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Sample records for normal t-cell development

  1. T cell development in normal and thymopentin-treated nude mice.

    PubMed

    Ranges, G E; Goldstein, G; Boyse, E A; Schield, M P

    1982-10-01

    The extent and diversity of T cell differentiation in nude athymic mice are matters of dispute. In this study, we examined the splenic T cell population of pathogen-free and germ-free nu/nu mice, treated or not treated with the pentapeptide analogue of thymopoietin (TP-5), in terms of TL, Qa-1, and Lyt phenotypes. At all ages, 50-60% of nu/nu splenocytes, enriched for T lymphocytes by removal of sIg+ cells, expressed T markers, as compared with greater than 85% in normal mice. At 2 mo of age, all nu/nu splenic T cells expressed the surface phenotype TL+:Thy-1+:Ly-123. This is abnormal in two respects: first, because expression of TL is normally confined to thymocytes; and second, because there was no evidence of the usual diversification into the subsets Ly-1 and Ly-23. From 10 wk of age onwards, diversification into Ly subsets was evident in nu/nu spleen, although the usual predominance of Ly-1 over Ly-123 cells was not attained, and some TL+ cells persisted. Also, the ratio of Qa-1+ to Qa-1- cells rose progressively to as high as 4:1 at 4-6 mo, in contrast to the usual ratio of approximately 1:1, regardless of age. In the spleens of nu/nu mice treated with TP-5 from 5-8 weeks of age and tested 1 wk later, the proportion of T cells was raised, though not to normal levels, the number of TL+ cells was reduced, and there was diversification into Ly sets. PMID:6759606

  2. Recapitulation of normal and abnormal BioBreeding rat T cell development in adult thymus organ culture.

    PubMed

    Whalen, B J; Weiser, P; Marounek, J; Rossini, A A; Mordes, J P; Greiner, D L

    1999-04-01

    Congenitally lymphopenic diabetes-prone (DP) BioBreeding (BB) rats develop spontaneous T cell-dependent autoimmunity. Coisogenic diabetes-resistant (DR) BB rats are not lymphopenic and are free of spontaneous autoimmune disease, but become diabetic in response to depletion of RT6+ T cells. The basis for the predisposition to autoimmunity in BB rats is unknown. Abnormal T cell development in DP-BB rats can be detected intrathymically, and thymocytes from DR-BB rats adoptively transfer diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these T cell developmental abnormalities are not known. To study these processes, we established adult thymus organ cultures (ATOC). We report that cultured DR- and DP-BB rat thymi generate mature CD4 and CD8 single-positive cells with up-regulated TCRs. DR-BB rat cultures also generate T cells that express RT6. In contrast, DP-BB rat cultures generate fewer CD4+, CD8+, and RT6+ T cells. Analysis of the cells obtained from ATOC suggested that the failure of cultured DP-BB rat thymi to generate T cells with a mature phenotype is due in part to an increased rate of apoptosis. Consistent with this inference, we observed that addition of the general caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK substantially increases the number of both mature and immature T cells produced by DP-BB rat ATOC. We conclude that cultured DR-BB and DP-BB rat thymi, respectively, recapitulate the normal and abnormal T cell developmental kinetics and phenotypes observed in these animals in vivo. Such cultures should facilitate identification of the underlying pathological processes that lead to immune dysfunction and autoimmunity in BB rats. PMID:10201921

  3. T Cells Development Is Different between Thymus from Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetus at Different Gestational Stage

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yan; Wang, Junjun; Wang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Weizong; Lai, Changhua

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the development of T cells in intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) piglets at different gestational stages, and tentatively explore the relationship between T cells development and the Notch signaling pathway. A total of 18 crossbred (LandraceLarge white) primiparous sows were mated at similar weights and estruses and euthanized at d 60, 90 and 110 of gestation with six replicates for each time point. One IUGR and one normal fetus were picked from each litter. The T-cell subsets, mRNA expression of Delta-like1, Delta-like4, Jagged1, and Notch2 genes in the thymus were investigated. Compared to normal piglets, CD3+CD4?CD8+ cells in IUGR fetuses at d 90 was 0.13% lower (p<0.05). At d 110 of gestation CD8+ T cells in IUGR fetuses was 0.19% lower (p<0.05). The percentage of CD8+ T cells was 3.14% lower (p<0.05) of the total T cells in IUGR pigs at d 60. The abundance of Notch2 and Delta-like4 mRNA at d 110 was 20.93% higher and 0.77% (p<0.05) lower, and Delta-like1 mRNA at d 90 was 0.19% (p<0.05) higher compared to normal pigs. These results suggested that normal fetuses had a greater proportion of T-cell subsets at earlier gestation periods, and the Notch signaling pathway was likely partially responsible for these differences to some degree. PMID:25049796

  4. Fetal-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cell responses develop during normal human pregnancy and exhibit broad functional capacity.

    PubMed

    Lissauer, David; Piper, Karen; Goodyear, Oliver; Kilby, Mark D; Moss, Paul A H

    2012-07-15

    Tolerance of the semiallogeneic fetus presents a significant challenge to the maternal immune system during human pregnancy. T cells with specificity for fetal epitopes have been detected in women with a history of previous pregnancy, but it has been thought that such fetal-specific cells were generally deleted during pregnancy as a mechanism to maintain maternal tolerance of the fetus. We used MHC-peptide dextramer multimers containing an immunodominant peptide derived from HY to identify fetal-specific T cells in women who were pregnant with a male fetus. Fetal-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes were observed in half of all pregnancies and often became detectable from the first trimester. The fetal-specific immune response increased during pregnancy and persisted in the postnatal period. Fetal-specific cells demonstrated an effector memory phenotype and were broadly functional. They retained their ability to proliferate, secrete IFN-?, and lyse target cells following recognition of naturally processed peptide on male cells. These data show that the development of a fetal-specific adaptive cellular immune response is a normal consequence of human pregnancy and that unlike reports from some murine models, fetal-specific T cells are not deleted during human pregnancy. This has broad implications for study of the natural physiology of pregnancy and for the understanding of pregnancy-related complications. PMID:22685312

  5. Histone deacetylase 1 and 2 are essential for normal T-cell development and genomic stability in mice.

    PubMed

    Dovey, Oliver M; Foster, Charles T; Conte, Nathalie; Edwards, Sally A; Edwards, Jennifer M; Singh, Rajinder; Vassiliou, George; Bradley, Allan; Cowley, Shaun M

    2013-02-21

    Histone deacetylase 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2) regulate chromatin structure as the catalytic core of the Sin3A, NuRD and CoREST co-repressor complexes. To better understand the key pathways regulated by HDAC1/2 in the adaptive immune system and inform their exploitation as drug targets, we have generated mice with a T-cell specific deletion. Loss of either HDAC1 or HDAC2 alone has little effect, while dual inactivation results in a 5-fold reduction in thymocyte cellularity, accompanied by developmental arrest at the double-negative to double-positive transition. Transcriptome analysis revealed 892 misregulated genes in Hdac1/2 knock-out thymocytes, including down-regulation of LAT, Themis and Itk, key components of the T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway. Down-regulation of these genes suggests a model in which HDAC1/2 deficiency results in defective propagation of TCR signaling, thus blocking development. Furthermore, mice with reduced HDAC1/2 activity (Hdac1 deleted and a single Hdac2 allele) develop a lethal pathology by 3-months of age, caused by neoplastic transformation of immature T cells in the thymus. Tumor cells become aneuploid, express increased levels of c-Myc and show elevated levels of the DNA damage marker, ?H2AX. These data demonstrate a crucial role for HDAC1/2 in T-cell development and the maintenance of genomic stability. PMID:23287868

  6. Studying T Cell Development in Thymic Slices.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jenny O; Melichar, Heather J; Halkias, Joanna; Robey, Ellen A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, tissue slices have been adapted to study both mouse and human T cell development. Thymic slices combine and complement the strengths of existing organotypic culture systems to study thymocyte differentiation. Specifically, the thymic slice system allows for high throughput experiments and the ability to introduce homogenous developmental intermediate populations into an environment with a well-established cortex and medulla. These qualities make thymic slices a highly versatile and technically accessible model to study thymocyte development. Here we describe methods to prepare, embed, and slice thymic lobes to study T cell development in situ. PMID:26294404

  7. CD1a-autoreactive T cells are a normal component of the human ?? T cell repertoire

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Annemieke; Pea-Cruz, Victor; Cheng, Tan-Yun; Clark, Rachael A.; Van Rhijn, Ildiko; Moody, D. Branch

    2011-01-01

    CD1 activates T cells, but the functions and size of possible human T cell repertoires recognizing each of the CD1 antigen presenting molecules remain unknown. Using an experimental system that bypasses major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction and the requirement for defined antigens, we found that polyclonal T cells responded at higher rates to cells expressing CD1a compared to CD1b, CD1c or CD1d. Unlike invariant NKT cells, the CD1a-autoreactive repertoire contains diverse T cell receptors. Functionally, many CD1a-autoreactive T cells home to skin, where they produce interleukin 22 (IL-22) in response to CD1a on Langerhans cells. The strong and frequent responses among genetically diverse donors define CD1a-autoreactive cells as a normal part of the human T cell repertoire and CD1a as a target of TH22 cells. PMID:21037579

  8. MmuPV1 infection and tumor development of T cell-deficient mice is prevented by passively transferred hyperimmune sera from normal congenic mice immunized with MmuPV1 virus-like particles (VLPs).

    PubMed

    Joh, Joongho; Ghim, Shin-Je; Chilton, Paula M; Sundberg, John P; Park, Jino; Wilcher, Sarah A; Proctor, Mary L; Bennett Jenson, A

    2016-02-01

    Infection by mouse papillomavirus (PV), MmuPV1, of T cell-deficient, B6.Cg-Foxn1(nu)/J nude mice revealed that four, distinct squamous papilloma phenotypes developed simultaneously after infection of experimental mice. Papillomas appeared on the muzzle, vagina, and tail at or about day 42days post-inoculation. The dorsal skin developed papillomas and hair follicle tumors (trichoblastomas) as early as 26days after infection. Passive transfer of hyperimmune sera from normal congenic mice immunized with MmuPV1 virus-like particles (VLPs) to T cell-deficient strains of mice prevented infection by virions of experimental mice. This study provides further evidence that T cell deficiency is critical for tumor formation by MmuPV1 infection. PMID:26778691

  9. Encephalitogenic potential of myelin basic protein-specific T cells isolated from normal rhesus macaques.

    PubMed Central

    MeinL, E.; Hoch, R. M.; Dornmair, K.; de Waal Malefyt, R.; Bontrop, R. E.; Jonker, M.; Lassmann, H.; Hohlfeld, R.; Wekerle, H.; 't Hart, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific T cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and are targets of selective immunotherapies. However, autoantigen-specific T cells can also be isolated from healthy individuals. Their functional potential is unknown and obviously cannot be tested in humans. We approached this question in a closely related primate species, the rhesus monkey. CD4+ T cell lines specific for MBP were isolated from normal rhesus monkeys using the same primary limiting dilution technique that is now widely used to generate human autoreactive T cell clones in vitro. Three different epitopes were recognized by three rhesus T cell lines isolated from three different monkeys. Upon activation, all lines produced interferon-gamma, interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor but neither interleukin-4 nor transforming growth factor-beta. The MBP-specific T cells were injected intravenously without adjuvant into the nonirradiated autologous monkey. One of the three rhesus monkeys developed an encephalomyelitis with a pleocytosis in the spinal fluid and perivascular infiltrates in the leptomeninges, spinal nerve roots and cerebral cortex. The data demonstrate that the normal immune repertoire of a primate species contains MBP-specific CD4+ T cells that are able to induce an autoimmune encephalomyelitis upon transfer into the nonirradiated autologous recipient. Images Figure 3 PMID:9033260

  10. Genetic Tools to Study T Cell Development.

    PubMed

    Ciucci, Thomas; Vacchio, Melanie S; Bosselut, Rmy

    2016-01-01

    Genetics tools, and especially the ability to enforce, by transgenesis, or disrupt, by homologous recombination, gene expression in a cell-specific manner, have revolutionized the study of immunology and propelled the laboratory mouse as the main model to study immune responses. Perhaps more than any other aspect of immunology, the study of T cell development has benefited from these technologies. This brief chapter summarizes genetic tools specific to T cell development studies, focusing on mouse strains with lineage- and stage-specific expression of the Cre recombinase, or expressing unique antigen receptor specificities. It ends with a broader discussion of strategies to enforce ectopic lineage and stage-specific gene expression. PMID:26294396

  11. Human Peripheral CD4+ V?1+ ??T Cells Can Develop into ??T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Hendrik; Welker, Christian; Sterk, Marco; Haarer, Jan; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Handgretinger, Rupert; Schilbach, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The lifelong generation of ??T cells enables us to continuously build immunity against pathogens and malignancies despite the loss of thymic function with age. Homeostatic proliferation of post-thymic nave and memory T cells and their transition into effector and long-lived memory cells balance the decreasing output of nave T cells, and recent research suggests that also ??T-cell development independent from the thymus may occur. However, the sites and mechanisms of extrathymic T-cell development are not yet understood in detail. ??T cells represent a small fraction of the overall T-cell pool, and are endowed with tremendous phenotypic and functional plasticity. ??T cells that express the V?1 gene segment are a minor population in human peripheral blood but predominate in epithelial (and inflamed) tissues. Here, we characterize a CD4+ peripheral V?1+ ??T-cell subpopulation that expresses stem-cell and progenitor markers and is able to develop into functional ??T cells ex vivo in a simple culture system and in vivo. The route taken by this process resembles thymic T-cell development. However, it involves the re-organization of the V?1+ ??TCR into the ??TCR as a consequence of TCR-? chain downregulation and the expression of surface V?1+V?+ TCR components, which we believe function as surrogate pre-TCR. This transdifferentiation process is readily detectable in vivo in inflamed tissue. Our study provides a conceptual framework for extrathymic T-cell development and opens up a new vista in immunology that requires adaptive immune responses in infection, autoimmunity, and cancer to be reconsidered. PMID:25709606

  12. ?? T Cell-Dependent Regulatory T Cells Prevent the Development of Autoimmune Keratitis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yafei; Yang, Zhifang; Huang, Chunjian; McGowan, Jessica; Casper, Tamara; Sun, Deming; Born, Willi K; O'Brien, Rebecca L

    2015-12-15

    To prevent potentially damaging inflammatory responses, the eye actively promotes local immune tolerance via a variety of mechanisms. Owing to trauma, infection, or other ongoing autoimmunity, these mechanisms sometimes fail, and an autoimmune disorder may develop in the eye. In mice of the C57BL/10 (B10) background, autoimmune keratitis often develops spontaneously, particularly in the females. Its incidence is greatly elevated in the absence of ?? T cells, such that ?80% of female B10.TCR?(-/-) mice develop keratitis by 18 wk of age. In this article, we show that CD8(+) ?? T cells are the drivers of this disease, because adoptive transfer of CD8(+), but not CD4(+), T cells to keratitis-resistant B10.TCR?/?(-/-) hosts induced a high incidence of keratitis. This finding was unexpected because in other autoimmune diseases, more often CD4(+) ?? T cells, or both CD4(+) and CD8(+) ?? T cells, mediate the disease. Compared with wild-type B10 mice, B10.TCR?(-/-) mice also show increased percentages of peripheral memory phenotype CD8(+) ?? T cells, along with an elevated frequency of CD8(+) ?? T cells biased to produce inflammatory cytokines. In addition, B10.TCR?-/- mice have fewer peripheral CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) ?? regulatory T cells (Tregs), which express lower levels of receptors needed for Treg development and function. Together, these observations suggest that in B10 background mice, ?? T cells are required to generate adequate numbers of CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) Tregs, and that in B10.TCR?(-/-) mice a Treg deficiency allows dysregulated effector or memory CD8(+) ?? T cells to infiltrate the cornea and provoke an autoimmune attack. PMID:26566677

  13. Harnessing CD4+ T cell responses in HIV vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Streeck, Hendrik; DSouza, M Patricia; Littman, Dan R; Crotty, Shane

    2013-01-01

    CD4+ T cells can perform a panoply of tasks to shape an effective response against a pathogen. Limited attention has been paid to the potential importance of functional CD4+ T cell responses in the context of the development of next-generation vaccines, including HIV vaccines. Many CD4+ T cell functions are newly appreciated and only partially understood. A workshop was held as a forum to bring together a small group of experts to exchange ideas on the role of CD4+ T cells in developing durable functional antibody responses, via follicular helper T cells, as well as on the roles of CD4+ T cells in other aspects of protective immunity. Here we discuss whether CD4+ T cell responses may represent a beneficial component of an efficacious HIV vaccine. PMID:23389614

  14. Regulation of Mu Opioid Receptor Expression in Developing T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lily; Belkowski, Judith Sliker; Briscoe, Tammi; Rogers, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that functionally active ?-opioid receptors (MOR) are constitutively expressed at relatively low levels by developing T cells in the thymus. However, very little is known about the regulation of MOR expression by immature T cells. In this report, we first attempted to determine the effect of T cell receptor-induced T cell activation on the expression of MOR. We activated T cells with either the combination of anti-CD3 and CD28, or with superantigen, and observed a substantial increase in MOR transcript expression. We also chose to examine the effect of cytokine-mediated T cell activation on the expression of this opioid receptor. We selected certain cytokines that play a role in T cell development and are known to be present at functional levels in the thymus gland. Our results show that interferon ? (IFN?), IL-1?, and IL-2, and in particular transforming growth factor-? (TGF?), all induced significant increases in MOR transcript expression. On the other hand, both TNF? and IL-7 exhibited much weaker effects on MOR expression. These results show that MOR expression by developing T cells is strongly regulated by several cytokines involved in T cell development in the thymus gland. PMID:22926418

  15. Thymic stromal cell subsets for T cell development.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Takeshi; Suzuki, Harumi

    2016-03-01

    The thymus provides a specialized microenvironment in which a variety of stromal cells of both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic origin regulate development and repertoire selection of T cells. Recent studies have been unraveling the inter- and intracellular signals and transcriptional networks for spatiotemporal regulation of development of thymic stromal cells, mainly thymic epithelial cells (TECs), and the molecular mechanisms of how different TEC subsets control T cell development and selection. TECs are classified into two functionally different subsets: cortical TECs (cTECs) and medullary TECs (mTECs). cTECs induce positive selection of diverse and functionally distinct T cells by virtue of unique antigen-processing systems, while mTECs are essential for establishing T cell tolerance via ectopic expression of peripheral tissue-restricted antigens and cooperation with dendritic cells. In addition to reviewing the role of the thymic stroma in conventional T cell development, we will discuss recently discovered novel functions of TECs in the development of unconventional T cells, such as natural killer T cells and γδT cells. PMID:26825337

  16. Asymmetric cell division during T cell development controls downstream fate

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Kim; Shimoni, Raz; Charnley, Mirren; Ludford-Menting, Mandy J.; Hawkins, Edwin D.; Ramsbottom, Kelly; Oliaro, Jane; Izon, David; Ting, Stephen B.; Reynolds, Joseph; Lythe, Grant; Molina-Paris, Carmen; Melichar, Heather; Robey, Ellen; Humbert, Patrick O.; Gu, Min

    2015-01-01

    During mammalian T cell development, the requirement for expansion of many individual T cell clones, rather than merely expansion of the entire T cell population, suggests a possible role for asymmetric cell division (ACD). We show that ACD of developing T cells controls cell fate through differential inheritance of cell fate determinants Numb and α-Adaptin. ACD occurs specifically during the β-selection stage of T cell development, and subsequent divisions are predominantly symmetric. ACD is controlled by interaction with stromal cells and chemokine receptor signaling and uses a conserved network of polarity regulators. The disruption of polarity by deletion of the polarity regulator, Scribble, or the altered inheritance of fate determinants impacts subsequent fate decisions to influence the numbers of DN4 cells arising after the β-selection checkpoint. These findings indicate that ACD enables the thymic microenvironment to orchestrate fate decisions related to differentiation and self-renewal. PMID:26370500

  17. Asymmetric cell division during T cell development controls downstream fate.

    PubMed

    Pham, Kim; Shimoni, Raz; Charnley, Mirren; Ludford-Menting, Mandy J; Hawkins, Edwin D; Ramsbottom, Kelly; Oliaro, Jane; Izon, David; Ting, Stephen B; Reynolds, Joseph; Lythe, Grant; Molina-Paris, Carmen; Melichar, Heather; Robey, Ellen; Humbert, Patrick O; Gu, Min; Russell, Sarah M

    2015-09-14

    During mammalian T cell development, the requirement for expansion of many individual T cell clones, rather than merely expansion of the entire T cell population, suggests a possible role for asymmetric cell division (ACD). We show that ACD of developing T cells controls cell fate through differential inheritance of cell fate determinants Numb and α-Adaptin. ACD occurs specifically during the β-selection stage of T cell development, and subsequent divisions are predominantly symmetric. ACD is controlled by interaction with stromal cells and chemokine receptor signaling and uses a conserved network of polarity regulators. The disruption of polarity by deletion of the polarity regulator, Scribble, or the altered inheritance of fate determinants impacts subsequent fate decisions to influence the numbers of DN4 cells arising after the β-selection checkpoint. These findings indicate that ACD enables the thymic microenvironment to orchestrate fate decisions related to differentiation and self-renewal. PMID:26370500

  18. Egr3 Induces a Th17 Response by Promoting the Development of ?? T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Rose M.; Collins, Samuel L.; Horton, Maureen R.; Powell, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor Early Growth Response 3 (Egr3) has been shown to play an important role in negatively regulating T cell activation and promoting T cell anergy in Th1 cells. However, its role in regulating other T helper subsets has yet to be described. We sought to determine the role of Egr3 in a Th17 response using transgenic mice that overexpress Egr3 in T cells (Egr3 TG). Splenocytes from Egr3 TG mice demonstrated more robust generation of Th17 cells even under non-Th17 skewing conditions. We found that while Egr3 TG T cells were not intrinsically more likely to become Th17 cells, the environment encountered by these cells was more conducive to Th17 development. Further analysis revealed a considerable increase in the number of ?? T cells in both the peripheral lymphoid organs and mucosal tissues of Egr3 TG mice, a cell type which normally accounts for only a small fraction of peripheral lymphocytes. Consistent with this marked increase in peripheral ?? T cells, thymocytes from Egr3 TG mice also appear biased toward ?? T cell development. Coculture of these Egr3-induced ?? T cells with wildtype CD4+ T cells increases Th17 differentiation, and Egr3 TG mice are more susceptible to bleomycin-induced lung inflammation. Overall our findings strengthen the role for Egr3 in promoting ?? T cell development and show that Egr3-induced ?? T cells are both functional and capable of altering the adaptive immune response in a Th17-biased manner. Our data also demonstrates that the role played by Egr3 in T cell activation and differentiation is more complex than previously thought. PMID:24475259

  19. Using the Zebrafish Model to Study T Cell Development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Wiest, David L

    2016-01-01

    While zebrafish have for some time been regarded as a powerful model organism with which to study early events in hematopoiesis, recent evidence suggests that it also ideal for unraveling the molecular requirements for T cell development in the thymus. Like mammals, zebrafish possess an adaptive immune system, comprising B lymphocytes as well as both the ?? and ?? lineages of T cells, which develop in the thymus. Moreover, the molecular processes underlying T cell development in zebrafish appear to be remarkably conserved. Thus, findings in the zebrafish model will be of high relevance to the equivalent processes in mammals. Finally, molecular processes can be interrogated in zebrafish far more rapidly than is possible in mammals because the zebrafish possesses many unique advantages. These unique attributes, and the methods by which they can be exploited to investigate the role of novel genes in T cell development, are described here. PMID:26294415

  20. Diltiazem inhibits transferrin receptor expression and causes G1 arrest in normal and neoplastic T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Neckers, L M; Bauer, S; McGlennen, R C; Trepel, J B; Rao, K; Greene, W C

    1986-01-01

    Transferrin receptor expression is essential for the proliferation of both normal and malignant T cells. While transferrin receptor expression in normal T cells is tightly coupled to interleukin-2 receptor expression, transferrin receptor expression in malignant cells is usually constitutive and is released from this constraint. Temporally, the appearance of these membrane receptors is preceded by changes in the expression of the proto-oncogenes c-myc and c-myb. In addition, although an increase in the level of intracellular free calcium occurs early in the sequence of T-cell activation, the activation events dependent on this calcium flux have not been resolved. In the present study we report that diltiazem, an ion channel-blocking agent that inhibits calcium influx, arrested the growth in vitro of both normal and malignant human T cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. However, diltiazem did not inhibit the expression of c-myc or interleukin-2 receptor mRNA and protein in normal mitogen-activated T cells or the constitutive expression of c-myc and c-myb mRNA in malignant T cells (T acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells). In contrast, diltiazem prevented the induction of transferrin receptor (mRNA and protein) in normal T cells and caused a progressive loss of transferrin receptor (mRNA and protein) in malignant T cells. These data demonstrate that diltiazem can dissociate several growth-related processes normally occurring in G1 and thereby disrupt the biochemical cascade leading to cell proliferation. Images PMID:2432398

  1. Development of invariant natural killer T cells.

    PubMed

    Gapin, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells develop into functionally distinct subsets. Each subset expresses a unique combination of transcription factors that regulate cytokine gene transcription upon activation. The tissue distribution and localization within tissues also varies between subsets. Importantly, the relative abundance of the various subsets is directly responsible for altering several immunological parameters, which subsequently affect the immune response. Here, I review recent advances in our understanding of the molecular regulation of iNKT cell subset development. PMID:26802287

  2. Adoptive transfer of syngeneic T cells transduced with a chimeric antigen receptor that recognizes murine CD19 can eradicate lymphoma and normal B cells.

    PubMed

    Kochenderfer, James N; Yu, Zhiya; Frasheri, Dorina; Restifo, Nicholas P; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2010-11-11

    Adoptive T-cell therapy with anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing T cells is a new approach for treating advanced B-cell malignancies. To evaluate anti-CD19-CAR-transduced T cells in a murine model of adoptive T-cell therapy, we developed a CAR that specifically recognized murine CD19. We used T cells that were retrovirally transduced with this CAR to treat mice bearing a syngeneic lymphoma that naturally expressed the self-antigen murine CD19. One infusion of anti-CD19-CAR-transduced T cells completely eliminated normal B cells from mice for at least 143 days. Anti-CD19-CAR-transduced T cells eradicated intraperitoneally injected lymphoma cells and large subcutaneous lymphoma masses. The antilymphoma efficacy of anti-CD19-CAR-transduced T cells was critically dependent on irradiation of mice before anti-CD19-CAR-transduced T-cell infusion. Anti-CD19-CAR-transduced T cells had superior antilymphoma efficacy compared with the anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody from which the anti-CD19 CAR was derived. Our results demonstrated impressive antilymphoma activity and profound destruction of normal B cells caused by anti-CD19-CAR-transduced T cells in a clinically relevant murine model. PMID:20631379

  3. Assessment of T Cell Development by Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jan Y M; Love, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    T cell development is a complex multistep process that requires the coordinated activation of distinct signaling responses and the regulated progression of developing cells (thymocytes) through key stages of maturation. Although sophisticated techniques such as fetal thymus organ culture, in vitro thymocyte culture, and multi-parameter flow cytometric analysis are now widely employed to evaluate thymocyte maturation by experienced laboratories, defects in T cell development can usually be identified with more simplified screening methods. Here, we provide a basic protocol for assessment of T cell development that will enable laboratories with access to a four parameter flow cytometer to screen mouse strains, including those generated from embryonic stem cells with targeted gene mutations, for thymocyte maturation defects. PMID:26294397

  4. Vitamin D receptor expression controls proliferation of nave CD8+ T cells and development of CD8 mediated gastrointestinal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D receptor (VDR) deficiency contributes to the development of experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in several different models. T cells have been shown to express the VDR, and T cells are targets of vitamin D. In this article we determined the effects of VDR expression on CD8+ T cells. Results VDR KO CD8+ T cells, but not WT CD8+ T cells, induced colitis in Rag KO recipients. In addition, co-transfer of VDR KO CD8+ T cells with nave CD4+ T cells accelerated colitis development. The more severe colitis was associated with rapidly proliferating nave VDR KO CD8+ T cells and increased IFN-? and IL-17 in the gut. VDR KO CD8+ T cells proliferated in vitro without antigen stimulation and did not downregulate CD62L and upregulate CD44 markers following proliferation that normally occurred in WT CD8+ T cells. The increased proliferation of VDR KO CD8+ cells was due in part to the higher production and response of the VDR KO cells to IL-2. Conclusions Our data indicate that expression of the VDR is required to prevent replication of quiescent CD8+ T cells. The inability to signal through the VDR resulted in the generation of pathogenic CD8+ T cells from rapidly proliferating cells that contributed to the development of IBD. PMID:24502291

  5. The serine kinase phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) regulates T cell development.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Heather J; Alessi, Dario R; Cantrell, Doreen A

    2004-05-01

    T lymphocyte activation is associated with activation of diverse AGC serine kinases (named after family members protein kinase A, protein kinase G and protein kinase C). It has been difficult to assess the function of these molecules in T cell development with simple gene-deletion strategies because different isoforms of AGC kinases are coexpressed in the thymus and have overlapping, redundant functions. To circumvent these problems, we explored the consequences of genetic manipulation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), a rate-limiting 'upstream' activator of AGC kinases. Here we analyzed the effect of PDK1 deletion on T lineage development. We also assessed the consequences of reducing PDK1 levels to 10% of normal. Complete PDK1 loss blocked T cell differentiation in the thymus, whereas reduced PDK1 expression allowed T cell differentiation but blocked proliferative expansion. These studies show that AGC family kinases are essential for T cell development. PMID:15077109

  6. Telomerase regulation during entry into the cell cycle in normal human T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Buchkovich, K J; Greider, C W

    1996-01-01

    Telomerase activity is involved in telomere length maintenance. Leukocytes, unlike many human somatic tissues, have detectable telomerase activity. These cells provide a normal human cell type in which to study telomerase. We studied the regulation of telomerase activity and the telomerase RNA component as leukocytes were stimulated to enter the cell cycle. In primary human leukocytes stimulated with phytohemagglutinin, telomerase activity increased > 10-fold as naturally quiescent cells entered the cell cycle. Antibodies to the T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex and the costimulatory CD28 receptor induced telomerase activity in a T cell-enriched population of cells. Rapamycin, an immunosuppressant that blocks TCR/CD3 signal transduction pathways and cdk2 activation, blocked telomerase induction. Hydroxyurea, an inhibitor of S phase, did not block cdk2 kinase activity or telomerase activation. In summary, telomerase is regulated in G1 phase as normal human T cells enter the cell cycle. Images PMID:8885238

  7. Telomerase regulation during entry into the cell cycle in normal human T cells.

    PubMed

    Buchkovich, K J; Greider, C W

    1996-09-01

    Telomerase activity is involved in telomere length maintenance. Leukocytes, unlike many human somatic tissues, have detectable telomerase activity. These cells provide a normal human cell type in which to study telomerase. We studied the regulation of telomerase activity and the telomerase RNA component as leukocytes were stimulated to enter the cell cycle. In primary human leukocytes stimulated with phytohemagglutinin, telomerase activity increased > 10-fold as naturally quiescent cells entered the cell cycle. Antibodies to the T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex and the costimulatory CD28 receptor induced telomerase activity in a T cell-enriched population of cells. Rapamycin, an immunosuppressant that blocks TCR/CD3 signal transduction pathways and cdk2 activation, blocked telomerase induction. Hydroxyurea, an inhibitor of S phase, did not block cdk2 kinase activity or telomerase activation. In summary, telomerase is regulated in G1 phase as normal human T cells enter the cell cycle. PMID:8885238

  8. Normalizing glycosphingolipids restores function in CD4+ T cells from lupus patients.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Georgia; Deepak, Shantal; Miguel, Laura; Hall, Cleo J; Isenberg, David A; Magee, Anthony I; Butters, Terry; Jury, Elizabeth C

    2014-02-01

    Patients with the autoimmune rheumatic disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have multiple defects in lymphocyte signaling and function that contribute to disease pathogenesis. Such defects could be attributed to alterations in metabolic processes, including abnormal control of lipid biosynthesis pathways. Here, we reveal that CD4+ T cells from SLE patients displayed an altered profile of lipid raft-associated glycosphingolipids (GSLs) compared with that of healthy controls. In particular, lactosylceramide, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), and monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) levels were markedly increased. Elevated GSLs in SLE patients were associated with increased expression of liver X receptor ? (LXR?), a nuclear receptor that controls cellular lipid metabolism and trafficking and influences acquired immune responses. Stimulation of CD4+ T cells isolated from healthy donors with synthetic and endogenous LXR agonists promoted GSL expression, which was blocked by an LXR antagonist. Increased GSL expression in CD4+ T cells was associated with intracellular accumulation and accelerated trafficking of GSL, reminiscent of cells from patients with glycolipid storage diseases. Inhibition of GSL biosynthesis in vitro with a clinically approved inhibitor (N-butyldeoxynojirimycin) normalized GSL metabolism, corrected CD4+ T cell signaling and functional defects, and decreased anti-dsDNA antibody production by autologous B cells in SLE patients. Our data demonstrate that lipid metabolism defects contribute to SLE pathogenesis and suggest that targeting GSL biosynthesis restores T cell function in SLE. PMID:24463447

  9. T-cell accumulation and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted upregulation in adipose tissue in obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation, which includes increased macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue (AT) and upregulation of chemokines and cytokines. T cells also play important roles in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis but have not been well studied in obesity....

  10. Innate Memory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Stephen C.; Lee, You Jeong; Hogquist, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Memory T cells are usually considered to be a feature of a successful immune response against a foreign antigen, and such cells can mediate potent immunity. However, in mice, alternative pathways have been described, through which naïve T cells can acquire the characteristics and functions of memory T cells without encountering specific foreign antigen or the typical signals required for conventional T cell differentiation. Such cells reflect a response to the internal rather the external environment, and hence such cells are called innate memory T cells. In this review, we describe how innate memory subsets were identified, the signals that induce their generation and their functional properties and potential role in the normal immune response. The existence of innate memory T cells in mice raises questions about whether parallel populations exist in humans, and we discuss the evidence for such populations during human T cell development and differentiation. PMID:25727290

  11. T cell development and function in CrkL-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Amy C; Marks, Reinhard E; Fields, Patrick E; Imamoto, Akira; Gajewski, Thomas F

    2003-10-01

    The adapter protein CrkL has been implicated in multiple signal transduction pathways in hematopoietic cells. In T lymphocytes, the recruitment of CrkL-C3G complexes has been correlated with hyporesponsiveness, implicating CrkL as a potential negative regulator. To test this hypothesis we examined T cell activation in CrkL-deficient mice. The CrkL(-/-) genotype was partially embryonic lethal. In viable CrkL(-/-) mice, peripheral blood counts were normal. The thymus from CrkL(-/-) mice had 40% fewer cells compared to littermates, but the proportion of thymocyte subsets was comparable. There was no discernable alteration in T cell function as reflected by T cell numbers, expression of memory markers, IL-2 production, proliferation, and differentiation into Th1/Th2 phenotypes. Immunization induced comparable levels of IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies. Chimeric mice, generated by transfer of CrkL(-/-) fetal liver cells into irradiated RAG2(-/-) recipients, also showed normal T cell function, arguing against selection via partial embryonic lethality. Our results indicate that CrkL is not absolutely required for T cell development or function, and argue against it being an essential component of a negative regulatory pathway in TCR signaling. PMID:14515252

  12. Development and function of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan Min; Ghali, Joanna; Zhang, Geoff Yu; Hu, Min; Wang, Ya; Sawyer, Andrew; Zhou, Jimmy Jianheng; Hapudeniya, Dhanushka A; Wang, Yiping; Cao, Qi; Zheng, Guoping; Harris, David C; Alexander, Stephen I

    2016-02-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been recognized as having a major role in maintaining peripheral tolerance and preventing and limiting autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Tregs derive from the thymus and also develop peripherally. In this review, we discuss recent progress in our understanding of the basic mechanisms involved in Treg development and function in protecting against autoimmunity in the periphery, including thymic selection, peripheral induction and the many mechanisms of Treg suppression. Specifically in kidney disease, Tregs have been shown to play a role in limiting injury and may potentially have a therapeutic role. PMID:26461175

  13. The Effects of TLR Activation on T-Cell Development and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Bo; Sun, Tao; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Yang, Ying-Xiang; Yeo, Anthony E. T.

    2012-01-01

    Invading pathogens have unique molecular signatures that are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) resulting in either activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and/or costimulation of T cells inducing both innate and adaptive immunity. TLRs are also involved in T-cell development and can reprogram Treg cells to become helper cells. T cells consist of various subsets, that is, Th1, Th2, Th17, T follicular helper (Tfh), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), regulatory T cells (Treg) and these originate from thymic progenitor thymocytes. T-cell receptor (TCR) activation in distinct T-cell subsets with different TLRs results in differing outcomes, for example, activation of TLR4 expressed in T cells promotes suppressive function of regulatory T cells (Treg), while activation of TLR6 expressed in T cells abrogates Treg function. The current state of knowledge of regarding TLR-mediated T-cell development and differentiation is reviewed. PMID:22737174

  14. Statistical Physics of T-Cell Development and Pathogen Specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Košmrlj, Andrej; Kardar, Mehran; Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2013-04-01

    In addition to an innate immune system that battles pathogens in a nonspecific fashion, higher organisms, such as humans, possess an adaptive immune system to combat diverse (and evolving) microbial pathogens. Remarkably, the adaptive immune system mounts pathogen-specific responses, which can be recalled upon reinfection with the same pathogen. It is difficult to see how the adaptive immune system can be preprogrammed to respond specifically to a vast and unknown set of pathogens. Although major advances have been made in understanding pertinent molecular and cellular phenomena, the precise principles that govern many aspects of an immune response are largely unknown. We discuss complementary approaches from statistical mechanics and cell biology that can shed light on how key components of the adaptive immune system, T cells, develop to enable pathogen-specific responses against many diverse pathogens. The mechanistic understanding that emerges has implications for how host genetics may influence the development of T cells with differing responses to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

  15. Development of ?? T Cells, the Special-Force Soldiers of the Immune System.

    PubMed

    Wiest, David L

    2016-01-01

    While the functions of ?? T cells in host resistance to pathogen infection are understood in far more detail than those of ?? lineage T cells, ?? T cells perform critical, essential functions during immune responses that cannot be compensated by ?? T cells. Accordingly, it is essential to understand how the development of ?? T cells is controlled so that their generation and function might be manipulated in future for therapeutic benefit. This introductory chapter will cover the basic processes that underlie ?? T cell development in the thymus, as well as the current understanding of how they are controlled. PMID:26294395

  16. Developing T cell cancer immunotherapy in the dog with lymphoma.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Colleen M; Wilson-Robles, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapy is not a new concept for veterinary medicine; however, adoptive T cell therapy is a new area of research in humans and canines alike. In humans, T cell therapy has been used against many different tumor histologies, including lymphoma, melanoma, and colon cancer. Although in dogs this approach has currently only been applied to lymphoma, other tumor types are under investigation. There are many different strategies used to take advantage of cell-mediated antitumor properties of T cells. This review will discuss many of the current strategies used in both humans and canines in regards to adoptive T cell therapy. PMID:24936037

  17. Histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases in B- and T-cell development, physiology and malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Haery, Leila; Thompson, Ryan C.; Gilmore, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The development of B and T cells from hematopoietic precursors and the regulation of the functions of these immune cells are complex processes that involve highly regulated signaling pathways and transcriptional control. The signaling pathways and gene expression patterns that give rise to these developmental processes are coordinated, in part, by two opposing classes of broad-based enzymatic regulators: histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HATs and HDACs can modulate gene transcription by altering histone acetylation to modify chromatin structure, and by regulating the activity of non-histone substrates, including an array of immune-cell transcription factors. In addition to their role in normal B and T cells, dysregulation of HAT and HDAC activity is associated with a variety of B- and T-cell malignancies. In this review, we describe the roles of HATs and HDACs in normal B- and T-cell physiology, describe mutations and dysregulation of HATs and HDACs that are implicated lymphoma and leukemia, and discuss HAT and HDAC inhibitors that have been explored as treatment options for leukemias and lymphomas. PMID:26124919

  18. Metabolic Regulation of Regulatory T Cell Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Coe, David John; Kishore, Madhav; Marelli-Berg, Federica

    2014-01-01

    It is now well established that the effector T cell (Teff) response is regulated by a series of metabolic switches. Quiescent T cells predominantly require adenosine triphosphate-generating processes, whereas proliferating Teff require high metabolic flux through growth-promoting pathways, such as glycolysis. Pathways that control metabolism and immune cell function are intimately linked, and changes in cell metabolism at both the cell and system levels have been shown to enhance or suppress specific T cell effector functions. Furthermore, functionally distinct T cell subsets require distinct energetic and biosynthetic pathways to support their specific functional needs. In particular, naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Treg) are characterized by a unique metabolic signature distinct to that of conventional Teff cells. We here briefly review the signaling pathways that control Treg metabolism and how this metabolic phenotype integrates their differentiation and function. Ultimately, these metabolic features may provide new opportunities for the therapeutic modulation of unwanted immune responses. PMID:25477880

  19. Defect in recruiting effector memory CD8+ T-cells in malignant pleural effusions compared to normal pleural fluid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malignant pleural effusions (MPE) are a common and fatal complication in cancers including lung or breast cancers, or malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). MPE animal models and immunotherapy trials in MPM patients previously suggested defects of the cellular immunity in MPE. However only few observational studies of the immune response were done in MPM patients, using questionable control groups (transudate). Methods We compared T cell populations evaluated by flow cytometry from blood and pleural effusion of untreated patients with MPM (n?=?58), pleural metastasis of adenocarcinoma (n?=?30) or with benign pleural lesions associated with asbestos exposure (n?=?23). Blood and pleural fluid were also obtained from healthy subjects, providing normal values for T cell populations. Results Blood CD4+ or CD8+ T cells percentages were similar in all groups of patients or healthy subjects. Whereas pleural fluid from healthy controls contained mainly CD8+ T cells, benign or malignant pleural effusions included mainly CD4+ T cells. Effector memory T cells were the main T cell subpopulation in pleural fluid from healthy subjects. In contrast, there was a striking and selective recruitment of central memory CD4+ T cells in MPE, but not of effector cells CD8+ T cells or NK cells in the pleural fluid as one would expect in order to obtain an efficient immune response. Conclusions Comparing for the first time MPE to pleural fluid from healthy subjects, we found a local defect in recruiting effector CD8+ T cells, which may be involved in the escape of tumor cells from immune response. Further studies are needed to characterize which subtypes of effector CD8+ T cells are involved, opening prospects for cell therapy in MPE and MPM. PMID:23816056

  20. Bi-Allelic TCR? or ? Recombination Enhances T Cell Development but Is Dispensable for Antigen Responses and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Schuldt, Nathaniel J.; Auger, Jennifer L.; Hogquist, Kristin A.; Binstadt, Bryce A.

    2015-01-01

    Dual TCR?-expressing T cells outnumber dual TCR?-expressing cells by ~10:1. As a result, efforts to understand how dual TCR T cells impact immunity have focused on dual TCR? expression; dual TCR? expression remains understudied. We recently demonstrated, however, that dual TCR? expression accelerated disease in a TCR transgenic model of autoimmune arthritis through enhanced positive selection efficiency, indicating that dual TCR? expression, though rare, can impact thymic selection. Here we generated mice hemizygous for TCR?, TCR?, or both on the C57BL/6 background to investigate the impact bi-allelic TCR chain recombination has on T cell development, repertoire diversity, and autoimmunity. Lack of bi-allelic TCR? or TCR? recombination reduced ?? thymocyte development efficiency, and the absence of bi-allelic TCR? recombination promoted ?? T cell development. However, we observed no differences in the numbers of nave and expanded antigen-specific T cells between TCR?+/-?+/- and wildtype mice, and TCR repertoire analysis revealed only subtle differences in V? gene usage. Finally, the absence of dual TCR T cells did not impact induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis pathogenesis. Thus, despite more stringent allelic exclusion of TCR? relative to TCR?, bi-allelic TCR? expression can measurably impact thymocyte development and is necessary for maintaining normal ??/?? T cell proportions. PMID:26693713

  1. Transcriptional regulation of early T-cell development in the thymus.

    PubMed

    Seo, Wooseok; Taniuchi, Ichiro

    2016-03-01

    T-cell development occurs in multipotent progenitors arriving in the thymus, which provides a highly specialized microenvironment. Specification and sequential commitment processes to T cells begin in early thymic progenitors upon receiving thymus-specific environmental cues, resulting in the activation of the genetically programmed transcriptional cascade that includes turning on and off numerous transcription factors in a precise manner. Thus, early thymocyte differentiation has been an excellent model system to study cell differentiation processes. This review summarizes recent advances in our knowledge on thymic T-cell development from newly arrived multipotent T-cell progenitors to fully committed T-cell precursors, from the transcriptional regulation perspective. PMID:26763078

  2. Grb2 Is Important for T Cell Development, Th Cell Differentiation, and Induction of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Daniel; Lacher, Sonja M; Szumilas, Nadine; Sandrock, Lena; Ackermann, Jochen; Nitschke, Lars; Zinser, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    The small adaptor protein growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) modulates and integrates signals from receptors on cellular surfaces in inner signaling pathways. In murine T cells, Grb2 is crucial for amplification of TCR signaling. T cell-specific Grb2(fl/fl) Lckcre(tg) Grb2-deficient mice show reduced T cell numbers due to impaired negative and positive selection. In this study, we found that T cell numbers in Grb2(fl/fl) CD4cre(tg) mice were normal in the thymus and were only slightly affected in the periphery. Ex vivo analysis of CD4(+) Th cell populations revealed an increased amount of Th1 cells within the CD4(+) population of Grb2(fl/fl) CD4cre(tg) mice. Additionally, Grb2-deficient T cells showed a greater potential to differentiate into Th17 cells in vitro. To test whether these changes in Th cell differentiation potential rendered Grb2(fl/fl) CD4cre(tg) mice more prone to inflammatory diseases, we used the murine Th1 cell- and Th17 cell-driven model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In contrast to our expectations, Grb2(fl/fl) CD4cre(tg) mice developed a milder form of EAE. The impaired EAE disease can be explained by the reduced proliferation rate of Grb2-deficient CD4(+) T cells upon stimulation with IL-2 or upon activation by allogeneic dendritic cells, because the activation of T cells by dendritic cells and the subsequent T cell proliferation are known to be crucial factors for the induction of EAE. In summary, Grb2-deficient T cells show defects in T cell development, increased Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation capacities, and impaired proliferation after activation by dendritic cells, which likely reduce the clinical symptoms of EAE. PMID:26921310

  3. Canine CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive T cells can develop from CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Bismarck, Doris; Moore, Peter F; Alber, Gottfried; von Buttlar, Heiner

    2014-12-15

    For a long time the expression of the CD4 and CD8 receptor on peripheral blood T cells was thought to be mutually exclusive. However, in canine peripheral blood, similar to other species as swine or human for example, mature CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (dp) T cells exist which simultaneously express both surface receptors and have features of activated T cells. Canine CD4(+)CD8(+)dp T cells are heterogeneous and can be divided into three subpopulations by their intensity of CD4 and CD8? expression: CD4(bright)CD8?(bright), CD4(dim)CD8?(bright) and CD4(dim)CD8?(dim). The number of CD4(+)CD8?(+)dp T cells increases after in vitro stimulation of canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) raising the question of their progenitor(s). Thus, the aim of our study was to characterize the progenitor(s) of canine CD4(+)CD8?(+)dp T cells. By cell tracing experiments we identified both CD4(+) single-positive (sp) and also CD8?(+)sp T cells as progenitors of canine CD4(+)CD8?(+)dp T cells after in vitro stimulation. CD4(+)sp T cells almost exclusively upregulate a CD8?? homodimer, whereas CD8?(+)sp T cells can become CD4(+)CD8??(+) or CD4(+)CD8??(+). Even in the absence of other cells, highly purified CD4(+)sp T cells can become double-positive upon in vitro stimulation, whereas highly purified CD8?(+)sp T cells fail to do so. However, CD8?(+)sp T cells can additionally express CD4 when stimulated in the presence of CD4(-)CD8?(-) double-negative (dn) cells or more efficiently when stimulated in the presence of CD4(+)sp T cells. Soluble factors secreted by CD4(+)sp T cells are sufficient for the upregulation of CD4 on CD8?(+)sp T cells, but direct cell-cell contact between CD4(+)sp and CD8?(+)sp T cells is more efficient. mRNA analysis shows that additional CD4 expression on CD8?(+)sp T cells results from de novo synthesis. Thus, uptake of soluble CD4 or trogocytosis is less likely as mechanism for generation of canine double-positive T cells. CD4(+)CD8?(+)dp T cells are highly activated independent of their origin except when generated in coculture of CD8?(+)sp T cells with CD4(-)CD8?(-)dn cells. Overall, in dog, CD4(+)sp T cells are the more potent progenitors of CD4(+)CD8?(+)dp T cells compared to CD8?(+)sp T cells. PMID:25454082

  4. FOXP3+ regulatory T cell development and function require histone/protein deacetylase 3

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqing; Liu, Yujie; Han, Rongxiang; Beier, Ulf H.; Bhatti, Tricia R.; Akimova, Tatiana; Greene, Mark I.; Hiebert, Scott W.; Hancock, Wayne W.

    2015-01-01

    Treg dysfunction is associated with a variety of inflammatory diseases. Treg populations are defined by expression of the oligomeric transcription factor FOXP3 and inability to produce IL-2, a cytokine required for T cell maintenance and survival. FOXP3 activity is regulated post-translationally by histone/protein acetyltransferases and histone/protein deacetylases (HDACs). Here, we determined that HDAC3 mediates both the development and function of the two main Treg subsets, thymus-derived Tregs and induced Tregs (iTregs). We determined that HDAC3 and FOXP3 physically interact and that HDAC3 expression markedly reduces Il2 promoter activity. In murine models, conditional deletion of Hdac3 during thymic Treg development restored Treg production of IL-2 and blocked the suppressive function of Tregs. HDAC3-deficient mice died from autoimmunity by 46 weeks of age; however, injection of WT FOXP3+ Tregs prolonged survival. Adoptive transfer of Hdac3-deficient Tregs, unlike WT Tregs, did not control T cell proliferation in naive mice and did not prevent allograft rejection or colitis. HDAC3 also regulated the development of iTregs, as HDAC3-deficient conventional T cells were not converted into iTregs under polarizing conditions and produced large amounts of IL-2, IL-6, and IL-17. We conclude that HDAC3 is essential for the normal development and suppressive functions of thymic and peripheral FOXP3+ Tregs. PMID:25642770

  5. Regulation of early T cell development by the PHD finger of histone lysine methyltransferase ASH1

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Yujiro Nakayama, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Masaru; Kioussis, Dimitris

    2008-01-18

    We have previously isolated a mammalian homologue of Drosophila discsabsent, small, orhomeotic-1 (ash1) from the murine thymus, and recently shown that its SET domain methylates histone H3 lysine 36 (K36). Expression of ASH1 has been reported to be increased in NOD thymocytes in a BDC2.5 clonotype background, but its function in T cell development has remained elusive. Here we report that the ash1 gene is expressed at high levels in thymocytes of mice deficient for rag1 or tcra genes. ASH1 proteins are present at peri-nuclei and as nuclear speckles in thymocytes. Some of the nuclear ASH1 co-localize with RAG2. Expression of the evolutionarily conserved PHD finger of ASH1 impairs T cell development at the DP stage, and causes increased transcription from the HoxA9 promoter in vitro. Moreover, the C-terminal part of ASH1 interacts with HDAC1 repression complexes, suggesting that the PHD finger of ASH1 may be involved in down-regulation of genes for normal development of {alpha}{beta} T cells.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF NORMAL HUMAN LUNG LYMPHOCYTES AND INTERLEUKIN-2-INDUCED LUNG T CELL LINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lymphocytes from the lower respiratory tract were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of healthy, non-smoking individuals. arious monoclonal antibodies characterizing activated T cells, helper-inducer and suppressor-inducer T cell subsets, and naive versus memory cells were used t...

  7. The Tec kinases Itk and Rlk regulate conventional versus innate T-cell development

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Amanda L.; Yin, Catherine C.; Enos, Megan E.; Felices, Martin; Berg, Leslie J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Tec family kinases are important components of antigen receptor signaling pathways in B cells, T cells, and mast cells. In T cells, three members of this family, Itk, Rlk, and Tec, are expressed. In the absence of Itk and Rlk, T-cell receptor signaling is impaired, with defects in mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, Ca2+ mobilization, and actin polymerization. During T-cell development in the thymus, no role has been found for these kinases in the CD4+ versus CD8+ T-cell lineage decision; however, several studies indicate that Itk and Rlk contribute to the signaling leading to positive and negative selection. In addition, we and others have recently described an important role for Itk and Rlk in the development of conventional as opposed to innate CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Natural killer T and ?? T-cell populations are also altered in Itk- and Rlk/Itk-deficient mice. These findings strongly suggest that the strength of T-cell receptor signaling during development determines whether T cells mature into conventional versus innate lymphocyte lineages. This lineage decision is also influenced by signaling via SLAM (signaling lymphocytic activation molecule) family receptors. Here we discuss these two signaling pathways that each contribute to conventional versus innate T-cell lineage commitment. PMID:19290924

  8. MUC1 (CD227) interacts with lck tyrosine kinase in Jurkat lymphoma cells and normal T cells.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, P; Tinder, T L; Basu, G D; Gendler, S J

    2005-01-01

    MUC1 (CD227) is a large transmembrane epithelial mucin glycoprotein, which is aberrantly overexpressed in most adenocarcinomas and is a target for immune therapy for epithelial tumors. Recently, MUC1 has been detected in a variety of hematopoietic cell malignancies including T and B cell lymphomas and myelomas; however, its function in these cells is not clearly defined. Using the Jurkat T cell lymphoma cell line and normal human T cells, we demonstrate that MUC1 is not only expressed in these cells but is also phosphorylated upon T cell receptor (TCR) ligation and associates with the Src-related T cell tyrosine kinase, p56lck. Upon TCR-mediated activation of Jurkat cells, MUC1 is found in the low-density membrane fractions, where linker of T cell activation is contained. Abrogation of MUC1 expression in Jurkat cells by MUC1-specific small interfering RNA resulted in defects in TCR-mediated downstream signaling events associated with T cell activation. These include reduction in Ca2+ influx and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation, leading to a decrease in CD69 expression, proliferation, and interleukin-2 production. These results suggest a regulatory role of MUC1 in modulating proximal signal transduction events through its interaction with proteins of the activation complex. PMID:15513966

  9. Dysfunction of irradiated thymus for the development of helper T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amagai, T.; Kina, T.; Hirokawa, K.; Nishikawa, S.; Imanishi, J.; Katsura, Y.

    1987-07-15

    The development of cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells in an intact or irradiated thymus was investigated. C57BL/6 (H-2b, Thy-1.2) mice were whole body-irradiated, or were irradiated with shielding over either the thymus or right leg and tail, and were transferred with 1.5 X 10(7) bone marrow cells from B10.Thy-1.1 mice (H-2b, Thy-1.1). At various days after reconstitution, thymus cells from the recipient mice were harvested and a peanut agglutinin low-binding population was isolated. This population was further treated with anti-Thy-1.2 plus complement to remove host-derived cells and was assayed for the frequency of cytotoxic T cell precursors (CTLp) and for the activity of helper T cells (Th). In the thymus of thymus-shielded and irradiated mice, Th activity reached normal control level by day 25, whereas CTLp frequency remained at a very low level during these days. In the thymus of whole body-irradiated mice, generation of CTLp was highly accelerated while that of Th was retarded, the period required for reconstitution being 25 days and more than 42 days for CTLp and Th, respectively. Preferential development of CTLp was also seen in right leg- and tail-shielded (L-T-shielded) and irradiated recipients. Histological observation indicated that Ia+ nonlymphoid cells were well preserved in the thymus of thymus-shielded and irradiated recipients, whereas in L-T-shielded and irradiated recipients, such cells in the medulla were markedly reduced in number. These results suggest strongly that the generation of Th but not CTLp is dependent on radiosensitive thymic component(s), and that such components may represent Ia+ cells themselves in the medulla or some microenvironment related to Ia+ cells.

