wisden, William; Franks, Nicholas P.

    2015-01-01

    Do sedatives engage natural sleep pathways? It is usually assumed that anesthetic-induced sedation and loss-of-righting-reflex (LORR) arise by influencing the same circuitry to lesser or greater extents. For the α2 adrenergic receptor agonist dexmedetomidine, we find that sedation and LORR are in fact distinct states, requiring different brain areas, the preoptic hypothalamic area and locus coeruleus (LC) respectively. Selective knockdown of α2A adrenergic receptors from the LC abolished dexmedetomidine-induced LORR, but not sedation. Instead, we found that dexmedetomidine-induced sedation resembles the deep recovery sleep that follows sleep deprivation. We used TetTag-pharmacogenetics in mice to functionally mark neurons activated in the preoptic hypothalamus during dexmedetomidine-induced sedation or recovery sleep. The neuronal ensembles could then be selectively reactivated. In both cases NREM sleep, with the accompanying drop in body temperature, was recapitulated. Thus α2 adrenergic receptor-induced sedation and recovery sleep share hypothalamic circuitry sufficient for producing these behavioral states. PMID:25706476

  8. Digital control circuitry of cancer cell and its apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ardito Marretta, R M; Barbaraci, G

    2009-09-01

    This study, through a typical aerospace systems architecture, suggests an engineering design of a human cancer cell circuitry in which a digital optimal control matrix is assigned to repair the DNA damage level and/or to trigger its apoptosis. Here, the conceived machinery is proposed taking into account the state of the art in cancer investigation. However, it could be further generalized. The most recent studies on cancer pathologies give a predominant role to the oncosuppressor protein p53 and its antagonist, the oncogene Mdm2. Experimental and theoretical approaches are in agreement in deducing a "digital" response of the p53 when genomic integrity is damaged. Once DNA damage is present, the mutual influence of p53 and its antagonist, the Mdm2 oncogene, is closed in a feedback loop. In this work, starting from these current results, a novel molecular mechanism is proposed, based on a digital optimal control law, whereby p53 and Mdm2 proteins activities can be represented by appropriate circuitry and governed by the optimal control law of digital systems. This procedure obtains a real-time sequence evaluation of protein oscillations and an unexpected and relevant acceleration in the DNA repairing when suitable digital control matrix is implemented. Those effects suggest interesting perspectives for future scientific investigations. First of all, the proposed digital circuitry, receiving the p53 signal from a damaged cell, is able to repair the current level of genomic alteration. Moreover, the cell fate is newly conceived and bound by the modified pulsing mechanism of p53. PMID:19670827

  9. Metabolic consequences of sleep and sleep loss

    PubMed Central

    Van Cauter, Eve; Spiegel, Karine; Tasali, Esra; Leproult, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Reduced sleep duration and quality appear to be endemic in modern society. Curtailment of the bedtime period to minimum tolerability is thought to be efficient and harmless by many. It has been known for several decades that sleep is a major modulator of hormonal release, glucose regulation and cardiovascular function. In particular, slow wave sleep (SWS), thought to be the most restorative sleep stage, is associated with decreased heart rate, blood pressure, sympathetic nervous activity and cerebral glucose utilization, compared with wakefulness. During SWS, the anabolic growth hormone is released while the stress hormone cortisol is inhibited. In recent years, laboratory and epidemiologic evidence have converged to indicate that sleep loss may be a novel risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. The increased risk of obesity is possibly linked to the effect of sleep loss on hormones that play a major role in the central control of appetite and energy expenditure, such as leptin and ghrelin. Reduced leptin and increased ghrelin levels correlate with increases in subjective hunger when individuals are sleep restricted rather than well rested. Given the evidence, sleep curtailment appears to be an important, yet modifiable, risk factor for the metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity. The marked decrease in average sleep duration in the last 50 years coinciding with the increased prevalence of obesity, together with the observed adverse effects of recurrent partial sleep deprivation on metabolism and hormonal processes, may have important implications for public health. PMID:18929315

  10. Superconducting infrared detector arrays with integrated processing circuitry

    SciTech Connect

    Osterman, D.P.; Marr, P.; Dang, H.; Yao, C.T.; Radparvar, M. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on thin film Josephson junctions used as infrared detectors' which function by a thermal sensing mechanism. In addition to the potential for high sensitivity to a broad range of optical wavelengths, they are ideally suited for integration with superconducting electronics on a single wafer. A project at HYPRES to develop these arrays is directed along two avenues: maximizing the sensitivity of individual Josephson junction detector/SQUID amplifier units and development of superconducting on-chip processing circuitry - multiplexers and A to D converters.

  11. Silent Synapse-Based Circuitry Remodeling in Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to cocaine, and likely other drugs of abuse, generates α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor-silent glutamatergic synapses in the nucleus accumbens. These immature synaptic contacts evolve after drug withdrawal to redefine the neurocircuital properties. These results raise at least three critical questions: (1) what are the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate drug-induced generation of silent synapses; (2) how are neurocircuits remodeled upon generation and evolution of drug-generated silent synapses; and (3) what behavioral consequences are produced by silent synapse-based circuitry remodeling? This short review analyzes related experimental results, and extends them to some speculations. PMID:26721952

  12. From Fibonacci to the mathematics of cows and quantum circuitry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmott, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Fibonacci sequence is a famously well-known integer sequence from the thirteenth century which has transcended its original motivation. It possesses many interested and varied applications within architecture, engineering and science. Less well known is the Narayana sequence which itself has interesting and wide-ranging Fibonacci-type connections. In this paper, we shall recall Narayana's original motivation that gives rise to the sequence bearing his name. We also provide an interesting application of this sequence to the construction to quantum gate circuitry used in quantum computation.

  13. Implementing size-optimal discrete neural networks require analog circuitry

    SciTech Connect

    Beiu, V.

    1998-12-01

    This paper starts by overviewing results dealing with the approximation capabilities of neural networks, as well as bounds on the size of threshold gate circuits. Based on a constructive solution for Kolmogorov`s superpositions the authors show that implementing Boolean functions can be done using neurons having an identity transfer function. Because in this case the size of the network is minimized, it follows that size-optimal solutions for implementing Boolean functions can be obtained using analog circuitry. Conclusions and several comments on the required precision are ending the paper.

  14. Silent Synapse-Based Circuitry Remodeling in Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to cocaine, and likely other drugs of abuse, generates α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor-silent glutamatergic synapses in the nucleus accumbens. These immature synaptic contacts evolve after drug withdrawal to redefine the neurocircuital properties. These results raise at least three critical questions: (1) what are the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate drug-induced generation of silent synapses; (2) how are neurocircuits remodeled upon generation and evolution of drug-generated silent synapses; and (3) what behavioral consequences are produced by silent synapse-based circuitry remodeling? This short review analyzes related experimental results, and extends them to some speculations. PMID:26721952

  15. Sleep Disorders in US Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Jessica; Lee, Hyunhwa; Baxter, Tristin; Pierce, Roslyn; Barr, Taura L.; Krakow, Barry; Roth, Bernard J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sleep disturbances are among the most common symptoms of military personnel who return from deployment. The objective of our study was to determine the presence of sleep disorders in US military personnel referred for evaluation of sleep disturbances after deployment and examine associations between sleep disorders and service-related diagnoses of depression, mild traumatic brain injury, pain, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of military personnel with sleep disturbances who returned from combat within 18 months of deployment. Sleep disorders were assessed by clinical evaluation and polysomnogram with validated instruments to diagnose service-related illnesses. Results: Of 110 military personnel included in our analysis, 97.3% were men (mean age, 33.6 ± 8.0 years; mean BMI, 30.0 ± 4.3 kg/m2), and 70.9% returned from combat within 12 months. Nearly one-half (47.3%) met diagnostic criteria for two or more service-related diagnoses. Sleep disorders were diagnosed in 88.2% of subjects; 11.8% had a normal sleep evaluation and served as control subjects. Overall, 62.7% met diagnostic criteria for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 63.6% for insomnia. The exclusive diagnoses of insomnia and OSA were present in 25.5% and 24.5% of subjects, respectively; 38.2% had comorbid insomnia and OSA. Military personnel with comorbid insomnia and OSA were significantly more likely to meet criteria for depression (P < .01) and PTSD (P < .01) compared with control subjects and those with OSA only. Conclusions: Comorbid insomnia and OSA is a frequent diagnosis in military personnel referred for evaluation of sleep disturbances after deployment. This diagnosis, which is difficult to treat, may explain the refractory nature of many service-related diagnoses. PMID:23681455

  16. [Delusion and sleep deprivation].

    PubMed

    Devillières, P; Opitz, M; Clervoy, P; Stephany, J

    1996-01-01

    In this article, the authors report two observations of short delusion that occurred after taking Guronsan--a psychostimulant commercialized in France--for a few days, with the intention of maintaining a total deprivation of sleep for three days in both cases. The ensuing clinical picture included a state of depersonalization, a loss of the sense of reality, illusions and even visual hallucinations as well as a delirious feeling of persecution. These disorders altered with the state of vigilance and the patients remembered them clearly. The authors discussed the etiopathogenic role of this psychotrope, as its components--acid ascorbic, glucuronamide and caffein--are not mentioned in literature as causing factors of a psychotic state. Then they compared this psychotrope with other molecules: amphetamines in particular may start a delirium of persecution, but normally they just reveal an underlying psychotic structure, which doesn't seem to be the case here, where the two young adults were only found a little immature. Chloroquine has sometimes been incriminated for disorders similar to those mentioned above, with a difference lying in a greater stability in the duration of these disorders that would persist several days after the end of the treatment. The clinical picture of the two cases was more labile and sedation was complete as soon as the absorption of the psychotrope was interrupted and sleep was restored at the same time. That is why the authors emphasize the importance of the deprivation of sleep as a causing factor of those delusion disorders which have particularly been observed in the case of solitary navigators. The psychiatrist dealing with emergencies shouldn't overlook this clinical and etiological possibility, all the less so as the treatment is simple and the resort to neuroleptics unnecessary. PMID:8767052

  17. Sleep: a health imperative.

    PubMed

    Luyster, Faith S; Strollo, Patrick J; Zee, Phyllis C; Walsh, James K

    2012-06-01

    Chronic sleep deficiency, defined as a state of inadequate or mistimed sleep, is a growing and underappreciated determinant of health status. Sleep deprivation contributes to a number of molecular, immune, and neural changes that play a role in disease development, independent of primary sleep disorders. These changes in biological processes in response to chronic sleep deficiency may serve as etiological factors for the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and, ultimately, a shortened lifespan. Sleep deprivation also results in significant impairments in cognitive and motor performance which increase the risk of motor vehicle crashes and work-related injuries and fatal accidents. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society have developed this statement to communicate to national health stakeholders the current knowledge which ties sufficient sleep and circadian alignment in adults to health. PMID:22654183

  18. Parenting and infant sleep.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Avi; Tikotzky, Liat; Scher, Anat

    2010-04-01

    Infant sleep undergoes dramatic evolution during the first year of life. This process is driven by underlying biological forces but is highly dependent on environmental cues including parental influences. In this review the links between infant sleep and parental behaviors, cognitions, emotions and relationships as well as psychopathology are examined within the context of a transactional model. Parental behaviors, particularly those related to bedtime interactions and soothing routines, are closely related to infant sleep. Increased parental involvement is associated with more fragmented sleep. Intervention based on modifying parental behaviors and cognitions have direct effect on infant sleep. It appears that parental personality, psychopathology and related cognitions and emotions contribute to parental sleep-related behaviors and ultimately influence infant sleep. However, the links are bidirectional and dynamic so that poor infant sleep may influence parental behaviors and poor infant sleep appears to be a family stressor and a risk factor for maternal depression. PMID:19631566

  19. Patterns of sleep behaviour.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the electroencephalogram as the critical measurement procedure for sleep research, and survey of major findings that have emerged in the last decade on the presence of sleep within the twenty-four-hour cycle. Specifically, intrasleep processes, frequency of stage changes, sequence of stage events, sleep stage amounts, temporal patterns of sleep, and stability of intrasleep pattern in both man and lower animals are reviewed, along with some circadian aspects of sleep, temporal factors, and number of sleep episodes. It is felt that it is particularly critical to take the presence of sleep into account whenever performance is considered. When it is recognized that responsive performance is extremely limited during sleep, it is easy to visualize the extent to which performance is controlled by sleep itself.

  20. Sleep locally, act globally.

    PubMed

    Rattenborg, Niels C; Lima, Steven L; Lesku, John A

    2012-10-01

    In most animals, sleep is considered a global brain and behavioral state. However, recent intracortical recordings have shown that aspects of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and wakefulness can occur simultaneously in different parts of the cortex in mammals, including humans. Paradoxically, however, NREM sleep still manifests as a global behavioral shutdown. In this review, the authors examine this paradox from an evolutionary perspective. On the basis of strategic modeling, they suggest that in animals with brains composed of heavily interconnected and functionally interdependent units, a global regulator of sleep maintains the behavioral shutdown that defines sleep and thereby ensures that local use-dependent functions are performed in a safe and efficient manner. This novel perspective has implications for understanding deficits in human cognitive performance resulting from sleep deprivation, sleep disorders such as sleepwalking, changes in consciousness that occur during sleep, and the function of sleep itself. PMID:22572533

  1. How Is Sleep Apnea Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics CPAP High Blood Pressure Overweight and Obesity Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency Sleep Studies Send a link to ... For more information, go to the Health Topics Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency article.) If treatment and enough sleep ...

  2. Sleep and the Endocrine System.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. PMID:26972038

  3. Modeling aircraft noise induced sleep disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Sarah M.

    One of the primary impacts of aircraft noise on a community is its disruption of sleep. Aircraft noise increases the time to fall asleep, the number of awakenings, and decreases the amount of rapid eye movement and slow wave sleep. Understanding these changes in sleep may be important as they could increase the risk for developing next-day effects such as sleepiness and reduced performance and long-term health effects such as cardiovascular disease. There are models that have been developed to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. However, most of these models only predict the percentage of the population that is awakened. Markov and nonlinear dynamic models have been developed to predict an individual's sleep structure during the night. However, both of these models have limitations. The Markov model only accounts for whether an aircraft event occurred not the noise level or other sound characteristics of the event that may affect the degree of disturbance. The nonlinear dynamic models were developed to describe normal sleep regulation and do not have a noise effects component. In addition, the nonlinear dynamic models have slow dynamics which make it difficult to predict short duration awakenings which occur both spontaneously and as a result of nighttime noise exposure. The purpose of this research was to examine these sleep structure models to determine how they could be altered to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. Different approaches for adding a noise level dependence to the Markov Model was explored and the modified model was validated by comparing predictions to behavioral awakening data. In order to determine how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic sleep models it was necessary to have a more detailed sleep stage classification than was available from visual scoring of sleep data. An automatic sleep stage classification algorithm was developed which extracts different features of polysomnography data including the

  4. Evaluation of an automated single-channel sleep staging algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Loparo, Kenneth A; Kelly, Monica R; Kaplan, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously published the performance evaluation of an automated electroencephalography (EEG)-based single-channel sleep–wake detection algorithm called Z-ALG used by the Zmachine® sleep monitoring system. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of a new algorithm called Z-PLUS, which further differentiates sleep as detected by Z-ALG into Light Sleep, Deep Sleep, and Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep, against laboratory polysomnography (PSG) using a consensus of expert visual scorers. Methods Single night, in-lab PSG recordings from 99 subjects (52F/47M, 18–60 years, median age 32.7 years), including both normal sleepers and those reporting a variety of sleep complaints consistent with chronic insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome, as well as those taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor/serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressant medications, previously evaluated using Z-ALG were re-examined using Z-PLUS. EEG data collected from electrodes placed at the differential-mastoids (A1–A2) were processed by Z-ALG to determine wake and sleep, then those epochs detected as sleep were further processed by Z-PLUS to differentiate into Light Sleep, Deep Sleep, and REM. EEG data were visually scored by multiple certified polysomnographic technologists according to the Rechtschaffen and Kales criterion, and then combined using a majority-voting rule to create a PSG Consensus score file for each of the 99 subjects. Z-PLUS output was compared to the PSG Consensus score files for both epoch-by-epoch (eg, sensitivity, specificity, and kappa) and sleep stage-related statistics (eg, Latency to Deep Sleep, Latency to REM, Total Deep Sleep, and Total REM). Results Sensitivities of Z-PLUS compared to the PSG Consensus were 0.84 for Light Sleep, 0.74 for Deep Sleep, and 0.72 for REM. Similarly, positive predictive values were 0.85 for Light Sleep, 0.78 for Deep Sleep, and 0.73 for REM. Overall, kappa agreement of 0

  5. From REM sleep behaviour disorder to status dissociatus: insights into the maze of states of being.

    PubMed

    Vetrugno, Roberto; Montagna, Pasquale

    2011-12-01

    Sleep is a coordinated process involving more or less simultaneous changes in sensory, motor, autonomic, hormonal, and cerebral processes. On the other hand, none of the changes occurring with sleep are invariably coupled to sleep. EEG synchrony, heat loss, sleep-related hormone secretion, and even REM-related motoneuron paralysis may occur independent of the parent state. In REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) the muscle tone of wakefulness intrudes into REM sleep, allowing the release of dream-enacting behaviours. Status dissociatus (SD) is a condition in which brain and mind are in disarray along the boundaries of sleep and wakefulness. The existence of such dissociated behaviours shows that they have separate neuronal control systems and indicates that the whole organization of sleep is an emergent property of the collective neuronal systems to synchronize. Insults to the brain can drastically alter the circuitries responsible for maintaining the integrity of wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep. As a consequence, the basic states of existence can become admixed and interchanged with striking disturbances of consciousness, brain electrophysiology, and the behavioural and polygraphic expression of sleep and wakefulness. The evolution of RBD into SD may result from a disarray of (brainstem) structures that orchestrate the whole brain wake-sleep conditions, but with preserved discrete systems and dissociable strategies to still place navigation in wake and sleep. Advances in the fields of genetics, neuroimaging, and behavioural neurology will expand the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the organization of the states of being along with their somatic/behavioural manifestations. PMID:22136904

  6. Effects of sleep on memory for conditioned fear and fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Germain, Anne; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-07-01

    Learning and memory for extinction of conditioned fear is a basic mammalian mechanism for regulating negative emotion. Sleep promotes both the consolidation of memory and the regulation of emotion. Sleep can influence consolidation and modification of memories associated with both fear and its extinction. After brief overviews of the behavior and neural circuitry associated with fear conditioning, extinction learning, and extinction memory in the rodent and human, interactions of sleep with these processes will be examined. Animal and human studies suggest that sleep can serve to consolidate both fear and extinction memory. In humans, sleep also promotes generalization of extinction memory. Time-of-day effects on extinction learning and generalization are also seen. Rapid eye movement (REM) may be a sleep stage of particular importance for the consolidation of both fear and extinction memory as evidenced by selective REM deprivation experiments. REM sleep is accompanied by selective activation of the same limbic structures implicated in the learning and memory of fear and extinction. Preliminary evidence also suggests extinction learning can take place during slow wave sleep. Study of low-level processes such as conditioning, extinction, and habituation may allow sleep effects on emotional memory to be identified and inform study of sleep's effects on more complex, emotionally salient declarative memories. Anxiety disorders are marked by impairments of both sleep and extinction memory. Improving sleep quality may ameliorate anxiety disorders by strengthening naturally acquired extinction. Strategically timed sleep may be used to enhance treatment of anxiety by strengthening therapeutic extinction learned via exposure therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25894546

  7. Arousal state feedback as a potential physiological generator of the ultradian REM/NREM sleep cycle.

    PubMed

    Phillips, A J K; Robinson, P A; Klerman, E B

    2013-02-21

    Human sleep episodes are characterized by an approximately 90-min ultradian oscillation between rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep stages. The source of this oscillation is not known. Pacemaker mechanisms for this rhythm have been proposed, such as a reciprocal interaction network, but these fail to account for documented homeostatic regulation of both sleep stages. Here, two candidate mechanisms are investigated using a simple model that has stable states corresponding to Wake, REM sleep, and NREM sleep. Unlike other models of the ultradian rhythm, this model of sleep dynamics does not include an ultradian pacemaker, nor does it invoke a hypothetical homeostatic process that exists purely to drive ultradian rhythms. Instead, only two inputs are included: the homeostatic drive for Sleep and the circadian drive for Wake. These two inputs have been the basis for the most influential Sleep/Wake models, but have not previously been identified as possible ultradian rhythm generators. Using the model, realistic ultradian rhythms are generated by arousal state feedback to either the homeostatic or circadian drive. For the proposed 'homeostatic mechanism', homeostatic pressure increases in Wake and REM sleep, and decreases in NREM sleep. For the proposed 'circadian mechanism', the circadian drive is up-regulated in Wake and REM sleep, and is down-regulated in NREM sleep. The two mechanisms are complementary in the features they capture. The homeostatic mechanism reproduces experimentally observed rebounds in NREM sleep duration and intensity following total sleep deprivation, and rebounds in both NREM sleep intensity and REM sleep duration following selective REM sleep deprivation. The circadian mechanism does not reproduce sleep state rebounds, but more accurately reproduces the temporal patterns observed in a normal night of sleep. These findings have important implications in terms of sleep physiology and they provide a parsimonious explanation for the

  8. Sleep apnoea in patients with quadriplegia.

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, R. D.; Mykytyn, I.; Sajkov, D.; Flavell, H.; Marshall, R.; Antic, R.; Thornton, A. T.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--This study was undertaken to establish the prevalence of, and the factors contributing towards, sleep disordered breathing in patients with quadriplegia. METHODS--Forty representative quadriplegic patients (time since injury > 6 months, injury level C8 and above, Frankel category A, B, or C; mean (SE) age 35.0 (1.7) years) had home sleep studies in which EEG, EOG, submental EMG, body movement, nasal airflow, respiratory effort, and pulse oximetry (SpO2) were measured. Patients reporting post traumatic amnesia of > 24 hours, drug or alcohol abuse or other major medical illness were excluded from the study. A questionnaire on medications and sleep was administered and supine blood pressure, awake SpO2, spirometric values, height, and neck circumference were measured. RESULTS--A pattern of sustained hypoventilation was not observed in any of the patients. Sleep apnoeas and hypopnoeas were, however, common. Eleven patients (27.5%) had a respiratory disturbance index (RDI, apnoeas plus hypopnoeas per hour of sleep) of > or = 15, with nadir SpO2 ranging from 49% to 95%. Twelve of the 40 (30%) had an apnoea index (AI) of > or = 5 and, of these, nine (75%) had predominantly obstructive apnoeas-that is, > 80% of apnoeas were obstructive or mixed. This represents a prevalence of sleep disordered breathing more than twice that observed in normal populations. For the study population RDI correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure and neck circumference. RDI was higher in patients who slept supine compared with those in other postures. Daytime sleepiness was a common complaint in the study population and sleep architecture was considerably disturbed with decreased REM sleep and increased stage 1 non-REM sleep. CONCLUSIONS--Sleep disordered breathing is common in quadriplegic patients and sleep disturbance is significant. The predominant type of apnoea is obstructive. As with non-quadriplegic patients with sleep apnoea, sleep disordered breathing in

  9. [Sleep and dreams in pictures].

    PubMed

    Stoll, R T

    1995-04-11

    Human life is divided into two thirds wakefulness and one third sleep. A newborn child sleeps to strengthen, the adult for regeneration. At the end of life man sinks down into the sleep of death: Hypnos and Thanatos are twin sons of the Queen of Night. Myths from different cultures are influenced by the experience of sleep and its inner world of pictures, the dreams. Artists, painters and sculptors let their visions float steadily into new pictures, and creatures of sleep formed out of diverse materials. Devine sleep, sleep for new life, sleep of health, creative sleep, prophetic sleep, sleep for revelation and for decisions. PMID:7732243

  10. Galantamine improves sleep quality in patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Naharci, Mehmet Ilkin; Ozturk, Ahmet; Yasar, Halit; Cintosun, Umit; Kocak, Necmettin; Bozoglu, Ergun; Tasci, Ilker; Doruk, Huseyin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influences of cholinesterase inhibitors on sleep pattern and sleep disturbance. A total of 87 mild to moderate stage dementia patients who were not on cholinesterase enzyme inhibitor and memantine treatment were included in the study. The dementia patients were treated with donepezil, galantamine or rivastigmine, depending on the preference of the clinician. Fifty-five dementia patients (63.2 %) completed the study. Twenty-three elderly subjects, who had normal cognitive functions, were included in the study as the control group. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used for evaluating the sleep quality at the beginning and at the final assessment. The improvement in sleep quality was better with regard to changes in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores with galantamine treatment compared to the donepezil and the control groups. A significant decrease in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores was detected in the galantamine group after treatment. Although statistically not significant, rivastigmine decreased and donepezil increased the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores after treatment. Dementia patients who had a poor sleep quality (n: 36), the rate of improvement in sleep disturbance was 81.8 % in the galantamine group, 75 % in the rivastigmine, and 50 % in the donepezil group. Galantamine may be the first choice of cholinesterase inhibitor in mild to moderate dementia patients in terms of improving sleep quality. PMID:25777522

  11. The Effects of Pre-Sleep Learning on Sleep Continuity, Stability, and Organization in Elderly Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Conte, F.; Carobbi, G.; Errico, B. M.; Ficca, G.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have consistently shown that pre-sleep learning is associated to changes of sleep structure. Whereas previous research has mainly focused on sleep states, namely REM and NREM amount, very little attention has been paid to the hypothesis that pre-sleep learning might improve sleep continuity, stability, and cyclic organization, which are often impaired in aging. Thus, aim of this research was to assess, in a sample of 18 healthy elderly subjects, whether a memory task administered at bedtime would determine changes in any sleep parameter, with special regard to sleep continuity, stability, and organization. To this purpose, a baseline sleep (BL), i.e., a normal sleep with 9-h time in bed (TIB), was compared to a post-training sleep (TR), with the same TIB but preceded by an intensive training session. For the latter, a verbal declarative task was used, consisting in learning paired-word lists, rehearsed, and recalled for three times in a row. To control for individual learning abilities, subjects were administered several sets of lists with increasing difficulty, until they reached an error rate ≥20% at third recall. Relative to BL, TR shows a significant reduction in the frequency of brief awakenings, arousals, state transitions, “functional uncertainty” (FU) periods, and in the percentage of time in FU over total sleep time (TST). A significant increase in the number of complete cycles, total cycle time (TCT), and TCT/TST proportion was also found. All these changes are evenly distributed over the sleep episode. No sleep stage measure display significant changes, apart from a slight reduction in the percentage of Stage 1. Scores at retest are negatively correlated with both the frequency of arousals and of state transitions. Our data suggest that pre-sleep learning can yield a beneficial re-organizing effect on elderlies’ sleep quality. The inverse correlation between recall scores and the measures of sleep continuity and stability provides

  12. Sleep, epilepsy, and autism.

    PubMed

    Accardo, Jennifer A; Malow, Beth A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this review article is to explore the links between sleep and epilepsy and the treatment of sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Epilepsy and sleep have bidirectional relationships, and problems with both are highly prevalent in children with ASD. Literature is reviewed to support the view that sleep is particularly important to address in the context of ASD. Identification and management of sleep disorders may improve seizure control and challenging behaviors. In closing, special considerations for evaluating and treating sleep disorders in children with ASD and epilepsy are reviewed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Autism and Epilepsy". PMID:25496798

  13. Childhood epilepsy and sleep

    PubMed Central

    Al-Biltagi, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and epilepsy are two well recognized conditions that interact with each other in a complex bi-directional way. Some types of epilepsies have increased activity during sleep disturbing it; while sleep deprivation aggravates epilepsy due to decreased seizure threshold. Epilepsy can deteriorate the sleep-related disorders and at the same time; the parasomnias can worsen the epilepsy. The secretion of sleep-related hormones can also be affected by the occurrence of seizures and supplementation of epileptic patients with some of these sleep-related hormones may have a beneficial role in controlling epilepsy. PMID:25254184

  14. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  15. Sleep-related headaches.