  10. Influence of time and number of antigen encounters on memory CD8 T cell development.

    PubMed

    Martin, Matthew D; Badovinac, Vladimir P

    2014-08-01

    CD8 T cells are an important part of the adaptive immune system providing protection against intracellular bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. After infection and/or vaccination, increased numbers of antigen-specific CD8 T cells remain as a memory population that is capable of responding and providing enhanced protection during reinfection. Experimental studies indicate that while memory CD8 T cells can be maintained for great lengths of time, their properties change with time after infection and/or vaccination. However, the full scope of these changes and what effects they have on memory CD8 T cell function remain unknown. In addition, memory CD8 T cells can encounter antigen multiple times through either reinfection or prime-boost vaccine strategies designed to increase numbers of protective memory CD8 T cells. Importantly, recent studies suggest that memory CD8 T cell development following infection and/or vaccination is influenced by the number of times they have encountered cognate antigen. Since protection offered by memory CD8 T cells in response to infection depends on both the numbers and quality (functional characteristics) at the time of pathogen re-encounter, a thorough understanding of how time and antigen stimulation history impacts memory CD8 T cell properties is critical for the design of vaccines aimed at establishing populations of long-lived, protective memory CD8 T cells. PMID:24825776

  11. Development and Function of Effector Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Teh, Peggy P; Vasanthakumar, Ajithkumar; Kallies, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Distinguishing self from nonself is a unique feature of the immune system. Although most self-reactive T cells are eliminated in the thymus, a few rogue cells escape the negative selection process and have the potential to mediate autoimmune disease. Over the last decade, there has been a vast improvement in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms that evolved to dampen the deleterious effects of these self-reactive T cells. In particular, T cells expressing the transcription factor FoxP3, known as regulatory T (Treg) cells, play a central role in maintaining immune homeostasis and suppressing autoimmune responses. In addition, Treg cells are endowed with the ability to suppress diverse inflammatory responses both in lymphoid and in nonlymphoid tissues. This requires Treg cells to undergo a peripheral differentiation and specialization program that results in the emergence of effector Treg (eTreg) cells that are characterized by their ability to produce high amounts of immunosuppressive molecules, including IL-10. This chapter discusses the recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms governing the differentiation, migration, and maintenance of eTreg cells, in particular in nonlymphoid tissues, in health and disease. PMID:26615096

  12. Development and characterization of Histoplasma capsulatum-reactive murine T-cell lines and clones.

    PubMed Central

    Deepe, G S; Smith, J G; Sonnenfeld, G; Denman, D; Bullock, W E

    1986-01-01

    Experimental studies have suggested that antigen-specific T lymphocytes are important mediators of resistance to infection with the pathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulation. To gain a better understanding of the role of T lymphocytes, we developed murine T-cell lines and clones that recognized Histoplasma antigens. These T cells were of the helper/inducer phenotype (Thy-1.2+ Lyt-1+ L3T4+ Lyt-2-) and exerted multiple immunological functions. T-cell lines and 12 clones proliferated vigorously in response to histoplasmin; the T-cell lines and 6 clones also were reactive with heterologous fungal antigens prepared from either Blastomyces dermatitidis or Coccidioides immitis. Recognition of antigen by T cells was H-2 restricted; in the absence of antigen, four clones demonstrated alloreactivity. All T-cell clones conferred local delayed-type hypersensitivity responses when injected with antigen into footpads of mice. Ten of 12 T-cell clones released interleukin-2 after stimulation with antigen, and all clones tested secreted interferon. Moreover, culture supernatants from antigen-stimulated clones armed peritoneal macrophages to inhibit intracellular growth of H. capsulatum yeast cells. All clones assayed exerted nonspecific help. Thus, development of T-cell clones should facilitate analysis of the regulatory properties of Histoplasma-specific T cells. PMID:2430887

  13. New perspective on dextran sodium sulfate colitis: antigen-specific T cell development during intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Mary E; Zheng, Bin; Koelink, Pim J; van de Kant, Hendrick J G; Haazen, Lizette C J M; van Roest, Manon; Garssen, Johan; Folkerts, Gert; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2013-01-01

    CD4+ T cell responses against oral antigens can develop in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, which may modulate disease. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis is commonly used to study IBD, however, it is not considered the best model in which to study T cell involvement in intestinal disease. Our aim was to determine if antigen-specific T cells could be induced during DSS colitis and if they could be detected after disease resolution. To induce antigen-specific T cells, the tracking antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), was administered orally during colitis initiation. Disease severity was monitored, and the antigen-reactivity of CD4+ T cells examined using CD69 expression. While OVA-directed, CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells could be detected in the spleens of both OVA-treated control and DSS mice, OVA-reactive, CD4+ Foxp3-T cells were only found in the OVA and DSS-treated mice. These results indicate that during DSS colitis T cells develop that are specific against oral antigens, and they are found systemically after colitis resolution. This gives added depth and utility to the DSS model as well as a way to track T cells that are primed against luminal antigens. PMID:23936123

  14. Development of a Sendai virus vector-based AIDS vaccine inducing T cell responses.

    PubMed

    Seki, Sayuri; Matano, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    Virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses play a major role in the control of HIV replication, and induction of HIV-specific T-cell responses is an important strategy for AIDS vaccine development. Optimization of the delivery system and immunogen would be the key for the development of an effective T cell-based AIDS vaccine. Heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimens using multiple viral vectors are a promising protocol for efficient induction of HIV-specific T-cell responses, and the development of a variety of potent viral vectors have been attempted. This review describes the current progress of the development of T cell-based AIDS vaccines using viral vectors, focusing on Sendai virus vectors, whose phase I clinical trials have been performed. PMID:26512881

  15. Immuno-miRs: critical regulators of T-cell development, function and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Teteloshvili, Nato; Smigielska-Czepiel, Katarzyna; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Boots, Anne Mieke H; van den Berg, Anke; Kluiver, Joost

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are instrumental to many aspects of immunity, including various levels of T-cell immunity. Over the last decade, crucial immune functions were shown to be regulated by specific miRNAs. These ‘immuno-miRs’ regulate generic cell biological processes in T cells, such as proliferation and apoptosis, as well as a number of T-cell-specific features that are fundamental to the development, differentiation and function of T cells. In this review, we give an overview of the current literature with respect to the role of miRNAs at various stages of T-cell development, maturation, differentiation, activation and ageing. Little is known about the involvement of miRNAs in thymic T-cell development, although miR-181a and miR-150 have been implicated herein. In contrast, several broadly expressed miRNAs including miR-21, miR-155 and miR-17∼92, have now been shown to regulate T-cell activation. Other miRNAs, including miR-146a, show a more T-cell-subset-specific expression pattern and are involved in the regulation of processes unique to that specific T-cell subset. Importantly, differences in the miRNA target gene repertoires of different T-cell subsets allow similar miRNAs to control different T-cell-subset-specific functions. Interestingly, several of the here described immuno-miRs have also been implicated in T-cell ageing and there are clear indications for causal involvement of miRNAs in immunosenescence. It is concluded that immuno-miRs have a dynamic regulatory role in many aspects of T-cell differentiation, activation, function and ageing. An important notion when studying miRNAs in relation to T-cell biology is that specific immuno-miRs may have quite unrelated functions in closely related T-cell subsets. PMID:25093579

  16. Metabolic control of regulatory T cell development and function

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hu; Chi, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) maintain immune tolerance and play an important role in immunological diseases and cancers. Recent studies have revealed an intricate relationship between Treg biology and host and microbial metabolism. Various metabolites or nutrients produced by host and commensal microbes, such as vitamins and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), regulate Treg generation, trafficking and function. Furthermore, cell-intrinsic metabolic programs, orchestrated by mTOR and other metabolic sensors, modulate Foxp3 induction and Treg suppressive activity. Conversely, Tregs are crucial in regulating obesity-associated inflammation and host metabolic balance, and shaping homeostasis of gut microbiota. This review discusses the interplay between Tregs and metabolism, with a particular focus on how host, commensal and cellular metabolism impinges upon Treg homeostasis and function. PMID:25248463

  17. Specificity for the tumor-associated self-antigen WT1 drives the development of fully functional memory T cells in the absence of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Pospori, Constandina; Xue, Shao-An; Holler, Angelika; Voisine, Cecile; Perro, Mario; King, Judith; Fallah-Arani, Farnaz; Flutter, Barry; Chakraverty, Ronjon; Stauss, Hans J; Morris, Emma C

    2011-06-23

    Recently, vaccines against the Wilms Tumor antigen 1 (WT1) have been tested in cancer patients. However, it is currently not known whether physiologic levels of WT1 expression in stem and progenitor cells of normal tissue result in the deletion or tolerance induction of WT1-specific T cells. Here, we used an human leukocyte antigen-transgenic murine model to study the fate of human leukocyte antigen class-I restricted, WT1-specific T cells in the thymus and in the periphery. Thymocytes expressing a WT1-specific T-cell receptor derived from high avidity human CD8 T cells were positively selected into the single-positive CD8 population. In the periphery, T cells specific for the WT1 antigen differentiated into CD44-high memory phenotype cells, whereas T cells specific for a non-self-viral antigen retained a CD44(low) naive phenotype. Only the WT1-specific T cells, but not the virus-specific T cells, displayed rapid antigen-specific effector function without prior vaccination. Despite long-term persistence of WT1-specific memory T cells, the animals did not develop autoimmunity, and the function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells was unimpaired. This is the first demonstration that specificity for a tumor-associated self-antigen may drive differentiation of functionally competent memory T cells. PMID:21447831

  18. Inhibition of BCL11B expression leads to apoptosis of malignant but not normal mature T cells.

    PubMed

    Grabarczyk, P; Przybylski, G K; Depke, M; Vlker, U; Bahr, J; Assmus, K; Brker, B M; Walther, R; Schmidt, C A

    2007-05-31

    The B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/lymphoma 11B gene (BCL11B) encodes a Krppel-like zinc-finger protein, which plays a crucial role in thymopoiesis and has been associated with hematopoietic malignancies. It was hypothesized that BCL11B may act as a tumor-suppressor gene, but its precise function has not yet been elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that the survival of human T-cell leukemia and lymphoma cell lines is critically dependent on Bcl11b. Suppression of Bcl11b by RNA interference selectively induced apoptosis in transformed T cells whereas normal mature T cells remained unaffected. The apoptosis was effected by simultaneous activation of death receptor-mediated and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, most likely as a result of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) upregulation and suppression of the Bcl-xL antiapoptotic protein. Our data indicate an antiapoptotic function of Bcl11b. The resistance of normal mature T lymphocytes to Bcl11b suppression-induced apoptosis and restricted expression pattern make it an attractive therapeutic target in T-cell malignancies. PMID:17173069

  19. Metabolic switching and fuel choice during T-cell differentiation and memory development

    PubMed Central

    van der Windt, Gerritje J.W.; Pearce, Erika L.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Clearance or control of pathogens or tumors usually requires T-cell-mediated immunity. As such, understanding the mechanisms that govern the function, maintenance, and persistence of T cells will likely lead to new treatments for controlling disease. During an immune response, T-cell development is marked by striking changes in metabolism. There is a growing appreciation that these metabolic changes underlie the capacity of T cells to perform particular functions, and this has led to a recent focus on the idea that the manipulation of cellular metabolism can be used to shape adaptive immune responses. Although interest in this area has grown in the last few years, a full understanding of the metabolic control of T-cell functions, particularly during an immune response in vivo, is still lacking. In this review, we first provide a basic overview of metabolism in T cells, and then we focus on recent studies providing new or updated insights into the regulation of metabolic pathways and how they underpin T-cell differentiation and memory T-cell development. PMID:22889213

  20. Antigen-independent memory CD8 T cells do not develop during chronic viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Wherry, E. John; Barber, Daniel L.; Kaech, Susan M.; Blattman, Joseph N.; Ahmed, Rafi

    2004-01-01

    Memory T cells can persist for extended periods in the absence of antigen, and long-term T cell immunity is often seen after acute infections. Paradoxically, there have been observations suggesting that T cell memory may be antigen-dependent during chronic infections. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms we have compared memory CD8 T cell differentiation during an acute versus chronic infection by using the mouse model of infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. We found that during a chronic infection virus-specific CD8 T cells failed to acquire the cardinal memory T cell property of long-term antigen-independent persistence. These chronically stimulated CD8 T cells were unable to undergo homeostatic proliferation, responded poorly to IL-7 and IL-15, and expressed reduced levels of the IL-7 and IL-15 receptors, thus providing a possible mechanism for the inability of these cells to persist long term in the absence of antigen. In striking contrast, virus-specific memory CD8 T cells that developed after an acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection could persist without antigen, were capable of self-renewal because of homeostatic proliferation, responded efficiently to IL-7 and IL-15, and expressed high levels of receptors for these two cytokines. Thus, memory CD8 T cells generated after acute infections are likely to have a competitive advantage over CD8 T cells that develop during chronic infections. These findings raise concerns about using vaccines that may persist and also suggest that there may be limitations and challenges in designing effective immunological interventions for the treatment of chronic infections and tumors. PMID:15505208

  1. Regulation of Lipid Signaling by Diacylglycerol Kinases during T Cell Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Sruti; Zhong, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid (PA) are bioactive lipids synthesized when the T cell receptor binds to a cognate peptide-MHC complex. DAG triggers signaling by recruiting Ras guanyl-releasing protein 1, PKCθ, and other effectors, whereas PA binds to effector molecules that include mechanistic target of rapamycin, Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1, and Raf1. While DAG-mediated pathways have been shown to play vital roles in T cell development and function, the importance of PA-mediated signals remains less clear. The diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) family of enzymes phosphorylates DAG to produce PA, serving as a molecular switch that regulates the relative levels of these critical second messengers. Two DGK isoforms, α and ζ, are predominantly expressed in T lineage cells and play an important role in conventional αβ T cell development. In mature T cells, the activity of these DGK isoforms aids in the maintenance of self-tolerance by preventing T cell hyper-activation and promoting T cell anergy. In this review, we discuss the roles of DAG-mediated pathways, PA-effectors, and DGKs in T cell development and function. We also highlight recent work that has uncovered previously unappreciated roles for DGK activity, for instance in invariant NKT cell development, anti-tumor and anti-viral CD8 responses, and the directional secretion of soluble effectors. PMID:23847619

  2. VEGF inhibits T-cell development and may contribute to tumor-induced immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Ohm, Joyce E; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I; Sempowski, Gregory D; Kisseleva, Ekaterina; Parman, Kelly S; Nadaf, Sorena; Carbone, David P

    2003-06-15

    T-cell defects and premature thymic atrophy occur in cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals. We demonstrate that exposure of mice to recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at concentrations similar to those observed in advanced stage cancer patients reproduces this profound thymic atrophy and is highlighted by a dramatic reduction in CD4+/CD8+ thymocytes. We find that VEGF does not induce thymocyte apoptosis, but instead rapidly decreases the number of the earliest observable progenitors in the thymus. VEGF does not inhibit thymocyte development in fetal thymic organ culture, further suggesting a prethymic effect. We also demonstrate that bone marrow progenitors from animals infused with recombinant VEGF and transferred to irradiated untreated animals recolonize the thymus more efficiently than progenitors from control animals. This suggests that VEGF exposure is associated with an increased population of thymus-committed progenitors in the bone marrow. We hypothesize that pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of VEGF may block the differentiation and/or emigration of these progenitors resulting in the observed thymic atrophy. Removal of VEGF via cessation of infusion or adoptive transfer of progenitors to a congenic host induces a preferential commitment of lymphoid progenitors to the T lineage and results in a restoration of the normal composition and cellularity of the thymus. These data demonstrate that at pathophysiologic concentrations, VEGF interferes with the development of T cells from early hematopoetic progenitor cells and this may contribute to tumor-associated immune deficiencies. PMID:12586633

  3. Does the PI3K pathway promote or antagonize regulatory T cell development and function?

    PubMed Central

    Soond, Dalya R.; Slack, Elizabeth C. M.; Garden, Oliver A.; Patton, Daniel T.; Okkenhaug, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) prevent autoimmunity and inflammation by suppressing the activation of other T cells and antigen presenting cells. The role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in Treg is controversial. Some studies suggest that inhibition of the PI3K pathway is essential for the development of Tregs whereas other studies have shown reduced Treg numbers and function when PI3K activity is suppressed. Here we attempt to reconcile the different studies that have explored PI3K and the downstream effectors Akt, Foxo, and mTOR in regulatory T cell development and function and discuss the implications for health and therapeutic intervention. PMID:22912633

  4. A role for CD44 in T cell development and function during direct competition between CD44+ and CD44- cells.

    PubMed

    Graham, Victoria A; Marzo, Amanda L; Tough, David F

    2007-04-01

    The role of CD44 in T cell biology remains incompletely understood. Although studies using anti-CD44 antibodies have implicated this cell adhesion molecule in a variety of important T cell processes, few T cell defects have been reported in CD44-deficient mice. We have assessed the requirement for CD44 in T cell development and mature T cell function by analyzing mice in which CD44(-/-) and WT cells were produced simultaneously. In mixed (CD44(-/-) + CD44(+/+)) bone marrow chimeras, production of CD44(-/-) T cells was shown to be reduced compared to WT cells due to inefficient intrathymic development. In addition, mature CD44(-/-) CD8(+) T cells generated a substantially lower response than WT T cells after infection of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, with the reduction in response apparent in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. Overall, these results demonstrate a poor capacity of CD44(-/-) T lineage cells to compete with WT cells at multiple levels, implicating CD44 in normal T cell function. PMID:17330818

  5. HIV Infection in Uncircumcised Men Is Associated With Altered CD8 T-cell Function But Normal CD4 T-cell Numbers in the Foreskin

    PubMed Central

    Prodger, Jessica L.; Hirbod, Taha; Gray, Ronald; Kigozi, Godfrey; Nalugoda, Fred; Galiwango, Ronald; Reynolds, Steven J.; Huibner, Sanja; Wawer, Maria J.; Serwadda, David; Kaul, Rupert; Nehemiah, Kighoma; Denis, Tumuramye; Emma, Mbagiira; John-Bosco, Kubaawo; Yahaya, Isabirye; Patrick, Mulema; James, Teba; Boru, Atukunda; Herbert, Mayengo; Mary, Nakafeero; Stephen, Mugamba; Mary, Nakyeyune; Margaret, Anyokorit; Deo, Male; Dan, Kayiwa; Sarah, Kalibbala; Lawrence, Lubyayi; Joseph, Otobi Ouma; Moses, Kakanga; Baptist, Okech John; Grace, Okello; Gerald, Aluma; Ivan, Ssebugenyi; Ambrose, Balikudembe

    2014-01-01

    Background.?Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)infected (HIV+) men are more susceptible to sexually transmitted infections, and may be superinfected by HIV. We hypothesized that HIV induces immune alterations in the foreskin that may impact the subsequent acquisition/clearance of genital coinfections. Methods.?Foreskin tissue and blood were obtained from 70 HIV-uninfected and 20 HIV+ men undergoing circumcision. T cells were characterized by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction. Results.?There was substantial influx of CD8 T-cells into the foreskins of HIV+ men (108.8 vs 23.1 cells/mm2; P < .001); but foreskin CD4 T-cell density was unchanged (43.0 vs 33.7/mm2; P = .67), despite substantial blood depletion (409.0 vs 877.8 cells/L; P < .001). While frequencies of foreskin C-C chemokine receptor type 5+ (CCR5+) T cells, T regulatory cells, and T-helper 17 cells were unaltered in HIV+ men, CD8 T-cell production of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) was decreased. HIV-specific CD8 T cells were present in the foreskins of HIV+ men, although their frequency and function was reduced compared to the blood. Conclusions.?Foreskin CD4 T-cell density and CCR5 expression were not reduced during HIV infection, perhaps explaining susceptibility to HIV superinfection. Foreskin CD8 T-cell density was increased, but decreased production of TNF? may enhance susceptibility to genital coinfections in HIV+ men. PMID:24277744

  6. Altered T cell activation and development in transgenic mice expressing the HIV-1 nef gene.

    PubMed Central

    Skowronski, J; Parks, D; Mariani, R

    1993-01-01

    The nef gene, which encodes related cytoplasmic proteins in both human (HIV) and simian (SIV) immunodeficiency viruses is dispensable for viral replication in vitro. In contrast, in vivo experiments have revealed that SIV nef is required for efficient viral replication and development of AIDS in SIV infected rhesus monkeys, thus indicating that nef plays an essential role in the natural infection. We show that expression of the Nef protein from the HIV-1 NL43 isolate in transgenic mice perturbs development of CD4+ T cells in the thymus and elicits depletion of peripheral CD4+ T cells. Thymic T cells expressing NL43 Nef show altered activation responses. In contrast, Nef protein of the HIV-1 HxB3 isolate does not have an overt effect on T cells when expressed in transgenic animals. The differential effects of the two HIV-1 nef alleles in transgenic mice correlate with down-regulation of CD4 antigen expression on thymic T cells. The differential interactions of the NL43 and HxB3 nef alleles with CD4 were reproduced in a transient assay in human CD4+ CEM T cells. Down-regulation of CD4 by nef in both human and transgenic murine T cells indicates that the relevant interactions are conserved in these two systems and suggests that the consequences of Nef expression on the host cell function can be analyzed in vivo in the murine system. Our observations from transgenic mice suggest that nef-elicited perturbations in T cell signalling play an important role in the viral life cycle in vivo, perhaps resulting in elimination of infected CD4+ T cells. Images PMID:8095017

  7. Pitfalls in global normalization of ChIP-seq data in CD4+ T cells treated with butyrate: A possible solution strategy

    PubMed Central

    Furusawa, Yukihiro; Endo, Takaho A.; Obata, Yuuki; Ohara, Osamu; Ohno, Hiroshi; Hase, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a central role in the suppression of inflammatory and allergic responses. Colonization of certain gut commensal microbes such as Clostridia class IV and XIVa in the gut can induce development of colonic Treg cells contributing to the maintenance of gut immune homeostasis. Clostridia-derived butyrate promotes the differentiation of nave T cells into Treg cells through upregulation of Foxp3, the master transcription factor of Treg cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis revealed that treatment of nave T cells with butyrate induces Treg-polarizing conditions by enhanced histone H3 acetylation in the promoter and conserved non-coding sequence regions of the Foxp3 locus. In general, global normalization was utilized for ChIP-seq analysis to compare the data obtained from two or more samples. However, global normalization is not appropriate for the evaluation of ChIP-seq data when treatment can affect the total amount of target protein. Here, we introduce a unique normalization method for ChIP-seq analysis in cells treated with butyrate, a pan-HDAC inhibitor that is likely to affect total acetylation levels of histone H3. PMID:26484090

  8. Unexpected Regulatory Role of CCR9 in Regulatory T Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Evans-Marin, Heather L.; Cao, Anthony T.; Yao, Suxia; Chen, Feidi; He, Chong; Liu, Han; Wu, Wei; Gonzalez, Maria G.; Dann, Sara M.; Cong, Yingzi

    2015-01-01

    T cells reactive to microbiota regulate the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). As T cell trafficking to intestines is regulated through interactions between highly specific chemokine-chemokine receptors, efforts have been made to develop intestine-specific immunosuppression based on blocking these key processes. CCR9, a gut-trophic chemokine receptor expressed by lymphocytes and dendritic cells, has been implicated in the regulation of IBD through mediating recruitment of T cells to inflamed sites. However, the role of CCR9 in inducing and sustaining inflammation in the context of IBD is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that CCR9 deficiency in effector T cells and Tregs does not affect the development of colitis in a microbiota antigen-specific, T cell-mediated model. However, Treg cells express higher levels of CCR9 compared to those in effector T cells. Interestingly, CCR9 inhibits Treg cell development, in that CCR9-/- mice demonstrate a high level of Foxp3+ Tregs, and ligation of CCR9 by its ligand CCL25 inhibits Treg cell differentiation in vitro. Collectively, our data indicate that in addition to acting as a gut-homing molecule, CCR9 signaling shapes immune responses by inhibiting Treg cell development. PMID:26230654

  9. Analyses of regulatory CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) T cells and observations from peripheral T cell subpopulation markers during the development of type 1 diabetes in children.

    PubMed

    Hamari, S; Kirveskoski, T; Glumoff, V; Kulmala, P; Simell, O; Knip, M; Veijola, R

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to study whether the aberrant amount or function of regulatory T cells is related to the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in children. We also set out to investigate the balance of different T cell subtype markers during the T1D autoimmune process. Treg cells were quantified with flow cytometric assay, and the suppression capacity was analysed with a carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-based T cell suppression assay in children in various phases of T1D disease process and in healthy autoantibody-negative control children. The mRNA expression of different T cell subpopulation markers was analysed with real-time qPCR method. The proportion and suppression capacity of regulatory T cells were similar in seroconverted children at an early stage of beta cell autoimmunity and also in children with T1D when compared to healthy and autoantibody-negative children. Significant differences were observed in the mRNA expression of different T cell subpopulation markers in prediabetic children with multiple (≥2) autoantibodies and in children with newly diagnosed T1D when compared to the control children. In conclusion, there were no quantitative or functional differences in regulatory T cells between the case and control groups in any phase of the autoimmune process. Decreased mRNA expression levels of T cell subtype markers were observed in children with multiple islet autoantibodies and in those with newly diagnosed T1D, probably reflecting an exhaustion of the immune system after the strong immune activation during the autoimmune process or a generally aberrant immune response related to the progression of the disease. PMID:26888215

  10. A77 1726, the active metabolite of leflunomide, attenuates lupus nephritis by promoting the development of regulatory T cells and inhibiting IL-17-producing double negative T cells.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Guilin; Yang, Lifen; Li, Zhenping; Williams, James W; Zhang, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is a challenging problem that affects 50% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without effective therapy. Here, we report that A77 1726, the active metabolite of leflunomide, effectively inhibits development of LN and attenuates the generalized autoimmune features. A77 1726 suppresses the expansion of double negative (DN) T cells, and inhibits T and B cell activation. Intriguingly, A77 1726 treatment significantly increases CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells but suppresses potential "pathogenic" IL-17-producing DN T cells in lymph nodes. In vitro experiment shows that A77 1726 potentiates the conversion of naive CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells into CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) inducible regulatory T cells (iTregs) by inhibiting Akt. Taken together, our data indicate that the therapeutic effects of A77 1726 in murine LN are mediated, at least in part, by augmenting iTregs which suppress pathogenic IL-17-producing DN T cells through an Akt-dependent mechanism. PMID:25638413

  11. Themis sets the signal threshold for positive and negative selection in T-cell development.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guo; Casas, Javier; Rigaud, Stephanie; Rybakin, Vasily; Lambolez, Florence; Brzostek, Joanna; Hoerter, John A H; Paster, Wolfgang; Acuto, Oreste; Cheroutre, Hilde; Sauer, Karsten; Gascoigne, Nicholas R J

    2013-12-19

    Development of a self-tolerant T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire with the potential to recognize the universe of infectious agents depends on proper regulation of TCR signalling. The repertoire is whittled down during T-cell development in the thymus by the ability of quasi-randomly generated TCRs to interact with self-peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. Low-affinity TCR interactions with self-MHC proteins generate weak signals that initiate 'positive selection', causing maturation of CD4- or CD8??-expressing 'single-positive' thymocytes from CD4(+)CD8??(+) 'double-positive' precursors. These develop into mature naive T cells of the secondary lymphoid organs. TCR interaction with high-affinity agonist self-ligands results in 'negative selection' by activation-induced apoptosis or 'agonist selection' of functionally differentiated self-antigen-experienced T cells. Here we show that positive selection is enabled by the ability of the T-cell-specific protein Themis to specifically attenuate TCR signal strength via SHP1 recruitment and activation in response to low- but not high-affinity TCR engagement. Themis acts as an analog-to-digital converter translating graded TCR affinity into clear-cut selection outcome. By dampening mild TCR signals Themis increases the affinity threshold for activation, enabling positive selection of T cells with a naive phenotype in response to low-affinity self-antigens. PMID:24226767

  12. T Cells

    MedlinePLUS

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  13. A role for BP-3/BST-1 antigen in early T cell development.

    PubMed

    Vicari, A P; Bean, A G; Zlotnik, A

    1996-02-01

    In the mouse thymus, pre-T cells are defined by their CD3(-)CD4(-)CD8(-) triple-negative, CD44lo/- CD25+ phenotype. We made a rat mAb IF-7, that, among all T cell subsets analyzed, reacted exclusively with pre-T cells. Molecular cloning revealed that the antigen recognized by IF-7 was identical to BP-3/BST-1, a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked, CD38-related molecule previously described as a possible co-activation molecule of pre-B cells. We found that IF-7 cross-linking enhances the proliferative response of sorted pre-T cells to anti-CD3 stimulation. In addition, IF-7 enhances and accelerates the development of fetal thymic organ culture (FTOC), although the gamma delta lineage is unaffected by the treatment. In addition, sorted IF-7+ pre-T cells give preferentially rise to alpha beta TCR+ thymocytes in FTOC. Our observations strongly suggest that BP-3/BST-1 is implicated in both early B and T cell growth and development, and is an early marker for the alpha beta lineage. PMID:8671603

  14. Normally occurring NKG2D+CD4+ T cells are immunosuppressive and inversely correlated with disease activity in juvenile-onset lupus

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhenpeng; Turtle, Cameron J.; Booth, Garrett C.; Riddell, Stanley R.; Gooley, Theodore A.; Stevens, Anne M.; Spies, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The NKG2D receptor stimulates natural killer cell and T cell responses upon engagement of ligands associated with malignancies and certain autoimmune diseases. However, conditions of persistent NKG2D ligand expression can lead to immunosuppression. In cancer patients, tumor expression and shedding of the MHC class Irelated chain A (MICA) ligand of NKG2D drives proliferative expansions of NKG2D+CD4+ T cells that produce interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-?, as well as Fas ligand, which inhibits bystander T cell proliferation in vitro. Here, we show that increased frequencies of functionally equivalent NKG2D+CD4+ T cells are inversely correlated with disease activity in juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), suggesting that these T cells may have regulatory effects. The NKG2D+CD4+ T cells correspond to a normally occurring small CD4 T cell subset that is autoreactive, primed to produce IL-10, and clearly distinct from proinflammatory and cytolytic CD4 T cells with cytokine-induced NKG2D expression that occur in rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. As classical regulatory T cell functions are typically impaired in SLE, it may be clinically significant that the immunosuppressive NKG2D+CD4+ T cells appear functionally uncompromised in this disease. PMID:19289577

  15. Idh1 mutations contribute to the development of T-cell malignancies in genetically engineered mice

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Zhenyue; Cairns, Rob A.; Inoue, Satoshi; Li, Wanda Y.; Sheng, Yi; Lemonnier, François; Wakeham, Andrew; Snow, Bryan E.; Dominguez-Brauer, Carmen; Ye, Jing; Larsen, Dana M.; Straley, Kimberly S.; Tobin, Erica R.; Narayanaswamy, Rohini; Gaulard, Philippe; Mak, Tak W.

    2016-01-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) are key drivers of hematopoietic malignancies. Although these mutations are most commonly associated with myeloid diseases, they also occur in malignancies of the T-cell lineage. To investigate their role in these diseases and provide tractable disease models for further investigation, we analyzed the T-cell compartment in a conditional knock-in (KI) mouse model of mutant Idh1. We observed the development of a spontaneous T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) in these animals. The disease was transplantable and maintained expression of mutant IDH1. Whole-exome sequencing revealed the presence of a spontaneous activating mutation in Notch1, one of the most common mutations in human T-ALL, suggesting Idh1 mutations may have the capacity to cooperate with Notch1 to drive T-ALL. To further investigate the Idh1 mutation as an oncogenic driver in the T-cell lineage, we crossed Idh1-KI mice with conditional Trp53 null mice, a well-characterized model of T-cell malignancy, and found that T-cell lymphomagenesis was accelerated in mice bearing both mutations. Because both IDH1 and p53 are known to affect cellular metabolism, we compared the requirements for glucose and glutamine in cells derived from these tumors and found that cells bearing the Idh1 mutation have an increased dependence on both glucose and glutamine. These data suggest that mutant IDH1 contributes to malignancy in the T-cell lineage and may alter the metabolic profile of malignant T cells. PMID:26787889

  16. Idh1 mutations contribute to the development of T-cell malignancies in genetically engineered mice.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhenyue; Cairns, Rob A; Inoue, Satoshi; Li, Wanda Y; Sheng, Yi; Lemonnier, François; Wakeham, Andrew; Snow, Bryan E; Dominguez-Brauer, Carmen; Ye, Jing; Larsen, Dana M; Straley, Kimberly S; Tobin, Erica R; Narayanaswamy, Rohini; Gaulard, Philippe; Mak, Tak W

    2016-02-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) are key drivers of hematopoietic malignancies. Although these mutations are most commonly associated with myeloid diseases, they also occur in malignancies of the T-cell lineage. To investigate their role in these diseases and provide tractable disease models for further investigation, we analyzed the T-cell compartment in a conditional knock-in (KI) mouse model of mutant Idh1. We observed the development of a spontaneous T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) in these animals. The disease was transplantable and maintained expression of mutant IDH1. Whole-exome sequencing revealed the presence of a spontaneous activating mutation in Notch1, one of the most common mutations in human T-ALL, suggesting Idh1 mutations may have the capacity to cooperate with Notch1 to drive T-ALL. To further investigate the Idh1 mutation as an oncogenic driver in the T-cell lineage, we crossed Idh1-KI mice with conditional Trp53 null mice, a well-characterized model of T-cell malignancy, and found that T-cell lymphomagenesis was accelerated in mice bearing both mutations. Because both IDH1 and p53 are known to affect cellular metabolism, we compared the requirements for glucose and glutamine in cells derived from these tumors and found that cells bearing the Idh1 mutation have an increased dependence on both glucose and glutamine. These data suggest that mutant IDH1 contributes to malignancy in the T-cell lineage and may alter the metabolic profile of malignant T cells. PMID:26787889

  17. Influence of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P.Karst. on T-cell-mediated immunity in normal and immunosuppressed mice line CBA/Ca.

    PubMed

    Nizhenkovska, Iryna V; Pidchenko, Vitalii T; Bychkova, Nina G; Bisko, Nina A; Rodnichenko, Angela Y; Kozyko, Natalya O

    2015-09-01

    The article presents the results of the investigation of the effect of biomass powder of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum on T-cell-mediated immunity in normal and immunosuppressed mice CBA/Ca. Delayed-type hypersensitivity assay was used. Experimental immunodeficiency was established with intraperitoneal injection of the immunosuppressant cyclophosphamide at a single dose of 150 mg/kg on the first day of the experiment. Results of the study show that the administration of biomass powder of Ganoderma lucidum in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg orally for 10 days increases the delayed-type hypersensitivity response in normal mice CBA/Ca. Administration of 0.5 mg/kg of biomass powder of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum for 10 days blocked the development of the T-cell-mediated immunosuppression, induced by administration of cyclophosphamide and restored the delayed-type hypersensitivity response in immunosuppressed mice. Key words: fungus Ganoderma lucidum cyclophosphamide immunodeficiency T-cell-mediated immunity delayed-type hypersensitivity. PMID:26459128

  18. Evidence that a significant number of naive T cells enter non-lymphoid organs as part of a normal migratory pathway.

    PubMed

    Cose, Stephen; Brammer, Clair; Khanna, Kamal M; Masopust, David; Lefrançois, Leo

    2006-06-01

    Only activated and effector memory T cells are thought to access non-lymphoid tissues. In contrast, naive T cells are thought to circulate only between the blood, lymph and secondary lymphoid organs. We examined the phenotype of endogenous T cells in various non-lymphoid organs and showed that a subset of cells exhibited an apparently naive phenotype and were functionally inactive. FTY720 treatment selectively depleted this population from the non-lymphoid tissues. In addition, RAG-deficient TCR transgenic CD4 and CD8 T cells were present in non-lymphoid tissues in bone marrow chimeric mice and in situ imaging analysis revealed their location in the parenchymal tissues. Moreover, migration of TCR transgenic T cells to non-lymphoid tissues after adoptive transfer was pertussis-toxin resistant. Overall, the results suggest that naive T cells may circulate through non-lymphoid tissues as part of their normal migratory pathway. PMID:16708400

  19. Protecting and rescuing the effectors: roles of differentiation and survival in the control of memory T cell development

    PubMed Central

    Kurtulus, Sema; Tripathi, Pulak; Hildeman, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines, arguably the single most important intervention in improving human health, have exploited the phenomenon of immunological memory. The elicitation of memory T cells is often an essential part of successful long-lived protective immunity. Our understanding of T cell memory has been greatly aided by the development of TCR Tg mice and MHC tetrameric staining reagents that have allowed the precise tracking of antigen-specific T cell responses. Indeed, following acute infection or immunization, naïve T cells undergo a massive expansion culminating in the generation of a robust effector T cell population. This peak effector response is relatively short-lived and, while most effector T cells die by apoptosis, some remain and develop into memory cells. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying this cell fate decision remain incompletely defined, substantial progress has been made, particularly with regards to CD8+ T cells. For example, the effector CD8+ T cells generated during a response are heterogeneous, consisting of cells with more or less potential to develop into full-fledged memory cells. Development of CD8+ T cell memory is regulated by the transcriptional programs that control the differentiation and survival of effector T cells. While the type of antigenic stimulation and level of inflammation control effector CD8+ T cell differentiation, availability of cytokines and their ability to control expression and function of Bcl-2 family members governs their survival. These distinct differentiation and survival programs may allow for finer therapeutic intervention to control both the quality and quantity of CD8+ T cell memory. Effector to memory transition of CD4+ T cells is less well characterized than CD8+ T cells, emerging details will be discussed. This review will focus on the recent progress made in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of T cell memory with an emphasis on factors controlling survival of effector T cells. PMID:23346085

  20. SAP-Dependent and -Independent Regulation of Innate T Cell Development Involving SLAMF Receptors

    PubMed Central

    De Calisto, Jaime; Wang, Ninghai; Wang, Guoxing; Yigit, Burcu; Engel, Pablo; Terhorst, Cox

    2014-01-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) plays an essential role in the immune system mediating the function of several members of the SLAM family (SLAMF) of receptors, whose expression is essential for T, NK, and B-cell responses. Additionally, the expression of SAP in double-positive thymocytes is mandatory for natural killer T (NKT) cells and, in mouse, for innate CD8+ T cell development. To date, only two members of the SLAMF of receptors, Slamf1 and Slamf6, have been shown to positively cooperate during NKT cell differentiation in mouse. However, it is less clear whether other members of this family may also participate in the development of these innate T cells. Here, we show that Slamf[1?+?6]?/? and Slamf[1?+?5?+?6]?/?B6 mice have ~70% reduction of NKT cells compared to wild-type B6 mice. Unexpectedly, the proportion of innate CD8+ T cells slightly increased in the Slamf[1?+?5?+?6]?/?, but not in the Slamf[1?+?6]?/? strain, suggesting that Slamf5 may function as a negative regulator of innate CD8+ T cell development. Accordingly, Slamf5?/? B6 mice showed an exclusive expansion of innate CD8+ T cells, but not NKT cells. Interestingly, the SAP-independent Slamf7?/? strain showed an expansion of both splenic innate CD8+ T cells and thymic NKT cells. On the other hand, and similar to what was recently shown in Slamf3?/? BALB/c mice, the proportions of thymic promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZFhi) NKT cells and innate CD8+ T cells significantly increased in the SAP-independent Slamf8?/? BALB/c strain. In summary, these results show that NKT and innate CD8+ T cell development can be regulated in a SAP-dependent and -independent fashion by SLAMF receptors, in which Slamf1, Slamf6, and Slamf8 affect development of NKT cells, and that Slamf5, Slamf7, and Slamf8 affect the development of innate CD8+ T cells. PMID:24795728

  1. SAP-Dependent and -Independent Regulation of Innate T Cell Development Involving SLAMF Receptors.

    PubMed

    De Calisto, Jaime; Wang, Ninghai; Wang, Guoxing; Yigit, Burcu; Engel, Pablo; Terhorst, Cox

    2014-01-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) plays an essential role in the immune system mediating the function of several members of the SLAM family (SLAMF) of receptors, whose expression is essential for T, NK, and B-cell responses. Additionally, the expression of SAP in double-positive thymocytes is mandatory for natural killer T (NKT) cells and, in mouse, for innate CD8(+) T cell development. To date, only two members of the SLAMF of receptors, Slamf1 and Slamf6, have been shown to positively cooperate during NKT cell differentiation in mouse. However, it is less clear whether other members of this family may also participate in the development of these innate T cells. Here, we show that Slamf[1?+?6](-/-) and Slamf[1?+?5?+?6](-/-) B6 mice have ~70% reduction of NKT cells compared to wild-type B6 mice. Unexpectedly, the proportion of innate CD8(+) T cells slightly increased in the Slamf[1?+?5?+?6](-/-) , but not in the Slamf[1?+?6](-/-) strain, suggesting that Slamf5 may function as a negative regulator of innate CD8(+) T cell development. Accordingly, Slamf5(-/-) B6 mice showed an exclusive expansion of innate CD8(+) T cells, but not NKT cells. Interestingly, the SAP-independent Slamf7(-/-) strain showed an expansion of both splenic innate CD8(+) T cells and thymic NKT cells. On the other hand, and similar to what was recently shown in Slamf3(-/-) BALB/c mice, the proportions of thymic promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF(hi)) NKT cells and innate CD8(+) T cells significantly increased in the SAP-independent Slamf8(-/-) BALB/c strain. In summary, these results show that NKT and innate CD8(+) T cell development can be regulated in a SAP-dependent and -independent fashion by SLAMF receptors, in which Slamf1, Slamf6, and Slamf8 affect development of NKT cells, and that Slamf5, Slamf7, and Slamf8 affect the development of innate CD8(+) T cells. PMID:24795728

  2. Type 1 cytokines polarize thymocytes during T cell development in adult thymus organ cultures.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Barbara J; Marounek, Jan; Mordes, John P; Rossini, Aldo A; Greiner, Dale L

    2003-02-01

    Peripheral T cells can be polarized towards type 1 or type 2 cytokine immune responses during TCR engagement. Because T cell selection by peptide plus self-MHC in the thymus requires TCR engagement, we hypothesized that type 1 cytokines may polarize developing T cells. We cultured thymi from BBDR rats in adult thymus organ cultures (ATOC) under type 1 cytokine conditions in the absence of exogenous antigen. Type 1 cytokine-conditioned ATOC generated cells that spontaneously secreted high levels of IFNgamma, but not IL-4. A second exposure to type 1 cytokines further increased IFNgamma secretion by these cells, most of which were blasts that expressed the activation markers CD25, CD71, CD86, and CD134. Studies using blocking antibodies and pharmacological inhibitors suggested that both IL-18 and cognate TCR-MHC/ligand interactions were important for activation. Blocking anti-MHC class I plus anti-MHC class II antibodies, neutralizing anti-IL-18 antibody, and the p38 MAP-kinase inhibitor SB203580 each reduced IFNgamma production by approximately 75-80%. Cyclosporin A, which prevents TCR signaling, inhibited IFNgamma production by approximately 50%. These data demonstrate that exposure to type 1 cytokines during intrathymic development can polarize differentiating T cells, and suggest a mechanism by which intrathymic exposure to type 1 cytokines may modulate T cell development. PMID:12604310

  3. RET/GFR? Signals Are Dispensable for Thymic T Cell Development In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Afonso Rocha Martins; Arroz-Madeira, Slvia; Fonseca-Pereira, Diogo; Ribeiro, Hlder; Lasrado, Reena; Pachnis, Vassilis; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2012-01-01

    Identification of thymocyte regulators is a central issue in T cell biology. Interestingly, growing evidence indicates that common key molecules control neuronal and immune cell functions. The neurotrophic factor receptor RET mediates critical functions in foetal hematopoietic subsets, thus raising the possibility that RET-related molecules may also control T cell development. We show that Ret, Gfra1 and Gfra2 are abundantly expressed by foetal and adult immature DN thymocytes. Despite the developmentally regulated expression of these genes, analysis of foetal thymi from Gfra1, Gfra2 or Ret deficient embryos revealed that these molecules are dispensable for foetal T cell development. Furthermore, analysis of RET gain of function and Ret conditional knockout mice showed that RET is also unnecessary for adult thymopoiesis. Finally, competitive thymic reconstitution assays indicated that Ret deficient thymocytes maintained their differentiation fitness even in stringent developmental conditions. Thus, our data demonstrate that RET/GFR? signals are dispensable for thymic T cell development in vivo, indicating that pharmacological targeting of RET signalling in tumours is not likely to result in T cell production failure. PMID:23300832

  4. Bystander chronic infection negatively impacts development of CD8(+) T cell memory.

    PubMed

    Stelekati, Erietta; Shin, Haina; Doering, Travis A; Dolfi, Douglas V; Ziegler, Carly G; Beiting, Daniel P; Dawson, Lucas; Liboon, Jennifer; Wolski, David; Ali, Mohammed-Alkhatim A; Katsikis, Peter D; Shen, Hao; Roos, David S; Haining, W Nicholas; Lauer, Georg M; Wherry, E John

    2014-05-15

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that chronic infections impair immune responses to unrelated pathogens and vaccines. The underlying mechanisms, however, are unclear and distinguishing effects on priming versus development of immunological memory has been challenging. We investigated whether bystander chronic infections impact differentiation of memory CD8(+) T cells, the hallmark of protective immunity against intracellular pathogens. Chronic bystander infections impaired development of memory CD8(+) T cells in several mouse models and humans. These effects were independent of initial priming and were associated with chronic inflammatory signatures. Chronic inflammation negatively impacted the number of bystander CD8(+) T cells and their memory development. Distinct underlying mechanisms of altered survival and differentiation were revealed with the latter regulated by the transcription factors T-bet and Blimp-1. Thus, exposure to prolonged bystander inflammation impairs the effector to memory transition. These data have relevance for immunity and vaccination during persisting infections and chronic inflammation. PMID:24837104

  5. Normal T cell receptor V beta usage in a primary immunodeficiency associated with HLA class II deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rieux-Laucat, F; Le Deist, F; Selz, F; Fischer, A; de Villartay, J P

    1993-04-01

    The human T cell receptor was studied using an anchored-polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR) and hybridization with V beta-specific oligonucleotide probes, together with the few anti-V beta monoclonal antibodies (mAb) available. After confirming the semiquantitative and reproducible nature of the A-PCR technique, we assessed the complete V beta repertoire in sorted CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte populations from three normal donors. These experiments confirmed the absence of V beta-restricted deletions in human peripheral cells, in contrast to several mouse strains. This feature makes it difficult to study negative selection in man, given the apparent absence of an endogenous superantigen corresponding to the Mls system in the mouse. To investigate human V beta repertoire shaping, we studied V beta usage in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from children with an inherited immunodeficiency characterized by defective expression of human leukocyte antigen class II molecules. An initial study using anti-V beta monoclonal antibodies failed to show significant abnormalities in V beta usage. Four patients analyzed using the A-PCR method all had a polyclonal V beta repertoire, suggesting normal positive selection and raising questions as to the importance of V beta major histocompatibility complex (MHC) interactions and the role of thymic MHC density in shaping the V beta repertoire. PMID:8096185

  6. PD-1 and Tim-3 pathways are associated with regulatory CD8+ T-cell function in decidua and maintenance of normal pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S-C; Li, Y-H; Piao, H-L; Hong, X-W; Zhang, D; Xu, Y-Y; Tao, Y; Wang, Y; Yuan, M-M; Li, D-J; Du, M-R

    2015-01-01

    CD8+ T cells are critical in the balance between fetal tolerance and antiviral immunity. T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) are important negative immune regulatory molecules involved in viral persistence and tumor metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that Tim-3+PD-1+CD8+ T cells from decidua greatly outnumbered those from peripheral blood during human early pregnancy. Co-culture of trophoblasts with CD8+ T cells upregulated PD-1+ and/or Tim-3+ immune cells. Furthermore, the population of CD8+ T cells co-expressing PD-1 and Tim-3 was enriched within the intermediate memory subset in decidua. This population exhibited high proliferative activity and Th2-type cytokine producing capacity. Blockade of Tim-3 and PD-1 resulted in decreased in vitro proliferation and Th2-type cytokine production while increased trophoblast killing and IFN-? producing capacities of CD8+ T cells. Pregnant CBA/J females challenged with Tim-3 and/or PD-1 blocking antibodies were more susceptible to fetal loss, which was associated with CD8+ T-cell dysfunction. Importantly, the number and function of Tim-3+PD-1+CD8+ T cells in decidua were significantly impaired in miscarriage. These findings underline the important roles of Tim-3 and PD-1 pathways in regulating decidual CD8+ T-cell function and maintaining normal pregnancy. PMID:25950468

  7. Induction of T Cell Development In Vitro by Delta-Like (Dll)-Expressing Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Mohtashami, Mahmood; Zarin, Payam; Ziga-Pflcker, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Recreating the thymic microenvironment in vitro poses a great challenge to immunologists. Until recently, the only approach was to utilize the thymic tissue in its three-dimensional form and to transfer the hematopoietic progenitors into this tissue to generate de novo T cells. With the advent of OP9-DL cells (bone marrow-derived cells that are transduced to express Notch ligand, Delta-like), hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) could be induced to differentiate into T cells in culture for the first time outside of the thymic tissue on a monolayer. We, as well as others, asked whether the ability to support T cell development in vitro in a monolayer is unique to BM-derived OP9 cells, and showed that provision of Delta-like expression to thymic epithelial cells and fibroblasts also allowed for T cell development. This provides the opportunity to design an autologous coculture system where the supportive stromal and the hematopoietic components are both derived from the same individual, which has obvious clinical implications. In this chapter, we describe methods for establishing a primary murine dermal fibroblast cell population that is transduced to express Delta-like 4, and describe the conditions for its coculture with HSCs to support T cell lineage initiation and expansion, while comparing it to the now classic OP9-DL coculture. PMID:26294407

  8. Clinical Outcome of HIV Viraemic Controllers and Noncontrollers with Normal CD4 Counts Is Exclusively Determined by Antigen-Specific CD8+ T-Cell-Mediated HIV Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Tansiri, Yada; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Hansasuta, Pokrath

    2015-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study we evaluated T-cell responses using several assays to determine immune correlates of HIV control that distinguish untreated viraemic controllers (VC) from noncontrollers (NC) with similar CD4 counts. Samples were taken from 65 ART-nave chronically HIV-infected VC and NC from Thailand with matching CD4 counts in the normal range (>450 cells/?l). We determined HIVp24-specific T-cell responses using standard Interferon-gamma (IFN?) ELISpot assays, and compared the functional quality of HIVp24-specific CD8+ T-cell responses using polychromatic flow cytometry. Finally, in vitro HIV suppression assays were performed to evaluate directly the activity of CD8+ T cells in HIV control. Autologous CD4+ T cells were infected with primary patient-derived HIV isolates and the HIV suppressive activity of CD8+ T cells was determined after co-culture, measuring production of HIVp24 Ag by ELISA. The HIVp24-specific T-cell responses of VC and NC could not completely be differentiated through measurement of IFN?-producing cells using ELISpot assays, nor by the absolute cell numbers of polyfunctional HIVp24-specific CD8+ T cells. However, in vitro HIV suppression assays showed clear differences between VC and NC. HIV suppressive activity, mediated by either ex vivo unstimulated CD8+ T cells or HIVp24-specific T-cell lines, was significantly greater using cells from VC than NC cells. Additionally, we were able to demonstrate a significant correlation between the level of HIV suppressive activity mediated by ex vivo unstimulated CD8+ T cells and plasma viral load (pVL) (Spearman r = -0.7345, p = 0.0003). This study provides evidence that in vitro HIV suppression assays are the most informative in the functional evaluation of CD8+ T-cell responses and can distinguish between VC and NC. PMID:25764310

  9. Repertoire Development and the Control of Cytotoxic/Effector Function in Human ?? T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Elizabeth M.; Chapoval, Andrei I.; Pauza, C. David

    2010-01-01

    T cells develop into two major populations distinguished by their T cell receptor (TCR) chains. Cells with the ?? TCR generally express CD4 or CD8 lineage markers and mostly fall into helper or cytotoxic/effector subsets. Cells expressing the alternate ?? TCR in humans generally do not express lineage markers, do not require MHC for antigen presentation, and recognize nonpeptidic antigens. We are interested in the dominant V?2V?2+ T cell subset in human peripheral blood and the control of effector function in this population. We review the literature on ?? T cell generation and repertoire selection, along with recent work on CD56 expression and defining a cytotoxic/effector lineage within the phosphoantigen-reactive V?2V?2 cells. A unique mechanism for MHC-independent repertoire selection is linked to the control of effector function that is vital to the role for ?? T cells in tumor surveillance. Better understanding of these mechanisms will improve our ability to exploit this population for tumor immunotherapy. PMID:20396597

  10. The effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields on T cell function during development.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Shin; Ushiyama, Akira; Maeda, Machiko; Ogasawara, Yuki; Wang, Jianqing; Kunugita, Naoki; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2015-05-01

    With the widespread use of radio-frequency devices, it is increasingly important to understand the biological effects of the associated electromagnetic fields. Thus, we investigated the effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on T cell responses during development due to the lack of science-based evidence for RF-EMF effects on developmental immune systems. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to 2.14-GHz wideband code division multiple-access (W-CDMA) RF signals at a whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.2 W/kg. Exposures were performed for a total of 9 weeks spanning in utero development, lactation and the juvenile period. Rats were continuously exposed to RF-EMF for 20 h/day, 7 days/week. Comparisons of control and exposed rats using flow cytometry revealed no changes in the numbers of CD4/CD8 T cells, activated T cells or regulatory T cells among peripheral blood cells, splenocytes and thymocytes. Expression levels of 16 genes that regulate the immunological Th1/Th2 paradigm were analyzed using real-time PCR in the spleen and thymus tissues of control and RF-EMF-exposed rats. Although only the Il5 gene was significantly regulated in spleen tissues, Il4, Il5 and Il23a genes were significantly upregulated in thymus tissues following exposure to RF-EMF. However, ELISAs showed no changes in serum IL-4 protein concentrations. These data indicate no adverse effects of long-term RF-EMF exposure on immune-like T cell populations, T cell activation, or Th1/Th2 balance in developing rats, although significant transcriptional effects were observed. PMID:25835473

  11. The effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields on T cell function during development

    PubMed Central

    Ohtani, Shin; Ushiyama, Akira; Maeda, Machiko; Ogasawara, Yuki; Wang, Jianqing; Kunugita, Naoki; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread use of radio-frequency devices, it is increasingly important to understand the biological effects of the associated electromagnetic fields. Thus, we investigated the effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on T cell responses during development due to the lack of science-based evidence for RF-EMF effects on developmental immune systems. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to 2.14-GHz wideband code division multiple-access (W-CDMA) RF signals at a whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.2 W/kg. Exposures were performed for a total of 9 weeks spanning in utero development, lactation and the juvenile period. Rats were continuously exposed to RF-EMF for 20 h/day, 7 days/week. Comparisons of control and exposed rats using flow cytometry revealed no changes in the numbers of CD4/CD8 T cells, activated T cells or regulatory T cells among peripheral blood cells, splenocytes and thymocytes. Expression levels of 16 genes that regulate the immunological Th1/Th2 paradigm were analyzed using real-time PCR in the spleen and thymus tissues of control and RF-EMF–exposed rats. Although only the Il5 gene was significantly regulated in spleen tissues, Il4, Il5 and Il23a genes were significantly upregulated in thymus tissues following exposure to RF-EMF. However, ELISAs showed no changes in serum IL-4 protein concentrations. These data indicate no adverse effects of long-term RF-EMF exposure on immune-like T cell populations, T cell activation, or Th1/Th2 balance in developing rats, although significant transcriptional effects were observed. PMID:25835473

  12. The development and fate of follicular helper T cells defined by an IL-21 reporter mouse.

    PubMed

    Lthje, Katja; Kallies, Axel; Shimohakamada, Yoko; Belz, Gabrielle T; Light, Amanda; Tarlinton, David M; Nutt, Stephen L

    2012-05-01

    Germinal centers require CD4? follicular helper T cells (TFH cells), whose hallmark is expression of the transcriptional repressor Bcl-6, the chemokine receptor CXCR5 and interleukin 21 (IL-21). To track the development and fate of TFH cells, we generated an IL-21 reporter mouse by introducing sequence encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) into the Il21 locus; these mice had expression of IL-21GFP in CD4?CXCR5?PD-1? TFH cells. IL-21GFP? TFH cells were multifunctional helper cells that coexpressed several cytokines, including interferon-g (IFN-g), IL-2 and IL-4. TFH cells proliferated and gave rise to transferrable memory cells with plasticity, which differentiated after recall into conventional effector helper T cells and TFH cells. Thus, we demonstrated that TFH cells were not terminally differentiated but instead retained the flexibility to be recruited into other helper T cell subsets and nonlymphoid tissues. PMID:22466669

  13. Timely and spatially regulated maturation of B and T cell repertoire during human fetal development.

    PubMed

    Rechavi, Erez; Lev, Atar; Lee, Yu Nee; Simon, Amos J; Yinon, Yoav; Lipitz, Schlomo; Amariglio, Ninette; Weisz, Boaz; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Somech, Raz

    2015-02-25

    Insights into the ontogeny of the human fetal adaptive immune system are of great value for understanding immunocompetence of the developing fetus. However, to date, this has remained largely uncharted territory, in large part because blood samples from healthy, early gestation fetuses have been hard to come by. In a comprehensive study, we analyzed levels of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), signal-joint ? receptor excision circles (sjKRECs), and intron recombination signal sequence-K-deleting element (iRSS-Kde) rearrangement, and T and B lymphocyte repertoire clonality in human fetuses from 12 to 26 weeks of gestational age. Using next-generation sequencing, we analyzed the diversity and complexity of T cell receptor ? (TRB) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) repertoires in four fetuses at 12, 13, 22, and 26 weeks of gestation and in healthy full-term infants. We report the progressive increase of TREC, sjKREC, and iRSS-Kde levels over time and confirm that B cell development precedes T cell development in the human fetus. Temporally and spatially regulated maturation of B and T cell repertoire diversity and complexity during human fetal development was observed, including evidence that immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination occur already during intrauterine life. Our results help define physiological levels of immunodeficiency in premature infants and may serve as a reference for future studies aimed at investigating the impact of intrauterine pathologies on fetal immune development and function. PMID:25717098

  14. Bioinformatic Description of Immunotherapy Targets for Pediatric T-Cell Leukemia and the Impact of Normal Gene Sets Used for Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Orentas, Rimas J.; Nordlund, Jessica; He, Jianbin; Sindiri, Sivasish; Mackall, Crystal; Fry, Terry J.; Khan, Javed

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric lymphoid leukemia has the highest cure rate of all pediatric malignancies, yet due to its prevalence, still accounts for the majority of childhood cancer deaths and requires long-term highly toxic therapy. The ability to target B-cell ALL with immunoglobulin-like binders, whether anti-CD22 antibody or anti-CD19 CAR-Ts, has impacted treatment options for some patients. The development of new ways to target B-cell antigens continues at rapid pace. T-cell ALL accounts for up to 20% of childhood leukemia but has yet to see a set of high-value immunotherapeutic targets identified. To find new targets for T-ALL immunotherapy, we employed a bioinformatic comparison to broad normal tissue arrays, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), and mature lymphocytes, then filtered the results for transcripts encoding plasma membrane proteins. T-ALL bears a core T-cell signature and transcripts encoding TCR/CD3 components and canonical markers of T-cell development predominate, especially when comparison was made to normal tissue or HSC. However, when comparison to mature lymphocytes was also undertaken, we identified two antigens that may drive, or be associated with leukemogenesis; TALLA-1 and hedgehog interacting protein. In addition, TCR subfamilies, CD1, activation and adhesion markers, membrane-organizing molecules, and receptors linked to metabolism and inflammation were also identified. Of these, only CD52, CD37, and CD98 are currently being targeted clinically. This work provides a set of targets to be considered for future development of immunotherapies for T-ALL. PMID:24959420

  15. An Essential Role for Thymic Mesenchyme in Early T Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Suniara, Ravinder K.; Jenkinson, Eric J.; Owen, John J.T.

    2000-01-01

    We show that the mesenchymal cells that surround the 12-d mouse embryo thymus are necessary for T cell differentiation. Thus, epithelial lobes with attached mesenchyme generate all T cell populations in vitro, whereas lobes from which mesenchyme has been removed show poor lymphopoiesis with few cells progressing beyond the CD4−CD8− stage of development. Interestingly, thymic mesenchyme is derived from neural crest cells, and extirpation of the region of the neural crest involved results in impaired thymic development and craniofacial abnormalities similar to the group of clinical defects found in the DiGeorge syndrome. Previous studies have suggested an inductive effect of mesenchyme on thymic epithelial morphogenesis. However, we have found that mesenchyme-derived fibroblasts are still required for early T cell development in the presence of mature epithelial cells, and hence mesenchyme might have a direct role in lymphopoiesis. We provide an anatomical basis for the role of mesenchyme by showing that mesenchymal cells migrate into the epithelial thymus to establish a network of fibroblasts and associated extracellular matrix. We propose that the latter might be important for T cell development through integrin and/or cytokine interactions with immature thymocytes. PMID:10727466

  16. Differential G-protein expression during B- and T-cell development.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, K R; Harnett, W; Milligan, G; Harnett, M M

    1997-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying B- and T-cell development are, as yet, poorly understood. However, as G proteins regulate a diverse range of biological responses including growth, proliferation and differentiation, we have investigated differential expression of G proteins during B- and T-cell development with the aim of identifying key signals involved in lymphocyte maturation. Differential expression of beta 1/2 and alpha-subunits of the Gs-, i- and q-families was found throughout lymphoid development. Most strikingly, G alpha i1 and G alpha i1 were very weakly, or not expressed in pre-, immature and mature B cells, thymocytes or mature T cells, but strongly induced in mature B-lymphoblastoid cell lines, some of which have been used as models of germinal centre B cells, suggesting that expression of these G proteins may correlate with the later stages of B-cell development. In contrast, G alpha 16 expression was highest in T cells and pre-B cells and progressively declined with B-cell maturation. These findings suggest that G proteins, and the signals they regulate, such as ion channels and/or adenylate cyclase (G alpha s/i) and phospholipase C (G beta gamma and G alpha 11/16) are differentially regulated in lymphoid cells in a maturation-and lineage-dependent manner. Images Figure 1 PMID:9176110

  17. Orchestration of Invariant Natural Killer T cell development by E and Id proteins

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sumedha; Zhuang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are ?? T cells that express a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) along with Natural Killer (NK) cell markers, and have an innate cell-like ability to produce a myriad of cytokines very quickly upon antigen exposure and subsequent activation. These cells are diverted from conventional single positive (SP) T cell fate at the double positive (DP) stage where TCR-mediated recognition of a lipid antigen presented on a CD1d molecule promotes their selection into the NKT lineage. Although many key regulatory molecules have been shown to play important roles in the development of NKT cells, the mechanism of lineage specification and acquisition of effector functions in these cells still remain to be fully addressed. In this review we specifically discuss the role of a family of class I Helix Loop Helix proteins known as E proteins, and of their antagonists Id proteins in NKT cell development. Recent works have shown that these proteins play key roles in iNKT development, from the invariant TCR rearrangement to terminal differentiation and maturation. Elucidating these roles provides an opportunity to uncover the transcriptional network that separates NKT cells from the concurrently developed conventional ?? T cells. PMID:25746046

  18. New role for the (pro)renin receptor in T-cell development.

    PubMed

    Geisberger, Sabrina; Maschke, Ulrike; Gebhardt, Matthias; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Manzel, Arndt; Linker, Ralf A; Chidgey, Ann; Dechend, Ralf; Nguyen, Genevieve; Daumke, Oliver; Muller, Dominik N; Wright, Mark D; Binger, Katrina J

    2015-07-23

    The (pro)renin receptor (PRR) was originally thought to be important for regulating blood pressure via the renin-angiotensin system. However, it is now emerging that PRR has instead a generic role in cellular development. Here, we have specifically deleted PRR from T cells. T-cell-specific PRR-knockout mice had a significant decrease in thymic cellularity, corresponding with a 100-fold decrease in the number of CD4(+) and CD8(+) thymocytes, and a large increase in double-negative (DN) precursors. Gene expression analysis on sorted DN3 thymocytes indicated that PRR-deficient thymocytes have perturbations in key cellular pathways essential at the DN3 stage, including transcription and translation. Further characterization of DN T-cell progenitors leads us to propose that PRR deletion affects thymocyte survival and development at multiple stages; from DN3 through to DN4, double-positive, and single-positive CD4 and CD8. Our study thus identifies a new role for PRR in T-cell development. PMID:26063165

  19. The TCF-1 and LEF-1 transcription factors have cooperative and opposing roles in T-cell development and malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuyang; Zhou, Xinyuan; Steinke, Farrah C.; Liu, Chengyu; Chen, Shann-Ching; Zagorodna, Oksana; Jing, Xuefang; Yokota, Yoshifumi; Meyerholz, David K.; Mullighan, Charles G.; Knudson, C. Michael; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Xue, Hai-Hui

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The TCF-1 and LEF-1 transcription factors are known to play critical roles in normal thymocyte development. Unexpectedly, we found that TCF-1-deficient (Tcf7?/?) mice developed aggressive T-cell malignancy, resembling human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Surprisingly, LEF-1 was aberrantly upregulated in pre-malignant Tcf7?/? early thymocytes and lymphoma cells. We further demonstrated that TCF-1 directly repressed LEF-1 expression in early thymocytes and that conditional inactivation of Lef1 greatly delayed or prevented T-cell malignancy in Tcf7?/? mice. In human T-ALLs, an early thymic progenitor (ETP) subtype was associated with diminished TCF7 expression, and two of the ETP-ALL cases harbored TCF7 gene deletions. We also showed that TCF-1 and LEF-1 were dispensable for T-lineage commitment but instead were required for early thymocytes to mature beyond the CD4?CD8? stage. TCF-1 thus has dual roles, i.e., acting cooperatively with LEF-1 to promote thymocyte maturation while restraining LEF-1 expression to prevent malignant transformation of developing thymocytes. PMID:23103132

  20. IL-1 receptor antagonist-deficient mice develop autoimmune arthritis due to intrinsic activation of IL-17-producing CCR2+V?6+?? T cells

    PubMed Central

    Akitsu, Aoi; Ishigame, Harumichi; Kakuta, Shigeru; Chung, Soo-hyun; Ikeda, Satoshi; Shimizu, Kenji; Kubo, Sachiko; Liu, Yang; Umemura, Masayuki; Matsuzaki, Goro; Yoshikai, Yasunobu; Saijo, Shinobu; Iwakura, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing ?? T (??17) cells have been implicated in inflammatory diseases, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that both CD4+ and ??17 cells are required for the development of autoimmune arthritis in IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)-deficient mice. Specifically, activated CD4+ T cells direct ?? T-cell infiltration by inducing CCL2 expression in joints. Furthermore, IL-17 reporter mice reveal that the V?6+ subset of CCR2+ ?? T cells preferentially produces IL-17 in inflamed joints. Importantly, because IL-1Ra normally suppresses IL-1R expression on ?? T cells, IL-1Ra-deficient mice exhibit elevated IL-1R expression on V?6+ cells, which play a critical role in inducing them to produce IL-17. Our findings demonstrate a pathogenic mechanism in which adaptive and innate immunity induce an autoimmune disease in a coordinated manner. PMID:26108163

  1. IL-1 receptor antagonist-deficient mice develop autoimmune arthritis due to intrinsic activation of IL-17-producing CCR2(+)V?6(+)?? T cells.

    PubMed

    Akitsu, Aoi; Ishigame, Harumichi; Kakuta, Shigeru; Chung, Soo-Hyun; Ikeda, Satoshi; Shimizu, Kenji; Kubo, Sachiko; Liu, Yang; Umemura, Masayuki; Matsuzaki, Goro; Yoshikai, Yasunobu; Saijo, Shinobu; Iwakura, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing ?? T (??17) cells have been implicated in inflammatory diseases, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that both CD4(+) and ??17 cells are required for the development of autoimmune arthritis in IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)-deficient mice. Specifically, activated CD4(+) T cells direct ?? T-cell infiltration by inducing CCL2 expression in joints. Furthermore, IL-17 reporter mice reveal that the V?6(+) subset of CCR2(+) ?? T cells preferentially produces IL-17 in inflamed joints. Importantly, because IL-1Ra normally suppresses IL-1R expression on ?? T cells, IL-1Ra-deficient mice exhibit elevated IL-1R expression on V?6(+) cells, which play a critical role in inducing them to produce IL-17. Our findings demonstrate a pathogenic mechanism in which adaptive and innate immunity induce an autoimmune disease in a coordinated manner. PMID:26108163

  2. PP6 controls T cell development and homeostasis by negatively regulating distal TCR signaling.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jian; Shi, Hao; Shen, Ye; Peng, Chao; Liu, Yan; Li, Chenyu; Deng, Kejing; Geng, Jianguo; Xu, Tian; Zhuang, Yuan; Zheng, Biao; Tao, Wufan

    2015-02-15

    T cell development and homeostasis are both regulated by TCR signals. Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which are catalyzed by protein kinases and phosphatases, respectively, serve as important switches controlling multiple downstream pathways triggered by TCR recognition of Ags. It has been well documented that protein tyrosine phosphatases are involved in negative regulation of proximal TCR signaling. However, how TCR signals are terminated or attenuated in the distal TCR signaling pathways is largely unknown. We investigated the function of Ser/Thr protein phosphatase (PP) 6 in TCR signaling. T cell lineage-specific ablation of PP6 in mice resulted in enhanced thymic positive and negative selection, and preferential expansion of fetal-derived, IL-17-producing V?6V?1(+) T cells. Both PP6-deficient peripheral CD4(+) helper and CD8(+) cytolytic cells could not maintain a naive state and became fast-proliferating and short-lived effector cells. PP6 deficiency led to profound hyperactivation of multiple distal TCR signaling molecules, including MAPKs, AKT, and NF-?B. Our studies demonstrate that PP6 acts as a critical negative regulator, not only controlling both ?? and ?? lineage development, but also maintaining naive T cell homeostasis by preventing their premature activation before Ag stimulation. PMID:25609840

  3. Chromatin configuration of the human CD2 gene locus during T-cell development

    SciTech Connect

    Wotton, D.; Flanagan, B.F.; Owen, M.J. )

    1989-06-01

    T investigate the molecular basis for the tissue-specific expression of the human CD2 gene, its chromatin configuration was assessed by determining DNase I hypersensitivity and the degree of methylation during T-cell lineage commitment and development. Tissue-specific DNase I-hypersensitive sites were found within the 5{prime} promoter region and a region 3{prime} of the gene essential for gene expression. DNase I hypersensitivity of the 5{prime} region correlated strictly with transcriptional activity, whereas hypersensitivity of the 3{prime} region correlated with T-cell progenitor activity or lineage commitment but not necessarily with transcription. Hha I and Hpa II sites around the 5{prime} and 3{prime} regions were undermethylated in CD2-expressing T cells but were more extensively methylated in other cell types. These results define likely regulatory elements both upstream and downstream of the CD2 gene that control its tissue-specific expression. Further, they show that the 3{prime} regulatory region adopts an open chromatin configuration prior to lineage commitment and during early stages of T-cell development before the CD2 gene is transcribed.