    PubMed

    Rains, Jeanetta C; Poceta, J Steven

    2012-11-01

    Irrespective of diagnosis, chronic daily, morning, or "awakening" headache patterns are soft signs of a sleep disorder. Sleep apnea headache may emerge de novo or may present as an exacerbation of cluster, migraine, tension-type, or other headache. Insomnia is the most prevalent sleep disorder in chronic migraine and tension-type headache, and increases risk for depression and anxiety. Sleep disturbance (e.g., sleep loss, oversleeping, schedule shift) is an acute headache trigger for migraine and tension-type headache. Snoring and sleep disturbance are independent risk factors for progression from episodic to chronic headache. PMID:23099138

  16. Sleep physiology and sleep disorders in childhood

    PubMed Central

    El Shakankiry, Hanan M

    2011-01-01

    Sleep has long been considered as a passive phenomenon, but it is now clear that it is a period of intense brain activity involving higher cortical functions. Overall, sleep affects every aspect of a child’s development, particularly higher cognitive functions. Sleep concerns are ranked as the fifth leading concern of parents. Close to one third of all children suffer from sleep disorders, the prevalence of which is increased in certain pediatric populations, such as children with special needs, children with psychiatric or medical diagnoses and children with autism or pervasive developmental disorders. The paper reviews sleep physiology and the impact, classification, and management of sleep disorders in the pediatric age group. PMID:23616721

  17. The Brain Circuitry Mediating Antipruritic Effects of Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Napadow, Vitaly; Li, Ang; Loggia, Marco L.; Kim, Jieun; Schalock, Peter C.; Lerner, Ethan; Tran, Thanh-Nga; Ring, Johannes; Rosen, Bruce R.; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Pfab, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Itch is an aversive sensory experience and while systemic therapies, such as acupuncture, have shown promise in alleviating itch in patients suffering from chronic itch, their antipruritic mechanisms are unknown. As several lines of evidence implicate brain-focused mechanisms, we applied functional magnetic resonance imaging and our validated temperature-modulation itch model to evaluate the underlying brain circuitry supporting allergen-induced itch reduction in atopic dermatitis patients by acupuncture, antihistamine, and respective placebo treatments. Brain response to allergen itch demonstrated phase dependency. During an increasing itch phase, activation was localized in anterior insula and striatum, regions associated with salience/interoception and motivation processing. Once itch reached peak plateau, robust activation was noted in prefrontal cognitive and premotor areas. Acupuncture reduced itch and itch-evoked activation in the insula, putamen, and premotor and prefrontal cortical areas. Neither itch sensation nor itch-evoked brain response was altered following antihistamine or placebo acupuncture. Greater itch reduction following acupuncture was associated with greater reduction in putamen response, a region implicated in motivation and habitual behavior underlying the urge to scratch, specifically implicating this region in acupuncture's antipruritic effects. Understanding brain circuitry underlying itch reduction following acupuncture and related neuromodulatory therapies will significantly impact the development and applicability of novel therapies to reduce an itch. PMID:23222890

  18. Mapping gene regulatory circuitry of Pax6 during neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Thakurela, Sudhir; Tiwari, Neha; Schick, Sandra; Garding, Angela; Ivanek, Robert; Berninger, Benedikt; Tiwari, Vijay K

    2016-01-01

    Pax6 is a highly conserved transcription factor among vertebrates and is important in various aspects of the central nervous system development. However, the gene regulatory circuitry of Pax6 underlying these functions remains elusive. We find that Pax6 targets a large number of promoters in neural progenitors cells. Intriguingly, many of these sites are also bound by another progenitor factor, Sox2, which cooperates with Pax6 in gene regulation. A combinatorial analysis of Pax6-binding data set with transcriptome changes in Pax6-deficient neural progenitors reveals a dual role for Pax6, in which it activates the neuronal (ectodermal) genes while concurrently represses the mesodermal and endodermal genes, thereby ensuring the unidirectionality of lineage commitment towards neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, Pax6 is critical for inducing activity of transcription factors that elicit neurogenesis and repress others that promote non-neuronal lineages. In addition to many established downstream effectors, Pax6 directly binds and activates a number of genes that are specifically expressed in neural progenitors but have not been previously implicated in neurogenesis. The in utero knockdown of one such gene, Ift74, during brain development impairs polarity and migration of newborn neurons. These findings demonstrate new aspects of the gene regulatory circuitry of Pax6, revealing how it functions to control neuronal development at multiple levels to ensure unidirectionality and proper execution of the neurogenic program. PMID:27462442

  19. Phytochemical regulation of Fyn and AMPK signaling circuitry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan Gyu; Koo, Ja Hyun; Kim, Sang Geon

    2015-12-01

    During the past decades, phytochemical terpenoids, polyphenols, lignans, flavonoids, and alkaloids have been identified as antioxidative and cytoprotective agents. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a kinase that controls redox-state and oxidative stress in the cell, and serves as a key molecule regulating energy metabolism. Many phytochemicals directly or indirectly alter the AMPK pathway in distinct manners, exerting catabolic metabolism. Some of them are considered promising in the treatment of metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Another important kinase that regulates energy metabolism is Fyn kinase, a member of the Src family kinases that plays a role in various cellular responses such as insulin signaling, cell growth, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Phytochemical inhibition of Fyn leads to AMPK-mediated protection of the cell in association with increased antioxidative capacity and mitochondrial biogenesis. The kinases may work together to form a signaling circuitry for the homeostasis of energy conservation and expenditure, and may serve as targets of phytochemicals. This review is intended as a compilation of recent advancements in the pharmacological research of phytochemicals targeting Fyn and AMPK circuitry, providing information for the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases and the accompanying tissue injuries. PMID:25951818

  20. Activation of Corticostriatal Circuitry Relieves Chronic Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michelle; Manders, Toby R.; Eberle, Sarah E.; Su, Chen; D'amour, James; Yang, Runtao; Lin, Hau Yueh; Deisseroth, Karl; Froemke, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Neural circuits that determine the perception and modulation of pain remain poorly understood. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) provides top-down control of sensory and affective processes. While animal and human imaging studies have shown that the PFC is involved in pain regulation, its exact role in pain states remains incompletely understood. A key output target for the PFC is the nucleus accumbens (NAc), an important component of the reward circuitry. Interestingly, recent human imaging studies suggest that the projection from the PFC to the NAc is altered in chronic pain. The function of this corticostriatal projection in pain states, however, is not known. Here we show that optogenetic activation of the PFC produces strong antinociceptive effects in a rat model (spared nerve injury model) of persistent neuropathic pain. PFC activation also reduces the affective symptoms of pain. Furthermore, we show that this pain-relieving function of the PFC is likely mediated by projections to the NAc. Thus, our results support a novel role for corticostriatal circuitry in pain regulation. PMID:25834050

  1. Stitching Circuits: Learning About Circuitry Through E-textile Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peppler, Kylie; Glosson, Diane

    2012-11-01

    Central to our understanding of learning is the relationship between various tools and technologies and the structuring of disciplinary subject matter. One of the staples of early science education curriculum is the use of electrical circuit toolkits to engage students in broader discussions of energy. Traditionally, these concepts are introduced to youth using battery packs, insulated wire and light bulbs. However, there are affordances and limitations in the way this toolset highlights certain conceptual aspects while obscuring others, which we argue leads to common misconceptions about electrical circuitry. By contrast, we offer an alternative approach utilizing an e-textiles toolkit for developing understanding of electrical circuitry, testing the efficacy of this approach for learning in elective settings to pave the way for later classroom adoption. This study found that youth who engaged in e-textile design demonstrated significant gains in their ability to diagram a working circuit, as well as significant gains in their understanding of current flow, polarity and connections. The implications for rethinking our current toolkits for teaching conceptual understanding in science are discussed.

  2. Microglia disrupt mesolimbic reward circuitry in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anna M W; Castonguay, Annie; Taylor, Alison J; Murphy, Niall P; Ghogha, Atefeh; Cook, Christopher; Xue, Lihua; Olmstead, Mary C; De Koninck, Yves; Evans, Christopher J; Cahill, Catherine M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic pain attenuates midbrain dopamine (DA) transmission, as evidenced by a decrease in opioid-evoked DA release in the ventral striatum, suggesting that the occurrence of chronic pain impairs reward-related behaviors. However, mechanisms by which pain modifies DA transmission remain elusive. Using in vivo microdialysis and microinjection of drugs into the mesolimbic DA system, we demonstrate in mice and rats that microglial activation in the VTA compromises not only opioid-evoked release of DA, but also other DA-stimulating drugs, such as cocaine. Our data show that loss of stimulated extracellular DA is due to impaired chloride homeostasis in midbrain GABAergic interneurons. Treatment with minocycline or interfering with BDNF signaling restored chloride transport within these neurons and recovered DA-dependent reward behavior. Our findings demonstrate that a peripheral nerve injury causes activated microglia within reward circuitry that result in disruption of dopaminergic signaling and reward behavior. These results have broad implications that are not restricted to the problem of pain, but are also relevant to affective disorders associated with disruption of reward circuitry. Because chronic pain causes glial activation in areas of the CNS important for mood and affect, our findings may translate to other disorders, including anxiety and depression, that demonstrate high comorbidity with chronic pain. PMID:26041913

  3. Sleep loss and "divergent" thinking ability.

    PubMed

    Horne, J A

    1988-12-01

    Although much is known about the impact of sleep loss on many aspects of psychological performance, the effects on divergent ("creative") thinking has received little attention. Twelve subjects went 32 h without sleep, and 12 others acted as normally sleeping controls. All subjects were assessed on the figural and verbal versions of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. As compared with the control condition, sleep loss impaired performance on all test scales (e.g., "flexibility," the ability to change strategy, and "originality," generation of unusual ideas) for both versions, even on an initial 5-min test component. In an attempt at further understanding of whether these findings might be explained solely by a loss of motivation, two additional short and stimulating tests were also used--a word fluency task incorporating high incentive to do well and a challenging nonverbal planning test. Performance at these tasks was still significantly impaired by sleep loss. Increased perseveration was clearly apparent. Apparently, 1 night of sleep loss can affect divergent thinking. This contrasts with the outcome for convergent thinking tasks, which are more resilient to short-term sleep loss. PMID:3238256

  4. Assessing Individual Differences in Adaptation to Extreme Environments: A 36-Hour Sleep Deprivation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Jacqueline; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

    2012-01-01

    In space, astronauts may experience effects of cumulative sleep loss due to demanding work schedules that can result in cognitive performance impairments, mood state deteriorations, and sleep-wake cycle disruption. Individuals who experience sleep deprivation of six hours beyond normal sleep times experience detrimental changes in their mood and performance states. Hence, the potential for life threatening errors increases exponentially with sleep deprivation. We explored the effects of 36-hours of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance, mood states, and physiological responses to identify which metrics may best predict fatigue induced performance decrements of individuals.

  5. Potential formulation of sleep dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, A. J. K.; Robinson, P. A.

    2009-02-01

    A physiologically based model of the mechanisms that control the human sleep-wake cycle is formulated in terms of an equivalent nonconservative mechanical potential. The potential is analytically simplified and reduced to a quartic two-well potential, matching the bifurcation structure of the original model. This yields a dynamics-based model that is analytically simpler and has fewer parameters than the original model, allowing easier fitting to experimental data. This model is first demonstrated to semiquantitatively match the dynamics of the physiologically based model from which it is derived, and is then fitted directly to a set of experimentally derived criteria. These criteria place rigorous constraints on the parameter values, and within these constraints the model is shown to reproduce normal sleep-wake dynamics and recovery from sleep deprivation. Furthermore, this approach enables insights into the dynamics by direct analogies to phenomena in well studied mechanical systems. These include the relation between friction in the mechanical system and the timecourse of neurotransmitter action, and the possible relation between stochastic resonance and napping behavior. The model derived here also serves as a platform for future investigations of sleep-wake phenomena from a dynamical perspective.

  6. Effects of sleep deprivation with reference to military operations.

    PubMed

    Giam, G C

    1997-01-01

    . Sleep lost need not be replaced hour-for-hour. Therefore, after operations, personnel need continuous sleep for only 10 to 12 hours as longer sleep increases sleep inertia and delays getting back to normal schedules. PMID:9140584

  7. Midlife Decline in Declarative Memory Consolidation Is Correlated with a Decline in Slow Wave Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backhaus, Jutta; Born, Jan; Hoeckesfeld, Ralf; Fokuhl, Sylvia; Hohagen, Fritz; Junghanns, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Sleep architecture as well as memory function are strongly age dependent. Slow wave sleep (SWS), in particular, decreases dramatically with increasing age, starting already beyond the age of 30. SWS normally predominates during early nocturnal sleep and is implicated in declarative memory consolidation. However, the consequences of changes in…

  8. Effects of unconditioned stimulus intensity and fear extinction on subsequent sleep architecture in an afternoon nap.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Anna; Czisch, Michael; Spoormaker, Victor I

    2013-12-01

    Impaired fear extinction and disturbed sleep coincide in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the nature of this relationship is unclear. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation impairs fear extinction recall in rodents and young healthy subjects, and animal models have demonstrated both disrupted sleep after fear conditioning and normalized sleep after extinction learning. As a correlation between unconditioned stimulus (US) responding and subsequent sleep architecture has been observed in healthy subjects, the goal of this study was to test whether US intensity would causally affect subsequent sleep. Twenty-four young healthy subjects underwent a fear conditioning session with skin conductance response measurements before an afternoon session of polysomnographically recorded sleep (up to 120 min) in the sleep laboratory. Two factors were manipulated experimentally in a 2 × 2 design: US (electrical shock) was set at high or low intensity, and subjects did or did not receive an extinction session after fear conditioning. We observed that neither factor affected REM sleep amount, that high US intensity nominally increased sleep fragmentation (more Stage 1 sleep, stage shifts and wake after sleep onset), and that extinction increased Stage 4 amount. Moreover, reduced Stage 1 and increased Stage 4 and REM sleep were associated with subjective sleep quality of the afternoon nap. These results provide evidence for the notion that US intensity and extinction affect subsequent sleep architecture in young healthy subjects, which may provide a translational bridge from findings in animal studies to correlations observed in PTSD patients. PMID:23919462

  9. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  10. Determining resistivity of a geological formation using circuitry located within a borehole casing

    DOEpatents

    Vail III, William Banning

    2006-01-17

    Geological formation resistivity is determined. Circuitry is located within the borehole casing that is adjacent to the geological formation. The circuitry can measure one or more voltages across two or more voltage measurement electrodes associated with the borehole casing. The measured voltages are used by a processor to determine the resistivity of the geological formation. A common mode signal can also be reduced using the circuitry.

  11. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... daytime drowsiness that can result in accidents, lost productivity and relationship problems. The National Sleep Foundation estimates ... the person just enough to restart the breathing process. Sleep apnea is generally defined as the presence ...

  12. Teenagers and sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000872.htm Teenagers and sleep To use the sharing features on this page, ... need. What Makes it Hard for Teens to Sleep? Several factors make it hard for teens to ...

  13. Central sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure (CPAP) , bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) or adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV). Some types of central sleep ... et al. The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based ...

  14. Sleep in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Vigeta, Sônia Maria Garcia; Hachul, Helena; Tufik, Sergio; de Oliveira, Eleonora Menicucci

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that most influence the perception of sleep quality in postmenopausal women. We used the methodological strategy of the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD), which is based on a theoretical framework of social representations theory. We obtained the data by interviewing 22 postmenopausal Brazilian women who were experiencing insomnia. The women gave accounts of their difficulties with sleep; a variety of dimensions were identified within the data. The onset of sleep disorders might have occurred during childhood or in situations considered to be stressful, and were not necessarily associated with menopause. We found that hormonal alterations occurring during menopause, psychosocial factors, and sleep-breathing disorders triggered occasional sleep disturbances during this time of life. Participants were aware of the consequences of sleep deprivation. In addition, inadequate sleep hygiene habits figured prominently as determinants in the persistence of sleep disturbances. PMID:21917564

  15. Sleep and Aging: Insomnia

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Sleep and Aging Insomnia Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint ... us | contact us | site map National Institute on Aging | U.S. National Library of Medicine | National Institutes of ...

  16. Sleep and your health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Practice of Sleep Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 65. Carskadon MA, Dement WC. ... Practice of Sleep Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 2. Centers for Disease Control ...

  17. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia. PMID:27553980

  18. Sleeping during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... your partner) up at night. continue Finding a Good Sleeping Position Early in your pregnancy, try to get ... may safely improve your chances of getting a good night's sleep: Cut out caffeinated drinks like soda, coffee, and ...

  19. Sleep and Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Your Newborn Sleep Establishing a bedtime routine (bathing, reading, singing) will help your baby relax and sleep ...

  20. Sleep and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share Sleep Tips for Children's Mental Health Page Content ​​​Sleep has become a casualty ... MPH, FAAP Last Updated 5/23/2016 Source Mental Health, Naturally: The Family Guide to Holistic Care ...

  1. Time to wake up: individualising the approach to sleep promotion interventions.

    PubMed

    Fullagar, Hugh H K; Bartlett, Jonathan D

    2016-02-01

    Sleep is fundamental to normal physiological and cognitive function. Sleep promotion strategies have been used extensively in clinical settings, as a treatment for various ailments (ie, insomnia). However, sleep problems are prevalent outside these realms, with 56% of American, 31% of Western European and 29% of Japanese people suffering from sleep problems the previous year. The global public health concern over sleep has increased the demand for sleep promotion interventions, but the efficacy of these strategies is unclear in otherwise healthy and athletic populations. One possibility is due to the presentation and analysis of grouped data, despite sleep naturally being a highly variable and inherent trait. We argue the case for (1) presenting sleep data at the individual level and (2) individualising sleep promotion interventions. PMID:26701930

  2. Role of sleep timing in caloric intake and BMI.

    PubMed

    Baron, Kelly G; Reid, Kathryn J; Kern, Andrew S; Zee, Phyllis C

    2011-07-01

    Sleep duration has been linked to obesity and there is also an emerging literature in animals demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation. However, there is a paucity of research evaluating timing of sleep and feeding on weight regulation in humans. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of sleep timing in dietary patterns and BMI. Participants included 52 (25 females) volunteers who completed 7 days of wrist actigraphy and food logs. Fifty-six percent were "normal sleepers" (midpoint of <5:30 AM) and 44% were "late sleepers" (midpoint of sleep ≥5:30 AM). Late sleepers had shorter sleep duration, later sleep onset and sleep offset and meal times. Late sleepers consumed more calories at dinner and after 8:00 PM, had higher fast food, full-calorie soda and lower fruit and vegetable consumption. Higher BMI was associated with shorter sleep duration, later sleep timing, caloric consumption after 8:00 PM, and fast food meals. In multivariate models, sleep timing was independently associated with calories consumed after 8:00 PM and fruit and vegetable consumption but did not predict BMI after controlling for sleep duration. Calories consumed after 8:00 PM predicted BMI after controlling for sleep timing and duration. These findings indicate that caloric intake after 8:00 PM may increase the risk of obesity, independent of sleep timing and duration. Future studies should investigate the biological and social mechanisms linking timing of sleep and feeding in order to develop novel time-based interventions for weight management. PMID:21527892

  3. Development and Evaluation of a Measure to Assess Restorative Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Christopher L.; Hays, Ron D.; Morlock, Robert; Wang, Fong; Shikiar, Richard; Frank, Lori; Downey, Ralph; Roth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are validated measures assessing insomnia and disturbed sleep, but few psychometrically sound instruments to assess perceptions of the restorative or inadequate properties of sleep are available. Study Objectives: To develop and evaluate a new instrument, the Restorative Sleep Questionnaire (RSQ). Design and Setting: Focus groups were conducted using participants with and without nonrestorative sleep complaints. Questions were designed to elicit the feelings and experiences people have about their sleep and their view of daytime consequences of sleep. Expert panels confirmed the importance of nonrestorative sleep (NRS) as a frequently encountered problem either with or without other sleep complaints. The resulting RSQ was administered in three studies: (1) a telephone interview with healthy controls and individuals with sleep problems; (2) a randomized clinical trial of patients with primary insomnia assessed by polysomnography (PSG); (3) a PSG study of subjects with NRS complaints. Measurement and Results: Across all studies, the new measures were shown to be significantly correlated with health-related quality of life (HRQL) domains hypothesized to be related to NRS. The RSQ had good psychometric properties (α > 0.90; rtest-retest > 0.80), and factor analysis confirmed the unidimensionality of the measure. The RSQ was able to distinguish between healthy controls, patients with primary insomnia, and insomnia patients with isolated NRS complaints but without PSG defined sleep onset, duration, or maintenance problems. Normal sleepers reported sleep that was about a standard deviation more restorative than that of those with NRS on the RSQ. Conclusions: The results of the study provide support for the reliability and validity of the RSQ as a measure of NRS in subjects with and without self-reported or PSG confirmed sleep initiation and maintenance difficulties. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00655369; NCT00705601 Citation: Drake CL, Hays RD

  4. Pediatric Sleep Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sulman, Cecille G.

    2014-01-01

    Adenotonsillectomy is the most common surgery performed for sleep disordered breathing with good outcomes. Children with obesity, craniofacial disorders, and neurologic impairment are at risk for persistent sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy. Techniques exist to address obstructive lesions of the palate, tongue base, or craniofacial skeleton in children with persistent sleep apnea. Children with obstructive sleep apnea have a higher rate of peri-operative complications. PMID:24926473

  5. Spaceflight induces changes in the synaptic circuitry of the postnatal developing neocortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeFelipe, J.; Arellano, J. I.; Merchan-Perez, A.; Gonzalez-Albo, M. C.; Walton, K.; Llinas, R.

    2002-01-01

    The establishment of the adult pattern of neocortical circuitry depends on various intrinsic and extrinsic factors, whose modification during development can lead to alterations in cortical organization and function. We report the effect of 16 days of spaceflight [Neurolab mission; from postnatal day 14 (P14) to P30] on the neocortical representation of the hindlimb synaptic circuitry in rats. As a result, we show, for the first time, that development in microgravity leads to changes in the number and morphology of cortical synapses in a laminar-specific manner. In the layers II/III and Va, the synaptic cross-sectional lengths were significantly larger in flight animals than in ground control animals. Flight animals also showed significantly lower synaptic densities in layers II/III, IV and Va. The greatest difference was found in layer II/III, where there was a difference of 344 million synapses per mm(3) (15.6% decrease). Furthermore, after a 4 month period of re-adaptation to terrestrial gravity, some changes disappeared (i.e. the alterations were transient), while conversely, some new differences also appeared. For example, significant differences in synaptic density in layers II/III and Va after re-adaptation were no longer observed, whereas in layer IV the density of synapses increased notably in flight animals (a difference of 185 million synapses per mm(3) or 13.4%). In addition, all the changes observed only affected asymmetrical synapses, which are known to be excitatory. These results indicates that terrestrial gravity is a necessary environmental parameter for normal cortical synaptogenesis. These findings are fundamental in planning future long-term spaceflights.

  6. Randomised controlled trial of behavioural infant sleep intervention to improve infant sleep and maternal mood

    PubMed Central

    Hiscock, H; Wake, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of a behavioural sleep intervention with written information about normal sleep on infant sleep problems and maternal depression. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Well child clinics, Melbourne, Australia Participants 156 mothers of infants aged 6-12 months with severe sleep problems according to the parents. Main outcome measures Maternal report of infant sleep problem; scores on Edinburgh postnatal depression scale at two and four months. Intervention Discussion on behavioural infant sleep intervention (controlled crying) delivered over three consultations. Results At two months more sleep problems had resolved in the intervention group than in the control group (53/76 v 36/76, P=0.005). Overall depression scores fell further in the intervention group than in the control group (mean change −3.7, 95% confidence interval −4.7 to −2.7, v −2.5, −1.7 to −3.4, P=0.06). For the subgroup of mothers with depression scores of 10 and over more sleep problems had resolved in the intervention group than in the control group (26/33 v 13/33, P=0.001). In this subgroup depression scores also fell further for intervention mothers than control mothers at two months (−6.0, −7.5 to −4.0, v −3.7, −4.9 to −2.6, P=0.01) and at four months (−6.5, −7.9 to 5.1 v –4.2, –5.9 to −2.5, P=0.04). By four months, changes in sleep problems and depression scores were similar. Conclusions Behavioural intervention significantly reduces infant sleep problems at two but not four months. Maternal report of symptoms of depression decreased significantly at two months, and this was sustained at four months for mothers with high depression scores. What is already known on this topicInfant sleep problems and postnatal depression are both common potentially serious problemsWomen whose infants have sleep problems are more likely to report symptoms of depressionUncontrolled studies in clinical populations suggest that reducing infant

  7. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunil; Kavuru, Mani

    2010-01-01

    Sleep and its disorders are increasingly becoming important in our sleep deprived society. Sleep is intricately connected to various hormonal and metabolic processes in the body and is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Research shows that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may have profound metabolic and cardiovascular implications. Sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, and circadian misalignment are believed to cause metabolic dysregulation through myriad pathways involving sympathetic overstimulation, hormonal imbalance, and subclinical inflammation. This paper reviews sleep and metabolism, and how sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may be altering human metabolism. PMID:20811596

  8. Locus Coeruleus and Tuberomammillary Nuclei Ablations Attenuate Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist-Mediated REM Sleep.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michael D; Nguyen, Alexander T; Warrier, Deepti R; Palmerston, Jeremiah B; Thomas, Alexia M; Morairty, Stephen R; Neylan, Thomas C; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2016-01-01

    Hypocretin 1 and 2 (Hcrts; also known as orexin A and B), excitatory neuropeptides synthesized in cells located in the tuberal hypothalamus, play a central role in the control of arousal. Hcrt inputs to the locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC NE) system and the posterior hypothalamic histaminergic tuberomammillary nuclei (TMN HA) are important efferent pathways for Hcrt-induced wakefulness. The LC expresses Hcrt receptor 1 (HcrtR1), whereas HcrtR2 is found in the TMN. Although the dual Hcrt/orexin receptor antagonist almorexant (ALM) decreases wakefulness and increases NREM and REM sleep time, the neural circuitry that mediates these effects is currently unknown. To test the hypothesis that ALM induces sleep by selectively disfacilitating subcortical wake-promoting populations, we ablated LC NE neurons (LCx) or TMN HA neurons (TMNx) in rats using cell-type-specific saporin conjugates and evaluated sleep/wake following treatment with ALM and the GABAA receptor modulator zolpidem (ZOL). Both LCx and TMNx attenuated the promotion of REM sleep by ALM without affecting ALM-mediated increases in NREM sleep. Thus, eliminating either HcrtR1 signaling in the LC or HcrtR2 signaling in the TMN yields similar effects on ALM-induced REM sleep without affecting NREM sleep time. In contrast, neither lesion altered ZOL efficacy on any measure of sleep-wake regulation. These results contrast with those of a previous study in which ablation of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons attenuated ALM-induced increases in NREM sleep time without affecting REM sleep, indicating that Hcrt neurotransmission influences distinct aspects of NREM and REM sleep at different locations in the sleep-wake regulatory network. PMID:27022631

  9. Sleep-Dependent Consolidation of Procedural Motor Memories in Children and Adults: The Pre-Sleep Level of Performance Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Ines; Metzkow-Meszaros, Maila; Knapp, Susanne; Born, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In striking contrast to adults, in children sleep following training a motor task did not induce the expected (offline) gain in motor skill performance in previous studies. Children normally perform at distinctly lower levels than adults. Moreover, evidence in adults suggests that sleep dependent offline gains in skill essentially depend on the…

  10. Nonlinear aspects of the EEG during sleep in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, Matthew J.; Coussens, Scott W.; Pamula, Yvonne; Kennedy, Declan; Lushington, Kurt; Shalizi, Cosma; Allison, Andrew; Martin, A. James; Saint, David; Abbott, Derek

    2005-05-01

    Electroencephalograph (EEG) analysis enables the dynamic behavior of the brain to be examined. If the behavior is nonlinear then nonlinear tools can be used to glean information on brain behavior, and aid in the diagnosis of sleep abnormalities such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In this paper the sleep EEGs of a set of normal children and children with mild OSAS are evaluated for nonlinear brain behaviour. We found that there were differences in the nonlinearity of the brain behaviour between different sleep stages, and between the two groups of children.

  11. Physiology of Sleep.

    PubMed

    Carley, David W; Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF Far from a simple absence of wakefulness, sleep is an active, regulated, and metabolically distinct state, essential for health and well-being. In this article, the authors review the fundamental anatomy and physiology of sleep and its regulation, with an eye toward interactions between sleep and metabolism. PMID:26912958

  12. Sleep and Your Preschooler

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Sleep and Your Preschooler KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleep and Your Preschooler Print A A A Text ... Preschoolers need about 11 to 12 hours of sleep each day, which can include a nap. There's ...