  4. A normal T cell receptor beta CDR3 length distribution in patients with APECED.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Heikki J; Laakso, Sini; Salminen, Jukka T; Arstila, T Petteri; Tuulasvaara, Anni

    2015-06-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is caused by mutations in the AIRE gene. Murine studies suggest that AIRE controls thymic expression of tissue-restricted antigens, its absence allowing nonselected autoreactive cells to escape. We tested this in humans using the TCR? CDR3 length repertoire as a surrogate of thymic selection, as it shortens during the process. Analysis of healthy thymuses showed an altogether 1.9 base pair shortening, starting at the CD4(+)CD8(+)CD3(low) stage and continuing until the CD4(+) subset, likely encompassing both the positive and negative selection. Comparison of five APECED patients with eight healthy controls showed a skewed repertoire with oligoclonal expansions in the patients' CD4(+) and CD8(+) populations. The average CDR3 length, however, was normal and unaffected by the skewing. This was also true of the hypothesized autoreactive CD8(+)CD45RA(+) population. We failed to detect a subset with an abnormally long CDR3 repertoire, as would be predicted by a failure in selection. PMID:25880100

  5. Dampening of death pathways by schnurri-2 is essential for T-cell development.

    PubMed

    Staton, Tracy L; Lazarevic, Vanja; Jones, Dallas C; Lanser, Amanda J; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Shunsuke; Glimcher, Laurie H

    2011-04-01

    Generation of a diverse and self-tolerant T-cell repertoire requires appropriate interpretation of T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signals by CD4(+?) CD8(+) double-positive thymocytes. Thymocyte cell fate is dictated by the nature of TCR-major-histocompatibility-complex (MHC)-peptide interactions, with signals of higher strength leading to death (negative selection) and signals of intermediate strength leading to differentiation (positive selection). Molecules that regulate T-cell development by modulating TCR signal strength have been described but components that specifically define the boundaries between positive and negative selection remain unknown. Here we show in mice that repression of TCR-induced death pathways is critical for proper interpretation of positive selecting signals in vivo, and identify schnurri-2 (Shn2; also known as Hivep2) as a crucial death dampener. Our results indicate that Shn2(-/-) double-positive thymocytes inappropriately undergo negative selection in response to positive selecting signals, thus leading to disrupted T-cell development. Shn2(-/-) double-positive thymocytes are more sensitive to TCR-induced death in vitro and die in response to positive selection interactions in vivo. However, Shn2-deficient thymocytes can be positively selected when TCR-induced death is genetically ablated. Shn2 levels increase after TCR stimulation, indicating that integration of multiple TCR-MHC-peptide interactions may fine-tune the death threshold. Mechanistically, Shn2 functions downstream of TCR proximal signalling compenents to dampen Bax activation and the mitochondrial death pathway. Our findings uncover a critical regulator of T-cell development that controls the balance between death and differentiation. PMID:21475200

  6. Normal Tissue Depresses While Tumor Tissue Enhances Human T Cell Responses In Vivo to a Novel Self/Tumor Melanoma Antigen, OA1

    PubMed Central

    Touloukian, Christopher E.; Leitner, Wolfgang W.; Schnur, Rhonda E.; Robbins, Paul F.; Li, Yong; Southwood, Scott; Sette, Alessandro; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    Antitumor T cells often recognize targets that are nonmutated self tissue differentiation Ags, but the relative impact of Ag expression by normal and transformed tissue for a human self/tumor Ag has not been studied. To examine the influence of self-tolerance mechanisms on the function of self/tumor-specific T cell responses in humans, we sought to identify an Ag that was expressed, processed, and presented in an MHC-restricted fashion by tumor cells, but for which there was the human equivalent of a knockout. In this study, we report the first immunological characterization of a melanoma/melanocyte differentiation Ag, called OA1, which meets these criteria. This Ag, an X chromosome-encoded melanoma/melanocyte differentiation Ag, was completely deleted in a male patient. Using a newly identified HLA-A*2402-restricted epitope (LYSACFWWL) to study T cell tolerance, we found that OA1-specific T cell reactivity was more than five SD higher in the knockout patient that in normal controls. These data provide compelling evidence for T cell tolerance to OA1 in humans. Most surprisingly, we found elevated levels of OA1-specific T cells in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma, indicating that the tumor-bearing state partially reversed tolerance observed in normal (non-knockout) individuals. Taken together, these findings indicated that tolerance can exist for self/tumor Ags in humans, and that this tolerance could be partially abrogated by the growth of the tumor, increasing the reactivity of tumor Ag-specific T cells. Thus, the tumor-bearing state reverses, in part, the tolerance of T cells that results from the normal expression of tissue differentiation Ags. PMID:12538723

  7. Normal tissue depresses while tumor tissue enhances human T cell responses in vivo to a novel self/tumor melanoma antigen, OA1.

    PubMed

    Touloukian, Christopher E; Leitner, Wolfgang W; Schnur, Rhonda E; Robbins, Paul F; Li, Yong; Southwood, Scott; Sette, Alessandro; Rosenberg, Steven A; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2003-02-01

    Antitumor T cells often recognize targets that are nonmutated "self" tissue differentiation Ags, but the relative impact of Ag expression by normal and transformed tissue for a human self/tumor Ag has not been studied. To examine the influence of self-tolerance mechanisms on the function of self/tumor-specific T cell responses in humans, we sought to identify an Ag that was expressed, processed, and presented in an MHC-restricted fashion by tumor cells, but for which there was the human equivalent of a "knockout." In this study, we report the first immunological characterization of a melanoma/melanocyte differentiation Ag, called OA1, which meets these criteria. This Ag, an X chromosome-encoded melanoma/melanocyte differentiation Ag, was completely deleted in a male patient. Using a newly identified HLA-A*2402-restricted epitope (LYSACFWWL) to study T cell tolerance, we found that OA1-specific T cell reactivity was more than five SD higher in the knockout patient that in normal controls. These data provide compelling evidence for T cell tolerance to OA1 in humans. Most surprisingly, we found elevated levels of OA1-specific T cells in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma, indicating that the tumor-bearing state partially reversed tolerance observed in normal (non-"knockout") individuals. Taken together, these findings indicated that tolerance can exist for self/tumor Ags in humans, and that this tolerance could be partially abrogated by the growth of the tumor, increasing the reactivity of tumor Ag-specific T cells. Thus, the tumor-bearing state reverses, in part, the tolerance of T cells that results from the normal expression of tissue differentiation Ags. PMID:12538723

  8. The critical role of STIM1-dependent Ca2+ signalling during T-cell development and activation.

    PubMed

    Samakai, Elsie; Hooper, Robert; Soboloff, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    T lymphocytes are key cellular effectors of adaptive immunity able to recognize a virtually limitless number of antigenic peptides and mount an immune response. Ca(2+) signals are crucial to the development and activation of T cells and Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 (STIM1) has been identified as a critical modulator of intracellular Ca(2+) levels in T cells. Although the role of STIM1 in T cell activation has been extensively investigated, the role of STIM1 in T cell development has been somewhat controversial. Indeed, deficiencies in STIM1 expression and function lead to both developmental defects associated with the development of autoimmunity yet also interfere with T cell activation leading to severe combined immunodeficiency signifying a multifaceted role of STIM1 in T cell physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:23906672

  9. CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Immunity during Trypanosoma cruzi Infection: A Path for Vaccine Development?

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Virgilio, Fernando; Pontes, Camila; Dominguez, Mariana Ribeiro; Ersching, Jonatan; Rodrigues, Mauricio Martins; Vasconcelos, José Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    MHC-restricted CD8+ T cells are important during infection with the intracellular protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Experimental studies performed in the past 25 years have elucidated a number of features related to the immune response mediated by these T cells, which are important for establishing the parasite/host equilibrium leading to chronic infection. CD8+ T cells are specific for highly immunodominant antigens expressed by members of the trans-sialidase family. After infection, their activation is delayed, and the cells display a high proliferative activity associated with high apoptotic rates. Although they participate in parasite control and elimination, they are unable to clear the infection due to their low fitness, allowing the parasite to establish the chronic phase when these cells then play an active role in the induction of heart immunopathology. Vaccination with a number of subunit recombinant vaccines aimed at eliciting specific CD8+ T cells can reverse this path, thereby generating a productive immune response that will lead to the control of infection, reduction of symptoms, and reduction of disease transmission. Due to these attributes, activation of CD8+ T lymphocytes may constitute a path for the development of a veterinarian or human vaccine. PMID:25104879

  10. Normal human CD4(+) helper T cells express Kv1.1 voltage-gated K(+) channels, and selective Kv1.1 block in T cells induces by itself robust TNFα production and secretion and activation of the NFκB non-canonical pathway.

    PubMed

    Fellerhoff-Losch, Barbara; Korol, Sergiy V; Ganor, Yonatan; Gu, Songhai; Cooper, Itzik; Eilam, Raya; Besser, Michal; Goldfinger, Meidan; Chowers, Yehuda; Wank, Rudolf; Birnir, Bryndis; Levite, Mia

    2016-03-01

    TNFα is a very potent and pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine, essential to the immune system for eradicating cancer and microorganisms, and to the nervous system, for brain development and ongoing function. Yet, excess and/or chronic TNFα secretion causes massive tissue damage in autoimmune, inflammatory and neurological diseases and injuries. Therefore, many patients with autoimmune/inflammatory diseases receive anti-TNFα medications. TNFα is secreted primarily by CD4(+) T cells, macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils and NK cells, mainly after immune stimulation. Yet, the cause for the pathologically high and chronic TNFα secretion is unknown. Can blocking of a particular ion channel in T cells induce by itself TNFα secretion? Such phenomenon was never revealed or even hypothesized. In this interdisciplinary study we discovered that: (1) normal human T cells express Kv1.1 voltage-gated potassium channel mRNA, and the Kv1.1 membrane-anchored protein channel; (2) Kv1.1 is expressed in most CD4(+)CD3(+) helper T cells (mean CD4(+)CD3(+)Kv1.1(+) T cells of 7 healthy subjects: 53.09 ± 22.17 %), but not in CD8(+)CD3(+) cytotoxic T cells (mean CD8(+)CD3(+)Kv1.1(+) T cells: 4.12 ± 3.04 %); (3) electrophysiological whole-cell recordings in normal human T cells revealed Kv currents; (4) Dendrotoxin-K (DTX-K), a highly selective Kv1.1 blocker derived from snake toxin, increases the rate of rise and decay of Kv currents in both resting and activated T cells, without affecting the peak current; (5) DTX-K by itself induces robust TNFα production and secretion by normal human T cells, without elevating IFNγ, IL-4 and IL-10; (6) intact Ca(2+) channels are required for DTX-induced TNFα secretion; (7) selective anti-Kv1.1 antibodies also induce by themselves TNFα secretion; (8) DTX-K activates NFκB in normal human T cells via the unique non-canonical-pathway; (9) injection of Kv1.1-blocked human T cells to SCID mice, causes recruitment of resident mouse cells into the liver, alike reported after TNFα injection into the brain. Based on our discoveries we speculate that abnormally blocked Kv1.1 in T cells (and other immune cells?), due to either anti-Kv1.1 autoimmune antibodies, or Kv1.1-blocking toxins alike DTX-K, or Kv1.1-blocking genetic mutations, may be responsible for the chronic/excessive TNFα in autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. Independently, we also hypothesize that selective block of Kv1.1 in CD4(+) T cells of patients with cancer or chronic infectious diseases could be therapeutic, since it may: a. augment beneficial secretion and delivery of TNFα to the disease-affected sites; b. induce recruitment and extravasation of curative immune cells and factors; c. improve accessibility of drugs to the brain and few peripheral organs thanks to TNFα-induced increased permeability of organ's barriers. PMID:26611796

  11. Disregulated expression of the transcription factor ThPOK during T-cell development leads to high incidence of T-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Ok; He, Xiao; Mookerjee-Basu, Jayati; Zhongping, Dai; Hua, Xiang; Nicolas, Emmanuelle; Sulis, Maria Luisa; Ferrando, Adolfo A.; Testa, Joseph R.; Kappes, Dietmar J.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor T-helper-inducing POZ/Krueppel-like factor (ThPOK, encoded by the Zbtb7b gene) plays widespread and critical roles in T-cell development, particularly as the master regulator of CD4 commitment. Here we show that mice expressing a constitutive T-cell–specific ThPOK transgene (ThPOKconst mice) develop thymic lymphomas. These tumors resemble human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), in that they predominantly exhibit activating Notch1 mutations. Lymphomagenesis is prevented if thymocyte development is arrested at the DN3 stage by recombination-activating gene (RAG) deficiency, but restored by introduction of a T-cell receptor (TCR) transgene or by a single injection of anti-αβTCR antibody into ThPOKconst RAG-deficient mice, which promotes development to the CD4+8+ (DP) stage. Hence, TCR signals and/or traversal of the DN (double negative) > DP (double positive) checkpoint are required for ThPOK-mediated lymphomagenesis. These results demonstrate a novel link between ThPOK, TCR signaling, and lymphomagenesis. Finally, we present evidence that ectopic ThPOK expression gives rise to a preleukemic and self-perpetuating DN4 lymphoma precursor population. Our results collectively define a novel role for ThPOK as an oncogene and precisely map the stage in thymopoiesis susceptible to ThPOK-dependent tumor initiation. PMID:26056302

  12. Membrane association of the CD3? signaling domain is required for optimal T cell development and function1

    PubMed Central

    Bettini, Matthew L.; Guy, Clifford; Dash, Pradyot; Vignali, Kate M.; Hamm, David E.; Dobbins, Jessica; Gagnon, Etienne; Thomas, Paul G.; Wucherpfennig, Kai W.; Vignali, Dario A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The T cell receptor (TCR):CD3 complex transduces signals that are critical for optimal T cell development and adaptive immunity. In resting T cells, the CD3? cytoplasmic tail associates with the plasma membrane via a proximal basic-rich stretch (BRS). Here we show that mice lacking a functional CD3?-BRS exhibited substantial reductions in thymic cellularity and limited CD4?CD8? double negative-3 (DN3) to DN4 thymocyte transition, due to enhanced DN4 TCR signaling resulting in increased cell death and TCR downregulation in all subsequent populations. Furthermore, positive, but not negative, T cell selection was affected in mice lacking a functional CD3?-BRS, which led to limited peripheral T cell function and substantially reduced responsiveness to influenza infection. Collectively, these results indicate membrane association of the CD3? signaling domain is required for optimal thymocyte development and peripheral T cell function. PMID:24899501

  13. Flow cytometric profiling of mature and developing regulatory T cells in the thymus

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Donald M; Caton, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Natural Regulatory T (Treg) cells are a subset of CD4+ T cells characterized by expression of the transcription factor Foxp3 and the ability to suppress immune responses. Treg cells develop in the thymus in response to highly specific interactions between the T cell receptor (TCR) and self-antigens. These processes can be recapitulated in antigen-specific systems using transgenic mice that co-express a TCR with its cognate peptide as a neo-self antigen. Here we describe a method for using such a system to establish a flow cytometric profile of phenotype markers expressed by developing and mature Treg cells in the thymus. Our approach is to compare antigen-specific thymocytes developing in the presence or absence of Treg cell-selecting ligands to identify phenotypic changes that characterize thymocytes undergoing selection into the Treg cell lineage. PMID:21287329

  14. Cutting Edge: Codeletion of the Ras GTPase-Activating Proteins (RasGAPs) Neurofibromin 1 and p120 RasGAP in T Cells Results in the Development of T Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lubeck, Beth A; Lapinski, Philip E; Oliver, Jennifer A; Ksionda, Olga; Parada, Luis F; Zhu, Yuan; Maillard, Ivan; Chiang, Mark; Roose, Jeroen; King, Philip D

    2015-07-01

    Ras GTPase-activating proteins (RasGAPs) inhibit signal transduction initiated through the Ras small GTP-binding protein. However, which members of the RasGAP family act as negative regulators of T cell responses is not completely understood. In this study, we investigated potential roles for the RasGAPs RASA1 and neurofibromin 1 (NF1) in T cells through the generation and analysis of T cell-specific RASA1 and NF1 double-deficient mice. In contrast to mice lacking either RasGAP alone in T cells, double-deficient mice developed T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, which originated at an early point in T cell development and was dependent on activating mutations in the Notch1 gene. These findings highlight RASA1 and NF1 as cotumor suppressors in the T cell lineage. PMID:26002977

  15. Normalization of Tumor Microenvironment by Neem Leaf Glycoprotein Potentiates Effector T Cell Functions and Therapeutically Intervenes in the Growth of Mouse Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Subhasis; Banerjee, Saptak; Mallick, Atanu; Goswami, Kuntal Kanti; Roy, Soumyabrata; Bose, Anamika; Baral, Rathindranath

    2013-01-01

    We have observed restriction of the murine sarcoma growth by therapeutic intervention of neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP). In order to evaluate the mechanism of tumor growth restriction, here, we have analyzed tumor microenvironment (TME) from sarcoma bearing mice with NLGP therapy (NLGP-TME, in comparison to PBS-TME). Analysis of cytokine milieu within TME revealed IL-10, TGF?, IL-6 rich type 2 characters was switched to type 1 microenvironment with dominance of IFN? secretion within NLGP-TME. Proportion of CD8+ T cells was increased within NLGP-TME and these T cells were protected from TME-induced anergy by NLGP, as indicated by higher expression of pNFAT and inhibit related downstream signaling. Moreover, low expression of FasR+ cells within CD8+ T cell population denotes prevention from activation induced cell death. Using CFSE as a probe, better migration of T cells was noted within TME from NLGP treated mice than PBS cohort. CD8+ T cells isolated from NLGP-TME exhibited greater cytotoxicity to sarcoma cells in vitro and these cells show higher expression of cytotoxicity related molecules, perforin and granzyme B. Adoptive transfer of NLGP-TME exposed T cells, but not PBS-TME exposed cells in mice, is able to significantly inhibit the growth of sarcoma in vivo. Such tumor growth inhibition by NLGP-TME exposed T cells was not observed when mice were depleted for CD8+ T cells. Accumulated evidences strongly suggest NLGP mediated normalization of TME allows T cells to perform optimally to inhibit the tumor growth. PMID:23785504

  16. Models of Self-Peptide Sampling by Developing T Cells Identify Candidate Mechanisms of Thymic Selection

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Iren; van Santen, Hisse M.; Seddon, Benedict; Yates, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional and regulatory T cells develop in the thymus where they are exposed to samples of self-peptide MHC (pMHC) ligands. This probabilistic process selects for cells within a range of responsiveness that allows the detection of foreign antigen without excessive responses to self. Regulatory T cells are thought to lie at the higher end of the spectrum of acceptable self-reactivity and play a crucial role in the control of autoimmunity and tolerance to innocuous antigens. While many studies have elucidated key elements influencing lineage commitment, we still lack a full understanding of how thymocytes integrate signals obtained by sampling self-peptides to make fate decisions. To address this problem, we apply stochastic models of signal integration by T cells to data from a study quantifying the development of the two lineages using controllable levels of agonist peptide in the thymus. We find two models are able to explain the observations; one in which T cells continually re-assess fate decisions on the basis of multiple summed proximal signals from TCR-pMHC interactions; and another in which TCR sensitivity is modulated over time, such that contact with the same pMHC ligand may lead to divergent outcomes at different stages of development. Neither model requires that T and T are differentially susceptible to deletion or that the two lineages need qualitatively different signals for development, as have been proposed. We find additional support for the variable-sensitivity model, which is able to explain apparently paradoxical observations regarding the effect of partial and strong agonists on T and T development. PMID:23935465

  17. How specificity for self-peptides shapes the development and function of regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Donald M.; Picca, Cristina Cozzo; Oh, Soyoung; Perng, Olivia A.; Aitken, Malinda; Erikson, Jan; Caton, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    The cataclysmic disease that develops in mice and humans lacking CD4+ T cells expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 has provided abundant evidence that Foxp3+CD4+ Tregs are required to suppress a latent autoreactivity of the immune system. There is also evidence for the existence of tissue-specific Tregs that can act to suppress regional autoimmune responses, suggesting that Tregs exert their effects, in part, through responding to self-peptides. However, how the immune system generates a repertoire of Tregs that is designed to recognize and direct regulatory function to self-peptides is incompletely understood. This review describes studies aimed at determining how T cell recognition of self-peptide(s) directs Treg formation in the thymus, including discussion of a modified avidity model of thymocyte development. Studies aimed at determining how TCR specificity contributes to the ability of Tregs to suppress autoimmune diseases are also discussed. PMID:20495071

  18. Gamma delta T cell responses associated with the development of tuberculosis in health care workers.

    PubMed

    Ordway, Diane J; Pinto, Luisa; Costa, Leonor; Martins, Marta; Leandro, Clara; Viveiros, Miguel; Amaral, Leonard; Arroz, Maria J; Ventura, Fernando A; Dockrell, Hazel M

    2005-03-01

    This study evaluated T cell immune responses to purified protein derivative (PPD) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in health care workers who remained free of active tuberculosis (HCWs w/o TB), health care workers who went on to develop active TB (HCWs w/TB), non-health care workers who were TB free (Non-HCWs) and tuberculosis patients presenting with minimal (Min TB) or advanced (Adv TB) disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated with Mtb and PPD and the expression of T cell activation markers CD25+ and HLA-DR+, intracellular IL-4 and IFN-gamma production and cytotoxic responses were evaluated. PBMC from HCWs who developed TB showed decreased percentages of cells expressing CD8+CD25+ in comparison to HCWs who remained healthy. HCWs who developed TB showed increased gammadelta TCR+ cell cytotoxicity and decreased CD3+gammadelta TCR- cell cytotoxicity in comparison to HCWs who remained healthy. PBMC from TB patients with advanced disease showed decreased percentages of CD25+CD4+ and CD25+CD8+ T cells that were associated with increased IL-4 production in CD8+ and gammadelta TCR+ phenotypes, in comparison with TB patients presenting minimal disease. TB patients with advanced disease showed increased gammadelta TCR+ cytotoxicity and reduced CD3+gammadelta TCR- cell cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that HCWs who developed TB show an early compensatory mechanism involving an increase in lytic responses of gammadelta TCR+ cells which did not prevent TB. PMID:15708307

  19. Hormonal control of T-cell development in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Savino, Wilson; Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella Aras; Lepletier, Ailin; Dardenne, Mireille

    2016-02-01

    The physiology of the thymus, the primary lymphoid organ in which T cells are generated, is controlled by hormones. Data from animal models indicate that several peptide and nonpeptide hormones act pleiotropically within the thymus to modulate the proliferation, differentiation, migration and death by apoptosis of developing thymocytes. For example, growth hormone and prolactin can enhance thymocyte proliferation and migration, whereas glucocorticoids lead to the apoptosis of these developing cells. The thymus undergoes progressive age-dependent atrophy with a loss of cells being generated and exported, therefore, hormone-based therapies are being developed as an alternative strategy to rejuvenate the organ, as well as to augment thymocyte proliferation and the export of mature T cells to peripheral lymphoid organs. Some hormones (such as growth hormone and progonadoliberin-1) are also being used as therapeutic agents to treat immunodeficiency disorders associated with thymic atrophy, such as HIV infection. In this Review, we discuss the accumulating data that shows the thymus gland is under complex and multifaceted hormonal control that affects the process of T-cell development in health and disease. PMID:26437623

  20. Differential effect of DJ-1/PARK7 on development of natural and induced regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Yogesh; Chen, Hong; Zhou, Yuetao; Föller, Michael; Mak, Tak W.; Salker, Madhuri S.; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for maintaining an effective immune tolerance and a homeostatic balance of various other immune cells. To manipulate the immune response during infections and autoimmune disorders, it is essential to know which genes or key molecules are involved in the development of Tregs. Transcription factor Foxp3 is required for the development of Tregs and governs most of the suppressive functions of these cells. Inhibited PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling is critical for Foxp3 stability. Previous studies have suggested that DJ-1 or PARK7 protein is a positive regulator of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway by negatively regulating the activity of PTEN. Thus, we hypothesised that a lack of DJ-1 could promote the development of Tregs. As a result, loss of DJ-1 decreased the total CD4+ T cell numbers but increased the fraction of thymic and peripheral nTregs. In contrast, Foxp3 generation was not augmented following differentiation of DJ-1-deficient naïve CD4+ T cells. DJ-1-deficient-iTregs were imperfect in replication, proliferation and more prone to cell death. Furthermore, DJ-1 deficient iTregs were less sensitive to pSmad2 and pStat5 signalling but had activated AKT/mTOR signalling. These observations reveal an unexpected differential role of DJ-1 in the development of nTregs and iTregs. PMID:26634899

  1. T cell development involves TRAF3IP3-mediated ERK signaling in the Golgi.

    PubMed

    Zou, Qiang; Jin, Jin; Xiao, Yichuan; Hu, Hongbo; Zhou, Xiaofei; Jie, Zuliang; Xie, Xiaoping; Li, James Y H; Cheng, Xuhong; Sun, Shao-Cong

    2015-07-27

    Generation of T lymphocytes in the thymus is guided by signal transduction from the T cell receptor (TCR), but the underlying mechanism is incompletely understood. Here we have identified a Golgi-associated factor, TRAF3-interacting protein 3 (TRAF3IP3), as a crucial mediator of thymocyte development. TRAF3IP3 deficiency in mice attenuates the generation of mature thymocytes caused by impaired thymocyte-positive selection. TRAF3IP3 mediates TCR-stimulated activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and its upstream kinase mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK). Interestingly, TRAF3IP3 exerts this signaling function through recruiting MEK to the Golgi and, thereby, facilitating the interaction of MEK with its activator BRAF. Transgenic expression of a constitutively active MEK rescues the T cell development block in Traf3ip3 knockout mice. These findings establish TRAF3IP3 as a novel regulator of T cell development and suggest a Golgi-specific ERK signaling mechanism that regulates thymocyte development. PMID:26195727

  2. A Quantitative Increase in Regulatory T Cells Controls Development of Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Shilpak; Eby, Jonathan; Al-Khami, Amir A.; Soloshchenko, Myroslawa; Kang, Hee-Kap; Kaur, Navtej; Naga, Osama; Murali, Anuradha; Nishimura, Michael I.; Le Poole, I. Caroline; Mehrotra, Shikhar

    2014-01-01

    T cell cytolytic activity targeting epidermal melanocyte is shown to cause progressive depigmentation and autoimmune vitiligo. Using the recently developed transgenic mice h3TA2 that carry T cell with a HLA-A2 restricted human tyrosinase reactive TCR and develop spontaneous vitiligo from an early age, we addressed the mechanism regulating autoimmune vitiligo. Depigmentation was significantly impaired only in IFN-γ knockout h3TA2 mice but not in TNF-α or perforin knockout h3TA2 mouse strains, confirming a central role for IFN-γ in vitiligo development. Additionally, the regulatory T cells (Treg) were relatively abundant in h3TA2-IFN-γ−/− mice, and depletion of Treg employing anti-CD25 antibody fully restored the depigmentation phenotype in h3TA2-IFN-γ−/− mice mediated in part through upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines as IL-17and IL-22. Further therapeutic potential of Treg abundance in preventing progressive depigmentation was evaluated by adoptively transferring purified Treg or using rapamycin. Both adoptive transfer of Treg and rapamycin induced lasting remission of vitiligo in mice treated at the onset of disease, or in mice with established disease. This leads us to conclude that reduced regulatory responses are pivotal to the development of vitiligo in disease-prone mice, and that a quantitative increase in the Treg population may be therapeutic for vitiligo patients with active disease. PMID:24366614

  3. IL-15 receptor ? signaling constrains the development of IL-17producing ?? T cells

    PubMed Central

    Colpitts, Sara L.; Puddington, Lynn; Lefranois, Leo

    2015-01-01

    The development and homeostasis of ?? T cells is highly dependent on distinct cytokine networks. Here we examine the role of IL-15 and its unique receptor, IL-15R?, in the development of IL-17producing ?? (??-17) T cells. Phenotypic analysis has shown that CD44high ??-17 cells express IL-15R? and the common gamma chain (CD132), yet lack the IL-2/15R? chain (CD122). Surprisingly, we found an enlarged population of ??-17 cells in the peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes of adult IL-15R? KO mice, but not of IL-15 KO mice. The generation of mixed chimeras from neonatal thymocytes indicated that cell-intrinsic IL-15R? expression was required to limit IL-17 production by ?? T cells. ??-17 cells also were increased in the peripheral lymph nodes of transgenic knock-in mice, where the IL-15R? intracellular signaling domain was replaced with the intracellular portion of the IL-2R? chain (that lacks signaling capacity). Finally, an analysis of neonatal thymi revealed that the CD44lo/int precursors of ??-17 cells, which also expressed IL-15R?, were increased in newborn mice deficient in IL-15R? signaling, but not in IL-15 itself. Thus, these findings demonstrate that signaling through IL-15R? regulates the development of ??-17 cells early in ontogeny, with long-term effects on their peripheral homeostasis in the adult. PMID:26195801

  4. Antibody persistence and T-cell balance: Two key factors confronting HIV vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, George K.; DeVico, Anthony L.; Gallo, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    The quest for a prophylactic AIDS vaccine is ongoing, but it is now clear that the successful vaccine must elicit protective antibody responses. Accordingly, intense efforts are underway to identify immunogens that elicit these responses. Regardless of the mechanism of antibody-mediated protection, be it neutralization, Fc-mediated effector function, or both, antibody persistence and appropriate T-cell help are significant problems confronting the development of a successful AIDS vaccine. Here, we discuss the evidence illustrating the poor persistence of antibody responses to Env, the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1, and the related problem of CD4+ T-cell responses that compromise vaccine efficacy by creating excess cellular targets of HIV-1 infection. Finally, we propose solutions to both problems that are applicable to all Env-based AIDS vaccines regardless of the mechanism of antibody-mediated protection. PMID:25349379

  5. Helios-positive functional regulatory T cells are decreased in decidua of miscarriage cases with normal fetal chromosomal content.

    PubMed

    Inada, Kumiko; Shima, Tomoko; Ito, Mika; Ushijima, Akemi; Saito, Shigeru

    2015-02-01

    Regulatory (Treg) T cells play essential roles in the maintenance of allogeneic pregnancy in mice and humans. Recent data show that Foxp3 expression occurs in both immuno-suppressive Treg and -nonsuppressive effector T (Teff) cells upon activation in humans. Samstein et al. (2012) reported that inducible Treg (iTreg) cells enforce maternal-fetal tolerance in placental mammals. Therefore, we should reanalyze which types of Treg cell play an important role in the maintenance of allogeneic pregnancy. In this study, we studied the frequencies of naïve Treg cells, effector Treg cells, Foxp3(+) Teff cells, Helios(+) naturally occurring Treg (nTreg) cells, and Helios(-) iTreg cells using flow cytometry. The frequencies of effector Treg cells and Foxp3(+) Teff cells among CD4(+)Foxp3(+) cells in the decidua of miscarriage cases with a normal embryo karyotype (n=8) were significantly lower (P=0.0105) and significantly higher (P=0.0258) than those in normally progressing pregnancies (n=11), respectively. However, these frequencies in miscarriages with an abnormal embryo karyotype (n=15) were similar to those in normally progressing pregnancies. The frequencies of these cell populations in the three groups were unchanged in peripheral blood; on the other hand, most of the effector Treg cells in the decidua were Helios(+) nTreg cells and these frequencies were significantly higher than those in peripheral blood, while those among effector Treg and naïve Treg cells in the decidua and peripheral blood were similar among the three groups. These data suggest that decreased Helios(+) effector nTreg might play an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy in humans. PMID:25453751

  6. Role of Ets Proteins in Development, Differentiation, and Function of T-Cell Subsets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mian; Gao, Weiwu; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C; Wu, Yuzhang; Ni, Bing; Tian, Yi

    2016-03-01

    Through positive selection, double-positive cells in the thymus differentiate into CD4(+) or CD8(+) T single-positive cells that subsequently develop into different types of effective T cells, such as T-helper and cytotoxic T lymphocyte cells, that play distinctive roles in the immune system. Development, differentiation, and function of thymocytes and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells are controlled by a multitude of secreted and intracellular factors, ranging from cytokine signaling modules to transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers. Members of the E26 transformation specific (Ets) family of transcription factors, in particular, are potent regulators of these CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cell processes. In this review, we summarize and discuss the functions and underlying mechanisms of the Ets family members that have been characterized as involved in these processes. Ongoing research of these factors is expected to identify practical applications for the Ets family members as novel therapeutic targets for inflammation-related diseases. PMID:26301869

  7. Impairment of T cell development and acute inflammatory response in HIV-1 Tat transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Fiume, Giuseppe; Scialdone, Annarita; Albano, Francesco; Rossi, Annalisa; Maria Tuccillo, Franca; Rea, Domenica; Palmieri, Camillo; Caiazzo, Elisabetta; Cicala, Carla; Bellevicine, Claudio; Falcone, Cristina; Vecchio, Eleonora; Pisano, Antonio; Ceglia, Simona; Mimmi, Selena; Iaccino, Enrico; Laurentiis, Annamaria de; Pontoriero, Marilena; Agosti, Valter; Troncone, Giancarlo; Mignogna, Chiara; Palma, Giuseppe; Arra, Claudio; Mallardo, Massimo; Maria Buonaguro, Franco; Scala, Giuseppe; Quinto, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    Immune activation and chronic inflammation are hallmark features of HIV infection causing T-cell depletion and cellular immune dysfunction in AIDS. Here, we addressed the issue whether HIV-1 Tat could affect T cell development and acute inflammatory response by generating a transgenic mouse expressing Tat in lymphoid tissue. Tat-Tg mice showed thymus atrophy and the maturation block from DN4 to DP thymic subpopulations, resulting in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells depletion in peripheral blood. In Tat-positive thymus, we observed the increased p65/NF-?B activity and deregulated expression of cytokines/chemokines and microRNA-181a-1, which are involved in T-lymphopoiesis. Upon LPS intraperitoneal injection, Tat-Tg mice developed an abnormal acute inflammatory response, which was characterized by enhanced lethality and production of inflammatory cytokines. Based on these findings, Tat-Tg mouse could represent an animal model for testing adjunctive therapies of HIV-1-associated inflammation and immune deregulation. PMID:26343909

  8. Impairment of T cell development and acute inflammatory response in HIV-1 Tat transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Giuseppe; Scialdone, Annarita; Albano, Francesco; Rossi, Annalisa; Tuccillo, Franca Maria; Rea, Domenica; Palmieri, Camillo; Caiazzo, Elisabetta; Cicala, Carla; Bellevicine, Claudio; Falcone, Cristina; Vecchio, Eleonora; Pisano, Antonio; Ceglia, Simona; Mimmi, Selena; Iaccino, Enrico; de Laurentiis, Annamaria; Pontoriero, Marilena; Agosti, Valter; Troncone, Giancarlo; Mignogna, Chiara; Palma, Giuseppe; Arra, Claudio; Mallardo, Massimo; Buonaguro, Franco Maria; Scala, Giuseppe; Quinto, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    Immune activation and chronic inflammation are hallmark features of HIV infection causing T-cell depletion and cellular immune dysfunction in AIDS. Here, we addressed the issue whether HIV-1 Tat could affect T cell development and acute inflammatory response by generating a transgenic mouse expressing Tat in lymphoid tissue. Tat-Tg mice showed thymus atrophy and the maturation block from DN4 to DP thymic subpopulations, resulting in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells depletion in peripheral blood. In Tat-positive thymus, we observed the increased p65/NF-?B activity and deregulated expression of cytokines/chemokines and microRNA-181a-1, which are involved in T-lymphopoiesis. Upon LPS intraperitoneal injection, Tat-Tg mice developed an abnormal acute inflammatory response, which was characterized by enhanced lethality and production of inflammatory cytokines. Based on these findings, Tat-Tg mouse could represent an animal model for testing adjunctive therapies of HIV-1-associated inflammation and immune deregulation. PMID:26343909

  9. New Insights into the Roles of Stat5a/b and Stat3 in T Cell Development and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lai; Laurence, Arian; O'Shea, John J.

    2009-01-01

    T cell development and differentiation is carefully orchestrated by a series of cytokines. The importance of STAT family proteins in mediating signals by these cytokines is well-known, but new information on the role of STATs in novel aspects of T cell function and new T cell subsets continues to accumulate. Recent studies have placed Stat5a/b and Stat3 center stage in T cell development and differentiation. Stat5a/b are indispensable in T regulatory (Treg) cell development and maintenance, and negatively regulate T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation. Conversely, Stat3 is essential for Th17 differentiation and inhibits Treg cells. The balance of Treg and Th17 cells is thought to be critical in maintaining immune tolerance, while preserving effective host defense. Therefore, Stat5a/b and Stat3 are emerging to be key players in T cell differentiation and homeostasis. PMID:18708155

  10. Spontaneous Intestinal Tumorigenesis in Apc (/Min+) Mice Requires Altered T Cell Development with IL-17A.

    PubMed

    Chae, Wook-Jin; Bothwell, Alfred L M

    2015-01-01

    The control of inflammatory diseases requires functional regulatory T cells (Tregs) with significant Gata-3 expression. Here we address the inhibitory role of Tregs on intestinal tumorigenesis in the Apc (/Min+) mouse model that resembles human familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Apc (/Min+) mice had a markedly increased frequency of Foxp3+ Tregs and yet decreased Gata-3 expression in the lamina propria. To address the role of heterozygous Apc gene mutation in Tregs, we generated Foxp3-Cre, Apc (flox/+) mice. Tregs from these mice effectively inhibited tumorigenesis comparable to wild type Tregs after adoptive transfer into Apc (/Min+) mice, demonstrating that the heterozygous Apc gene mutation in Tregs does not induce the loss of control over tumor microenvironment. Adoptive transfer of in vitro generated Apc (/Min+) iTregs (inducible Tregs) failed to inhibit intestinal tumorigenesis, suggesting that nave CD4 T cells generated from Apc (/Min+) mice thymus were impaired. We also showed that adoptively transferred IL-17A-deficient Apc (/Min+) Tregs inhibited tumor growth, suggesting that IL-17A was critical to impair the tumor regression function of Apc (/Min+) Tregs. Taken together, our results suggest that both T cell development in a functional thymus and IL-17A control the ability of Treg to inhibit intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc (/Min+) mice. PMID:26146642

  11. Design and Development of Therapies using Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Expressing T cells

    PubMed Central

    Dotti, Gianpietro; Gottschalk, Stephen; Savoldo, Barbara; Brenner, Malcolm K

    2013-01-01

    Summary Investigators developed chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for expression on T cells more than 25 years ago. When the CAR is derived from an antibody, the resultant cell should combine the desirable targeting features of an antibody (e.g. lack of requirement for major histocompatibility complex recognition, ability to recognize non-protein antigens) with the persistence, trafficking and effector functions of a T-cell. This article describes how the past two decades have seen a crescendo of research which has now begun to translate these potential benefits into effective treatments for patients with cancer. We describe the basic design of CARs, describe how antigenic targets are selected, and the initial clinical experience with CART cells. Our review then describes our own and other investigators work aimed at improving the function of CARs and reviews the clinical studies in hematological and solid malignancies that are beginning to exploit these approaches. Finally, we show the value of adding additional engineering features to CAR-T cells, irrespective of their target, to render them better suited to function in the tumor environment, and discuss how the safety of these heavily modified cells may be maintained. PMID:24329793

  12. Clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells at the early stage of T cell development in thymus of radiation bone marrow chimeras

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuzaki, G.; Yoshikai, Y.; Ogimoto, M.; Kishihara, K.; Nomoto, K. )

    1990-07-01

    Sequential appearance of T cell subpopulations occurs in the thymocytes of irradiated C3H/He mice (H-2k, Mls-1b2a, Thy-1.2) after transplantation with bone marrow cells of AKR/J mice (H-2k, Mls-1a2b, Thy-1.1) (AKR----C3H chimeras). The donor-derived thymocytes of AKR----C3H chimeras on day 14 after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) contained a large number of blastlike CD4+CD8+ cells which represent relatively immature thymocytes, whereas those on day 21 after BMT consisted of small sized CD4+,CD8+ cells which represent a great part in normal thymocytes. To define the developmental stage at which clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells occurs in adult thymus, we followed the fate of V beta 6- or V beta 11-bearing T cells in the donor-derived thymocytes at the early stage of AKR----C3H chimeras. Mature thymocytes expressing high intensity of V beta 6 or V beta 11, which are involved in recognition of Mls-1a or MHC I-E gene products, respectively, were deleted from the donor-derived thymocytes on day 21. Immature thymocytes expressing low intensity of V beta 6 in CD3low thymocyte fraction decreased in proportion, whereas those expressing low intensity of V beta 11 rather increased in proportion in the donor-derived thymocytes of AKR----C3H chimeras from day 14 to day 21 after BMT. These results suggest that the clonal deletion of V beta 6-positive cells occurs just at the stage of immature CD3lowCD4+CD8+ cells, whereas the clonal deletion of V beta 11-positive cells may begin at the transitional stage from CD3lowCD4+CD8+ cells to CD3high single positive cells. Timing of negative selection of thymocytes may vary in distinct T cells capable of recognizing different self-Ag.

  13. Apoptotic cell-treated dendritic cells induce immune tolerance by specifically inhibiting development of CD4(+) effector memory T cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fang; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Rostami, Abdolmohamad

    2016-02-01

    CD4(+) memory T cells play an important role in induction of autoimmunity and chronic inflammatory responses; however, regulatory mechanisms of CD4(+) memory T cell-mediated inflammatory responses are poorly understood. Here we show that apoptotic cell-treated dendritic cells inhibit development and differentiation of CD4(+) effector memory T cells in vitro and in vivo. Simultaneously, intravenous transfer of apoptotic T cell-induced tolerogenic dendritic cells can block development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system in C57 BL/6J mouse. Our results imply that it is effector memory CD4(+) T cells, not central memory CD4(+) T cells, which play a major role in chronic inflammatory responses in mice with EAE. Intravenous transfer of tolerogenic dendritic cells induced by apoptotic T cells leads to immune tolerance by specifically blocking development of CD4(+) effector memory T cells compared with results of EAE control mice. These results reveal a new mechanism of apoptotic cell-treated dendritic cell-mediated immune tolerance in vivo. PMID:26111522

  14. The Influence of T Cell Development on Pathogen Specificity and Autoreactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komrlj, Andrej; Kardar, Mehran; Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2012-10-01

    T cells orchestrate adaptive immune responses upon activation. T cell activation requires sufficiently strong binding of T cell receptors on their surface to short peptides derived from foreign proteins bound to protein products of the major histocompatibility (MHC) gene products, which are displayed on the surface of antigen presenting cells. T cells can also interact with peptide-MHC complexes, where the peptide is derived from host (self) proteins. A diverse repertoire of relatively self-tolerant T cell receptors is selected in the thymus. We study a model, computationally and analytically, to describe how thymic selection shapes the repertoire of T cell receptors, such that T cell receptor recognition of pathogenic peptides is both specific and degenerate. We also discuss the escape probability of autoimmune T cells from the thymus.

  15. Rapid proliferation and differentiation impairs the development of memory CD8+ T cells in early life1

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Norah L.; Wissink, Erin; Wang, Jocelyn; Pinello, Jennifer F.; Davenport, Miles P.; Grimson, Andrew; Rudd, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Neonates often generate incomplete immunity against intracellular pathogens, although the mechanism of this defect is poorly understood. An important question is whether the impaired development of memory CD8+ T cells in neonates is due to an immature priming environment or lymphocyte-intrinsic defects. Here we show that neonatal and adult CD8+ T cells adopted different fates when responding to equal amounts of stimulation in the same host. While adult CD8+ T cells differentiated into a heterogeneous pool of effector and memory cells, neonatal CD8+ T cells preferentially gave rise to short-lived effector cells and exhibited a distinct gene expression profile. Surprisingly, impaired neonatal memory formation was not due to a lack of responsiveness, but instead because neonatal CD8+ T cells expanded more rapidly than adult cells and quickly became terminally differentiated. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that neonatal CD8+ T cells exhibit an imbalance in effector and memory CD8+ T cell differentiation, which impairs the formation of memory CD8+ T cells in early life. PMID:24850719

  16. Noninvasive In Toto Imaging of the Thymus Reveals Heterogeneous Migratory Behavior of Developing T Cells.

    PubMed

    Bajoghli, Baubak; Kuri, Paola; Inoue, Daigo; Aghaallaei, Narges; Hanelt, Marleen; Thumberger, Thomas; Rauzi, Matteo; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Leptin, Maria

    2015-09-01

    The migration of developing T cells (thymocytes) between distinct thymic microenvironments is crucial for their development. Ex vivo studies of thymus tissue explants suggest two distinct migratory behaviors of thymocytes in the thymus. In the cortex, thymocytes exhibit a stochastic migration, whereas medullary thymocytes show confined migratory behavior. Thus far, it has been difficult to follow all thymocytes in an entire thymus and relate their differentiation steps to their migratory dynamics. To understand the spatial organization of the migratory behavior and development of thymocytes in a fully functional thymus, we developed transgenic reporter lines for the chemokine receptors ccr9a and ccr9b, as well as for rag2, and used them for noninvasive live imaging of the entire thymus in medaka (Oryzias latipes). We found that the expression of these two chemokine receptors in the medaka juvenile thymus defined two spatially distinct subpopulations of thymocytes. Landmark events of T cell development including proliferation, somatic recombination, and thymic selection can be mapped to subregions of the thymus. The migratory behavior of thymocytes within each of the subpopulations is equally heterogeneous, and specific migratory behaviors are not associated with particular domains in the thymus. During the period when thymocytes express rag2 their migratory behavior was more homogeneous. Therefore, the migratory behavior of thymocytes is partly correlated with their developmental stage rather than being defined by their spatial localization. PMID:26188059

  17. Stem cell-derived tissue-associated regulatory T cells ameliorate the development of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Haque, Mohammad; Song, Jianyong; Fino, Kristin; Sandhu, Praneet; Song, Xinmeng; Lei, Fengyang; Zheng, Songguo; Ni, Bing; Fang, Deyu; Song, Jianxun

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have the potential to produce almost all of the cells in the body, including regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, the exact conditions required for the development of antigen (Ag)-specific Tregs from PSCs (i.e., PSC-Tregs) are not well delineated. Ag-specific PSC-Tregs can be tissue/organ-associated and migrate to local inflamed tissues/organs to suppress the autoimmune response after adoptive transfer, thereby avoiding potential overall immunosuppression from non-specific Tregs. In this study, we developed a new approach to generate functional Ag-specific Tregs from induced PSCs (iPSCs), i.e., iPSC-Tregs, which had the ability to generate an Ag-specific immunosuppressive response in a murine model of arthritis. We retrovirally transduced murine iPSCs with a construct containing genes of Ag-specific T cell receptor (TCR) and the transcriptional factor FoxP3. We differentiated the iPSCs into Ag-specific iPSC-Tregs using in vitro or in vivo Notch signaling, and demonstrated that adoptive transfer of such Tregs dramatically suppressed autoimmunity in a well-established Ag-induced arthritis model, including the inflammation, joint destruction, cartilage prostaglandin depletion, osteoclast activity, and Th17 production. Our results indicate that PSCs can be used to develop Ag-specific Tregs, which have a therapeutic potential for Treg-based therapies of autoimmune disorders. PMID:26846186

  18. Stem cell-derived tissue-associated regulatory T cells ameliorate the development of autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Mohammad; Song, Jianyong; Fino, Kristin; Sandhu, Praneet; Song, Xinmeng; Lei, Fengyang; Zheng, Songguo; Ni, Bing; Fang, Deyu; Song, Jianxun

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have the potential to produce almost all of the cells in the body, including regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, the exact conditions required for the development of antigen (Ag)-specific Tregs from PSCs (i.e., PSC-Tregs) are not well delineated. Ag-specific PSC-Tregs can be tissue/organ-associated and migrate to local inflamed tissues/organs to suppress the autoimmune response after adoptive transfer, thereby avoiding potential overall immunosuppression from non-specific Tregs. In this study, we developed a new approach to generate functional Ag-specific Tregs from induced PSCs (iPSCs), i.e., iPSC-Tregs, which had the ability to generate an Ag-specific immunosuppressive response in a murine model of arthritis. We retrovirally transduced murine iPSCs with a construct containing genes of Ag-specific T cell receptor (TCR) and the transcriptional factor FoxP3. We differentiated the iPSCs into Ag-specific iPSC-Tregs using in vitro or in vivo Notch signaling, and demonstrated that adoptive transfer of such Tregs dramatically suppressed autoimmunity in a well-established Ag-induced arthritis model, including the inflammation, joint destruction, cartilage prostaglandin depletion, osteoclast activity, and Th17 production. Our results indicate that PSCs can be used to develop Ag-specific Tregs, which have a therapeutic potential for Treg-based therapies of autoimmune disorders. PMID:26846186

  19. IL-17-producing γδT cells are regulated by estrogen during development of experimental arthritis.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Annica; Grahnemo, Louise; Engdahl, Cecilia; Stubelius, Alexandra; Lagerquist, Marie K; Carlsten, Hans; Islander, Ulrika

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) drives inflammation and destruction of joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The female sex hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) inhibits experimental arthritis. γδT cells are significant producers of IL-17, thus the aim of this study was to investigate if E2 influenced IL-17(+) γδT cells during arthritis development using a variety of experimental RA models: collagen-induced arthritis (CIA); antigen-induced arthritis (AIA); and collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA). We demonstrate that E2 treatment decreases IL-17(+) γδT cell number in joints, but increases IL-17(+) γδT cells in draining lymph nodes, suggesting an E2-mediated prevention of IL-17(+) γδT cell migration from lymph nodes to joints, in concert with our recently reported effects of E2 on Th17 cells (Andersson et al., 2015). E2 did neither influence the general γδT cell population nor IFNγ(+) γδT cells, implying a selective regulation of IL-17-producing cells. In conclusion, this study contributes to the understanding of estrogen's role in autoimmune disease. PMID:26423309

  20. HIV-1 transgenic rat CD4+ T cells develop decreased CD28 responsiveness and suboptimal Lck tyrosine dephosphorylation following activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Anjana; Pati, Shibani; Nyugen, Anhthu; Barabitskaja, Oxana; Mondal, Prosanta; Anderson, Michael; Gallo, Robert C.; Huso, David L.; Reid, William . E-mail: reid@umbi.umd.edu

    2006-09-30

    Impaired CD4+ T cell responses, resulting in dysregulated T-helper 1 (Th1) effector and memory responses, are a common result of HIV-1 infection. These defects are often preceded by decreased expression and function of the {alpha}/{beta} T cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex and of co-stimulatory molecules including CD28, resulting in altered T cell proliferation, cytokine secretion and cell survival. We have previously shown that HIV Tg rats have defective development of T cell effector function and generation of specific effector/memory T cell subsets. Here we identify abnormalities in activated HIV-1 Tg rat CD4+ T cells that include decreased pY505 dephosphorylation of Lck (required for Lck activation), decreased CD28 function, reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-xL, decreased secretion of the mitogenic lympokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) and increased activation induced apoptosis. These events likely lead to defects in antigen-specific signaling and may help explain the disruption of Th1 responses and the generation of specific effector/memory subsets in transgenic CD4+ T cells.

  1. Incomplete Normalization of Regulatory T-Cell Frequency in the Gut Mucosa of Colombian HIV-Infected Patients Receiving Long-Term Antiretroviral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Cesar M.; Velilla, Paula A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate the effect of late initiation of HAART and poor immune reconstitution on the frequency of regulatory T-cells (Treg) in the peripheral blood and gut of HIV-infected patients, we studied Colombian HIV-infected patients who had been on suppressive HAART for at least one year. They had undetectable viremia but were either immunological responders (HIR); (CD4 counts >500 cells/l) or non-immunological responders (NIR); (CD4 T-cell count <300 cells/l). Untreated HIV-infected patients and uninfected controls from the same region were also evaluated. Methods Frequency and phenotype of regulatory T-cells (Treg) were analyzed in gut biopsies and blood samples. The functional effect of Treg depletion on CMV and HIV responses was determined. Markers of immune activation and circulating LPS levels were quantified. Results Untreated patients exhibited high Treg frequency in PBMC and gut, and their Treg express high levels of CTLA-4 and PD-1. Although HAART significantly decreased mucosal Treg frequency, it did not normalize it in any of the treated groups (HIR and NIR patients). Treg normalization was observed in the blood of HIR patients following HAART, but did not occur in NIR patients. Treg from HIV-infected patients (treated or not) suppressed HIV and hCMV-specific T-cells from gut and blood. Plasma LPS levels and percentage of HLA-DR+CD38+ T-cells were significantly elevated in all infected groups compared to controls. Conclusions These findings suggest that control of viral replication is not sufficient to normalize gut Treg frequency in patients, independent of their response to HAART. Furthermore, persistence of functional Treg in the gut appears to be associated with the failure of HAART to repair mucosal damage. PMID:23967152

  2. The lysophosphatidylserine receptor GPR174 constrains regulatory T cell development and function

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Michael J.; Li, Chien-Ming; Xu, Ying; An, Jinping; Huang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T cell (T reg cell) numbers and activities are tightly calibrated to maintain immune homeostasis, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely defined. Here, we report that the lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) receptor GPR174 is abundantly expressed in developing and mature T reg cells. In mice that lacked this X-linked gene, T reg cell generation in the thymus was intrinsically favored, and a higher fraction of peripheral T reg cells expressed CD103. LysoPS could act in vitro via GPR174 to suppress T cell proliferation and T reg cell generation. In vivo, LysoPS was detected in lymphoid organ and spinal cord tissues and was abundant in the colon. Gpr174−/Y mice were less susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis than wild-type mice, and GPR174 deficiency in T reg cells contributed to this phenotype. This study provides evidence that a bioactive lipid, LysoPS, negatively influences T reg cell accumulation and activity through GPR174. As such, GPR174 antagonists might have therapeutic potential for promoting immune regulation in the context of autoimmune disease. PMID:26077720

  3. Nature and nurture in Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell development, stability, and function.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Terrence L; Tauro, Sharyn

    2012-03-01

    Foxp3(+) regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) are critical homeostatic regulators of immune and inflammatory responses. Their absence leads to fulminant multiorgan autoimmunity. This review explores recent studies that have altered our emerging view of the development, stability, and plasticity of these cells. Treg appear not to be a single entity, but a family of immunomodulatory cell types with shared capabilities. On a first level, Treg may alternatively form in response to developmental cues in the thymus as a distinct lineage of CD4(+) T cells or adaptively, in response to environmental cues received by mature conventional CD4(+) T lymphocytes. These 2 populations bear distinct specificity, stability, and genetic profiles and are differentially used in immune responses. Secondarily, in a manner analogous to the generation of T helper (Th)-1, Th2, and other T cell subsets, Treg may further specialize, adapting to the needs of their immunologic surroundings. Treg therefore comprise developmentally distinct, functionally overlapping cell populations that are uniquely designed to preserve immunologic homeostasis. They combine an impressive degree of both stability and adaptability. PMID:22240298

  4. Development and Function of Protective and Pathologic Memory CD4 T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jaigirdar, Shafqat Ahrar; MacLeod, Megan K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Immunological memory is one of the defining features of the adaptive immune system. As key orchestrators and mediators of immunity, CD4 T cells are central to the vast majority of adaptive immune responses. Generated following an immune response, memory CD4 T cells retain pertinent information about their activation environment enabling them to make rapid effector responses upon reactivation. These responses can either benefit the host by hastening the control of pathogens or cause damaging immunopathology. Here, we will discuss the diversity of the memory CD4 T cell pool, the signals that influence the transition of activated T cells into that pool, and highlight how activation requirements differ between naïve and memory CD4 T cells. A greater understanding of these factors has the potential to aid the design of more effective vaccines and to improve regulation of pathologic CD4 T cells, such as in the context of autoimmunity and allergy. PMID:26441961

  5. Development of an IFNγ ELISPOT for the analysis of the human T cell response against mumps virus.

    PubMed

    Han, Wanda G H; Emmelot, Maarten E; Jaadar, Haziz; Ten Hulscher, Hinke I; van Els, Cécile A C M; Kaaijk, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, mumps virus (MuV) causes outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations. Sub-optimal T cell immunity may play a role in the susceptibility to mumps in vaccinated individuals. T cell responses to mumps virus have been demonstrated, yet the quality of the MuV-specific T cell response has not been analyzed using single cell immunological techniques. Here we developed an IFNγ ELISPOT assay to assess MuV-specific T cell responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy (vaccinated) donors and mumps patients. Various in vitro MuV-specific stimulation methods of PBMC were compared, using either live or inactivated MuV alone or MuV-infected autologous antigen presenting cells, i.e. Epstein Barr Virus-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines (EBV-BLCL) or (mitogen pre-activated) PBMC, for their ability to recall IFNγ-producing responder cells measured by ELISPOT. For the detection of MuV-specific T cell responses, direct exposure (24h) to live MuV was the preferred stimulation method when assay sensitivity and practical reasons were considered. Notably, flowcytometric confirmation of data revealed that primarily T cells and NK cells produce IFNγ upon live MuV stimulation. Depleting PBMC from CD56(+) NK cells prior to stimulation with live MuV led to the enumeration of MuV-specific T cell responses by ELISPOT. Our assay constitutes a tool to evaluate memory MuV-specific T cell responses in MuV vaccinated or infected persons. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that live MuV not only induces IFNγ production by T cells, but also by NK cells. PMID:26872407

  6. Regulation of DNA methylation dictates Cd4 expression during the development of helper and cytotoxic T cell lineages.

    PubMed

    Sellars, MacLean; Huh, Jun R; Day, Kenneth; Issuree, Priya D; Galan, Carolina; Gobeil, Stephane; Absher, Devin; Green, Michael R; Littman, Dan R

    2015-07-01

    During development, progenitor cells with binary potential give rise to daughter cells that have distinct functions. Heritable epigenetic mechanisms then lock in gene-expression programs that define lineage identity. Regulation of the gene encoding the T cell-specific coreceptor CD4 in helper and cytotoxic T cells exemplifies this process, with enhancer- and silencer-regulated establishment of epigenetic memory for stable gene expression and repression, respectively. Using a genetic screen, we identified the DNA-methylation machinery as essential for maintaining silencing of Cd4 in the cytotoxic lineage. Furthermore, we found a requirement for the proximal enhancer in mediating the removal of DNA-methylation marks from Cd4, which allowed stable expression of Cd4 in helper T cells. Our findings suggest that stage-specific methylation and demethylation events in Cd4 regulate its heritable expression in response to the distinct signals that dictate lineage 'choice' during T cell development. PMID:26030024

  7. Interferon-? Promotes Inflammation and Development of T-Cell Lymphoma in HTLV-1 bZIP Factor Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mitagami, Yu; Yasunaga, Jun-ichirou; Kinosada, Haruka; Ohshima, Koichi; Matsuoka, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an etiological agent of several inflammatory diseases and a T-cell malignancy, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) is the only viral gene that is constitutively expressed in HTLV-1-infected cells, and it has multiple functions on T-cell signaling pathways. HBZ has important roles in HTLV-1-mediated pathogenesis, since HBZ transgenic (HBZ-Tg) mice develop systemic inflammation and T-cell lymphomas, which are similar phenotypes to HTLV-1-associated diseases. We showed previously that in HBZ-Tg mice, HBZ causes unstable Foxp3 expression, leading to an increase in regulatory T cells (Tregs) and the consequent induction of IFN-?-producing cells, which in turn leads to the development of inflammation in the mice. In this study, we show that the severity of inflammation is correlated with the development of lymphomas in HBZ-Tg mice, suggesting that HBZ-mediated inflammation is closely linked to oncogenesis in CD4+ T cells. In addition, we found that IFN-?-producing cells enhance HBZ-mediated inflammation, since knocking out IFN-? significantly reduced the incidence of dermatitis as well as lymphoma. Recent studies show the critical roles of the intestinal microbiota in the development of Tregs in vivo. We found that even germ-free HBZ-Tg mice still had an increased number of Tregs and IFN-?-producing cells, and developed dermatitis, indicating that an intrinsic activity of HBZ evokes aberrant T-cell differentiation and consequently causes inflammation. These results show that immunomodulation by HBZ is implicated in both inflammation and oncogenesis, and suggest a causal connection between HTLV-1-associated inflammation and ATL. PMID:26296091

  8. Interferon-? Promotes Inflammation and Development of T-Cell Lymphoma in HTLV-1 bZIP Factor Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Mitagami, Yu; Yasunaga, Jun-Ichirou; Kinosada, Haruka; Ohshima, Koichi; Matsuoka, Masao

    2015-08-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an etiological agent of several inflammatory diseases and a T-cell malignancy, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) is the only viral gene that is constitutively expressed in HTLV-1-infected cells, and it has multiple functions on T-cell signaling pathways. HBZ has important roles in HTLV-1-mediated pathogenesis, since HBZ transgenic (HBZ-Tg) mice develop systemic inflammation and T-cell lymphomas, which are similar phenotypes to HTLV-1-associated diseases. We showed previously that in HBZ-Tg mice, HBZ causes unstable Foxp3 expression, leading to an increase in regulatory T cells (Tregs) and the consequent induction of IFN-?-producing cells, which in turn leads to the development of inflammation in the mice. In this study, we show that the severity of inflammation is correlated with the development of lymphomas in HBZ-Tg mice, suggesting that HBZ-mediated inflammation is closely linked to oncogenesis in CD4+ T cells. In addition, we found that IFN-?-producing cells enhance HBZ-mediated inflammation, since knocking out IFN-? significantly reduced the incidence of dermatitis as well as lymphoma. Recent studies show the critical roles of the intestinal microbiota in the development of Tregs in vivo. We found that even germ-free HBZ-Tg mice still had an increased number of Tregs and IFN-?-producing cells, and developed dermatitis, indicating that an intrinsic activity of HBZ evokes aberrant T-cell differentiation and consequently causes inflammation. These results show that immunomodulation by HBZ is implicated in both inflammation and oncogenesis, and suggest a causal connection between HTLV-1-associated inflammation and ATL. PMID:26296091

  9. Development and characterization of Histoplasma capsulatum-reactive murine T-cell lines and clones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepe, George S., Jr.; Smith, James G.; Denman, David; Bullock, Ward E.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1986-01-01

    Several Histoplasma capsulatum-reactive murine cloned T-cell lines (TCLs) were isolated from spleens of C57BL/6 mice immunized with viable H. capsulatum yeast cells, using the methodology of Kimoto and Fathman (1980). These T-cells were characterized phenotypically as Thy-1.2(+) Lyt-1(+) L3T4(+) Lyt-2(-), that is, as the helper/inducer phenotype. The cloned T cells proliferate in response to histoplasmin and, in some cases, to heterologous fungal anigens. Upon injection of mice with the antigen, the T-cells mediate local delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and, after stimulation, release regulatory lymphokines.

  10. Essential roles for Cavβ2 and Cav1 channels in thymocyte development and T cell homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Jha, Archana; Singh, Ashish K; Weissgerber, Petra; Freichel, Marc; Flockerzi, Veit; Flavell, Richard A; Jha, Mithilesh K

    2015-10-20

    Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) are important in numerous signal transduction processes, including the development and differentiation of T cells in the thymus. We report that thymocytes have multiple types of pore-forming α subunits and regulatory β subunits that constitute voltage-gated Ca(2+) (Cav) channels. In mice, T cell-specific deletion of the gene encoding the β2 regulatory subunit of Cav channels (Cacnb2) reduced the abundances of the channels Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 (both of which contain pore-forming α1 subunits) and impaired T cell development, which led to a substantial decrease in the numbers of thymocytes and peripheral T cells. Similar to the effect of Cacnb2 deficiency, pharmacological blockade of pore-forming Cav1α subunits reduced the sustained Ca(2+) influx in thymocytes upon stimulation of the T cell receptor, decreased the abundance of the transcription factor NFATc3, inhibited the proliferation of thymocytes in vitro, and led to lymphopenia in mice. Together, our data suggest that Cav1 channels are conduits for the sustained Ca(2+) influx that is required for the development of T cells. PMID:26486172

  11. microRNA regulation of T lymphocyte immunity: modulation of molecular networks responsible for T cell activation, differentiation and development

    PubMed Central

    Podshivalova, Katie; Salomon, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that constitute an essential and evolutionarily conserved mechanism for post-transcriptional gene regulation. Multiple miRNAs have been described to play key roles in T lymphocyte development, differentiation and function. In this review we highlight the current literature regarding the differential expression of miRNAs in various models of mouse and human T cell biology and emphasize mechanistic understandings of miRNA regulation of thymocyte development, T cell activation, and differentiation into effector and memory subsets. We describe the participation of miRNAs in complex regulatory circuits shaping T cell proteomes in a context-dependent manner. It is striking that some miRNAs regulate multiple processes, while others only appear in limited functional contexts. It is also evident that the expression and function of specific miRNAs can differ between mouse and human systems. Ultimately, it is not always correct to simplify the complex events of T cell biology into a model driven by only one or two master regulator miRNAs. In reality, T cell activation and differentiation involves the expression of multiple miRNAs with many mRNA targets and thus, the true extent of miRNA regulation of T cell biology is likely far more vast than currently appreciated. PMID:24099302

  12. T Cells in Fish.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Cartilaginous and bony fish are the most primitive vertebrates with a thymus, and possess T cells equivalent to those in mammals. There are a number of studies in fish demonstrating that the thymus is the essential organ for development of T lymphocytes from early thymocyte progenitors to functionally competent T cells. A high number of T cells in the intestine and gills has been reported in several fish species. Involvement of CD4? and CD8?? T cells in allograft rejection and graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Conservation of CD4? helper T cell functions among teleost fishes has been suggested in a number studies employing mixed leukocyte culture (MLC) and hapten/carrier effect. Alloantigen- and virus-specific cytotoxicity has also been demonstrated in ginbuna and rainbow trout. Furthermore, the important role of cell-mediated immunity rather than humoral immunity has been reported in the protection against intracellular bacterial infection. Recently, the direct antibacterial activity of CD8??, CD4? T-cells and sIgM? cells in fish has been reported. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in T cell research focusing on the tissue distribution and function of fish T cells. PMID:26426066

  13. T Cells in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Cartilaginous and bony fish are the most primitive vertebrates with a thymus, and possess T cells equivalent to those in mammals. There are a number of studies in fish demonstrating that the thymus is the essential organ for development of T lymphocytes from early thymocyte progenitors to functionally competent T cells. A high number of T cells in the intestine and gills has been reported in several fish species. Involvement of CD4+ and CD8α+ T cells in allograft rejection and graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Conservation of CD4+ helper T cell functions among teleost fishes has been suggested in a number studies employing mixed leukocyte culture (MLC) and hapten/carrier effect. Alloantigen- and virus-specific cytotoxicity has also been demonstrated in ginbuna and rainbow trout. Furthermore, the important role of cell-mediated immunity rather than humoral immunity has been reported in the protection against intracellular bacterial infection. Recently, the direct antibacterial activity of CD8α+, CD4+ T-cells and sIgM+ cells in fish has been reported. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in T cell research focusing on the tissue distribution and function of fish T cells. PMID:26426066

  14. Quantitative and Temporal Requirements Revealed for Zap-70 Catalytic Activity During T Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Au-Yeung, Byron B.; Melichar, Heather J.; Ross, Jenny O.; Cheng, Debra A.; Zikherman, Julie; Shokat, Kevan M.; Robey, Ellen A.; Weiss, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic activity of Zap-70 is crucial for T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, but the quantitative and temporal requirements for its function in thymocyte development are not known. Using a chemical-genetic system to selectively and reversibly inhibit Zap-70 catalytic activity in a model of synchronized thymic selection, we showed that CD4+CD8+ thymocytes integrate multiple, transient, Zap-70-dependent signals over more than 36 h to reach a cumulative threshold for positive selection, whereas one hour of signaling was sufficient for negative selection. Titration of Zap-70 activity resulted in graded reductions in positive and negative selection but did not decrease the cumulative TCR signals integrated by positively selected OT-I cells, revealing heterogeneity, even among CD4+CD8+ thymocytes expressing identical TCRs undergoing positive selection. PMID:24908390

  15. [Comparative analysis of the role of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in severe asthma development].

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Wang, J; Xing, C-Y; Zang, R; Pu, Y-Y; Yin, Z-X

    2015-01-01

    The role of CD8^(+) T cells in asthma has not been fully discussed. The mechanisms of CD4^(+) and CD8^(+) cells in severe asthma (SA) development were compared. The microarray data (GSE31773) was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, including 20 samples of CD4^(+) and CD8^(+) T cells, which were collected from 8 health controls (HC), 4 non-severe asthma (NSA) and 8 SA patients. DEGs of CD4^(+) and CD8^(+) T cells in the HC vs. NSA and HC vs. SA groups were identified using the limma package in R. GO and pathway enrichment analysis of the common DEGs between the two groups were analyzed using DAVID. The interactive network of DEGs and significant modules were further explored. In CD4^(+) cells, there were 168 DEGs in HC vs. NSA group and 685 DEGs in HC vs. SA group, while for CD8^(+) T cells there were 719 DEGs in the HC vs. NSA groups and 1255 DEGs in the HC vs. SA groups. Besides, 80 common DEGs from CD4^(+) samples were enriched in the MAPKKK cascade and molecular metabolism, and 385 common DEGs of CD8^(+) T cells were significantly related with cell apoptosis and transformation. Moreover, two significant modules of DEGs in CD4^(+) were found to be involved with MPO and BPI. One module of CD8^(+) T cells containing PDHA1 and MRPL42 was identified to be related with glycolysis. In conclusion, MPO and BPI in CD4^(+), and PDHA1 and MRPL42 in CD8^(+) T cells might be used as specific biomarkers of SA progression. Therapy targeting the functions of CD4^(+) and CD8^(+) T cells may provide a novel perspective for SA treatment. PMID:26107902

  16. Generating Functional CD8+ T-cell Memory Response under Transient CD4+ T-cell deficiency: Implications for vaccination of immunocompromised individuals

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Corey; Martinez, Michelle; Cooper, Leanne; Rist, Michael; Zhong, Jie; Khanna, Rajiv

    2008-01-01

    Summary Studies based on either MHC class II-knockout or CD4+ T-cell depleted murine models have demonstrated a critical role for CD4+ T-cells in the generation of CD8+ T-cell memory. However, it is difficult to extend these findings to immunocompromised humans where a complete loss of CD4+ T-cells is rarely observed. Here we have developed a model setting which allows studies on the generation of CD8+ T-cell memory responses in a transient CD4+ T-cell deficient setting similar to that seen in immunocompromised patients. Immunization with an adenoviral vaccine under transient helpless or help-deficient conditions showed varying degrees of impact on the priming of CD8+ T-cell responses. Antigen-specific T-cells generated under normal CD4+ T-cell help and transient help-deficient conditions showed similar effector phenotype and were capable of proliferation upon secondary antigen encounter. Most importantly, in spite of CD4+ T-cell deficiency, the long-term CD8+ T-cell memory response remained functionally stable and showed comparable cytotoxic effector function as seen in CD8+ T-cells generated with normal CD4+ T-cell numbers. These findings provide evidence that in spite of partially impaired activation of a primary CD8+ T-cell response, a fully functional and stable memory CTL response can be induced under conditions of severe transient CD4+ T-cell deficiency. PMID:18506880

  17. Transfer of regulatory T cells into abortion-prone mice promotes the expansion of uterine mast cells and normalizes early pregnancy angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Woidacki, Katja; Meyer, Nicole; Schumacher, Anne; Goldschmidt, Alexandra; Maurer, Marcus; Zenclussen, Ana Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of the fertilized egg depends on the coordinated interplay of cells and molecules that prepare the uterus for this important event. In particular, regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key regulators as their ablation hinders implantation by rendering the uterus hostile for the embryo. In addition, the adoptive transfer of Tregs can avoid early abortion in mouse models. However, it is still not defined which mechanisms underlie Treg function during this early period. Cells of the innate immune system have been reported to support implantation, in part by promoting angiogenesis. In particular, uterine mast cells (uMCs) emerge as novel players at the fetal-maternal interface. Here, we studied whether the positive action of Tregs is based on the expansion of uMCs and the promotion of angiogenesis. We observed that abortion-prone mice have insufficient numbers of uMCs that could be corrected by the adoptive transfer of Tregs. This in turn positively influenced the remodeling of spiral arteries and placenta development as well as the levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1). Our data suggest an interplay between Tregs and uMCs that is relevant for the changes required at the feto-maternal interface for the normal development of pregnancy. PMID:26355667

  18. Transfer of regulatory T cells into abortion-prone mice promotes the expansion of uterine mast cells and normalizes early pregnancy angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Woidacki, Katja; Meyer, Nicole; Schumacher, Anne; Goldschmidt, Alexandra; Maurer, Marcus; Zenclussen, Ana Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of the fertilized egg depends on the coordinated interplay of cells and molecules that prepare the uterus for this important event. In particular, regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key regulators as their ablation hinders implantation by rendering the uterus hostile for the embryo. In addition, the adoptive transfer of Tregs can avoid early abortion in mouse models. However, it is still not defined which mechanisms underlie Treg function during this early period. Cells of the innate immune system have been reported to support implantation, in part by promoting angiogenesis. In particular, uterine mast cells (uMCs) emerge as novel players at the fetal-maternal interface. Here, we studied whether the positive action of Tregs is based on the expansion of uMCs and the promotion of angiogenesis. We observed that abortion-prone mice have insufficient numbers of uMCs that could be corrected by the adoptive transfer of Tregs. This in turn positively influenced the remodeling of spiral arteries and placenta development as well as the levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1). Our data suggest an interplay between Tregs and uMCs that is relevant for the changes required at the feto-maternal interface for the normal development of pregnancy. PMID:26355667

  19. Rational development and characterization of humanized anti–EGFR variant III chimeric antigen receptor T cells for glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Laura A.; Scholler, John; Ohkuri, Takayuki; Kosaka, Akemi; Patel, Prachi R.; McGettigan, Shannon E.; Nace, Arben K.; Dentchev, Tzvete; Thekkat, Pramod; Loew, Andreas; Boesteanu, Alina C.; Cogdill, Alexandria P.; Chen, Taylor; Fraietta, Joseph A.; Kloss, Christopher C.; Posey, Avery D.; Engels, Boris; Singh, Reshma; Ezell, Tucker; Idamakanti, Neeraja; Ramones, Melissa H.; Li, Na; Zhou, Li; Plesa, Gabriela; Seykora, John T.; Okada, Hideho; June, Carl H.; Brogdon, Jennifer L.; Maus, Marcela V.

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are synthetic molecules designed to redirect T cells to specific antigens. CAR-modified T cells can mediate long-term durable remissions in B cell malignancies, but expanding this platform to solid tumors requires the discovery of surface targets with limited expression in normal tissues. The variant III mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII) results from an in-frame deletion of a portion of the extracellular domain, creating a neoepitope. We chose a vector backbone encoding a second-generation CAR based on efficacy of a murine scFv–based CAR in a xenograft model of glioblastoma. Next, we generated a panel of humanized scFvs and tested their specificity and function as soluble proteins and in the form of CAR-transduced T cells; a low-affinity scFv was selected on the basis of its specificity for EGFRvIII over wild-type EGFR. The lead candidate scFv was tested in vitro for its ability to direct CAR-transduced T cells to specifically lyse, proliferate, and secrete cytokines in response to antigen-bearing targets. We further evaluated the specificity of the lead CAR candidate in vitro against EGFR-expressing keratinocytes and in vivo in a model of mice grafted with normal human skin. EGFRvIII-directed CAR T cells were also able to control tumor growth in xenogeneic subcutaneous and orthotopic models of human EGFRvIII+ glioblastoma. On the basis of these results, we have designed a phase 1 clinical study of CAR T cells transduced with humanized scFv directed to EGFRvIII in patients with either residual or recurrent glioblastoma (NCT02209376). PMID:25696001

  20. Rational development and characterization of humanized anti-EGFR variant III chimeric antigen receptor T cells for glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Laura A; Scholler, John; Ohkuri, Takayuki; Kosaka, Akemi; Patel, Prachi R; McGettigan, Shannon E; Nace, Arben K; Dentchev, Tzvete; Thekkat, Pramod; Loew, Andreas; Boesteanu, Alina C; Cogdill, Alexandria P; Chen, Taylor; Fraietta, Joseph A; Kloss, Christopher C; Posey, Avery D; Engels, Boris; Singh, Reshma; Ezell, Tucker; Idamakanti, Neeraja; Ramones, Melissa H; Li, Na; Zhou, Li; Plesa, Gabriela; Seykora, John T; Okada, Hideho; June, Carl H; Brogdon, Jennifer L; Maus, Marcela V

    2015-02-18

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are synthetic molecules designed to redirect T cells to specific antigens. CAR-modified T cells can mediate long-term durable remissions in B cell malignancies, but expanding this platform to solid tumors requires the discovery of surface targets with limited expression in normal tissues. The variant III mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII) results from an in-frame deletion of a portion of the extracellular domain, creating a neoepitope. We chose a vector backbone encoding a second-generation CAR based on efficacy of a murine scFv-based CAR in a xenograft model of glioblastoma. Next, we generated a panel of humanized scFvs and tested their specificity and function as soluble proteins and in the form of CAR-transduced T cells; a low-affinity scFv was selected on the basis of its specificity for EGFRvIII over wild-type EGFR. The lead candidate scFv was tested in vitro for its ability to direct CAR-transduced T cells to specifically lyse, proliferate, and secrete cytokines in response to antigen-bearing targets. We further evaluated the specificity of the lead CAR candidate in vitro against EGFR-expressing keratinocytes and in vivo in a model of mice grafted with normal human skin. EGFRvIII-directed CAR T cells were also able to control tumor growth in xenogeneic subcutaneous and orthotopic models of human EGFRvIII(+) glioblastoma. On the basis of these results, we have designed a phase 1 clinical study of CAR T cells transduced with humanized scFv directed to EGFRvIII in patients with either residual or recurrent glioblastoma (NCT02209376). PMID:25696001

  1. Functional CD8+ but not CD4+ T cell responses develop independent of thymic epithelial MHC

    PubMed Central

    Martinic, Marianne M.; van den Broek, Maries F.; Rlicke, Thomas; Huber, Christoph; Odermatt, Bernhard; Reith, Walter; Horvath, Edit; Zellweger, Raphael; Fink, Katja; Recher, Mike; Eschli, Bruno; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    2006-01-01

    The role of nonthymic epithelial (non-TE) MHC in T cell repertoire selection remains controversial. To analyze the relative roles of thymic epithelial (TE) and non-TE MHC in T cell repertoire selection, we have generated tetraparental aggregation chimeras (B6-nude?BALB/c and B6?BALB/c-nude) harboring T and B cells from both parents, whereas TE cells originated exclusively from the non-nude donor. These chimeras mounted protective virus-specific TE and non-TE MHC-restricted T cell responses. To further evaluate whether non-TE MHC alone was sufficient to generate a functional T cell repertoire, we generated tetraparental aggregation chimeras lacking MHC class II (B6-nude?MHCII?/?) or both MHC molecules (B6-nude?MHCI?/?II?/?) on TE cells, but not on cells of B6-nude origin. Chimeras with MHC-deficient TE cells mounted functional virus-specific CD8+ but not CD4+ T cell responses. Thus, maturation of functional CD4+ T cell responses required MHC class II on thymic epithelium, whereas CD8+ T cells matured in the absence of TE MHC. PMID:16983067

  2. Development of a diverse human T-cell repertoire despite stringent restriction of hematopoietic clonality in the thymus.

    PubMed

    Brugman, Martijn H; Wiekmeijer, Anna-Sophia; van Eggermond, Marja; Wolvers-Tettero, Ingrid; Langerak, Anton W; de Haas, Edwin F E; Bystrykh, Leonid V; van Rood, Jon J; de Haan, Gerald; Fibbe, Willem E; Staal, Frank J T

    2015-11-01

    The fate and numbers of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and their progeny that seed the thymus constitute a fundamental question with important clinical implications. HSC transplantation is often complicated by limited T-cell reconstitution, especially when HSC from umbilical cord blood are used. Attempts to improve immune reconstitution have until now been unsuccessful, underscoring the need for better insight into thymic reconstitution. Here we made use of the NOD-SCID-IL-2Rγ(-/-) xenograft model and lentiviral cellular barcoding of human HSCs to study T-cell development in the thymus at a clonal level. Barcoded HSCs showed robust (>80% human chimerism) and reproducible myeloid and lymphoid engraftment, with T cells arising 12 wk after transplantation. A very limited number of HSC clones (<10) repopulated the xenografted thymus, with further restriction of the number of clones during subsequent development. Nevertheless, T-cell receptor rearrangements were polyclonal and showed a diverse repertoire, demonstrating that a multitude of T-lymphocyte clones can develop from a single HSC clone. Our data imply that intrathymic clonal fitness is important during T-cell development. As a consequence, immune incompetence after HSC transplantation is not related to the transplantation of limited numbers of HSC but to intrathymic events. PMID:26483497

  3. Follicular helper T cells poise immune responses to the development of autoimmune pathology.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Martín, Diana; Díaz-Zamudio, Mariana; Romo-Tena, Jorge; Ibarra-Sánchez, María J; Alcocer-Varela, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    Follicular helper T cells (T(FH)) have been implicated as a lineage that provides sufficient help to B cells in order to become professional antibody producers. This T helper subset is characterized by a distinctive cell-surface phenotype (CD4(+)CD57(+)CXCR5(+)) and cytokine profile (IL-21, IL-6, and IL-27) as well as transcriptional program (BCL-6, ICOS, and PD-1). Evidence supports the concept that T(FH) subset development, as well as for other lineages, is dependent on microenvironment cues that modulate a particular transcriptional program, susceptible to plasticity. Recently, it has been shown that BCL-6 and IL-21 act as master regulators for the development and function of T(FH) cells. Moreover, costimulation via ICOS, as well as signaling proteins such as SAP constitute required elements of the regulatory network that modulates T(FH) functions. T(FH) dysregulation has been implicated in the development of autoimmune pathology, such as SLE. Indeed, the Sanroque mice associated to the mutation of Roquin, a ubiquitin ligase, essential for the regulation of ICOS and germinal center responses, constitutes a model that shares features with human SLE. Recently, the expansion of "circulating T(FH) cells" (CD4(+)CXCR5(+)ICOS(high)PD1(high)) has been described for a subset of SLE patients that share T(FH) dependent features of disease with Sanroque mice, such as glomerulonephritis and cytopenias. PMID:21167320

  4. CD4 T cells with effector memory phenotype and function develop in the sterile environment of the fetus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Mozeleski, Brian; Lemoine, Sebastien; Dériaud, Edith; Lim, Annick; Zhivaki, Dania; Azria, Elie; Le Ray, Camille; Roguet, Gwenaelle; Launay, Odile; Vanet, Anne; Leclerc, Claude; Lo-Man, Richard

    2014-05-28

    The T cell compartment is considered to be naïve and dedicated to the development of tolerance during fetal development. We have identified and characterized a population of fetally developed CD4 T cells with an effector memory phenotype (TEM), which are present in cord blood. This population is polyclonal and has phenotypic features similar to those of conventional adult memory T cells, such as CD45RO expression. These cells express low levels of CD25 but are distinct from regulatory T cells because they lack Foxp3 expression. After T cell receptor activation, neonatal TEM cells readily produced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). We also detected interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing T helper 1 (TH1) cells and interleukin-4 (IL-4)/IL-13-producing TH2-like cells, but not IL-17-producing cells. We used chemokine receptor expression patterns to divide this TEM population into different subsets and identified distinct transcriptional programs using whole-genome microarray analysis. IFN-γ was found in CXCR3(+) TEM cells, whereas IL-4 was found in both CXCR3(+) TEM cells and CCR4(+) TEM cells. CCR6(+) TEM cells displayed a genetic signature that corresponded to TH17 cells but failed to produce IL-17A. However, the TH17 function of TEM cells was observed in the presence of IL-1β and IL-23. In summary, in the absence of reported pathology or any major infectious history, T cells with a memory-like phenotype develop in an environment thought to be sterile during fetal development and display a large variety of inflammatory effector functions associated with CD4 TH cells at birth. PMID:24871133

  5. Contribution of JAK2 mutations to T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma development.

    PubMed

    Roncero, A M; Lpez-Nieva, P; Cobos-Fernndez, M A; Villa-Morales, M; Gonzlez-Snchez, L; Lpez-Lorenzo, J L; Llamas, P; Ayuso, C; Rodrguez-Pinilla, S M; Arriba, M C; Piris, M A; Fernndez-Navarro, P; Fernndez, A F; Fraga, M F; Santos, J; Fernndez-Piqueras, J

    2016-01-01

    The JAK-STAT pathway has a substantial role in lymphoid precursor cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Nonetheless, the contribution of JAK2 to T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) development remains poorly understood. We have identified one activating TEL-JAK2 translocation and four missense mutations accumulated in 2 out of 16 T-LBL samples. Two of them are novel JAK2 mutations and the other two are reported for the first time in T-LBL. Notably, R683G and I682T might have arisen owing to RNA editing. Mutated samples showed different mutated transcripts suggesting sub-clonal heterogeneity. Functional approaches revealed that two JAK2 mutations (H574R and R683G) constitutively activate JAK-STAT signaling in ?2A cells and can drive the proliferation of BaF3-EpoR cytokine-dependent cell line. In addition, aberrant hypermethylation of SOCS3 might contribute to enhance the activation of JAK-STAT signaling. Of utmost interest is that primary T-LBL samples harboring JAK2 mutations exhibited increased expression of LMO2, suggesting a mechanistic link between JAK2 mutations and the expression of LMO2, which was confirmed for the four missense mutations in transfected ?2A cells. We therefore propose that active JAK2 contribute to T-LBL development by two different mechanisms, and that the use of pan-JAK inhibitors in combination with epigenetic drugs should be considered in future treatments. PMID:26216197

  6. Development of transgenic mice expressing a coronavirus-specific public CD4 T cell receptor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingxian; Fett, Craig; Pewe, Lecia; Zhao, Jincun; Perlman, Stanley

    2013-10-31

    Mice that are transgenic (Tg) for T cell receptor (TCR) expression are used extensively to analyze longitudinal T cell responses during effector and memory phases of the T cell response. Generation of TCR Tg mice generally requires T cell stimulation and cloning in vitro prior to amplification, processes which introduce biases into selection of the TCR that is ultimately chosen for TCR Tg mouse generation. Here we describe an alternative approach that involves no T cell stimulation or propagation in vitro. We generated mice that were transgenic for a TCR responding to a CD4 T cell epitope (epitope M133) that is immunodominant in mice infected with a neurotropic coronavirus, the JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus. The CD4 T cell response to epitope M133 is of particular interest because it may be pathogenic, protective or regulatory, depending upon the physiological setting. We applied an iterative process in which we identified a TCR-? chain expressed by all mice that were examined ('public sequence'). This TCR-? chain was introduced into bone marrow cells with a lentivirus vector, generating TCR-? retrogenic mice. A TCR-? chain that paired with this TCR-? was then identified and used to generate a second set of TCR (?/?) retrogenic mice. After demonstrating that these cells were functional and responded to epitope M133, these TCR chains were used to generate an epitope M133-specific TCR Tg mouse. This method should be generally useful for engineering TCR Tg mice without introduction of bias caused by in vitro manipulation and propagation. PMID:23928495

  7. Defective CD8 T Cell Memory Following Acute Infection Without CD4 T Cell Help

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Joseph C.; Bevan, Michael J.

    2003-04-01

    The CD8+ cytotoxic T cell response to pathogens is thought to be CD4+ helper T cell independent because infectious agents provide their own inflammatory signals. Mice that lack CD4+ T cells mount a primary CD8 response to Listeria monocytogenes equal to that of wild-type mice and rapidly clear the infection. However, protective memory to a challenge is gradually lost in the former animals. Memory CD8+ T cells from normal mice can respond rapidly, but memory CD8+ T cells that are generated without CD4 help are defective in their ability to respond to secondary encounters with antigen. The results highlight a previously undescribed role for CD4 help in promoting protective CD8 memory development.

  8. In vitro induction of non-responsiveness in cloned normal inducer T cells by antigen and purified Ia incorporated into planar membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Quill, H.; Fox, B.; Carlson, L.; Pardoll, D.; Schwartz, R.H.

    1986-03-05

    Incubation of cytochrome c-specific E/sub ..beta..//sup k/E/sub ..cap alpha..//sup k/-containing planar membranes and an antigenic peptide analogue of moth cytochrome c resulted in a specific increase in cell volume of 40-50% as measured by Coulter Counter analysis. No change in cell volume was seen in the absence of antigen, or when A/sub ..beta..//sup k/A/sub ..cap alpha..//sup k/-planar membranes were used. T cell proliferation was never detected at any time from one to eight days after incubation with E/sub ..beta..//sup k/E/sub ..cap alpha..//sup k/-membranes at a wide range of antigen concentrations. Furthermore, only trace amounts of IL-2 were detected and no increase in IL-2 receptor expression was seen. IL-3 production, however, could be detected. T cells pre-incubated for one day with E/sub ..beta..//sup k/E/sub ..cap alpha..//sup k/-membranes plus antigen became non-responsive to subsequent normal stimulation with antigen and APC. Incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine was reduced by more than 90% and the production of both IL-2 and IL-3 was inhibited. Non-responsiveness persisted for at least eight days after exposure to E/sub ..beta..///sup k/E/sub ..cap alpha..//sup k/-membranes plus antigen. In contrast, T cells pre-incubated under control conditions remained fully responsive. These results demonstrate the specific induction of non-responsiveness in inducer T cells by antigen and purified E/sub ..beta..//sup k/E/sub ..cap alpha..//sup k/ in planar membranes.

  9. T-cell count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to: Cancer, such as acute lymphocytic leukemia or multiple myeloma Infections, such as hepatitis or mononucleosis Lower than normal T-cell levels may be due to: Acute viral infections Aging ... diseases, such as HIV/AIDS Radiation therapy Steroid treatment

  10. The Special Relationship in the Development and Function of T Helper 17 and Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Matthias; Wang, Zuobai; Sparwasser, Tim

    2015-01-01

    T helper 17 (Th17) cells play an essential role in the clearance of extracellular pathogenic bacteria and fungi. However, this subset is critically involved in the pathology of many autoimmune diseases, e.g., psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, allergy, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel diseases in humans. Therefore, Th17 responses need to be tightly regulated in vivo to mediate effective host defenses against pathogens without causing excessive host tissue damage. Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in maintaining peripheral tolerance to self-antigens and in counteracting the inflammatory activity of effector T helper cell subsets. Although Th17 and Treg cells represent two CD4(+) T cell subsets with opposing principal functions, these cell types are functionally connected. In this review, we will first give an overview on the biology of Th17 cells and describe their development and in vivo function, followed by an account on the special developmental relationship between Th17 and Treg cells. We will describe the identification of Treg/Th17 intermediates and consider their lineage stability and function in vivo. Finally, we will discuss how Treg cells may regulate the Th17 cell response in the context of infection and inflammation, and elude on findings demonstrating that Treg cells can also have a prominent function in promoting the differentiation of Th17 cells. PMID:26615094

  11. Regulatory T-cell development and function are impaired in mice lacking membrane expression of full length intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Gottrand, Gaëlle; Courau, Tristan; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique; Prevel, Nicolas; Vazquez, Thomas; Ruocco, Maria Grazia; Lambrecht, Benedicte; Bellier, Bertrand; Colombo, Bruno M; Klatzmann, David

    2015-12-01

    To further investigate the contribution of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) to adaptive immune responses, we analysed T-cell development and function in mice lacking full-length ICAM-1 (ICAM-1(tm1Jcgr) ). Compared with wild-type (ICAM-1(WT) ) mice, ICAM-1(tm1Jcgr) mice have impaired thymocyte development. Proportions and numbers of double negative, double positive, mature CD4(+) and CD8(+) thymocytes, as well as of regulatory T (Treg) cells were also significantly decreased. In the periphery, ICAM-1(tm1Jcgr) mice had significantly decreased proportions and numbers of naive and activated/memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, as well as of Treg cells, in lymph nodes but not in the spleen. In vitro activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from ICAM-1(tm1Jcgr) mice with anti-CD3 antibodies and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) resulted in a significantly weaker proliferation, whereas proliferation induced with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibody-coated beads was normal. In vivo immunization of ICAM-1(tm1Jcgr) mice resulted in normal generation of specific effector and memory immune responses that protect against a viral challenge. However, contrary to ICAM-1(WT) mice, immunization-induced specific effectors could not eradicate immunogen-expressing tumours. Treg cells from ICAM-1(tm1Jcgr) mice have abnormal activation and proliferation induced by anti-CD3 antibody and APCs, and have markedly decreased suppressive activity in vitro. In contrast to ICAM-1(WT) mice, they were unable to control experimentally induced colitis in vivo. Hence, our results further highlight the pleiotropic role of ICAM-1 in T-cell-dependent immune responses, with a major role in Treg cell development and suppressive function. PMID:26370005

  12. Regulatory gene network circuits underlying T cell development from multipotent progenitors.

    PubMed

    Kueh, Hao Yuan; Rothenberg, Ellen V

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory gene circuits enable stem and progenitor cells to detect and process developmental signals and make irreversible fate commitment decisions. To gain insight into the gene circuits underlying T cell fate decision making in progenitor cells, we generated an updated T-lymphocyte developmental gene regulatory network from genes and connections found in the literature. This reconstruction allowed us to identify candidate regulatory gene circuit elements underlying T cell fate decision making. Here, we examine the roles of these circuits in facilitating different aspects of the decision making process, and discuss experiments to further probe their structure and function. PMID:21976153

  13. MHC class II-positive epithelium and mesenchyme cells are both required for T-cell development in the thymus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G; Jenkinson, E J; Moore, N C; Owen, J J

    1993-03-01

    T lymphocytes are produced in the thymus from precursors originating in the haemopoietic tissues. On entering the thymus, they undergo a programme of proliferation, T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement, differentiation and repertoire selection. Although the thymus provides a unique environment for these events, the role of the thymic stroma in regulating specific developmental stages is not well understood. We therefore devised an in vitro system to study the role of individual thymic stromal components in T-cell development. We report here that the development of TCR-CD4-CD8-T-cell precursors into TCR+ cells expressing CD4 and/or CD8 requires the presence of both major histocompatibility complex class II+ epithelial cells and fetal mesenchyme. The requirement for mesenchymal support can be mapped to the initial stages of intrathymic development because the later stages of maturation, from double-positive CD4+CD8+ thymocytes into single-positive CD4+ or CD8+ cells, can be supported by epithelial cells alone. We also show that the requirement for mesenchymal cells can be met by cells of the fibroblast line 3T3 (but not by supernatants from these cells). To our knowledge, these findings provide the first direct evidence that mesenchymal as well as epithelial cells are involved in T-cell development, and suggest that their involvement is stage-specific and likely to be dependent on short-range or contact-mediated interactions. PMID:8446171

  14. Contribution of JAK2 mutations to T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma development

    PubMed Central

    Roncero, A M; López-Nieva, P; Cobos-Fernández, M A; Villa-Morales, M; González-Sánchez, L; López-Lorenzo, J L; Llamas, P; Ayuso, C; Rodríguez-Pinilla, S M; Arriba, M C; Piris, M A; Fernández-Navarro, P; Fernández, A F; Fraga, M F; Santos, J; Fernández-Piqueras, J

    2016-01-01

    The JAK-STAT pathway has a substantial role in lymphoid precursor cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Nonetheless, the contribution of JAK2 to T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) development remains poorly understood. We have identified one activating TEL-JAK2 translocation and four missense mutations accumulated in 2 out of 16 T-LBL samples. Two of them are novel JAK2 mutations and the other two are reported for the first time in T-LBL. Notably, R683G and I682T might have arisen owing to RNA editing. Mutated samples showed different mutated transcripts suggesting sub-clonal heterogeneity. Functional approaches revealed that two JAK2 mutations (H574R and R683G) constitutively activate JAK-STAT signaling in γ2A cells and can drive the proliferation of BaF3-EpoR cytokine-dependent cell line. In addition, aberrant hypermethylation of SOCS3 might contribute to enhance the activation of JAK-STAT signaling. Of utmost interest is that primary T-LBL samples harboring JAK2 mutations exhibited increased expression of LMO2, suggesting a mechanistic link between JAK2 mutations and the expression of LMO2, which was confirmed for the four missense mutations in transfected γ2A cells. We therefore propose that active JAK2 contribute to T-LBL development by two different mechanisms, and that the use of pan-JAK inhibitors in combination with epigenetic drugs should be considered in future treatments. PMID:26216197

  15. Effect of Cytomegalovirus Co-Infection on Normalization of Selected T-Cell Subsets in Children with Perinatally Acquired HIV Infection Treated with Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kapetanovic, Suad; Aaron, Lisa; Montepiedra, Grace; Anthony, Patricia; Thuvamontolrat, Kasalyn; Pahwa, Savita; Burchett, Sandra; Weinberg, Adriana; Kovacs, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the effect of cytomegalovirus (CMV) co-infection and viremia on reconstitution of selected CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) children ≥ 1-year old who participated in a partially randomized, open-label, 96-week combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-algorithm study. Methods Participants were categorized as CMV-naïve, CMV-positive (CMV+) viremic, and CMV+ aviremic, based on blood, urine, or throat culture, CMV IgG and DNA polymerase chain reaction measured at baseline. At weeks 0, 12, 20 and 40, T-cell subsets including naïve (CD62L+CD45RA+; CD95-CD28+), activated (CD38+HLA-DR+) and terminally differentiated (CD62L-CD45RA+; CD95+CD28-) CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were measured by flow cytometry. Results Of the 107 participants included in the analysis, 14% were CMV+ viremic; 49% CMV+ aviremic; 37% CMV-naïve. In longitudinal adjusted models, compared with CMV+ status, baseline CMV-naïve status was significantly associated with faster recovery of CD8+CD62L+CD45RA+% and CD8+CD95-CD28+% and faster decrease of CD8+CD95+CD28-%, independent of HIV VL response to treatment, cART regimen and baseline CD4%. Surprisingly, CMV status did not have a significant impact on longitudinal trends in CD8+CD38+HLA-DR+%. CMV status did not have a significant impact on any CD4+ T-cell subsets. Conclusions In this cohort of PHIV+ children, the normalization of naïve and terminally differentiated CD8+ T-cell subsets in response to cART was detrimentally affected by the presence of CMV co-infection. These findings may have implications for adjunctive treatment strategies targeting CMV co-infection in PHIV+ children, especially those that are now adults or reaching young adulthood and may have accelerated immunologic aging, increased opportunistic infections and aging diseases of the immune system. PMID:25794163

  16. PROGRESSION OF REGULATORY GENE EXPRESSION STATES IN FETAL AND ADULT PRO-T CELL DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    David-Fung, Elizabeth-Sharon; Yui, Mary A.; Morales, Marissa; Wang, Hua; Taghon, Tom; Diamond, Rochelle A.; Rothenberg, Ellen V.

    2014-01-01

    Precursors entering the T-cell developmental pathway traverse a progression of states characterized by distinctive patterns of gene expression. Of particular interest are regulatory genes, which ultimately control the dwell time of cells in each state and establish the mechanisms that propel them forward to subsequent states. Under particular genetic and developmental circumstances, the transitions between these states occur with different timing, and environmental feedbacks may shift the steady-state accumulations of cells in each state. The fetal transit through pro-T cell stages is faster than in the adult, and subject to somewhat different genetic requirements. To explore causes of such variation, this review presents previously unpublished data on differentiation gene activation in pro-T cells of pre-TCR deficient mutant mice, and a quantitative comparison of the profiles of transcription factor gene expression in pro-T cell subsets of fetal and adult wildtype mice. Against a background of consistent gene expression, several regulatory genes show marked differences between fetal and adult expression profiles, including those encoding two bHLH antagonist Id factors, the Ets family factor SpiB, and the Notch target gene Deltex1. The results also reveal global differences in regulatory alterations triggered by the first TCR-dependent selection events in fetal and adult thymopoiesis. PMID:16448545

  17. Development of a Model System for Tick-Borne Flavivirus Persistence in HEK 293T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mlera, Luwanika; Offerdahl, Danielle K.; Martens, Craig; Porcella, Stephen F.; Melik, Wessam

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We devised a model system to study persistent infection by the tick-borne flavivirus Langat virus (LGTV) in 293T cells. Infection with a molecularly cloned LGTV strain produced an acute lytic crisis that left few surviving cells. The culture was repopulated by cells that were ~90% positive for LGTV E protein, thus initiating a persistent infection that was maintained for at least 35weeks without additional lytic crises. Staining of cells for viral proteins and ultrastructural analysis revealed only minor differences from the acute phase of infection. Infectious LGTV decreased markedly over the study period, but the number of viral genomes remained relatively constant, suggesting the development of defective interfering particles (DIPs). Viral genome changes were investigated by RNA deep sequencing. At the initiation of persistent infection, levels of DIPs were below the limit of detection at a coverage depth of 11,288-fold, implying that DIPs are not required for initiation of persistence. However, after 15 passages, DIPs constituted approximately 34% of the total LGTV population (coverage of 1,293-fold). Furthermore, at this point, one specific DIP population predominated in which nucleotides 1058 to 2881 had been deleted. This defective genome specified an intact polyprotein that coded for a truncated fusion protein containing 28 N-terminal residues of E and 134 C-terminal residues of NS1. Such a fusion protein has not previously been described, and a possible function in persistent infection is uncertain. DIPs are not required for the initiation of persistent LGTV infection but may play a role in the maintenance of viral persistence. PMID:26045539

  18. Normal Distribution of CD8+ T-Cell-Derived ELISPOT Counts within Replicates Justifies the Reliance on Parametric Statistics for Identifying Positive Responses

    PubMed Central

    Karulin, Alexey Y.; Caspell, Richard; Dittrich, Marcus; Lehmann, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of positive ELISPOT responses for low frequencies of antigen-specific T-cells is controversial. In particular, it is still unknown whether ELISPOT counts within replicate wells follow a theoretical distribution function, and thus whether high power parametric statistics can be used to discriminate between positive and negative wells. We studied experimental distributions of spot counts for up to 120 replicate wells of IFN-γ production by CD8+ T-cell responding to EBV LMP2A (426 – 434) peptide in human PBMC. The cells were tested in serial dilutions covering a wide range of average spot counts per condition, from just a few to hundreds of spots per well. Statistical analysis of the data using diagnostic Q-Q plots and the Shapiro-Wilk normality test showed that in the entire dynamic range of ELISPOT spot counts within replicate wells followed a normal distribution. This result implies that the Student t-Test and ANOVA are suited to identify positive responses. We also show experimentally that borderline responses can be reliably detected by involving more replicate wells, plating higher numbers of PBMC, addition of IL-7, or a combination of these. Furthermore, we have experimentally verified that the number of replicates needed for detection of weak responses can be calculated using parametric statistics. PMID:25738924

  19. Altered T cell development in human thymoma is related to impairment of MHC class II transactivator expression induced by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)

    PubMed Central

    Kadota, Y; Okumura, M; Miyoshi, S; Kitagawa-Sakakida, S; Inoue, M; Shiono, H; Maeda, Y; Kinoshita, T; Shirakura, R; Matsuda, H

    2000-01-01

    Thymoma is known to contain CD4+CD8+ T cells, indicating that neoplastic epithelial cells of thymoma have a function as thymic cortical epithelium. However, it has been shown that there is an impairment of CD4+ T cell development in thymoma and that IFN-γ-induced HLA-DR expression on cultured thymic epithelial cells (TEC) derived from thymoma is decreased when compared with the normal thymus. MHC class II transactivator (CIITA) is known to play a critical role in IFN-γ-induced MHC II expression. In this study, we attempted to elucidate whether CIITA is responsible for the impaired up-regulation of MHC II molecules in response to IFN-γ in thymoma TEC. A quantitative reverse transriptase-polymerase chain reaction examination revealed that the induced level of CIITA was significantly lower in thymoma TEC than in normal TEC. The induced levels of invariant chain (Ii) and HLA-DR in thymoma TEC were correlated with CIITA expression. The proportion of CD3+ cells in the CD4+CD8− subset in thymoma was also correlated with CIITA expression. A gel mobility shift assay however, revealed translocation of STAT1 to the nucleus in thymoma as well as normal TEC. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was up-regulated in the thymoma TEC to a level similar to normal TEC in response to IFN-γ. These results indicate that impaired up-regulation of HLA-DR in response to IFN-γ results from insufficient induction of CIITA, but not from the signal from IFN-γ receptor to the nucleus. The abnormal regulation of HLA-DR expression caused by impaired induction of CIITA may affect CD4+ T cell development in thymoma. PMID:10886240

  20. Regulation of the transcriptional program by DNA methylation during human αβ T-cell development

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Ramon M.; Suarez-Alvarez, Beatriz; Mosén-Ansorena, David; García-Peydró, Marina; Fuentes, Patricia; García-León, María J.; Gonzalez-Lahera, Aintzane; Macias-Camara, Nuria; Toribio, María L.; Aransay, Ana M.; Lopez-Larrea, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Thymocyte differentiation is a complex process involving well-defined sequential developmental stages that ultimately result in the generation of mature T-cells. In this study, we analyzed DNA methylation and gene expression profiles at successive human thymus developmental stages. Gain and loss of methylation occurred during thymocyte differentiation, but DNA demethylation was much more frequent than de novo methylation and more strongly correlated with gene expression. These changes took place in CpG-poor regions and were closely associated with T-cell differentiation and TCR function. Up to 88 genes that encode transcriptional regulators, some of whose functions in T-cell development are as yet unknown, were differentially methylated during differentiation. Interestingly, no reversion of accumulated DNA methylation changes was observed as differentiation progressed, except in a very small subset of key genes (RAG1, RAG2, CD8A, PTCRA, etc.), indicating that methylation changes are mostly unique and irreversible events. Our study explores the contribution of DNA methylation to T-cell lymphopoiesis and provides a fine-scale map of differentially methylated regions associated with gene expression changes. These can lay the molecular foundations for a better interpretation of the regulatory networks driving human thymopoiesis. PMID:25539926

  1. Splenic Long-Lived Plasma Cells Promote the Development of Follicular Helper T Cells during Autoimmune Responses.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eunkyeong; Cho, Wang Sik; Oh, Yeon-Kyung; Cho, Mi-La; Kim, Jung Mogg; Paik, Doo-Jin; Youn, Jeehee

    2016-02-01

    Long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs) develop under the help of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells and reside mainly in the bone marrow. However, these cells are unusually abundant in the spleen of several autoimmune models including K/BxNsf mice, yet their pathogenic impact remains unknown. To investigate a previously unappreciated role of splenic LLPCs, we sorted splenic plasma cells (PCs) from K/BxNsf and K/BxN mice, corresponding to LLPCs and conventional short-lived PCs, respectively, and compared their phenotypes and ability to prime and induce the differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells into effector cells in vitro and in vivo. We found that K/BxNsf PCs had lower levels of the Ag presentation machinery and costimulators than K/BxN PCs, and also a lower CD4(+) T cell priming capacity. Autoantigen-pulsed K/BxNsf PCs selectively polarized cognate CD4(+) T cells toward the expression of molecules necessary for Tfh development and function. As a result, the K/BxNsf PC-primed CD4(+) T cells were more effective in stimulating B cells to produce autoantigen-specific IgGs than K/BxN PCs or even dendritic cells. Adoptive transfer of K/BxNsf PCs, but not K/BxN PCs, to K/BxN mice increased numbers of Tfh cells in draining lymph nodes. These results propose that abnormal accumulation of LLPCs in the spleen of autoimmune models drives the differentiation of autoantigen-primed CD4(+) T cells to Tfh cells. This positive feedback loop between splenic LLPCs and Tfh cells may contribute to the persistence of humoral autoimmunity. PMID:26729802

  2. A role for apoptosis-inducing factor in T cell development

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Hridesh; Das, Abhishek; Srivastava, Smita; Mattoo, Hamid R.; Thyagarajan, Krishnamurthy; Khalsa, Jasneet Kaur; Tanwar, Shalini; Das, Deepika Sharma; Majumdar, Subeer S.; George, Anna; Bal, Vineeta; Durdik, Jeannine M.

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis-inducing factor (Aif) is a mitochondrial flavoprotein that regulates cell metabolism and survival in many tissues. We report that aif-hypomorphic harlequin (Hq) mice show thymic hypocellularity and a cell-autonomous thymocyte developmental block associated with apoptosis at the ?-selection stage, independent of T cell receptor ? recombination. No abnormalities are observed in the B cell lineage. Transgenes encoding wild-type or DNA-bindingdeficient mutant Aif rectify the thymic defect, but a transgene encoding oxidoreductase activitydeficient mutant Aif does not. The Hq thymic block is reversed in vivo by antioxidant treatment, and Hq T but not B lineage cells show enhanced oxidative stress. Thus, Aif, a ubiquitous protein, serves a lineage-specific nonredundant antiapoptotic role in the T cell lineage by regulating reactive oxygen species during thymic ?-selection. PMID:22869892

  3. Identification of stem cell transcriptional programs normally expressed in embryonic and neural stem cells in alloreactive CD8+ T cells mediating graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Koji; Cui, Shuaiying; Kuick, Rork; Mineishi, Shin; Hexner, Elizabeth; Ferrara, James LM; Emerson, Stephen G.; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    A hallmark of graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), a life-threatening complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, is the cytopathic injury of host tissues mediated by persistent alloreactive effector T cells (TE). However, the mechanisms that regulate the persistence of alloreactive TE during GVHD remain largely unknown. Using mouse GVHD models, we demonstrate that alloreactive CD8+ TE rapidly diminished in vivo when adoptively transferred into irradiated secondary congenic recipient mice. In contrast, although alloreactive CD8+ TE underwent massive apoptosis upon chronic exposure to alloantigens, they proliferated in vivo in secondary allogeneic recipients, persisted and caused severe GVHD. Thus, the continuous proliferation of alloreactive CD8+ TE, which is mediated by alloantigenic stimuli rather than homeostatic factors, is critical to maintaining their persistence. Gene expression profile analysis revealed that while alloreactive CD8+ TE increased the expression of genes associated with cell death, they activated a group of stem cell genes normally expressed in embryonic and neural stem cells. Most of these stem cell genes are associated with cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, chromatin modification and transcription. One of these genes, Ezh2, which encodes a chromatin modifying enzyme, was abundantly expressed in CD8+ TE. Silencing Ezh2 significantly reduced the proliferation of alloantigen-activated CD8+ T cells. Thus, these findings identify that a group of stem cell genes could play important roles in sustaining terminally differentiated alloreactive CD8+ TE and may be therapeutic targets for controlling GVHD. PMID:20116439

  4. Numb-dependent integration of pre-TCR and p53 function in T-cell precursor development

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Blanco, N M; Checquolo, S; Del Gaudio, F; Palermo, R; Franciosa, G; Di Marcotullio, L; Gulino, A; Canelles, M; Screpanti, I

    2014-01-01

    Numb asymmetrically segregates at mitosis to control cell fate choices during development. Numb inheritance specifies progenitor over differentiated cell fates, and, paradoxically, also promotes neuronal differentiation, thus indicating that the role of Numb may change during development. Here we report that Numb nuclear localization is restricted to early thymocyte precursors, whereas timed appearance of pre-T-cell receptor (pre-TCR) and activation of protein kinase C? promote phosphorylation-dependent Numb nuclear exclusion. Notably, nuclear localization of Numb in early thymocyte precursors favors p53 nuclear stabilization, whereas pre-TCR-dependent Numb nuclear exclusion promotes the p53 downmodulation essential for further differentiation. Accordingly, the persistence of Numb in the nucleus impairs the differentiation and promotes precursor cell death. This study reveals a novel regulatory mechanism for Numb function based on its nucleuscytosol shuttling, coupling the different roles of Numb with different stages of T-cell development. PMID:25321479

  5. 5. T cell immunity and neuroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhi; Ha, Grace K.; Petitto, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The proneuronal effects of T cells that impact the brain occur from both T cells trafficking into the brain, and from signals in the periphery (e.g., cytokine release and regulation). Recent data indicates that neuroimmunological changes in the brain can modify intrinsic brain processes that are involved in regulating neuroplasticity (e.g., T-cell/microglial interactions, neurotrophins, neurogenesis). We describe: 1) work from our lab and others showing that injury-induced loss of neuronal phenotype and reversal of motor neuron atrophy are associated with normal T cell immunity, and; 2) research indicating that these and other neuroimmunological processes may be generalizable to mechanisms of neuroplasticity involved in cognitive and emotional behavior. These findings are discussed in relation to our labs working hypothesis, that T cell immunosenesence may contribute to alterations in brain neuroplasticity related to aging. Greater understanding of the role of adaptive T cell immunity on neuroplasticity could have important clinical implications for developing novel treatment strategies for neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimers) and brain injury (e.g., stroke, trauma). PMID:25599095

  6. Regulation of DNA methylation dictates Cd4 gene expression during development of helper and cytotoxic T cell lineages

    PubMed Central

    Sellars, MacLean; Huh, Jun R.; Day, Kenneth; Issuree, Priya D.; Galan, Carolina; Gobeil, Stephane; Absher, Devin; Green, Michael R.; Littman, Dan R.

    2015-01-01

    During development, progenitor cells with binary potential give rise to daughter cells that have distinct functions. Heritable epigenetic mechanisms then lock in gene expression programs that define lineage identity. Cd4 regulation in helper and cytotoxic T cells exemplifies this process, with enhancer- and silencer-regulated establishment of epigenetic memories for stable gene expression and repression, respectively. Using a genetic screen, we identified the DNA methylation machinery as essential for maintaining Cd4 silencing in the cytotoxic lineage. Further, we found a requirement for the proximal enhancer in mediating removal of Cd4 DNA methylation marks, allowing for stable expression in T helper cells. These findings suggest that stage-specific methylation and demethylation events in Cd4 regulate its heritable expression in response to the distinct signals that dictate lineage choice during T cell development. PMID:26030024

  7. Requirements for eomesodermin and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger in the development of innate-like CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Scott M; Carty, Shannon A; Kim, Jiyeon S; Zou, Tao; Smith-Garvin, Jennifer; Alonzo, Eric S; Haimm, Ethan; Sant'Angelo, Derek B; Koretzky, Gary A; Reiner, Steven L; Jordan, Martha S

    2011-04-15

    Conventional and nonconventional T cell development occur in the thymus. Nonconventional thymocytes that bear characteristics typically associated with innate immune cells are termed innate-like lymphocytes (ILLs). Mice harboring a tyrosine to phenylalanine mutation in the adaptor protein Src homology 2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa at residue 145 (Y145F mice) develop an expanded population of CD8(+)CD122(+)CD44(+) ILLs, typified by expression of the T-box transcription factor eomesodermin. Y145F mice also have an expanded population of γδ T cells that produce copious amounts of IL-4 via a mechanism that is dependent on the BTB-ZF transcription factor promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger. Using mice with T cell-specific deletion of Eomes, we demonstrate that this transcription factor is required for CD8(+) ILL development in Y145F as well as wild-type mice. Moreover, we show that promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger and IL-4 are also required for the generation of this ILL population. Taken together, these data shed light on the cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic factors that drive CD8(+) ILL differentiation. PMID:21383242

  8. Distinct Signaling of Coreceptors Regulates Specific Metabolism Pathways and Impacts Memory Development in CAR T Cells.

    PubMed

    Kawalekar, Omkar U; O'Connor, Roddy S; Fraietta, Joseph A; Guo, Lili; McGettigan, Shannon E; Posey, Avery D; Patel, Prachi R; Guedan, Sonia; Scholler, John; Keith, Brian; Snyder, Nathaniel; Blair, Ian; Milone, Michael C; June, Carl H

    2016-02-16

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) redirect T cell cytotoxicity against cancer cells, providing a promising approach to cancer immunotherapy. Despite extensive clinical use, the attributes of CAR co-stimulatory domains that impact persistence and resistance to exhaustion of CAR-T cells remain largely undefined. Here, we report the influence of signaling domains of coreceptors CD28 and 4-1BB on the metabolic characteristics of human CAR T cells. Inclusion of 4-1BB in the CAR architecture promoted the outgrowth of CD8(+) central memory T cells that had significantly enhanced respiratory capacity, increased fatty acid oxidation and enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis. In contrast, CAR T cells with CD28 domains yielded effector memory cells with a genetic signature consistent with enhanced glycolysis. These results provide, at least in part, a mechanistic insight into the differential persistence of CAR-T cells expressing 4-1BB or CD28 signaling domains in clinical trials and inform the design of future CAR T cell therapies. PMID:26885860

  9. Immature myeloid cells directly contribute to skin tumor development by recruiting IL-17producing CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Myrna L.; Kumar, Vinit; Martner, Anna; Mony, Sridevi; Donthireddy, Laxminarasimha; Condamine, Thomas; Seykora, John; Knight, Stella C.; Malietzis, George; Lee, Gui Han; Moorghen, Morgan; Lenox, Brianna; Luetteke, Noreen; Celis, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Evidence links chronic inflammation with cancer, but cellular mechanisms involved in this process remain unclear. We have demonstrated that in humans, inflammatory conditions that predispose to development of skin and colon tumors are associated with accumulation in tissues of CD33+S100A9+ cells, the phenotype typical for myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cancer or immature myeloid cells (IMCs) in tumor-free hosts. To identify the direct role of these cells in tumor development, we used S100A9 transgenic mice to create the conditions for topical accumulation of these cells in the skin in the absence of infection or tissue damage. These mice demonstrated accumulation of granulocytic IMCs in the skin upon topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), resulting in a dramatic increase in the formation of papillomas during epidermal carcinogenesis. The effect of IMCs on tumorigenesis was not associated with immune suppression, but with CCL4 (chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 4)-mediated recruitment of IL-17producing CD4+ T cells. This chemokine was released by activated IMCs. Elimination of CD4+ T cells or blockade of CCL4 or IL-17 abrogated the increase in tumor formation caused by myeloid cells. Thus, this study implicates accumulation of IMCs as an initial step in facilitation of tumor formation, followed by the recruitment of CD4+ T cells. PMID:25667306

  10. Betaglycan (T?RIII) Is Expressed in the Thymus and Regulates T Cell Development by Protecting Thymocytes from Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Aleman-Muench, German R.; Mendoza, Valentin; Stenvers, Kaye; Garcia-Zepeda, Eduardo A.; Lopez-Casillas, Fernando; Raman, Chander; Soldevila, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    TGF-? type III receptor (T?RIII) is a coreceptor for TGF? family members required for high-affinity binding of these ligands to their receptors, potentiating their cellular functions. TGF-? [1][3], bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP2/4) and inhibins regulate different checkpoints during T cell differentiation. Although T?RIII is expressed on hematopoietic cells, the role of this receptor in the immune system remains elusive. Here, we provide the first evidence that T?RIII is developmentally expressed during T cell ontogeny, and plays a crucial role in thymocyte differentiation. Blocking of endogenous T?RIII in fetal thymic organ cultures led to a delay in DN-DP transition. In addition, in vitro development of T?RIII?/? thymic lobes also showed a significant reduction in absolute thymocyte numbers, which correlated with increased thymocyte apoptosis, resembling the phenotype reported in Inhibin ? ?/? thymic lobes. These data suggest that Inhibins and T?RIII may function as a molecular pair regulating T cell development. PMID:22952931

  11. Harnessing T cells to fight cancer with BiTE(®) antibody constructs - past developments and future directions.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Matthias; Benjamin, Jonathan; Kischel, Roman; Stienen, Sabine; Zugmaier, Gerhard

    2016-03-01

    Bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE(®) ) antibody constructs represent a novel immunotherapy that bridges cytotoxic T cells to tumor cells, thereby inducing target cell-dependent polyclonal T-cell activation and proliferation, and leading to apoptosis of bound tumor cells. Anti-CD19 BiTE(®) blinatumomab has demonstrated clinical activity in Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative relapsed or refractory (r/r) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) eventually resulting in conditional approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2014. This drug is currently further developed in pediatric and Ph(+) r/r, as well as in minimal residual disease-positive ALL, and might also offer clinical benefit for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, especially for those with aggressive forms like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Another BiTE(®) antibody construct in hemato-oncology designated AMG 330 targets CD33 on acute myeloid leukemia blast cells. After showing promising ex vivo activity, this drug candidate has recently entered phase 1 clinical development, and has further indicated potential for combination with checkpoint inhibitors. In solid tumor indications, three BiTE(®) antibody constructs have been tested in phase 1 studies so far: anti-EpCAM BiTE(®) AMG 110, anti-CEA BiTE(®) MEDI-565/AMG 211, and anti-PSMA BiTE(®) BAY2010112/AMG 212. Pertinent questions comprise how to maximize BiTE(®) penetration and T-cell infiltration of the tumor while simultaneously minimizing any adverse events, which is currently explored by a continuous intravenous infusion approach. Thus, BiTE(®) antibody constructs will hopefully provide new treatment options for patients in several indications with high unmet medical need. PMID:26864113

  12. The ? Isoform of Diacylglycerol Kinase Plays a Predominant Role in Regulatory T Cell Development and TCR-Mediated Ras Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rohan P.; Schmidt, Amanda M.; Das, Jayajit; Pytel, Dariusz; Riese, Matthew J.; Lester, Melissa; Diehl, J. Alan; Behrens, Edward M.; Kambayashi, Taku; Koretzky, Gary A.

    2014-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a critical second messenger that mediates T cell receptor (TCR)stimulated signaling. The abundance of DAG is reduced by the diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), which catalyze the conversion of DAG to phosphatidic acid (PA) and thus inhibit DAG-mediated signaling. In T cells, the predominant DGK isoforms are DGK? and DGK?, and deletion of the genes encoding either isoform enhances DAG-mediated signaling. We found that DGK?, but not DGK?, suppressed the development of natural regulatory T (Treg) cells and predominantly mediated Ras and Akt signaling downstream of the TCR. The differential functions of DGK? and DGK? were not attributable to differences in protein abundance in T cells or in their localization to the contact sites between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. RasGRP1, a key DAG-mediated activator of Ras signaling, associated to a greater extent with DGK? than with DGK?; however, in silico modeling of TCR-stimulated Ras activation suggested that a difference in RasGRP1 binding affinity was not sufficient to cause differences in the functions of each DGK isoform. Rather, the model suggested that a greater catalytic rate for DGK? than for DGK? might lead to DGK? exhibiting increased suppression of Ras-mediated signals compared to DGK?. Consistent with this notion, experimental studies demonstrated that DGK? was more effective than DGK? at catalyzing the metabolism of DAG to PA after TCR stimulation. The enhanced effective enzymatic production of PA by DGK? is therefore one possible mechanism underlying the dominant functions of DGK? in modulating Treg cell development. PMID:24280043

  13. An essential role for the transcription factor HEB in thymocyte survival, Tcra rearrangement and the development of natural killer T cells

    PubMed Central

    DCruz, Louise M; Knell, Jamie; Fujimoto, Jessica K; Goldrath, Ananda W

    2010-01-01

    E proteins are basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that regulate many key aspects of lymphocyte development. Thymocytes express multiple E proteins that are thought to provide cooperative and compensatory functions crucial for T cell differentiation. Contrary to that, we report here that the E protein HEB was uniquely required at the CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP) stage of T cell development. Thymocytes lacking HEB showed impaired survival, failed to make rearrangements of variable-? (V?) segments to distal joining-? (J?) segments in the gene encoding the T cell antigen receptor ?-chain (Tcra) and had a profound, intrinsic block in the development of invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) at their earliest progenitor stage. Thus, our results show that HEB is a specific and essential factor in T cell development and in the generation of the iNKT cell lineage, defining a unique role for HEB in the regulation of lymphocyte maturation. PMID:20154672

  14. Adoptive T Cell Therapies: A Comparison of T Cell Receptors and Chimeric Antigen Receptors.

    PubMed

    Harris, Daniel T; Kranz, David M

    2016-03-01

    The tumor-killing properties of T cells provide tremendous opportunities to treat cancer. Adoptive T cell therapies have begun to harness this potential by endowing a functionally diverse repertoire of T cells with genetically modified, tumor-specific recognition receptors. Normally, this antigen recognition function is mediated by an αβ T cell receptor (TCR), but the dominant therapeutic forms currently in development are synthetic constructs called chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). While CAR-based adoptive cell therapies are already showing great promise, their basic mechanistic properties have been studied in less detail compared with those of αβ TCRs. In this review, we compare and contrast various features of TCRs versus CARs, with a goal of highlighting issues that need to be addressed to fully exploit the therapeutic potential of both. PMID:26705086

  15. Mnk1 and 2 are dispensable for T cell development and activation but important for the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Gorentla, Balachandra K; Krishna, Sruti; Shin, Jinwook; Inoue, Makoto; Shinohara, Mari L; Grayson, Jason M; Fukunaga, Rikiro; Zhong, Xiao-Ping

    2013-02-01

    T cell development and activation are usually accompanied by expansion and production of numerous proteins that require active translation. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binds to the 5' cap structure of mRNA and is critical for cap-dependent translational initiation. It has been hypothesized that MAPK-interacting kinase 1 and 2 (Mnk1/2) promote cap-dependent translation by phosphorylating eIF4E at serine 209 (S209). Pharmacologic studies using inhibitors have suggested that Mnk1/2 have important roles in T cells. However, genetic evidence supporting such conclusions is lacking. Moreover, the signaling pathways that regulate Mnk1/2 in T cells remain unclear. We demonstrate that TCR engagement activates Mnk1/2 in primary T cells. Such activation is dependent on Ras-Erk1/2 signaling and is inhibited by diacylglycerol kinases ? and ?. Mnk1/2 double deficiency in mice abolishes TCR-induced eIF4E S209 phosphorylation, indicating their absolute requirement for eIF4E S209 phosphorylation. However, Mnk1/2 double deficiency does not affect the development of conventional ?? T cells, regulatory T cells, or NKT cells. Furthermore, T cell activation, in vivo primary and memory CD8 T cell responses to microbial infection, and NKT cell cytokine production were not obviously altered by Mnk1/2 deficiency. Although Mnk1/2 deficiency causes decreased IL-17 and IFN-? production by CD4 T cells following immunization of mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide in complete Freund's adjuvant, correlating with milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis scores, it does not affect Th cell differentiation in vitro. Together, these data suggest that Mnk1/2 has a minimal role in T cell development and activation but may regulate non-T cell lineages to control Th1 and Th17 differentiation in vivo. PMID:23269249

  16. The multifaceted role of CD4(+) T cells in CD8(+) T cell memory.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, Brian J; Craft, Joseph E; Kaech, Susan M

    2016-02-01

    Following infection, T cells differentiate into a heterogeneous population of effector T cells that can mediate pathogen clearance. A subset of these effector T cells possesses the ability to survive long term and mature into memory T cells that can provide long-term immunity. Understanding the signals that regulate the development of memory T cells is crucial to efforts to design vaccines capable of eliciting T cell-based immunity. CD4(+) T cells are essential in the formation of protective memory CD8(+) T cells following infection or immunization. However, until recently, the mechanisms by which CD4(+) T cells act to support memory CD8(+) T cell development following infection were unclear. Here, we discuss recent studies that provide insight into the multifaceted role of CD4(+) T cells in the regulation of memory CD8(+) T cell differentiation. PMID:26781939

  17. New developments in the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma – role of Belinostat

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) represent a heterogeneous group of rare malignancies that with the exception of anaplastic lymphoma kinase expressing anaplastic large cell lymphoma, share a poor outcome after standard (eg, anthracycline-based) chemotherapy. Most patients are either refractory to initial therapy or eventually relapse. Randomized studies for relapsed/refractory PTCL are not available, however, recently published data show that conventional chemotherapy has very limited efficacy in the salvage setting. Thus, novel drugs are urgently needed to improve the outcome in this setting. Belinostat, a pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, has demonstrated meaningful efficacy and a favorable toxicity profile in two single-arm Phase II trials on 153 patients with relapsed/refractory PTCL. The conclusive results led to an accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration. The present review summarizes the clinical data available for belinostat, its current role, and future perspectives. PMID:26082661

  18. New developments in the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma - role of Belinostat.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) represent a heterogeneous group of rare malignancies that with the exception of anaplastic lymphoma kinase expressing anaplastic large cell lymphoma, share a poor outcome after standard (eg, anthracycline-based) chemotherapy. Most patients are either refractory to initial therapy or eventually relapse. Randomized studies for relapsed/refractory PTCL are not available, however, recently published data show that conventional chemotherapy has very limited efficacy in the salvage setting. Thus, novel drugs are urgently needed to improve the outcome in this setting. Belinostat, a pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, has demonstrated meaningful efficacy and a favorable toxicity profile in two single-arm Phase II trials on 153 patients with relapsed/refractory PTCL. The conclusive results led to an accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration. The present review summarizes the clinical data available for belinostat, its current role, and future perspectives. PMID:26082661

  19. T-cell receptor gene rearrangements as markers of lineage and clonality in T-cell neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    Flug, F; Pelicci, P G; Bonetti, F; Knowles, D M; Dalla-Favera, R

    1985-01-01

    Ig gene rearrangements represent markers of lineage, clonality, and differentiation of B cells, allowing a molecular diagnosis and immunogenotypic classification of B-cell neoplasms. We sought to apply a similar approach to the study of T-cell populations by analyzing rearrangements of the T-cell receptor beta-chain (T beta) gene. Our analysis, by Southern blotting hybridization using T beta-specific probes of DNAs from polyclonal T cells and from 12 T-cell tumors, indicates that T beta gene rearrangement patterns can be used as markers of (i) lineage, allowing the identification of polyclonal T-cell populations, and (ii) clonality, allowing the detection of monoclonal T-cell tumors. In addition, our data indicate that T beta gene rearrangements represent early and general markers of T-cell differentiation since they are detectable in histologically different tumors at all stages of T-cell development. The ability to determine lineage, clonality, and stage of differentiation has significant implications for future experimental and clinical studies on normal and neoplastic T cells. Images PMID:2987928

  20. Relationship between T cell subpopulations and the mitogen responsiveness and suppressor cell function of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in normal individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Victorino, R M; Hodgson, H J

    1980-01-01

    A simultaneous analysis was made of numbers and proportions of T cell subsets (T mu and T gamma cells), lymphocyte responsiveness to non-specific mitogens in vitro and 'short-lived suppressor cell activity' in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of normal individuals. No correlation was found between either T gamma or T mu cells and the 'short-lived suppressor cell activity', suggesting that suppression in this system is not a reflection of quantitative alteration in these subsets. However, a highly significant positive correlation was found between numbers of T mu cells and PBMC responses to the mitogens phytohaemagglutinin, concanavalin A and pokeweek mitogen. This may reflect either a helper effect of T mu cells on lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogens or the presence of the majority of mitogen-responsive cells within this subpopulation. As in normal individuals lymphocyte responsiveness correlates with the number of circulating T mu cells, it is possible that a reduction in these cells in disease states may contribute to defects in cell-mediated immunity. PMID:6452237

  1. Activated regulatory T cell regulates neural stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of normal and ischemic mouse brain through interleukin 10

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jixian; Xie, Luokun; Yang, Chenqi; Ren, Changhong; Zhou, Kaijing; Wang, Brian; Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Yongting; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Guo-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the depletion of Regulatory T cells (Tregs) inhibits neural progenitor cell migration after brain ischemia. However, whether Tregs affect neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation is unclear. We explored the effect of Tregs on neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) after ischemia. Tregs were isolated and activated in vitro. Adult male C57BL/6 mice underwent 60 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Then Tregs (1 105) were injected into the left lateral ventricle (LV) of normal and ischemic mouse brain. Neurogenesis was determined by immunostaining. The mechanism was examined by inhibiting interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor (TGF-?) signaling. We found that the number of BrdU+ cells in the SVZ was significantly increased in the activated Tregs-treated mice. Double immunostaining showed that these BrdU+ cells expressed Mash1. Blocking IL-10 reduced the number of Mash1+/BrdU+ cells, but increased the amount of GFAP+/BrdU+ cells. Here, we conclude that activated Tregs enhanced neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation in the SVZ of normal and ischemic mice; blockage of IL-10 abolished Tregs-mediated NSC proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Our results suggest that activated Tregs promoted NSC proliferation via IL-10, which provides a new therapeutic approach for ischemic stroke. PMID:26441532

  2. Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma

    MedlinePLUS

    Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma Overview Lymphoma is the most common blood cancer. The two main forms of lymphoma are ... develop into lymphomas: B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells). Cancerous lymphocytes can travel to ...