  13. What Is Sleep Apnea?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Sleep Apnea? Español Sleep apnea (AP-ne-ah) is ... many people. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Sleep Apnea Research: The HeartBeat Study 06/07/2012 ...

  14. Biotelemetry and computer analysis of sleep processes on earth and in space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adey, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Developments in biomedical engineering now permit study of states of sleep, wakefulness, and focused attention in man exposed to rigorous environments, including aerospace flight. These new sensing devices, data acquisition systems, and computational methods have also been extensively applied to clinical problems of disordered sleep. A 'library' of EEG data has been prepared for sleep in normal man, and characterized for its group features by computational analysis. Sleep in an astronaut in space flight has been examined for the first and second 'nights' of space flight. Normal 90-min cycles were detected during the second night. Sleep patterns in quadriplegic patients deprived of all sensory inputs below the neck have indicated major deviations.

  15. β-adrenergic signaling regulates evolutionarily derived sleep loss in the Mexican cavefish.

    PubMed

    Duboué, Erik R; Borowsky, Richard L; Keene, Alex C

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is a fundamental behavior exhibited almost universally throughout the animal kingdom. The required amount and circadian timing of sleep differs greatly between species in accordance with habitats and evolutionary history. The Mexican blind cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus, is a model organism for the study of adaptive morphological and behavioral traits. In addition to loss of eyes and pigmentation, cave populations of A. mexicanus exhibit evolutionarily derived sleep loss and increased vibration attraction behavior, presumably to cope with a nutrient-poor environment. Understanding the neural mechanisms of evolutionarily derived sleep loss in this system may reveal critical insights into the regulation of sleep in vertebrates. Here we report that blockade of β-adrenergic receptors with propranolol rescues the decreased-sleep phenotype of cavefish. This effect was not seen with α-adrenergic antagonists. Treatment with selective β1-, β2-, and β3-antagonists revealed that the increased sleep observed with propranolol could partially be explained via the β1-adrenergic system. Morphological analysis of catecholamine circuitry revealed conservation of gross catecholaminergic neuroanatomy between surface and cave morphs. Taken together, these findings suggest that evolutionarily derived changes in adrenergic signaling underlie the reduced sleep of cave populations. PMID:22922609

  16. Motor dysfunction during sleep in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Ross, R J; Ball, W A; Dinges, D F; Kribbs, N B; Morrison, A R; Silver, S M; Mulvaney, F D

    1994-12-01

    A subjective disturbance of sleep, including the occurrence of repetitive, stereotypical anxiety dreams, is characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The phenomenology of the PTSD anxiety dream has seemed most consistent with an underlying rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dysfunction. However, motor behavior reportedly can accompany PTSD dreams, and normal REM sleep typically involves a nearly total paralysis of the body musculature. As a means of understanding this discrepancy, anterior tibialis muscle activity during sleep was studied in a group of Vietnam combat veterans with current PTSD and in an age-matched normal control group. The PTSD subjects had a higher percentage of REM sleep epochs with at least one prolonged twitch burst; they also were more likely to have periodic limb movements in sleep, during nonrapid eye movement sleep. Both these forms of muscle activation also have been observed in REM behavior disorder (RBD), a parasomnia characterized by the actual enactment of dream sequences during REM sleep. The identification of RBD-like signs in PTSD adds to the evidence for a fundamental disturbance of REM sleep phasic mechanisms in PTSD. PMID:7701184

  17. Magnonic beam splitter: The building block of parallel magnonic circuitry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovnikov, A. V.; Davies, C. S.; Grishin, S. V.; Kruglyak, V. V.; Romanenko, D. V.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate a magnonic beam splitter that works by inter-converting magnetostatic surface and backward-volume spin waves propagating in orthogonal sections of a T-shaped yttrium iron garnet structure. The inter-conversion is enabled by the overlap of the surface and volume spin wave bands. This overlap results from the demagnetising field induced along the transversely magnetised section(-s) of the structure and the quantization of the transverse wave number of the propagating spin waves (which are therefore better described as waveguide modes). In agreement with numerical micromagnetic simulations, our Brillouin light scattering imaging experiments reveal that, depending on the frequency, the incident fundamental waveguide magnonic modes may also be converted into higher order waveguide modes. The magnonic beam splitter demonstrated here is an important step towards the development of parallel logic circuitry of magnonics.

  18. Integrated circuit electrometer and sweep circuitry for an atmospheric probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    The design of electrometer circuitry using an integrated circuit operational amplifier with a MOSFET input is described. Input protection against static voltages is provided by a dual ultra low leakage diode or a neon lamp. Factors affecting frequency response leakage resistance, and current stability are discussed, and methods are suggested for increasing response speed and for eliminating leakage resistance and current instabilities. Based on the above, two practical circuits, one having a linear response and the other a logarithmic response, were designed and evaluated experimentally. The design of a sweep circuit to implement mobility measurements using atmospheric probes is presented. A triangular voltage waveform is generated and shaped to contain a step in voltage from zero volts in both positive and negative directions.

  19. Regulation of dietary choice by the decision-making circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    To advance our understanding of how the brain makes food decisions, it is essential to combine knowledge from two fields that have not yet been well integrated: the neuro-computational basis of decision-making and the homeostatic regulators of feeding. This Review integrates these two literatures from a neuro-computational perspective, with an emphasis in describing the variables computed by different neural systems and how they affect dietary choice. We highlight what is unique about feeding decisions, the mechanisms through which metabolic and endocrine factors affect the decision-making circuitry, why making healthy food choices is difficult for many people, and key processes at work in the obesity epidemic. PMID:24270272

  20. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking.

    PubMed

    Kalivas, Benjamin C; Kalivas, Peter W

    2016-03-01

    Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumbens during a relapse episode. We delineate an accumbens microcircuit that mediates cue-induced drug seeking becoming an intrusive event. This microcircuit harbors many potential therapeutic targets. We focus on preclinical and clinical studies, showing that administering N-acetylcysteine restores uptake of synaptic glutamate by astroglial glutamate transporters and thereby inhibits intrusive thinking. We posit that because intrusive thinking is a shared endophenotype in many disorders, N-acetylcysteine has positive effects in clinical trials for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction, gambling, trichotillomania, and depression. PMID:27069381

  1. Waveguide metatronics: Lumped circuitry based on structural dispersion.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Liberal, Iñigo; Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader

    2016-06-01

    Engineering optical nanocircuits by exploiting modularization concepts and methods inherited from electronics may lead to multiple innovations in optical information processing at the nanoscale. We introduce the concept of "waveguide metatronics," an advanced form of optical metatronics that uses structural dispersion in waveguides to obtain the materials and structures required to construct this class of circuitry. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the design of a metatronic circuit can be carried out by using a waveguide filled with materials with positive permittivity. This includes the implementation of all "lumped" circuit elements and their assembly in a single circuit board. In doing so, we extend the concepts of optical metatronics to frequency ranges where there are no natural plasmonic materials available. The proposed methodology could be exploited as a platform to experimentally validate optical metatronic circuits in other frequency regimes, such as microwave frequency setups, and/or to provide a new route to design optical nanocircuitry. PMID:27386566

  2. System and circuitry to provide stable transconductance for biasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garverick, Steven L. (Inventor); Yu, Xinyu (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An amplifier system can include an input amplifier configured to receive an analog input signal and provide an amplified signal corresponding to the analog input signal. A tracking loop is configured to employ delta modulation for tracking the amplified signal, the tracking loop providing a corresponding output signal. A biasing circuit is configured to adjust a bias current to maintain stable transconductance over temperature variations, the biasing circuit providing at least one bias signal for biasing at least one of the input amplifier and the tracking loop, whereby the circuitry receiving the at least one bias signal exhibits stable performance over the temperature variations. In another embodiment the biasing circuit can be utilized in other applications.

  3. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking

    PubMed Central

    Kalivas, Benjamin C.; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumbens during a relapse episode. We delineate an accumbens microcircuit that mediates cue-induced drug seeking becoming an intrusive event. This microcircuit harbors many potential therapeutic targets. We focus on preclinical and clinical studies, showing that administering N-acetylcysteine restores uptake of synaptic glutamate by astroglial glutamate transporters and thereby inhibits intrusive thinking. We posit that because intrusive thinking is a shared endophenotype in many disorders, N-acetylcysteine has positive effects in clinical trials for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction, gambling, trichotillomania, and depression. PMID:27069381

  4. New materials strategies for creating hybrid electronic circuitry (Presentation Video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Tobin J.

    2013-09-01

    This lecture focuses on the challenging design and realization of new materials for creating unconventional electronic circuitry. Fabrication methodologies to achieve these goals include high-throughput, large-area printing techniques. Materials design topics to be discussed include: 1. Rationally designed high-mobility p- and n-type organic semiconductors for printed organic CMOS, 2. Polycrystalline and amorphous oxide semiconductors for transparent and mechanically flexible electronics, 3) Self-assembled and printable high-k nanodielectrics enabling ultra-large capacitance, low leakage, high breakdown fields, minimal trapped interfacial charge, and device radiation hardness. 4) Combining these materials sets to fabricate a variety of high-performance thin-film transistor-based devices.

  5. Arithmetic and local circuitry underlying dopamine prediction errors

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Neir; Bukwich, Michael; Rao, Vinod; Hemmelder, Vivian; Tian, Ju; Uchida, Naoshige

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are thought to facilitate learning by comparing actual and expected reward1,2. Despite two decades of investigation, little is known about how this comparison is made. To determine how dopamine neurons calculate prediction error, we combined optogenetic manipulations with extracellular recordings in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) while mice engaged in classical conditioning. By manipulating the temporal expectation of reward, we demonstrate that dopamine neurons perform subtraction, a computation that is ideal for reinforcement learning but rarely observed in the brain. Furthermore, selectively exciting and inhibiting neighbouring GABA neurons in the VTA reveals that these neurons are a source of subtraction: they inhibit dopamine neurons when reward is expected, causally contributing to prediction error calculations. Finally, bilaterally stimulating VTA GABA neurons dramatically reduces anticipatory licking to conditioned odours, consistent with an important role for these neurons in reinforcement learning. Together, our results uncover the arithmetic and local circuitry underlying dopamine prediction errors. PMID:26322583

  6. Magnonic beam splitter: The building block of parallel magnonic circuitry

    SciTech Connect

    Sadovnikov, A. V.; Grishin, S. V. Romanenko, D. V.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2015-05-11

    We demonstrate a magnonic beam splitter that works by inter-converting magnetostatic surface and backward-volume spin waves propagating in orthogonal sections of a T-shaped yttrium iron garnet structure. The inter-conversion is enabled by the overlap of the surface and volume spin wave bands. This overlap results from the demagnetising field induced along the transversely magnetised section(-s) of the structure and the quantization of the transverse wave number of the propagating spin waves (which are therefore better described as waveguide modes). In agreement with numerical micromagnetic simulations, our Brillouin light scattering imaging experiments reveal that, depending on the frequency, the incident fundamental waveguide magnonic modes may also be converted into higher order waveguide modes. The magnonic beam splitter demonstrated here is an important step towards the development of parallel logic circuitry of magnonics.

  7. Nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness of aircrew after transmeridian flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Anthony N.; Pascoe, Peta A.; Spencer, Michael B.; Stone, Barbara M.; Green, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    The nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness of aircrew were studied by electroencephalography and the multiple sleep latency test. After a transmeridian flight from London To San Francisco, sleep onset was faster and, although there was increased wakefulness during the second half of the night, sleep duration and efficiency over the whole night were not changed. The progressive decrease in sleep latencies observed normally in the multiple sleep latency test during the morning continued throughout the day after arrival. Of the 13 subjects, 12 took a nap of around 1-h duration in the afternoon preceding the return flight. These naps would have been encouraged by the drowsiness at this time and facilitated by the departure of the aircraft being scheduled during the early evening. An early evening departure had the further advantage that the circadian increase in vigilance expected during the early part of the day would occur during the latter part of the return flight.

  8. The clenching-grinding spectrum and fear circuitry disorders: clinical insights from the neuroscience/paleoanthropology interface.

    PubMed

    Bracha, H Stefan; Ralston, Tyler C; Williams, Andrew E; Yamashita, Jennifer M; Bracha, Adam S

    2005-04-01

    This review discusses the clenching-grinding spectrum from the neuropsychiatric/neuroevolutionary perspective. In neuropsychiatry, signs of jaw clenching may be a useful objective marker for detecting or substantiating a self-report of current subjective emotional distress. Similarly, accelerated tooth wear may be an objective clinical sign for detecting, or substantiating, long-lasting anxiety. Clenching-grinding behaviors affect at least 8 percent of the population. We argue that during the early paleolithic environment of evolutionary adaptedness, jaw clenching was an adaptive trait because it rapidly strengthened the masseter and temporalis muscles, enabling a stronger, deeper and therefore more lethal bite in expectation of conflict (warfare) with conspecifics. Similarly, sharper incisors produced by teeth grinding may have served as weaponry during early human combat. We posit that alleles predisposing to fear-induced clenching-grinding were evolutionarily conserved in the human clade (lineage) since they remained adaptive for anatomically and mitochondrially modern humans (Homo sapiens) well into the mid-paleolithic. Clenching-grinding, sleep bruxism, myofacial pain, craniomaxillofacial musculoskeletal pain, temporomandibular disorders, oro-facial pain, and the fibromyalgia/chronic fatigue spectrum disorders are linked. A 2003 Cochrane meta-analysis concluded that dental procedures for the above spectrum disorders are not evidence based. There is a need for early detection of clenching-grinding in anxiety disorder clinics and for research into science-based interventions. Finally, research needs to examine the possible utility of incorporating physical signs into Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition posttraumatic stress disorder diagnostic criteria. One of the diagnostic criterion that may need to undergo a revision in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition is Criterion D (persistent fear-circuitry

  9. Sleep and primary headaches.

    PubMed

    Aguggia, Marco; Cavallini, M; Divito, N; Ferrero, M; Lentini, A; Montano, V; Tinebra, M C; Saracco, M G; Valfrè, W

    2011-05-01

    The relationship between sleep and primary headaches has been known for over a century, particularly for headaches occurring during the night or early morning. Migraine, tension-tyre headache, and cluster headache may cause sleep fragmentation, insomnia, and hypersomnia, causing considerable social and economical costs and several familial problems. By contrast, sleep disorders may themselves trigger headache attacks. Finally, headaches and sleep disorders can also be symptoms of other underlying pathologies. Despite this background, there is still no clarity about the mechanism that links these two entities and their interdependence remains to be defined. Patients with primary headache should undergo a careful assessment of sleep habits. PMID:21533713

  10. Sleep in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Richardson, P

    1996-07-01

    The article examines relationships between pregnancy and maternal sleep. Specifically, sleep as a restorative process is considered with regard for the metabolic and arousal demands of childbearing. The analysis draws attention to the limited number of studies in the area and the need for greater research interest in pregnancy sleep phenomena. The available evidence indicates that maternal slow-wave and rapid eye movement which are key to anabolic activity and neural-cerebral recharge, are protected throughout pregnancy until perhaps the last 3 to 4 weeks before delivery. The sleep disturbances about which term gravidas complain appear to be based on increased periods of wakefulness after sleep onset. PMID:8717994

  11. Regulation of Sleep by Neuropeptide Y-Like System in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    He, Chunxia; Yang, Yunyan; Zhang, Mingming; Price, Jeffrey L.; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2013-01-01

    Sleep is important for maintenance of normal physiology in animals. In mammals, neuropeptide Y (NPY), a homolog of Drosophila neuropeptide F (NPF), is involved in sleep regulation, with different effects in human and rat. However, the function of NPF on sleep in Drosophila melanogaster has not yet been described. In this study, we investigated the effects of NPF and its receptor-neuropeptide F receptor (NPFR1) on Drosophila sleep. Male flies over-expressing NPF or NPFR1 exhibited increased sleep during the nighttime. Further analysis demonstrated that sleep episode duration during nighttime was greatly increased and sleep latency was significantly reduced, indicating that NPF and NPFR1 promote sleep quality, and their action on sleep is not because of an impact of the NPF signal system on development. Moreover, the homeostatic regulation of flies after sleep deprivation was disrupted by altered NPF signaling, since sleep deprivation decreased transcription of NPF in control flies, and there were less sleep loss during sleep deprivation and less sleep gain after sleep deprivation in flies overexpressing NPF and NPFR1 than in control flies, suggesting that NPF system auto-regulation plays an important role in sleep homeostasis. However, these effects did not occur in females, suggesting a sex-dependent regulatory function in sleep for NPF and NPFR1. NPF in D1 brain neurons showed male-specific expression, providing the cellular locus for male-specific regulation of sleep by NPF and NPFR1. This study brings a new understanding into sleep studies of a sexually dimorphic regulatory mode in female and male flies. PMID:24040211

  12. A Novel BHLHE41 Variant is Associated with Short Sleep and Resistance to Sleep Deprivation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Renata; Kavakli, Ibrahim Halil; Goel, Namni; Cardinale, Christopher J.; Dinges, David F.; Kuna, Samuel T.; Maislin, Greg; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.; Tufik, Sergio; Hogenesch, John B.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Pack, Allan I.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Earlier work described a mutation in DEC2 also known as BHLHE41 (basic helix-loophelix family member e41) as causal in a family of short sleepers, who needed just 6 h sleep per night. We evaluated whether there were other variants of this gene in two well-phenotyped cohorts. Design: Sequencing of the BHLHE41 gene, electroencephalographic data, and delta power analysis and functional studies using cell-based luciferase. Results: We identified new variants of the BHLHE41 gene in two cohorts who had either acute sleep deprivation (n = 200) or chronic partial sleep deprivation (n = 217). One variant, Y362H, at another location in the same exon occurred in one twin in a dizygotic twin pair and was associated with reduced sleep duration, less recovery sleep following sleep deprivation, and fewer performance lapses during sleep deprivation than the homozygous twin. Both twins had almost identical amounts of non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. This variant reduced the ability of BHLHE41 to suppress CLOCK/BMAL1 and NPAS2/BMAL1 transactivation in vitro. Another variant in the same exome had no effect on sleep or response to sleep deprivation and no effect on CLOCK/BMAL1 transactivation. Random mutagenesis identified a number of other variants of BHLHE41 that affect its function. Conclusions: There are a number of mutations of BHLHE41. Mutations reduce total sleep while maintaining NREM sleep and provide resistance to the effects of sleep loss. Mutations that affect sleep also modify the normal inhibition of BHLHE41 of CLOCK/BMAL1 transactivation. Thus, clock mechanisms are likely involved in setting sleep length and the magnitude of sleep homeostasis. Citation: Pellegrino R, Kavakli IH, Goel N, Cardinale CJ, Dinges DF, Kuna ST, Maislin G, Van Dongen HP, Tufik S, Hogenesch JB, Hakonarson H, Pack AI. A novel BHLHE41 variant is associated with short sleep and resistance to sleep deprivation in humans. SLEEP 2014;37(8):1327-1336. PMID:25083013

  13. Autism and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Devnani, Preeti A; Hegde, Anaita U

    2015-01-01

    "Autism Spectrum Disorders" (ASDs) are neurodevelopment disorders and are characterized by persistent impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication. Sleep problems in ASD, are a prominent feature that have an impact on social interaction, day to day life, academic achievement, and have been correlated with increased maternal stress and parental sleep disruption. Polysomnography studies of ASD children showed most of their abnormalities related to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep which included decreased quantity, increased undifferentiated sleep, immature organization of eye movements into discrete bursts, decreased time in bed, total sleep time, REM sleep latency, and increased proportion of stage 1 sleep. Implementation of nonpharmacotherapeutic measures such as bedtime routines and sleep-wise approach is the mainstay of behavioral management. Treatment strategies along with limited regulated pharmacotherapy can help improve the quality of life in ASD children and have a beneficial impact on the family. PubMed search was performed for English language articles from January 1995 to January 2015. Following key words: Autism spectrum disorder, sleep disorders and autism, REM sleep and autism, cognitive behavioral therapy, sleep-wise approach, melatonin and ASD were used. Only articles reporting primary data relevant to the above questions were included. PMID:26962332

  14. Delayed sleep onset in depressed young people

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The circadian abnormality of delayed sleep phase has been suggested to characterise a subgroup of depressed young adults with different risk factors and course of illness. We aim to assess the prevalence and factors, particularly substance use, associated with such delay in a large help-seeking cohort of young people with mental health problems. Methods From a consecutively recruited sample of 802 help-seeking young people, 305 (38%) had at least moderate depressive symptoms (QIDS-C16 >10), sleep data and did not have a chronic severe mental illness. Demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated through self report and clinical interview. Delayed sleep phase was defined as a sleep onset between the hours of 02:00 a.m. – 06:00 a.m. and the characteristics of this group were compared to normal phase sleepers. Results Delayed sleep onset was reported amongst 18% (n = 56/305) of the depressed group compared to 11% of the non-depressed young people. Amongst the depressed group, delayed sleep onset was associated with tobacco, alcohol and cannabis misuse and short sleep duration (x̅: 5.8 hrs vs. x̅: 7.8 hrs). There were no differences in demographic factors, personality traits or symptoms. Tobacco smoking was very common: In logistic regression analyses only tobacco use (OR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.04 - 5.01) was associated with delayed sleep onset. There was no interaction with age. Conclusions Delayed sleep onset was twice as common in depressed young people as the general population and young people with other mental health problems, and is a potential marker for a subgroup of mood disorders. Those with delayed sleep onset were not more severely depressed but had short sleep duration, a risk for chronic psychological ill health, and higher levels of tobacco use. Nicotine use was common in this group, has biological evidence as a sleep disrupter, and requires specifically addressing in this population. PMID:24506941

  15. Hallucinations and sleep disorders in PD

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Christopher G.; Ouyang, Bichun; Negron, Alice; Stebbins, Glenn T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess prospectively progression and relationship of hallucinations and sleep disorders over a 10-year longitudinal study of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: Eighty-nine patients with PD were recruited to fill cells of normal sleep without hallucinations (n = 20), sleep fragmentation only (n = 20), vivid dreams/nightmares (n = 20), hallucinations with insight (n = 20), and hallucinations without insight (n = 9). At baseline, 0.5, 1.5, 4, 6, and 10 years, sleep disorders and hallucinations were assessed by standardized scales with the longitudinal data analyzed by generalized estimating equations with assumptions of linearity in time. Results: At 10 years, we could account for all subjects (27 interviewed, 61 deceased, and 1 too ill for interview). Hallucination prevalence and severity increased over time (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0001). Acting out dreams also increased over time (p = 0.001). In contrast, presence of vivid dreams/nightmares or sleep fragmentation did not increase over time. For all visits, the prevalence of sleep fragmentation did not differ between subjects with vs without hallucinations (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50, p = 0.09). However, severe sleep fragmentation was associated with concurrent hallucinations (OR 2.01, p = 0.006). The presence of hallucinations was also highly associated with concurrent vivid dreams/nightmares (OR = 2.60, p < 0.0001) and with concurrent acting out dreams (OR = 2.38, p = 0.0004). Among the baseline nonhallucinators, no sleep abnormalities at study entry predicted future development of hallucinations. Conclusions: Hallucinations and sleep abnormalities follow very different patterns of progression in PD over 10 years. Whereas patients with hallucinations often have concurrent sleep aberrations, no sleep problem is predictive of future hallucinations. GLOSSARY CI = confidence interval; GEE = generalized estimating equation; MMSE = Mini-Mental State Examination; OR = odds ratio; PD = Parkinson disease

  16. Prevalence of sleep disorders among ESRD patients.

    PubMed

    Ezzat, Haitham; Mohab, Amr

    2015-07-01

    Sleep disorders are common among the patients undergoing dialysis in end stage renal disease (ESRD). Although variable, their prevalence has been reported to be higher when compared to the general population. The most frequently reported complaints are insomnia, restless leg syndrome (RLS), sleep-disordered breathing and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep disorders in end stage renal disease patients on regular hemodialysis (group I with 30 patients) and CKD patients (group II with 30 patients) in comparison to 30 normal population (control group). In addition to laboratory investigations which included creatinine clearance using Cockroft and Gault formula, hemoglobin level (Hb), blood urea, serum creatinine, serum albumin, serum calcium and phosphorus and lipid profile, all subjects underwent one night of laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) consisting of a standard montage of electroencephalography (EEG) (C3/A1 and O2/C3 or O1/C4), monopolar left and right electrooculography (EOG) referenced to the opposite mastoid, surface mentalis electromyography (EMG), respiratory airflow (measured by thermistor) and effort (piezoelectric sensors), electrocardiography (ECG), anterior tibialis EMG and pulse oximetry. For hemodialysis subjects, this study was performed on a night immediately following hemodialysis treatment. The results showed that patients on hemodialysis have sleep disorders, and that sleep disorders are common in group I and II than control group. The percentage of sleep disorders in hemodialysis patients were as follows: insomnia (69%), followed by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome OSAS (24%), RLS and periodic limb movement PLM (18%), nightmares (13%), EDS (12%), sleepwalking (2%), possible rapid eye movement behavior disorders RED (2%), possible narcolepsy (1.4%). While the percentage of sleep disorders in CKD patients were as follows: insomnia (54%), followed by RLS (19%), PLM (12%), OSAS (16

  17. Family Disorganization, Sleep Hygiene, and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billows, Michael; Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Johnston, Anna; McCappin, Stephanie; Hudson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime…

  18. Sleep and Sleep Problems: From Birth to 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Mond, Courtney; Mindell, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is an important aspect of a child's early development and is essential to family well-being. During their first 3 years, infants and toddlers spend more than 50% of their lives sleeping. However, concerns about sleep and sleep problems are among the most common issues brought to the attention of pediatricians. Although sleep is one of the…

  19. Sleep apnea and stroke.

    PubMed

    Culebras, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence has established that sleep apnea is a risk factor for stroke. Patients with stroke have a high prevalence of sleep apnea that may have preceded or developed as a result of the stroke. Well-established concurrent stroke risk factors for stroke like hypertension and atrial fibrillation respond favorably to the successful treatment of sleep apnea. The gold standard diagnosis of sleep apnea is obtained in the sleep laboratory, but unattended polysomnography is gaining acceptance. Positive airway pressure (PAP) (continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP] or bilevel positive airway pressure [BiPAP]) applications are the gold-standard treatment of sleep apnea. Suggestive evidence indicates that stroke occurrence or recurrence may be reduced with treatment of sleep apnea. PMID:25407131

  20. Sleep-related violence.

    PubMed

    Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Cramer Bornemann, Michel A

    2005-03-01

    Most violent behaviors arise from wakefulness. It is important to realize that violent behaviors that may have forensic science implications can arise from the sleep period. By virtue of the fact that these behaviors arise from sleep, they are executed without conscious awareness, and, therefore, without culpability. The most common underlying conditions arising from sleep are disorders of arousal (sleepwalking and sleep terrors), the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and nocturnal seizures. In addition, there are a number of psychiatric conditions (dissociative disorders, malingering, and Munchausen syndrome by proxy) that actually arise from periods of wakefulness occurring during the sleep period. The clinical and medico-legal evaluation of such cases is outlined, and should be performed by a multidisciplinary team of experienced sleep medicine practitioners. PMID:15743554

  1. Dreaming without REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Oudiette, Delphine; Dealberto, Marie-José; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Merino-Andreu, Milagros; Tafti, Mehdi; Garma, Lucile; Schwartz, Sophie; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2012-09-01

    To test whether mental activities collected from non-REM sleep are influenced by REM sleep, we suppressed REM sleep using clomipramine 50mg (an antidepressant) or placebo in the evening, in a double blind cross-over design, in 11 healthy young men. Subjects were awakened every hour and asked about their mental activity. The marked (81%, range 39-98%) REM-sleep suppression induced by clomipramine did not substantially affect any aspects of dream recall (report length, complexity, bizarreness, pleasantness and self-perception of dream or thought-like mentation). Since long, complex and bizarre dreams persist even after suppressing REM sleep either partially or totally, it suggests that the generation of mental activity during sleep is independent of sleep stage. PMID:22647346

  2. Sleep deprivation therapy.

    PubMed

    Svestka, Jaromir

    2008-11-01

    Sleep deprivation is a useful therapeutic option in the treatment of depressive disorders, especially in pharmacoresistant disorders. Its therapeutic efficacy in other indications has not, however, been confirmed. According to current knowledge, application of sleep therapy requires concomitant therapy to prevent early relapses of depression. Total sleep deprivation is the classic variant of its clinical use. Partial sleep deprivation has a somewhat less pronounced antidepressant effect, and the duration of sleep deprivation rather than application timing determines its therapeutic effect. The most reliable predictors of sleep deprivation efficacy are marked diurnal fluctuations of depressive mood, patient locomotor activity, and limbic hyperactivity in the central nervous system. The mechanism of the antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation remains unknown. PMID:19029872

  3. Sleep and psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Vivien C.; Guilleminault, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders constitute 15.4% of the disease burden in established market economies. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with sleep disturbances, and the relationship is often bidirectional. This paper reviews the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders, their clinical presentation, and their association with sleep disorders. Among the psychiatric disorders reviewed are affective disorders, psychosis, anxiety disorders (including post-traumatic stress disorder), substance abuse disorders, eating disorders, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders. The spectrum of associated sleep disorders includes insomnia, hypersomnia, nocturnal panic, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, restless legs/periodic limb movements of sleep, obstructive sleep apnea, and parasomnias. The effects on sleep of various psychotropic medications utilized to treat the above psychiatric disorders are summarized. PMID:16416705

  4. Dietary Macronutrients and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Lindseth, Glenda; Murray, Ashley

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effects of macronutrient diets on sleep quantity and quality. Using a repeated-measures, randomized crossover study design, 36 young adults served as their own control, and consumed high protein, carbohydrate, fat, and control diets. Treatment orders were counterbalanced across the dietary groups. Following consumption of the study diets, sleep measures were examined for within-subject differences. Fatty acid intakes and serum lipids were further analyzed for differences. Sleep actigraphs indicated wake times and wake minutes (after sleep onset) were significantly different when comparing consumption of macronutrient diets and a control diet. Post hoc testing indicated high carbohydrate intakes were associated with significantly shorter (p < .001) wake times. Also, the Global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index© post hoc results indicated high fat intake was associated with significantly better (p < .05) sleep in comparison with the other diets. These results highlight the effects that dietary manipulations may have on sleep. PMID:27170039

  5. Internalizing and externalizing traits predict changes in sleep efficiency in emerging adulthood: an actigraphy study

    PubMed Central

    Yaugher, Ashley C.; Alexander, Gerianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on psychopathology and experimental studies of sleep restriction support a relationship between sleep disruption and both internalizing and externalizing disorders. The objective of the current study was to extend this research by examining sleep, impulsivity, antisocial personality traits, and internalizing traits in a university sample. Three hundred and eighty six individuals (161 males) between the ages of 18 and 27 years (M = 18.59, SD = 0.98) wore actigraphs for 7 days and completed established measures of disorder-linked personality traits and sleep quality (i.e., Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). As expected, sleep measures and questionnaire scores fell within the normal range of values and sex differences in sleep and personality were consistent with previous research results. Similar to findings in predominantly male forensic psychiatric settings, higher levels of impulsivity predicted poorer subjective sleep quality in both women and men. Consistent with well-established associations between depression and sleep, higher levels of depression in both sexes predicted poorer subjective sleep quality. Bidirectional analyses showed that better sleep efficiency decreases depression. Finally, moderation analyses showed that gender does have a primary role in sleep efficiency and marginal effects were found. The observed relations between sleep and personality traits in a typical university sample add to converging evidence of the relationship between sleep and psychopathology and may inform our understanding of the development of psychopathology in young adulthood. PMID:26500575

  6. Internalizing and externalizing traits predict changes in sleep efficiency in emerging adulthood: an actigraphy study.

    PubMed

    Yaugher, Ashley C; Alexander, Gerianne M

    2015-01-01

    Research on psychopathology and experimental studies of sleep restriction support a relationship between sleep disruption and both internalizing and externalizing disorders. The objective of the current study was to extend this research by examining sleep, impulsivity, antisocial personality traits, and internalizing traits in a university sample. Three hundred and eighty six individuals (161 males) between the ages of 18 and 27 years (M = 18.59, SD = 0.98) wore actigraphs for 7 days and completed established measures of disorder-linked personality traits and sleep quality (i.e., Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). As expected, sleep measures and questionnaire scores fell within the normal range of values and sex differences in sleep and personality were consistent with previous research results. Similar to findings in predominantly male forensic psychiatric settings, higher levels of impulsivity predicted poorer subjective sleep quality in both women and men. Consistent with well-established associations between depression and sleep, higher levels of depression in both sexes predicted poorer subjective sleep quality. Bidirectional analyses showed that better sleep efficiency decreases depression. Finally, moderation analyses showed that gender does have a primary role in sleep efficiency and marginal effects were found. The observed relations between sleep and personality traits in a typical university sample add to converging evidence of the relationship between sleep and psychopathology and may inform our understanding of the development of psychopathology in young adulthood. PMID:26500575

  7. Sleep Promotes Generalization of Extinction of Conditioned Fear

    PubMed Central

    Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Orr, Scott P.; Rauch, Scott L.; Stickgold, Robert; Pitman, Roger K.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objective: To examine the effects of sleep on fear conditioning, extinction, extinction recall, and generalization of extinction recall in healthy humans. Design: During the Conditioning phase, a mild, 0.5-sec shock followed conditioned stimuli (CS+s), which consisted of 2 differently colored lamps. A third lamp color was interspersed but never reinforced (CS-). Immediately after Conditioning, one CS+ was extinguished (CS+E) by presentation without shocks (Extinction phase). The other CS+ went unextinguished (CS+U). Twelve hours later, following continuous normal daytime waking (Wake group, N = 27) or an equal interval containing a normal night's sleep (Sleep group, N = 26), conditioned responses (CRs) to all CSs were measured (Extinction Recall phase). It was hypothesized that the Sleep versus Wake group would show greater extinction recall and/or generalization of extinction recall from the CS+E to the CS+U. Setting: Academic medical center. Subjects: Paid normal volunteers. Measurements and Results: Square-root transformed skin conductance response (SCR) measured conditioned responding. During Extinction Recall, the Group (Wake or Sleep) × CS+ Type (CS+E or CS+U) interaction was significant (P = 0.04). SCRs to the CS+E did not differ between groups, whereas SCRs to the CS+U were significantly smaller in the Sleep group. Additionally, SCRs were significantly larger to the CS+U than CS+E in the Wake but not the Sleep group. Conclusions: After sleep, extinction memory generalized from an extinguished conditioned stimulus to a similarly conditioned but unextinguished stimulus. Clinically, adequate sleep may promote generalization of extinction memory from specific stimuli treated during exposure therapy to similar stimuli later encountered in vivo. Citation: Pace-Schott EF; Milad MR; Orr SP; Rauch SL; Stickgold R; Pitman RK. Sleep promotes generalization of extinction of conditioned fear. SLEEP 2009;32(1):19-26. PMID:19189775

  8. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Carina; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F.; Rocha, Susana; Herrera-Solís, Andrea; Salas-Pacheco, José; García-García, Fabio; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called adult neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of adult neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythms and sleep cycles regulate hippocampal and subventricular zone neurogenesis, discussing some potential underlying mechanisms. In addition, our review highlights some interacting points between sleep and adult neurogenesis in brain function, such as learning, memory, and mood states, and provides some insights on the effects of antidepressants and hypnotic drugs on adult neurogenesis. PMID:25926773

  9. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carina; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F; Rocha, Susana; Herrera-Solís, Andrea; Salas-Pacheco, José; García-García, Fabio; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called adult neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of adult neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythms and sleep cycles regulate hippocampal and subventricular zone neurogenesis, discussing some potential underlying mechanisms. In addition, our review highlights some interacting points between sleep and adult neurogenesis in brain function, such as learning, memory, and mood states, and provides some insights on the effects of antidepressants and hypnotic drugs on adult neurogenesis. PMID:25926773

  10. Microgravity alters respiratory abdominal and rib cage motion during sleep

    PubMed Central

    Prisk, G. Kim; Paiva, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The abdominal and rib cage contributions to tidal breathing differ between rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-NREM sleep. We hypothesized that abdominal relative contribution during NREM and REM sleep would be altered in different directions when comparing sleep on Earth with sleep in sustained microgravity (μG), due to conformational changes and differences in coupling between the rib cage and the abdominal compartment induced by weightlessness. We studied respiration during sleep in five astronauts before, during, and after two Space Shuttle missions. A total of 77 full-night (8 h) polysomnographic studies were performed; abdominal and rib cage respiratory movements were recorded using respiratory inductive plethysmography. Breath-by-breath analysis of respiration was performed for each class: awake, light sleep, deep sleep, and REM sleep. Abdominal contribution to tidal breathing increased in μG, with the first measure in space being significantly higher than preflight values, followed by a return toward preflight values. This was observed for all classes. Preflight, rib cage, and abdominal movements were found to be in phase for all but REM sleep, for which an abdominal lead was observed. The abdominal leading role during REM sleep increased while deep sleep showed the opposite behavior, the rib cage taking a leading role in-flight. In μG, the percentage of inspiratory time in the overall breath, the duty cycle (TI/TTot), decreased for all classes considered when compared with preflight, while normalized inspiratory flow, taking the awake values as reference, increased in-flight for light sleep, deep sleep, and REM. Changes in abdominal-rib cage displacements probably result from a less efficient operating point for the diaphragm and a less efficient coupling between the abdomen and the apposed portion of the rib cage in μG. However, the preservation of total ventilation suggests that short-term adaptive mechanisms of ventilatory control compensate for these

  11. Increased food intake and changes in metabolic hormones in response to chronic sleep restriction alternated with short periods of sleep allowance.

    PubMed

    Barf, R Paulien; Desprez, Tifany; Meerlo, Peter; Scheurink, Anton J W

    2012-01-01

    Rodent models for sleep restriction have good face validity when examining food intake and related regulatory metabolic hormones. However, in contrast to epidemiological studies in which sleep restriction is associated with body weight gain, sleep-restricted rats show a decrease in body weight. This difference with the human situation might be caused by the alternation between periods of sleep restriction and sleep allowance that often occur in real life. Therefore, we assessed the metabolic consequences of a chronic sleep restriction protocol that modeled working weeks with restricted sleep time alternated by weekends with sleep allowance. We hypothesized that this protocol could lead to body weight gain. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sleep restriction (SR), forced activity control (FA), and home cage control (HC). SR rats were subjected to chronic sleep restriction by keeping them awake for 20 h per day in slowly rotating drums. To model the human condition, rats were subjected to a 4-wk protocol, with each week consisting of a 5-day period of sleep restriction followed by a 2-day period of sleep allowance. During the first experimental week, SR caused a clear attenuation of growth. In subsequent weeks, two important processes occurred: 1) a remarkable increase in food intake during SR days, 2) an increase in weight gain during the weekends of sleep allowance, even though food intake during those days was comparable to controls. In conclusion, our data revealed that the alternation between periods of sleep restriction and sleep allowance leads to complex changes in food intake and body weight, that prevent the weight loss normally seen in continuous sleep-restricted rats. Therefore, this "week-weekend" protocol may be a better model to study the metabolic consequences of restricted sleep. PMID:22012696

  12. A Path to Sleep Is through the Eye1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Light has long been known to modulate sleep, but recent discoveries support its use as an effective nocturnal stimulus for eliciting sleep in certain rodents. “Photosomnolence” is mediated by classical and ganglion cell photoreceptors and occurs despite the ongoing high levels of locomotion at the time of stimulus onset. Brief photic stimuli trigger rapid locomotor suppression, sleep, and a large drop in core body temperature (Tc; Phase 1), followed by a relatively fixed duration interval of sleep (Phase 2) and recovery (Phase 3) to pre-sleep activity levels. Additional light can lengthen Phase 2. Potential retinal pathways through which the sleep system might be light-activated are described and the potential roles of orexin (hypocretin) and melanin-concentrating hormone are discussed. The visual input route is a practical avenue to follow in pursuit of the neural circuitry and mechanisms governing sleep and arousal in small nocturnal mammals and the organizational principles may be similar in diurnal humans. Photosomnolence studies are likely to be particularly advantageous because the timing of sleep is largely under experimenter control. Sleep can now be effectively studied using uncomplicated, nonintrusive methods with behavior evaluation software tools; surgery for EEG electrode placement is avoidable. The research protocol for light-induced sleep is easily implemented and useful for assessing the effects of experimental manipulations on the sleep induction pathway. Moreover, the experimental designs and associated results benefit from a substantial amount of existing neuroanatomical and pharmacological literature that provides a solid framework guiding the conduct and interpretation of future investigations. PMID:26464977

  13. Sleep, the Athlete, and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Peter Hudson

    2002-01-01

    Presents information to help athletic coaches and trainers gain a better understanding of what happens during sleep and how sleep can affect performance, outlining three practical suggestions for helping athletes improve their sleep quality (identify and obtain the amount of sleep one needs, keep a regular sleep schedule, and create an optimal…

  14. Sleep from an Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Bahammam, Ahmed S

    2011-10-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry. PMID:21977062

  15. Sleep from an Islamic perspective

    PubMed Central

    BaHammam, Ahmed S.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry. PMID:21977062

  16. Normal faults, normal friction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collettini, Cristiano; Sibson, Richard H.

    2001-10-01

    Debate continues as to whether normal faults may be seismically active at very low dips (δ < 30°) in the upper continental crust. An updated compilation of dip estimates (n = 25) has been prepared from focal mechanisms of shallow, intracontinental, normal-slip earthquakes (M > 5.5; slip vector raking 90° ± 30° in the fault plane) where the rupture plane is unambiguously discriminated. The dip distribution for these moderate-to-large normal fault ruptures extends from 65° > δ > 30°, corresponding to a range, 25° < θr < 60°, for the reactivation angle between the fault and inferred vertical σ1. In a comparable data set previously obtained for reverse fault ruptures (n = 33), the active dip distribution is 10° < δ = θr < 60°. For vertical and horizontal σ1 trajectories within extensional and compressional tectonic regimes, respectively, dip-slip reactivation is thus restricted to faults oriented at θr ≤ 60° to inferred σ1. Apparent lockup at θr ≈ 60° in each dip distribution and a dominant 30° ± 5° peak in the reverse fault dip distribution, are both consistent with a friction coefficient μs ≈ 0.6, toward the bottom of Byerlee's experimental range, though localized fluid overpressuring may be needed for reactivation of less favorably oriented faults.

  17. Timing of spontaneous sleep-paralysis episodes.

    PubMed

    Girard, Todd A; Cheyne, J Allan

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this prospective naturalistic field study was to determine the distribution of naturally occurring sleep-paralysis (SP) episodes over the course of nocturnal sleep and their relation to bedtimes. Regular SP experiencers (N = 348) who had previously filled out a screening assessment for SP as well as a general sleep survey were recruited. Participants reported, online over the World Wide Web, using a standard reporting form, bedtimes and subsequent latencies of spontaneous episodes of SP occurring in their homes shortly after their occurrence. The distribution of SP episodes over nights was skewed to the first 2 h following bedtime. Just over one quarter of SP episodes occurred within 1 h of bedtime, although episodes were reported throughout the night with a minor mode around the time of normal waking. SP latencies following bedtimes were moderately consistent across episodes and independent of bedtimes. Additionally, profiles of SP latencies validated self-reported hypnagogic, hypnomesic, and hypnopompic SP categories, as occurring near the beginning, middle, and end of the night/sleep period respectively. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that SP timing is controlled by mechanisms initiated at or following sleep onset. These results also suggest that SP, rather than uniquely reflecting anomalous sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, may result from failure to maintain sleep during REM periods at any point during the sleep period. On this view, SP may sometimes reflect the maintenance of REM consciousness when waking and SP hallucinations the continuation of dream experiences into waking life. PMID:16704578

  18. [Headache and sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Masayuki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Headache and sleep problems are both some of the most commonly reported symptoms in clinical practice. There is a clear association between chronic headache and sleep disorders, especially headaches occurring during the night or early morning. Identification of sleep problems in chronic headache patients is worthwhile because treatment of sleep disorders among chronic headache patients may be followed by improve of the headache. Morning headache has been recognised as an obstructive sleep apnoea related symptom. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure usually reduced headache, however, we often encounter obstructive sleep apnoea patients who present various characteristics of morning headache that often do not fulfil the criteria for "sleep apnoea headache" according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders: 2nd edition (ICHD-2) criteria. The pathophysiologic background for a relation between obstructive sleep apnoea and morning headache is multifactorial. We should also be noted that tension-type headache and migraine might be coexisted in obstructive sleep apnoea patients. In addition, we review the relationship between migraine and sleep disorders such as restless legs syndrome, narcolepsy and parasomnia (dream enacting behaviour) including our studies. PMID:25672689

  19. Sleep, Cognition and Dementia.

    PubMed

    Porter, Verna R; Buxton, William G; Avidan, Alon Y

    2015-12-01

    The older patient population is growing rapidly around the world and in the USA. Almost half of seniors over age 65 who live at home are dissatisfied with their sleep, and nearly two-thirds of those residing in nursing home facilities suffer from sleep disorders. Chronic and pervasive sleep complaints and disturbances are frequently associated with excessive daytime sleepiness and may result in impaired cognition, diminished intellect, poor memory, confusion, and psychomotor retardation all of which may be misinterpreted as dementia. The key sleep disorders impacting patients with dementia include insomnia, hypersomnolence, circadian rhythm misalignment, sleep disordered breathing, motor disturbances of sleep such as periodic leg movement disorder of sleep and restless leg syndrome, and parasomnias, mostly in the form of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is a pre-clinical marker for a class of neurodegenerative diseases, the "synucleinopathies", and requires formal polysomnographic evaluation. Untreated sleep disorders may exacerbate cognitive and behavioral symptoms in patients with dementia and are a source of considerable stress for bed partners and family members. When left untreated, sleep disturbances may also increase the risk of injury at night, compromise health-related quality of life, and precipitate and accelerate social and economic burdens for caregivers. PMID:26478197

  20. Chronic hiccups and sleep.

    PubMed

    Arnulf, I; Boisteanu, D; Whitelaw, W A; Cabane, J; Garma, L; Derenne, J P

    1996-04-01

    To explore the effect of sleep on hiccups, we studied eight patients aged 20-81 years, all males with chronic hiccups lasting 7 days to 7 years, by means of overnight polysomnography. The incidence of new bouts of hiccups and the likelihood of hiccups being present were both highest in wakefulness and became progressively lower through stages I-IV of slow wave sleep (SWS) to rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). There was a significant tendency for hiccups to disappear at sleep onset and REMS onset. Of all 21 bouts of hiccups that were observed to stop, 10/21 did so during an apnea or hypopnea. Frequency of hiccups within a bout slowed progressively from wakefulness through the stages of SWS to REMS. For the whole group, mean frequency decreased significantly from wakefulness [(25.6 +/- 12.1), (mean +/- SD)] to sleep onset or stage I (22.3 +/- 12.2). Sleep latency was increased from 8 +/- 16.3 minutes when hiccups were absent to 16.35 +/- 19.9 minutes when it was present. Sleep efficiency was poor because of long waking periods, and there were deficiencies of both SWS and REMS. Hiccups themselves were not responsible for any arousals or awakenings. We conclude that neural mechanisms responsible for hiccups are strongly influenced by sleep state and that hiccups disrupt sleep onset but not established sleep. PMID:8723381

  1. Forerunners of REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Hartmut; Salzarulo, Piero

    2012-02-01

    The development of sleep research can be divided into two main periods. The first one was initiated in 1863 by the first systematic measurement of the depth of sleep, the second in 1953 by the discovery of recurrent episodes of rapid eye movements in sleep. The main methodological procedure in the first of these two periods was the measurement of a single physiological variable, while beginning with long-term measurements of the electroencephalogram (EEG) in sleep, multi-channel, polygraphic recording became the method of choice for sleep studies. Although rhythmic changes in the ultradian frequency range of one to 2 h were observed early in many variables during sleep (movements, autonomic functions, penile erections), the recognition of the existence of two different states of sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep)) was contingent upon a 'synthetic' view, which focus on the coalescence of multiple variables. The dual concept of sleep organization evolved stepwise in parallel to the rapid growth of neurophysiological knowledge and techniques in the first half of the 20th century, culminating in the discovery of REM sleep. PMID:21906979

  2. Sleep and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Beccuti, Guglielmo; Pannain, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes the most recent evidence linking decreased sleep duration and poor sleep quality to obesity, focusing upon studies in adults. Recent findings Published and unpublished health examination surveys and epidemiological studies suggest that the worldwide prevalence of obesity has doubled since 1980. In 2008, 1 in 10 adults was obese, with women more likely to be obese than men. This obesity epidemic has been paralleled by a trend of reduced sleep duration. Poor sleep quality, which leads to overall sleep loss has also become a frequent complaint. Growing evidence from both laboratory and epidemiological studies points to short sleep duration and poor sleep quality as new risk factors for the development of obesity. Summary Sleep is an important modulator of neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism and sleep loss has been shown to result in metabolic and endocrine alterations, including decreased glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased evening concentrations of cortisol, increased levels of ghrelin, decreased levels of leptin, and increased hunger and appetite. Recent epidemiological and laboratory evidence confirm previous findings of an association between sleep loss and increased risk of obesity. PMID:21659802

  3. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ju; Lee, Jung Hie; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review circadian rhythm sleep disorders, including underlying causes, diagnostic considerations, and typical treatments. Methods Literature review and discussion of specific cases. Results Survey studies 1,2 suggest that up to 3% of the adult population suffers from a circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD). However, these sleep disorders are often confused with insomnia, and an estimated 10% of adult and 16% of adolescent sleep disorders patients may have a CRSD 3-6. While some CRSD (such as jet lag) can be self-limiting, others when untreated can lead to adverse medical, psychological, and social consequences. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders classifies CRSD as dyssomnias, with six subtypes: Advanced Sleep Phase Type, Delayed Sleep Phase Type, Irregular Sleep Wake Type, Free Running Type, Jet Lag Type, and Shift Work Type. The primary clinical characteristic of all CRSD is an inability to fall asleep and wake at the desired time. It is believed that CRSD arise from a problem with the internal biological clock (circadian timing system) and/or misalignment between the circadian timing system and the external 24-hour environment. This misalignment can be the result of biological and/or behavioral factors. CRSD can be confused with other sleep or medical disorders. Conclusions Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a distinct class of sleep disorders characterized by a mismatch between the desired timing of sleep and the ability to fall asleep and remain asleep. If untreated, CRSD can lead to insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, with negative medical, psychological, and social consequences. It is important for physicians to recognize potential circadian rhythm sleep disorders so that appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and referral can be made. PMID:25368503

  4. A Computational Framework for Ultrastructural Mapping of Neural Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, James R; Jones, Bryan W; Yang, Jia-Hui; Shaw, Marguerite V; Watt, Carl B; Koshevoy, Pavel; Spaltenstein, Joel; Jurrus, Elizabeth; UV, Kannan; Whitaker, Ross T; Mastronarde, David; Tasdizen, Tolga; Marc, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    Circuitry mapping of metazoan neural systems is difficult because canonical neural regions (regions containing one or more copies of all components) are large, regional borders are uncertain, neuronal diversity is high, and potential network topologies so numerous that only anatomical ground truth can resolve them. Complete mapping of a specific network requires synaptic resolution, canonical region coverage, and robust neuronal classification. Though transmission electron microscopy (TEM) remains the optimal tool for network mapping, the process of building large serial section TEM (ssTEM) image volumes is rendered difficult by the need to precisely mosaic distorted image tiles and register distorted mosaics. Moreover, most molecular neuronal class markers are poorly compatible with optimal TEM imaging. Our objective was to build a complete framework for ultrastructural circuitry mapping. This framework combines strong TEM-compliant small molecule profiling with automated image tile mosaicking, automated slice-to-slice image registration, and gigabyte-scale image browsing for volume annotation. Specifically we show how ultrathin molecular profiling datasets and their resultant classification maps can be embedded into ssTEM datasets and how scripted acquisition tools (SerialEM), mosaicking and registration (ir-tools), and large slice viewers (MosaicBuilder, Viking) can be used to manage terabyte-scale volumes. These methods enable large-scale connectivity analyses of new and legacy data. In well-posed tasks (e.g., complete network mapping in retina), terabyte-scale image volumes that previously would require decades of assembly can now be completed in months. Perhaps more importantly, the fusion of molecular profiling, image acquisition by SerialEM, ir-tools volume assembly, and data viewers/annotators also allow ssTEM to be used as a prospective tool for discovery in nonneural systems and a practical screening methodology for neurogenetics. Finally, this framework

  5. Sleep behaviour: sleep in continuously active dolphins.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Yuske; Arai, Kazutoshi; Kohshima, Shiro

    2006-06-22

    Sleep has been assumed to be necessary for development and to be a vital function in mammals and other animals. However, Lyamin et al. claim that in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and killer whales (Orcinus orca), neonates and their mothers show almost no sleep behaviour for the first month after birth; this conclusion is based on their observation that the cetaceans keep swimming, avoid obstacles and rarely close their eyes for 24 hours a day throughout that period. Here we analyse the behaviour and eye closure of three neonate-mother pairs of bottlenose dolphins and find that, although the animals tend to open both eyes when surfacing to breathe, one or both eyes are closed during 'swim rest', an underwater sleeping behaviour that is associated with continuous activity. This observation calls into question the conclusions of Lyamin et al., who overlooked this type of sleep by analysing the animals' eye state only when they surfaced to breathe. PMID:16791150

  6. Catecholaminergic connectivity to the inner ear, central auditory and vocal motor circuitry in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus

    PubMed Central

    Forlano, Paul M.; Kim, Spencer D.; Krzyminska, Zuzanna M.; Sisneros, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Although the neuroanatomical distribution of catecholaminergic (CA) neurons has been well documented across all vertebrate classes, few studies have examined CA connectivity to physiologically and anatomically identified neural circuitry that controls behavior. The goal of this study was to characterize CA distribution in the brain and inner ear of the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) with particular emphasis on their relationship with anatomically labeled circuitry that both produces and encodes social acoustic signals in this species. Neurobiotin labeling of the main auditory endorgan, the saccule, combined with tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence (TH-ir) revealed a strong CA innervation of both the peripheral and central auditory system. Diencephalic TH-ir neurons in the periventricular posterior tuberculum, known to be dopaminergic, send ascending projections to the ventral telencephalon and prominent descending projections to vocal-acoustic integration sites, notably the hindbrain octavolateralis efferent nucleus, as well as onto the base of hair cells in the saccule via nerve VIII. Neurobiotin backfills of the vocal nerve in combination with TH-ir revealed CA terminals on all components of the vocal pattern generator which appears to largely originate from local TH-ir neurons but may include diencephalic projections as well. This study provides strong evidence for catecholamines as important neuromodulators of both auditory and vocal circuitry and acoustic-driven social behavior in midshipman fish. This first demonstration of TH-ir terminals in the main endorgan of hearing in a non-mammalian vertebrate suggests a conserved and important anatomical and functional role for dopamine in normal audition. PMID:24715479

  7. Great nature's second course: Introduction to the special issue on the behavioral neuroscience of sleep.

    PubMed

    Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2016-06-01

    Sleep is necessary for normal psychological functioning, and psychological function in turn affects sleep integrity. Recent investigations delineate the relation of sleep to a broad array of processes ranging from learning and memory to emotional reactivity and mood, and use a variety of methodological approaches (imaging, electrophysiological, behavioral) to reveal the complex relations between sleep and the functioning of the awake brain. The articles in this issue advance our fundamental knowledge of the relation of sleep to psychological function. In addition, several of the articles discuss how sleep is affected by or affects human clinical conditions, including insomnia, epilepsy, mild cognitive impairment, bipolar disorder, and cancer. Together, the articles of this special issue highlight recent progress in understanding the behavioral neuroscience of sleep and identify promising areas for future research, including the possibility of sleep-based interventions to improve psychological health. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27214499

  8. Guide to Understanding Your Sleep Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... ASAA Financials Learn Healthy sleep Sleep apnea Other sleep disorders Personal stories Treat Test Yourself Diagnosis Treatment Options ... a result of sleep-disordered breathing or other sleep disorders. Each arousal sends you back to a lighter ...

  9. Dementia - behavior and sleep problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000029.htm Dementia - behavior and sleep problems To use the sharing features on this ... sleep and stay asleep Tips for Behavior and Sleep Problems Having a daily routine may help. Calmly ...

  10. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep disorders in the elderly involve any disrupted sleep pattern. This can include problems falling or staying asleep, ... for medical causes and determine which type of sleep disorder is causing the problem.

  11. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000064.htm Sleep disorders in the elderly To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleep disorders in the elderly involve any disrupted sleep pattern. ...