  3. Noncore RAG1 regions promote V? rearrangements and ?? T cell development by overcoming inherent inefficiency of V? recombination signal sequences.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Julie E; Bassing, Craig H

    2014-02-15

    The RAG proteins are comprised of core endonuclease domains and noncore regions that modulate endonuclease activity. Mutation or deletion of noncore RAG regions in humans causes immunodeficiency and altered TCR repertoire, and mice expressing core but not full-length Rag1 (Rag1(C/C)) or Rag2 (Rag2(C/C)) exhibit lymphopenia, reflecting impaired V(D)J recombination and lymphocyte development. Rag1(C/C) mice display reduced D-to-J and V-to-DJ rearrangements of TCR? and IgH loci, whereas Rag2(C/C) mice show decreased V-to-DJ rearrangements and altered V?/VH repertoire. Because V?s/VHs only recombine to DJ complexes, the Rag1(C/C) phenotype could reflect roles for noncore RAG1 regions in promoting recombination during only the D-to-J step or during both steps. In this study, we demonstrate that a preassembled TCR? gene, but not a preassembled D?J? complex or the prosurvival BCL2 protein, completely rescues ?? T cell development in Rag1(C/C) mice. We find that Rag1(C/C) mice exhibit altered V? utilization in V?-to-DJ? rearrangements, increased usage of 3'J? gene segments in V?-to-J? rearrangements, and abnormal changes in V? repertoire during ?? TCR selection. Inefficient V?/VH recombination signal sequences (RSSs) have been hypothesized to cause impaired V-to-DJ recombination on the background of a defective recombinase as in core-Rag mice. We show that replacement of the V?14 RSS with a more efficient RSS increases V?14 recombination and rescues ?? T cell development in Rag1(C/C) mice. Our data indicate that noncore RAG1 regions establish a diverse TCR repertoire by overcoming V? RSS inefficiency to promote V? recombination and ?? T cell development, and by modulating TCR? and TCR? gene segment utilization. PMID:24415779

  4. The adoptive transfer of cultured T cells for patients with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, James C

    2013-01-01

    T cells have been shown to be capable of rejecting a patient's tumor. Weak responses to current vaccines and the toxicity of exogenously administered cytokines limit the intensity of the T-cell response that can be actively generated in vivo. Adoptive T-cell transfer enhances an intrinsically weak immune response to cancer by activating and expanding tumor reactive T cells in vitro and manipulating the environment of the host at the time of transfer. One can frequently find tumor-reactive T cells in metastatic lesions in patients with melanoma, and expand them in vitro for readministration. When successful, this adoptive cellular immunotherapy has resulted in sustainable curative outcomes. Subsequently, the applicability of adoptive T-cell transfer has been greatly expanded by the development of methods to genetically engineer open-repertoire human T-cells to confer tumor reactivity. This re-direction of T-cell specificity can be achieved by introducing a variety of receptors that ligate tumor-associated antigens and then trigger the normal activation mechanism of T cells. Future T-cell engineering will add a new dimension by reprogramming T-cell functions for optimal tumor rejection. The antigens recognized by T cells, the techniques to procure and grow tumor reactive T cells, the conditioning of the recipient to optimize efficacy, and the results of clinical protocols are reviewed herein. PMID:23438384

  5. Age-related development and tissue distribution of T cell markers (CD4 and CD8a) in Chinese goose.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shun; Zhou, Qin; Cheng, Beibei; Yan, Bing; Yan, Xiaoling; Zhao, Qiurong; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-06-01

    Aquatic birds play n critical role in the transmission and dissemination of many important pathogens such as avian influenza virus. The cell-mediated immunity is very important in eliminating the intracellular antigens. Expression of CD4 and CD8 on T cell surface is essential for cell-mediated immune defence and T-cell development. However, the ontogeny of T lymphocytes in waterfowl is scarce and fragmentary. To address these questions, here we report the development and tissues distribution of CD4 and CD8? in goose embryo, gosling and goose by immunocytochemistry assay using monoclonal antibodies. Moreover, the age-related mRNA level of goose CD4 and CD8? in different immune tissues were study by real time quantitative PCR. Our results suggested that the high expression of CD4 and CD8? were readily found in thymus, which peaked at the first week post-hatch. And the highest expression level of CD4 and CD8? were detected in bursa of Fabricius, caecal tonsils, spleen and intestine at the second week, after that the expression level were gradually decreased. Interestingly, the remarkably high expression of CD4 and CD8? in Harderian gland were detected at the first week, which is about hundreds times more than that in other tissues. Our findings demonstrated that the development and the distribution of CD4 and CD8? are partly changed in an age-related way. Moreover, the histological morphogenesis of immune tissues were also discussed. Our results may shed lights on the better understand of T-cell mediate immunity in goose. PMID:25616911

  6. IL-15 receptor α signaling constrains the development of IL-17-producing γδ T cells.

    PubMed

    Colpitts, Sara L; Puddington, Lynn; Lefrançois, Leo

    2015-08-01

    The development and homeostasis of γδ T cells is highly dependent on distinct cytokine networks. Here we examine the role of IL-15 and its unique receptor, IL-15Rα, in the development of IL-17-producing γδ (γδ-17) T cells. Phenotypic analysis has shown that CD44(high) γδ-17 cells express IL-15Rα and the common gamma chain (CD132), yet lack the IL-2/15Rβ chain (CD122). Surprisingly, we found an enlarged population of γδ-17 cells in the peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes of adult IL-15Rα KO mice, but not of IL-15 KO mice. The generation of mixed chimeras from neonatal thymocytes indicated that cell-intrinsic IL-15Rα expression was required to limit IL-17 production by γδ T cells. γδ-17 cells also were increased in the peripheral lymph nodes of transgenic knock-in mice, where the IL-15Rα intracellular signaling domain was replaced with the intracellular portion of the IL-2Rα chain (that lacks signaling capacity). Finally, an analysis of neonatal thymi revealed that the CD44(lo/int) precursors of γδ-17 cells, which also expressed IL-15Rα, were increased in newborn mice deficient in IL-15Rα signaling, but not in IL-15 itself. Thus, these findings demonstrate that signaling through IL-15Rα regulates the development of γδ-17 cells early in ontogeny, with long-term effects on their peripheral homeostasis in the adult. PMID:26195801

  7. T-Cell Immunity to Influenza in Older Adults: A Pathophysiological Framework for Development of More Effective Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    McElhaney, Janet E.; Kuchel, George A.; Zhou, Xin; Swain, Susan L.; Haynes, Laura

    2016-01-01

    One of the most profound public health consequences of immune senescence is reflected in an increased susceptibility to influenza and other acute respiratory illnesses, as well as a loss of influenza vaccine effectiveness in older people. Common medical conditions and mental and psychosocial health issues as well as degree of frailty and functional dependence accelerate changes associated with immune senescence. All contribute to the increased risk for complications of influenza infection, including pneumonias, heart diseases, and strokes that lead to hospitalization, disability, and death in the over 65 population. Changes in mucosal barrier mechanisms and both innate and adaptive immune functions converge in the reduced response to influenza infection, and lead to a loss of antibody-mediated protection against influenza with age. The interactions of immune senescence and reduced adaptive immune responses, persistent cytomegalovirus infection, inflammaging (chronic elevation of inflammatory cytokines), and dysregulated cytokine production, pose major challenges to the development of vaccines designed to improve T-cell-mediated immunity. In older adults, the goal of vaccination is more realistically targeted to providing clinical protection against disease rather than to inducing sterilizing immunity to infection. Standard assays of antibody titers correlate with protection against influenza illness but do not detect important changes in cellular immune mechanisms that correlate with vaccine-mediated protection against influenza in older people. This article will discuss: (i) the burden of influenza in older adults and how this relates to changes in T-cell function, (ii) age-related changes in different T-cell subsets and immunologic targets for improved influenza vaccine efficacy in older, and (iii) the development of correlates of clinical protection against influenza disease to expedite the process of new vaccine development for the 65 and older population. Ultimately, these efforts will address the public health need for improved protection against influenza in older adults and “vaccine preventable disability.” PMID:26941738

  8. T-Cell Immunity to Influenza in Older Adults: A Pathophysiological Framework for Development of More Effective Vaccines.

    PubMed

    McElhaney, Janet E; Kuchel, George A; Zhou, Xin; Swain, Susan L; Haynes, Laura

    2016-01-01

    One of the most profound public health consequences of immune senescence is reflected in an increased susceptibility to influenza and other acute respiratory illnesses, as well as a loss of influenza vaccine effectiveness in older people. Common medical conditions and mental and psychosocial health issues as well as degree of frailty and functional dependence accelerate changes associated with immune senescence. All contribute to the increased risk for complications of influenza infection, including pneumonias, heart diseases, and strokes that lead to hospitalization, disability, and death in the over 65 population. Changes in mucosal barrier mechanisms and both innate and adaptive immune functions converge in the reduced response to influenza infection, and lead to a loss of antibody-mediated protection against influenza with age. The interactions of immune senescence and reduced adaptive immune responses, persistent cytomegalovirus infection, inflammaging (chronic elevation of inflammatory cytokines), and dysregulated cytokine production, pose major challenges to the development of vaccines designed to improve T-cell-mediated immunity. In older adults, the goal of vaccination is more realistically targeted to providing clinical protection against disease rather than to inducing sterilizing immunity to infection. Standard assays of antibody titers correlate with protection against influenza illness but do not detect important changes in cellular immune mechanisms that correlate with vaccine-mediated protection against influenza in older people. This article will discuss: (i) the burden of influenza in older adults and how this relates to changes in T-cell function, (ii) age-related changes in different T-cell subsets and immunologic targets for improved influenza vaccine efficacy in older, and (iii) the development of correlates of clinical protection against influenza disease to expedite the process of new vaccine development for the 65 and older population. Ultimately, these efforts will address the public health need for improved protection against influenza in older adults and "vaccine preventable disability." PMID:26941738

  9. Strategy escalation: an emerging paradigm for safe clinical development of T cell gene therapies.

    PubMed

    Junghans, Richard Paul

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy techniques are being applied to modify T cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for therapeutic ends. The versatility of this platform has spawned multiple options for their application with new permutations in strategies continually being invented, a testimony to the creative energies of many investigators. The field is rapidly expanding with immense potential for impact against diverse cancers. But this rapid expansion, like the Big Bang, comes with a somewhat chaotic evolution of its therapeutic universe that can also be dangerous, as seen by recently publicized deaths. Time-honored methods for new drug testing embodied in Dose Escalation that were suitable for traditional inert agents are now inadequate for these novel "living drugs". In the following, I propose an approach to escalating risk for patient exposures with these new immuno-gene therapy agents, termed Strategy Escalation, that accounts for the molecular and biological features of the modified cells and the methods of their administration. This proposal is offered not as a prescriptive but as a discussion framework that investigators may wish to consider in configuring their intended clinical applications. PMID:20537174

  10. Pak2 Links TCR Signaling Strength to the Development of Regulatory T Cells and Maintains Peripheral Tolerance.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, Kyle Leonard; Choi, Jinyong; Pryshchep, Olga; Chernoff, Jonathan; Phee, Hyewon

    2015-08-15

    Although significant effort has been devoted to understanding the thymic development of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), the precise signaling pathways that govern their lineage commitment still remain enigmatic. Our findings show a novel role for the actin cytoskeletal remodeling protein, p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2), in Treg development and homeostasis. The absence of Pak2 in T cells resulted in a marked reduction in both thymus- and peripherally derived Tregs, accompanied by the development of spontaneous colitis in Pak2-deficient mice. Additionally, Pak2 was required for the proper differentiation of in vitro-induced Tregs as well as maintenance of Tregs. Interestingly, Pak2 was necessary for generating the high-affinity TCR- and IL-2-mediated signals that are required by developing Tregs for their lineage commitment. These findings provide novel insight into how developing thymocytes translate lineage-specific high-affinity TCR signals to adopt the Treg fate, and they further posit Pak2 as an essential regulator for this process. PMID:26157175

  11. Regulation of the Receptor Specificity and Function of the Chemokine RANTES (Regulated on Activation, Normal T Cell Expressed and Secreted) by Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (CD26)-mediated Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Oravecz, Tamas; Pall, Marina; Roderiquez, Gregory; Gorrell, Mark D.; Ditto, Mary; Nguyen, Nga Y.; Boykins, Robert; Unsworth, Edward; Norcross, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    CD26 is a leukocyte activation marker that possesses dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity but whose natural substrates and immunological functions have not been clearly defined. Several chemo-kines, including RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), have now been shown to be substrates for recombinant soluble human CD26. The truncated RANTES(368) lacked the ability of native RANTES(168) to increase the cytosolic calcium concentration in human monocytes, but still induced this response in macrophages activated with macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Analysis of chemokine receptor messenger RNAs and patterns of desensitization of chemokine responses showed that the differential activity of the truncated molecule results from an altered receptor specificity. RANTES(368) showed a reduced activity, relative to that of RANTES(168), with cells expressing the recombinant CCR1 chemokine receptor, but retained the ability to stimulate CCR5 receptors and to inhibit the cytopathic effects of HIV-1. Our results indicate that CD26-mediated processing together with cell activationinduced changes in receptor expression provides an integrated mechanism for differential cell recruitment and for the regulation of target cell specificity of RANTES, and possibly other chemokines. PMID:9382885

  12. [Epigallocatechin gallate attenuates the expression of regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted induced by lipopolysaccharide in human retinal endothelial cells].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-Yan; Wang, Jian-Yong; Yao, Hang-Ping

    2014-04-25

    The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of inflammatory chemokine regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) in human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) and to explore the underlying regulatory mechanism. HRECs were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of EGCG at various concentrations (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 μmol/L). The optimum concentration of drug was determined by a real-time cell-electronic sensing (RT-CES) system, and MTS chromatometry was used to detect the toxicity of LPS and EGCG on HRECs. RANTES production in the culture supernatant was measured by ELISA. The expression levels of Akt and phosphorylated Akt were examined by Western blot assay. The result showed that LPS markedly stimulated RANTES secretion from HRECs. EGCG treatment significantly suppressed LPS-induced RANTES secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, EGCG exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt. Taken together, our data suggest that EGCG suppresses LPS-induced RANTES secretion, possibly via inhibiting Akt phosphorylation in HRECs. PMID:24777404

  13. T cell receptor interactions with class I heavy-chain influence T cell selection.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, S T; Tallquist, M D; Johnson, A J; Mendez-Fernandez, Y; Pease, L R

    2000-01-18

    The interaction of the T cell receptor (TCR) with peptide in the binding site of the major histocompatibility complex molecule provides the basis for T cell recognition during immune surveillance, repertoire development, and tolerance. Little is known about the extent to which repertoire selection is influenced directly by variation of the structure of the class I heavy chain. We find that the 2C TCR, normally positively selected in the context of the K(b) molecule, is minimally selected into the CD8 lineage in the absence of antigen-processing genes. This finding underscores the importance of peptides in determining the positive-selecting class I ligands in the thymus. In contrast, K(bm3), a variant class I molecule that normally exerts a negative selection pressure on 2C-bearing T cells, positively selects 2C transgenic T cells into the CD8 lineage in an antigen-processing gene-deficient environment. These findings indicate that structural changes in the heavy chain can have direct influence in T cell recognition, from which we conclude that the nature of TCR interaction with class I heavy chain influences the array of TCRs selected during development of the functional adult repertoire. PMID:10639152

  14. Molecular Evidence for a Thymus-Independent Partial T Cell Development in a FOXN1?/? Athymic Human Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Anna; Panico, Luigi; Gorrese, Marisa; Bianchino, Gabriella; Barone, Maria V.; Grieco, Vitina; Vitiello, Laura; DAssante, Roberta; Romano, Rosa; Palamaro, Loredana; Scalia, Giulia; Vecchio, Luigi Del; Pignata, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The thymus is the primary organ able to support T cell ontogeny, abrogated in FOXN1?/? human athymia. Although evidence indicates that in animal models T lymphocytes may differentiate at extrathymic sites, whether this process is really thymus-independent has still to be clarified. In an athymic FOXN1?/? fetus, in which we previously described a total blockage of CD4+ and partial blockage of CD8+ cell development, we investigated whether intestine could play a role as extrathymic site of T-lymphopoiesis in humans. We document the presence of few extrathymically developed T lymphocytes and the presence in the intestine of CD3+ and CD8+, but not of CD4+ cells, a few of them exhibiting a CD45RA+ nave phenotype. The expression of CD3??pT?, RAG1 and RAG2 transcripts in the intestine and TCR gene rearrangement was also documented, thus indicating that in humans the partial T cell ontogeny occurring at extrathymic sites is a thymus- and FOXN1-independent process. PMID:24349129

  15. Limiting dilution analysis of the allo-MHC anti-paternal cytotoxic T cell response. I: Normal primigravid and multiparous pregnancies.

    PubMed Central

    Manyonda, I T; Pereira, R S; Pearce, J M; Sharrock, C E

    1993-01-01

    Anti-paternal cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor frequencies (CTLpF) were determined by limiting dilution analysis (LDA) in the peripheral blood of eight primigravid and seven multiparous women during the three trimesters of pregnancy. In five of these women the responses to cord blood lymphocytes (CBL) and paternal lymphocytes were also determined at the time of delivery and at 6 weeks post delivery. As controls, CTLpF against unrelated third party donors were determined. A wide range of CTLpF against all three groups of targets was found in both the primigravid and multiparous women, reflecting the wide range of frequencies found in random populations. These frequencies remained fairly constant during and 6 weeks after the pregnancy. Splitwell analysis demonstrated that the responses generated in our culture system were specific to the stimulator. The LDA data conform to single-hit kinetics, indicating that only cytotoxic T cells were limiting in the assay. Proliferative responses of maternal lymphocytes to paternal, cord blood and third party MHC antigens also remained unchanged as determined by time-course mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR). Our data suggest that there is no significant allo-stimulation or suppression of the maternal immune system during normal pregnancy. The mother remains immunocompetent and is capable of both cytotoxic and proliferative responses to paternally-derived fetal MHC antigens. Our findings confirm that in normal pregnancy the trophoblast, which is devoid of classical MHC antigens, forms an effective immune barrier which prevents interaction of the maternal and fetal immune systems. PMID:8324898

  16. Thymic Damage, Impaired Negative Selection, and Development of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Caused by Donor CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Young, James S.; Johnston, Heather; Ni, Xiong; Deng, Ruishu; Racine, Jeremy; Wang, Miao; Wang, Audrey; Todorov, Ivan; Wang, Jianmin; Zeng, Defu

    2013-01-01

    Prevention of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) remains a major challenge in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), due to limited understanding of cGVHD pathogenesis and lack of appropriate animal models. Here, we report that, in classical acute GVHD models with C57BL/6 donors and MHC-mismatched BALB/c recipients and with C3H.SW donors and MHC-matched C57BL/6 recipients, GVHD recipients surviving for more than 60 days after HCT developed cGVHD characterized by cutaneous fibrosis, tissue damage in the salivary gland and the presence of serum autoantibodies. Donor CD8+ T cells were more potent than CD4+ T cells for inducing cGVHD. The recipient thymus and de novo-generated, donor-derived CD4+ T cells were required for induction of cGVHD by donor CD8+ T cells but not by donor CD4+ T cells. Donor CD8+ T cells preferentially damaged recipient medullary thymic epithelial cells and impaired negative selection, resulting in production of autoreactive CD4+ T cells that perpetuated damage to the thymus and augmented the development of cGVHD. Short-term anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody treatment early after HCT enabled recovery from thymic damage and prevented cGVHD. These results demonstrate that donor CD8+ T cells cause cGVHD solely through thymic-dependent mechanisms, while CD4+ T cells can cause cGVHD through either thymic-dependent or independent mechanisms. PMID:23709681

  17. Epitope-Specific CD8+ T Cells Play a Differential Pathogenic Role in the Development of a Viral Disease Model for Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Myoung, Jinjong; Kang, Hyun Seok; Hou, Wanqiu; Meng, Liping; Dal Canto, Mauro C.

    2012-01-01

    Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease has been extensively investigated as a model for persistent viral infection and multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the role of CD8+ T cells in the development of disease remains unclear. To assess the role of virus-specific CD8+ T cells in the pathogenesis of demyelinating disease, a single amino acid substitution was introduced into the predominant viral epitope (VP3 from residues 159 to 166 [VP3159-166]) and/or a subdominant viral epitope (VP3173-181) of susceptible SJL/J mice by site-directed mutagenesis. The resulting variant viruses (N160V, P179A, and N160V/P179A) failed to induce CD8+ T cell responses to the respective epitopes. Surprisingly, mice infected with N160V or N160V/P179A virus, which lacks CD8+ T cells against VP3159-166, did not develop demyelinating disease, in contrast to wild-type virus or P179A virus lacking VP3173-181-specific CD8+ T cells. Our findings clearly show that the presence of VP3159-166-specific CD8+ T cells, rather than viral persistence itself, is strongly correlated with disease development. VP3173-181-specific CD8+ T cells in the central nervous system (CNS) of these virus-infected mice expressed higher levels of transforming growth factor β, forkhead box P3, interleukin-22 (IL-22), and IL-17 mRNA but caused minimal cytotoxicity compared to that caused by VP3159-166-specific CD8+ T cells. VP3159-166-specific CD8+ T cells exhibited high functional avidity for gamma interferon production, whereas VP3173-181-specific CD8+ T cells showed low avidity. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that the induction of the IL-17-producing CD8+ T cell type is largely epitope specific and that this specificity apparently plays a differential role in the pathogenicity of virus-induced demyelinating disease. These results strongly advocate for the careful consideration of CD8+ T cell-mediated intervention of virus-induced inflammatory diseases. PMID:23055563

  18. T cell response to FVIII.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Marc; Saint-Remy, Jean-Marie

    2016-03-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that the immune response to Factor VIII (FVIII) in patients with hemophilia A is T cell-dependent. This review highlights the link between the epitope specificity of FVIII-specific T cells and their potential roles in different categories of patients. FVIII-specific T cells able to recognize wild-type (i.e. therapeutic) FVIII but not the mutated self FVIII of hemophilia patients have been identified in patients with mild/moderate hemophilia carrying some point mutations. Such T cells likely contribute to the higher frequency of neutralizing anti-FVIII antibodies (inhibitors) development in these patients. In contrast, as yet no T cells have been identified that can differentiate between FVIII molecules with non-hemophilia-causing single amino acid variants encoded by non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the F8 gene. Other mechanisms are therefore still to be identified that will explain the clinically noted differences in the incidence of inhibitor development between patients of different races who are known to have differences at these sites. Beside information about the mechanism of inhibitor development, the analysis of FVIII-specific T cells has provided tools to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, such as the generation of FVIII-specific regulatory T cells that may be useful in preventing or suppressing the immune response to FVIII. PMID:26435345

  19. Faster T-cell development following gene therapy compared with haploidentical HSCT in the treatment of SCID-X1.

    PubMed

    Touzot, Fabien; Moshous, Despina; Creidy, Rita; Neven, Bndicte; Frange, Pierre; Cros, Guilhem; Caccavelli, Laure; Blondeau, Johanna; Magnani, Alessandra; Luby, Jean-Marc; Ternaux, Brigitte; Picard, Capucine; Blanche, Stphane; Fischer, Alain; Hacein-Bey-Abina, Salima; Cavazzana, Marina

    2015-06-01

    During the last decade, gene therapy via ex vivo gene transfer into autologous hematopoietic stem cells has emerged as a convincing therapy for severe combined immunodeficiency caused by ILR2G mutation (SCID-X1) despite the occurrence of genotoxicity caused by the integration of first-generation retroviral vectors. However, the place of gene therapy among the therapeutic armamentarium remains to be defined. We retrospectively analyze and compare clinical outcomes and immune reconstitution in 13 consecutive SCID-X1 patients having undergone haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and 14 SCID-X1 patients treated with gene therapy over the same period at a single center level: the Necker Children's Hospital (Paris, France). Our results show a clear advantage in terms of T-cell development of gene therapy over HSCT with a mismatched donor. Patients treated with gene therapy display a faster T-cell reconstitution and a better long-term thymic output. Interestingly, this advantage of gene therapy vs haploidentical HSCT seems to be independent of the existence of clinical graft-versus-host disease in the latter condition. If data of safety are confirmed over the long term, gene therapy for SCID-X1 appears to be an equal, if not superior, alternative to haploidentical HSCT. PMID:25869287

  20. The bone marrow of myeloma patients is steadily inhabited by a normal-sized pool of functional regulatory T cells irrespectiveof the disease status.

    PubMed

    Foglietta, Myriam; Castella, Barbara; Mariani, Sara; Coscia, Marta; Godio, Laura; Ferracini, Riccardo; Ruggeri, Marina; Muccio, Vittorio; Omed, Paola; Palumbo, Antonio; Boccadoro, Mario; Massaia, Massimo

    2014-10-01

    Conflicting data have been reported about the frequency and function of regulatory T cells in multiple myeloma. Most studies have investigated peripheral blood rather than bone marrow Tregs and side-by-side comparisons with bone marrow from healthy donors have still not been made. In this study, we show that regulatory T-cells total count, subset distribution, and expression of chemokine receptors are similar in the bone marrow of myeloma patients and healthy donors. Regulatory T cells are not recruited by myeloma cells in the bone marrow and their counts are unaffected by the tumor burden and the disease status. The diversity of T-cell receptor repertoire is highly preserved ensuring broad reactivity and effective suppressor function. Our results indicate that regulatory T cells may not be the main players of immunological tolerance to myeloma cells under base-line conditions, but their fully preserved immune competence may promote their inadvertent activation and blunt T-cell driven anti-myeloma immune interventions even after myeloma cells have successfully been cleared by chemotherapy. PMID:24972771

  1. WT1-specific T cell receptor gene therapy: improving TCR function in transduced T cells.

    PubMed

    Stauss, Hans J; Thomas, Sharyn; Cesco-Gaspere, Michela; Hart, Daniel P; Xue, Shao-An; Holler, Angelika; King, Judy; Wright, Graham; Perro, Mario; Pospori, Constantina; Morris, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T lymphocytes is an attractive form of immunotherapy for haematological malignancies and cancer. The difficulty of isolating antigen-specific T lymphocytes for individual patients limits the more widespread use of adoptive T cell therapy. The demonstration that cloned T cell receptor (TCR) genes can be used to produce T lymphocyte populations of desired specificity offers new opportunities for antigen-specific T cell therapy. The first trial in humans demonstrated that TCR gene-modified T cells persisted for an extended time period and reduced tumor burden in some patients. The WT1 protein is an attractive target for immunotherapy of leukemia and solid cancer since elevated expression has been demonstrated in AML, CML, MDS and in breast, colon and ovarian cancer. In the past, we have isolated high avidity CTL specific for a WT1-derived peptide presented by HLA-A2 and cloned the TCR alpha and beta genes of a WT1-specific CTL line. The genes were inserted into retroviral vectors for transduction of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes of leukemia patients and normal donors. The treatment of leukemia-bearing NOD/SCID mice with T cells transduced with the WT1-specific TCR eliminated leukemia cells in the bone marrow of most mice, while treatment with T cells transduced with a TCR of irrelevant specificity did not diminish the leukemia burden. In order to improve the safety and efficacy of TCR gene therapy, we have developed lentiviral TCR gene transfer. In addition, we employed strategies to enhance TCR expression while avoiding TCR mis-pairing. It may be possible to generate dominant TCR constructs that can suppress the expression of the endogenous TCR on the surface of transduced T cells. The development of new TCR gene constructs holds great promise for the safe and effective delivery of TCR gene therapy for the treatment of malignancies. PMID:17855129

  2. 78 FR 69429 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: The Development of Modified T-cells for the Treatment of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Modified T-cells for the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, HHS. ACTION.../ 622,6008 entitled, ``Chimeric Antigen Receptors Targeting B-cell Maturation Antigen'' . The patent... human T-cells directed against B-cell Maturation Antigen (BCMA) for the treatment of multiple...

  3. Activation of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor by 10-Cl-BBQ Prevents Insulitis and Effector T Cell Development Independently of Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells in Nonobese Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Allison K; Pennington, Jamie M; Wang, Xisheng; Rohlman, Diana; Punj, Sumit; Lhr, Christiane V; Newman, Matthew T; Kolluri, Siva K; Kerkvliet, Nancy I

    2016-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation by high-affinity ligands mediates immunosuppression in association with increased regulatory T cells (Tregs), making this transcription factor an attractive therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases. We recently discovered 10-chloro-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benzo[de]iso-quinolin-7-one (10-Cl-BBQ), a nanomolar affinity AhR ligand with immunosuppressive activity and favorable pharmacologic properties. In this study, we tested the consequences of AhR activation in the NOD model. Oral 10-Cl-BBQ treatment prevented islet infiltration without clinical toxicity, whereas AhR-deficient NOD mice were not protected. Suppression of insulitis was associated with an increased frequency, but not total number, of Foxp3(+) Tregs in the pancreas and pancreatic lymph nodes. The requirement for Foxp3(+) cells in AhR-induced suppression of insulitis was tested using NOD.Foxp3(DTR) mice, which show extensive islet infiltration upon treatment with diphtheria toxin. AhR activation prevented the development of insulitis caused by the depletion of Foxp3(+) cells, demonstrating that Foxp3(+) cells are not required for AhR-mediated suppression and furthermore that the AhR pathway is able to compensate for the absence of Foxp3(+) Tregs, countering current dogma. Concurrently, the development of disease-associated CD4(+)Nrp1(+)Foxp3(-)ROR?t(+) cells was inhibited by AhR activation. Taken together, 10-Cl-BBQ is an effective, nontoxic AhR ligand for the intervention of immune-mediated diseases that functions independently of Foxp3(+) Tregs to suppress pathogenic T cell development. PMID:26573835

  4. Osteoprotegerin-Mediated Homeostasis of Rank+ Thymic Epithelial Cells Does Not Limit Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Nicholas I.; Cowan, Jennifer E.; Nakamura, Kyoko; Bacon, Andrea; Baik, Song; White, Andrea J.; Parnell, Sonia M.; Jenkinson, Eric J.; Jenkinson, William E.

    2015-01-01

    In the thymus, medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTEC) regulate T cell tolerance via negative selection and Foxp3+ regulatory T cell (Treg) development, and alterations in the mTEC compartment can lead to tolerance breakdown and autoimmunity. Both the receptor activator for NF-?B (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) axis and expression of the transcriptional regulator Aire are involved in the regulation of thymus medullary microenvironments. However, their impact on the mechanisms controlling mTEC homeostasis is poorly understood, as are the processes that enable the thymus medulla to support the balanced production of mTEC-dependent Foxp3+ Treg. In this study, we have investigated the control of mTEC homeostasis and examined how this process impacts the efficacy of Foxp3+ Treg development. Using newly generated RANK Venus reporter mice, we identify distinct RANK+ subsets that reside within both the mTEChi and mTEClo compartments and that represent direct targets of OPG-mediated control. Moreover, by mapping OPG expression to a subset of Aire+ mTEC, our data show how cis- and trans-acting mechanisms are able to control the thymus medulla by operating on multiple mTEC targets. Finally, we show that whereas the increase in mTEC availability in OPG-deficient (Tnfrsf11b?/?) mice impacts the intrathymic Foxp3+ Treg pool by enhancing peripheral Treg recirculation back to the thymus, it does not alter the number of de novo Rag2pGFP+Foxp3+ Treg that are generated. Collectively, our study defines patterns of RANK expression within the thymus medulla, and it shows that mTEC homeostasis is not a rate-limiting step in intrathymic Foxp3+ Treg production. PMID:26254339

  5. Osteoprotegerin-Mediated Homeostasis of Rank+ Thymic Epithelial Cells Does Not Limit Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cell Development.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Nicholas I; Cowan, Jennifer E; Nakamura, Kyoko; Bacon, Andrea; Baik, Song; White, Andrea J; Parnell, Sonia M; Jenkinson, Eric J; Jenkinson, William E; Anderson, Graham

    2015-09-15

    In the thymus, medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTEC) regulate T cell tolerance via negative selection and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell (Treg) development, and alterations in the mTEC compartment can lead to tolerance breakdown and autoimmunity. Both the receptor activator for NF-κB (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) axis and expression of the transcriptional regulator Aire are involved in the regulation of thymus medullary microenvironments. However, their impact on the mechanisms controlling mTEC homeostasis is poorly understood, as are the processes that enable the thymus medulla to support the balanced production of mTEC-dependent Foxp3(+) Treg. In this study, we have investigated the control of mTEC homeostasis and examined how this process impacts the efficacy of Foxp3(+) Treg development. Using newly generated RANK Venus reporter mice, we identify distinct RANK(+) subsets that reside within both the mTEC(hi) and mTEC(lo) compartments and that represent direct targets of OPG-mediated control. Moreover, by mapping OPG expression to a subset of Aire(+) mTEC, our data show how cis- and trans-acting mechanisms are able to control the thymus medulla by operating on multiple mTEC targets. Finally, we show that whereas the increase in mTEC availability in OPG-deficient (Tnfrsf11b(-/-)) mice impacts the intrathymic Foxp3(+) Treg pool by enhancing peripheral Treg recirculation back to the thymus, it does not alter the number of de novo Rag2pGFP(+)Foxp3(+) Treg that are generated. Collectively, our study defines patterns of RANK expression within the thymus medulla, and it shows that mTEC homeostasis is not a rate-limiting step in intrathymic Foxp3(+) Treg production. PMID:26254339

  6. Mice develop normally without tenascin.

    PubMed

    Saga, Y; Yagi, T; Ikawa, Y; Sakakura, T; Aizawa, S

    1992-10-01

    Tenascin, an extracellular matrix protein, is expressed in an unusually restricted pattern during embryogenesis and has been implicated in a variety of morphogenetic phenomena. To directly assess the function of tenascin in vivo, we generated mutant mice in which the tenascin gene was nully disrupted by replacing it with the lacZ gene. In mutant mice, lacZ was expressed in place of tenascin, and no tenascin product was detected. Homozygous mutant mice were, however, obtained in accordance with Mendelian laws, and both females and males produced offspring normally. No anatomical or histological abnormalities were detected in any tissues, and no major changes were observed in distribution of fibronectin, laminin, collagen, and proteoglycan. The existence of these mutant mice, lacking tenascin yet phenotypically normal, casts doubt on the theory that tenascin plays and essential role in normal development. PMID:1383086

  7. Thymic B cells promote thymus-derived regulatory T cell development and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fang-Ting; Yang, Wei; Wang, Yin-Hu; Ma, Hong-Di; Tang, Wei; Yang, Jing-Bo; Li, Liang; Ansari, Aftab A; Lian, Zhe-Xiong

    2015-07-01

    Thymic CD4(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are critical for the development of immunological tolerance and immune homeostasis and requires contributions of both thymic dendritic and epithelial cells. Although B cells have been reported to be present within the thymus, there has not hitherto been a definition of their role in immune cell development and, in particular, whether or how they contribute to the Treg cellular thymic compartment. Herein, using both phenotypic and functional approaches, we demonstrate that thymic B cells contribute to the maintenance of thymic Treg cells and, using an invitro culture system, demonstrate that thymic B cells contribute to the size of the thymic Treg compartment via cell-cell MHC II contact and the involvement of two independent co-stimulatory pathways that include interactions between the CD40/CD80/CD86 co-stimulatory molecules. Our data also suggest that thymic B cells promote the generation of thymic Treg cell precursors (pre-Treg cells), but not the conversion of FoxP3(+) Treg cells from pre-Treg cells. In addition, thymic B cells directly promote the proliferation of thymic Treg cells that is MHC II contact dependent with a minimal if any role for co-stimulatory molecules including CD40/CD80/CD86. Both pathways are independent of TGF?. In conclusion, we rigorously define the critical role of thymic B cells in the development of thymic Treg cells from non-Treg to precursor stage and in the proliferation of mature thymic Treg cells. PMID:26071985

  8. Differentiation of ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) recent thymic emigrant regulatory T cells (RTE Tregs ) during normal pregnancy, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wagner, M I; Jöst, M; Spratte, J; Schaier, M; Mahnke, K; Meuer, S; Zeier, M; Steinborn, A

    2016-01-01

    Two different subsets of naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTregs ), defined by their expression of the inducible co-stimulatory (ICOS) molecule, are produced by the human thymus. To examine the differentiation of ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) CD45RA(+) CD31(+) recent thymic emigrant (RTE) Tregs during normal pregnancy and in the presence of pre-eclampsia or haemolysis elevated liver enzymes low platelet (HELLP)-syndrome, we used six-colour flow cytometric analysis to determine the changes in the composition of the ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) Treg pools with CD45RA(+) CD31(+) RTE Tregs , CD45RA(+) CD31(-) mature naive (MN) Tregs , CD45RA(-) CD31(+) and CD45RA(-) CD31(-) memory Tregs . With the beginning of pregnancy until term, we observed a strong differentiation of both ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) CD45RA(+) CD31(+) RTE, but not CD45RA(+) CD31(-) MN Tregs , into CD45RA(-) CD31(-) memory Tregs . At the end of pregnancy, the onset of spontaneous term labour was associated with a significant breakdown of ICOS(+) CD45RA(-) CD31(-) memory Tregs . However, in the presence of pre-eclampsia, there was a significantly increased differentiation of ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) CD45RA(+) CD31(+) RTE Tregs into CD45RA(-) CD31(+) memory Tregs , wherein the lacking differentiation into CD45RA(-) CD31(-) memory Tregs was partially replaced by the increased differentiation of ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) CD45RA(+) CD31(-) MN Tregs into CD45RA(-) CD31(-) memory Tregs . In patients with HELLP syndrome, this alternatively increased differentiation of CD45RA(-) CD31(-) MN Tregs seemed to be exaggerated, and presumably restored the suppressive activity of magnetically isolated ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) Tregs , which were shown to be significantly less suppressive in pre-eclampsia patients, but not in HELLP syndrome patients. Hence, our findings propose that the regular differentiation of both ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) CD45RA(+) CD31(+) RTE Tregs ensures a healthy pregnancy course, while their disturbed differentiation is associated with the occurrence of pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome. PMID:26285098

  9. Induced and Natural Regulatory T Cells in the Development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mayne, Christopher G.; Williams, Calvin B.

    2013-01-01

    The mucosal immune system mediates contact between the host, and the trillions of microbes that symbiotically colonize the gastrointestinal tract. Failure to tolerate the antigens within this “extended self” can result in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Within the adaptive immune system, the most significant cells modulating this interaction are Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells. Treg cells can be divided into two primary subsets: “natural” Treg (nTreg) cells, and “adaptive” or “induced” Treg (iTreg). Recent research suggests that these subsets serve to play both independent and synergistic roles in mucosal tolerance. Studies from both mouse models and human patients suggest defects in Treg cells can play distinct causative roles in IBD. Numerous genetic, microbial, nutritional, and environmental factors that associate with IBD may also affect Treg cells. In this review we summarize the development and function of Treg cells, and how their regulatory mechanisms may fail, leading to a loss of mucosal tolerance. We discuss both animal models and studies of IBD patients suggesting Treg cell involvement in IBD, and consider how Treg cells may be used in future therapies. PMID:23656897

  10. Id3 and Id2 act as a dual safety mechanism in regulating the development and population size of innate-like γδ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Meifang; Zhuang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    The innate-like T cells expressing Vγ1.1 and Vδ6.3 represent a unique T cell lineage sharing features with both the γδ T and the invariant NKT cells. The population size of Vγ1.1+Vδ6.3+ T cells is tightly controlled and usually contributes to a very small proportion of thymic output, but the underlying mechanism remains enigmatic. Deletion of Id3, an inhibitor of E-protein transcription factors, can induce an expansion of the Vγ1.1+Vδ6.3+ T cell population. This phenotype is much stronger on the C57Bl/6 background than on the 129/sv background. Using quantitative trait linkage analysis, we identified Id2, a homologue of Id3, to be the major modifier of Id3 in limiting Vγ1.1+Vδ6.3+ T cell expansion. The Vγ1.1+Vδ6.3+ phenotype is attributed to an intrinsic weakness of Id2 transcription from Id2 C57Bl/6 allele, leading to an overall reduced dosage of Id proteins. However, complete removal of both Id2 and Id3 genes in developing T cells suppressed the expansion of Vγ1.1+Vδ6.3+ T cells due to decreased proliferation and increased cell death. We showed that conditional knockout of Id2 alone is sufficient to promote a moderate expansion of γδ T cells. These regulatory effects of Id2 and Id3 on Vγ1.1+Vδ6.3+ T cells are mediated by titration of E protein activity, since removing one or more copies of E protein genes can restore Vγ1.1+Vδ6.3+ T cell expansion in Id2 and Id3 double conditional knockout mice. Our data indicated that Id2 and Id3 collaboratively control survival and expansion of the γδ lineage through modulating a proper threshold of E-proteins. PMID:24379125

  11. Treating B-cell cancer with T cells expressing anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors.

    PubMed

    Kochenderfer, James N; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2013-05-01

    Most B-cell malignancies express CD19, and a majority of patients with B-cell malignancies are not cured by current standard therapies. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are fusion proteins consisting of antigen recognition moieties and T-cell activation domains. T cells can be genetically modified to express CARs, and adoptive transfer of anti-CD19 CAR T cells is now being tested in clinical trials. Effective clinical treatment with anti-CD19 CAR T cells was first reported in 2010 after a patient with advanced-stage lymphoma treated at the NCI experienced a partial remission of lymphoma and long-term eradication of normal B cells. Additional patients have subsequently obtained long-term remissions of advanced-stage B-cell malignancies after infusions of anti-CD19 CAR T cells. Long-term eradication of normal CD19(+) B cells from patients receiving infusions of anti-CD19 CAR T cells demonstrates the potent antigen-specific activity of these T cells. Some patients treated with anti-CD19 CAR T cells have experienced acute adverse effects, which were associated with increased levels of serum inflammatory cytokines. Although anti-CD19 CAR T cells are at an early stage of development, the potent antigen-specific activity observed in patients suggests that infusions of anti-CD19 CAR T cells might become a standard therapy for some B-cell malignancies. PMID:23546520

  12. An Epistatic Interaction between Themis1 and Vav1 Modulates Regulatory T Cell Function and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Development.

    PubMed

    Pedros, Christophe; Gaud, Guillaume; Bernard, Isabelle; Kassem, Sahar; Chabod, Marianne; Lagrange, Dominique; Androletti, Olivier; Dejean, Anne S; Lesourne, Renaud; Fourni, Gilbert J; Saoudi, Abdelhadi

    2015-08-15

    The development of inflammatory diseases depends on complex interactions between several genes and various environmental factors. Discovering new genetic risk factors and understanding the mechanisms whereby they influence disease development is of paramount importance. We previously reported that deficiency in Themis1, a new actor of TCR signaling, impairs regulatory T cell (Treg) function and predisposes Brown-Norway (BN) rats to spontaneous inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we reveal that the epistasis between Themis1 and Vav1 controls the occurrence of these phenotypes. Indeed, by contrast with BN rats, Themis1 deficiency in Lewis rats neither impairs Treg suppressive functions nor induces pathological manifestations. By using congenic lines on the BN genomic background, we show that the impact of Themis1 deficiency on Treg suppressive functions depends on a 117-kb interval coding for a R63W polymorphism that impacts Vav1 expression and functions. Indeed, the introduction of a 117-kb interval containing the Lewis Vav1-R63 variant restores Treg function and protects Themis1-deficient BN rats from spontaneous IBD development. We further show that Themis1 binds more efficiently to the BN Vav1-W63 variant and is required to stabilize its recruitment to the transmembrane adaptor LAT and to fully promote the activation of Erk kinases. Together, these results highlight the importance of the signaling pathway involving epistasis between Themis1 and Vav1 in the control of Treg suppressive function and susceptibility to IBD development. PMID:26163585

  13. Development of an In Vitro Assay and Demonstration of Plasmodium berghei Liver-Stage Inhibition by TRAP-Specific CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Longley, Rhea J.; Bauza, Karolis; Ewer, Katie J.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Spencer, Alexandra J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of an efficacious vaccine against the Plasmodium parasite remains a top priority. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of a prime-boost virally vectored sub-unit vaccination regimen, delivering the liver-stage expressed malaria antigen TRAP, to produce high levels of antigen-specific T cells. The liver-stage of malaria is the main target of T cell-mediated immunity, yet a major challenge in assessing new T cell inducing vaccines has been the lack of a suitable pre-clinical assay. We have developed a flow-cytometry based in vitro T cell killing assay using a mouse hepatoma cell line, Hepa1-6, and Plasmodium berghei GFP expressing sporozoites. Using this assay, P. berghei TRAP-specific CD8+ T cell enriched splenocytes were shown to inhibit liver-stage parasites in an effector-to-target ratio dependent manner. Further development of this assay using human hepatocytes and P. falciparum would provide a new method to pre-clinically screen vaccine candidates and to elucidate mechanisms of protection in vitro. PMID:25822951

  14. The cellular immune system in myelomagenesis: NK cells and T cells in the development of myeloma [corrected] and their uses in immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Dosani, T; Carlsten, M; Maric, I; Landgren, O

    2015-01-01

    As vast strides are being made in the management and treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), recent interests are increasingly focusing on understanding the development of the disease. The knowledge that MM develops exclusively from a protracted phase of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance provides an opportunity to study tumor evolution in this process. Although the immune system has been implicated in the development of MM, the scientific literature on the role and status of various immune components in this process is broad and sometimes contradictory. Accordingly, we present a review of cellular immune subsets in myelomagenesis. We summarize the current literature on the quantitative and functional profiles of natural killer cells and T-cells, including conventional T-cells, natural killer T-cells, ?? T-cells and regulatory T-cells, in myelomagenesis. Our goal is to provide an overview of the status and function of these immune cells in both the peripheral blood and the bone marrow during myelomagenesis. This provides a better understanding of the nature of the immune system in tumor evolution, the knowledge of which is especially significant considering that immunotherapies are increasingly being explored in the treatment of both MM and its precursor conditions. PMID:25885426

  15. Alteration of the Thymic T Cell Repertoire by Rotavirus Infection Is Associated with Delayed Type 1 Diabetes Development in Non-Obese Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Nicole L.; Zufferey, Christel; Pane, Jessica A.; Coulson, Barbara S.

    2013-01-01

    Rotaviruses are implicated as a viral trigger for the acceleration of type 1 diabetes in children. Infection of adult non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice with rotavirus strain RRV accelerates diabetes development, whereas RRV infection in infant NOD mice delays diabetes onset. In this study of infant mice, RRV titers and lymphocyte populations in the intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and thymus of NOD mice were compared with those in diabetes-resistant BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Enhanced intestinal RRV infection occurred in NOD mice compared with the other mouse strains. This was associated with increases in the frequency of CD8?? TCR?? intraepithelial lymphocytes, and their PD-L1 expression. Virus spread to the MLN and T cell numbers there also were greatest in NOD mice. Thymic RRV infection is shown here in all mouse strains, often in combination with alterations in T cell ontogeny. Infection lowered thymocyte numbers in infant NOD and C57BL/6 mice, whereas thymocyte production was unaltered overall in infant BALB/c mice. In the NOD mouse thymus, effector CD4+ T cell numbers were reduced by infection, whereas regulatory T cell numbers were maintained. It is proposed that maintenance of thymic regulatory T cell numbers may contribute to the increased suppression of inflammatory T cells in response to a strong stimulus observed in pancreatic lymph nodes of adult mice infected as infants. These findings show that rotavirus replication is enhanced in diabetes-prone mice, and provide evidence that thymic T cell alterations may contribute to the delayed diabetes onset following RRV infection. PMID:23554993

  16. Surface receptors and immune activity of purified human circulating mononuclear cells. IV. The demonstration of seven subclasses of T cells in the circulation of the normal individual: the cytotoxic activities of these cells.

    PubMed

    Richter, M; Ettin, G; Sklar, S; Richter, M; Hamdy, H; Jodouin, C A; Kazaniwsky, N

    1983-12-01

    T lymphocytes were isolated from monocyte-depleted mononuclear cells of normal individuals by rosetting them with sheep erythrocytes. These purified T cells were preferentially depleted of cells with receptors for FcG (TG cells), FcM (TM cells), or C'3 (TC cells) by rosette formation with EA(G), EA(M), and EAC, respectively, before or after incubation for 24 hr in medium 199 fortified with fetal calf serum (20%). The unfractionated lymphocytes and the purified and the depleted T cells were analyzed for receptors to FcG, FcM, and C'3 and for cytotoxic activity in the natural killer (NK), antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), and mitogen-induced cell-mediated cytotoxicity (MICC) assays. The TG and TC cells were detected among the freshly isolated T cells, whereas the TM cells were detected only following 24 hr of incubation. Removal of TC cells from the 24-hr-cultured T cells resulted in removal of all the TC cells and in the concomitant removal of the majority of TM cells. Similarly, removal of TM cells from the 24-hr-cultured T cells resulted in the elimination of all TM cells as well as the majority of TC cells. These results demonstrate the in vitro generation of T cells with receptors for both FcM and C'3 (TM+C cells). Ten percent of the freshly isolated TG cells possessed detectable receptors for C'3 and/or FcM. These cells constitute the TG+C and TG+M lymphocytes. Support for consideration of these receptor-bearing cells as unique and stable cells is provided by the finding that TM and TC cells maintained in culture for up to 72 hr do not generate other receptors but retain the single receptor which characterizes each of these cells. Only a small percentage of cultured TG cells generate receptors for C'3 and FcM. It may therefore be concluded that the TG, TM, and TC cells are stable unireceptor-bearing cells. The TG, TM, TC, TG+C, TG+M, and TM+C lymphocytes account for approximately 50% of the circulating lymphocytes. Whether the remaining cells, the T null or TN cells, constitute the precursors for any or all of the receptor-bearing T cells remains to be determined. Unfractionated freshly isolated T cells were highly cytotoxic in the NK and PWM-mediated MICC assays but were relatively inactive in the ADCC, naturally occurring cell-mediated cytotoxicity (NOCC), and PHA- and Con-A-mediated MICC assays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6228301

  17. Transcription factor and miRNA co-regulatory network reveals shared and specific regulators in the development of B cell and T cell

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying; Zhang, Qiong; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chun-Jie; Li, Qiubai; Guo, An-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The maturation process of lymphocyte was related to many blood diseases, such as lymphoma and lymphoid leukemia. Many TFs and miRNAs were separately studied in the development of B and T cells. In this study, we aim to discover the TF and miRNA co-regulation and identify key regulators in the B and T cells maturation. We obtained the candidate genes, miRNAs and TFs for each stage of their maturation, then constructed the TF-miRNA-gene feed-forward loops (FFLs) for each stage by our previous methods. Statistical test for FFLs indicated their enrichment and significance. TF-miRNA co-regulatory networks for each stage were constructed by combining their FFLs. Hub analysis revealed the key regulators in each stage, for example, MYC, STAT5A, PAX5 and miR-17?~?92 in the transition of pro-B cells into pre-B cells. We also identified a few common regulators and modules in two stages of B cell maturation (e.g. miR-146a/NFKB1/BCL11A) and two stages of T cell maturation (e.g. miR-20/CCND2/SORL1), as well as some shared regulators in the early stages of both B and T cell development. Our network will help to increase understanding of mature process of B and T cell, as well as the related blood diseases. PMID:26487345

  18. Transcription factor and miRNA co-regulatory network reveals shared and specific regulators in the development of B cell and T cell.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying; Zhang, Qiong; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chun-Jie; Li, Qiubai; Guo, An-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The maturation process of lymphocyte was related to many blood diseases, such as lymphoma and lymphoid leukemia. Many TFs and miRNAs were separately studied in the development of B and T cells. In this study, we aim to discover the TF and miRNA co-regulation and identify key regulators in the B and T cells maturation. We obtained the candidate genes, miRNAs and TFs for each stage of their maturation, then constructed the TF-miRNA-gene feed-forward loops (FFLs) for each stage by our previous methods. Statistical test for FFLs indicated their enrichment and significance. TF-miRNA co-regulatory networks for each stage were constructed by combining their FFLs. Hub analysis revealed the key regulators in each stage, for example, MYC, STAT5A, PAX5 and miR-17?~?92 in the transition of pro-B cells into pre-B cells. We also identified a few common regulators and modules in two stages of B cell maturation (e.g. miR-146a/NFKB1/BCL11A) and two stages of T cell maturation (e.g. miR-20/CCND2/SORL1), as well as some shared regulators in the early stages of both B and T cell development. Our network will help to increase understanding of mature process of B and T cell, as well as the related blood diseases. PMID:26487345

  19. B cells help alloreactive T cells differentiate into memory T cells1

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Yue-Harn; Oberbarnscheidt, Martin H.; Chandramoorthy, Harish Chinna Konda; Hoffman, Rosemary; Chalasani, Geetha

    2010-01-01

    B cells are recognized as effector cells in allograft rejection that are dependent upon T cell help to produce alloantibodies causing graft injury. It is not known if B cells can also help T cells differentiate into memory cells in the alloimmune response. We found that in B cell-deficient hosts, differentiation of alloreactive T cells into effectors was intact whereas their development into memory T cells was impaired. To test if B cell help for T cells was required for their continued differentiation into memory T cells, activated T cells were sorted from alloimmunized mice and transferred either with or without B cells into nave adoptive hosts. Activated T cells co-transferred with B cells gave rise to more memory T cells than those transferred without B cells and upon recall, mediated accelerated rejection of skin allografts. Co-transfer of B cells led to increased memory T cells by enhancing activated CD4 T cell proliferation and activated CD8 T cell survival. These results indicate that B cells help alloreactive T cell differentiation, proliferation and survival to generate optimal numbers of functional memory T cells. PMID:20883532

  20. Unexpected Role for the B cell-specific Src Family Kinase Blk in the Development of IL-17-Producing γδ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Renee M.; Laky, Karen; Hayes, Sandra M.

    2010-01-01

    The Ag receptors on αβ and γδ T cells differ not only in the nature of the ligands that they recognize but also in their signaling potential. We hypothesized that the differences in αβ- and γδTCR signal transduction were due to differences in the intracellular signaling pathways coupled to these two TCRs. To investigate this, we employed transcriptional profiling to identify genes encoding signaling molecules that are differentially expressed in mature αβ and γδ T cell populations. Unexpectedly, we found that B lymphoid kinase (Blk), a Src family kinase expressed primarily in B cells, is expressed in γδ T cells but not in αβ T cells. Analysis of Blk-deficient mice revealed that Blk is required for the development of IL-17-producing γδ T cells. Furthermore, Blk is expressed in lymphoid precursors and, in this capacity, plays a role in regulating thymus cellularity during ontogeny. PMID:20974990

  1. Differential regulation of T helper phenotype development by interleukins 4 and 10 in an alpha beta T-cell-receptor transgenic system.

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, C S; Heimberger, A B; Gold, J S; O'Garra, A; Murphy, K M

    1992-01-01

    To address the mechanisms controlling T helper (Th) phenotype development, we used DO10, a transgenic mouse line that expresses the alpha beta T-cell receptor from an ovalbumin-reactive T hybridoma, as a source of naive T cells that can be stimulated in vitro with ovalbumin peptide presented by defined antigen-presenting cells (APCs). We have examined the role of cytokines and APCs in the regulation of Th phenotype development. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) directs development toward the Th2 phenotype, stimulating IL-4 and silencing IL-2 and interferon gamma production in developing T cells. Splenic APCs direct development toward the Th1 phenotype when endogenous IL-10 is neutralized with anti-IL-10 antibody. The splenic APCs mediating these effects are probably macrophages or dendritic cells and not B cells, since IL-10 is incapable of affecting Th phenotype development when the B-cell hybridoma TA3 is used as the APC. These results suggest that early regulation of IL-4 and IL-10 in a developing immune response and the identity of the initiating APCs are critical in determining the Th phenotype of the developing T cells. PMID:1385868

  2. Poor Predictive Value of Cytomegalovirus (CMV)Specific T Cell Assays for the Development of CMV Retinitis in Patients with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Mark A.; Tan, Qi Xuan; Girling, Valerie; Poon, C.; Van Natta, Mark; Jabs, Douglas A.; Inokuma, Margaret; Maecker, Holden T.; Bredt, Barry; Sinclair, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Background We examined the potential clinical utility of using a cytomegalovirus (CMV)specific T cell immunoassay to determine the risk of developing new-onset CMV retinitis (CMVR) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods CMV-specific T cell assays were performed by multiparameter flow cytometry using stored peripheral blood mononuclear cells that had been obtained in an observational study 26 months before new-onset CMVR was diagnosed in case patients (at a study visit during which a dilated ophthalmologic examination revealed no evidence of CMVR) and at the same study visit in control subjects (matched by absolute CD4+ T cell count at entry) who did not subsequently develop retinitis during 16 years of study follow-up. Results There were no significant differences in CMV-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T cell interferon-? or interleukin-2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from case patients and control subjects. Although there were trends toward lower percentages and absolute numbers of CMV-specific, cytokine-expressing CD8+ T cells with a late memory phenotype (CD27?CD28?) as well as with an early memory phenotype (CD27+CD28+CD45RA+) in case patients than in control subjects, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Many studies have reported that CMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses distinguish patients with active CMVR (i.e., who lack CMV-protective immunity) from those with inactive CMVR after immune restoration by antiretroviral treatment (i.e., who have CMV-protective immunity). However, the multiple CMV-specific immune responses we measured do not appear to have clinical utility for predicting the risk for patients with AIDS of developing new-onset CMVR with sufficient accuracy to be used in guiding therapeutic management. PMID:18173357

  3. T cell metabolic fitness in antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Siska, Peter J; Rathmell, Jeffrey C

    2015-04-01

    T cell metabolism has a central role in supporting and shaping immune responses and may have a key role in antitumor immunity. T cell metabolism is normally held under tight regulation in an immune response of glycolysis to promote effector T cell expansion and function. However, tumors may deplete nutrients, generate toxic products, or stimulate conserved negative feedback mechanisms, such as through Programmed Cell Death 1 (PD-1), to impair effector T cell nutrient uptake and metabolic fitness. In addition, regulatory T cells are favored in low glucose conditions and may inhibit antitumor immune responses. Here, we review how the tumor microenvironment modifies metabolic and functional pathways in T cells and how these changes may uncover new targets and challenges for cancer immunotherapy and treatment. PMID:25773310

  4. Pathogen-Specific T Cell Polyfunctionality Is a Correlate of T Cell Efficacy and Immune Protection

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Anders; Almeida, Jorge R.; Darrah, Patricia A.; Sauce, Delphine; Seder, Robert A.; Appay, Victor; Gorochov, Guy; Larsen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Understanding the factors that delineate the efficacy of T cell responses towards pathogens is crucial for our ability to develop potent therapies against infectious diseases. Multidimensional evaluation of T cell functionality at the single-cell level enables exhaustive analysis of combinatorial functional properties, hence polyfunctionality. We have recently invented an algorithm that quantifies polyfunctionality, the Polyfunctionality Index (Larsen et al. PLoS One 2012). Here we demonstrate that quantitative assessment of T cell polyfunctionality correlates with T cell efficacy measured as the capacity to kill target cells in vitro and control infection in vivo. Methods We employed the polyfunctionality index on two datasets selected for their unique ability to evaluate the polyfunctional imprint on T cell efficacy. 1) HIV-specific CD8+ T cells and 2) Leishmania major-specific CD4+ T cells were analysed for their capacity to secrete multiple effector molecules, kill target cells and control infection. Briefly, employing the Polyfunctionality Index algorithm we determined the parameter estimates resulting in optimal correlation between T cell polyfunctionality and T cell efficacy. Results T cell polyfunctionality is correlated with T cell efficacy measured as 1) target killing (r=0.807, P<0.0001) and 2) lesion size upon challenge with Leishmania major (r=-0.50, P=0.004). Contrary to an approach relying on the Polyfunctionality Index algorithm, quantitative evaluation of T cell polyfunctionality traditionally ignores the gradual contribution of more or less polyfunctional T cells. Indeed, comparing both approaches we show that optimal description of T cell efficacy is obtained when gradually integrating all levels of polyfunctionality in accordance with the Polyfunctionality Index. Conclusions Our study presents a generalizable methodology to objectively evaluate the impact of polyfunctionality on T cell efficacy. We show that T cell polyfunctionality is a superior correlate of T cell efficacy both in vitro and in vivo as compared with response size. Therefore, future immunotherapies should aim to increase T cell polyfunctionality. PMID:26046523

  5. Dynamics of T cell responses after stroke.

    PubMed

    Gill, Dipender; Veltkamp, Roland

    2016-02-01

    T cells are integral to the pathophysiology of stroke. The initial inflammatory cascade leads to T cell migration, which results in deleterious and protective effects mediated through CD4(+), CD(8)+, ?? T cells and regulatory T cells, respectively. Cytokines are central to the T cell responses, with key roles established for TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-17, IL-21 and IL-10. Through communication with the systemic immune system via neural and hormonal pathways, there is also transient immunosuppression after severe strokes. With time, the inflammatory process eventually transforms to one more conducive of repair and recovery, though some evidence also suggests ongoing chronic inflammation. The role of antigen-specific T cell responses requires further investigation. As our understanding develops, there is increasing scope to modulate the T cell response after stroke. PMID:26452204

  6. Spontaneous development of IL-17-producing ?? T cells in the thymus occurs via a TGF?1-dependent mechanism1

    PubMed Central

    Do, Jeong-su; Fink, Pamela J.; Li, Lily; Spolski, Rosanne; Robinson, Janet; Leonard, Warren J.; Letterio, John J.; Min, Booki

    2010-01-01

    In nave animals, ?? T cells are innate sources of IL-17, a potent proinflammatory cytokine mediating bacterial clearance as well as autoimmunity. However, mechanisms underlying the generation of these cells in vivo remain unclear. Here we show that TGF?1 plays a key role in the generation of IL-17+ ?? T cells, and that it mainly occurs in the thymus particularly during the postnatal period. Interestingly, IL-17+ ?? TCR+ thymocytes were mainly CD44highCD25low cells, which seem to derive from DN4 ?? TCR+ cells that acquired CD44 and IL-17 expression. Our findings identify a novel developmental pathway during which IL-17-competent ?? T cells arise in the thymus by a TGF?1-dependent mechanism. PMID:20061408

  7. T Cell-Dependence of Lassa Fever Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bergthaler, Andreas; Regen, Tommy; Schedensack, Mariann; Bestmann, Lukas; Verschoor, Admar; Kreutzfeldt, Mario; Brck, Wolfgang; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Gnther, Stephan; Pinschewer, Daniel D.