  12. PROCESSES ORGANISMIC: SLEEP AND DREAMING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews studies relating biological and mental activity during sleep and discusses how sleep affects waking behavior. The research shows that sleep and waking behaviors—-both physiological and cognitive--are more directly related than previously imagined....

  13. Has adult sleep duration declined over the last 50+ years?

    PubMed

    Youngstedt, Shawn D; Goff, Eric E; Reynolds, Alexandria M; Kripke, Daniel F; Irwin, Michael R; Bootzin, Richard R; Khan, Nidha; Jean-Louis, Girardin

    2016-08-01

    The common assumption that population sleep duration has declined in the past few decades has not been supported by recent reviews, which have been limited to self-reported data. The aim of this review was to assess whether there has been a reduction in objectively recorded sleep duration over the last 50+ years. The literature was searched for studies published from 1960 to 2013, which assessed objective sleep duration (total sleep time (TST)) in healthy normal-sleeping adults. The search found 168 studies that met inclusion criteria, with 257 data points representing 6052 individuals ages 18-88 y. Data were assessed by comparing the regression lines of age vs. TST in studies conducted between 1960 and 1989 vs. 1990-2013. Weighted regression analyses assessed the association of year of study with age-adjusted TST across all data points. Regression analyses also assessed the association of year of study with TST separately for 10-y age categories (e.g., ages 18-27 y), and separately for polysomnographic and actigraphic data, and for studies involving a fixed sleep schedule and participants' customary sleep schedules. Analyses revealed no significant association of sleep duration with study year. The results are consistent with recent reviews of subjective data, which have challenged the notion of a modern epidemic of insufficient sleep. PMID:26478985

  14. Integration of human sleep-wake regulation and circadian rhythmicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dijk, Derk-Jan; Lockley, Steven W.

    2002-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is generated by a circadian process, originating from the suprachiasmatic nuclei, in interaction with a separate oscillatory process: the sleep homeostat. The sleep-wake cycle is normally timed to occur at a specific phase relative to the external cycle of light-dark exposure. It is also timed at a specific phase relative to internal circadian rhythms, such as the pineal melatonin rhythm, the circadian sleep-wake propensity rhythm, and the rhythm of responsiveness of the circadian pacemaker to light. Variations in these internal and external phase relationships, such as those that occur in blindness, aging, morning and evening, and advanced and delayed sleep-phase syndrome, lead to sleep disruptions and complaints. Changes in ocular circadian photoreception, interindividual variation in the near-24-h intrinsic period of the circadian pacemaker, and sleep homeostasis can contribute to variations in external and internal phase. Recent findings on the physiological and molecular-genetic correlates of circadian sleep disorders suggest that the timing of the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms is closely integrated but is, in part, regulated differentially.

  15. Cyclic alternating pattern: A window into pediatric sleep.

    PubMed

    Bruni, Oliviero; Novelli, Luana; Miano, Silvia; Parrino, Liborio; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Ferri, Raffaele

    2010-08-01

    Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) has now been studied in different age groups of normal infants and children, and it is clear that it shows dramatic changes with age. In this review we first focus on the important age-related changes of CAP from birth to peripubertal age and, subsequently, we describe the numerous studies on CAP in developmental clinical conditions such as pediatric sleep disordered breathing, disorders of arousal (sleep walking and sleep terror), pediatric narcolepsy, learning disabilities with mental retardation (fragile-X syndrome, Down syndrome, autistic spectrum disorder, Prader-Willi syndrome) or without (dyslexia, Asperger syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). CAP rate is almost always decreased in these conditions with the exception of the disorders of arousal and some cases of sleep apnea. Another constant result is the reduction of A1 subtypes, probably in relationship with the degree of cognitive impairment. The analysis of CAP in pediatric sleep allows a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of sleep disturbance. CAP can be considered as a window into pediatric sleep, allowing a new vision on how the sleeping brain is influenced by a specific pathology or how sleep protecting mechanisms try to counteract internal or external disturbing events. PMID:20427233

  16. Development and Validation of the Nonrestorative Sleep Scale (NRSS)

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Kate; Shapiro, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Nonrestorative sleep (NRS) is defined as the subjective feeling that sleep has been insufficiently refreshing, often despite the appearance of physiologically normal sleep. While NRS has been shown to be associated with a variety of cognitive, affective, and medical complaints, there is currently no valid, reliable instrument available in the public domain for its assessment. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Nonrestorative Sleep Scale (NRSS). Participants: The scale was administered to a sample of 226 (age: 46.7 ± 14.9 years; gender: 48% female) consecutive sleep clinic patients and to 30 control participants (age: 36.9 ± 12.5; gender: 53% female). Results: Data screening led to a final instrument of 12 items, and factor analysis resulted in 4 factors accounting for 73.2% of total variance. The scale demonstrated excellent internal reliability (α = 0.88) and good test-retest reliability (r = 0.72). Preliminary evaluations of construct validity found that certain subscales correlated reasonably well with previously validated sleep, alertness, and affective scales. Comparisons between global NRSS scores and objective polysomnographic variables revealed a few very small but significant correlations. Conclusions: Based on these findings, the NRSS was confirmed to be a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of nonrestorative sleep. Citation: Wilkinson K; Shapiro C. Development and validation of the Nonrestorative Sleep Scale (NRSS). J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):929-937. PMID:23997705

  17. Reduced visual processing capacity in sleep deprived persons.

    PubMed

    Kong, Danyang; Soon, Chun Siong; Chee, Michael W L

    2011-03-15

    Multiple experiments have found sleep deprivation to lower task-related parietal and extrastriate visual activation, suggesting a reduction of visual processing capacity in this state. The perceptual load theory of attention (Lavie, 1995) predicts that our capacity to process unattended distractors will be reduced by increasing perceptual difficulty of task-relevant stimuli. Here, we evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation and perceptual load on visual processing capacity by measuring neural repetition-suppression to unattended scenes while healthy volunteers attended to faces embedded in face-scene pictures. Perceptual load did not affect repetition suppression after a normal night of sleep. Sleep deprivation reduced repetition suppression in the parahippocampal place area (PPA) in the high but not low perceptual load condition. Additionally, the extent to which task-related fusiform face area (FFA) activation was reduced after sleep deprivation correlated with behavioral performance and lowered repetition suppression in the PPA. The findings concerning correct responses indicate that a portion of stimulus related activation following a normal night of sleep contributes to potentially useful visual processing capacity that is attenuated following sleep deprivation. Finally, when unattended stimuli are not highly intrusive, sleep deprivation does not appear to increase distractibility. PMID:21195190

  18. Tempol prevents chronic sleep-deprivation induced memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Khabour, Omar F; Albawaana, Amal S; Alhashimi, Farah H; Athamneh, Rabaa Y

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is associated with oxidative stress that causes learning and memory impairment. Tempol is a nitroxide compound that promotes the metabolism of many reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has antioxidant and neuroprotective effect. The current study investigated whether chronic administration of tempol can overcome oxidative stress and prevent learning and memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was induced in rats using multiple platform model. Tempol was administered to rats via oral gavages. Behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze. The hippocampus was dissected; antioxidant biomarkers (GSH, GSSG, GSH/GSSG ratio, GPx, SOD, and catalase) were assessed. The result of this project revealed that chronic sleep deprivation impaired both short and long term memory (P<0.05), while tempol treatment prevented such effect. Furthermore, tempol normalized chronic sleep deprivation induced reduction in the hippocampus activity of catalase, GPx, and SOD (P<0.05). Tempol also enhanced the ratio of GSH/GSSG in chronically sleep deprived rats treated with tempol as compared with only sleep deprived rats (P<0.05). In conclusion chronic sleep deprivation induced memory impairment, and treatment with tempol prevented this impairment probably through normalizing antioxidant mechanisms in the hippocampus. PMID:26616531

  19. Iii. Sleep assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Avi

    2015-03-01

    Sleep is a complex phenomenon that could be understood and assessed at many levels. Sleep could be described at the behavioral level (relative lack of movements and awareness and responsiveness) and at the brain level (based on EEG activity). Sleep could be characterized by its duration, by its distribution during the 24-hr day period, and by its quality (e.g., consolidated versus fragmented). Different methods have been developed to assess various aspects of sleep. This chapter covers the most established and common methods used to assess sleep in infants and children. These methods include polysomnography, videosomnography, actigraphy, direct observations, sleep diaries, and questionnaires. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are highlighted. PMID:25704734

  20. Sleep and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2012-01-01

    While there is ample agreement that the cognitive role of sleep is explained by sleep-dependent synaptic changes, consensus is yet to be established as to the nature of these changes. Some researchers believe that sleep promotes global synaptic downscaling, leading to a non-Hebbian reset of synaptic weights that is putatively necessary for the acquisition of new memories during ensuing waking. Other investigators propose that sleep also triggers experience-dependent, Hebbian synaptic upscaling able to consolidate recently acquired memories. Here, I review the molecular and physiological evidence supporting these views, with an emphasis on the calcium signaling pathway. I argue that the available data are consistent with sleep promoting experience-dependent synaptic embossing, understood as the simultaneous non-Hebbian downscaling and Hebbian upscaling of separate but complementary sets of synapses, heterogeneously activated at the time of memory encoding and therefore differentially affected by sleep. PMID:21947578

  1. Gonadal hormone regulation of the emotion circuitry in humans.

    PubMed

    van Wingen, G A; Ossewaarde, L; Bäckström, T; Hermans, E J; Fernández, G

    2011-09-15

    Gonadal hormones are known to influence the regulation of emotional responses and affective states. Whereas fluctuations in progesterone and estradiol are associated with increased vulnerability for mood disorders, testosterone is mainly associated with social dominance, aggressive, and antisocial behavior. Here, we review recent functional neuroimaging studies that have started to elucidate how these hormones modulate the neural circuitry that is important for emotion regulation, which includes the amygdala and the medial prefrontal (mPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The amygdala is thought to generate emotional responses, and the prefrontal brain regions to regulate those responses. Overall, studies that have investigated women during different phases of the menstrual cycle suggest that progesterone and estradiol may have opposing actions on the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In addition, the influence of exogenous progesterone appears to be dose-dependent. Endogenous testosterone concentrations are generally positively correlated to amygdala and OFC responses, and exogenous testosterone increases amygdala reactivity. Whereas the administration of progesterone increases amygdala reactivity and its connectivity with the mPFC, testosterone administration increases amygdala reactivity but decreases its connectivity with the OFC. We propose that this opposing influence on amygdala-prefrontal coupling may contribute to the divergent effects of progesterone and testosterone on emotion regulation and behavioral inhibition, respectively, which may promote the differential vulnerability to various psychiatric disorders between women and men. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuroactive Steroids: Focus on Human Brain. PMID:21540080

  2. Learning and the motivation to eat: Forebrain circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Petrovich, Gorica D.

    2011-01-01

    Appetite and eating are not only controlled by energy needs, but also by extrinsic factors that are not directly related to energy balance. Environmental signals that acquire motivational properties through associative learning—learned cues—can override homeostatic signals and stimulate eating in sated states, or inhibit eating in states of hunger. Such influences are important, as environmental factors are believed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to overeating and the rise in obesity in the developed world. Similarly, environmental and social factors contribute to the onset and maintenance of anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders through interactions with the individual genetic background. Nevertheless, how learning enables environmental signals to control feeding, and the underlying brain mechanisms are poorly understood. We developed two rodent models to study how learned cues are integrated with homeostatic signals within functional forebrain networks, and how these networks are modulated by experience. In one model, a cue previously paired with food when an animal was hungry induces eating in sated rats. In the other model, food-deprived rats inhibit feeding when presented with a cue that signals danger, a tone previously paired with footshocks. Here evidence will be reviewed that the forebrain network formed by the amygdala, lateral hypothalamus and medial prefrontal cortex mediates cue-driven feeding, while a parallel amygdalar circuitry mediates suppression of eating by the fear cue. Findings from the animal models may be relevant for understanding aspects of human appetite and eating, and maladaptive mechanisms that could lead to overeating and anorexia. PMID:21549730

  3. Executive Function, Neural Circuitry, and Genetic Mechanisms in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Daniel Paul; Berman, Karen Faith

    2010-01-01

    After decades of research aimed at elucidating the pathophysiology and etiology of schizophrenia, it has become increasingly apparent that it is an illness knowing few boundaries. Psychopathological manifestations extend across several domains, impacting multiple facets of real-world functioning for the affected individual. Even within one such domain, arguably the most enduring, difficult to treat, and devastating to long-term functioning—executive impairment—there are not only a host of disrupted component processes, but also a complex underlying dysfunctional neural architecture. Further, just as implicated brain structures (eg, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) through postmortem and neuroimaging techniques continue to show alterations in multiple, interacting signaling pathways, so too does evolving understanding of genetic risk factors suggest multiple molecular entry points to illness liability. With this expansive network of interactions in mind, the present chapter takes a systems-level approach to executive dysfunction in schizophrenia, by identifying key regions both within and outside of the frontal lobes that show changes in schizophrenia and are important in cognitive control neural circuitry, summarizing current knowledge of their relevant functional interactions, and reviewing emerging links between schizophrenia risk genetics and characteristic executive circuit aberrancies observed with neuroimaging methods. PMID:19693005

  4. Circuitry and dynamics of human transcription factor regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    Neph, Shane; Stergachis, Andrew B.; Reynolds, Alex; Sandstrom, Richard; Borenstein, Elhanan; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The combinatorial cross-regulation of hundreds of sequence-specific transcription factors defines a regulatory network that underlies cellular identity and function. Here we use genome-wide maps of in vivo DNaseI footprints to assemble an extensive core human regulatory network comprising connections among 475 sequence-specific transcription factors, and to analyze the dynamics of these connections across 41 diverse cell and tissue types. We find that human transcription factor networks are highly cell-selective and are driven by cohorts of factors that include regulators with previously unrecognized roles in control of cellular identity. Moreover, we identify many widely expressed factors that impact transcriptional regulatory networks in a cell-selective manner. Strikingly, in spite of their inherent diversity, all cell type regulatory networks independently converge on a common architecture that closely resembles the topology of living neuronal networks. Together, our results provide the first description of the circuitry, dynamics, and organizing principles of the human transcription factor regulatory network. PMID:22959076

  5. MOS Circuitry Would Detect Low-Energy Charged Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva; Wadsworth, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) circuits for measuring spatially varying intensities of beams of low-energy charged particles have been developed. These circuits are intended especially for use in measuring fluxes of ions with spatial resolution along the focal planes of mass spectrometers. Unlike prior mass spectrometer focal-plane detectors, these MOS circuits would not be based on ion-induced generation of electrons, and photons; instead, they would be based on direct detection of the electric charges of the ions. Hence, there would be no need for microchannel plates (for ion-to-electron conversion), phosphors (for electron-to-photon conversion), and photodetectors (for final detection) -- components that degrade spatial resolution and contribute to complexity and size. The developmental circuits are based on linear arrays of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) with associated readout circuitry (see figure). They resemble linear CCD photodetector arrays, except that instead of a photodetector, each pixel contains a capacitive charge sensor. The capacitor in each sensor comprises two electrodes (typically made of aluminum) separated by a layer of insulating material. The exposed electrode captures ions and accumulates their electric charges during signal-integration periods.

  6. NeuronBank: A Tool for Cataloging Neuronal Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Paul S.; Calin-Jageman, Robert; Dhawan, Akshaye; Frederick, Chad; Guo, Shuman; Dissanayaka, Rasanjalee; Hiremath, Naveen; Ma, Wenjun; Shen, Xiuyn; Wang, Hsui C.; Yang, Hong; Prasad, Sushil; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar; Zhu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    The basic unit of any nervous system is the neuron. Therefore, understanding the operation of nervous systems ultimately requires an inventory of their constituent neurons and synaptic connectivity, which form neural circuits. The presence of uniquely identifiable neurons or classes of neurons in many invertebrates has facilitated the construction of cellular-level connectivity diagrams that can be generalized across individuals within a species. Homologous neurons can also be recognized across species. Here we describe NeuronBank.org, a web-based tool that we are developing for cataloging, searching, and analyzing neuronal circuitry within and across species. Information from a single species is represented in an individual branch of NeuronBank. Users can search within a branch or perform queries across branches to look for similarities in neuronal circuits across species. The branches allow for an extensible ontology so that additional characteristics can be added as knowledge grows. Each entry in NeuronBank generates a unique accession ID, allowing it to be easily cited. There is also an automatic link to a Wiki page allowing an encyclopedic explanation of the entry. All of the 44 previously published neurons plus one previously unpublished neuron from the mollusc, Tritonia diomedea, have been entered into a branch of NeuronBank as have 4 previously published neurons from the mollusc, Melibe leonina. The ability to organize information about neuronal circuits will make this information more accessible, ultimately aiding research on these important models. PMID:20428500

  7. Dentate Gyrus Circuitry Features Improve Performance of Sparse Approximation Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Petrantonakis, Panagiotis C.; Poirazi, Panayiota

    2015-01-01

    Memory-related activity in the Dentate Gyrus (DG) is characterized by sparsity. Memory representations are seen as activated neuronal populations of granule cells, the main encoding cells in DG, which are estimated to engage 2–4% of the total population. This sparsity is assumed to enhance the ability of DG to perform pattern separation, one of the most valuable contributions of DG during memory formation. In this work, we investigate how features of the DG such as its excitatory and inhibitory connectivity diagram can be used to develop theoretical algorithms performing Sparse Approximation, a widely used strategy in the Signal Processing field. Sparse approximation stands for the algorithmic identification of few components from a dictionary that approximate a certain signal. The ability of DG to achieve pattern separation by sparsifing its representations is exploited here to improve the performance of the state of the art sparse approximation algorithm “Iterative Soft Thresholding” (IST) by adding new algorithmic features inspired by the DG circuitry. Lateral inhibition of granule cells, either direct or indirect, via mossy cells, is shown to enhance the performance of the IST. Apart from revealing the potential of DG-inspired theoretical algorithms, this work presents new insights regarding the function of particular cell types in the pattern separation task of the DG. PMID:25635776

  8. A Dynamic Role of TBX3 in the Pluripotency Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Ronan; Ilg, Marcus; Lin, Qiong; Wu, Guangming; Lechel, André; Bergmann, Wendy; Eiseler, Tim; Linta, Leonhard; Kumar P., Pavan; Klingenstein, Moritz; Adachi, Kenjiro; Hohwieler, Meike; Sakk, Olena; Raab, Stefanie; Moon, Anne; Zenke, Martin; Seufferlein, Thomas; Schöler, Hans R.; Illing, Anett; Liebau, Stefan; Kleger, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pluripotency represents a cell state comprising a fine-tuned pattern of transcription factor activity required for embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal. TBX3 is the earliest expressed member of the T-box transcription factor family and is involved in maintenance and induction of pluripotency. Hence, TBX3 is believed to be a key member of the pluripotency circuitry, with loss of TBX3 coinciding with loss of pluripotency. We report a dynamic expression of TBX3 in vitro and in vivo using genetic reporter tools tracking TBX3 expression in mouse ESCs (mESCs). Low TBX3 levels are associated with reduced pluripotency, resembling the more mature epiblast. Notably, TBX3-low cells maintain the intrinsic capability to switch to a TBX3-high state and vice versa. Additionally, we show TBX3 to be dispensable for induction and maintenance of naive pluripotency as well as for germ cell development. These data highlight novel facets of TBX3 action in mESCs. PMID:26651606

  9. Waveguide metatronics: Lumped circuitry based on structural dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Liberal, Iñigo; Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Engineering optical nanocircuits by exploiting modularization concepts and methods inherited from electronics may lead to multiple innovations in optical information processing at the nanoscale. We introduce the concept of “waveguide metatronics,” an advanced form of optical metatronics that uses structural dispersion in waveguides to obtain the materials and structures required to construct this class of circuitry. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the design of a metatronic circuit can be carried out by using a waveguide filled with materials with positive permittivity. This includes the implementation of all “lumped” circuit elements and their assembly in a single circuit board. In doing so, we extend the concepts of optical metatronics to frequency ranges where there are no natural plasmonic materials available. The proposed methodology could be exploited as a platform to experimentally validate optical metatronic circuits in other frequency regimes, such as microwave frequency setups, and/or to provide a new route to design optical nanocircuitry. PMID:27386566

  10. Oxytonergic circuitry sustains and enables creative cognition in humans.

    PubMed

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Baas, Matthijs; Roskes, Marieke; Sligte, Daniel J; Ebstein, Richard P; Chew, Soo Hong; Tong, Terry; Jiang, Yushi; Mayseless, Naama; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2014-08-01

    Creativity enables humans to adapt flexibly to changing circumstances, to manage complex social relations and to survive and prosper through social, technological and medical innovations. In humans, chronic, trait-based as well as temporary, state-based approach orientation has been linked to increased capacity for divergent rather than convergent thinking, to more global and holistic processing styles and to more original ideation and creative problem solving. Here, we link creative cognition to oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide known to up-regulate approach orientation in both animals and humans. Study 1 (N = 492) showed that plasma oxytocin predicts novelty-seeking temperament. Study 2 (N = 110) revealed that genotype differences in a polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene rs1042778 predicted creative ideation, with GG/GT-carriers being more original than TT-carriers. Using double-blind placebo-controlled between-subjects designs, Studies 3-6 (N = 191) finally showed that intranasal oxytocin (vs matching placebo) reduced analytical reasoning, and increased holistic processing, divergent thinking and creative performance. We conclude that the oxytonergic circuitry sustains and enables the day-to-day creativity humans need for survival and prosperity and discuss implications. PMID:23863476

  11. Multilevel regulation of protein protein interactions in biological circuitry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckett, Dorothy

    2005-06-01

    Protein-protein interactions are central to biology and, in this 'post-genomic era', prediction of these interactions has become the goal of many computational efforts. Close inspection of even relatively simple biological regulatory circuitry reveals multiple levels of control of the contributing protein interactions. The fundamental probability that an interaction will occur under a given set of conditions is difficult to predict because the relationship between structure and energy is not known. Layered on this basic difficulty are allosteric control mechanisms involving post-translational modification or small ligand binding. In addition, many biological processes involve multiple protein-protein interactions, some of which may be cooperative or even competitive. Finally, although the emphasis in predicting protein interactions is based on equilibrium thermodynamic principles, kinetics can be a major controlling feature in these systems. This complexity reinforces the necessity of performing detailed quantitative studies of the component interactions of complex biological regulatory systems. Results of such studies will help us to bridge the gap between our knowledge of structure and our understanding of functional biology.

  12. Quest for the basic plan of nervous system circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Larry W.

    2007-01-01

    The basic plan of nervous system organization has been investigated since classical antiquity. The first model centered on pneumas pumped from sensory nerves through the ventricular system and out motor nerves to muscles. It was popular well into the seventeenth century and diverted attention from the organization of brain parenchyma itself. Willis focused on gray matter production and white matter conduction of pneumas in 1664, and by the late nineteenth century a clear cellular model of nervous system organization based on sensory, motor, and association neuron classes transmitting nerve impulses was elaborated by Cajal and his contemporaries. Today, revolutionary advances in experimental pathway tracing methods, molecular genetics, and computer science inspire systems neuroscience. Seven minimal requirements are outlined for knowledge management systems capable of describing, analyzing, and modeling the basic plan of nervous system circuitry in general, and the plan evolved for vertebrates, for mammals, and ultimately for humans in particular. The goal remains a relatively simple, easy to understand model analogous to the one Harvey elaborated in 1628 for circulation in the cardiovascular system. As Cajal wrote in 1909, “To extend our understanding of neural function to the most complex human physiological and psychological activities, it is essential that we first generate a clear and accurate view of the structure of the relevant centers, and of the human brain itself, so that the basic plan—the overview—can be grasped in the blink of an eye.” PMID:17267046

  13. Isolated sleep paralysis.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Neena S; Parkar, Shubhangi R; Tambe, Ravindra

    2005-10-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a cardinal symptom of narcolepsy. However, little is available in the literature about isolated sleep paralysis. This report discusses the case of a patient with isolated sleep paralysis who progressed from mild to severe SP over 8 years. He also restarted drinking alcohol to be able to fall asleep and allay his anxiety symptoms. The patient was taught relaxation techniques and he showed complete remission of the symptoms of SP on follow up after 8 months. PMID:20711316

  14. [Sleep and neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Mayer, G

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the physiology of sleep-wake regulation can contribute to an understanding of the pathophysiology and symptoms of neurological diseases and is helpful for initiating specific therapies for sleep-wake cycle stabilization. Based on historically important observations on the close relationship between sleep and neurological diseases, new insights and developments in selected neurological entities are presented in this review article. PMID:27167889

  15. Effects of one night of sleep deprivation on hormone profiles and performance efficiency.

    PubMed

    Goh, V H; Tong, T Y; Lim, C L; Low, E C; Lee, L K

    2001-05-01

    This study examined the effects of one night of sleep deprivation on melatonin and cortisol profiles, as well as performance efficiency of military service members. Sleep intervention consisted of total lack of sleep (N = 7) or 8 hours of sleep (control group; N = 7) during the night. All parameters were measured at selected time intervals before (day 1), during (only in sleep-deprived individuals), and after (day 2) sleep intervention. Rotary pursuit scores and handgrip strength data were used as indices of psychomotor and physical performance, respectively. In sleep-deprived individuals, more salivary melatonin, but not cortisol, was secreted than in subjects who slept adequately. Significant increases in melatonin and cortisol were noted, especially at 1:30 p.m. on the day after nighttime sleep deprivation. In contrast, the tracking scores for rotary pursuit and grip strength among sleep-deprived and rested individuals were comparable. Across a normal working day (day 1), all parameters studied revealed time-specific fluctuations in both control and sleep-deprived groups. Irrespective of nighttime sleep schedule, the patterns of performance on day 2 differed from those on day 1. The tracking performance improved on day 2, whereas grip strength worsened, which may reflect inherent learning and muscle fatigue, respectively. During the night of sleep deprivation, performance declined. In conclusion, the present study showed that one night of sleep deprivation (8 hours) resulted in significant hormonal changes on the next afternoon but did not modify tracking and muscular strength performance. PMID:11370208

  16. Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms: A Gene-Environment Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Method: Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Results: Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P < 0.05). There was a significant gene × sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P < 0.05), with the interaction occurring on genetic influences that are common to both sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (< 7 h/night) or high (≥ 9 h/night) range, increased genetic influence on depressive symptoms was observed, particularly at sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Conclusion: Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358. PMID:24497663

  17. Polygraphic Recording Procedure for Measuring Sleep in Mice.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yo; Takata, Yohko; Taguchi, Yujiro; Kohtoh, Sayaka; Urade, Yoshihiro; Lazarus, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Recording of the epidural electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in small animals, like mice and rats, has been pivotal to study the homeodynamics and circuitry of sleep-wake regulation. In many laboratories, a cable-based sleep recording system is used to monitor the EEG and EMG in freely behaving mice in combination with computer software for automatic scoring of the vigilance states on the basis of power spectrum analysis of EEG data. A description of this system is detailed herein. Steel screws are implanted over the frontal cortical area and the parietal area of 1 hemisphere for monitoring EEG signals. In addition, EMG activity is monitored by the bilateral placement of wires in both neck muscles. Non-rapid eye movement (Non-REM; NREM) sleep is characterized by large, slow brain waves with delta activity below 4 Hz in the EEG, whereas a shift from low-frequency delta activity to a rapid low-voltage EEG in the theta range between 6 and 10 Hz can be observed at the transition from NREM to REM sleep. By contrast, wakefulness is identified by low- to moderate-voltage brain waves in the EEG trace and significant EMG activity. PMID:26863349

  18. [Sleep in depression].

    PubMed

    Pringuey, D; Darcourt, G

    1990-11-28

    Insomnia is a cardinal symptom of depression, side by side with alterations of mood and slowing down of psychomotor activities. It bears witness to a rupture in the built-in circadian rhythm: architectural changes in sleep betray a biological desynchronization. Insomnia is also a failed attempt at finding a solution to depression. Total deprivation of sleep for one night may damp down the depressive disorders, and so does partial sleep deprivation in the second part of the night during several days. This leads to the conclusion that the waking-sleep system participates in the expression of symptoms of depression or even contributes to the genesis of the disease. PMID:2148377

  19. Sleep and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kimberly A; Trupp, Robin J

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation occurs for many reasons but, when chronic in nature, has many consequences for optimal health and performance. Despite its high prevalence, sleep-disordered breathing is underrecognized and undertreated. This is especially true in the setting of heart failure, where sleep-disordered breathing affects more than 50% of patients. Although the optimal strategy to best identify patients is currently unknown, concerted and consistent efforts to support early recognition, diagnosis, and subsequent treatment should be encouraged. Optimization of guideline-directed medical therapy and concurrent treatment of sleep-disordered breathing are necessary to improve outcomes in this complex high-risk population. PMID:26567495

  20. Sleep in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traon, A. Pavy-le; Roussel, B.

    1993-09-01

    Manned space flights have shown it is possible to sleep in microgravity. However, some sleep disturbances have been reported which influence performance of the crew and safety of space flight. This paper reviews the main studies of in-flight sleep in animal and man. Most disturbances are related to phase lags due to operational requirements. Factors which can disturb in-flight sleep are analysed: • environmental factors. Some of them are secondary to space flight ergonomics. Conversely, effects of microgravity on light-dark alternance are less known and lead to interesting problems of fundamental research, • psychological factors, especially during long duration flights.

  1. Nonepileptic paroxysmal sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Frenette, Eric; Guilleminault, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Events occurring during nighttime sleep in children can be easily mislabeled, as witnesses are usually not immediately available. Even when observers are present, description of the events can be sketchy, as these individuals are frequently aroused from their own sleep. Errors of perception are thus common and can lead to diagnosis of epilepsy where other sleep-related conditions are present, sometimes initiating unnecessary therapeutic interventions, especially with antiepileptic drugs. Often not acknowledged, paroxysmal nonepileptic behavioral and motor episodes in sleep are encountered much more frequently than their epileptic counterpart. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) 2nd edition displays an extensive list of such conditions that can be readily mistaken for epilepsy. The most prevalent ones are reviewed, such as nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias, comprised of sleepwalking, confusional arousals and sleep terrors, periodic leg movements of sleep, repetitive movement disorders, benign neonatal myoclonus, and sleep starts. Apnea of prematurity is also briefly reviewed. Specific issues regarding management of these selected disorders, both for diagnostic consideration and for therapeutic intervention, are addressed. PMID:23622294

  2. Sleep apnoea in acromegaly.

    PubMed Central

    Perks, W H; Horrocks, P M; Cooper, R A; Bradbury, S; Allen, A; Baldock, N; Prowse, K; van't Hoff, W

    1980-01-01

    Day time somnolence or excessive snoring, or both, occurred in five out of 11 patients with acromegaly. All five had episodes of sleep apnoea, and three had the sleep apnoea syndrome. Growth hormone concentrations were higher (p less than 0.025) in these patients than in the six patients without these symptoms. One patient with daytime somnolence and one asymptomatic patient had flow loop evidence of upper airways obstruction. Two of the patients with the sleep apnoea syndrome had cardiomegaly. Sleep apnoea appears to be common and clinically important in acromegaly, and it may be central, obstructive, or mixed. Polygraphic nocturnal monitoring is indicated to assess these patients properly. PMID:7388361

  3. The Pittsburgh Sleep Diary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Reynolds CF, 3. d.; Kupfer, D. J.; Buysse, D. J.; Coble, P. A.; Hayes, A. J.; Machen, M. A.; Petrie, S. R.; Ritenour, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Increasingly, there is a need in both research and clinical practice to document and quantify sleep and waking behaviors in a comprehensive manner. The Pittsburgh Sleep Diary (PghSD) is an instrument with separate components to be completed at bedtime and waketime. Bedtime components relate to the events of the day preceding the sleep, waketime components to the sleep period just completed. Two-week PghSD data is presented from 234 different subjects, comprising 96 healthy young middle-aged controls, 37 older men, 44 older women, 29 young adult controls and 28 sleep disorders patients in order to demonstrate the usefulness, validity and reliability of various measures from the instrument. Comparisons are made with polysomnographic and actigraphic sleep measures, as well as personality and circadian type questionnaires. The instrument was shown to have sensitivity in detecting differences due to weekends, age, gender, personality and circadian type, and validity in agreeing with actigraphic estimates of sleep timing and quality. Over a 12-31 month delay, PghSD measures of both sleep timing and sleep quality showed correlations between 0.56 and 0.81 (n = 39, P < 0.001).

  4. Sleep Disordered Breathing and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cain, Mary Ashley; Louis, Judette M

    2016-06-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) occurs in 0.6% to 15% of reproductive-aged women. Because of an overlap in symptoms of SDB and normal pregnancy findings, the diagnosis of SDB in pregnancy is challenging. The repetitive arousals, sleep fragmentation, and hypoxias experienced by patients with SDB lead to an increase in oxidative stress and inflammation. In the nonpregnant population SDB is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus, heart disease, and stroke. Increasing evidence identifies an association between SDB in pregnancy and gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and fetal growth abnormalities. PMID:27235923

  5. Exaggerated Nighttime Sleep and Defective Sleep Homeostasis in a Drosophila Knock-In Model of Human Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Petruccelli, Emily; Lansdon, Patrick; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Despite an established link between epilepsy and sleep behavior, it remains unclear how specific epileptogenic mutations affect sleep and subsequently influence seizure susceptibility. Recently, Sun et al. (2012) created a fly knock-in model of human generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), a wide-spectrum disorder characterized by fever-associated seizing in childhood and lifelong affliction. GEFS+ flies carry a disease-causing mutation in their voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene and display semidominant heat-induced seizing, likely due to reduced GABAergic inhibitory activity at high temperature. Here, we show that at room temperature the GEFS+ mutation dominantly modifies sleep, with mutants exhibiting rapid sleep onset at dusk and increased nighttime sleep as compared to controls. These characteristics of GEFS+ sleep were observed regardless of sex, mating status, and genetic background. GEFS+ mutant sleep phenotypes were more resistant to pharmacologic reduction of GABA transmission by carbamazepine (CBZ) than controls, and were mitigated by reducing GABAA receptor expression specifically in wake-promoting pigment dispersing factor (PDF) neurons. These findings are consistent with increased GABAergic transmission to PDF neurons being mainly responsible for the enhanced nighttime sleep of GEFS+ mutants. Additionally, analyses under other light conditions suggested that the GEFS+ mutation led to reduced buffering of behavioral responses to light on and off stimuli, which contributed to characteristic GEFS+ sleep phenotypes. We further found that GEFS+ mutants had normal circadian rhythms in free-running dark conditions. Interestingly, the mutants lacked a homeostatic rebound following mechanical sleep deprivation, and whereas deprivation treatment increased heat-induced seizure susceptibility in control flies, it unexpectedly reduced seizure activity in GEFS+ mutants. Our study has revealed the sleep architecture of a Drosophila VGSC mutant

  6. Exaggerated Nighttime Sleep and Defective Sleep Homeostasis in a Drosophila Knock-In Model of Human Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Petruccelli, Emily; Lansdon, Patrick; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Despite an established link between epilepsy and sleep behavior, it remains unclear how specific epileptogenic mutations affect sleep and subsequently influence seizure susceptibility. Recently, Sun et al. (2012) created a fly knock-in model of human generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), a wide-spectrum disorder characterized by fever-associated seizing in childhood and lifelong affliction. GEFS+ flies carry a disease-causing mutation in their voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene and display semidominant heat-induced seizing, likely due to reduced GABAergic inhibitory activity at high temperature. Here, we show that at room temperature the GEFS+ mutation dominantly modifies sleep, with mutants exhibiting rapid sleep onset at dusk and increased nighttime sleep as compared to controls. These characteristics of GEFS+ sleep were observed regardless of sex, mating status, and genetic background. GEFS+ mutant sleep phenotypes were more resistant to pharmacologic reduction of GABA transmission by carbamazepine (CBZ) than controls, and were mitigated by reducing GABAA receptor expression specifically in wake-promoting pigment dispersing factor (PDF) neurons. These findings are consistent with increased GABAergic transmission to PDF neurons being mainly responsible for the enhanced nighttime sleep of GEFS+ mutants. Additionally, analyses under other light conditions suggested that the GEFS+ mutation led to reduced buffering of behavioral responses to light on and off stimuli, which contributed to characteristic GEFS+ sleep phenotypes. We further found that GEFS+ mutants had normal circadian rhythms in free-running dark conditions. Interestingly, the mutants lacked a homeostatic rebound following mechanical sleep deprivation, and whereas deprivation treatment increased heat-induced seizure susceptibility in control flies, it unexpectedly reduced seizure activity in GEFS+ mutants. Our study has revealed the sleep architecture of a Drosophila VGSC mutant

  7. Locus Coeruleus and Tuberomammillary Nuclei Ablations Attenuate Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist-Mediated REM Sleep123

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Alexander T.; Warrier, Deepti R.; Palmerston, Jeremiah B.; Thomas, Alexia M.; Morairty, Stephen R.; Neylan, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypocretin 1 and 2 (Hcrts; also known as orexin A and B), excitatory neuropeptides synthesized in cells located in the tuberal hypothalamus, play a central role in the control of arousal. Hcrt inputs to the locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC NE) system and the posterior hypothalamic histaminergic tuberomammillary nuclei (TMN HA) are important efferent pathways for Hcrt-induced wakefulness. The LC expresses Hcrt receptor 1 (HcrtR1), whereas HcrtR2 is found in the TMN. Although the dual Hcrt/orexin receptor antagonist almorexant (ALM) decreases wakefulness and increases NREM and REM sleep time, the neural circuitry that mediates these effects is currently unknown. To test the hypothesis that ALM induces sleep by selectively disfacilitating subcortical wake-promoting populations, we ablated LC NE neurons (LCx) or TMN HA neurons (TMNx) in rats using cell-type-specific saporin conjugates and evaluated sleep/wake following treatment with ALM and the GABAA receptor modulator zolpidem (ZOL). Both LCx and TMNx attenuated the promotion of REM sleep by ALM without affecting ALM-mediated increases in NREM sleep. Thus, eliminating either HcrtR1 signaling in the LC or HcrtR2 signaling in the TMN yields similar effects on ALM-induced REM sleep without affecting NREM sleep time. In contrast, neither lesion altered ZOL efficacy on any measure of sleep–wake regulation. These results contrast with those of a previous study in which ablation of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons attenuated ALM-induced increases in NREM sleep time without affecting REM sleep, indicating that Hcrt neurotransmission influences distinct aspects of NREM and REM sleep at different locations in the sleep–wake regulatory network. PMID:27022631

  8. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  9. Overview of experimental and conventional pharmacological approaches in the treatment of sleep and wake disorders.

    PubMed

    Renger, John J

    2008-01-01

    The fundamental purpose of sleep remains one of the most compelling questions yet to be answered in the area of neuroscience, if not all of biology. A pervasive behavior among members of the animal kingdom, the functional necessity of engaging regularly in sleep is best demonstrated by showing that failing to do so leads to a broad repertoire of pathological outcomes including cognitive, immunological, hormonal, and metabolic outcomes, among others. Indeed, an absolute requirement for sleep has been shown in studies that have demonstrated that continuous total deprivation of sleep for as short a period as 15 days is generally lethal in some species. The most common clinical sleep disorder, insomnia, is both a principal disease (primary insomnia) as well as a co-morbidity of a large number of other ostensibly unrelated diseases including chronic pain, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and depression. From a treatment perspective, restoring normal healthy sleep delivers subsequent benefits in waking cognitive function and mood with the potential for beneficial therapeutic impact on daily functioning across multiple diseases for which restorative healthy sleep is compromised. Our remarkable escalation in understanding the anatomy and physiology of sleep/wake control mechanisms provides new opportunities to modify the neurobiology of sleep and wake-related behaviors in novel and exciting ways. In parallel, expansion of sleep research into novel interfaces between sleep-wake biology and disease states is revealing additional extensive implications of lost sleep. Current investigational and conventional pharmacological approaches for the treatment of sleep and wake disorders are discussed based on their mechanism of action within the CNS and their effect on sleep and wake. This review of recent sleep biology and sleep pharmacology peers into the future of sleep therapeutics to highlight both mechanistic safety and functional outcomes as key for differentiating

  10. Companionable sleep: Social regulation of sleep and co-sleeping in Egyptian families

    PubMed Central

    Worthman, Carol M.; Brown, Ryan A.

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study examines family sleep patterns and quality in a setting of normative napping and co-sleeping. Participants comprised 78 members of 16 families from two locales in Egypt, Cairo and village. Each family member provided a history of sleeping arrangements, one week of continuous activity records, and details of each sleep event. Sleep records documented late-onset and dispersed sleep patterns with extensive co-sleeping. Of recorded sleep events, 69% involved co-sleeping, 24% included more than one co-sleeper, and only 21% were solitary. Mid-late afternoon napping occurred on 31% of days and night sleep onsets averaged after midnight. Age and gender structured sleep arrangements and together with locale, extensively explained sleep behavior (onset, duration, total) and quality. Co-sleepers had fewer night arousals, shorter and less variable night sleep duration, and less total sleep. Increased solitary sleep in adolescents and young adults was associated with increased sleep dysregulation, including exaggerated phase shifts in males and more nighttime arousals in females. Where normative, co-sleeping may provide psychosensory stimuli that moderate arousal and stabilize sleep. Such moderating features may address important self-regulatory developmental needs during adolescence. PMID:17371117

  11. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ejaz, Shakir M.; Bhatia, Subhash; Hurwitz, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder associated with several medical conditions, increased risk of motor vehicle accidents, and overall healthcare expenditure. There is higher prevalence of depression in people with obstructive sleep apnea in both clinical and community samples. Many symptoms of depression and obstructive sleep apnea overlap causing under-diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in depressed patients. Sleep problems, including obstructive sleep apnea, are rarely assessed on a regular basis in patients with depressive disorders, but they may be responsible for antidepressant treatment failure. The mechanism of the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and depression is complex and remains unclear. Though some studies suggest a mutual relationship, the relationship remains unclear. Several possible pathophysiological mechanisms could explain how obstructive sleep apnea can cause or worsen depression. Increased knowledge of the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and depression might significantly improve diagnostic accuracy as well as treatment outcomes for both obstructive sleep apnea and depression. PMID:21922066

  12. Neurobiological Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Alkadhi, Karim; Zagaar, Munder; Alhaider, Ibrahim; Salim, Samina; Aleisa, Abdulaziz

    2013-01-01

    Although the physiological function of sleep is not completely understood, it is well documented that it contributes significantly to the process of learning and memory. Ample evidence suggests that adequate sleep is essential for fostering connections among neuronal networks for memory consolidation in the hippocampus. Sleep deprivation studies are extremely valuable in understanding why we sleep and what are the consequences of sleep loss. Experimental sleep deprivation in animals allows us to gain insight into the mechanism of sleep at levels not possible to study in human subjects. Many useful approaches have been utilized to evaluate the effect of sleep loss on cognitive function, each with relative advantages and disadvantages. In this review we discuss sleep and the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation mostly in experimental animals. The negative effects of sleep deprivation on various aspects of brain function including learning and memory, synaptic plasticity and the state of cognition-related signaling molecules are discussed. PMID:24179461

  13. Sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Thorpy, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    Depression, dementia, and physiologic changes contribute to the high prevalence of sleep disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Antiparkinsonian drugs also play a role in insomnia by increasing daytime sleepiness and affecting motor symptoms and depression. Common types of sleep disturbances in PD patients include nocturnal sleep disruption and excessive daytime sleepiness, restless legs syndrome, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep apnea, sleep walking and sleep talking, nightmares, sleep terrors, and panic attacks. A thorough assessment should include complete medical and psychiatric histories, sleep history, and a 1- to 2-week sleep diary or Epworth Sleepiness Scale evaluation. Polysomnography or actigraphy may also be indicated. Treatment should address underlying factors such as depression or anxiety. Hypnotic therapy for sleep disturbances in PD patients should be approached with care because of the risks of falling, agitation, drowsiness, and hypotension. Behavioral interventions may also be useful. PMID:15259535

  14. Smoking Increases Risk of Pain Chronification Through Shared Corticostriatal Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Petre, Bogdan; Torbey, Souraya; Griffith, James W.; De Oliveira, Gildasio; Herrmann, Kristine; Mansour, Ali; Baria, Alex T.; Baliki, Marwan N.; Schnitzer, Thomas J.; Apkarian, Apkar Vania

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is associated with increased incidence of chronic pain. However, the evidence is cross-sectional in nature, and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In a longitudinal observational study, we examined the relationship between smoking, transition to chronic pain, and brain physiology. In 160 subjects with subacute back pain (SBP: back pain lasting 4–12 weeks, and no prior back pain [BP] for at least 1 year) pain characteristics, smoking status, and brain functional properties were measured repeatedly over 1 year. Sixty-eight completed the study, subdivided into recovering (SBPr, n = 31) and persisting (SBPp, n = 37), based on >20% decrease in BP over the year. Thirty-two chronic back pain (CBP: duration > 5 years) and 35 healthy controls were similarly monitored. Smoking prevalence was higher in SBP and CBP but not related to intensity of BP. In SBP, smoking status at baseline was predictive of persistence of BP 1 year from symptom onset (differentiating SBPp and SBPr with 0.62 accuracy). Smoking status combined with affective properties of pain and medication use improved prediction accuracy (0.82). Mediation analysis indicated the prediction of BP persistence by smoking was largely due to synchrony of fMRI activity between two brain areas (nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, NAc-mPFC). In SBP or CBP who ceased smoking strength of NAc-mPFC decreased from precessation to postcessation of smoking. We conclude that smoking increases risk of transitioning to CBP, an effect mediated by corticostriatal circuitry involved in addictive behavior and motivated learning. PMID:25307796

  15. GLP-1 and weight loss: unraveling the diverse neural circuitry.

    PubMed

    Kanoski, Scott E; Hayes, Matthew R; Skibicka, Karolina P

    2016-05-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is currently one of the most promising biological systems for the development of effective obesity pharmacotherapies. Long-acting GLP-1 analogs potently reduce food intake and body weight, and recent discoveries reveal that peripheral administration of these drugs reduces food intake largely through humoral pathways involving direct action on brain GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R). Thus, it is of critical importance to understand the neural systems through which GLP-1 and long-acting GLP-1 analogs reduce food intake and body weight. In this review, we discuss several neural, physiological, cellular and molecular, as well as behavioral mechanisms through which peripheral and central GLP-1R signaling reduces feeding. Particular attention is devoted to discussion regarding the numerous neural substrates through which GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs act to reduce food intake and body weight, including various hypothalamic nuclei (arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, periventricular hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamic area), hindbrain nuclei (parabrachial nucleus, medial nucleus tractus solitarius), hippocampus (ventral subregion; vHP), and nuclei embedded within the mesolimbic reward circuitry [ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc)]. In some of these nuclei [VTA, NAc, and vHP], GLP-1R activation reduces food intake and body weight without concomitant nausea responses, suggesting that targeting these specific pathways may be of particular interest for future obesity pharmacotherapy. The widely distributed neural systems through which GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs act to reduce body weight highlight the complexity of the neural systems regulating energy balance, as well as the challenges for developing effective obesity pharmacotherapies that reduce feeding without producing parallel negative side effects. PMID:27030669

  16. Circuitry Linking the Csr and Stringent Response Global Regulatory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Adrianne N.; Patterson-Fortin, Laura M.; Vakulskas, Christopher A.; Mercante, Jeffrey W.; Potrykus, Katarzyna; Vinella, Daniel; Camacho, Martha I.; Fields, Joshua A.; Thompson, Stuart A.; Georgellis, Dimitris; Cashel, Michael; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Summary CsrA protein regulates important cellular processes by binding to target mRNAs and altering their translation and/or stability. In Escherichia coli, CsrA binds to sRNAs, CsrB and CsrC, which sequester CsrA and antagonize its activity. Here, mRNAs for relA, spoT and dksA of the stringent response system were found among 721 different transcripts that copurified with CsrA. Many of the transcripts that copurified with CsrA were previously determined to respond to ppGpp and/or DksA. We examined multiple regulatory interactions between the Csr and stringent response systems. Most importantly, DksA and ppGpp robustly activated csrB/C transcription (10-fold), while they modestly activated csrA expression. We propose that CsrA-mediated regulation is relieved during the stringent response. Gel shift assays confirmed high affinity binding of CsrA to relA mRNA leader and weaker interactions with dksA and spoT. Reporter fusions, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting showed that CsrA repressed relA expression, and (p)ppGpp accumulation during stringent response was enhanced in a csrA mutant. CsrA had modest to negligible effects on dksA and spoT expression. Transcription of dksA was negatively autoregulated via a feedback loop that tended to mask CsrA effects. We propose that the Csr system fine-tunes the stringent response and discuss biological implications of the composite circuitry. PMID:21488981

  17. Regulatory Circuitry Governing Fungal Development, Drug Resistance, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Rebecca S.; Robbins, Nicole; Cowen, Leah E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Pathogenic fungi have become a leading cause of human mortality due to the increasing frequency of fungal infections in immunocompromised populations and the limited armamentarium of clinically useful antifungal drugs. Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus are the leading causes of opportunistic fungal infections. In these diverse pathogenic fungi, complex signal transduction cascades are critical for sensing environmental changes and mediating appropriate cellular responses. For C. albicans, several environmental cues regulate a morphogenetic switch from yeast to filamentous growth, a reversible transition important for virulence. Many of the signaling cascades regulating morphogenesis are also required for cells to adapt and survive the cellular stresses imposed by antifungal drugs. Many of these signaling networks are conserved in C. neoformans and A. fumigatus, which undergo distinct morphogenetic programs during specific phases of their life cycles. Furthermore, the key mechanisms of fungal drug resistance, including alterations of the drug target, overexpression of drug efflux transporters, and alteration of cellular stress responses, are conserved between these species. This review focuses on the circuitry regulating fungal morphogenesis and drug resistance and the impact of these pathways on virulence. Although the three human-pathogenic fungi highlighted in this review are those most frequently encountered in the clinic, they represent a minute fraction of fungal diversity. Exploration of the conservation and divergence of core signal transduction pathways across C. albicans, C. neoformans, and A. fumigatus provides a foundation for the study of a broader diversity of pathogenic fungi and a platform for the development of new therapeutic strategies for fungal disease. PMID:21646428

  18. LAYER I NEOCORTICAL ECTOPIA: CELLULAR ORGANIZATION AND LOCAL CORTICAL CIRCUITRY

    PubMed Central

    Gabel, Lisa Ann

    2011-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) are associated with neurological disorders and cognitive impairments in humans. Molecular layer ectopia, clusters of misplaced cells in layer I of the neocortex, have been identified in patients with developmental dyslexia and psychomotor retardation. Mouse models of this developmental disorder display behavioral impairments and increased seizure susceptibility. Although there is a correlation between cortical malformations and neurological dysfunction, little is known about the morphological and physiological properties of cells within cortical malformations. In the present study we used electrophysiological and immunocytochemical analyses to examine the distribution of neuronal and non-neuronal cell types within and surrounding layer I neocortical ectopia in NXSMD/EiJ mice. We show that cells within ectopia have membrane properties of both pyramidal and a variety of nonpyramidal cell types, including fast-spiking cells. Immunocytochemical analysis for different interneuronal subtypes demonstrates that ectopia contain nonpyramidal cells immunoreactive for calbindin-D28K (CALB), parvalbumin (PARV), and calretinin (CR). Ectopia also contain astrocytes, positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and oligodendrocyte precursor cells positive for NG2 proteoglycan (NG2). Lastly, we provide electrophysiological and morphological evidence to demonstrate that cells within ectopia receive input from cells within layers I, upper and deeper II/III, and V and provide outputs to cells within deep layer II/III and layer V, but not layers I and upper II/III. These results indicate that ectopia contain cells of different lineages with diverse morphological and physiological properties, and appear to cause disruptions in local cortical circuitry. PMID:21256119

  19. Intensity of anxiety is modified via complex integrative stress circuitries.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin P; Prince, Melissa A; Achua, Justin K; Robertson, James M; Anderson, Raymond T; Ronan, Patrick J; Summers, Cliff H

    2016-01-01

    Escalation of anxious behavior while environmentally and socially relevant contextual events amplify the intensity of emotional response produces a testable gradient of anxiety shaped by integrative circuitries. Apprehension of the Stress-Alternatives Model apparatus (SAM) oval open field (OF) is measured by the active latency to escape, and is delayed by unfamiliarity with the passageway. Familiar OF escape is the least anxious behavior along the continuum, which can be reduced by anxiolytics such as icv neuropeptide S (NPS). Social aggression increases anxiousness in the SAM, reducing the number of mice willing to escape by 50%. The apprehension accompanying escape during social aggression is diminished by anxiolytics, such as exercise and corticotropin releasing-factor receptor 1 (CRF1) antagonism, but exacerbated by anxiogenic treatment, like antagonism of α2-adrenoreceptors. What is more, the anxiolytic CRF1 and anxiogenic α2-adrenoreceptor antagonists also modify behavioral phenotypes, with CRF1 antagonism allowing escape by previously submissive animals, and α2-adrenoreceptor antagonism hindering escape in mice that previously engaged in it. Gene expression of NPS and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as corticosterone secretion, increased concomitantly with the escalating anxious content of the mouse-specific anxiety continuum. The general trend of CeA NPS and BDNF expression suggested that NPS production was promoted by increasing anxiousness, and that BDNF synthesis was associated with learning about ever-more anxious conditions. The intensity gradient for anxious behavior resulting from varying contextual conditions may yield an improved conceptualization of the complexity of mechanisms producing the natural continuum of human anxious conditions, and potential therapies that arise therefrom. PMID:26555428

  20. The neural circuitry of expertise: perceptual learning and social cognition.

    PubMed

    Harré, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While this is an enormous task, we may already have at hand many of the tools we need. This article is intended to review some of the recent results in neuro-cognitive research and show how they can be extended to two very specific and interrelated types of expertise: perceptual expertise and social cognition. These two cognitive skills span a vast range of our genetic heritage. Perceptual expertise developed very early in our evolutionary history and is a highly developed part of all mammals' cognitive ability. On the other hand social cognition is most highly developed in humans in that we are able to maintain larger and more stable long term social connections with more behaviorally diverse individuals than any other species. To illustrate these ideas I will discuss board games as a toy model of social interactions as they include many of the relevant concepts: perceptual learning, decision-making, long term planning and understanding the mental states of other people. Using techniques that have been developed in mathematical psychology, I show that we can represent some of the key features of expertise using stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Such models demonstrate how an expert's long exposure to a particular context influences the information they accumulate in order to make a decision.These processes are not confined to board games, we are all experts in our daily lives through long exposure to the many regularities of daily tasks and social

  1. Altered Reward Circuitry in the Norepinephrine Transporter Knockout Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Bearer, Elaine L.; Jacobs, Russell E.