    2010-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV), the causative agent of Lassa fever (LF), is endemic in West Africa, accounting for substantial morbidity and mortality. In spite of ongoing research efforts, LF pathogenesis and mechanisms of LASV immune control remain poorly understood. While normal laboratory mice are resistant to LASV, we report that mice expressing humanized instead of murine MHC class I (MHC-I) failed to control LASV infection and develop severe LF. Infection of MHC-I knockout mice confirmed a key role for MHC-I-restricted T cell responses in controlling LASV. Intriguingly we found that T cell depletion in LASV-infected HHD mice prevented disease, irrespective of high-level viremia. Widespread activation of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, manifest through inducible NO synthase expression, and elevated IL-12p40 serum levels indicated a systemic inflammatory condition. The absence of extensive monocyte/macrophage activation in T cell-depleted mice suggested that T cell responses contribute to deleterious innate inflammatory reactions and LF pathogenesis. Our observations in mice indicate a dual role for T cells, not only protecting from LASV, but also enhancing LF pathogenesis. The possibility of T cell-driven enhancement and immunopathogenesis should be given consideration in future LF vaccine development. PMID:20360949

  8. Multilayered specification of the T-cell lineage fate

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Ellen V.; Zhang, Jingli; Li, Long

    2010-01-01

    Summary T-cell development from stem cells has provided a highly accessible and detailed view of the regulatory processes that can go into the choice of a cell fate in a postembryonic, stem cell-based system. But, it has been a view from the outside. The problems in understanding the regulatory basis for this lineage choice begin with the fact that too many transcription factors are needed to provide crucial input: without any one of them, T-cell development fails. Furthermore, almost all the factors known to provide crucial functions during the climax of T-lineage commitment itself are also vital for earlier functions that establish the pool of multilineage precursors that would normally feed into the T-cell specification process. When the regulatory genes that encode them are mutated, the confounding effects on earlier stages make it difficult to dissect T-cell specification genetically. Yet both the positive and the negative regulatory events involved in the choice of a T-cell fate are actually a mosaic of distinct functions. New evidence has emerged recently that finally provides a way to separate the major components that fit together to drive this process. Here, we review insights into T-cell specification and commitment that emerge from a combination of molecular, cellular, and systems biology approaches. The results reveal the regulatory structure underlying this lineage decision. PMID:20969591

  9. Regulatory T cell memory.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Michael D; Way, Sing Sing; Abbas, Abul K

    2016-02-01

    Memory for antigen is a defining feature of adaptive immunity. Antigen-specific lymphocyte populations show an increase in number and function after antigen encounter and more rapidly re-expand upon subsequent antigen exposure. Studies of immune memory have primarily focused on effector B cells and T cells with microbial specificity, using prime-challenge models of infection. However, recent work has also identified persistently expanded populations of antigen-specific regulatory T cells that protect against aberrant immune responses. In this Review, we consider the parallels between memory effector T cells and memory regulatory T cells, along with the functional implications of regulatory memory in autoimmunity, antimicrobial host defence and maternal-fetal tolerance. In addition, we discuss emerging evidence for regulatory T cell memory in humans and key unanswered questions in this rapidly evolving field. PMID:26688349

  10. T-cell factor-1 expression during human natural killer cell development and in circulating CD56(+) bright natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Toor, A A; Lund, T C; Miller, J S

    2001-04-01

    Transcription factors are essential to govern differentiation along the lymphoid lineage from uncommitted hematopoietic stem cells. Although many of these transcription factors have putative roles based on murine knockout experiments, their function in human lymphoid development is less known and was studied further. Transcription factor expression in fresh and cultured adult human bone marrow and umbilical cord blood progenitors was evaluated. We found that fresh CD34(+)Lin(-) cells that are human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR(-) or CD38(-) constitutively express GATA-3 but not T-cell factor-1 (TCF-1) or Id-3. Culture with the murine fetal liver cell line AFT024 and defined cytokines was capable of inducing TCF-1 mRNA. However, no T-cell receptor gene rearrangement was identified in cultured progeny. Id-3, a basic helix loop helix factor with dominant negative function for T-cell differentiation transcription factors, also was upregulated and may explain unsuccessful T-cell maturation. To better understand the developmental link between natural killer (NK) cells derived from progenitors, we studied NK cell subsets circulating in blood. CD56(+bright), but not CD56(+dim), NK cells constitutively express TCF-1 by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. The TCF-1 isoform found in CD56(+bright) cells, which express lectin but not immunoglobulin class I recognizing inhibitory receptors, was identical to that induced in NK cell differentiation culture and was distinctly different from isoforms in T cells. These results suggest that TCF-1 does not target human killer immunoglobulin receptor genes, TCF-1 is uniquely expressed in circulating CD56(+bright) NK cells, and specific TCF-1 isoforms may play an important role in regulating NK differentiation from a common NK/T-cell progenitor. PMID:11301190

  11. Role of ?? T Cells in Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Born, Willi K.; Roark, Christina L.; Jin, Niyun; Wands, JM; Kemal Aydintug, M.; Huang, Yafei; Chain, Jennifer L.; Hahn, Youn-Soo; Simonian, Philip L.; Fontenot, Andrew P.; O'Brien, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    The resident population of ?? T cells in the normal lung is small but during lung inflammation, ?? T cells can increase dramatically. Histological analysis reveals diverse interactions between ?? T cells and other pulmonary leukocytes. Studies in animal models show that ?? T cells play a role in allergic lung inflammation where they can protect normal lung function, that they also are capable of resolving infection-induced pulmonary inflammation, and that they can help preventing pulmonary fibrosis. Lung inflammation threatens vital lung functions. Protection of the lung tissues and their functions during inflammation is the net-effect of opposing influences of specialized subsets of ?? T cells as well as interactions of these cells with other pulmonary leukocytes. PMID:26550059

  12. Skewed T-cell receptor Vbeta8.2 expression in transgenic CD2-myc induced thymic lymphoma: a role for antigen stimulation in tumour development?

    PubMed Central

    Webster, G.; Onions, D. E.; Neil, J. C.; Cameron, E. R.

    1997-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the c-myc proto-oncogene under the control of the CD2-dominant control region show stochastic development of mainly clonal thymic lymphoma with long latency, indicating that cooperative events are needed for the development of the fully malignant phenotype. Previous studies have suggested that T-cell receptor-associated signals can contribute to tumour development. We have therefore used this transgenic model of T-cell transformation to determine whether antigen-specific responses could constitute an epigenetic event in lymphomagenesis. The T-cell receptor (TcR) repertoires of lymphoma clones were analysed with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (Abs) recognizing TcR Vbeta chains. The Vbeta repertoire of tumour clones arising in these mice was non-random with overrepresentation of Vbeta8.2 TcR species. The majority of Vbeta8.2+ clones were of a mature CD3+ CD8 single-positive (SP) phenotype. The biased TcR usage, together with a mature cell phenotype is consistent with the hypothesis that TcR-mediated signals cooperate with activated myc during T-cell transformation. Images Figure 1 PMID:9310239

  13. Functional type 1 regulatory T cells develop regardless of FOXP3 mutations in patients with IPEX syndrome.

    PubMed

    Passerini, Laura; Di Nunzio, Sara; Gregori, Silvia; Gambineri, Eleonora; Cecconi, Massimiliano; Seidel, Markus G; Cazzola, Giantonio; Perroni, Lucia; Tommasini, Alberto; Vignola, Silvia; Guidi, Luisa; Roncarolo, Maria G; Bacchetta, Rosa

    2011-04-01

    Mutations of forkhead box p3 (FOXP3), the master gene for naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTregs), are responsible for the impaired function of nTregs, resulting in an autoimmune disease known as the immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome. The relevance of other peripheral tolerance mechanisms, such as the presence and function of type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells, the major adaptive IL-10-producing Treg subset, in patients with IPEX syndrome remains to be clarified. FOXP3(mutated) Tr1-polarized cells, differentiated in vitro from CD4(+) T cells of four IPEX patients, were enriched in IL-10(+) IL-4(-) IFN-?(+) T cells, a cytokine production profile specific for Tr1 cells, and expressed low levels of FOXP3 and high levels of Granzyme-B. IPEX Tr1 cells were hypoproliferative and suppressive, thus indicating that FOXP3 mutations did not impair their function. Furthermore, we isolated Tr1 cell clones from the peripheral blood of one FOXP3(null) patient, demonstrating that Tr1 cells are present in vivo and they can be expanded in vitro in the absence of WT FOXP3. Overall, our results (i) show that functional Tr1 cells differentiate independently of FOXP3, (ii) confirm that human Tr1 and nTregs are distinct T-cell lineages, and (iii) suggest that under favorable conditions Tr1 cells could exert regulatory functions in IPEX patients. PMID:21400500

  14. T Cell Immune Reconstitution Following Lymphodepletion

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kirsten; Hakim, Frances T.; Gress, Ronald E.

    2007-01-01

    T cell reconstitution following lymphopenia from chemotherapy or stem cell transplant is often slow and incompetent, contributing to the development of infectious diseases, relapse, and graft-versus-host disease. This is due to the fact that de novo T cell production is impaired following cytoreductive regimens. T cells can be generated from two pathways: 1) thymus derived through active thymopoiesis and 2) peripherally expanded clones through homeostatic proliferation. In the development of lymphopenia, the thymic pathway is commonly compromised in adults and T cells rely upon peripheral expansion to recover T cell numbers. This homeostatic proliferation exploits the high cytokine levels following lymphopenia to rapidly generate T cells in the periphery. Moreover, this early peripheral expansion of T cells can also be driven by exogenous antigen. This results in loss of T cell repertoire diversity and may predispose to auto- or alloimmunity. Alternatively, the high homeostatic proliferation following lymphopenia may facilitate expansion of anti-tumor immunity. Murine and human studies have provided insight into the cytokine and cellular regulators of these two pathways of T cell generation and the disparate portraits of T cell immunity created through robust thymopoiesis or peripheral expansion following lymphopenia. This insight has permitted the manipulation of the immune system to maximize anti-tumor immunity through lymphopenia and led to an appreciation of mechanisms that underlie graft vs. host disease. PMID:18023361

  15. Lymphotoxin-? receptor in microenvironmental cells promotes the development of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with cortical/mature immunophenotype.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Mnica T; Ghezzo, Marinella N; Silveira, Andr B; Kalathur, Ravi K; Pvoa, Vanda; Ribeiro, Ana R; Brandalise, Slvia R; Dejardin, Emmanuel; Alves, Nuno L; Ghysdael, Jacques; Barata, Joo T; Yunes, Jos Andres; Dos Santos, Nuno R

    2015-12-01

    Lymphotoxin-mediated activation of the lymphotoxin-? receptor (LT?R; LTBR) has been implicated in cancer, but its role in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) has remained elusive. Here we show that the genes encoding lymphotoxin (LT)-? and LT? (LTA, LTB) are expressed in T-ALL patient samples, mostly of the TAL/LMO molecular subtype, and in the TEL-JAK2 transgenic mouse model of cortical/mature T-ALL (Lta, Ltb). In these mice, expression of Lta and Ltb is elevated in early stage T-ALL. Surface LT?1 ?2 protein is expressed in primary mouse T-ALL cells, but only in the absence of microenvironmental LT?R interaction. Indeed, surface LT expression is suppressed in leukaemic cells contacting Ltbr-expressing but not Ltbr-deficient stromal cells, both invitro and invivo, thus indicating that dynamic surface LT expression in leukaemic cells depends on interaction with its receptor. Supporting the notion that LT signalling plays a role in T-ALL, inactivation of Ltbr results in a significant delay in TEL-JAK2-induced leukaemia onset. Moreover, young asymptomatic TEL-JAK2;Ltbr(-/-) mice present markedly less leukaemic thymocytes than age-matched TEL-JAK2;Ltbr(+/+) mice and interference with LT?R function at this early stage delayed T-ALL development. We conclude that LT expression by T-ALL cells activates LT?R signalling in thymic stromal cells, thus promoting leukaemogenesis. PMID:26456771

  16. Harnessing endogenous miR-181a to segregate transgenic antigen receptor expression in developing versus post-thymic T cells in murine hematopoietic chimeras.

    PubMed

    Papapetrou, Eirini P; Kovalovsky, Damian; Beloeil, Laurent; Sant'angelo, Derek; Sadelain, Michel

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeting complementary sequences, referred to as miRNA recognition elements (MREs), typically located in the 3' untranslated region of mRNAs. miR-181a is highly expressed in developing thymocytes and markedly downregulated in post-thymic T cells. We investigated whether endogenous miR-181a can be harnessed to segregate expression of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) and TCRs between developing and mature T cells. Lentiviral-encoded antigen receptors were tagged with a miR-181a-specific MRE and transduced into mouse BM cells that were used to generate hematopoietic chimeras. Expression of a CAR specific for human CD19 (hCD19) was selectively suppressed in late double-negative and double-positive thymocytes, coinciding with the peak in endogenous miR-181a expression. Receptor expression was fully restored in post-thymic resting and activated T cells, affording protection against a subsequent challenge with hCD19+ tumors. Hematopoietic mouse chimeras engrafted with a conalbumin-specific TCR prone to thymic clonal deletion acquired peptide-specific T cell responsiveness only when the vector-encoded TCR transcript was similarly engineered to be subject to regulation by miR-181a. These results demonstrate the potential of miRNA-regulated transgene expression in stem cell-based therapies, including cancer immunotherapy. PMID:19033646

  17. T cells in myositis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    T cells of both the CD4 and CD8 lineage are commonly found in affected tissues of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, but understanding the contribution of these cells to immunopathogenesis remains challenging. Given recent advances in identifying more myositis-associated autoantibodies and their putative targets, we suggest that studies on autoreactive T cells targeting those autoantigens are one way forward. Another (so far, more frequently used) approach comes from studies on effector T cells in the context of myositis. This review summarizes recent advances and current hypotheses in both of these contexts. PMID:23270751

  18. Human V delta 2+ gamma delta T-cell tolerance to foreign antigens of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed Central

    Hara, T; Ohashi, S; Yamashita, Y; Abe, T; Hisaeda, H; Himeno, K; Good, R A; Takeshita, K

    1996-01-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms involved in human gammadelta T-cell tolerance to self or to foreign antigens. Patients with congenital toxoplasmosis offer a unique opportunity to examine Vdelta2+ gammadelta T-cell tolerance. Analysis of gammadelta T cells in patients with congenital toxoplasmosis revealed evidence for anergy of these cells with or without clonal Vdelta2+ gammadelta T-cell expansion in the acute phase of the Toxoplasma infection. T cells in general were unresponsive and did not proliferate upon exposure to mitogens or to Toxoplasma lysate antigens or in response to live Toxoplasma-infected cells when the congenitally infected infants were 1 month of age, and they exhibited selective anergy to Toxoplasma lysate antigens and live Toxoplasma-infected cells when the infants were aged 5 months. During the chronic phase of congenital toxoplasmosis in the patients who were more than I year of age, the repertoires of the gammadelta T-cell receptors were found to be within normal ranges. In addition, in the chronic phase, the gammadelta T cells proliferated and secreted gamma-interferon in response to exposure to live Toxoplasmia-infected cells. By contrast, alphabeta T cells remained anergic. Vdelta2+ gammadelta T cells have been considered to undergo extrathymic maturation and thus to be subject to development of peripheral tolerance. Our findings indicate that Vdelta2+ gammadelta T-cell tolerance was lost in these infected infants earlier than alphabeta T-cell tolerance. These findings suggest that gammadelta T cells play a role in protection against Toxoplasma gondii in the chronic phase when congenitally infected children are more than 1 year of age, especially in those in whom alphabeta T cells continue to exhibit deficits in specific immune responses to Toxoplasma antigens. PMID:8643541

  19. T-cell tolerance and autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Brumeanu, T D; Bona, C A; Casares, S

    2001-01-01

    Herein we describe the major signaling events that occur in T-cells upon T-cell receptor (TCR) engagement, and the mechanisms responsible for the induction of T-cell anergy that may ultimately lead to the development of immunospecific therapies in T-cell mediated autoimmune diseases. A new type of antigen presenting molecule (dimeric MHC class-II/peptide, DEF) endowed with antigen-specific immunomodulatory effects such as induction of Th2 polarization and T-cell anergy is also described as a potential antidiabetogenic agent. According to our preliminary results, the MHC II/peptide-based approach may provide rational grounds for further development of antigen-specific immunotherapeutic agents such as human-like MHC lI/peptide chimeras endowed with efficient down-regulatory effects in CD4 T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases such as Type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:11878772

  20. Delta-like 4-mediated Notch signaling is required for early T-cell development in a three-dimensional thymic structure.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ken-ichi; Negishi, Naoko; Yazawa, Masaki; Yagita, Hideo; Habu, Sonoko; Hozumi, Katsuto

    2015-08-01

    Delta-like 4 (Dll4)-mediated Notch signaling is critical for specifying T-cell fate, but how Dll4-mediated Notch signaling actually contributes to T-cell development in the thymus remains unclear. To explore this mechanism in the thymic three-dimensional structure, we performed fetal thymus organ culture using Dll4-deficient mice. DN1a/b+DN2mt cells, which had not yet committed to either the αβ T or γδ T/NK cell lineage, did not differentiate into the αβ T-cell lineage in Dll4-deficient thymus despite the lack of cell fate conversion into other lineages. However, DN3 cells efficiently differentiated into a later developmental stage of αβ T cells, the double-positive (DP) stage, although the proliferation was significantly impaired during the differentiation process. These findings suggest that the requirement for Notch signaling differs between the earliest and pre-TCR-bearing precursors and that continued Notch signaling is required for proper differentiation with active proliferation of αβ T lineage cells. Furthermore, we showed that Notch signaling increased the c-Myc expression in DN3 cells in the thymus and that its overexpression rescued the proliferation and differentiation of DN3 cells in the Dll4-null thymus. Therefore, c-Myc plays a central role in the transition from stage DN3 to DP as a downstream target of Notch signaling. PMID:25976373

  1. EmTIP, a T-Cell Immunomodulatory Protein Secreted by the Tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis Is Important for Early Metacestode Development

    PubMed Central

    Nono, Justin Komguep; Lutz, Manfred B.; Brehm, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by the metacestode of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, is a lethal zoonosis associated with host immunomodulation. T helper cells are instrumental to control the disease in the host. Whereas Th1 cells can restrict parasite proliferation, Th2 immune responses are associated with parasite proliferation. Although the early phase of host colonization by E. multilocularis is dominated by a potentially parasitocidal Th1 immune response, the molecular basis of this response is unknown. Principal Findings We describe EmTIP, an E. multilocularis homologue of the human T-cell immunomodulatory protein, TIP. By immunohistochemistry we show EmTIP localization to the intercellular space within parasite larvae. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot experiments revealed the presence of EmTIP in the excretory/secretory (E/S) products of parasite primary cell cultures, representing the early developing metacestode, but not in those of mature metacestode vesicles. Using an in vitro T-cell stimulation assay, we found that primary cell E/S products promoted interferon (IFN)-? release by murine CD4+ T-cells, whereas metacestode E/S products did not. IFN-? release by T-cells exposed to parasite products was abrogated by an anti-EmTIP antibody. When recombinantly expressed, EmTIP promoted IFN-? release by CD4+ T-cells in vitro. After incubation with anti-EmTIP antibody, primary cells showed an impaired ability to proliferate and to form metacestode vesicles in vitro. Conclusions We provide for the first time a possible explanation for the early Th1 response observed during E. multilocularis infections. Our data indicate that parasite primary cells release a T-cell immunomodulatory protein, EmTIP, capable of promoting IFN-? release by CD4+ T-cells, which is probably driving or supporting the onset of the early Th1 response during AE. The impairment of primary cell proliferation and the inhibition of metacestode vesicle formation by anti-EmTIP antibodies suggest that this factor fulfills an important role in early E. multilocularis development within the intermediate host. PMID:24392176

  2. Shifting the Evolving CAR T Cell Platform into Higher Gear.

    PubMed

    Holohan, Daniel R; Lee, James C; Bluestone, Jeffrey A

    2015-10-12

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Zhao and colleagues test various chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells to show that CD28-CD3? CAR T cells that constitutively express 4-1BBL promote T cell expansion and tumor eradication while reducing exhaustion. The results have important implications for the development of effective CAR T cell therapies in cancer patients. PMID:26461084

  3. Protein phosphatase-1 is involved in the maintenance of normal homeostasis and in UVA irradiation-induced pathological alterations in HaCaT cells and in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Dedinszki, Dra; Sipos, Adrienn; Kiss, Andrea; Btori, Rbert; Knya, Zoltn; Virg, Lszl; Erd?di, Ferenc; Lontay, Beta

    2015-01-01

    The number of ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin diseases such as melanomas is on the rise. The altered behavior of keratinocytes is often coupled with signaling events in which Ser/Thr specific protein kinases and phosphatases regulate various cellular functions. In the present study the role of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) was investigated in the response of human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and mouse skin to UV radiation. PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1c) isoforms, PP1c?/? and PP1c?, are all localized to the cytoskeleton and cytosol of keratinocytes, but PP1c? was found to be dominant over PP1?/? in the nucleus. PP1c-silencing in HaCaT cells decreased the phosphatase activity and suppressed the viability of the cells. Exposure to a 10 J/cm(2) UVA dose induced HaCaT cell death and resulted in a 30% decrease of phosphatase activity. PP1c-silencing and UVA irradiation altered the gene expression profile of HaCaT cells and suggested that the expression of 19 genes was regulated by the combined treatments with many of these genes being involved in malignant transformation. Microarray analysis detected altered expression levels of genes coding for melanoma-associated proteins such as keratin 1/10, calcium binding protein S100A8 and histone 1b. Treatment of Balb/c mice with the PP1-specific inhibitor tautomycin (TM) exhibited increased levels of keratin 1/10 and S100A8, and a decreased level of histone 1b proteins following UVA irradiation. Moreover, TM treatment increased pigmentation of the skin which was even more apparent when TM was followed by UVA irradiation. Our data identify PP1 as a regulator of the normal homeostasis of keratinocytes and the UV-response. PMID:25446992

  4. The development of T cell-dominated inflammatory responses induced by sodium lauryl sulphate in mouse oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Ahlfors, E E; Dahl, J E; Lyberg, T

    2012-06-01

    The effect of a single time exposure of SLS to the buccal mucosa of mice was compared to one application of the hapten OXA (oxazolone), evaluated by routine histology, immunohistochemistry and ELISA quantifications of cytokines. The SLS concentrations (2%, 4% and 8%) resulted in epithelial surface necrosis at 1-6 h, after 2-6 h accumulation of intra-epithelial neutrophils and at 24 h the main inflammatory cells were mononuclear. Increased concentrations of SLS gave more severe damage. CD4(+) T cells were found at 6 h and increased slightly up to 24 h and were most frequently seen at the lowest SLS dose. The CD8(+) T cells were kept at a low number during the whole 24 h observation period, but increased proportionally to the CD4(+) T cells. One application of 1% OXA did not raise the number of cells of either phenotype (2-24 h). Neither IL-2 nor IFN-? demonstrated increased levels during the week of observation at any concentration of SLS, contrary to one application of OXA which caused increased IL-2 levels both at the local application site and in the regional and distant lymph nodes. Regardless of SLS concentration, a minor increase in regional lymph node weight was observed 8-12 h after substance application, quickly to subside whilst one OXA application gave a maximal weight increase at 48-72 h. We conclude that oral mucosa irritant SLS reactions gave early surface necrosis and neutrophil infiltrations and later mononuclear cell infiltrations dominated by CD4(+) T cells. The cytokines IL-2 and IFN-? and lymphocyte proliferation in the regional lymph nodes was not observed after SLS application, contrary to hapten application. PMID:22153318

  5. Mitomycin C-treated dendritic cells inactivate autoreactive T cells: Toward the development of a tolerogenic vaccine in autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Terness, Peter; Oelert, Thilo; Ehser, Sandra; Chuang, Jing Jing; Lahdou, Imad; Kleist, Christian; Velten, Florian; Hmmerling, Gnter J.; Arnold, Bernd; Opelz, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of autoimmune diseases remains a challenge for immunological research. An ideal therapy should inhibit the immune reaction against the diseased organ and leave the rest of the immune response intact. Our previous studies showed that donor-derived dendritic cells (DCs) treated in vitro with mitomycin C (MMC) suppress rat heart allograft rejection if injected into recipients before transplantation. Here we analyze their efficacy in controlling autoimmunity. MMC-DCs loaded with myelin-basic-protein (MBP) inhibited specific T cells derived from multiple sclerosis patients in vitro. If coincubated with MMC-DCs, T cells were arrested in the G0/G1 cell cycle phase. Microarray gene scan showed that MMC influences the expression of 116 genes in DCs, one main cluster comprising apoptotic and the second cluster immunosuppressive genes. Apparently, the combination of apoptosis with expression of tolerogenic molecules renders MMC-DCs suppressive. MBP-loaded MMC-DCs also inhibited mouse T cells in vitro and, in contrast to MBP-loaded nave DCs, did not induce experimental autoimmune encephalitis. Most importantly, mice vaccinated with inhibitory DCs became resistant to the disease. Whereas this is not the first report on generation of suppressive DCs, it delineates a method using a clinically approved drug at nontoxic concentrations, which yields irreversibly changed DCs, effective across species in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19017789

  6. Pushing the frontiers of T-cell vaccines: accurate measurement of human T-cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Saade, Fadi; Gorski, Stacey Ann; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for novel approaches to tackle major vaccine challenges such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV, among others. Success will require vaccines able to induce a cytotoxic T-cell response a deficiency of most current vaccine approaches. The successful development of T-cell vaccines faces many hurdles, not least being the lack of consensus on a standardized T-cell assay format able to be used as a correlate of vaccine efficacy. Hence, there remains a need for reproducible measures of T-cell immunity proven in human clinical trials to correlate with vaccine protection. The T-cell equivalent of a neutralizing antibody assay would greatly accelerate the development and commercialization of T-cell vaccines. Recent advances have seen a plethora of new T-cell assays become available, including some like cytometry by time-of-flight with extreme multiparameter T-cell phenotyping capability. However, whether it is historic thymidine-based proliferation assays or sophisticated new cytometry assays, each assay has its relative advantages and disadvantages, and relatively few of these assays have yet to be validated in large-scale human vaccine trials. This review examines the current range of T-cell assays and assesses their suitability for use in human vaccine trials. Should one or more of these assays be accepted as an agreed surrogate of T-cell protection by a regulatory agency, this would significantly accelerate the development of T-cell vaccines. PMID:23252389

  7. The BMP Pathway Participates in Human Naive CD4+ T Cell Activation and Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Víctor G.; Sacedón, Rosa; Hidalgo, Laura; Valencia, Jaris; Fernández-Sevilla, Lidia M.; Hernández-López, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) form a group of secreted factors that belongs to the TGF-β superfamily. Among different roles in a number of immune cell types, BMPs are known to regulate T cell development within the thymus, although the role of BMP signaling in human mature T cells remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that canonical BMP signaling is necessary during two critical events that regulate the size and function of human naive CD4+ T cell population: activation and homeostasis. Upon stimulation via TCR, naive CD4+ T cells upregulate the expression of BMP ligands triggering canonical BMP signaling in CD25+ cells. Blockade of BMP signaling severely impairs CD4+ T cell proliferation after activation mainly through regulation of IL-2, since the addition of this cytokine recuperates normal T cell expansion after inhibition of BMP signaling. Similarly, activation of canonical BMP pathway is required for both the maintenance of cell survival and the homeostatic proliferation induced by IL-7, a key factor for T cell homeostasis. Moreover, upregulation of two critical receptors for T cell homeostasis, CXCR4 and CCR9, triggered by IL-7 is also abrogated in the absence of BMP signaling. Collectively, we describe important roles of the canonical BMP signaling in human naive CD4+ T cell activation and homeostasis that could be valuable for clinical application. PMID:26110906

  8. Memory T Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qianqian; Lakkis, Fadi G.

    2015-01-01

    Immunological memory is a key feature of adaptive immunity. It provides the organism with long-lived and robust protection against infection. In organ transplantation, memory T cells pose a significant threat by causing allograft rejection that is generally resistant to immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of memory T cell biology is needed to improve the survival of transplanted organs without compromising the host’s ability to fight infections. This review will focus on the mechanisms by which memory T cells migrate to the site where their target antigen is present, with particular emphasis on their migration to transplanted organs. First, we will define the known subsets of memory T cells (central, effector, and tissue resident) and their circulation patterns. Second, we will review the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which memory T cells migrate to inflamed and non-inflamed tissues and highlight the emerging paradigm of antigen-driven, trans-endothelial migration. Third, we will discuss the relevance of this knowledge to organ transplantation and the prevention or treatment of allograft rejection. PMID:26483794

  9. Detailed characterization of gamma delta T cells within the organs in mice: classification into three groups.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, K; Ohtsuka, K; Watanabe, H; Asakura, H; Abo, T

    1993-01-01

    gamma delta T cells are known to localize preferentially in the epithelial regions and the hepatic sinusoids, and exhibit highly restricted V gene usage depending on their location. In the present study, gamma delta T cells in mice were further characterized in terms of their expression of the interleukin-2 receptor beta-chain (IL-2R beta), CD4 and CD8, and CD8 alpha and beta. This experiment was arranged to investigate whether gamma delta T cells have different properties depending on the organs and how gamma delta T cells are different from extrathymic alpha beta T cells, i.e. alpha beta T cells in the liver and intraepithelial lymphocytes in the intestine, in terms of the above phenotypes. Three-colour immunofluorescence tests using monoclonal antibodies revealed that gamma delta T cells can be classified into three groups: gamma delta T cells of the liver type are all IL-2R beta+, are comprised of double-negative (DN) CD8-CD4- and single-positive CD8+ (no CD4+) cells, and express CD8 alpha+ beta-; gamma delta T cells of the thymus type are a mixture of IL-2R beta+ and IL-2R beta-, are mainly DN, and express CD8 alpha+ beta+ if they carry CD8 antigens; and gamma delta T cells of the intestine type are also IL-2R beta+ or IL-2R beta-, are all CD8+, and express CD8 alpha+ beta-. gamma delta T cells in the spleen of normal mice are of the thymus type, while gamma delta T cells in the spleen of athymic nude mice seem to be of the liver type. All these properties of gamma delta T cells resemble those of extrathymic alpha beta T cells rather than regular alpha beta T cells of thymic origin. The present results reveal that gamma delta T cells and other extrathymic alpha beta T cells have many properties in common as primitive lymphocytes in phylogenetic development. PMID:8288314

  10. Normal adult ramified microglia separated from other central nervous system macrophages by flow cytometric sorting: Phenotypic differences defined and direct ex vivo antigen presentation to myelin basic protein-reactive CD4{sup +} T cells compared

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, A.L.; Goodsall, A.L.; Sedgwick, J.D.

    1995-05-01

    Ramified microglia in the adult central nervous system (CNS) are the principal glial element up-regulating MHC class I and II expression in response to inflammatory events or neuronal damage. A proportion of these cells also express MHC class II constitutively in the normal CNS. The role of microglia as APCs for CD4{sup +} cells extravasating into the CNS remains undefined. In this study, using irradiation bone marrow chimeras in CD45-congenic rats, the phenotype CD45{sup low}CD11b/c{sup +} is shown to identify microglial cells specifically within the CNS. Highly purified populations of microglia and nonmicroglial but CNS-associated macrophages (CD45{sup high}CD11b/c{sup +}) have been obtained directly from the adult CNS, by using flow cytometric sorting. Morphologically, freshly isolated microglia vs other CNS macrophages are quite distinct. Of the two populations recovered from the normal CNS, it is the minority CD45{sup high}CD11 b/c{sup +} transitional macrophage population, and not microglia, that is the effective APC for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-inducing CD4{sup +} myelin basic protein (MBP)-reactive T cells. CD45{sup high}CD11b/c{sup +} CNS macrophages also stimulate MBP-reactive T cells without addition of MBP to culture suggesting presentation of endogenous Ag. This is the first study in which microglia vs other CNS macrophages have been analyzed for APC ability directly from the CNS, with substantial cross-contamination between the two populations eliminated. The heterogeneity of these populations in terms of APC function is clearly demonstrated. Evidence is still lacking that adult CNS microglia have the capacity to interact with and stimulate CD4{sup +} T cells to proliferate or secrete IL-2. 60 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Engineered T cell therapies.

    PubMed

    Field, Anne-Christine; Qasim, Waseem

    2015-01-01

    Alongside advancements in gene therapy for inherited immune disorders, the need for effective alternative therapeutic options for other conditions has resulted in an expansion in the field of research for T cell gene therapy. T cells are easily obtained and can be induced to divide robustly ex vivo, a characteristic that allows them to be highly permissible to viral vector-mediated introduction of transgenes. Pioneering clinical trials targeting cancers and infectious diseases have provided safety and feasibility data and important information about persistence of engineered cells in vivo. Here, we review clinical experiences with ?-retroviral and lentiviral vectors and consider the potential of integrating transposon-based vectors as well as specific genome editing with designer nucleases in engineered T cell therapies. PMID:26530808

  12. Expression of heat shock protein 70 blocks thymic differentiation of T cells in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W H; Park, Y M; Kim, J I; Park, W Y; Kim, S H; Jang, J J; Seo, J S

    1998-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is involved not only in protein folding, but also in processes of differentiation and cell-cycle progression. Recently, HSP70 has been implicated in mediation of functions of some immunosuppressive agents. To study the role of HSP70 in differentiation of haematopoietic cells, we generated transgenic mice using the human inducible hsp70 gene fused to the mouse H-2K promoter. These mice develop a T-cell deficiency that is characterized by thymic hypoplasia and a significant reduction in peripheral T cells. The total number of thymocytes is about 100-fold less than that in normal mice. The majority of the thymocytes are immature T cells that express neither CD4 nor CD8 molecules, indicating that T cells are affected at an early stage of thymic differentiation. Expression of the transgenic HSP70 was detected both in bone marrow cells and in thymocytes. Furthermore, injection of normal bone marrow cells into the T-cell deficient mice led to the generation of mature T cells indicating that the T-cell deficiency was caused by the action of HSP70 in T cells. The blockage of differentiation occurred only in T cells, both alphabeta- and gammadelta-T-cell receptor (TCR)-bearing cells, but not in B cells, granulocytes, and monocytes. The observations suggest that HSP70 may inhibit a cellular process that is essential for the differentiation of early stage T cells. Further experiments using this model system will widen our understanding of HSP70 and its function on a molecular level. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 6 PMID:9893045

  13. Metformin ameliorates the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by regulating T helper 17 and regulatory T cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yafei; Tian, Tian; Gao, Juan; Liu, Xiaoqian; Hou, Huiqing; Cao, Runjing; Li, Bin; Quan, Moyuan; Guo, Li

    2016-03-15

    Immoderate immunoreaction of antigen-specific Th17 and Treg cell dysfunction play critical roles in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. We examined Th17/Treg immune responses and the underlying mechanisms in response to metformin in C57BL/6 mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Metformin reduced Th17 and increased Treg cell percentages along with the levels of associated cytokines. Molecules involved in cellular metabolism were altered in mice with EAE. Suppressed activation of mTOR and its downstream target, HIF-1?, likely mediated the protective effects of metformin. Our findings demonstrate that regulation of T cell metabolism represents a new therapeutic target for CNS autoimmune disorders. PMID:26943960

  14. CD8+ Effector T Cells at the FetalMaternal Interface, Balancing Fetal Tolerance and Antiviral Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Tilburgs, Tamara; Strominger, Jack L.

    2013-01-01

    During pregnancy CD8+ effector T cells need optimal immune regulation to prevent a detrimental response to allogeneic fetal cells while providing immune protection to infections. A significant proportion of (prospective) mothers carry nave or memory CD8+ T cells with a TCR that can directly bind to paternal MHC molecules. In addition, a high percentage of pregnant women develop specific T cell responses to fetal minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags). Under normal conditions, fetalmaternal MHC and mHag mismatches lead to elevated lymphocyte activation but do not induce pregnancy failure. Furthermore, viral infections alter the maternal CD8+ T cell response by changing the CD8+ T cell repertoire and increasing the influx of CD8+ T cells to decidual tissue. The normally high T cell activation threshold at the fetalmaternal interface may prevent efficient clearance of viral infections. Conversely, the increased inflammatory response due to viral infections may break fetalmaternal tolerance and lead to pregnancy complications. The aim of this review is to discuss the recent studies of CD8+ T cells in pregnancy, identify potential mechanisms for antigen-specific immune recognition of fetal extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells by CD8+ T cells, and discuss the impact of viral infections and virus-specific CD8+ T cells during pregnancy. PMID:23432707

  15. Unbalanced recovery of regulatory and effector T cells after allogeneic stem cell transplantation contributes to chronic GVHD.

    PubMed

    Alho, Ana C; Kim, Haesook T; Chammas, Marie J; Reynolds, Carol G; Matos, Tiago R; Forcade, Edouard; Whangbo, Jennifer; Nikiforow, Sarah; Cutler, Corey S; Koreth, John; Ho, Vincent T; Armand, Philippe; Antin, Joseph H; Alyea, Edwin P; Lacerda, Joao F; Soiffer, Robert J; Ritz, Jerome

    2016-02-01

    The development and maintenance of immune tolerance after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) requires the balanced reconstitution of donor-derived CD4 regulatory T cells (CD4Tregs) as well as effector CD4 (conventional CD4 T cells [CD4Tcons]) and CD8 T cells. To characterize the complex mechanisms that lead to unbalanced recovery of these distinct T-cell populations, we studied 107 adult patients who received T-replete stem cell grafts after reduced-intensity conditioning. Immune reconstitution of CD4Treg, CD4Tcon, and CD8 T cells was monitored for a 2-year period. CD3 T-cell counts gradually recovered to normal levels during this period but CD8 T cells recovered more rapidly than either CD4Tregs or CD4Tcons. Reconstituting CD4Tregs and CD4Tcons were predominantly central memory (CM) and effector memory (EM) cells and CD8 T cells were predominantly terminal EM cells. Thymic generation of naive CD4Tcon and CD8 T cells was maintained but thymic production of CD4Tregs was markedly decreased with little recovery during the 2-year study. T-cell proliferation was skewed in favor of CM and EM CD4Tcon and CD8 T cells, especially 6 to 12 months after HSCT. Intracellular expression of BCL2 was increased in CD4Tcon and CD8 T cells in the first 3 to 6 months after HSCT. Early recovery of naive and CM fractions within each T-cell population 3 months after transplant was also strongly correlated with the subsequent development of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). These dynamic imbalances favor the production, expansion, and persistence of effector T cells over CD4Tregs and were associated with the development of chronic GVHD. PMID:26670634

  16. Developmental Exposure To 2,3,7,8 Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin Attenuates Later-Life Notch1-Mediated T Cell Development and Leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ahrenhoerster, Lori S.; Leuthner, Tess C.; Tate, Everett R.; Lakatos, Peter A.; Laiosa, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Over half of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients have activating mutations in the Notch gene. Moreover, the contaminant 2,3,7,8 Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a known carcinogen that mediates its toxicity through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and crosstalk between activated AHR and Notch signaling pathways has previously been observed. Given the importance of Notch signaling in thymocyte development and T-ALL disease progression, we hypothesized that the activated AHR potentiates disease initiation and progression in an in vivo model of Notch1-induced thymoma. This hypothesis was tested utilizing adult and developmental exposure paradigms to TCDD in mice expressing a constitutively active Notch1 transgene (NotchICN-TG). Following exposure of adult NotchICN-TG mice to a single high dose of TCDD, we observed a significant increase in the efficiency of CD8 thymocyte generation. We next exposed pregnant mice to 3μg/kg of TCDD throughout gestation and lactation to elucidate effects of developmental AHR activation on later-life T cell development and T-ALL-like thymoma susceptibility induced by Notch1. We found that the vehicle-exposed NotchICN-TG offspring have a peripheral T-cell pool heavily biased toward the CD4 lineage, while TCDD-exposed NotchICN-TG offspring were biased toward the CD8 lineage. Furthermore, while the vehicle-exposed NotchICN-TG mice showed increased splenomegaly and B to T cell ratios indicative of disease, mice developmentally exposed to TCDD were largely protected from disease. These studies support a model where developmental AHR activation attenuates later-life Notch1-dependent impacts on thymocyte development and disease progression. PMID:25585350

  17. Developmental exposure to 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin attenuates later-life Notch1-mediated T cell development and leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahrenhoerster, Lori S; Leuthner, Tess C; Tate, Everett R; Lakatos, Peter A; Laiosa, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Over half of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients have activating mutations in the Notch gene. Moreover, the contaminant 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a known carcinogen that mediates its toxicity through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and crosstalk between activated AHR and Notch signaling pathways has previously been observed. Given the importance of Notch signaling in thymocyte development and T-ALL disease progression, we hypothesized that the activated AHR potentiates disease initiation and progression in an in vivo model of Notch1-induced thymoma. This hypothesis was tested utilizing adult and developmental exposure paradigms to TCDD in mice expressing a constitutively active Notch1 transgene (Notch(ICN-TG)). Following exposure of adult Notch(ICN-TG) mice to a single high dose of TCDD, we observed a significant increase in the efficiency of CD8 thymocyte generation. We next exposed pregnant mice to 3?g/kg of TCDD throughout gestation and lactation to elucidate effects of developmental AHR activation on later-life T cell development and T-ALL-like thymoma susceptibility induced by Notch1. We found that the vehicle-exposed Notch(ICN-TG) offspring have a peripheral T cell pool heavily biased toward the CD4 lineage, while TCDD-exposed Notch(ICN-TG) offspring were biased toward the CD8 lineage. Furthermore, while the vehicle-exposed NotchICN-TG mice showed increased splenomegaly and B to T cell ratios indicative of disease, mice developmentally exposed to TCDD were largely protected from disease. These studies support a model where developmental AHR activation attenuates later-life Notch1-dependent impacts on thymocyte development and disease progression. PMID:25585350

  18. N'-methylnicotinamide blocks activation of normal and leukemic T cell line at an early stage of the cell cycle; role of ADP-ribosylation in the transcription of IL-2

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar-Gonzalez, J.F.; Rezai, A.R.; Kermain-Arab, V.

    1986-03-05

    The authors analyzed the role of ADP-ribosyl transferase (ADPRT) in the mitogen induced activation of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes and leukemic T cell line Jurkats through the use of an ADPRT inhibitor. Addition of N'-methylnicotinamide (N'-MN) in the range of 1-10 mM reduced IL-2 production and IL-2 receptor (TAC) expression in both cell specimens in a dose dependent fashion when added before or at the same time as ConA, PHA (+ TPA in Jurkats). When N'-MN was added at different times after mitogens, a sigmoid curve response was obtained. The drug was effective only when added in the early stages of activation (1st 8 hours), causing reduction of viability and cell cycle progression (blast formation-DNA synthesis) and expression of all activation markers such as TAC, OKT-9, OKT-10, and HLA-DR. Late addition of the drug (24 hours or later) had no effect. Exogenous recombinant IL-2 (15 units/ml) partially reversed the N'-MN induced inhibition of /sup 3/H-Thymidine incorporation into DNA from mitogen stimulated normal T cells. Northern blot analysis revealed that N'-MN blocks the transcription of DNA to mRNA coding for IL-2. These data indicate that transcription of the genes involved in immune activation requires ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins.

  19. Development of replication-defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus vectors for the induction of potent CD8+ T cell immunity

    PubMed Central

    Flatz, Lukas; Hegazy, Ahmed N; Bergthaler, Andreas; Verschoor, Admar; Claus, Christina; Fernandez, Marylise; Gattinoni, Luca; Johnson, Susan; Kreppel, Florian; Kochanek, Stefan; van den Broek, Maries; Radbruch, Andreas; Lvy, Frdric; Lambert, Paul-Henri; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Restifo, Nicholas P; Lhning, Max; Ochsenbein, Adrian F; Nabel, Gary J; Pinschewer, Daniel D

    2011-01-01

    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) exhibits natural tropism for dendritic cells and represents the prototypic infection that elicits protective CD8+ T cell (cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)) immunity. Here we have harnessed the immunobiology of this arenavirus for vaccine delivery. By using producer cells constitutively synthesizing the viral glycoprotein (GP), it was possible to replace the gene encoding LCMV GP with vaccine antigens to create replication-defective vaccine vectors. These rLCMV vaccines elicited CTL responses that were equivalent to or greater than those elicited by recombinant adenovirus 5 or recombinant vaccinia virus in their magnitude and cytokine profiles, and they exhibited more effective protection in several models. In contrast to recombinant adenovirus 5, rLCMV failed to elicit vector-specific antibody immunity, which facilitated re-administration of the same vector for booster vaccination. In addition, rLCMV elicited T helper type 1 CD4+ T cell responses and protective neutralizing antibodies to vaccine antigens. These features, together with low seroprevalence in humans, suggest that rLCMV may show utility as a vaccine platform against infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:20139992

  20. The Transcriptional Repressor Gfi1 Affects Development of Early, Uncommitted c-Kit+ T Cell Progenitors and CD4/CD8 Lineage Decision in the Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Ycel, Raif; Karsunky, Holger; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Mry, Tarik

    2003-01-01

    In the thymus, several steps of proliferative expansion and selection coordinate the maturation of precursors into antigen-specific T cells. Here we identify the transcriptional repressor Gfi1 as an important regulator of this maturation process. Mice lacking Gfi1 show reduced thymic cellularity due to an increased cell death rate, lack of proliferation, and a differentiation block in the very early uncommitted CD4?/CD8?/c-Kit+ cytokine-dependent T cell progenitors that have not yet initiated VDJ recombination. In addition, Gfi1-deficient mice show increased major histocompatibility complex class Irestricted positive selection and develop significantly more CD8+ cells suggesting a requirement of Gfi1 for a correct CD4/CD8 lineage decision. Absence of Gfi1 correlates with high level expression of the genes for lung Krppel-like factor (LKLF), inhibitor of DNA binding (Id)1 and Id2, suggesting the existence of new regulatory pathways in pre-T cell development and thymic selection in which Gfi1 acts upstream of LKLF as well as the E-proteins, which are negatively regulated by Id1 and Id2. PMID:12682108

  1. Transiently Reduced PI3K/Akt Activity Drives the Development of Regulatory Function in Antigen-Stimulated Naïve T-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hasenberg, Mike; Reichardt, Peter; Gunzer, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are central for immune homeostasis and divided in thymus-derived natural Tregs and peripherally induced iTreg. However, while phenotype and function of iTregs are well known, a remarkable lack exists in knowledge about signaling mechanisms leading to their generation from naïve precursors in peripheral tissues. Using antigen specific naïve T-cells from mice, we investigated CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3- iTreg induction during antigen-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation with weak antigen presenting cells (APC). We show that early signaling pathways such as ADAM-17-activation appeared similar in developing iTreg and effector cells (Teff) and both initially shedded CD62-L. But iTreg started reexpressing CD62-L after 24 h while Teff permanently downmodulated it. Furthermore, between 24 and 72 hours iTreg presented with significantly lower phosphorylation levels of Akt-S473 suggesting lower activity of the PI3K/Akt-axis. This was associated with a higher expression of the Akt hydrophobic motif-specific phosphatase PHLPP1 in iTreg. Importantly, the lack of costimulatory signals via CD28 from weak APC was central for the development of regulatory function in iTreg but not for the reappearance of CD62-L. Thus, T-cells display a window of sensitivity after onset of TCR triggering within which the intensity of the PI3K/Akt signal controls entry into either effector or regulatory pathways. PMID:23874604

  2. MHC class II molecules play a role in the selection of autoreactive class I-restricted CD8 T cells that are essential contributors to type 1 diabetes development in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Serreze, David V; Holl, T Matthew; Marron, Michele P; Graser, Robert T; Johnson, Ellis A; Choisy-Rossi, Caroline; Slattery, Robyn M; Lieberman, Scott M; DiLorenzo, Teresa P

    2004-01-15

    Development of autoreactive CD4 T cells contributing to type 1 diabetes (T1D) in both humans and nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice is either promoted or dominantly inhibited by particular MHC class II variants. In addition, it is now clear that when co-expressed with other susceptibility genes, some common MHC class I variants aberrantly mediate autoreactive CD8 T cell responses also essential to T1D development. However, it was unknown whether the development of diabetogenic CD8 T cells could also be dominantly inhibited by particular MHC variants. We addressed this issue by crossing NOD mice transgenically expressing the TCR from the diabetogenic CD8 T cell clone AI4 with NOD stocks congenic for MHC haplotypes that dominantly inhibit T1D. High numbers of functional AI4 T cells only developed in controls homozygously expressing NOD-derived H2(g7) molecules. In contrast, heterozygous expression of some MHC haplotypes conferring T1D resistance anergized AI4 T cells through decreased TCR (H2(b)) or CD8 expression (H2(q)). Most interestingly, while AI4 T cells exert a class I-restricted effector function, H2(nb1) MHC class II molecules can contribute to their negative selection. These findings provide insights to how particular MHC class I and class II variants interactively regulate the development of diabetogenic T cells and the TCR promiscuity of such autoreactive effectors. PMID:14707058

  3. Immunoregulatory T Cell Function in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, H.; Han, T.; Henderson, E. S.; Nussbaum, A.; Sheedy, D.

    1981-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignancy characterized by uncontrolled monoclonal B cell differentiation and immunoglobulin production. In most instances, there is concomitant reduction in polyclonal differentiation and immunoglobulin synthesis both in vivo and in vitro. In in vitro pokeweed mitogen-induced B cell differentiation assays, proliferation and polyclonal immunoglobulin secretion optimally requires T cell help and can be inhibited both by monocytes and suppressor T cells. Helper function and monocyte-mediated suppression are relatively radio-resistant whereas T suppressor function is sensitive to 2,000 rad x-irradiation. We have examined myeloma T cell subset function in this assay using recombinations of isolated patient and normal B cells, T cells, and T cell subsets. Monocytes were removed by a carbonyl iron ingestion technique, normal and myeloma T cells were fractionated on the basis of Fc receptors for immunoglobulin (Ig) G (T?) or IgM (T? or T non-?), and proliferation and IgG secretion after co-culture determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation and radio-immunoassay, respectively. Myeloma B cells demonstrate quantitatively and qualitatively normal blastogenic responses and are appropriately regulated by either autologous or allogeneic T helper and suppressor subsets. Despite normal proliferation, however, myeloma B cells remain deficient in subsequent differentiation and immunoglobulin secretion even when co-cultured in the absence of monocytes or suppressor T cells and the presence of normal helper cells. Myeloma T cell populations, in contrast, are entirely normal in helper capacity over a range of T:B ratios but are markedly deficient in radiosensitive and concanavalin A-induced suppressor activity. T suppressor cell dysfunction in multiple myeloma is apparently due to a deficit in the T non-? suppressor subset, whereas T? cells, although proportionately reduced, are functionally normal. This unique T suppressor deficit reflects the heterogeneity of suppressor mechanisms in this disease and may represent a compensatory response to the monoclonal proliferation or the involvement of regulatory T cells in the pathogenesis of the malignancy. PMID:6451635

  4. Extrathymic origin of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes bearing T-cell antigen receptor gamma delta

    SciTech Connect

    Bandeira, A.; Itohara, S.; Bonneville, M.; Burlen-Defranoux, O.; Mota-Santos, T.; Coutinho, A.; Tonegawa, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The kinetics of postnatal intestinal colonization by T cells carrying gamma delta and alpha beta T-cell antigen receptors were studied in nude and normal mice by flow cytometry and immunohistology. Furthermore, gamma delta and alpha beta T-cell development was analyzed in lethally irradiated mice that were reconstituted by fetal liver precursors with or without a thymus. Our results establish that a major subpopulation of gamma delta intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes is produced from uncommitted precursors at extrathymic sites. This work further shows that a small pool of T cells carrying alpha beta T-cell receptors can also differentiate extrathymically from CD3- fetal liver precursors but with rates of production and peripheral expansion much reduced as compared with those observed in thymus-bearing animals.

  5. Epstein-Barr Virus Type 2 Latently Infects T Cells, Inducing an Atypical Activation Characterized by Expression of Lymphotactic Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Carrie B.; Wohlford, Eric M.; Smith, Nicholas A.; King, Christine A.; Ritchie, Julie A.; Baresel, Paul C.; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a well-established B-cell-tropic virus associated with various lymphoproliferative diseases of both B-cell and non-B-cell origin. EBV is associated with a number of T-cell lymphomas; however, in vitro studies utilizing prototypical EBV type 1 (EBV-1) laboratory strains have generally failed to readily infect mature T cells in culture. The difficulties in performing in vitro T-cell experiments have left questions regarding the role of EBV in the pathogenesis of EBV-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases largely unresolved. We report here that the EBV type 2 (EBV-2) strain displays a unique cell tropism for T cells. In remarkable contrast to EBV-1, EBV-2 readily infects primary T cells in vitro, demonstrating a propensity for CD8+ T cells. EBV-2 infection of purified T cells results in expression of latency genes and ultimately leads to T-cell activation, substantial proliferation, and profound alteration of cytokine expression. The pattern of cytokine production is strikingly skewed toward chemokines with roles in lymphocyte migration, demonstrating that EBV-2 has the ability to modulate normal T-cell processes. Collectively, these novel findings identify a previously unknown cell population potentially utilized by EBV-2 to establish latency and lay the foundation for further studies to elucidate the role of EBV in the pathogenesis of T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases. IMPORTANCE The ability of EBV to infect T cells is made apparent by its association with a variety of T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. However, studies to elucidate the pathogenic role of EBV in these diseases have been limited by the inability to conduct in vitro T-cell infection experiments. Here, we report that EBV-2 isolates, compromised in the capacity to immortalize B cells, infect CD3+ T cells ex vivo and propose a working model of EBV-2 persistence where alteration of T-cell functions resulting from EBV-2 infection enhances the establishment of latency in B cells. If indeed EBV-2 utilizes T cells to establish a persistent infection, this could provide one mechanism for the association of EBV with T-cell lymphomas. The novel finding that EBV-2 infects T cells in culture will provide a model to understand the role EBV plays in the development of T-cell lymphomas. PMID:25505080

  6. Influence of the route of infection on development of T-cell receptor beta-chain repertoires of reovirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Jonathan R; Smith, Jeremy; Cunningham, Cynthia; Cuff, Christopher F

    2004-02-01

    It is well established that the route of infection affects the nature of the adaptive immune response. However, little is known about the effects of the route of exposure on development of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Alternative antigen-presenting cell populations, tissue-restricted expression of class I major histocompatibility complex-encoded molecules, and unique T-cell receptor (TCR)-bearing cells in mucosal tissues could influence the selection and expansion of responder T cells. This study addresses the question of whether the route of virus infection affects the selection and expansion of subpopulations of virus-specific CTLs. Mice were infected orally or in the hind footpads with reovirus, and the repertoires of TCR beta-chains expressed on virus-specific CD8(+) T cells in Peyer's patches or lymph nodes and spleens were examined. CD8(+) cells expressing the variable gene segment of the TCR beta-chain 6 (Vbeta6) expanded in the spleens of mice infected by either route and in CTL lines established from the spleens and draining lymphoid tissues. Adoptively transferred Vbeta6(+) CD8(+) T cells from orally or parenterally infected donors expanded in reovirus-infected severe combined immunodeficient recipient mice and mediated cytotoxicity ex vivo. Furthermore, recovered Vbeta6(+) cells were enriched for clones utilizing uniform complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) lengths. However, sequencing of CDR3beta regions from Vbeta6(+) CD8(+) cells indicated that Jbeta gene segment usage is significantly more restricted in CTLs from orally infected mice, suggesting that the route of infection affects selection and/or subsequent expansion of virus-specific CTLs. PMID:14722312

  7. The role of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor variant 2 and IL-17 in the development and function of human CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Crome, Sarah Q; Wang, Adele Y; Kang, Christine Y; Levings, Megan K

    2009-06-01

    Th17 cells are defined by their capacity to produce IL-17, and are important mediators of inflammation and autoimmunity. Human Th17 cells express high levels of the retinoic acid-related orphan receptor variant 2 (RORC2), but it is currently unclear whether expression of this transcription factor alone is sufficient to recapitulate all the known properties of Th17 cells. We used lentivirus-mediated transduction to investigate the role of RORC2 in defining aspects of the human Th17 cell lineage. Expression of RORC2 induced production of IL-17A, IL-22, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, a Th17-cell-associated chemokine receptor profile and upregulation of CD161. RORC2-transduced T cells were hypo-responsive to TCR-mediated stimulation, a property shared with ex vivo Th17 cells and overcome by addition of exogenous IL-2 or IL-15. Co-culture experiments revealed that RORC2-expressing cells were partially resistant to Treg cells since production of IL-17 and proliferation were not suppressed. Evidence that IL-17 stimulates CD4(+) T cells to produce IL-2 and proliferate suggested that the resistance of Th17 cells to Treg-mediated suppression may be partly attributed to IL-17 itself. These findings demonstrate that expression of RORC2 in T cells has functional consequences beyond altering cytokine production and provides insight into the factors regulating the development of human Th17 cells. PMID:19449310

  8. Prenatal exposure to radiofrequencies: effects of WiFi signals on thymocyte development and peripheral T cell compartment in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Laudisi, Federica; Sambucci, Manolo; Nasta, Francesca; Pinto, Rosanna; Lodato, Rossella; Altavista, Pierluigi; Lovisolo, Giorgio Alfonso; Marino, Carmela; Pioli, Claudio

    2012-12-01

    Wireless local area networks are an increasing alternative to wired data networks in workplaces, homes, and public areas. Concerns about possible health effects of this type of signal, especially when exposure occurs early in life, have been raised. We examined the effects of prenatal (in utero) exposure to wireless fidelity (WiFi) signal-associated electromagnetic fields (2450 MHz center-frequency band) on T cell development and function. Pregnant mice were exposed whole body to a specific absorption rate of 4 W/kg, 2 h per day, starting 5 days after mating and ending 1 day before the expected delivery. Sham-exposed and cage control groups were used as controls. No effects on cell count, phenotype, and proliferation of thymocytes were observed. Also, spleen cell count, CD4/CD8 cell frequencies, T cell proliferation, and cytokine production were not affected by the exposure. These findings were consistently observed in the male and female offspring at early (5 weeks of age) and late (26 weeks of age) time points. Nevertheless, the expected differences associated with aging and/or gender were confirmed. In conclusion, our results do not support the hypothesis that the exposure to WiFi signals during prenatal life results in detrimental effects on the immune T cell compartment. PMID:22556007

  9. HIV+ elite controllers have low HIV-specific T cell activation yet maintain strong, polyfunctional T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Rachel E.; Heitman, John W.; Hirschkorn, Dale F.; Lanteri, Marion C.; Biswas, Hope H.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Krone, Melissa R.; Deeks, Steven G.; Norris, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective HIV+ elite controllers are a unique group of rare individuals who maintain undetectable viral loads in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. We studied immune responses in these subjects to inform vaccine development, with the goal of identifying the immune correlates of protection from HIV. Methods We compared markers of cellular activation, HIV-specific immune responses, and regulatory T (Treg) cell frequencies in 4 groups of subjects: HIV-negative healthy controls, elite controllers (HIV RNA level <75 copies/ml), individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and subjects with HIV RNA level >10,000 copies/ml (non-controllers). Results Elite controllers possessed significantly lower levels of activated HIV-specific CD8+ T cells and of recently divided HIV-specific CD4+ T cells than non-controllers, while these differences were not seen in the respective CMV-specific T cell populations. Elite controllers also mounted a stronger and broader cytokine and chemokine response following HIV-specific stimulation than individuals on HAART and non-controllers. Finally, we found that HAART suppressed subjects had elevated Treg cell frequencies, while elite controllers and non-controllers maintained normal percentages of Treg cells. Conclusion Elite controllers maintain high levels of HIV-specific immune responses with low levels of HIV-specific T cell activation, and do not have elevated Treg cell levels. Based on these data an ideal HIV vaccine would induce strong HIV-specific immune responses while minimizing HIV-specific T cell activation. PMID:20400885

  10. T cell responses in dengue viral infections.

    PubMed

    Malavige, Gathsaurie Neelika; Ogg, Graham S

    2013-12-01

    Dengue viral infections are the commonest mosquito borne viral infection in the world, affecting more than 100 countries and 390 million individuals annually. Currently, there are no effective antiviral drugs or an effective vaccine to prevent infection. A main hurdle in developing a safe and effective vaccine has been our poor understanding of the complex nature of the protective immune response in acute dengue infection and the presence of four dengue virus (DV) serotypes that are highly homologous. The role of DV specific T cells in the pathogenesis of severe clinical disease in not clear. It has been speculated that highly cross reactive T cells for the previous infecting heterologous DV serotype, which produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, contribute to disease pathogenesis. These cross reactive T cells are believed to be suboptimal in clearing the infection with the current DV-serotype. However, other studies have shown that cross-reactive DV-specific T cells are absent or present in very low frequency during acute infection, appearing only during the convalescent period in the majority of patients. Furthermore, significant apoptosis of T cells occurs in severe acute clinical disease. Overall therefore, it is unclear what role T cells play in contributing to disease pathogenesis during acute dengue infection. Existing data have been complicated by cross-reactivity in T cells assays. These findings can now be re-evaluated in the light of novel technologies to identify serotype-specific T cell responses. PMID:24220605

  11. Visualizing T Cell Migration in situ

    PubMed Central

    Benechet, Alexandre P.; Menon, Manisha; Khanna, Kamal M.

    2014-01-01

    Mounting a protective immune response is critically dependent on the orchestrated movement of cells within lymphoid tissues. The structure of secondary lymphoid organs regulates immune responses by promoting optimal cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions. Naïve T cells are initially activated by antigen presenting cells in secondary lymphoid organs. Following priming, effector T cells migrate to the site of infection to exert their functions. Majority of the effector cells die while a small population of antigen-specific T cells persists as memory cells in distinct anatomical locations. The persistence and location of memory cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues is critical to protect the host from re-infection. The localization of memory T cells is carefully regulated by several factors including the highly organized secondary lymphoid structure, the cellular expression of chemokine receptors and compartmentalized secretion of their cognate ligands. This balance between the anatomy and the ordered expression of cell surface and soluble proteins regulates the subtle choreography of T cell migration. In recent years, our understanding of cellular dynamics of T cells has been advanced by the development of new imaging techniques allowing in situ visualization of T cell responses. Here, we review the past and more recent studies that have utilized sophisticated imaging technologies to investigate the migration dynamics of naïve, effector, and memory T cells. PMID:25120547

  12. Targeting T cell metabolism for therapy

    PubMed Central

    OSullivan, David

    2015-01-01

    In the past several years, a wealth of evidence has emerged illustrating how metabolism supports many aspects of T cell biology, as well as how metabolic changes drive T cell differentiation and fate. Here we outline developing principles in the regulation of T cell metabolism, and discuss how these processes are impacted in settings of inflammation and cancer. In this context we discuss how metabolic pathways might be manipulated for the treatment of human disease, including how metabolism may be targeted to prevent T cell dysfunction in inhospitable microenvironments, to generate more effective adoptive cellular immunotherapies in cancer, and to direct T cell differentiation and function towards non-pathogenic phenotypes in settings of autoimmunity. PMID:25601541

  13. Regulation of natural killer activity of lymphocytes from normal subjects and patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia by interaction between T and non-T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Khonina, N.A.; Shubinskii, G.Z.; Lozovoi, V.P.

    1987-08-01

    The authors study the effect of culture of human cells on functional activity of natural killer cells and investigate the possible mechanisms of regulation of natural killer activity by acting on cytodifferentiation of lymphocytes in normal subjects and in patients with the B-cell variant of chromic lymphatic leukemia. To estimate natural killer cell function, a membranotoxic test was carried out, using cells of the transplantable line K-562, labeled with /sup 3/H-uridine as the targets.

  14. gammadelta T cells: the overlooked T-cell subset in demyelinating disease.