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine are modulated by their respective plasma membrane transporters, albeit with a few exceptions. Monoamine transporters remove monoamines from the synaptic cleft and thus influence the degree and duration of signaling. Abnormal concentrations of these neuronal transmitters are implicated in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including addiction, depression, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This work concentrates on the norepinephrine transporter (NET), using a battery of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging techniques and histological correlates to probe the effects of genetic deletion of the norepinephrine transporter on brain metabolism, anatomy and functional connectivity. MRS recorded in the striatum of NET knockout mice indicated a lower concentration of NAA that correlates with histological observations of subtle dysmorphisms in the striatum and internal capsule. As with DAT and SERT knockout mice, we detected minimal structural alterations in NET knockout mice by tensor-based morphometric analysis. In contrast, longitudinal imaging after stereotaxic prefrontal cortical injection of manganese, an established neuronal circuitry tracer, revealed that the reward circuit in the NET knockout mouse is biased toward anterior portions of the brain. This is similar to previous results observed for the dopamine transporter (DAT) knockout mouse, but dissimilar from work with serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout mice where Mn2+ tracings extended to more posterior structures than in wildtype animals. These observations correlate with behavioral studies indicating that SERT knockout mice display anxiety-like phenotypes, while NET knockouts and to a lesser extent DAT knockout mice display antidepressant-like phenotypic features. Thus, the mainly anterior activity detected with manganese-enhanced MRI in the DAT and NET knockout mice is likely indicative of

  2. Striatum-Based Circuitry of Adolescent Depression and Anhedonia

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, Vilma; Ely, Benjamin A.; Li, Qingyang; Bangaru, Saroja D.; Panzer, Aviva M.; Alonso, Carmen M.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Striatum-based circuits have been implicated in both major depressive disorder (MDD) and anhedonia, a symptom that reflects deficits of reward processing. Yet adolescents with MDD often exhibit a wide range of anhedonia severity. Addressing this clinical phenomenon, we aimed to use intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) to study striatum-based circuitry in relation to categorical diagnosis of MDD and anhedonia severity. Method A total of 21 psychotropic medication–free adolescents with MDD and 21 healthy controls (HC), group-matched for age and sex, underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) scans. Voxelwise maps indicating correlation strengths of spontaneous blood-oxygenation-level–dependent (BOLD) signals among 6 bilateral striatal seeds (dorsal caudate, ventral caudate, nucleus accumbens, dorsal-rostral putamen, dorsal-caudal putamen, ventral-rostral putamen) and the remaining brain regions were compared between groups. Relationships between striatal iFC and severity of MDD and anhedonia were examined in the MDD group. Analyses were corrected for multiple comparisons. Results Adolescents with MDD manifested increased iFC between all striatal regions bilaterally and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), as well as between the right ventral caudate and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). MDD severity was associated with iFC between the striatum and midline structures including the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, and dmPFC. However, distinct striatal iFC patterns involving the pregenual ACC, subgenual ACC, supplementary motor area, and supramarginal gyrus were associated with anhedonia severity. Conclusions Although MDD diagnosis and severity were related to striatal networks involving midline cortical structures, distinct circuits within the reward system were associated with anhedonia. PMID:23702452

  3. Smoking increases risk of pain chronification through shared corticostriatal circuitry.

    PubMed

    Petre, Bogdan; Torbey, Souraya; Griffith, James W; De Oliveira, Gildasio; Herrmann, Kristine; Mansour, Ali; Baria, Alex T; Baliki, Marwan N; Schnitzer, Thomas J; Apkarian, Apkar Vania

    2015-02-01

    Smoking is associated with increased incidence of chronic pain. However, the evidence is cross-sectional in nature, and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In a longitudinal observational study, we examined the relationship between smoking, transition to chronic pain, and brain physiology. In 160 subjects with subacute back pain (SBP: back pain lasting 4-12 weeks, and no prior back pain [BP] for at least 1 year) pain characteristics, smoking status, and brain functional properties were measured repeatedly over 1 year. Sixty-eight completed the study, subdivided into recovering (SBPr, n = 31) and persisting (SBPp, n = 37), based on >20% decrease in BP over the year. Thirty-two chronic back pain (CBP: duration > 5 years) and 35 healthy controls were similarly monitored. Smoking prevalence was higher in SBP and CBP but not related to intensity of BP. In SBP, smoking status at baseline was predictive of persistence of BP 1 year from symptom onset (differentiating SBPp and SBPr with 0.62 accuracy). Smoking status combined with affective properties of pain and medication use improved prediction accuracy (0.82). Mediation analysis indicated the prediction of BP persistence by smoking was largely due to synchrony of fMRI activity between two brain areas (nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, NAc-mPFC). In SBP or CBP who ceased smoking strength of NAc-mPFC decreased from precessation to postcessation of smoking. We conclude that smoking increases risk of transitioning to CBP, an effect mediated by corticostriatal circuitry involved in addictive behavior and motivated learning. PMID:25307796

  4. Receptor mechanisms and circuitry underlying NMDA antagonist neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Farber, N B; Kim, S H; Dikranian, K; Jiang, X P; Heinkel, C

    2002-01-01

    NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists are used in clinical anesthesia, and are being developed as therapeutic agents for preventing neurodegeneration in stroke, epilepsy, and brain trauma. However, the ability of these agents to produce neurotoxicity in adult rats and psychosis in adult humans compromises their clinical usefulness. In addition, an NMDA receptor hypofunction (NRHypo) state might play a role in neurodegenerative and psychotic disorders, like Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Thus, understanding the mechanism underlying NRHypo-induced neurotoxicity and psychosis could have significant clinically relevant benefits. NRHypo neurotoxicity can be prevented by several classes of agents (e.g. antimuscarinics, non-NMDA glutamate antagonists, and alpha(2) adrenergic agonists) suggesting that the mechanism of neurotoxicity is complex. In the present study a series of experiments was undertaken to more definitively define the receptors and complex neural circuitry underlying NRHypo neurotoxicity. Injection of either the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine or the non-NMDA antagonist NBQX directly into the cortex prevented NRHypo neurotoxicity. Clonidine, an alpha(2) adrenergic agonist, protected against the neurotoxicity when injected into the basal forebrain. The combined injection of muscarinic and non-NMDA Glu agonists reproduced the neurotoxic reaction. Based on these and other results, we conclude that the mechanism is indirect, and involves a complex network disturbance, whereby blockade of NMDA receptors on inhibitory neurons in multiple subcortical brain regions, disinhibits glutamatergic and cholinergic projections to the cerebral cortex. Simultaneous excitotoxic stimulation of muscarinic (m(3)) and glutamate (AMPA/kainate) receptors on cerebrocortical neurons appears to be the proximal mechanism by which the neurotoxic and psychotomimetic effects of NRHypo are mediated. PMID:11803444

  5. Animal Models of Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Linda A; Bhargava, Pavan

    2013-01-01

    Problems with sleep affect a large part of the general population, with more than half of all people in the United States reporting difficulties with sleep or insufficient sleep at various times and about 40 million affected chronically. Sleep is a complex physiologic process that is influenced by many internal and environmental factors, and problems with sleep are often related to specific personal circumstances or are based on subjective reports from the affected person. Although human subjects are used widely in the study of sleep and sleep disorders, the study of animals has been invaluable in developing our understanding about the physiology of sleep and the underlying mechanisms of sleep disorders. Historically, the use of animals for the study of sleep disorders has arguably been most fruitful for the condition of narcolepsy, in which studies of dogs and mice revealed previously unsuspected mechanisms for this condition. The current overview considers animal models that have been used to study 4 of the most common human sleep disorders—insomnia, narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome, and sleep apnea—and summarizes considerations relevant to the use of animals for the study of sleep and sleep disorders. Animal-based research has been vital to the elucidation of mechanisms that underlie sleep, its regulation, and its disorders and undoubtedly will remain crucial for discovering and validating sleep mechanisms and testing interventions for sleep disorders. PMID:23582416

  6. Thalamic Circuit Mechanisms Link Sensory Processing in Sleep and Attention

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Wimmer, Ralf D.; Wilson, Matthew A.; Halassa, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between sleep integrity and attentional performance is normally interpreted as poor sleep causing impaired attention. Here, we provide an alternative explanation for this correlation: common thalamic circuits regulate sensory processing across sleep and attention, and their disruption may lead to correlated dysfunction. Using multi-electrode recordings in mice, we find that rate and rhythmicity of thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) neurons are predictive of their functional organization in sleep and suggestive of their participation in sensory processing across states. Surprisingly, TRN neurons associated with spindles in sleep are also associated with alpha oscillations during attention. As such, we propose that common thalamic circuit principles regulate sensory processing in a state-invariant manner and that in certain disorders, targeting these circuits may be a more viable therapeutic strategy than considering individual states in isolation. PMID:26778969

  7. [Mild cognitive impairment: could it be a sleep disorder?].

    PubMed

    Bayard, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    The mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is described as an intermediate state of cognitive impairment whereby individuals present with mild clinical symptoms but with nearly normal daily living activities. These subjects do not meet the clinical criteria for dementia, yet their cognitive functioning is below what we would expect for age and education in healthy people. In the other hand, older adults are at risk for sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, REM sleep behavioral disorder and chronic insomnia, which could have an impact on cognitive functioning and are exclusion criteria for the MCI diagnosis. Moreover, REM sleep behavioral disorder represents a risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. In subjects more 65 years of age the association between chronic insomnia and cognitive changes is still debated. The main aim of this paper is to focus on identification of sleep disorders in the context of cognitive disturbances among professionals working with the elderly. PMID:26395305

  8. Sleep and Alzheimer disease pathology—a bidirectional relationship

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Yo-El S.; Lucey, Brendan P.; Holtzman, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Factors other than age and genetics may increase the risk of developing Alzheimer disease (AD). Accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the brain seems to initiate a cascade of key events in the pathogenesis of AD. Moreover, evidence is emerging that the sleep–wake cycle directly influences levels of Aβ in the brain. In experimental models, sleep deprivation increases the concentration of soluble Aβ and results in chronic accumulation of Aβ, whereas sleep extension has the opposite effect. Furthermore, once Aβ accumulates, increased wakefulness and altered sleep patterns develop. Individuals with early Aβ deposition who still have normal cognitive function report sleep abnormalities, as do individuals with very mild dementia due to AD. Thus, sleep and neurodegenerative disease may influence each other in many ways that have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of AD. PMID:24366271

  9. Hot tonsillectomy for paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Paula; Marzouk, Sherief Deya; Gerolympou, Margarita; Marais, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is a common presentation in paediatric ear, nose and tongue (ENT) outpatients. The use of sleep studies is controversial however once a diagnosis has been made, frequently treatment is surgery. Should these patients be operated on as urgent cases? A 5-year-old boy was admitted under the paediatric team with difficultly breathing and desaturations to 77%. The patient had previously been seen by ENT as an outpatient with an 8-month history of obstructive sleep apnoea and was listed for an adenotonsillectomy with the standard waiting time. During this admission he had an emergency adenotonsillectomy. The patient improved immediately with no large desaturations in recovery and normal observations throughout his stay. It is never ideal to do a paediatric emergency operation and we have reviewed the evidence base to answer the question: Should these patients be treated urgently when seen in outpatients? PMID:24907212

  10. Delayed sleep phase cases and controls

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Daniel F; Rex, Katharine M; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Klimecki, Walt; Kelsoe, John R

    2008-01-01

    Background Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) is a condition in which patients have difficulty falling asleep before the early morning hours and commonly have trouble awakening before late morning or even early afternoon. Several studies have suggested that variations in habitual bedtime are 40–50% heritable. Methods We recruited a case series of 205 participants, along with 221 controls (DSPD-C) with normal sleep, roughly matched for age, gender, and ancestry. A representative sample of San Diego adults recruited some years before was already available to confirm the control group. Both DSPD and DSPD-C provided blood or saliva samples for DNA and completed extensive questionnaires about sleep habits, sleep history, family history, sleep quality, morningness-eveningness traits, depression, mania, and seasonality of symptoms. The DSPD group wore wrist actigraphs for a median of 13.2 days. The representative sample collected previously had undergone actigraphic recordings, from which 48 hours of data were generally available. Results The DSPD and DSPD-C samples showed almost no overlap on morningness-eveningness scores. DSPD cases went to bed and arose about 3 hours later than the DSPD-C and the representative sample. DSPD cases reported more difficulties with sleep, poorer sleep quality, and more depression, but there was no significant difference in a history of mania. DSPD cases reported more family history of late bedtimes, but female DSPD reported that their fathers' bedtimes were later than the fathers of male DSPD. Conclusion These results indicate a DSPD phenotype is familial and associated with unipolar depression. PMID:18445295

  11. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes’ closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep). PMID:27471418

  12. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep). PMID:27471418

  13. Shining evolutionary light on human sleep and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Charles L; Samson, David R; Krystal, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep-i.e. 'why' sleep evolved-remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalian sleep to better understand sleep along the human lineage and in the modern world. Compared to other primates, sleep in great apes has undergone substantial evolutionary change, with all great apes building a sleeping platform or 'nest'. Further evolutionary change characterizes human sleep, with humans having the shortest sleep duration, yet the highest proportion of rapid eye movement sleep among primates. These changes likely reflect that our ancestors experienced fitness benefits from being active for a greater portion of the 24-h cycle than other primates, potentially related to advantages arising from learning, socializing and defending against predators and hostile conspecifics. Perspectives from evolutionary medicine have implications for understanding sleep disorders; we consider these perspectives in the context of insomnia, narcolepsy, seasonal affective disorder, circadian rhythm disorders and sleep apnea. We also identify how human sleep today differs from sleep through most of human evolution, and the implications of these changes for global health and health disparities. More generally, our review highlights the importance of phylogenetic comparisons in understanding human health, including well-known links between sleep, cognitive performance and health in humans. PMID:27470330

  14. [Sleep in question].

    PubMed

    Hartley, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    It is important to differentiate the effects of aging on sleep systems from the effects of medical illnesses. The health care team, especially the night team, plays an essential role in the identification of sleep disorders and in setting up strategies for better management of nocturnal difficulties. PMID:23133904

  15. Habitability sleep accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, H. T.

    1985-01-01

    Schematic outlines are presented with various design requirements for the accommodation of the spacecrew of Space Stations. The primary concern is for sleeping accommodations. Some other general requirements given are for a rest place, entertainment, dressing area, personal item stowage, body restraint, total privacy, external viewing, and grooming provisions. Several plans are given for sleep quarters concepts.

  16. Adenosine and sleep

    SciTech Connect

    Yanik, G.M. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Behavioral and biochemical approaches have been used to determine the relative contribution of endogenous adenosine and adenosine receptors to the sleep-wake cycle in the rat. Adenosine concentrations in specific areas of the rat brain were not affected by 24 hours of total sleep deprivation, or by 24 or 48 hours of REM sleep deprivation. In order to assess the effect of REM sleep deprivation on adenosine A/sub 1/ receptors, /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding was measured. The Bmax values for /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding to membrane preparations of the cortices and corpus striata from 48 hour REM sleep-deprived animals were increased 14.8% and 23%, respectively. These increases were not maintained following the cessation of sleep deprivation and recovered within 2 hours. The results of a 96 hour REM deprivation experiment were similar to those of the 48 hour REM sleep deprivation experiment. However, these increases were not evident in similar structures taken from stress control animals, and conclusively demonstrated that the changes in /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding resulted from REM sleep deprivation and not from stress.

  17. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  18. Genotyping Sleep Disorders Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shadan, Farhad F.; Dawson, Arthur; Cronin, John W.; Jamil, Shazia M.; Grizas, Alexandra P.; Koziol, James A.; Kline, Lawrence E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The genetic susceptibility factors underlying sleep disorders might help us predict prognoses and responses to treatment. Several candidate polymorphisms for sleep disorders have been proposed, but there has as yet inadequate replication or validation that the candidates may be useful in the clinical setting. Methods To assess the validity of several candidate associations, we obtained saliva deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples and clinical information from 360 consenting research participants who were undergoing clinical polysomnograms. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped. These were thought to be related to depression, circadian sleep disorders, sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome (RLS), excessive sleepiness, or to slow waves in sleep. Results With multivariate generalized linear models, the association of TEF rs738499 with depressive symptoms was confirmed. Equivocal statistical evidence of association of rs1801260 (the C3111T SNP in the CLOCK gene) with morningness/eveningness and an association of Apolipoprotein E (APOE) rs429358 with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were obtained, but these associations were not strong enough to be of clinical value by themselves. Predicted association of SNPs with sleep apnea, RLS, and slow wave sleep were not confirmed. Conclusion The SNPs tested would not, by themselves, be of use for clinical genotyping in a sleep clinic. PMID:20396431

  19. Sleep, Memory & Brain Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Brendon O.; Buzsáki, György

    2015-01-01

    Sleep occupies roughly one-third of our lives, yet the scientific community is still not entirely clear on its purpose or function. Existing data point most strongly to its role in memory and homeostasis: that sleep helps maintain basic brain functioning via a homeostatic mechanism that loosens connections between overworked synapses, and that sleep helps consolidate and re-form important memories. In this review, we will summarize these theories, but also focus on substantial new information regarding the relation of electrical brain rhythms to sleep. In particular, while REM sleep may contribute to the homeostatic weakening of overactive synapses, a prominent and transient oscillatory rhythm called “sharp-wave ripple” seems to allow for consolidation of behaviorally relevant memories across many structures of the brain. We propose that a theory of sleep involving the division of labor between two states of sleep–REM and non-REM, the latter of which has an abundance of ripple electrical activity–might allow for a fusion of the two main sleep theories. This theory then postulates that sleep performs a combination of consolidation and homeostasis that promotes optimal knowledge retention as well as optimal waking brain function. PMID:26097242

  20. Insomnia with Objective Short Sleep Duration is Associated with Deficits in Neuropsychological Performance: A General Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan; Bixler, Edward O.; Pejovic, Slobodanka; Karataraki, Maria; Liao, Duanping; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Ramos-Platon, Maria J.; Sauder, Katherine A.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the joint effect of insomnia and objective short sleep duration on neuropsychological performance. Design: Representative cross-sectional study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: 1,741 men and women randomly selected from central Pennsylvania. Interventions: None. Measurements: Insomnia (n = 116) was defined by a complaint of insomnia with a duration ≥ 1 year and the absence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB), while normal sleep (n = 562) was defined as the absence of insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and SDB. Both groups were split according to polysomnographic sleep duration into 2 categories: ≥ 6 h of sleep (“normal sleep duration”) and < 6 h of sleep (“short sleep duration”). We compared the groups' performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery that measured processing speed, attention, visual memory, and verbal fluency, while controlling for age, race, gender, education, body mass index, and physical and mental health. Results: No significant differences were detected between insomniacs and controls. However, the insomnia with short sleep duration group compared to the control with normal or short sleep duration groups showed poorer neuropsychological performance in variables such as processing speed, set-switching attention, and number of visual memory errors and omissions. In contrast, the insomnia with normal sleep duration group showed no significant deficits. Conclusions: Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with deficits in set-switching attentional abilities, a key component of the “executive control of attention.” These findings suggest that objective sleep duration may predict the severity of chronic insomnia, including its effect on neurocognitive function. Citation: Fernandez-Mendoza J; Calhoun S; Bixler EO; Pejovic S; Karataraki M; Liao D; Vela-Bueno A; Ramos-Platon MJ; Sauder KA; Vgontzas AN. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with

  1. Changing dynamic behavior of periodic structures by using piezoelectric circuitry with negative resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Wang, X.; Tang, J.

    2009-03-01

    Integrating a piezoelectric circuitry, which consists of a piezoelectric transducer connected with electrical circuitry elements, to a mechanical structure can alter the dynamic behavior of the structural system. From a system dynamics standpoint, these circuitry elements are analogous to the mass, damping, and stiffness elements in the mechanical regime. Using op amp circuits we can synthesize circuitry elements with interesting characteristics such as tunable or negative elements. In this research, we demonstrate that the negative resistance element can reduce the overall system damping, thereby changing the dynamic response of mechanical structures. In particular, it will be shown that not only the response amplitude can be amplified; the response pattern in the mistuned periodic structure can be altered significantly upon the change of local structural properties. Such phenomena are analyzed systematically, and the potential advantage for structural damage detection is highlighted.

  2. 77 FR 33240 - Certain Semiconductor Chips With DRAM Circuitry, and Modules and Products Containing Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Memory (USA) Inc. of Sunnyvale, California (collectively, ``Elpida''). 76 FR 79215 (Dec. 21, 2011). The... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Chips With DRAM Circuitry, and Modules and Products Containing...

  3. 78 FR 24234 - Certain Semiconductor Chips With DRAM Circuitry, and Modules and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Chips With DRAM Circuitry, and Modules and Products Containing Same; Notice..., which is a limited exclusion order barring the entry of unlicensed DRAM semiconductor chips...

  4. 78 FR 53159 - Certain Semiconductor Chips With Dram Circuitry, and Modules and Products Containing Same: Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ..., California (collectively, ``Elpida''). 76 FR 79215 (Dec. 21, 2011). The complaint alleged violations of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Chips With Dram Circuitry, and Modules and Products Containing Same:...

  5. Sensitive Periods of Emotion Regulation: Influences of Parental Care on Frontoamygdala Circuitry and Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Gee, Dylan G

    2016-09-01

    Early caregiving experiences play a central role in shaping emotional development, stress physiology, and refinement of limbic circuitry. Converging evidence across species delineates a sensitive period of heightened neuroplasticity when frontoamygdala circuitry is especially amenable to caregiver inputs early in life. During this period, parental buffering regulates emotional behaviors and stress physiology as emotion regulation circuitry continues to mature. By contrast, disorganized or poor quality caregiving has profound and lasting consequences on the maturation of frontoamygdala circuitry essential for emotion regulation, even following termination of this early life stressor (e.g., adoption from orphanage). This article highlights how interactions between caregiving experiences and the biological state of the developing brain have broad implications for long-term health. PMID:27589500

  6. Apparatus, system and method for providing cryptographic key information with physically unclonable function circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Areno, Matthew

    2013-05-28

    Techniques and mechanisms for providing a value from physically unclonable function (PUF) circuitry for a cryptographic operation of a security module. In an embodiment, a cryptographic engine receives a value from PUF circuitry and based on the value, outputs a result of a cryptographic operation to a bus of the security module. The bus couples the cryptographic engine to control logic or interface logic of the security module. In another embodiment, the value is provided to the cryptographic engine from the PUF circuitry via a signal line which is distinct from the bus, where any exchange of the value by either of the cryptographic engine and the PUF circuitry is for communication of the first value independent of the bus.

  7. Apparatus, system and method for providing cryptographic key information with physically unclonable function circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Areno, Matthew

    2015-12-08

    Techniques and mechanisms for providing a value from physically unclonable function (PUF) circuitry for a cryptographic operation of a security module. In an embodiment, a cryptographic engine receives a value from PUF circuitry and based on the value, outputs a result of a cryptographic operation to a bus of the security module. The bus couples the cryptographic engine to control logic or interface logic of the security module. In another embodiment, the value is provided to the cryptographic engine from the PUF circuitry via a signal line which is distinct from the bus, where any exchange of the value by either of the cryptographic engine and the PUF circuitry is for communication of the first value independent of the bus.

  8. Sleep restriction increases free fatty acids in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Josiane L.; Chapotot, Florian; Abraham, Varghese; Day, Andrew; Delebecque, Fanny; Whitmore, Harry R.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Sleep loss is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, yet underlying mechanisms are not understood. Elevation of circulating non-esterified (i.e. free) fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations can lead to insulin resistance and plays a central role in the development of metabolic diseases. Circulating NEFA in healthy individuals shows a marked diurnal variation with maximum levels occurring at night, yet the impact of sleep loss on NEFA levels across the 24 h cycle remains unknown. We hypothesised that sleep restriction would alter hormones that are known to stimulate lipolysis and lead to an increase in NEFA levels. Methods We studied 19 healthy young men under controlled laboratory conditions with four consecutive nights of 8.5 h in bed (normal sleep) and 4.5 h in bed (sleep restriction) in randomised order. The 24 h blood profiles of NEFA, growth hormone (GH), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), cortisol, glucose and insulin were simultaneously assessed. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Results Sleep restriction relative to normal sleep resulted in increased NEFA levels during the nocturnal and early-morning hours. The elevation in NEFA was related to prolonged nocturnal GH secretion and higher early-morning noradrenaline levels. Insulin sensitivity was decreased after sleep restriction and the reduction in insulin sensitivity was correlated with the increase in nocturnal NEFA levels. Conclusions/interpretation Sleep restriction in healthy men results in increased nocturnal and early-morning NEFA levels, which may partly contribute to insulin resistance and the elevated diabetes risk associated with sleep loss. PMID:25702040

  9. Basal sympathetic predominance in periodic limb movements in sleep with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng-Ni; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Yen, Chen-Wen; Liou, Li-Min; Hsieh, Cheng-Fang; Tsai, Ming-Ju; Chen, Sharon C-J; Hsu, Chung-Yao

    2015-12-01

    Because the impact of periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) is controversial, no consensus has been reached on the therapeutic strategy for PLMS in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). To verify the hypothesis that PLMS is related to a negative impact on the cardiovascular system in OSA patients, this study investigated the basal autonomic regulation by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Sixty patients with mild-to-moderate OSA who underwent polysomnography (PSG) and completed sleep questionnaires were analysed retrospectively and divided into the PLMS group (n = 30) and the non-PLMS group (n = 30). Epochs without any sleep events or continuous effects were evaluated using HRV analysis. No significant difference was observed in the demographic data, PSG parameters or sleep questionnaires between the PLMS and non-PLMS groups, except for age. Patients in the PLMS group had significantly lower normalized high frequency (n-HF), high frequency (HF), square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of difference between adjacent NN intervals (RMSSD) and standard deviation of all normal to normal intervals index (SDNN-I), but had a higher normalized low frequency (n-LF) and LF/HF ratio. There was no significant difference in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Short-Form 36 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale between the two groups. After adjustment for confounding variables, PLMS remained an independent predictor of n-LF (β = 0.0901, P = 0.0081), LF/HF ratio (β = 0.5351, P = 0.0361), RMSSD (β = -20.1620, P = 0.0455) and n-HF (β = -0.0886, P = 0.0134). In conclusion, PLMS is related independently to basal sympathetic predominance and has a potentially negative impact on the cardiovascular system of OSA patients. PMID:26118626

  10. [Violent behavior during sleep].

    PubMed

    Poyares, Dalva; Almeida, Carlos Maurício Oliveira de; Silva, Rogerio Santos da; Rosa, Agostinho; Guilleminault, Christian

    2005-05-01

    Cases of violent behavior during sleep have been reported in the literature. However, the incidence of violent behavior during sleep is not known. One epidemiological study showed that approximately 2% of the general population, predominantly males, presented violent behavior while asleep. In the present study, the authors describe clinical and medico-legal aspects involved in violent behavior investigation. Violent behavior refers to self-injury or injury to another during sleep. It happens most frequently following partial awakening in the context of arousal disorders (parasomnias). The most frequently diagnosed sleep disorders are REM behavior disorder and somnambulism. Violent behavior might be precipitated by stress, use of alcohol or drugs, sleep deprivation or fever. PMID:16082451

  11. The influence of sleep onset on the diurnal variation in cardiac activity and cardiac control.

    PubMed

    Carrington, Melinda; Walsh, Michelle; Stambas, Thalia; Kleiman, Jan; Trinder, John

    2003-09-01

    Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity vary diurnally, with a reduction in HR and BP, and a shift to vagal dominance during the dark phase. However, the cause of these changes, particularly the relative influence of sleep and circadian mechanisms, remains uncertain. The present study assessed the effect of sleep onset on HR, BP, high frequency (HF) component of heart rate variability (HRV), low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio and pre-ejection period (PEP). Sleep onset was dissociated from circadian influences by having subjects go to sleep at two different circadian phases, their normal time of sleep onset (normal sleep onset, NSO), and after a delay of 3 h (delayed sleep onset, DSO). The assumption was that changes caused by sleep onset would occur in association with sleep onset, irrespective of its timing, while circadian effects would have a consistent circadian phase and be independent of when sleep onset occurred. Thirteen and 17 subjects were run in the NSO and DSO conditions, respectively. Following a 1-h adaptation period, data collection began 2 h before subjects' normal time of sleep onset and continued until morning awakening. The lights were turned out after 2 h in the NSO condition and 5 h in the DSO condition. Subjects were required to maintain a supine position throughout the experimental sessions. The night-time decrease in HR was found to be due to both sleep onset and a circadian influence, with the circadian component being more prominent. In contrast, the fall in BP was largely due to a sleep onset effect. Increased vagal activity, as reflected in the HF component and a shift to vagal dominance in the LF/HF ratio, appeared to be primarily a function of the sleep system, while sympathetic activity, as assessed by PEP, reflected a circadian influence. PMID:12941060

  12. Sleep disorders and work performance: findings from the 2008 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America poll.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Leslie M; Arnedt, J Todd; Rosekind, Mark R; Belenky, Gregory; Balkin, Thomas J; Drake, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Chronic sleep deprivation is common among workers, and has been associated with negative work outcomes, including absenteeism and occupational accidents. The objective of the present study is to characterize reciprocal relationships between sleep and work. Specifically, we examined how sleep impacts work performance and how work affects sleep in individuals not at-risk for a sleep disorder; assessed work performance outcomes for individuals at-risk for sleep disorders, including insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and restless legs syndrome (RLS); and characterized work performance impairments in shift workers (SW) at-risk for shift work sleep disorders relative to SW and day workers. One-thousand Americans who work 30 h per week or more were asked questions about employment, work performance and sleep in the National Sleep Foundation's 2008 Sleep in America telephone poll. Long work hours were associated with shorter sleep times, and shorter sleep times were associated with more work impairments. Thirty-seven percent of respondents were classified as at-risk for any sleep disorder. These individuals had more negative work outcomes as compared with those not at-risk for a sleep disorder. Presenteeism was a significant problem for individuals with insomnia symptoms, OSA and RLS as compared with respondents not at-risk. These results suggest that long work hours may contribute to chronic sleep loss, which may in turn result in work impairment. Risk for sleep disorders substantially increases the likelihood of negative work outcomes, including occupational accidents, absenteeism and presenteeism. PMID:20887396

  13. Morning Circadian Misalignment during Short Sleep Duration Impacts Insulin Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Robert H; Depner, Christopher M; Perreault, Leigh; Markwald, Rachel R; Smith, Mark R; McHill, Andrew W; Higgins, Janine; Melanson, Edward L; Wright, Kenneth P

    2015-11-16

    Short sleep duration and circadian misalignment are hypothesized to causally contribute to health problems including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, heart disease, mood disorders, cognitive impairment, and accidents. Here, we investigated the influence of morning circadian misalignment induced by an imposed short nighttime sleep schedule on impaired insulin sensitivity, a precursor to diabetes. Imposed short sleep duration resulted in morning wakefulness occurring during the biological night (i.e., circadian misalignment)-a time when endogenous melatonin levels were still high indicating the internal circadian clock was still promoting sleep and related functions. We show the longer melatonin levels remained high after wake time, insulin sensitivity worsened. Overall, we find a simulated 5-day work week of 5-hr-per-night sleep opportunities and ad libitum food intake resulted in ∼20% reduced oral and intravenous insulin sensitivity in otherwise healthy men and women. Reduced insulin sensitivity was compensated by an increased insulin response to glucose, which may reflect an initial physiological adaptation to maintain normal blood sugar levels during sleep loss. Furthermore, we find that transitioning from the imposed short sleep schedule to 9-hr sleep opportunities for 3 days restored oral insulin sensitivity to baseline, but 5 days with 9-hr sleep opportunities was insufficient to restore intravenous insulin sensitivity to baseline. These findings indicate morning wakefulness and eating during the biological night is a novel mechanism by which short sleep duration contributes to metabolic dysregulation and suggests food intake during the biological night may contribute to other health problems associated with short sleep duration. PMID:26549253

  14. The Interplay of Stress and Sleep Impacts BDNF Level

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Serge; Calabrese, Pasquale; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep plays a pivotal role in normal biological functions. Sleep loss results in higher stress vulnerability and is often found in mental disorders. There is evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could be a central player in this relationship. Recently, we could demonstrate that subjects suffering from current symptoms of insomnia exhibited significantly decreased serum BDNF levels compared with sleep-healthy controls. In accordance with the paradigm indicating a link between sleep and BDNF, we aimed to investigate if the stress system influences the association between sleep and BDNF. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants with current symptoms of insomnia plus a former diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and/or Periodic Limb Movement (PLM) and sleep healthy controls were included in the study. They completed questionnaires on sleep (ISI, Insomnia Severity Index) and stress (PSS, Perceived Stress Scale) and provided a blood sample for determination of serum BDNF. We found a significant interaction between stress and insomnia with an impact on serum BDNF levels. Moreover, insomnia severity groups and score on the PSS each revealed a significant main effect on serum BDNF levels. Insomnia severity was associated with increased stress experience affecting serum BDNF levels. Of note, the association between stress and BDNF was only observed in subjects without insomnia. Using a mediation model, sleep was revealed as a mediator of the association between stress experience and serum BDNF levels. Conclusions This is the first study to show that the interplay between stress and sleep impacts BDNF levels, suggesting an important role of this relationship in the pathogenesis of stress-associated mental disorders. Hence, we suggest sleep as a key mediator at the connection between stress and BDNF. Whether sleep is maintained or disturbed might explain why some individuals are able to handle a certain stress load while others develop a

  15. The sleep of conjoined twins.

    PubMed

    Webb, W B

    1978-01-01

    Conjoined twins with a common heart system and circulatory system were observed during the 14th and 15th days for 11 hr. Sleep, Waking, and Quiet and Active Sleep were recorded in minute intervals. Clear independence of sleep and waking was manifest, and total independence of Quiet and Active sleep was noted. PMID:227033

  16. Sleep At Camp: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pravda, Myra

    1997-01-01

    Among 40 camp directors surveyed, the majority believed that campers get enough sleep, but that staff members and directors do not get enough sleep. Addresses how sleep deprivation can affect job performance and offers strategies for helping staff understand the importance of sleep to keep them alert and functioning in their job. Includes…

  17. Unihemispheric sleep deprivation in bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Oleksenko; Mukhametov; Polyakova; Supin; Kovalzon

    1992-03-01

    Unihemispheric and bihemispheric sleep deprivation were performed in bottlenose dolphins. One brain hemisphere was capable of being deprived of delta (0.5-3.0 Hz) sleep in the former condition. Here, an increase in sleep pressure was observed during sleep deprivation in the deprived hemisphere. In the recovery sleep, following unihemispheric sleep deprivation, there was a rebound of delta sleep only in the deprived hemisphere. Following bihemispheric sleep deprivation the animals exhibited an increase in delta sleep in both hemispheres. PMID:10607024

  18. Mechanisms of seizure suppression during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep in cats.

    PubMed

    Shouse, M N; Siegel, J M; Wu, M F; Szymusiak, R; Morrison, A R

    1989-12-29

    REM sleep is the most antiepileptic state in the sleep-wake cycle for human generalized epilepsy, yet the neural mechanism is unknown. This study verified the antiepileptic properties of REM sleep in feline generalized epilepsy and also isolated the responsible factors. Conclusions are based on 20 cats evaluated for generalized EEG and motor seizure susceptibility before and after dissociation of specific REM sleep components. Bilateral electrolytic lesions of the medial-lateral pontine tegmentum created a syndrome of REM sleep without atonia. Systemic atropine created a syndrome of REM sleep without thalamocortical EEG desynchronization. Identical results were obtained in two seizure models, systemic penicillin epilepsy and electroconvulsive shock. (1) Normal REM sleep retarded the spread of EEG seizure discharges and had even more potent anticonvulsant effects. (2) Selective loss of 'sleep paralysis' (skeletal muscle atonia) during REM abolished REM sleep protection against myoclonus and convulsions without affecting generalized EEG paroxysms. (3) Conversely, selective loss of thalamocortical EEG desychronization abolished REM sleep protection against generalized EEG seizures without affecting clinical motor accompaniment. These results suggest that the descending brainstem pathways which mediate lower motor neuron inhibition also protect against generalized motor seizures during REM sleep. Protection against spread of EEG paroxysms is governed by a separate mechanism, presumably the ascending brainstem pathways mediating intense thalamocortical EEG desynchronization during REM sleep. PMID:2598045

  19. Sleep in healthy elderly subjects: a 24-hour ambulatory polysomnographic study.

    PubMed

    Gigli, G L; Placidi, F; Diomedi, M; Maschio, M; Silvestri, G; Scalise, A; Marciani, M G

    1996-04-01

    It is still debated whether the deterioration of the sleep pattern, frequently reported by elderly subjects, is due only to aging per se. Other factors associated with aging or modifications of biological rhythms could also be involved. Elderly subjects frequently complain of daytime sleepiness, but it is not clear whether this actually represents a return to a polyphasic structure of sleep, or only a consequence of a disturbed night sleep. Ten healthy, independent and active elderly subjects (age > 72 years) were elevated by means of 24-hour ambulatory polysomnography. Findings of nocturnal sleep were compared with sleep of the same group in the 24-hour period and with sleep of young healthy controls. We observed a fragmentation of nocturnal sleep, but a fairly good representation of stages and a preservation of cyclicity. Except for three cases, with early or late times of sleep onset and wake-up, sleep disruption did not seem to be related to modification of circadian rhythms. Only three subjects presented undesired daytime naps, whereas the others either did not show daytime sleep at all, or were used to having their siesta after lunch since their young adulthood. In normal aging, daytime sleep does not constitute a social problem. Ambulatory polysomnography is a valid alternative to laboratory recordings in the identification of daytime sleep. PMID:8734563

  20. Respiratory muscle activity during REM sleep in patients with diaphragm paralysis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J R; Dunroy, H M A; Corfield, D R; Hart, N; Simonds, A K; Polkey, M I; Morrell, M J

    2004-01-13

    The diaphragm is the main inspiratory muscle during REM sleep. It was hypothesized that patients with isolated bilateral diaphragm paralysis (BDP) might not be able to sustain REM sleep. Polysomnography with EMG recordings was undertaken from accessory respiratory muscles in patients with BDP and normal subjects. Patients with BDP had a normal quantity of REM sleep (mean +/- SD, 18.6 +/- 7.5% of total sleep time) achieved by inspiratory recruitment of extradiaphragmatic muscles in both tonic and phasic REM, suggesting brainstem reorganization. PMID:14718717

  1. Sleep patterns at an altitude of 3500 metres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvamurthy, W.; Raju, V. R. K.; Ranganathan, S.; Hegde, K. S.; Ray, U. S.

    1986-06-01

    Alterations in sleep pattern during acclimatisation at an altitude of 3500 m were studied on 27 healthy men (20 30 years of age). Of these, 15 were sojourners (SJ), 6 were acclimatised lowlanders (AL) and 6 were high altitude natives (HAN). Baseline sleep profile of SJ was electrophysiologically monitored, initially at Delhi (260 m) and later at 3500 m altitude in Western Himalayas for 2 weeks. At high altitude (HA) the sleep patterns of AL and HAN were also monitored for comparison. There were 4 cases of acute mountain sickness (AMS) among SJ, whose sleep profiles were also recorded. The state of autonomic arousal was assessed by a battery of indices, while the psychological arousal was measured by the anxiety scales. On completion of studies at HA, the SJ were flown back to the plains and re-tested within one week of return. SJ showed curtailment of slow wave sleep (SWS) and frequent short episodes of arousal during sleep at HA. AL and HAN also had lesser amounts of SWS; however, the arousals and awakenings during sleep were less frequent. Subjects who experienced AMS had normal amounts of SWS at HA. There was sympathetic hyperactivity and slight increase in anxiety level in SJ, while HAN and AL had relatively reduced level of sympathetic activity. The curtailment of SWS and frequent arousals observed in SJ during the initial phase of acclimatisation at HA, appear to be adaptive features to prevent the accentuation of arterial hypoxemia due to sleep hypoventilation.

  2. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  3. Physiological changes, sleep, and morning mood in an isolated environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Murai, Tadashi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Orasanu, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous isolation studies have shown increased 24-h urine volumes and body weight gains in subjects. This project examined those and other physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood, and complaints during confinement. METHODS: Six male and two female subjects lived for 7 d in the National Space Development Agency of Japan's isolation chamber, which simulates the interior of the Japanese Experiment Module. Each 24-h period included 6 h of sleep, 3 meals, and 20 min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed Sleep Sensation and Complaint Index questionnaires. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume, and body weight were measured on the 2 d before and 2 d after confinement, and sleep motor activity was measured during confinement. RESULTS: Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume, or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and sleep motor activity exhibited significant differences during confinement (p < 0.05). Higher nocturnal norepinephrine excretion correlated with higher sleep motor activity. CONCLUSION: The 24-h epinephrine values were slightly higher than normal throughout the experiment, but lower than for subjects working under time-stress. High sympathetic activity (as indicated by norepinephrine) may have interfered with sleep.

  4. Sleep Deprivation Reveals Altered Brain Perfusion Patterns in Somnambulism

    PubMed Central

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Zadra, Antonio; Labelle, Marc-Antoine; Petit, Dominique; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite its high prevalence, relatively little is known about the pathophysiology of somnambulism. Increasing evidence indicates that somnambulism is associated with functional abnormalities during wakefulness and that sleep deprivation constitutes an important drive that facilitates sleepwalking in predisposed patients. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms associated with somnambulism using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-Ethylene Cysteinate Dimer (ECD), during wakefulness and after sleep deprivation. Methods Ten adult sleepwalkers and twelve controls with normal sleep were scanned using 99mTc-ECD SPECT in morning wakefulness after a full night of sleep. Eight of the sleepwalkers and nine of the controls were also scanned during wakefulness after a night of total sleep deprivation. Between-group comparisons of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were performed to characterize brain activity patterns during wakefulness in sleepwalkers. Results During wakefulness following a night of total sleep deprivation, rCBF was decreased bilaterally in the inferior temporal gyrus in sleepwalkers compared to controls. Conclusions Functional neural abnormalities can be observed during wakefulness in somnambulism, particularly after sleep deprivation and in the inferior temporal cortex. Sleep deprivation thus not only facilitates the occurrence of sleepwalking episodes, but also uncovers patterns of neural dysfunction that characterize sleepwalkers during wakefulness. PMID:26241047

  5. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages.

    PubMed

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that-in comparison with real data-the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed. PMID:26931582

  6. Effects of Macrophage Depletion on Sleep in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ames, Conner; Boland, Erin; Szentirmai, Éva

    2016-01-01

    The reciprocal interaction between the immune system and sleep regulation has been widely acknowledged but the cellular mechanisms that underpin this interaction are not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of macrophages in sleep loss- and cold exposure-induced sleep and body temperature responses. Macrophage apoptosis was induced in mice by systemic injection of clodronate-containing liposomes (CCL). We report that CCL treatment induced an immediate and transient increase in non-rapid-eye movement sleep (NREMS) and fever accompanied by decrease in rapid-eye movement sleep, motor activity and NREMS delta power. Chronically macrophage-depleted mice had attenuated NREMS rebound after sleep deprivation compared to normal mice. Cold-induced increase in wakefulness and decrease in NREMS, rapid-eye movement sleep and body temperature were significantly enhanced in macrophage-depleted mice indicating increased cold sensitivity. These findings provide further evidence for the reciprocal interaction among the immune system, sleep and metabolism, and identify macrophages as one of the key cellular elements in this interplay. PMID:27442442

  7. Effects of Macrophage Depletion on Sleep in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Conner; Boland, Erin; Szentirmai, Éva

    2016-01-01

    The reciprocal interaction between the immune system and sleep regulation has been widely acknowledged but the cellular mechanisms that underpin this interaction are not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of macrophages in sleep loss- and cold exposure-induced sleep and body temperature responses. Macrophage apoptosis was induced in mice by systemic injection of clodronate-containing liposomes (CCL). We report that CCL treatment induced an immediate and transient increase in non-rapid-eye movement sleep (NREMS) and fever accompanied by decrease in rapid-eye movement sleep, motor activity and NREMS delta power. Chronically macrophage-depleted mice had attenuated NREMS rebound after sleep deprivation compared to normal mice. Cold-induced increase in wakefulness and decrease in NREMS, rapid-eye movement sleep and body temperature were significantly enhanced in macrophage-depleted mice indicating increased cold sensitivity. These findings provide further evidence for the reciprocal interaction among the immune system, sleep and metabolism, and identify macrophages as one of the key cellular elements in this interplay. PMID:27442442

  8. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. PMID:26600106

  9. The underlying interactome of childhood obesity: the potential role of sleep.

    PubMed

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2012-02-01

    Fine-tuning and integration between social rhythms and biological rhythms should be a priority for all, especially for children. As such, the opportunity to sleep should fit the evolving needs for sleep in a child. Unfortunately, children today are highly unlikely to obtain sufficient sleep or live under stable and regular schedules. Poor or dysregulated sleep affects the regulation of homeostatic and hormonal systems underlying somatic and intellectual growth, maturation, and bioenergetics. Therefore, in the prevention and management of childhood obesity, assessments of the “obesogenic” lifestyle, such as dietary and physical activity patterns, need to be coupled with accurate evaluation of the quality and quantity of sleep and with the potential co-existence of sleep-disordered breathing or other sleep disorders. Incorporation of sleep as an integral component of many childhood research studies on obesity should be done a priori rather than as an afterthought. Although parents and health professionals have meticulously delineated,observed, and quantified normal patterns of activities such as eating or playing, the absence of reliable sleep health data in children is all the more puzzling considering that young children engage in sleeping activities more than in any other activity during the 24-hour cycle. Therefore, the most forgotten, overlooked, or even actively ignored behavior of this century is undoubtedly childhood sleep. Trends aiming to reduce sleep in children have emerged, and regrettably continue to gain momentum. In parallel with such undesirable consequences, leading to the blatant disregard of sleep as a vital function rather than a commodity, a reciprocal increase in obesity rates has emerged. The mechanistic links between sleep and metabolism are now emerging, and should prompt incorporation of measures aiming to align sleep with any other antiobesity campaign. To paraphrase a well-known dictum “Somni sano in corpore sano” (healthy sleep

  10. The impact of prolonged violent video-gaming on adolescent sleep: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel L; Gradisar, Michael; Drummond, Aaron; Lovato, Nicole; Wessel, Jason; Micic, Gorica; Douglas, Paul; Delfabbro, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Video-gaming is an increasingly prevalent activity among children and adolescents that is known to influence several areas of emotional, cognitive and behavioural functioning. Currently there is insufficient experimental evidence about how extended video-game play may affect adolescents' sleep. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term impact of adolescents' prolonged exposure to violent video-gaming on sleep. Seventeen male adolescents (mean age = 16 ± 1 years) with no current sleep difficulties played a novel, fast-paced, violent video-game (50 or 150 min) before their usual bedtime on two different testing nights in a sleep laboratory. Objective (polysomnography-measured sleep and heart rate) and subjective (single-night sleep diary) measures were obtained to assess the arousing effects of prolonged gaming. Compared with regular gaming, prolonged gaming produced decreases in objective sleep efficiency (by 7 ± 2%, falling below 85%) and total sleep time (by 27 ± 12 min) that was contributed by a near-moderate reduction in rapid eye movement sleep (Cohen's d = 0.48). Subjective sleep-onset latency significantly increased by 17 ± 8 min, and there was a moderate reduction in self-reported sleep quality after prolonged gaming (Cohen's d = 0.53). Heart rate did not differ significantly between video-gaming conditions during pre-sleep game-play or the sleep-onset phase. Results provide evidence that prolonged video-gaming may cause clinically significant disruption to adolescent sleep, even when sleep after video-gaming is initiated at normal bedtime. However, physiological arousal may not necessarily be the mechanism by which technology use affects sleep. PMID:23137332

  11. FTO Obesity Variant Circuitry and Adipocyte Browning in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Claussnitzer, Melina; Dankel, Simon N.; Kim, Kyoung-Han; Quon, Gerald; Meuleman, Wouter; Haugen, Christine; Glunk, Viktoria; Sousa, Isabel S.; Beaudry, Jacqueline L.; Puviindran, Vijitha; Abdennur, Nezar A.; Liu, Jannel; Svensson, Per-Arne; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Drucker, Daniel J.; Mellgren, Gunnar; Hui, Chi-Chung; Hauner, Hans; Kellis, Manolis

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genomewide association studies can be used to identify disease-relevant genomic regions, but interpretation of the data is challenging. The FTO region harbors the strongest genetic association with obesity, yet the mechanistic basis of this association remains elusive. METHODS We examined epigenomic data, allelic activity, motif conservation, regulator expression, and gene coexpression patterns, with the aim of dissecting the regulatory circuitry and mechanistic basis of the association between the FTO region and obesity. We validated our predictions with the use of directed perturbations in samples from patients and from mice and with endogenous CRISPR–Cas9 genome editing in samples from patients. RESULTS Our data indicate that the FTO allele associated with obesity represses mitochondrial thermogenesis in adipocyte precursor cells in a tissue-autonomous manner. The rs1421085 T-to-C single-nucleotide variant disrupts a conserved motif for the ARID5B repressor, which leads to derepression of a potent preadipocyte enhancer and a doubling of IRX3 and IRX5 expression during early adipocyte differentiation. This results in a cell-autonomous developmental shift from energy-dissipating beige (brite) adipocytes to energy-storing white adipocytes, with a reduction in mitochondrial thermogenesis by a factor of 5, as well as an increase in lipid storage. Inhibition of Irx3 in adipose tissue in mice reduced body weight and increased energy dissipation without a change in physical activity or appetite. Knockdown of IRX3 or IRX5 in primary adipocytes from participants with the risk allele restored thermogenesis, increasing it by a factor of 7, and overexpression of these genes had the opposite effect in adipocytes from nonrisk-allele carriers. Repair of the ARID5B motif by CRISPR–Cas9 editing of rs1421085 in primary adipocytes from a patient with the risk allele restored IRX3 and IRX5 repression, activated browning expression programs, and restored thermogenesis

  12. Does obstructive sleep apnea worsen during REM sleep?

    PubMed

    Peregrim, I; Grešová, S; Pallayová, M; Fulton, B L; Štimmelová, J; Bačová, I; Mikuľaková, A; Tomori, Z; Donič, V

    2013-01-01

    Although it is thought that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is worse during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep than in non-REM (NREM) sleep there are some uncertainties, especially about apnoe-hypopnoe-index (AHI). Several studies found no significant difference in AHI between both sleep stages. However, REM sleep is associated more with side sleeping compared to NREM sleep, which suggests that body position is a possible confounding factor. The main purpose of this study was to compare the AHI in REM and NREM sleep in both supine and lateral body position. A retrospective study was performed on 422 consecutive patients who underwent an overnight polysomnography. Women had higher AHI in REM sleep than NREM sleep in both supine (46.05+/-26.26 vs. 23.91+/-30.96, P<0.01) and lateral (18.16+/-27.68 vs. 11.30+/-21.09, P<0.01) body position. Men had higher AHI in REM sleep than NREM sleep in lateral body position (28.94+/-28.44 vs. 23.58+/-27.31, P<0.01), however, they did not reach statistical significance in supine position (49.12+/-32.03 in REM sleep vs. 45.78+/-34.02 in NREM sleep, P=0.50). In conclusion, our data suggest that REM sleep is a contributing factor for OSA in women as well as in men, at least in lateral position. PMID:24020811

  13. Shining evolutionary light on human sleep and sleep disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L.; Samson, David R.; Krystal, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep—i.e. ‘why’ sleep evolved—remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalian sleep to better understand sleep along the human lineage and in the modern world. Compared to other primates, sleep in great apes has undergone substantial evolutionary change, with all great apes building a sleeping platform or ‘nest’. Further evolutionary change characterizes human sleep, with humans having the shortest sleep duration, yet the highest proportion of rapid eye movement sleep among primates. These changes likely reflect that our ancestors experienced fitness benefits from being active for a greater portion of the 24-h cycle than other primates, potentially related to advantages arising from learning, socializing and defending against predators and hostile conspecifics. Perspectives from evolutionary medicine have implications for understanding sleep disorders; we consider these perspectives in the context of insomnia, narcolepsy, seasonal affective disorder, circadian rhythm disorders and sleep apnea. We also identify how human sleep today differs from sleep through most of human evolution, and the implications of these changes for global health and health disparities. More generally, our review highlights the importance of phylogenetic comparisons in understanding human health, including well-known links between sleep, cognitive performance and health in humans. PMID:27470330

  14. (Mis)Perception of Sleep in Insomnia: A puzzle and a resolution

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Tang, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Insomnia is prevalent, causing severe distress and impairment. This review focuses on illuminating the puzzling finding that many insomnia patients misperceive their sleep. They overestimate their sleep onset latency (SOL) and underestimate their total sleep time (TST), relative to objective measures. This tendency is ubiquitous (although not universal). Resolving this puzzle has clinical, theoretical, and public health importance. There are implications for assessment, definition, and treatment. Moreover, solving the puzzle creates an opportunity for "real world" applications of theories from clinical, perceptual, and social psychology as well as neuroscience. Herein we evaluate thirteen possible resolutions to the puzzle. Specifically, we consider the possible contribution, to misperception, of: (1) features inherent to the context of sleep (e.g., darkness); (2) the definition of sleep onset which may lack sensitivity for insomnia patients; (3) insomnia being an exaggerated sleep complaint; (4) psychological distress causing magnification; (5) a deficit in time estimation ability; (6) sleep being misperceived as wake; (7) worry and selective attention toward sleep-related threats; (8) a memory bias influenced by current symptoms and emotions, a confirmation bias/belief bias or a recall bias linked to the intensity/recency of symptoms; (9) heightened physiological arousal; (10) elevated cortical arousal; (11) the presence of brief awakenings; (12) a fault in neuronal circuitry; and (13) there being two insomnia subtypes (one with and one without misperception). The best supported resolutions were misperception of sleep as wake, worry, and brief awakenings. A deficit in time estimation ability was not supported. We conclude by proposing several integrative solutions. PMID:21967449

  15. Schizophrenia and cognitive dysmetria: a positron-emission tomography study of dysfunctional prefrontal-thalamic-cerebellar circuitry.

    PubMed Central

    Andreasen, N C; O'Leary, D S; Cizadlo, T; Arndt, S; Rezai, K; Ponto, L L; Watkins, G L; Hichwa, R D

    1996-01-01

    Patients suffering from schizophrenia display subtle cognitive abnormalities that may reflect a difficulty in rapidly coordinating the steps that occur in a variety of mental activities. Working interactively with the prefrontal cortex, the cerebellum may play a role in coordinating both motor and cognitive performance. This positron-emission tomography study suggests the presence of a prefrontal-thalamic-cerebellar network that is activated when normal subjects recall complex narrative material, but is dysfunctional in schizophrenic patients when they perform the same task. These results support a role for the cerebellum in cognitive functions and suggest that patients with schizophrenia may suffer from a "cognitive dysmetria" due to dysfunctional prefrontal-thalamic-cerebellar circuitry. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8790444

  16. Relationship between zolpidem concentrations and sleep parameters in pediatric burn patients.

    PubMed

    Stockmann, Chris; Gottschlich, Michele M; Healy, Daniel; Khoury, Jane C; Mayes, Theresa; Sherwin, Catherine M T; Spigarelli, Michael G; Kagan, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Zolpidem is a short-acting non-benzodiazepine hypnotic that is used to improve sleep architecture in patients with burn injuries. This study evaluated the relationship between zolpidem administration and sleep parameters in a cohort of children with severe burn injuries. Standard age-based zolpidem dosing practices were employed. Polysomnography data were recorded at 30-second intervals throughout the night. Serum concentrations of zolpidem were measured at 0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 8 hours after administration of the first dose. The relationship between zolpidem concentrations and sleep parameters was evaluated using Markov mixed-effects pharmacodynamic models. Ten children received two doses of zolpidem at 22:00 and 02:00 hours. The median total amount of sleep was 361.0 (interquartile range [IQR]: 299.0-418.5) minutes; approximately 65% of the normal reference value for an 8-hour period. Slow-wave and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep were also dramatically reduced (18-37% of normal). With two doses of zolpidem, stage 2 sleep was 99% of normal levels. Higher peak zolpidem concentrations were associated with increased stage 2 sleep (r = .54; P = .04). Despite this, a median of 120.0 (IQR: 99.5-143.5) transitions between nocturnal sleep stages were recorded, with a median of 55.5 (IQR: 36-75) night-time awakenings per patient. In pediatric burn patients, higher zolpidem serum concentrations were associated with restoration of stage 2 sleep to normal levels. Nonetheless, slow-wave and REM sleep were profoundly depressed with frequent transitions between sleep stages, suggesting that alternative hypnotic agents may be required to restore normal sleep architecture in severely burned children. PMID:25185933

  17. Sleep in the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Hintze, Jonathan P; Paruthi, Shalini

    2016-03-01

    This article provides an overview of common pediatric sleep disorders encountered in the neurology clinic, including restless legs syndrome, narcolepsy, parasomnias, sleep-related epilepsy, and sleep and headaches. An overview of each is provided, with an emphasis on accurate diagnosis and treatment. It is important in comprehensive neurologic care to also obtain a sleep history, because treating the underlying sleep condition may improve the neurologic disorder. PMID:26972036

  18. The Orbital Workshop Sleep Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This wide-angle view is of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) sleep compartment, located in the lower level of the OWS. Each crewman was assigned a small space for sleeping and zipped themselves into sleeping bags stretched against the wall. Because of the absence of gravity, sleeping comfort was achieved in any position relative to the spacecraft; body support was not necessary. Sleeping could be accommodated quite comfortably in a bag that held the body at a given place in Skylab.

  19. REM sleep abnormalities and psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, J A

    1994-01-01

    Since the 1950s, with the discovery of REM sleep and its relationship to dreaming, psychiatric sleep researchers have been interested in uncovering the complex relationship between disturbed sleep and psychiatric disorders. This paper reviews the alterations in REM sleep of relevance to psychiatry and indicates that continued developments in sleep research may assist in further understanding the neuropathophysiology of affective and other psychiatric illnesses. PMID:7803367

  20. Are You Sleep-Deprived? Learn More About Healthy Sleep | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sleep of Americans. These sleep disorders include: sleep apnea (a condition that causes pauses in breathing, shallow ... she can help you determine if you have sleep apnea or another sleep disorder. "As many as 30 ...