    PubMed

    Wohler, Jillian E; Smith, Sherry S; Barnum, Scott R

    2010-01-01

    gammadelta T cells represent a small subpopulation of T cells expressing a restricted repertoire of T-cell receptors and, unlike alphabeta T cells, function more as cells of the innate immune system. These cells are found in skin and mucosal sites as well as secondary lymphoid tissues and frequently act as first line of defense sentinels. gammadelta T cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of demyelinating disease, although little was known regarding their trafficking and effector functions. In this Mini-Review, we highlight recent studies demonstrating that gammadelta T cells migrate rapidly to the CNS during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model for multiple sclerosis. gammadelta T-cell trafficking to the CNS is independent of beta(2)-integrins and occurs well before onset of clinical signs of disease, peaking early during the acute phase of disease. gammadelta T-cell-mediated production of inflammatory cytokines, including interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, appears critical for EAE development, suggesting that these cells may set the stage for activation of other subsets of infiltrating effector cells. These data suggest that gammadelta T cells or subsets of gammadelta T cells may represent a new therapeutic target in demeylinating disease. PMID:19610090

  15. Catharanthus roseus Aqueous Extract is Cytotoxic to Jurkat Leukaemic T-cells but Induces the Proliferation of Normal Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nor Hazwani; Rahim, Rohanizah Abdul; Mat, Ishak

    2010-12-01

    Research on natural products has been widely used as a strategy to discover new drugs with potential for applications in complementary medicines because they have fewer side effects than conventional drugs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic effects of crude aqueous Catharanthus roseus extract on Jurkat cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The aqueous extract was standardised to vinblastine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and was used to determine cytotoxicity by the MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay. DNA fragmentation assay was employed to determine if cell death was due to apoptosis. The results showed that the aqueous extract induced cell death of Jurkat cells at 24, 48 and 72 hours post-treatment in a time- and dose-dependent manner. However, cells treated at 48 and 72 hours produced higher cytotoxic effects with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 2.55 ?g/ml and 2.38 ?g/ml, respectively. In contrast, the extract induced normal PBMC proliferation, especially after 24 hours treatment with 1000 ?g/ml. This result indicates that the C. roseus crude aqueous extract showed differential effects of inhibiting the proliferation of the Jurkat cell line and promoting the growth of PBMCs. These data suggest that the extract may be applicable for modulating the normal and transformed immune cells in leukaemia patients. PMID:24575203

  16. Catharanthus roseus Aqueous Extract is Cytotoxic to Jurkat Leukaemic T-cells but Induces the Proliferation of Normal Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nor Hazwani; Rahim, Rohanizah Abdul; Mat, Ishak

    2010-01-01

    Research on natural products has been widely used as a strategy to discover new drugs with potential for applications in complementary medicines because they have fewer side effects than conventional drugs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic effects of crude aqueous Catharanthus roseus extract on Jurkat cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The aqueous extract was standardised to vinblastine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and was used to determine cytotoxicity by the MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay. DNA fragmentation assay was employed to determine if cell death was due to apoptosis. The results showed that the aqueous extract induced cell death of Jurkat cells at 24, 48 and 72 hours post-treatment in a time- and dose-dependent manner. However, cells treated at 48 and 72 hours produced higher cytotoxic effects with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 2.55 ?g/ml and 2.38 ?g/ml, respectively. In contrast, the extract induced normal PBMC proliferation, especially after 24 hours treatment with 1000 ?g/ml. This result indicates that the C. roseus crude aqueous extract showed differential effects of inhibiting the proliferation of the Jurkat cell line and promoting the growth of PBMCs. These data suggest that the extract may be applicable for modulating the normal and transformed immune cells in leukaemia patients. PMID:24575203

  17. Reduction of T Cell Receptor Diversity in NOD Mice Prevents Development of Type 1 Diabetes but Not Sjgrens Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Joanna; Drutel, Robert; Leanhart, Silvia; Bogacz, Marek; Pacholczyk, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice are well-established models of independently developing spontaneous autoimmune diseases, Sjgrens syndrome (SS) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). The key determining factor for T1D is the strong association with particular MHCII molecule and recognition by diabetogenic T cell receptor (TCR) of an insulin peptide presented in the context of I-Ag7 molecule. For SS the association with MHCII polymorphism is weaker and TCR diversity involved in the onset of the autoimmune phase of SS remains poorly understood. To compare the impact of TCR diversity reduction on the development of both diseases we generated two lines of TCR transgenic NOD mice. One line expresses transgenic TCR? chain originated from a pathogenically irrelevant TCR, and the second line additionally expresses transgenic TCR?mini locus. Analysis of TCR sequences on NOD background reveals lower TCR diversity on Treg cells not only in the thymus, but also in the periphery. This reduction in diversity does not affect conventional CD4+ T cells, as compared to the TCRmini repertoire on B6 background. Interestingly, neither transgenic TCR? nor TCRmini mice develop diabetes, which we show is due to lack of insulin B:923 specific T cells in the periphery. Conversely SS develops in both lines, with full glandular infiltration, production of autoantibodies and hyposalivation. It shows that SS development is not as sensitive to limited availability of TCR specificities as T1D, which suggests wider range of possible TCR/peptide/MHC interactions driving autoimmunity in SS. PMID:25379761

  18. T cell lipid peroxidation induces ferroptosis and prevents immunity to infection

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Mai; Freigang, Stefan; Schneider, Christoph; Conrad, Marcus; Bornkamm, Georg W.

    2015-01-01

    The selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) is a major scavenger of phospholipid hydroperoxides. Although Gpx4 represents a key component of the reactive oxygen species-scavenging network, its relevance in the immune system is yet to be defined. Here, we investigated the importance of Gpx4 for physiological T cell responses by using T cellspecific Gpx4-deficient mice. Our results revealed that, despite normal thymic T cell development, CD8+ T cells from T?Gpx4/?Gpx4 mice had an intrinsic defect in maintaining homeostatic balance in the periphery. Moreover, both antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells lacking Gpx4 failed to expand and to protect from acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and Leishmania major parasite infections, which were rescued with diet supplementation of high dosage of vitamin E. Notably, depletion of the Gpx4 gene in the memory phase of viral infection did not affect T cell recall responses upon secondary infection. Ex vivo, Gpx4-deficient T cells rapidly accumulated membrane lipid peroxides and concomitantly underwent cell death driven by ferroptosis but not necroptosis. These studies unveil an essential role of Gpx4 for T cell immunity. PMID:25824823

  19. T cell lipid peroxidation induces ferroptosis and prevents immunity to infection.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Mai; Freigang, Stefan; Schneider, Christoph; Conrad, Marcus; Bornkamm, Georg W; Kopf, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    The selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) is a major scavenger of phospholipid hydroperoxides. Although Gpx4 represents a key component of the reactive oxygen species-scavenging network, its relevance in the immune system is yet to be defined. Here, we investigated the importance of Gpx4 for physiological T cell responses by using T cell-specific Gpx4-deficient mice. Our results revealed that, despite normal thymic T cell development, CD8(+) T cells from T(?Gpx4/?Gpx4) mice had an intrinsic defect in maintaining homeostatic balance in the periphery. Moreover, both antigen-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells lacking Gpx4 failed to expand and to protect from acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and Leishmania major parasite infections, which were rescued with diet supplementation of high dosage of vitamin E. Notably, depletion of the Gpx4 gene in the memory phase of viral infection did not affect T cell recall responses upon secondary infection. Ex vivo, Gpx4-deficient T cells rapidly accumulated membrane lipid peroxides and concomitantly underwent cell death driven by ferroptosis but not necroptosis. These studies unveil an essential role of Gpx4 for T cell immunity. PMID:25824823

  20. Improving the efficacy and safety of engineered T cell therapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huan; Liu, Lin; Wang, Zhehai

    2013-01-28

    Adoptive T-cell therapy (ACT) using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is a powerful immunotherapeutics approach against metastatic melanoma. The success of TIL therapy has led to novel strategies for redirecting normal T cells to recognize tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) by genetically engineering tumor antigen-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) genes. In this manner, large numbers of antigen-specific T cells can be rapidly generated compared with the longer term expansion of TILs. Great efforts have been made to improve these approaches. Initial clinical studies have demonstrated that genetically engineered T cells can mediate tumor regression in vivo. In this review, we discuss the development of TCR and CAR gene-engineered T cells and the safety concerns surrounding the use of these T cells in patients. We highlight the importance of judicious selection of TAAs for modified T cell therapy and propose solutions for potential "on-target, off-organ" toxicity. PMID:23022475

  1. Intrahepatic and peripheral T-cell responses in genotype 1b hepatitis C virus-infected patients with persistently normal and elevated aminotransferase levels

    PubMed Central

    Akyz, Filiz; Polat, Nuray; Kaymakoglu, Sabahattin; Aksoy, Nevzat; Demir, Kadir; Be????k, Fatih; Badur, Selim; akaloglu, Yilmaz; kten, Atilla

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether the cytokine responses in liver and serum differ in chronic hepatitis C patients with normal and high alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. METHODS: Thirty-three (16 with normal ALT level as group 1 and 17 with elevated ALT level as group 2) patients infected with genotype 1b hepatitis C virus (HCV) were examined. Liver infiltrating lymphomononuclear cells (LILMCs) were isolated from liver biopsy by collagenase type 1 and stimulated with phytohemagglutinin and interleukin 2 (IL-2). IL-10, IL-12, interferon gamma (IFN-?) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) were determined in serum and LILMCs by ELISA. RESULTS: Serum cytokine levels were similar in both groups (P>0.05). Stimulated IFN-? and TNF-? levels in LILMCs were increased in both groups. IL-12 and IL-10 levels stimulated with IL-2 were higher in group 1 than in group 2 (P = 0.023). Histological activity index (HAI) and stage had a negative correlation with TNF-? and IFN-? levels in group 2. CONCLUSION: Increased T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine response may regress inflammatory and biochemical activity. Progression of histological abnormalities in persons with elevated ALT probably depends on insufficient Th2 cytokine response, which does not balance Th1 cytokine response. PMID:16437670

  2. SOCS3 Deletion in T-Lymphocytes Suppresses Development of Chronic Ocular Inflammation Via Up-regulation of CTLA-4 and Expansion of Regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cheng-Rong; Kim, Sung-Hye; Mahdi, Rashid M.; Egwuagu, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are negative-feedback regulators of JAK/STAT pathway and SOCS3 contributes to host immunity by regulating the intensity/duration of cytokine signals and inflammatory responses. Mice with Socs3 deletion in myeloid cells exhibit enhanced STAT3-signaling, expansion of Th1 and Th17 cells and developed severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Interestingly, development of the unique IL-17/IFN-?-double producing (Th17/IFN-? and Tc17/IFN-?) subsets that exhibit strong cytotoxic activities and associated with pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, has recently been shown to depend on epigenetic suppression of SOCS3 expression, further suggesting involvement of SOCS3 in autoimmunity and tumor immunity. In this study, we generated mice with Socs3 deletion in CD4 T cell compartment (CD4-SOCS3KO) to determine in vivo effects of the loss of Socs3 in the T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). In contrast to the exacerbation of EAE in myeloid-specific SOCS3-deleted mice, CD4-SOCS3KO mice were protected from acute and chronic uveitis. Protection from EAU correlated with enhanced expression of CTLA4 and expansion of IL-10 producing Tregs with augmented suppressive activities. We further show that SOCS3 interacts with CTLA4 and negatively regulates CTLA4 levels in T cells, providing mechanistic explanation for the expansion of Tregs in CD4-SOCS3 during EAU. Contrary to in vitro epigenetic studies, Th17/IFN-? and Tc17/IFN-? populations were markedly reduced in CD4-SOCS3KO, suggesting that SOCS3 promotes expansion of Th17/IFN-? subset associated with development of severe uveitis. Thus, SOCS3 is a potential therapeutic target in uveitis and other auto-inflammatory diseases. PMID:24101549

  3. Role of CD8(+) T-cell immunity in influenza infection: potential use in future vaccine development.

    PubMed

    La Gruta, Nicole; Kelso, Anne; Brown, Lorena E; Chen, Wiesan; Jackson, David C; Turner, Stephen J

    2009-10-01

    Continued circulation of the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza A virus has many people worried that an influenza pandemic is imminent. Compounding this is the realization that H5N1 vaccines based on current influenza vaccine technology (designed to generate protective antibody responses) may be suboptimal at providing protection. As a consequence, there is recent interest in vaccine strategies that elicit cellular immunity, particularly the cytotoxic T lymphocyte response, in an effort to provide protection against a potential pandemic. A major issue is the lack of information about the precise role that these 'hitmen' of the immune system have in protecting against both pandemic and seasonal influenza. We need to know more about how the induction and maintenance of cytotoxic T lymphocytes after influenza infection can impact protection from further infection. The challenge is then to use this information in the design of vaccines that will protect against pandemic influenza and will help optimize CD8(+) killer T-cell responses in other infections. PMID:20477341

  4. Development and validation of a broad scheme for prediction of HLA class II restricted T cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sinu; Lindestam Arlehamn, Cecilia S; Scriba, Thomas J; Dillon, Myles B C; Oseroff, Carla; Hinz, Denise; McKinney, Denise M; Carrasco Pro, Sebastian; Sidney, John; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    Computational prediction of HLA class II restricted T cell epitopes has great significance in many immunological studies including vaccine discovery. In recent years, prediction of HLA class II binding has improved significantly but a strategy to globally predict the most dominant epitopes has not been rigorously defined. Using human immunogenicity data associated with sets of 15-mer peptides overlapping by 10 residues spanning over 30 different allergens and bacterial antigens, and HLA class II binding prediction tools from the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB), we optimized a strategy to predict the top epitopes recognized by human populations. The most effective strategy was to select peptides based on predicted median binding percentiles for a set of seven DRB1 and DRB3/4/5 alleles. These results were validated with predictions on a blind set of 15 new allergens and bacterial antigens. We found that the top 21% predicted peptides (based on the predicted binding to seven DRB1 and DRB3/4/5 alleles) were required to capture 50% of the immune response. This corresponded to an IEDB consensus percentile rank of 20.0, which could be used as a universal prediction threshold. Utilizing actual binding data (as opposed to predicted binding data) did not appreciably change the efficacy of global predictions, suggesting that the imperfect predictive capacity is not due to poor algorithm performance, but intrinsic limitations of HLA class II epitope prediction schema based on HLA binding in genetically diverse human populations. PMID:25862607

  5. Genetically Modified T Cells for the Treatment of Malignant Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, Agnieszka; Uharek, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Summary The broaden application of adoptive T-cell transfer has been constrained by the technical abilities to isolate and expand antigen-specific T cells potent to selectively kill tumor cells. With the recent progress in the design and manufacturing of cellular products, T cells used in the treatment of malignant diseases may be regarded as anticancer biopharmaceuticals. Genetical manipulation of T cells has given T cells desired specificity but also enable to tailor their activation and proliferation potential. Here, we summarize the recent developments in genetic engineering of T-cell-based biopharmaceuticals, covering criteria for their clinical application in regard to safety and efficacy. PMID:24474888

  6. T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase attenuates T cell signaling to maintain tolerance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wiede, Florian; Shields, Benjamin J.; Chew, Sock Hui; Kyparissoudis, Konstantinos; van Vliet, Catherine; Galic, Sandra; Tremblay, Michel L.; Russell, Sarah M.; Godfrey, Dale I.; Tiganis, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Many autoimmune diseases exhibit familial aggregation, indicating that they have genetic determinants. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in PTPN2, which encodes T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP), have been linked with the development of several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes and Crohns disease. In this study, we have identified TCPTP as a key negative regulator of TCR signaling, which might explain the association of PTPN2 SNPs with autoimmune disease. We found that TCPTP dephosphorylates and inactivates Src family kinases to regulate T cell responses. Using T cellspecific TCPTP-deficient mice, we established that TCPTP attenuates T cell activation and proliferation in vitro and blunts antigen-induced responses in vivo. TCPTP deficiency lowered the in vivo threshold for TCR-dependent CD8+ T cell proliferation. Consistent with this, T cellspecific TCPTP-deficient mice developed widespread inflammation and autoimmunity that was transferable to wild-type recipient mice by CD8+ T cells alone. This autoimmunity was associated with increased serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and anti-nuclear antibodies, T cell infiltrates in non-lymphoid tissues, and liver disease. These data indicate that TCPTP is a critical negative regulator of TCR signaling that sets the threshold for TCR-induced naive T cell responses to prevent autoimmune and inflammatory disorders arising. PMID:22080863

  7. Harnessing the antibacterial and immunological properties of mucosal-associated invariant T cells in the development of novel oral vaccines against enteric infections.

    PubMed

    Abautret-Daly, Aine E; Davitt, Christopher J H; Lavelle, Ed C

    2014-11-15

    Enteric infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity with significant social and economic implications worldwide and particularly in developing countries. An attractive approach to minimizing the impact of these diseases is via the development of oral vaccination strategies. However, oral vaccination is challenging due to the tolerogenic and hyporesponsive nature of antigen presenting cells resident in the gastrointestinal tract. The inclusion of adjuvants in oral vaccine formulations has the potential to overcome this challenge. To date no oral adjuvants have been licenced for human use and thus oral adjuvant discovery remains a key goal in improving the potential for oral vaccine development. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a recently discovered population of unconventional T cells characterized by an evolutionarily conserved αβ T cell receptor (TCR) that recognizes antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related (MR1) molecule. MAIT cells are selected intra-thymically by MR1 expressing double positive thymocytes and enter the circulation with a naïve phenotype. In the circulation they develop a memory phenotype and are programmed to home to mucosal tissues and the liver. Once resident in these tissues, MAIT cells respond to bacterial and yeast infections through the production of chemokines and cytokines that aid in the induction of an adaptive immune response. Their abundance in the gastrointestinal tract and ability to promote adaptive immunity suggests that MAIT cell activators may represent attractive novel adjuvants for use in oral vaccination. PMID:25173989

  8. Using T-Cells for Transplantation and Autoimmune Therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Transplant complications and autoimmune diseases are primarily caused by T-cell immune responses against normal host tissue or transplanted tissues. Current treatment for these disorders is often not effective, and is typically associated with significant side effects, including global immune suppression. Researchers at NCI's Experimental Transplantation and Immunology Branch have developed a cellular therapy to treat graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) that results from hematopoetic transplant and other autoimmune disorders.

  9. Pharmacologic suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Vallina, L; Yaez, R; Blanco, B; Gil, M; Russell, S J

    2000-04-01

    Adoptive therapy with autologous T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors (chTCRs) is of potential interest for the treatment of malignancy. To limit possible T-cell-mediated damage to normal tissues that weakly express the targeted tumor antigen (Ag), we have tested a strategy for the suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells. Jurkat T cells were transduced with an anti-hapten chTCR tinder the control of a tetracycline-suppressible promoter and were shown to respond to Ag-positive (hapten-coated) but not to Ag-negative target cells. The engineered T cells were then reacted with hapten-coated target cells at different effector to target cell ratios before and after exposure to tetracycline. When the engineered T cells were treated with tetracycline, expression of the chTCR was greatly decreased and recognition of the hapten-coated target cells was completely suppressed. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells may be a useful strategy to limit the toxicity of the approach to cancer gene therapy. PMID:10811469

  10. Therapeutic regulatory T cells subvert effector T cell function in inflamed islets to halt autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mahne, Ashley E; Klementowicz, Joanna E; Chou, Annie; Nguyen, Vinh; Tang, Qizhi

    2015-04-01

    Therapeutic regulatory T cells (Tregs) can reverse pre-established autoimmune pathology. In this study, using a mouse model of autoimmune diabetes, we aimed to determine the means by which therapeutic Tregs control islet inflammation. Islet Ag-specific Tregs infiltrated inflamed islets soon after infusion into prediabetic mice, which was quickly followed by a selective reduction of mRNA associated with effector T cells in the islets. This change was partially due to decreased CD8(+) T cell accumulation in the tissue. CD8(+) T cells that remained in the islets after Treg treatment were able to engage dendritic cells in a manner similar to that found in untreated mice, consistent with the retention of an activated phenotype by islet dendritic cells shortly after Treg treatment. Nonetheless, Treg treatment abrogated IFN-? production by intraislet CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells at the protein level with minimal effect on IFN-? mRNA. Sustained expression of IFN-? protein by effector T cells was dependent on common ?-chain cytokine activation of the mTOR pathway, which was suppressed in islet CD8(+) T cells in vivo after Treg treatment. These multifaceted mechanisms underlie the efficacy of therapeutic Treg subversion of effector T cell functions at the site of inflammation to restore normal tissue homeostasis. PMID:25732730

  11. Impaired T-Cell Function in B-Cell Lymphoma: A Direct Consequence of Events at the Immunological Synapse?

    PubMed Central

    Nassef Kadry Naguib Roufaiel, Marian; Wells, James W.; Steptoe, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Tumors can escape immune destruction through the development of antigen loss variants and loss of antigen processing/presentation pathways, thereby rendering them invisible to T cells. Alternatively, mechanisms of peripheral T-cell tolerance that would normally be important for protection from the development of autoimmunity may also be co-opted to (i) generate an immuno-inhibitory tumor environment, (ii) promote development of regulatory cell populations, or (iii) cell-intrinsically inactivate tumor-specific T cells. Emerging evidence suggests that T-cell function is impaired in hematological malignancies, which may manifest from cognate interactions between T cells and the tumor. The immunological synapse forms the cognate T-cell and antigen-presenting cell interaction and is the site where key signalling events, including those delivered by co-inhibitory receptors, that determine the fate of T cells occur. Here, we review evidence that events at the immune synapse between T cells and malignant B cells and alterations in immune synapse function may contribute to loss of T-cell function in B-cell malignancies. PMID:26082776

  12. Engineered T cells for cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Anurathapan, Usanarat; Leen, Ann M.; Brenner, Malcolm K.; Vera, Juan F.

    2014-01-01

    Adoptively transferred T cells have the capacity to traffic to distant tumor sites, infiltrate even fibrotic tissue and kill antigen-expressing tumor cells. A variety of groups have investigated different genetic engineering strategies designed to enhance tumor specificity, increase T cell potency, improve proliferation, persistence, or migratory capacity, and increase safety. In this review we focus on recent developments in the T cell engineering arena, discuss the application of these engineered cell products clinically, and outline future prospects for this therapeutic modality. PMID:24239105

  13. I spy alloreactive T cells.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Maria-Luisa

    2015-01-28

    High-throughput sequencing of the T cell receptor V? CDR3 region allowed longitudinal tracking of alloreactive T cells in kidney transplant patients, revealing clonal deletion as a mechanism of transplantation tolerance (Morris et al., this issue). PMID:25632032

  14. APRIL modulates B and T cell immunity

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Jens V.; Lpez-Fraga, Marta; Elustondo, Fernando A.; Carvalho-Pinto, Carla E.; Rodrguez, Dolores; Gmez-Caro, Ruth; de Jong, Joan; Martnez-A, Carlos; Medema, Jan Paul; Hahne, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The TNF-like ligands APRIL and BLyS are close relatives and share the capacity to bind the receptors TACI and BCMA. BLyS has been shown to play an important role in B cell homeostasis and autoimmunity, but the biological role of APRIL remains less well defined. Analysis of T cells revealed an activation-dependent increase in APRIL mRNA expression. We therefore generated mice expressing APRIL as a transgene in T cells. These mice appeared normal and showed no signs of B cell hyperplasia. Transgenic T cells revealed a greatly enhanced survival in vitro as well as enhanced survival of staphylococcal enterotoxin Breactive CD4+ T cells in vivo, which both directly correlate with elevated Bcl-2 levels. Analysis of humoral responses to T celldependent antigens in the transgenic mice indicated that APRIL affects only IgM but not IgG responses. In contrast, T cellindependent type 2 (TI-2) humoral response was enhanced in APRIL transgenic mice. As TACI was previously reported to be indispensable for TI-2 antibody formation, these results suggest a role for APRIL/TACI interactions in the generation of this response. Taken together, our data indicate that APRIL is involved in the induction and/or maintenance of T and B cell responses. PMID:12070306

  15. Breaking the co-operation between bystander T-cells and natural killer cells prevents the development of immunosuppression after traumatic skeletal muscle injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Wirsdrfer, Florian; Bangen, Jrg M; Pastille, Eva; Hansen, Wiebke; Floh, Stefanie B

    2015-06-01

    Nosocomial infections represent serious complications after traumatic or surgical injuries in intensive care units. The pathogenesis of the underlying immunosuppression is only incompletely understood. In the present study, we investigated whether injury interferes with the function of the adaptive immune system in particular with the differentiation of antigen-specific T helper (Th)-cell responses invivo. We used a mouse model for traumatic gastrocnemius muscle injury. Ovalbumin (OVA), which served as a foreign model antigen, was injected into the hind footpads for determination of the differentiation of OVA-specific Th-cells in the draining popliteal lymph node (pLN). The release of interferon (IFN)-? from OVA-specific Th-cells was impaired within 24h after injury and this impairment persisted for at least 7days. In contrast, the proliferation of OVA-specific Th-cells remained unaffected. Injury did not modulate the function of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the pLN. Adoptive transfer of total T-cells from pLNs of injured mice inhibited IFN-? production by OVA-specific Th-cells in naive mice. Suppressed Th1 priming did not occur in lymphocyte-deficient mice after injury but was restored by administration of T-cells before injury. Moreover, the suppression of Th1 differentiation required the presence of natural killer (NK) cells that were recruited to the pLN after injury; this recruitment was dependent on lymphocytes, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). In summary, upon traumatic skeletal muscle injury T-cells and NK cells together prevent the development of protective Th1 immunity. Breaking this co-operation might be a novel approach to reduce the risk of infectious complications after injury. PMID:25609031

  16. Breaking the co-operation between bystander T-cells and natural killer cells prevents the development of immunosuppression after traumatic skeletal muscle injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wirsdrfer, Florian; Bangen, JrgM.; Pastille, Eva; Hansen, Wiebke

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial infections represent serious complications after traumatic or surgical injuries in intensive care units. The pathogenesis of the underlying immunosuppression is only incompletely understood. In the present study, we investigated whether injury interferes with the function of the adaptive immune system in particular with the differentiation of antigen-specific T helper (Th)-cell responses invivo. We used a mouse model for traumatic gastrocnemius muscle injury. Ovalbumin (OVA), which served as a foreign model antigen, was injected into the hind footpads for determination of the differentiation of OVA-specific Th-cells in the draining popliteal lymph node (pLN). The release of interferon (IFN)-? from OVA-specific Th-cells was impaired within 24h after injury and this impairment persisted for at least 7days. In contrast, the proliferation of OVA-specific Th-cells remained unaffected. Injury did not modulate the function of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the pLN. Adoptive transfer of total T-cells from pLNs of injured mice inhibited IFN-? production by OVA-specific Th-cells in naive mice. Suppressed Th1 priming did not occur in lymphocyte-deficient mice after injury but was restored by administration of T-cells before injury. Moreover, the suppression of Th1 differentiation required the presence of natural killer (NK) cells that were recruited to the pLN after injury; this recruitment was dependent on lymphocytes, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). In summary, upon traumatic skeletal muscle injury T-cells and NK cells together prevent the development of protective Th1 immunity. Breaking this co-operation might be a novel approach to reduce the risk of infectious complications after injury. PMID:25609031

  17. Tumor Evasion from T Cell Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Töpfer, Katrin; Kempe, Stefanie; Müller, Nadja; Schmitz, Marc; Bachmann, Michael; Cartellieri, Marc; Schackert, Gabriele; Temme, Achim

    2011-01-01

    An intact immune system is essential to prevent the development and progression of neoplastic cells in a process termed immune surveillance. During this process the innate and the adaptive immune systems closely cooperate and especially T cells play an important role to detect and eliminate tumor cells. Due to the mechanism of central tolerance the frequency of T cells displaying appropriate arranged tumor-peptide-specific-T-cell receptors is very low and their activation by professional antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, is frequently hampered by insufficient costimulation resulting in peripheral tolerance. In addition, inhibitory immune circuits can impair an efficient antitumoral response of reactive T cells. It also has been demonstrated that large tumor burden can promote a state of immunosuppression that in turn can facilitate neoplastic progression. Moreover, tumor cells, which mostly are genetically instable, can gain rescue mechanisms which further impair immune surveillance by T cells. Herein, we summarize the data on how tumor cells evade T-cell immune surveillance with the focus on solid tumors and describe approaches to improve anticancer capacity of T cells. PMID:22190859

  18. A Comparative Study of N-glycolylneuraminic Acid (Neu5Gc) and Cytotoxic T Cell (CT) Carbohydrate Expression in Normal and Dystrophin-Deficient Dog and Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Paul T.; Golden, Bethannie; Okerblom, Jonathan; Camboni, Marybeth; Chandrasekharan, Kumaran; Xu, Rui; Varki, Ajit; Flanigan, Kevin M.; Kornegay, Joe N.

    2014-01-01

    The expression of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and the cytotoxic T cell (CT) carbohydrate can impact the severity of muscular dystrophy arising from the loss of dystrophin in mdx mice. Here, we describe the expression of these two glycans in skeletal muscles of dogs and humans with or without dystrophin-deficiency. Neu5Gc expression was highly reduced (>95%) in muscle from normal golden retriever crosses (GR, n?=?3) and from golden retriever with muscular dystrophy (GRMD, n?=?5) dogs at multiple ages (3, 6 and 13 months) when compared to mouse muscle, however, overall sialic acid expression in GR and GRMD muscles remained high at all ages. Neu5Gc was expressed on only a minority of GRMD satellite cells, CD8+ T lymphocytes and macrophages. Human muscle from normal (no evident disease, n?=?3), Becker (BMD, n?=?3) and Duchenne (DMD, n?=?3) muscular dystrophy individuals had absent to very low Neu5Gc staining, but some punctate intracellular muscle staining was present in BMD and DMD muscles. The CT carbohydrate was localized to the neuromuscular junction in GR muscle, while GRMD muscles had increased expression on a subset of myofibers and macrophages. In humans, the CT carbohydrate was ectopically expressed on the sarcolemmal membrane of some BMD muscles, but not normal human or DMD muscles. These data are consistent with the notion that altered Neu5Gc and CT carbohydrate expression may modify disease severity resulting from dystrophin deficiency in dogs and humans. PMID:24505439

  19. A comparative study of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and cytotoxic T cell (CT) carbohydrate expression in normal and dystrophin-deficient dog and human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul T; Golden, Bethannie; Okerblom, Jonathan; Camboni, Marybeth; Chandrasekharan, Kumaran; Xu, Rui; Varki, Ajit; Flanigan, Kevin M; Kornegay, Joe N

    2014-01-01

    The expression of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and the cytotoxic T cell (CT) carbohydrate can impact the severity of muscular dystrophy arising from the loss of dystrophin in mdx mice. Here, we describe the expression of these two glycans in skeletal muscles of dogs and humans with or without dystrophin-deficiency. Neu5Gc expression was highly reduced (>95%) in muscle from normal golden retriever crosses (GR, n?=?3) and from golden retriever with muscular dystrophy (GRMD, n?=?5) dogs at multiple ages (3, 6 and 13 months) when compared to mouse muscle, however, overall sialic acid expression in GR and GRMD muscles remained high at all ages. Neu5Gc was expressed on only a minority of GRMD satellite cells, CD8? T lymphocytes and macrophages. Human muscle from normal (no evident disease, n?=?3), Becker (BMD, n?=?3) and Duchenne (DMD, n?=?3) muscular dystrophy individuals had absent to very low Neu5Gc staining, but some punctate intracellular muscle staining was present in BMD and DMD muscles. The CT carbohydrate was localized to the neuromuscular junction in GR muscle, while GRMD muscles had increased expression on a subset of myofibers and macrophages. In humans, the CT carbohydrate was ectopically expressed on the sarcolemmal membrane of some BMD muscles, but not normal human or DMD muscles. These data are consistent with the notion that altered Neu5Gc and CT carbohydrate expression may modify disease severity resulting from dystrophin deficiency in dogs and humans. PMID:24505439

  20. Modulation of CD4+ T Cell-Dependent Specific Cytotoxic CD8+ T Cells Differentiation and Proliferation by the Timing of Increase in the Pathogen Load

    PubMed Central

    Tzelepis, Fanny; Persechini, Pedro M.; Rodrigues, Mauricio M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Following infection with viruses, bacteria or protozoan parasites, naïve antigen-specific CD8+ T cells undergo a process of differentiation and proliferation to generate effector cells. Recent evidences suggest that the timing of generation of specific effector CD8+ T cells varies widely according to different pathogens. We hypothesized that the timing of increase in the pathogen load could be a critical parameter governing this process. Methodology/Principal Findings Using increasing doses of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi to infect C57BL/6 mice, we observed a significant acceleration in the timing of parasitemia without an increase in mouse susceptibility. In contrast, in CD8 deficient mice, we observed an inverse relationship between the parasite inoculum and the timing of death. These results suggest that in normal mice CD8+ T cells became protective earlier, following the accelerated development of parasitemia. The evaluation of specific cytotoxic responses in vivo to three distinct epitopes revealed that increasing the parasite inoculum hastened the expansion of specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells following infection. The differentiation and expansion of T. cruzi-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells is in fact dependent on parasite multiplication, as radiation-attenuated parasites were unable to activate these cells. We also observed that, in contrast to most pathogens, the activation process of T. cruzi-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells was dependent on MHC class II restricted CD4+ T cells. Conclusions/Significance Our results are compatible with our initial hypothesis that the timing of increase in the pathogen load can be a critical parameter governing the kinetics of CD4+ T cell-dependent expansion of pathogen-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. PMID:17460760

  1. Downregulated Expression of Ly-6-ThB on Developing T Cells Marks CD4+CD8+ Subset Undergoing Selection in the Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Justin T.; Mehta, Hitesh; Chappell, Clay H.

    2001-01-01

    Interaction of TCRs on CD4+CD8+ immature T cell with MHC-peptide complexes on stromal cells is required for positive and negative selection in the thymus. Identification and characterization of a subpopulation of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes undergoing selection in the thymus will aid in understanding the mechanisms underlying lineage commitment and thymic selection. Herein, we describe the expression of Ly-6 ThB on developing thymocytes. The majority of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes express Ly-6 ThB at high levels. Its expression is downregulated in a subset of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes as well as in mature CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+ T cells. More importantly, interaction of TCR/coreceptor with the self-MHC-peptide contributes to the downregulation of ThB expression on developing thymocytes. These findings indicate that downregulation of ThB on CD4+CD8+ thymocytes identifies a unique subset (CD4+CD8+ThBneglow) of thymocytes that has received the initial signals for thymic selection but have not yet downregulated the CD4 and CD8 cell surface expression. In addition, these results also indicate that a high frequency (2040%) of CD4+CD8+ immature thymocytes receive these initial signals during thymic selection. PMID:11589307

  2. Role of Regulatory T Cells and Inhibitory Molecules in the Development of Immune Exhaustion During Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Sandra Milena; Zapata, Wildeman; Rugeles, Mara Teresa

    2016-01-01

    One of the key hallmarks of chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is the persistent immune activation triggered since early stages of the infection, followed by the development of an exhaustion phenomena, which leads to the inability of immune cells to respond appropriately to the virus and other pathogens, constituting the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); this exhausting state is characterized by a loss of effector functions of immune cells such as proliferation, production of cytokine, as well as cytotoxic potential and it has been attributable to an increased response of regulatory T cells and recently also to the expression in different cell populations of inhibitory molecules, such as programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1), cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), T cell immunoglobulin-3 (Tim-3), and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3). The importance of these molecules relies on the possibility to restore the immune response once these molecules are blocked, constituting a potential therapeutic target for treatment during HIV infection. In this regard, we explored the available data evaluating the functional role of Treg cells and inhibitory molecules during the infection in both blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and their contribution to the development of immune exhaustion and progression to AIDS, as well as their therapeutic potential. PMID:26566019

  3. Maintenance of peripheral T cell responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Reiley, William W.; Wittmer, Susan T.; Ryan, Lynn M.; Eaton, Sheri M.; Haynes, Laura; Winslow, Gary M.; Woodland, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Fully functional T cells are necessary for the maintenance of protective immunity during chronic infections. However, activated T cells often undergo apoptosis or exhaustion upon chronic stimulation mediated by antigen or inflammation. T cell attrition can be compensated by the production of thymus-derived T cells, although the new naive T cells must undergo T cell priming and differentiation under conditions different from those encountered during acute infection. We have used a murine model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection to address how the activation and differentiation of new thymic emigrants is affected by chronic inflammation, and whether the newly developed effector T cells help to maintain peripheral T cell responses. Although new thymic emigrants contributed to the peripheral T cell response early during acute Mtb infection, the relative contribution of new effector T cells to the peripheral CD4 and CD8 T cell pools declined during chronic infection. The decline in new T cell recruitment was a consequence of quantitative and/or qualitative changes in antigen presentation, as during chronic infection both the priming and expansion of nave T cells was inefficient. Thus, although thymic tolerance is not a major factor that limits protective T cell responses, the chronic environment does not efficiently support naive T cell priming and accumulation during Mtb infection. These studies support our previous findings that long-term protective T cell response can be maintained indefinitely in the periphery, but also suggest that the perturbation of homeostasis during chronic inflammatory responses may elicit immune pathology mediated by new T cells. PMID:23028057

  4. The signaling symphony: T cell receptor tunes cytokine-mediated T cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weishan; August, Avery

    2015-01-01

    T cell development, differentiation, and maintenance are orchestrated by 2 key signaling axes: the antigen-specific TCR and cytokine-mediated signals. The TCR signals the recognition of self- and foreign antigens to control T cell homeostasis for immune tolerance and immunity, which is regulated by a variety of cytokines to determine T cell subset homeostasis and differentiation. TCR signaling can synergize with or antagonize cytokine-mediated signaling to fine tune T cell fate; however, the latter is less investigated. Murine models with attenuated TCR signaling strength have revealed that TCR signaling can function as regulatory feedback machinery for T cell homeostasis and differentiation in differential cytokine milieus, such as IL-2-mediated Treg development; IL-7-mediated, naïve CD8+ T cell homeostasis; and IL-4-induced innate memory CD8+ T cell development. In this review, we discuss the symphonic cross-talk between TCR and cytokine-mediated responses that differentially control T cell behavior, with a focus on the negative tuning by TCR activation on the cytokine effects. PMID:25525115

  5. Immunopathology of experimental Chagas' disease: binding of T cells to Trypanosoma cruzi-infected heart tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Mortatti, R C; Maia, L C; de Oliveira, A V; Munk, M E

    1990-01-01

    The immunopathology of Chagas' disease was studied in the experimental model of chronic infection in C57BL/10JT or mice. Sublethal infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, Y strain, induced specific antibodies and a delayed hypersensitivity response to parasite antigens. Mice developed chronic chagasic myocarditis but not skeletal muscle myositis. Binding of T cells to infected heart tissue was investigated during short-term cocultivation of lymphocytes with heart cryostat sections. T cells from infected mice and from normal controls bound equally to myocardium and liver sections from both infected and normal mice. A search in depth was attempted with cells heavily tagged with 99mTc. Labeled T cells from chagasic mice bound to both normal and infected myocardium slices. 99mTc-labeled T cells from controls gave the same binding values. Glass-adherent spleen cells behaved identically to T cells. Prior treatment of the tissue with serum from chronically infected mice did not increase the number of binding cells. Peritoneal macrophages tagged with 99mTc-sulfur colloid also bound to infected myocardium slices. The binding of macrophages was not changed by pretreatment of infected tissue with anti-T, cruzi antibodies. In short, this work did not detect any population of T cells or macrophages which could bind specifically to infected heart tissue to initiate an autoreactive process. Images PMID:2228230

  6. Increased Interleukin-4 production by CD8 and gammadelta T cells in health-care workers is associated with the subsequent development of active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ordway, Diane J; Costa, Leonor; Martins, Marta; Silveira, Henrique; Amaral, Leonard; Arroz, Maria J; Ventura, Fernando A; Dockrell, Hazel M

    2004-08-15

    We evaluated immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 10 health-care workers (HCWs) and 10 non-HCWs and correlated their immune status with the development of active tuberculosis (TB). Twenty individuals were randomly recruited, tested, and monitored longitudinally for TB presentation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from donors were stimulated with M. tuberculosis and tested for cell proliferation and the production of interferon (IFN)- gamma, interleukin (IL)-5, and IL-4, by use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent or flow-cytometric assays. HCWs had higher levels of cell proliferation (24,258 cpm) and IFN- gamma (6373 pg/mL) to M. tuberculosis than did non-HCWs (cell proliferation, 11,462 cpm; IFN- gamma, 3228 pg/mL). Six of 10 HCWs showed increased median percentages of CD8+IL-4+ (4.7%) and gammadelta +IL-4+ (2.3%) T cells and progressed to active TB. HCWs who remained healthy showed increased median percentages of CD8+IFN- gamma+ (25.0%) and gammadelta +IFN- gamma+ (8.0%) and lower percentages of CD8+IL-4+ (0.05%) and gammadelta +IL-4+ (0.03%) T cells. PMID:15272404

  7. Genetic Analysis of T Cell Lymphomas in Carbon Ion-Irradiated Mice Reveals Frequent Interstitial Chromosome Deletions: Implications for Second Cancer Induction in Normal Tissues during Carbon Ion Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Blyth, Benjamin J; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Sunaoshi, Masaaki; Amasaki, Yoshiko; Hirano-Sakairi, Shinobu; Ogawa, Kanae; Shirakami, Ayana; Shang, Yi; Tsuruoka, Chizuru; Nishimura, Mayumi; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring mice exposed to carbon ion radiotherapy provides an indirect method to evaluate the potential for second cancer induction in normal tissues outside the radiotherapy target volume, since such estimates are not yet possible from historical patient data. Here, male and female B6C3F1 mice were given single or fractionated whole-body exposure(s) to a monoenergetic carbon ion radiotherapy beam at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan, matching the radiation quality delivered to the normal tissue ahead of the tumour volume (average linear energy transfer = 13 keV x ?m(-1)) during patient radiotherapy protocols. The mice were monitored for the remainder of their lifespan, and a large number of T cell lymphomas that arose in these mice were analysed alongside those arising following an equivalent dose of 137Cs gamma ray-irradiation. Using genome-wide DNA copy number analysis to identify genomic loci involved in radiation-induced lymphomagenesis and subsequent detailed analysis of Notch1, Ikzf1, Pten, Trp53 and Bcl11b genes, we compared the genetic profile of the carbon ion- and gamma ray-induced tumours. The canonical set of genes previously associated with radiation-induced T cell lymphoma was identified in both radiation groups. While the pattern of disruption of the various pathways was somewhat different between the radiation types, most notably Pten mutation frequency and loss of heterozygosity flanking Bcl11b, the most striking finding was the observation of large interstitial deletions at various sites across the genome in carbon ion-induced tumours, which were only seen infrequently in the gamma ray-induced tumours analysed. If such large interstitial chromosomal deletions are a characteristic lesion of carbon ion irradiation, even when using the low linear energy transfer radiation to which normal tissues are exposed in radiotherapy patients, understanding the dose-response and tissue specificity of such DNA damage could prove key to assessing second cancer risk in carbon ion radiotherapy patients. PMID:26125582

  8. Genetic Analysis of T Cell Lymphomas in Carbon Ion-Irradiated Mice Reveals Frequent Interstitial Chromosome Deletions: Implications for Second Cancer Induction in Normal Tissues during Carbon Ion Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, Benjamin J.; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Sunaoshi, Masaaki; Amasaki, Yoshiko; Hirano-Sakairi, Shinobu; Ogawa, Kanae; Shirakami, Ayana; Shang, Yi; Tsuruoka, Chizuru; Nishimura, Mayumi; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring mice exposed to carbon ion radiotherapy provides an indirect method to evaluate the potential for second cancer induction in normal tissues outside the radiotherapy target volume, since such estimates are not yet possible from historical patient data. Here, male and female B6C3F1 mice were given single or fractionated whole-body exposure(s) to a monoenergetic carbon ion radiotherapy beam at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan, matching the radiation quality delivered to the normal tissue ahead of the tumour volume (average linear energy transfer = 13 keV.?m-1) during patient radiotherapy protocols. The mice were monitored for the remainder of their lifespan, and a large number of T cell lymphomas that arose in these mice were analysed alongside those arising following an equivalent dose of 137Cs gamma ray-irradiation. Using genome-wide DNA copy number analysis to identify genomic loci involved in radiation-induced lymphomagenesis and subsequent detailed analysis of Notch1, Ikzf1, Pten, Trp53 and Bcl11b genes, we compared the genetic profile of the carbon ion- and gamma ray-induced tumours. The canonical set of genes previously associated with radiation-induced T cell lymphoma was identified in both radiation groups. While the pattern of disruption of the various pathways was somewhat different between the radiation types, most notably Pten mutation frequency and loss of heterozygosity flanking Bcl11b, the most striking finding was the observation of large interstitial deletions at various sites across the genome in carbon ion-induced tumours, which were only seen infrequently in the gamma ray-induced tumours analysed. If such large interstitial chromosomal deletions are a characteristic lesion of carbon ion irradiation, even when using the low linear energy transfer radiation to which normal tissues are exposed in radiotherapy patients, understanding the dose-response and tissue specificity of such DNA damage could prove key to assessing second cancer risk in carbon ion radiotherapy patients. PMID:26125582

  9. Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (HTLV-1)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gentic material made of DNA, but instead carry RNA. These viruses selectively infect only T-cells. Only ... potential to inject its genetic material (DNA or RNA) into normal cells. Once inside the normal cells, ...

  10. Oligoclonal expansions of mucosal T cells in Crohn's disease predominate in NKG2D-expressing CD4 T cells.

    PubMed

    Camus, M; Esses, S; Pariente, B; Le Bourhis, L; Douay, C; Chardiny, V; Mocan, I; Benlagha, K; Clave, E; Toubert, A; Mayer, L; Allez, M

    2014-03-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory pathology of the mucosal intestine that results from uncontrolled immune response towards commensal microbes. Clonal expansions of T cells have been found in patients with CD suggesting an antigen-specific stimulation of pathogenic T cells. Here we show, using T-cell receptor repertoire analysis by real-time PCR, that oligoclonal expansions are found in both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in the blood and intestinal mucosa of CD patients. The majority of CD4+ T-cell-expanded clones are CD4+NKG2D+ T cells. These clonal expansions were found in both inflamed and neighboring healthy tissue and were persisting during the course of the disease. The presence of these CD4+NKG2D+ T-cell clones at the macroscopically normal edge of the surgical resection might be predictive of inflammation relapse post surgery. PMID:23945543

  11. Identification of CD4+ T cell epitopes from NY-ESO-1 presented by HLA-DR molecules.

    PubMed

    Zeng, G; Touloukian, C E; Wang, X; Restifo, N P; Rosenberg, S A; Wang, R F

    2000-07-15

    In previous studies, the shared cancer-testis Ag, NY-ESO-1, was demonstrated to be recognized by both Abs and CD8+ T cells. Gene expression of NY-ESO-1 was detected in many tumor types, including melanoma, breast, and lung cancers, but was not found in normal tissues, with the exception of testis. In this study, we describe the identification of MHC class II-restricted T cell epitopes from NY-ESO-1. Candidate CD4+ T cell peptides were first identified using HLA-DR4 transgenic mice immunized with the NY-ESO-1 protein. NY-ESO-1-specific CD4+ T cells were then generated from PBMC of a patient with melanoma stimulated with the candidate peptides in vitro. These CD4+ T cells recognized NY-ESO-1 peptides or protein pulsed on HLA-DR4+ EBV B cells, and also recognized tumor cells expressing HLA-DR4 and NY-ESO-1. A 10-mer peptide (VLLKEFTVSG) was recognized by CD4+ T cells. These studies provide new opportunities for developing more effective vaccine strategies by using tumor-specific CD4+ T cells. This approach may be applicable to the identification of CD4+ T cell epitopes from many known tumor Ags recognized by CD8+ T cells. PMID:10878395

  12. Identification of CD4+ T Cell Epitopes from NY-ESO-1 Presented by HLA-DR Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Gang; Touloukian, Christopher E.; Wang, Xiang; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Wang, Rong-Fu

    2008-01-01

    In previous studies, the shared cancer-testis Ag, NY-ESO-1, was demonstrated to be recognized by both Abs and CD8+ T cells. Gene expression of NY-ESO-1 was detected in many tumor types, including melanoma, breast, and lung cancers, but was not found in normal tissues, with the exception of testis. In this study, we describe the identification of MHC class II-restricted T cell epitopes from NY-ESO-1. Candidate CD4+ T cell peptides were first identified using HLA-DR4 transgenic mice immunized with the NY-ESO-1 protein. NY-ESO-1-specific CD4+ T cells were then generated from PBMC of a patient with melanoma stimulated with the candidate peptides in vitro. These CD4+ T cells recognized NY-ESO-1 peptides or protein pulsed on HLA-DR4+ EBV B cells, and also recognized tumor cells expressing HLA-DR4 and NY-ESO-1. A 10-mer peptide (VLLKEFTVSG) was recognized by CD4+ T cells. These studies provide new opportunities for developing more effective vaccine strategies by using tumor-specific CD4+ T cells. This approach may be applicable to the identification of CD4+ T cell epitopes from many known tumor Ags recognized by CD8+ T cells. PMID:10878395

  13. DCIR2+ cDC2 DCs and Zbtb32 Restore CD4+ T-Cell Tolerance and Inhibit Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Price, Jeffrey D; Hotta-Iwamura, Chie; Zhao, Yongge; Beauchamp, Nicole M; Tarbell, Kristin V

    2015-10-01

    During autoimmunity, the normal ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to induce T-cell tolerance is disrupted; therefore, autoimmune disease therapies based on cell types and molecular pathways that elicit tolerance in the steady state may not be effective. To determine which DC subsets induce tolerance in the context of chronic autoimmunity, we used chimeric antibodies specific for DC inhibitory receptor 2 (DCIR2) or DEC-205 to target self-antigen to CD11b(+) (cDC2) DCs and CD8(+) (cDC1) DCs, respectively, in autoimmune-prone nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. Antigen presentation by DCIR2(+) DCs but not DEC-205(+) DCs elicited tolerogenic CD4(+) T-cell responses in NOD mice. β-Cell antigen delivered to DCIR2(+) DCs delayed diabetes induction and induced increased T-cell apoptosis without interferon-γ (IFN-γ) or sustained expansion of autoreactive CD4(+) T cells. These divergent responses were preceded by differential gene expression in T cells early after in vivo stimulation. Zbtb32 was higher in T cells stimulated with DCIR2(+) DCs, and overexpression of Zbtb32 in T cells inhibited diabetes development, T-cell expansion, and IFN-γ production. Therefore, we have identified DCIR2(+) DCs as capable of inducing antigen-specific tolerance in the face of ongoing autoimmunity and have also identified Zbtb32 as a suppressive transcription factor that controls T cell-mediated autoimmunity. PMID:26070317

  14. The Nore1B/Mst1 complex restrains antigen receptor-induced proliferation of naïve T cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dawang; Medoff, Benjamin D; Chen, Lanfen; Li, Lequn; Zhang, Xian-feng; Praskova, Maria; Liu, Matthew; Landry, Aimee; Blumberg, Richard S; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A; Xavier, Ramnik; Avruch, Joseph

    2008-12-23

    The Mst1 and Mst2 protein kinases are the mammalian homologs of hippo, a major inhibitor of cell proliferation in Drosophila. Mst1 is most abundant in lymphoid tissues. Mice lacking Mst1 exhibit markedly reduced levels of the Mst1 regulatory protein Nore1B/RAPL in lymphoid cells, whereas Mst2 abundance is unaltered. Mst1-null mice exhibit normal T cell development but low numbers of mature naïve T cells with relatively normal numbers of effector/memory T cells. In vitro, the Mst1-deficient naïve T cells exhibit markedly greater proliferation in response to stimulation of the T cell receptor whereas the proliferative responses of the Mst1-null effector/memory T cell cohort is similar to wild type. Thus, elimination of Mst1 removes a barrier to the activation and proliferative response of naïve T cells. The levels of Mst1 and Nore1B/RAPL in wild-type effector/memory T cells are approximately 10% those seen in wild-type naïve T cells, which may contribute to the enhanced proliferative responses of the former. Freshly isolated Mst1-null T cells exhibit high rates of ongoing apoptosis, a likely basis for their low numbers in vivo; they also exhibit defective clustering of LFA-1, as previously observed for Nore1B/RAPL-deficient T cells. Among known Mst1 substrates, only the phosphorylation of the cell cycle inhibitory proteins MOBKL1A/B is lost entirely in TCR-stimulated, Mst1-deficient T cells. Mst1/2-catalyzed MOBKL1A/B phosphorylation slows proliferation and is therefore a likely contributor to the anti-proliferative action of Mst1 in naïve T cells. The Nore1B/RAPL-Mst1 complex is a negative regulator of naïve T cell proliferation. PMID:19073936

  15. T Cells and Gene Regulation: The Switching On and Turning Up of Genes after T Cell Receptor Stimulation in CD8 T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Conley, James M.; Gallagher, Michael P.; Berg, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    Signaling downstream of the T cell receptor (TCR) is directly regulated by the dose and affinity of peptide antigen. The strength of TCR signaling drives a multitude of T cell functions from development to differentiation. CD8 T cells differentiate into a diverse pool of effector and memory cells after activation, a process that is critical for pathogen clearance and is highly regulated by TCR signal strength. T cells rapidly alter their gene expression upon activation. Multiple signaling pathways downstream of the TCR activate transcription factors, which are critical for this process. The dynamics between proximal TCR signaling, transcription factor activation and CD8 T cell function are discussed here. We propose that inducible T cell kinase (ITK) acts as a rheostat for gene expression. This unique regulation of TCR signaling by ITK provides a possible signaling mechanism for the promotion of a diverse T cell repertoire in response to pathogen. PMID:26973653

  16. T Cell Receptor-Engineered T Cells to Treat Solid Tumors: T Cell Processing Toward Optimal T Cell Fitness

    PubMed Central

    van Steenbergen-Langeveld, Sabine; van Brakel, Mandy; Groot-van Ruijven, Corrien M.; van Elzakker, Pascal M.M.L.; van Krimpen, Brigitte; Sleijfer, Stefan; Debets, Reno

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Therapy with autologous T cells that have been gene-engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) or T cell receptors (TCR) provides a feasible and broadly applicable treatment for cancer patients. In a clinical study in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients with CAR T cells specific for carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), we observed toxicities that (most likely) indicated in vivo function of CAR T cells as well as low T cell persistence and clinical response rates. The latter observations were confirmed by later clinical trials in other solid tumor types and other gene-modified T cells. To improve the efficacy of T cell therapy, we have redefined in vitro conditions to generate T cells with young phenotype, a key correlate with clinical outcome. For their impact on gene-modified T cell phenotype and function, we have tested various anti-CD3/CD28 mAb-based T cell activation and expansion conditions as well as several cytokines prior to and/or after gene transfer using two different receptors: CAIX CAR and MAGE-C2(ALK)/HLA-A2 TCR. In a total set of 16 healthy donors, we observed that T cell activation with soluble anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs in the presence of both IL15 and IL21 prior to TCR gene transfer resulted in enhanced proportions of gene-modified T cells with a preferred in vitro phenotype and better function. T cells generated according to these processing methods demonstrated enhanced binding of pMHC, and an enhanced proportion of CD8+, CD27+, CD62L+, CD45RA+T cells. These new conditions will be translated into a GMP protocol in preparation of a clinical adoptive therapy trial to treat patients with MAGE-C2-positive tumors. PMID:25423330

  17. Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement and transcription in murine T cell hybrids and T lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Ziga, M C; D'Eustachio, P; Ruddle, N H

    1982-01-01

    We have examined the arrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain constant (CH) and joining (JH) region genes in murine T cell hybrid lines and in T lymphomas. CH genes derived from both parental cell types were present in all hybrids for which polymorphism in sequences flanking CH genes permitted us to distinguish parental CH genes. All T lymphomas and T cell hybrids retained the C alpha gene in germ-line configuration and all but one cell line had germ-line C mu genes. Novel DNA fragments reactive with JH probes were observed in six of nine T cell hybrids, as well as in two T lymphomas, WEHI7.1 and YAC-1, but not in the fusion parent, BW5147. No RNA homologous to C gamma 2b, C alpha, or lambda genes was detected in any of the T cell lines. T cell lines contained poly(A)+ RNA homologous to a C mu cDNA probe. More importantly, in several cell lines the C mu RNAs were associated with membrane-bound polyribosomes. These results suggest that both JH rearrangements and C mu RNA production occur in at least some mature, antigen-specific T cells. They may therefore reflect events in normal T cell development and function related to those involved in the generation of the T receptor for antigen. Images PMID:6806823

  18. The two-faced T cell epitope

    PubMed Central

    Moise, Leonard; Gutierrez, Andres H.; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Terry, Frances; Leng, Qibin; Abdel Hady, Karim M.; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Losikoff, Phyllis T.; Martin, William D.; Rothman, Alan L; De Groot, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the field of T cell immunology have contributed to the understanding that cross-reactivity is an intrinsic characteristic of the T cell receptor (TCR), and that each TCR can potentially interact with many different T cell epitopes. To better define the potential for TCR cross-reactivity between epitopes derived from the human genome, the human microbiome, and human pathogens, we developed a new immunoinformatics tool, JanusMatrix, that represents an extension of the validated T cell epitope mapping tool, EpiMatrix. Initial explorations, summarized in this synopsis, have uncovered what appear to be important differences in the TCR cross-reactivity of selected regulatory and effector T cell epitopes with other epitopes in the human genome, human microbiome, and selected human pathogens. In addition to exploring the T cell epitope relationships between human self, commensal and pathogen, JanusMatrix may also be useful to explore some aspects of heterologous immunity and to examine T cell epitope relatedness between pathogens to which humans are exposed (Dengue serotypes, or HCV and Influenza, for example). In Hand-Foot-Mouth disease (HFMD) for example, extensive enterovirus and human microbiome cross-reactivity (and limited cross-reactivity with the human genome) seemingly predicts immunodominance. In contrast, more extensive cross-reactivity with proteins contained in the human genome as compared to the human microbiome was observed for selected Treg epitopes. While it may be impossible to predict all immune response influences, the availability of sequence data from the human genome, the human microbiome, and an array of human pathogens and vaccines has made computationally–driven exploration of the effects of T cell epitope cross-reactivity now possible. This is the first description of JanusMatrix, an algorithm that assesses TCR cross-reactivity that may contribute to a means of predicting the phenotype of T cells responding to selected T cell epitopes. Whether used for explorations of T cell phenotype or for evaluating cross-conservation between related viral strains at the TCR face of viral epitopes, further JanusMatrix studies may contribute to developing safer, more effective vaccines. PMID:23584251

  19. The Type of Responder T-Cell Has a Significant Impact in a Human In Vitro Suppression Assay

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Srikanta; Campbell, Hope; Woodliff, Jeffrey; Waukau, Jill; Jailwala, Parthav; Ghorai, Jugal; Ghosh, Soumitra; Glisic, Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Background In type 1 diabetes (T1D), a prototypic autoimmune disease, effector T cells destroy beta cells. Normally, CD4+CD25+high, or natural regulatory T cells (Tregs), counter this assault. In autoimmunity, the failure to suppress CD4+CD25low T cells is important for disease development. However, both Treg dysfunction and hyperactive responder T-cell proliferation contribute to disease. Methods/Principal Findings We investigated human CD4+CD25low T cells and compared them to CD4+CD25- T cells in otherwise equivalent in vitro proliferative conditions. We then asked whether these differences in suppression are exacerbated in T1D. In both single and co-culture with Tregs, the CD4+CD25low T cells divided more rapidly than CD4+CD25- T cells, which manifests as increased proliferation/reduced suppression. Time-course experiments showed that this difference could be explained by higher IL-2 production from CD4+CD25low compared to CD4+CD25- T cells. There was also a significant increase in CD4+CD25low T-cell proliferation compared to CD4+CD25- T cells during suppression assays from RO T1D and at-risk subjects (n?=?28, p?=?0.015 and p?=?0.024 respectively). Conclusions/Significance The in vitro dual suppression assays proposed here could highlight the impaired sensitivity of certain responder T cells to the suppressive effect of Tregs in human autoimmune diseases. PMID:21151941

  20. A sharp T-cell antigen receptor signaling threshold for T-cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Au-Yeung, Byron B.; Zikherman, Julie; Mueller, James L.; Ashouri, Judith F.; Matloubian, Mehrdad; Cheng, Debra A.; Chen, Yiling; Shokat, Kevan M.; Weiss, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling is essential for activation, proliferation, and effector function of T cells. Modulation of both intensity and duration of TCR signaling can regulate these events. However, it remains unclear how individual T cells integrate such signals over time to make critical cell-fate decisions. We have previously developed an engineered mutant allele of the critical T-cell kinase zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 kDa (Zap70) that is catalytically inhibited by a small molecule inhibitor, thereby blocking TCR signaling specifically and efficiently. We have also characterized a fluorescent reporter Nur77–eGFP transgenic mouse line in which T cells up-regulate GFP uniquely in response to TCR stimulation. The combination of these technologies unmasked a sharp TCR signaling threshold for commitment to cell division both in vitro and in vivo. Further, we demonstrate that this threshold is independent of both the magnitude of the TCR stimulus and Interleukin 2. Similarly, we identify a temporal threshold of TCR signaling that is required for commitment to proliferation, after which T cells are able to proliferate in a Zap70 kinase-independent manner. Taken together, our studies reveal a sharp threshold for the magnitude and duration of TCR signaling required for commitment of T cells to proliferation. These results have important implications for understanding T-cell responses to infection and optimizing strategies for immunomodulatory drug delivery. PMID:25136127

  1. Fas-associated death domain (FADD) is a negative regulator of T-cell receptor-mediated necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Stephanie L; Diehl, Gretchen; Han, Seong-Ji; Xue, Ling; Kurd, Nadia; Hsieh, Kristina; Cado, Dragana; Robey, Ellen A; Winoto, Astar

    2010-07-20

    Cell death is an important mechanism to limit uncontrolled T-cell expansion during immune responses. Given the role of death-receptor adapter protein Fas-associated death domain (FADD) in apoptosis, it is intriguing that T-cell receptor (TCR)-induced proliferation is blocked in FADD-defective T cells. Necroptosis is an alternate form of death that can be induced by death receptors and is linked to autophagy. It requires the death domain-containing kinase RIP1 and, in certain instances, RIP3. FADD and its apoptotic partner, Caspase-8, have also been implicated in necroptosis. To accurately assess the role of FADD in mature T-cell proliferation and death, we generated a conditional T-cell-specific FADD knockout mouse strain. The T cells of these mice develop normally, but lack FADD at the mature stage. FADD-deficient T cells respond poorly to TCR triggering, exhibit slow cell cycle entry, and fail to expand over time. We find that programmed necrosis occurs during the late stage of normal T-cell proliferation and that this process is greatly amplified in FADD-deficient T cells. Inhibition of necroptosis using an inhibitor of RIP1 kinase activity rescues the FADD knockout proliferative defect. However, TCR-induced necroptosis did not appear to require autophagy or involve RIP3. Consistent with their defective CD8 T-cell response, these mice succumb to Toxoplasma gondii infection more readily than wild-type mice. We conclude that FADD constitutes a mechanism to keep TCR-induced programmed necrotic signaling in check during early phases of T-cell clonal expansion. PMID:20615958

  2. ATM Influences the Efficiency of TCR? Rearrangement, Subsequent TCR?-Dependent T Cell Development, and Generation of the Pre-Selection TCR? CDR3 Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Livak, Ferenc; Hodes, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Generation and resolution of DNA double-strand breaks is required to assemble antigen-specific receptors from the genes encoding V, D, and J gene segments during recombination. The present report investigates the requirement for ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase, a component of DNA double-strand break repair, during TCR? recombination and in subsequent TCR?-dependent repertoire generation and thymocyte development. CD4?CD8? double negative stage 2/3 thymocytes from ATM-deficient mice have both an increased frequency of cells with DNA break foci at TCR? loci and reduced V?-DJ? rearrangement. Sequencing of TCR? complementarity-determining region 3 demonstrates that ATM-deficient CD4+CD8+ double positive thymocytes and peripheral T cells have altered processing of coding ends for both in-frame and out-of-frame TCR? rearrangements, providing the unique demonstration that ATM deficiency alters the expressed TCR? repertoire by a selection-independent mechanism. ATMKO thymi exhibit a partial developmental block in DN cells as they negotiate the ?-selection checkpoint to become double negative stage 4 and CD4+CD8+ thymocytes, resulting in reduced numbers of CD4+CD8+ cells. Importantly, expression of a rearranged TCR? transgene substantially reverses this defect in CD4+CD8+ cells, directly linking a requirement for ATM during endogenous TCR? rearrangement to subsequent TCR?-dependent stages of development. These results demonstrate that ATM plays an important role in TCR? rearrangement, generation of the TCR? CDR3 repertoire, and efficient TCR?-dependent T cell development. PMID:23626787

  3. A T-cell-directed chimeric antigen receptor for the selective treatment of T-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Mamonkin, Maksim; Rouce, Rayne H; Tashiro, Haruko; Brenner, Malcolm K

    2015-08-20

    Options for targeted therapy of T-cell malignancies remain scarce. Recent clinical trials demonstrated that chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) can effectively redirect T lymphocytes to eradicate lymphoid malignancies of B-cell origin. However, T-lineage neoplasms remain a more challenging task for CAR T cells due to shared expression of most targetable surface antigens between normal and malignant T cells, potentially leading to fratricide of CAR T cells or profound immunodeficiency. Here, we report that T cells transduced with a CAR targeting CD5, a common surface marker of normal and neoplastic T cells, undergo only limited fratricide and can be expanded long-term ex vivo. These CD5 CAR T cells effectively eliminate malignant T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and T-cell lymphoma lines in vitro and significantly inhibit disease progression in xenograft mouse models of T-ALL. These data support the therapeutic potential of CD5 CAR in patients with T-cell neoplasms. PMID:26056165

  4. Identification of novel gammadelta T-cell subsets following bacterial infection in the absence of Vgamma1+ T cells: homeostatic control of gammadelta T-cell responses to pathogen infection by Vgamma1+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Newton, Darren J; Andrew, Elizabeth M; Dalton, Jane E; Mears, Rainy; Carding, Simon R

    2006-02-01

    Although gammadelta T cells are a common feature of many pathogen-induced immune responses, the factors that influence, promote, or regulate the response of individual gammadelta T-cell subsets to infection is unknown. Here we show that in the absence of Vgamma1+ T cells, novel subsets of gammadelta T cells, expressing T-cell receptor (TCR)-Vgamma chains that normally define TCRgammadelta+ dendritic epidermal T cells (DETCs) (Vgamma5+), intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIELs) (Vgamma7+), and lymphocytes associated with the vaginal epithelia (Vgamma6+), are recruited to the spleen in response to bacterial infection in TCR-Vgamma1-/- mice. By comparison of phenotype and structure of TCR-Vgamma chains and/or -Vdelta chains expressed by these novel subsets with those of their epithelium-associated counterparts, the Vgamma6+ T cells elicited in infected Vgamma1-/- mice were shown to be identical to those found in the reproductive tract, from where they are presumably recruited in the absence of Vgamma1+ T cells. By contrast, Vgamma5+ and Vgamma7+ T cells found in infected Vgamma1-/- mice were distinct from Vgamma5+ DETCs and Vgamma7+ iIELs. Functional analyses of the novel gammadelta T-cell subsets identified for infected Vgamma1-/- mice showed that whereas the Vgamma5+ and Vgamma7+ subsets may compensate for the absence of Vgamma1+ T cells by producing similar cytokines, they do not possess cytocidal activity and they cannot replace the macrophage homeostasis function of Vgamma1+ T cells. Collectively, these findings identify novel subsets of gammadelta T cells, the recruitment and activity of which is under the control of Vgamma1+ T cells. PMID:16428757

  5. Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by CD25+CD4+ naturally anergic and suppressive T cells: induction of autoimmune disease by breaking their anergic/suppressive state.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Kuniyasu, Y; Toda, M; Sakaguchi, N; Itoh, M; Iwata, M; Shimizu, J; Sakaguchi, S

    1998-12-01

    Elimination of CD25+ T cells, which constitute 5-10% of peripheral CD4+ T cells in normal naive mice, leads to spontaneous development of various autoimmune diseases. These immunoregulatory CD25+CD4+ T cells are naturally unresponsive (anergic) in vitro to TCR stimulation, and, upon stimulation, suppress proliferation of CD25-CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. The antigen concentration required for stimulating CD25+CD4+ T cells to exert suppression is much lower than that required for stimulating CD25-CD4+ T cells to proliferate. The suppression, which results in reduced IL-2 production by CD25-CD4+ T cells, is dependent on cellular interactions on antigen-presenting cells (and not mediated by far-reaching or long-lasting humoral factors or apoptosis-inducing signals) and antigen non-specific in its effector phase. Addition of high doses of IL-2 or anti-CD28 antibody to the in vitro T cell stimulation culture not only breaks the anergic state of CD25+CD4+ T cells, but also abrogates their suppressive activity simultaneously. Importantly, the anergic/suppressive state of CD25+CD4+ T cells appeared to be their basal default condition, since removal of IL-2 or anti-CD28 antibody from the culture milieu allows them to revert to the original anergic/suppressive state. Furthermore, transfer of such anergy/suppression-broken T cells from normal mice produces various autoimmune diseases in syngeneic athymic nude mice. These results taken together indicate that one aspect of immunologic self-tolerance is maintained by this unique CD25+CD4+ naturally anergic/suppressive T cell population and its functional abnormality directly leads to the development of autoimmune disease. PMID:9885918

  6. Increased Expression of Phosphorylated FADD in Anaplastic Large Cell and Other T-Cell Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Suketu; Murphy, Derek; Haralambieva, Eugenia; Abdulla, Zainalabideen A; Wong, Kah Keng; Chen, Hong; Gould, Edith; Roncador, Giovanna; Hatton, Chris SR; Anderson, Amanda P; Banham, Alison H; Pulford, Karen

    2014-01-01

    FAS-associated protein with death domain (FADD) is a major adaptor protein involved in extrinsic apoptosis, embryogenesis, and lymphocyte homeostasis. Although abnormalities of the FADD/death receptor apoptotic pathways have been established in tumorigenesis, fewer studies have analyzed the expression and role of phosphorylated FADD (pFADD). Our identification of FADD as a lymphoma-associated autoantigen in T-cell lymphoma patients raises the possibility that pFADD, with its correlation with cell cycle, may possess role(s) in human T-cell lymphoma development. This immunohistochemical study investigated pFADD protein expression in a range of normal tissues and lymphomas, particularly T-cell lymphomas that require improved therapies. Whereas pFADD was expressed only in scattered normal T cells, it was detected at high levels in T-cell lymphomas (eg, 84% anaplastic large cell lymphoma and 65% peripheral T cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified). The increased expression of pFADD supports further study of its clinical relevance and role in lymphomagenesis, highlighting phosphorylation of FADD as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25232277

  7. Bacterial clearance reverses a skewed T-cell repertoire induced by Salmonella infection

    PubMed Central

    Leyva-Rangel, Jessica P; de los Angeles Hernández-Cueto, Maria; Galan-Enriquez, Carlos-Samuel; López-Medina, Marcela; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium invades the spleen, liver, and peripheral lymph nodes and has recently been detected in the bone marrow and thymus, resulting in a reduced thymic size and a decline in the total number of thymic cells. A specific deletion of the double-positive cell subset has been characterized, yet the export of mature T cells to the periphery remains normal. We analyzed Salmonella pathogenesis regarding thymic structure and the T-cell maturation process. We demonstrate that, despite alterations in the thymic structure, T-cell development is maintained during Salmonella infection, allowing the selection of single-positive T-cell clones expressing particular T-cell receptor beta chains (TCR-Vβ). Moreover, the treatment of infected mice with an antibiotic restored the normal thymic architecture and thymocyte subset distribution. Additionally, the frequency of TCR-Vβ usage after treatment was comparable to that in non-infected mice. However, bacteria were still recovered from the thymus after 1 month of treatment. Our data reveal that a skewed T-cell developmental process is present in the Salmonella-infected thymus that alters the TCR-Vβ usage frequency. Likewise, the post-treatment persistence of Salmonella reveals a novel function of the thymus as a potential reservoir for this infectious agent. PMID:26417438

  8. T Cell Epitope Mapping of JC Polyoma Virus-Encoded Proteome Reveals Reduced T Cell Responses in HLA-DRB1*04:01+ Donors

    PubMed Central

    Jelčić, Ilijas; Aly, Lilian; Binder, Thomas M. C.; Jelčić, Ivan; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Planas, Raquel; Demina, Victoria; Eiermann, Thomas H.; Weber, Thomas; Girones, Rosina; Sospedra, Mireia

    2013-01-01

    JC polyomavirus (JCV) infection is highly prevalent and usually kept in a persistent state without clinical signs and symptoms. It is only during immunocompromise and especially impaired CD4+ T cell function in the brain, as seen in AIDS patients or natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis patients, that JCV may cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an often life-threatening brain disease. Since CD4+ T cells likely play an important role in controlling JCV infection, we here describe the T cell response to JCV in a group of predominantly HLA-DR-heterozygotic healthy donors (HD) by using a series of overlapping 15-mer peptides spanning all JCV-encoded open reading frames. We identified immunodominant epitopes and compared T cell responses with anti-JCV VP1 antibody production and with the presence of urinary viral shedding. We observed positive JCV-specific T cell responses in 28.6% to 77.6%, humoral immune response in 42.6% to 89.4%, and urinary viral shedding in 36.4% to 45.5% of HD depending on the threshold. Four immunodominant peptides were mapped, and at least one immunogenic peptide per HLA-DRB1 allele was detected in DRB1*01+, DRB1*07+, DRB1*11+, DRB1*13+, DRB1*15+, and DRB1*03+ individuals. We show for the first time that JCV-specific T cell responses may be directed not only against JCV VP1 and large T antigen but also against all other JCV-encoded proteins. Heterozygotic DRB1*04:01+ individuals showed very low T cell responses to JCV together with normal anti-VP1 antibody levels and no urinary viral shedding, indicating a dominant-negative effect of this allele on global JCV-directed T cell responses. Our data are potentially relevant for the development of vaccines against JCV. PMID:23302880

  9. MicroRNAs are key regulators controlling iNKT and regulatory T-cell development and function

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li; Park, Jang-June; Zheng, Quanhui; Dong, Zheng; Mi, Qingsheng

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of evolutionarily conserved, small, non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate expression of their target genes. Emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs are important regulators that control the development, differentiation and function of different immune cells. Both CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are critical for immune homeostasis and play a pivotal role in the maintenance of self-tolerance and immunity. Here, we review the important roles of miRNAs in the development and function of iNKT and Treg cells. PMID:21822298

  10. PTPN2 attenuates T-cell lymphopenia-induced proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiede, Florian; La Gruta, Nicole L.; Tiganis, Tony

    2014-01-01

    When the peripheral T-cell pool is depleted, T cells undergo homoeostatic expansion. This expansion is reliant on the recognition of self-antigens and/or cytokines, in particular interleukin-7. The T cell-intrinsic mechanisms that prevent excessive homoeostatic T-cell responses and consequent overt autoreactivity remain poorly defined. Here we show that protein tyrosine phosphatase N2 (PTPN2) is elevated in naive T cells leaving the thymus to restrict homoeostatic T-cell proliferation and prevent excess responses to self-antigens in the periphery. PTPN2-deficient CD8+ T cells undergo rapid lymphopenia-induced proliferation (LIP) when transferred into lymphopenic hosts and acquire the characteristics of antigen-experienced effector T cells. The enhanced LIP is attributed to elevated T-cell receptor-dependent, but not interleukin-7-dependent responses, results in a skewed T-cell receptor repertoire and the development of autoimmunity. Our results identify a major mechanism by which homoeostatic T-cell responses are tuned to prevent the development of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders.

  11. Podoplanin negatively regulates CD4+ effector T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Anneli; Burkett, Patrick R.; Sobel, Raymond A.; Buckley, Christopher D.; Watson, Steve P.; Bettelli, Estelle; Kuchroo, Vijay K.

    2014-01-01

    Podoplanin (PDPN, also known as Gp38) is highly expressed on the surface of lymphatic endothelial cells, where it regulates development of lymphatic vessels. We have recently observed that PDPN is also expressed on effector T cells that infiltrate target tissues during autoimmune inflammation; however, the function of PDPN in T cells is largely unclear. Here, we demonstrated that global deletion of Pdpn results in exaggerated T cell responses and spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice with a susceptible genetic background. In contrast, T cellspecific overexpression of PDPN resulted in profound defects in IL-7mediated T cell expansion and survival. Consequently, these animals exhibited a more rapid resolution of CNS inflammation, characterized by a reduced effector CD4+ T cell population in the CNS. Mice harboring a T cellspecific deletion of Pdpn developed exacerbated EAE, with increased accumulation of effector CD4+ T cells in the CNS. Transcriptional profiling of naturally occurring PDPN+ effector T cells in the CNS revealed increased expression of other inhibitory receptors, such as Pd1 and Tim3, and decreased expression of prosurvival factors, including Il7ra. Together, our data suggest that PDPN functions as an inhibitory molecule on T cells, thereby promoting tissue tolerance by limiting long-term survival and maintenance of CD4+ effector T cells in target organs. PMID:25415436

  12. Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 is critical for invariant natural killer T-cell development and effector function.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jinwook; Wang, Shang; Deng, Wenhai; Wu, Jinhong; Gao, Jimin; Zhong, Xiao-Ping

    2014-02-25

    The mechanisms that control invariant natural killer T (iNKT)-cell development and function are still poorly understood. The mechanistic or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates various environmental signals/cues to regulate cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, and survival. We report here that ablation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling by conditionally deleting Raptor causes severe defects in iNKT-cell development at early stages, leading to drastic reductions in iNKT-cell numbers in the thymus and periphery. In addition, loss of Raptor impairs iNKT-cell proliferation and production of cytokines upon ?-galactosylceramide stimulation in vitro and in vivo, and inhibits liver inflammation in an iNKT cell-mediated hepatitis model. Furthermore, Raptor deficiency and rapamycin treatment lead to aberrant intracellular localization and functional impairment of promyelocytic leukemia zinc-finger, a transcription factor critical for iNKT-cell development and effector programs. Our findings define an essential role of mTORC1 to direct iNKT-cell lineage development and effector function. PMID:24516149

  13. CD11a Regulates Effector CD8 T Cell Differentiation and Central Memory Development in Response to Infection with Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Tina O.; Pham, Quynh-Mai; Jellison, Evan R.; Mouries, Juliette; Ballantyne, Christie M.

    2013-01-01

    ?2 (CD18) integrins with ?-chains CD11a, -b, -c, and -d are important adhesion molecules necessary for leukocyte migration and cellular interactions. CD18 deficiency leads to recurrent bacterial infections and poor wound healing due to reduced migration of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. CD8 T cells also upregulate CD11a, CD11b, and CD11c upon activation. However, the role these molecules play for CD8 T cells in vivo is not known. To determine the function of individual ?2 integrins, we examined CD8 T cell responses to Listeria monocytogenes infection in CD11a-, CD11b-, and CD11c-deficient mice. The absence of CD11b or CD11c had no effect on the generation of antigen-specific CD8 T cells. In contrast, the magnitude of the primary CD8 T cell response in CD11a-deficient mice was significantly reduced. Moreover, the response in CD11a?/? mice exhibited reduced differentiation of short-lived effector cells (KLRG1hi CD127lo), although cytokine and granzyme B production levels were unaffected. Notably, CD11a deficiency resulted in greatly enhanced generation of CD62L+ central memory cells. Surprisingly, CD8 T cells lacking CD11a mounted a robust secondary response to infection. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that CD11a expression contributes to expansion and differentiation of primary CD8 T cells but may be dispensable for secondary responses to infection. PMID:23357382

  14. The Challenges and Opportunities for Development of a T-Cell Epitope-Based Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Tiffany; Wang, Christine; Badakhshan, Tina; Chilukuri, Sravya; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-01-01

    The infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 & HSV-2) have been prevalent since the ancient Greek times. To this day, they still affect a staggering number of over a half billion individuals worldwide. HSV-2 infections cause painful genital herpes, encephalitis, and death in newborns. HSV-1 infections are more prevalent than HSV-2 infections and cause potentially blinding ocular herpes, oro-facial herpes and encephalitis. While genital herpes in mainly caused by HSV-2 infections, in recent years, there is an increase in the proportion of genital herpes caused by HSV-1 infections in young adults, which reach 50% in some western societies. While prophylactic and therapeutic HSV vaccines remain urgently needed for centuries their development has been notoriously difficult. During the most recent National Institute of Health (NIH) workshop titled "Next Generation Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: The Challenges and Opportunities", basic researchers, funding agencies, and pharmaceutical representatives gathered: (i) to assess the status of herpes vaccine research; and (ii) to identify the gaps and propose alternative approaches in developing a safe and efficient herpes vaccine. One common denominator among previously failed clinical herpes vaccine trials is that they either used a whole virus or whole viral proteins, which contain both pathogenic symptomatic and protective asymptomatic antigens/epitopes. In this report, we continue to advocate that using an asymptomatic epitope-based vaccine strategy that selectively incorporates protective epitopes which: (i) are exclusively recognized, in vitro, by effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ TEM cells from naturally protected seropositive asymptomatic individuals; and (ii) protect, in vivo, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic animal models from ocular and genital herpes infections and diseases, could be the answer to many of the scientific challenges facing HSV vaccine development. We review the role of animal models in herpes vaccine development and discuss its current status, challenges, and prospects. PMID:25446827

  15. REGULATORY T CELLS

    PubMed Central

    DElia, Riccardo; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bradley, Janette E; Else, Kathryn J.

    2009-01-01

    The chronic nature of intestinal nematode infections suggests that these parasites have evolved sophisticated immunomodulatory strategies. The induction of regulatory responses during chronic helminth infections could be advantageous to the host by minimising damage incurred by these organisms. Regulation of the host immune response to infection could however be exploited by parasites as a survival strategy. We have explored both these aspects using the murine model of whipworm infection, Trichuris muris. Of the three laboratory isolates of T. muris in use, two (the E (Edinburgh) and J (Japan - sub-cultured from E) are readily expelled by C57BL/6 mice whereas the third, the S isolate (Sobreda - isolated from wild mice in Portugal) survives for much longer. The existence of the T. muris isolates thus presents a powerful tool to explore the mechanisms underlying chronic infection in a single strain of mouse. Here we show that S isolate infected mice have increased numbers of Foxp3+ T cells in the gut compared to mice infected with the E isolate. Treatment of mice infected with the S isolate with either anti-CD25 or anti-GITR exacerbated intestinal pathology, and, in addition, mice treated with anti-GITR were able to expel worms more rapidly, implying the release of local effector mechanisms from a regulatory influence. Thus our data show for the first time that T regulatory cells protect the host from worm driven intestinal pathology. In addition, our data reveal a subversion of this damage-limiting response by the S isolate to facilitate its own survival. PMID:19201888

  16. Pathobiology of T-cell and NK-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Bajor-Dattilo, Ewa B.; Pittaluga, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    T-cell and NK-cell lymphomas are uncommon lymphomas with an aggressive clinical course. The causes and precise cellular origin of most T-cell lymphomas are still not well defined. The WHO classification utilizes morphologic and immunophenotypic features in conjunction with clinical aspects and in some instances genetics to delineate a prognostically and therapeutically meaningful categorization. The anatomic localization of neoplastic T-cells and NK-cells parallels in part their proposed normal cellular counterparts and functions. T-cells of the adaptive immune system are mainly based in lymph nodes and peripheral blood, whereas lymphomas derived from T-cells and NK-cells of the innate immune system are mainly extranodal. This approach allows for better understanding of some of the manifestations of the T-cell and NK-cell lymphomas, including their cellular distribution, some aspects of morphology and even associated clinical findings. PMID:23768642

  17. Transcriptional drivers of the T-cell lineage program.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Ellen V

    2012-04-01

    The T-cell development program is specifically triggered by Notch-Delta signaling, but most transcription factors needed to establish T-cell lineage identity also have crossover roles in other hematopoietic lineages. This factor sharing complicates full definition of the core gene regulatory circuits required for T-cell specification. But new advances illuminate the roles of three of the most T-cell specific transcription factors. Commitment to the T-cell lineage is now shown to depend on Bcl11b, while initiation of the T-cell differentiation program begins earlier with the induction of TCF-1 (Tcf7 gene product) and GATA-3. Several reports now reveal how TCF-1 and GATA-3 are mobilized in early T cells and the pathways for their T-lineage specific effects. PMID:22264928

  18. Metabolic regulation of T cell differentiation and function

    PubMed Central

    Park, Benjamin V.; Pan, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Upon encountering pathogens, T cells mount immune responses by proliferating, increasing cellular mass and differentiating. These cellular changes impose significant energetic challenges on T cells. It was believed that TCR and cytokine-mediated signaling are dominant dictators of T cell-mediated immune responses. Recently, it was recognized that T cells utilize metabolic transporters and metabolic sensors that allow them to rapidly respond to nutrient-limiting inflammatory environments. Metabolic sensors allow T cells to find a balance between energy consumption (anabolic metabolism) and production (catabolic metabolism) in order to mount effective immune responses. Also, metabolic regulators interact with cytokine-dependent transcriptional regulators, suggesting a more integrative and advanced model of T cell activation and differentiation. In this review, we will discuss recent discoveries regarding the roles of metabolic regulators in effector and memory T cell development and their interaction with canonical transcription factors. PMID:26277275

  19. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mediated by CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qingyong; Goverman, Joan

    2007-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is believed to have an autoimmune origin. CD4(+) T cells have been well studied for their involvement in the pathogenesis of MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). CD8(+) T cells, however, have been overlooked until recently, when more attention has focused on their potential role in pathogenic mechanisms in MS. Here we summarize our work in generating a CD8(+) T cell-mediated EAE model. We discuss immune tolerance mechanisms that regulate CD8(+) T cells specific for myelin basic protein (MBP), and describe initial results regarding triggers of CD8(+) T cell-mediated disease. The availability of CD8(+) T cell-mediated EAE models will help to elucidate the pathogenic roles of CD8(+) T cells in MS, and provide tools for development of novel therapies for MS. PMID:17376824

  20. The fragile environments of inexpensive CD4+ T-cell enumeration in the least developed countries: strategies for accessible support.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Christoph H

    2008-01-01

    With the advent of affordable antiretroviral treatment (ART), flow cytometry has ventured out of the exclusive realms of First World research to the resource-strapped clinical environment of developing countries (DCs). Flow cytometric instrumentation for ART has become more cost-efficient, thanks to simplified, yet accurate protocols and smart technologies. These positive developments have, however, not taken shape without problems, as health care in DCs remains weak due to chronic underfunding of their primary health systems. In addition, the multiplicity of donors has created parallel infrastructures that are difficult to manage and may undermine the responsibilities of public services. Hence, there is a prevailing lack of attention to maintenance, support, and human resource development. Not uncommonly, the procurement of high-value equipment is guided by nontechnical interests with mixed results. As conventional service contracts are unpopular, the sustainability of equipment is under serious threat after warranty periods, with environmental factors such as dust and unreliable power supplies being well-known culprits. Reagent supplies and servicing constitute further challenges, where a combination of short reagent shelf life, cold-box shipping, huge distances across poor infrastructures, rigid accounting procedures, and erratic customs requirements cause significant delays and extra costs. Although excellent, highly trained or trainable local staff is available, it is frequently diverted by brain drain from the government sector to privately funded hospitals, research facilities, and overseas postings. Despite these challenges, corporate service management has commonly remained loyal to its roots in the developed world.A number of propositions address the current situation: "Reagent-rental" agreements represent an attractive alternative to service contracts, while smart instrument design has started to make inroads into more robust device concepts. To avoid logistical bottlenecks, reagents call for lyophilization and increased heat stability. Newly designed remote diagnostic tools are expected to save costs on service visits. Furthermore, web-based customer-relationship management and enterprise resource planning software is expected to ease the existing complex communication- and logistics issues. In addition, a public-private partnership is proposed that involves government, manufacturers, and local distributors with field application specialists. The latter operate crossbrand as independent subcontractors to manufacturers under a nationally endorsed cost-capping and quality assurance agreement to service all cytometric devices common in the region. These locally run networks may serve as "templates" for improved laboratory services in general, in collaboration with CD4 counting, haematology and infectious disease diagnostics. PMID:18228565

  1. Increased ratio of ICOS(+) /PD-1(+) follicular helper T cells positively correlates with the development of human idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xu; Qu, Zhihui; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Yong; Li, Man; Qiu, Jinpeng; Jiang, Yanfang

    2016-04-01

    To identify the frequencies of different subsets of peripheral blood follicular helper T (Tfh) cells in human idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN), 39 patients with new onset IMN and 18 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled for this study. The frequency of Tfh cells in venous blood were measured by flow cytometry, while concentration of serum IL-21 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlation between the clinical features of IMN and Tfh cells was assessed by Spearman's rank correlation test. Overall, the frequencies of total, ICOS(+) , and PD-1(+) Tfh cells were increased in IMN patients, while the ratio of ICOS(+) /PD-1(+) Tfh cells positively correlated with IMN progression. However, the elevated serum IL-21 level in three subgroups of IMN patients, stratified based on 24-h urine protein levels, was not statistically significant compared to HC. Nonetheless, intracellular IL-21 in Tfh cells was generally increased in all IMN patients, and closely correlated with IMN development. Finally, the frequency of IL-21(+) Tfh cells and the ratio of ICOS(+) /PD-1(+) Tfh cells were positively correlated with the estimated 24-h urine protein of IMN patients. The data indicated that Tfh cells contribute to the pathogenicity of IMN. The ratio of ICOS(+) /PD-1(+) Tfh cells and the frequency of IL-21(+) Tfh cells may be indicators for evaluating the IMN development. PMID:26845249

  2. Elevation and persistence of CD8 T-cells in HIV infection: the Achilles heel in the ART era

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wei; Mehraj, Vikram; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Li, Taisheng; Routy, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV infection leads to a disturbed T-cell homeostasis, featured by a depletion of CD4 T-cells and a persistent elevation of CD8 T-cells over disease progression. Most effort of managing HIV infection has been focused on CD4 T-cell recovery, while changes in the CD8 compartment were relatively underappreciated in the past. Methods A comprehensive literature review of publications in English language was conducted using major electronic databases. Our search was focused on factors contributing to CD8 T-cell dynamics in HIV infection and following antiretroviral therapy (ART). Discussion Normalization of CD8 counts is seldom observed even with optimal CD4 recovery following long-term treatment. Initiation of ART in primary HIV infection leads to enhanced normalization of CD8 count compared with long-term ART initiated in chronic infection. Importantly, such CD8 elevation in treated HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of inflammatory non-AIDS-related clinical events independent of CD4 T-cell recovery. The mechanisms underlying CD8 persistence remain largely unknown, which may include bystander activation, exhaustion and immunosenescence of CD8 T-cells. The information provided herein will lead to a better understanding of factors associated with CD8 persistence and contribute to the development of strategies aiming at CD8 normalization. Conclusions Persistence of CD8 T-cell elevation in treated HIV-infected patients is associated with an increased risk of non-AIDS-related events. Now that advances in ART have led to decreased AIDS-related opportunistic diseases, more attention has been focused on reducing non-AIDS events and normalizing persistent CD8 T-cell elevation. PMID:26945343

  3. Memory CD8+ T cells use cell intrinsic lipolysis to support the metabolic programming necessary for development

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, David; van der Windt, Gerritje J. W.; Ching-Cheng Huang, Stanley; Curtis, Jonathan D.; Chang, Chih-Hao; Buck, Michael D.; Qiu, Jing; Smith, Amber M.; Lam, Wing Y.; DiPlato, Lisa M.; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Pearce, Edward J.; Pearce, Erika L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Generation of CD8+ memory T (TM) cells requires metabolic reprogramming that is characterized by enhanced mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO). However, where the fatty acids (FA) that fuel this process come from remains unclear. We found that while CD8+ TM cells engaged higher levels of FAO, they acquired substantially fewer long-chain FA from their external environment than CD8+ effector T (TE) cells. Rather than using extracellular FA directly, TM cells used extracellular glucose to support FAO and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), suggesting that lipids must be synthesized to generate the substrates needed for FAO. We have demonstrated that TM cells rely on cell intrinsic expression of the lysosomal hydrolase LAL (lysosomal acid lipase) to mobilize FA for FAO and TM cell development. Our observations link LAL to metabolic reprogramming in lymphocytes and show that cell intrinsic lipolysis is deterministic for TM cell fate. PMID:25001241

  4. A locus on mouse Chromosome 13 inversely regulates CD1d expression and the development of invariant natural killer T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Presa, Maximiliano; Khaja, Shamim; Ciecko, Ashley E.; Serreze, David V.; Chen, Yi-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT)-cell development is controlled by many polymorphic genes present in commonly used mouse inbred strains. Development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in NOD mice partly results from their production of fewer iNKT-cells compared to non-autoimmune prone control strains including ICR. We previously identified several iNKT-cell quantitative trait genetic loci co-localized with known mouse and human T1D regions in a (NOD ICR)F2 cross. To further dissect the mechanisms underlying the impaired iNKT-cell compartment in NOD mice, we carried out a series of bone marrow transplantation as well as additional genetic mapping studies. We found that impaired iNKT-cell development in NOD mice was mainly due to the inability of their double-positive (DP) thymocytes to efficiently select this T-cell population. Interestingly, we observed higher levels of CD1d expression by NOD than ICR DP thymocytes. The genetic control of the inverse relationship between the CD1d expression level on DP thymocytes and the frequency of thymic iNKT-cells was further mapped to a region on Chromosome 13 between 60.12 Mb and 70.59 Mb. The NOD allele was found to promote CD1d expression and suppress iNKT-cell development. Our results indicate that genetically controlled physiological variation of CD1d expression levels modulates iNKT-cell development. PMID:25654212

  5. T cells from CLL patients exhibit features of T-cell exhaustion but retain capacity for cytokine production

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jeffrey K.; McClanahan, Fabienne; Fatah, Rewas; Iqbal, Sameena; Agrawal, Samir; Ramsay, Alan G.; Gribben, John G.

    2013-01-01

    T-cell exhaustion, originally described in chronic viral infections, was recently reported in solid and hematologic cancers. It is not defined whether exhaustion contributes to T-cell dysfunction observed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We investigated the phenotype and function of T cells from CLL patients and age-matched controls. CD8+ and CD4+ T cells from CLL patients had increased expression of exhaustion markers CD244, CD160, and PD1, with expansion of a PD1+BLIMP1HI subset. These molecules were most highly expressed in the expanded population of effector T cells in CLL. CLL CD8+ T cells showed functional defects in proliferation and cytotoxicity, with the cytolytic defect caused by impaired granzyme packaging into vesicles and nonpolarized degranulation. In contrast to virally induced exhaustion, CLL T cells showed increased production of interferon-? and TNF? and increased expression of TBET, and normal IL2 production. These defects were not restricted to expanded populations of cytomegalovirus (CMV)specific cells, although CMV seropositivity modulated the distribution of lymphocyte subsets, the functional defects were present irrespective of CMV serostatus. Therefore, although CLL CD8+ T cells exhibit features of T-cell exhaustion, they retain the ability to produce cytokines. These findings also exclude CMV as the sole cause of T-cell defects in CLL. PMID:23247726

  6. The T Cells in Peripheral Taste Tissue of Healthy Human Adults: Predominant Memory T Cells and Th-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Feldman, Roy S.; Pribitkin, Edmund A.; Breslin, Paul A. S.

    2010-01-01

    A healthy taste system is important to the maintenance of nutrition and overall quality of life, and taste disorders are associated with many inflammatory states. We previously determined the immune cells in normal human gustatory tissue; they are predominantly dendritic cells and CD4 T cells with a few macrophages and B lymphocytes present. There are, however, few reports of the subtypes of resident lymphocytes in or near taste tissues. The present study further characterized the distribution and population of the major subtypes of T cells in situ within biopsies of healthy human fungiform papillae (FP). Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that T-helper (Th)1 cells (CCR5+) were more predominant in FP than Th2 T cells (CCR4+). CD45RO+ memory T cells were the principal T cells in gustatory tissue, whereas CD45RA+ naive T cells were uncommon. Regarding subcompartments of the tissue, most intraepithelial lymphocytes of FPs were γ/δ T cells, whereas the major subtype of lymphocytes in the lamina propria were α/β T cells. Regulatory T cells that express CTLA-4 (CD152) and interleukin-2 receptors (IL-2R, CD25) were found at low levels in FP. The T cells stand ready to respond to inflammatory and infectious insults and may play a role in the taste alterations observed during acute and chronic inflammatory states. PMID:20457570

  7. Regulatory T Cells as Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Benjamin D.; King, Landon S.; DAlessio, Franco R.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress exuberant immune system activation and promote immunologic tolerance. Because Tregs modulate both innate and adaptive immunity, the biomedical community has developed an intense interest in using Tregs for immunotherapy. Conditions that require clinical tolerance to improve outcomes autoimmune disease, solid organ transplantation, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may benefit from Treg immunotherapy. Investigators have designed ex vivo strategies to isolate, preserve, expand, and infuse Tregs. Protocols to manipulate Treg populations in vivo have also been considered. Barriers to clinically feasible Treg immunotherapy include Treg stability, off-cell effects, and demonstration of cell preparation purity and potency. Clinical trials involving Treg adoptive transfer to treat graft versus host disease preliminarily demonstrated the safety and efficacy of Treg immunotherapy in humans. Future work will need to confirm the safety of Treg immunotherapy and establish the efficacy of specific Treg subsets for the treatment of immune-mediated disease. PMID:24575095

  8. Bispecific T cell engagers for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Huehls, Amelia M.; Coupet, Tiffany A.; Sentman, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Bispecific T cell engagers are a new class of immunotherapeutic molecules intended for the treatment of cancer. These molecules, termed BiTEs, enhance the patient’s immune response to tumors by retargeting T cells to tumor cells. BiTEs are constructed of two single chain variable fragments (scFv) connected in tandem by a flexible linker. One scFv binds to a T cell-specific molecule, usually CD3, while the second scFv binds to a tumor-associated antigen. This structure and specificity allows a BiTE to physically link a T cell to a tumor cell, ultimately stimulating T cell activation, tumor killing and cytokine production. BiTEs have been developed that target several tumor-associated antigens for a variety of both hematological and solid tumors. Several BiTEs are currently in clinical trials for their therapeutic efficacy and safety. This review examines the salient structural and functional features of BiTEs as well as the current state of their clinical and preclinical development. PMID:25367186

  9. The G protein-coupled receptor T-cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8) facilitates tumor development by serving as an extracellular pH sensor.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yuichiro; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Hamano, Fumie; Yanagida, Keisuke; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Kunita, Akiko; Yamori, Takao; Fukayama, Masashi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Takao; Ishii, Satoshi

    2010-10-01

    Tumors often are associated with a low extracellular pH, which induces a variety of cellular events. However, the mechanisms by which tumor cells recognize and react to the acidic environment have not been fully elucidated. T-cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8) is an extracellular pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptor that is overexpressed in various tumors and tumor cell lines. In this report, we show that TDAG8 on the surface of tumor cells facilitates tumor development by sensing the acidic environment. Overexpression of TDAG8 in mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells enhanced tumor development in animal models and rendered LLC cells resistant to acidic culture conditions by increasing activation of protein kinase A and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in vitro. Moreover, shRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous TDAG8 in NCI-H460 human non-small cell lung cancer cells reduced cell survival in an acidic environment in vitro as well as tumor development in vivo. Microarray analyses of tumor-containing lung tissues of mice injected with TDAG8-expressing LLC cells revealed up-regulation of genes related to cell growth and glycolysis. These results support the hypothesis that TDAG8 enhances tumor development by promoting adaptation to the acidic environment to enhance cell survival/proliferation. TDAG8 may represent a therapeutic target for arresting tumor growth. PMID:20855608

  10. The G protein-coupled receptor T-cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8) facilitates tumor development by serving as an extracellular pH sensor

    PubMed Central

    Ihara, Yuichiro; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Hamano, Fumie; Yanagida, Keisuke; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Kunita, Akiko; Yamori, Takao; Fukayama, Masashi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Takao; Ishii, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Tumors often are associated with a low extracellular pH, which induces a variety of cellular events. However, the mechanisms by which tumor cells recognize and react to the acidic environment have not been fully elucidated. T-cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8) is an extracellular pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptor that is overexpressed in various tumors and tumor cell lines. In this report, we show that TDAG8 on the surface of tumor cells facilitates tumor development by sensing the acidic environment. Overexpression of TDAG8 in mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells enhanced tumor development in animal models and rendered LLC cells resistant to acidic culture conditions by increasing activation of protein kinase A and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in vitro. Moreover, shRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous TDAG8 in NCI-H460 human non-small cell lung cancer cells reduced cell survival in an acidic environment in vitro as well as tumor development in vivo. Microarray analyses of tumor-containing lung tissues of mice injected with TDAG8-expressing LLC cells revealed up-regulation of genes related to cell growth and glycolysis. These results support the hypothesis that TDAG8 enhances tumor development by promoting adaptation to the acidic environment to enhance cell survival/proliferation. TDAG8 may represent a therapeutic target for arresting tumor growth. PMID:20855608

  11. Developmentally determined reduction in CD31 during gestation is associated with CD8+ T cell effector differentiation in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Scheible, Kristin M; Emo, Jason; Yang, Hongmei; Holden-Wiltse, Jeanne; Straw, Andrew; Huyck, Heidie; Misra, Sara; Topham, David J; Ryan, Rita M; Reynolds, Anne Marie; Mariani, Thomas J; Pryhuber, Gloria S

    2015-12-01

    Homeostatic T cell proliferation is more robust during human fetal development. In order to understand the relative effect of normal fetal homeostasis and perinatal exposures on CD8+ T cell behavior in PT infants, we characterized umbilical cord blood CD8+ T cells from infants born between 23-42weeks gestation. Subjects were recruited as part of the NHLBI-sponsored Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program. Cord blood from PT infants had fewer nave CD8+ T cells and lower regulatory CD31 expression on both nave and effector, independent of prenatal exposures. CD8+ T cell in vitro effector function was greater at younger gestational ages, an effect that was exaggerated in infants with prior inflammatory exposures. These results suggest that CD8+ T cells earlier in gestation have loss of regulatory co-receptor CD31 and greater effector differentiation, which may place PT neonates at unique risk for CD8+ T cell-mediated inflammation and impaired T cell memory formation. PMID:26232733

  12. Synthetic biology approaches to engineer T cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Yung; Rupp, Levi J; Roybal, Kole T; Lim, Wendell A

    2015-08-01

    There is rapidly growing interest in learning how to engineer immune cells, such as T lymphocytes, because of the potential of these engineered cells to be used for therapeutic applications such as the recognition and killing of cancer cells. At the same time, our knowhow and capability to logically engineer cellular behavior is growing rapidly with the development of synthetic biology. Here we describe how synthetic biology approaches are being used to rationally alter the behavior of T cells to optimize them for therapeutic functions. We also describe future developments that will be important in order to construct safe and precise T cell therapeutics. PMID:26218616

  13. The Gut Microbiota and Mucosal T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Patrick M.; Garrett, Wendy S.

    2011-01-01

    It is intuitive that immune cells in the gut may require microbiota-derived cues for their differentiation. The proximity between host and microbe in the intestine would seemingly necessitate co-adaptation. However, it has been challenging to determine the members and features of the gut microbiota that influence immune system development and function. The recent identification of immunomodulatory members of the commensal microbiota is providing insight into the dependence of select, intestinal immune cell subsets on specific microbial species. In this review, we focus on the gut microbiota's influence on the development and function of mucosal T cells subsets, specifically intraepithelial lymphocytes and lamina propria CD4 T cells. PMID:21833339

  14. TCRV?9 ?? T Cell Response to IL-33: A CD4 T Cell-Dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Duault, Caroline; Franchini, Don Marc; Familliades, Julien; Cayrol, Corinne; Roga, Stphane; Girard, Jean-Philippe; Fourni, Jean-Jacques; Poupot, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The availability of specific stimuli to induce the anticancer cytotoxicity of human TCRV?9-expressing T lymphocytes has allowed the development of ?? T cell-based cancer immunotherapies. However, the stringent dependence of such strategies on the inherently toxic IL-2 has raised safety concerns for patients, justifying a search for alternative methods for inducing ?? T cell stimulation. IL-33 is a ?-chain receptor-independent cytokine of the IL-1 superfamily that is expressed by endothelial cells from a tumor microenvironment and can sustain Th1 and Th2 immune responses. Therefore, we investigated its ability to support the stimulation of human TCRV?9(+) ?? T cells. In this study, we report that IL-33 efficiently sustained the in vitro activation of V?9 T lymphocytes by synthetic phosphoantigens, zoledronate, and a BTN3A1 Ab in the absence of an exogenous supply of IL-2. IL-33 was as potent as IL-2 in allowing the proliferative amplification of V?9 T cells isolated from PBMC following activation by the synthetic phosphoantigen bromohydrin pyrophosphate. IL-33 also induced an identical maturation into TNF-?- and IFN-?-producing Th1 effector memory cells, and IL-33-stimulated cells showed an equivalent cytotoxicity for various tumor cells in vitro. Finally, we found that the bioactivity of IL-33 on the V?9 T cell was indirectly mediated through contact with CD4 T cells and IL-2 production by CD4 T cells and V?9 T cells themselves. These data posit IL-33 as an alternative to IL-2 for V?9 T cell-based cancer immunotherapies. PMID:26608919

  15. An Exhaustion-Like Phenotype Constrains the Activity of CD4+ T Cells Specific for a Self and Melanoma Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Matthew P.; Hastings, Karen Taraszka

    2015-01-01

    While the immune system has the capacity to recognize and destroy melanoma, tolerance mechanisms often hinder the development of effective anti-tumor immune responses. Since many melanoma antigens are self proteins expressed in normal melanocytes, self antigen exposure before tumor development can negatively impact the function of T cells specific for these self/tumor antigens. However, the contribution of self tolerance to anti-melanoma T cell dysfunction remains largely unexplored. We have previously described a TCR transgenic (Tg) mouse model in which T cells specific for the self/melanoma antigen, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), develop in the presence of endogenous TRP1 expression (Ag+) and diminished antigen presentation due to the absence of gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT-/-). We show that TRP1-specific T cells from these Ag+GILT-/-Tg mice do not protect from melanoma tumor growth, fail to induce autoimmune vitiligo, and undergo diminished proliferation compared to T cells from Ag-GILT+/+Tg mice. Despite an increased frequency of TRP1-specific Treg cells in Ag+GILT-/-Tg mice compared to Ag-GILT+/+Tg animals, Treg cell depletion only partially rescues the proliferative capacity of T cells from TRP1-expressing mice, suggesting the involvement of additional suppressive mechanisms. An increased percentage of melanoma-specific T cells from Ag+GILT-/-Tg animals express PD-1, an inhibitory receptor associated with the maintenance of T cell exhaustion. Antibody blockade of PD-1 partially improves the ability of TRP1-specific T cells from Ag+GILT-/-Tg mice to produce IL-2. These findings demonstrate that melanoma-specific T cells exposed to a self/melanoma antigen in healthy tissue develop an exhaustion-like phenotype characterized by PD-1-mediated immunosuppression prior to encounter with tumor. PMID:25875653

  16. Self-recognition specificity expressed by T cells from nude mice. Absence of detectable Ia-restricted T cells in nude mice that do exhibit self-K/D-restricted T cell responses

    SciTech Connect

    Kruisbeek, A.M.; Davis, M.L.; Matis, L.A.; Longo, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    The presence in athymic nude mice of precursor T cells with self-recognition specificity for either H-2 K/D or H-2 I region determinants was investigated. Chimeras were constructed of lethally irradiated parental mice receiving a mixture of F1 nude mouse (6-8 wk old) spleen and bone marrow cells. The donor inoculum was deliberately not subjected to any T cell depletion procedure, so that any potential major histocompatibility complex-committed precursor T cells were allowed to differentiate and expand in the normal parental recipients. 3 mo after reconstitution, the chimeras were immunized with several protein antigens in complete Freund's adjuvant in the footpads and their purified draining lymph node T cells tested 10 d later for ability to recognize antigen on antigen-presenting cells of either parental haplotype. Also, their spleen and lymph node cells were tested for ability to generate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-modified stimulator cells of either parental haplotype. It was demonstrated that T cell proliferative responses of these F1(nude)----parent chimeras were restricted solely to recognizing parental host I region determinants as self and expressed the Ir gene phenotype of the host. In contrast, CTL responses could be generated (in the presence of interleukin 2) to TNP-modified stimulator cells of either parental haplotype. Thus these results indicate that nude mice which do have CTL with self-specificity for K/D region determinants lack proliferating T cells with self-specificity for I region determinants. These results provide evidence for the concepts that development of the I region-restricted T cell repertoire is strictly an intrathymically determined event and that young nude mice lack the unique thymic elements responsible for edu

  17. Pertubation of B and T cell development and predisposition to lymphomagenesis in Emu Bmi1 transgenic mice require the Bmi1 RING finger.

    PubMed

    Alkema, M J; Jacobs, H; van Lohuizen, M; Berns, A

    1997-08-18

    Proviral activation of the Bmi1 gene has implicated Bmi1 as a collaborator of c-Myc in lymphomagenesis. To determine the effect of Bmi1 overexpression on hematopoiesis and lymphomagenesis transgenic mice were generated that overexpress different forms of the Bmi1 protein in their lymphoid compartment. Emu Bmi1 transgenic mice, overexpressing the wild type Bmi1 protein showed a perturbed lymphoid development and were highly susceptible to B and T cell lymphomagenesis. Mutational analysis of the Bmi1 protein demonstrated that the conserved N-terminal RING finger and central part of Bmi1 are essential for its oncogenic potential whereas the C-terminal Pro-Ser rich region is not required. We have used provirus tagging in the Emu Bmi1 mice to identify genes that cooperate with Bmi1 in lymphomagenesis. MoMLV infection in Emu Bmi1 transgenic mice accelerated lymphoma development. Proviral activation of the Pim and Myc genes but not the Gfi1 gene were frequently observed in these tumors. These results demonstrate that Bmi1 is a potent oncogene and suggest that it plays an important role in early lymphoid development. PMID:9285685

  18. Interleukin-10 Inhibits Elevated Chemokine Interleukin-8 and Regulated on Activation Normal T Cell Expressed and Secreted Production in Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial Cells by Targeting the IkB Kinase α/β Complex

    PubMed Central

    Tabary, Olivier; Muselet, Céline; Escotte, Sandie; Antonicelli, Frank; Hubert, Dominique; Dusser, Daniel; Jacquot, Jacky

    2003-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, airway fluids are characterized by decreased antibacterial activity, elevated NaCl concentration, and high levels of chemokines, resulting in exaggerated activation of the transcriptional nuclear factor (NF)-κB in airway epithelial cells. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) on NaCl-induced chemokine IL-8 and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) expression through the NF-κB signaling in primary ΔF508 CF and non-CF (control) human bronchial epithelial cells. Exposure of CF and non-CF bronchial epithelial cells to hypertonic (170 mmol/L NaCl) milieu compared to isotonic (115 mmol/L NaCl) and hypotonic (85 mmol/L NaCl) milieu caused a significant, NaCl-dependent increase in IL-8 and RANTES gene expression and protein production. Compared to non-CF cells, CF bronchial epithelial cells were characterized by a higher susceptibility to produce elevated IL-8 and RANTES production in an hypertonic NaCl milieu in response to IL-1β activation. Treatment with IL-10 suppressed IL-8 and RANTES gene expression in both non-CF and CF bronchial epithelial cells was associated with a reduced expression of IkB (IKK) α/β kinases, particularly for IKKα which is greater expressed in CF bronchial epithelial cells, and resulting in reduced NF-κB activation. These findings suggest that IL-10 might have anti-inflammatory benefits in airways of CF patients. PMID:12507912

  19. Relationship between circulating levels of RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted) and carotid plaque characteristics: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Carotid MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Virani, Salim S.; Nambi, Vijay; Hoogeveen, Ron; Wasserman, Bruce A.; Coresh, Josef; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Chambless, Lloyd E.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Ballantyne, Christie M.

    2011-01-01

    Aims To assess the relationship between regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and carotid atherosclerotic plaque burden and plaque characteristics. Methods and results Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the carotid artery was performed in 1901 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Wall thickness and volume, lipid-core volume, and fibrous cap thickness (by MRI) and plasma RANTES levels (by ELISA) were measured. Regression analysis was performed to study the associations between MRI variables and RANTES. Among 1769 inclusive participants, multivariable regression analysis revealed that total wall volume [beta-coefficient (?) = 0.09, P = 0.008], maximum wall thickness (? = 0.08, P = 0.01), vessel wall area (? = 0.07, P = 0.02), mean minimum fibrous cap thickness (? = 0.11, P = 0.03), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (? = 0.09, P = 0.01) were positively associated with RANTES. Total lipid-core volume showed positive association in unadjusted models (? = 0.18, P = 0.02), but not in fully adjusted models (? = 0.13, P = 0.09). RANTES levels were highest in Caucasian females followed by Caucasian males, African-American females, and African-American males (P < 0.0001). Statin use attenuated the relationship between RANTES and measures of plaque burden. Conclusion Positive associations between RANTES and carotid wall thickness and lipid-core volume (in univariate analysis) suggest that higher RANTES levels may be associated with extent of carotid atherosclerosis and high-risk plaques. Associations between fibrous cap thickness and RANTES likely reflect the lower reliability estimate for fibrous cap measurements compared with wall volume or lipid-core volume measurements. Statin use may modify the association between RANTES and carotid atherosclerosis. Furthermore, RANTES levels vary by race. PMID:20943669

  20. Multiple Sclerosis and Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Costantino, Cristina Maria; Hutton, Jonathon; Baecher-Allan, Clare; Hafler, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex genetic disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS). The pathology of MS is largely attributed to autoreactive effector T cells that penetrate the blood-brain barrier and become activated within the CNS. As autoreactive T cells are present in the blood of both patients with MS and healthy individuals, other regulatory mechanisms exist to prevent autoreactive T cells from causing immune disorders. Active suppression by regulatory T (Treg) cells plays a key role in the control of self-antigen-reactive T cells and the induction of peripheral tolerance in vivo. In particular, the importance of antigen-specific Treg cells in conferring genetic resistance to organ specific autoimmunity and in limiting autoimmune tissue damage has been documented in many disease models including MS. We have found that the frequency of Tregs in MS patients is unchanged from controls, but their function measured in vitro may be diminished, correlating with impaired inhibitory activity in vivo. This review discusses the immunopathology of MS with particular focus given to regulatory T cells and their potential for the development of new therapies to treat this disease. PMID:18763026

  1. T cell signalling through CD73.

    PubMed

    Resta, R; Thompson, L F

    1997-02-01

    CD73 (ecto-5'-nucleotidase), a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored purine salvage enzyme expressed on the surface of human T and B lymphocytes, catalyzes the conversion of purine and pyrimidine ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside monophosphates to the corresponding nucleosides. The cellular distribution, cDNA sequence, and structure of CD73 are reviewed. CD73 serves as a costimulatory molecule in activating T cells. A Jurkat.T cell line transfected with the CD73 cDNA revealed that neither enzymatic activity nor the GPI anchor is necessary for T cell activation in vitro via CD73, while expression of p56kk, CD45 and the T cell receptor are required. Models for the transmission of signals via CD73 and other GPI-anchored proteins are discussed. CD73 generated adenosine functions in cell signalling in many physiologic systems, including intestinal epithelium, ischemic myocardium, and cholinergic synapses. The hypothesis that CD73 produces adenosine that is important for T cell development is presented. PMID:9113412

  2. IFN-lambda Exerts Opposing Effects on T cell Responses Depending on the Chronicity of the Virus Infection1,2

    PubMed Central

    Misumi, Ichiro; Whitmire, Jason K.

    2014-01-01

    IFN-lambda (IFN-?) induces an antiviral state in many cell types and may contribute to the overall inflammatory environment following infection. Either of these effects may influence adaptive immune responses, but the role of type-3 interferons in the development of primary and memory T cell responses to infection has not been evaluated. Herein, we examined T cell responses to acute or persistent lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in IFN-?R1-deficient mice. Following acute infection, we find that IFN-?R1-deficient mice produced normal levels of interferon, robust NK cell responses, but greater than normal CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses compared to WT Balb/c mice. There were more T cells that were IL-7Rhi and, correspondingly, the IFN-?R-deficient mice showed a 23-fold increase in memory T cell number. The inhibitory effect of IFN-?R expression was independent of direct cytokine signaling into T cells. In contrast to acute infection, the IFN-?R-deficient mice generated markedly diminished T cell responses and had greater weight loss compared to WT mice when confronted with a highly disseminating variant of LCMV. These data indicate that IFN-?R limits T cell responses and memory following transient infection but augments T cell responses during persisting infection. Thus, the immune regulatory functions for IFN-?R are complex and vary with the overall inflammatory environment. PMID:24646741

  3. CD8 T Cell Memory Recall Is Enhanced by Novel Direct Interactions with CD4 T Cells Enabled by MHC Class II Transferred from APCs

    PubMed Central

    Romagnoli, Pablo A.; Premenko-Lanier, Mary F.; Loria, Gilbert D.; Altman, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Protection against many intracellular pathogens is provided by CD8 T cells, which are thought to need CD4 T cell help to develop into effective memory CD8 T cells. Because murine CD8 T cells do not transcribe MHC class II (MHC-II) genes, several models have proposed antigen presenting cells (APCs) as intermediaries required for CD4 T cells to deliver their help to CD8 T cells. Here, we demonstrate the presence of MHC-II molecules on activated murine CD8 T cells in vitro as well as in vivo. These MHC-II molecules are acquired via trogocytosis by CD8 T cells from their activating APCs, particularly CD11c positive dendritic cells (DCs). Transferred MHC-II molecules on activated murine CD8 T cells were functionally competent in stimulating specific indicator CD4 T cells. CD8 T cells that were “helped” in vitro and subsequently allowed to rest in vivo showed enhanced recall responses upon challenge compared to “helpless” CD8 T cells; in contrast, no differences were seen upon immediate challenge. These data indicate that direct CD8∶CD4 T cell interactions may significantly contribute to help for CD8 T cells. Furthermore, this mechanism may enable CD8 T cells to communicate with different subsets of interacting CD4 T cells that could modulate immune responses. PMID:23441229

  4. Dysregulated development of IL-17- and IL-21-expressing follicular helper T cells and increased germinal center formation in the absence of RORγt.

    PubMed

    Wichner, Katharina; Stauss, Dennis; Kampfrath, Branka; Krüger, Kerstin; Müller, Gerd; Rehm, Armin; Lipp, Martin; Höpken, Uta E

    2016-02-01

    Interleukin 17-producing helper T (Th17) cells have been widely defined by the lineage transcription factor retinoid-related orphan receptor (ROR)γt. Pathophysiologically, these cells play a crucial role in autoimmune diseases and have been linked to dysregulated germinal center (GC) reactions and autoantibody production. In this study, we used gene expression and flow cytometric analyses for the characterization of Rorγt(-/-) and Rorγt(-/-)Il21(RFP/+) mice to demonstrate a previously unknown transcriptional flexibility in the development of IL-17-producing Th-cell subsets. We found an accumulation of follicular Th (Tfh) cells by 5.2-fold, spontaneous 13-fold higher GC formation, decreased frequency of follicular Foxp3(+) T-regulatory (Treg) cells (50%), and a 3.4-fold increase in the number of proliferating follicular B cells in RORγt-deficient vs. wild-type mice. Dysregulated B-cell responses were associated with enhanced production of IL-17 (6.4-fold), IL-21 (2.2-fold), and B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) (2-fold) and were partially rescued by adoptive transfer of Treg cells. In an unexpected finding, we detected RORγt-independent IL-17 expression in ICOS(+)CXCR5(+)Tfh and in ICOS(+)CXCR5(-)Th cells. Based on the observed high Irf4 and Batf gene expression, we suggest that CD4(+) T-cell transcription factors other than RORγt can cooperatively induce differentiation of IL-17-producing Th cells, including Th17-like Tfh-cell subsets. We conclude that the occurrence of aberrant Tfh and follicular Treg cells support spontaneous GC formation and dysregulated B-cell responses in RORγt-deficient mice.-Wichner, K., Stauss, D., Kampfrath, B., Krüger, K., Müller, G., Rehm, A., Lipp, M., Höpken, U. E. Dysregulated development of IL-17- and IL-21-expressing follicular helper T cells and increased germinal center formation in the absence of RORγt. PMID:26499265

  5. The tumor suppressor Ikaros shapes the repertoire of notch target genes in T cells.

    PubMed

    Geimer Le Lay, Anne-Solen; Oravecz, Attila; Mastio, Jrme; Jung, Claudia; Marchal, Patricia; Ebel, Claudine; Dembl, Doulaye; Jost, Bernard; Le Gras, Stphanie; Thibault, Christelle; Borggrefe, Tilman; Kastner, Philippe; Chan, Susan

    2014-03-18

    The Notch signaling pathway is activated in many cell types, but its effects are cell type- and stage-specific. In the immune system, Notch activity is required for the differentiation of T cell progenitors, but it is reduced in more mature thymocytes, in which Notch is oncogenic. Studies based on single-gene models have suggested that the tumor suppressor protein Ikaros plays an important role in repressing the transcription of Notch target genes. We used genome-wide analyses, including chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, to identify genes controlled by Notch and Ikaros in gain- and loss-of-function experiments. We found that Ikaros bound to and directly repressed the expression of most genes that are activated by Notch. Specific deletion of Ikaros in thymocytes led to the persistent expression of Notch target genes that are essential for T cell maturation, as well as the rapid development of T cell leukemias in mice. Expression of Notch target genes that are normally silent in T cells, but are activated by Notch in other cell types, occurred in T cells of mice genetically deficient in Ikaros. We propose that Ikaros shapes the timing and repertoire of the Notch transcriptional response in T cells through widespread targeting of elements adjacent to Notch regulatory sequences. These results provide a molecular framework for understanding the regulation of tissue-specific and tumor-related Notch responses. PMID:24643801

  6. CAR-T Cell Therapy for Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Carlos A; Heslop, Helen E; Brenner, Malcolm K

    2016-01-14

    Lymphomas arise from clonal expansions of B, T, or NK cells at different stages of differentiation. Because they occur in the immunocyte-rich lymphoid tissues, they are easily accessible to antibodies and cell-based immunotherapy. Expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) on T cells is a means of combining the antigen-binding site of a monoclonal antibody with the activating machinery of a T cell, enabling antigen recognition independent of major histocompatibility complex restriction, while retaining the desirable antitumor properties of a T cell. Here, we discuss the basic design of CARs and their potential advantages and disadvantages over other immune therapies for lymphomas. We review current clinical trials in the field and consider strategies to improve the in vivo function and safety of immune cells expressing CARs. The ultimate driver of CAR development and implementation for lymphoma will be the demonstration of their ability to safely and cost-effectively cure these malignancies. PMID:26332003

  7. Development of ultra-super sensitive immunohistochemistry and its application to the etiological study of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hasui, Kazuhisa; Wang, Jia; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Izumo, Shuji; Eizuru, Yoshito; Matsuyama, Takami

    2012-04-26

    Antigen retrieval (AR) and ultra-super sensitive immunohistochemistry (ultra-IHC) have been established for application to archival human pathology specimens. The original ultra-IHC was the ImmunoMax method or the catalyzed signal amplification system (ImmunoMax/CSA method), comprising the streptavidin-biotin complex (sABC) method and catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD) reaction with visualization of its deposition. By introducing procedures to diminish non-specific staining in the original ultra-IHC method, we developed the modified ImmunoMax/CSA method with AR heating sections in an AR solution (heating-AR). The heating-AR and modified ImmunoMax/CSA method visualized expression of the predominantly simple present form of HTLV-1 proviral DNA pX region p40Tax protein (Tax) in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) cells in archival pathology specimens in approximately 75% of cases. The simple present form of Tax detected exhibited a close relation with ATLL cell proliferation. We also established a new simplified CSA (nsCSA) system by replacing the sABC method with the secondary antibody- and horse radish peroxidase-labeled polymer reagent method, introducing the pretreatments blocking non-specific binding of secondary antibody reagent, and diminishing the diffusion of deposition in the CARD reaction. Combined with AR treating sections with proteinase K solution (enzymatic-AR), the nsCSA system visualized granular immunostaining of the complex present form of Tax in a small number of ATLL cells in most cases, presenting the possibility of etiological pathological diagnosis of ATLL and suggesting that the complex present form of Tax-positive ATLL cells were young cells derived from ATLL stem cells. The heating-AR and ultra-IHC detected physiological expression of the p53 protein and its probable phosphorylation by Tax in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of peripheral blood tissue specimens from HTLV-1 carriers, as well as physiological and pathological expression of the molecules involved with G1 phase progression and G1-S phase transition (E2F-1, E2F-4, DP-1, and cyclin E) in ATLL and peripheral T-cell lymphoma cells. The ultra-IHC with AR is useful for etiological pathological diagnosis of ATLL since HTLV-1 pathogenicity depends on that of Tax, and can be a useful tool for studies translating advanced molecular biology and pathology to human pathology. PMID:22685351

  8. Inducible T-cell receptor expression in precursor T cells for leukemia control.

    PubMed

    Hoseini, S S; Hapke, M; Herbst, J; Wedekind, D; Baumann, R; Heinz, N; Schiedlmeier, B; Vignali, D A A; van den Brink, M R M; Schambach, A; Blazar, B R; Sauer, M G

    2015-07-01

    Co-transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells with those engineered to express leukemia-reactive T-cell receptors (TCRs) and differentiated ex vivo into precursor T cells (preTs) may reduce the risk of leukemia relapse. As expression of potentially self-(leukemia-) reactive TCRs will lead to negative selection or provoke autoimmunity upon thymic maturation, we investigated a novel concept whereby TCR expression set under the control of an inducible promoter would allow timely controlled TCR expression. After in vivo maturation and gene induction, preTs developed potent anti-leukemia effects. Engineered preTs provided protection even after repeated leukemia challenges by giving rise to effector and central memory cells. Importantly, adoptive transfer of TCR-transduced allogeneic preTs mediated anti-leukemia effect without evoking graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Earlier transgene induction forced CD8(+) T-cell development was required to obtain a mature T-cell subset of targeted specificity, allowed engineered T cells to efficiently pass positive selection and abrogated the endogenous T-cell repertoire. Later induction favored CD4 differentiation and failed to produce a leukemia-reactive population emphasizing the dominant role of positive selection. Taken together, we provide new functional insights for the employment of TCR-engineered precursor cells as a controllable immunotherapeutic modality with significant anti-leukemia activity. PMID:25652739

  9. Development of a hypersensitive periodate-cleavable amino acid that is methionine- and disulfide-compatible and its application in MHC exchange reagents for T cell characterisation.

    PubMed

    Amore, Alessia; Wals, Kim; Koekoek, Evelyn; Hoppes, Rieuwert; Toebes, Mireille; Schumacher, Ton N M; Rodenko, Boris; Ovaa, Huib

    2013-01-01

    Incorporation of cleavable linkers into peptides and proteins is of particular value in the study of biological processes. Here we describe the synthesis of a cleavable linker that is hypersensitive to oxidative cleavage as the result of the periodate reactivity of a vicinal amino alcohol moiety. Two strategies directed towards the synthesis of a building block suitable for solid-phase peptide synthesis were developed: a chemoenzymatic route, involving L-threonine aldolase, and an enantioselective chemical route; these led to ?,?-diamino-?-hydroxybutanoic acids in diastereoisomerically mixed and enantiopure forms, respectively. Incorporation of the 1,2-amino alcohol linker into the backbone of a peptide generated a conditional peptide that was rapidly cleaved at very low concentrations of sodium periodate. This cleavable peptide ligand was applied in the generation of MHC exchange reagents for the detection of antigen-specific T cells in peripheral blood cells. The extremely low concentration of periodate required to trigger MHC peptide exchange allowed the co-oxidation of methionine and disulfide residues to be avoided. Conditional MHC reagents hypersensitive to periodate can now be applied without limitations when UV irradiation is undesired or less practical. PMID:23280887

  10. Development of a Hypersensitive Periodate-Cleavable Amino Acid that is Methionine- and Disulfide-Compatible and its Application in MHC Exchange Reagents for T Cell Characterisation

    PubMed Central

    Amore, Alessia; Wals, Kim; Koekoek, Evelyn; Hoppes, Rieuwert; Toebes, Mireille; Schumacher, Ton N M; Rodenko, Boris; Ovaa, Huib

    2013-01-01

    Incorporation of cleavable linkers into peptides and proteins is of particular value in the study of biological processes. Here we describe the synthesis of a cleavable linker that is hypersensitive to oxidative cleavage as the result of the periodate reactivity of a vicinal amino alcohol moiety. Two strategies directed towards the synthesis of a building block suitable for solid-phase peptide synthesis were developed: a chemoenzymatic route, involving l-threonine aldolase, and an enantioselective chemical route; these led to ?,?-diamino-?-hydroxybutanoic acids in diastereoisomerically mixed and enantiopure forms, respectively. Incorporation of the 1,2-amino alcohol linker into the backbone of a peptide generated a conditional peptide that was rapidly cleaved at very low concentrations of sodium periodate. This cleavable peptide ligand was applied in the generation of MHC exchange reagents for the detection of antigen-specific T cells in peripheral blood cells. The extremely low concentration of periodate required to trigger MHC peptide exchange allowed the co-oxidation of methionine and disulfide residues to be avoided. Conditional MHC reagents hypersensitive to periodate can now be applied without limitations when UV irradiation is undesired or less practical. PMID:23280887

  11. Infusion of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviates Autoimmune Nephritis in a Lupus Model by Suppressing Follicular Helper T-Cell Development.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eunkyeong; Jeong, Mini; Kim, Sukhyung; Jang, Kiseok; Kang, Bo-Kyeong; Lee, Dong Yun; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Kyung Suk; Youn, Jeehee

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies to components of the cell nucleus. These autoantibodies are predominantly produced with the help of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells and form immune complexes that trigger widespread inflammatory damage, including nephritis. In recent studies, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) elicited diverse, even opposing, effects in experimental and clinical SLE. Here we investigated the effect of human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hBM-MSCs) in a murine model of SLE, the F1 hybrid between New Zealand Black and New Zealand White strains (NZB/W). We found that infusion of female NZB/W mice with hBM-MSCs attenuated glomerulonephritis; it also decreased levels of autoantibodies and the incidence of proteinuria and improved survival. These effects coincided with a decrease in Tfh cells and downstream components. Infiltration of long-lived plasma cells into the inflamed kidney was also reduced in the hBM-MSC-treated mice. Importantly, hBM-MSCs directly suppressed the in vitro differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells toward Tfh cells in a contact-dependent manner. These results suggest that MSCs attenuate lupus nephritis by suppressing the development of Tfh cells and the subsequent activation of humoral immune components. They thus reveal a novel mechanism by which MSCs regulate humoral autoimmune diseases such as SLE. PMID:25975931

  12. Global T cell dysregulation in non-autoimmune-prone mice promotes rapid development of BAFF-independent, systemic lupus erythematosus-like autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Stohl, William; Jacob, Noam; Quinn, William J; Cancro, Michael P; Gao, Huaxin; Putterman, Chaim; Gao, Xiaoni; Pricop, Luminita; Koss, Michael N

    2008-07-01

    In otherwise non-autoimmune-prone C57BL/6 (B6) mice rendered genetically deficient in CD152 (CTLA-4), polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia with increased levels of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-associated IgG autoantibodies, glomerular IgG and C3 deposition, and interstitial nephritis all developed by 3-5 wk of age. Remarkably, superimposing genetic deficiency of BAFF (B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family) onto CD152 deficiency did not substantially attenuate humoral autoimmunity and immunopathology in these mice, despite the resulting marked reduction in B-lineage cells. Although superimposing a BAFF transgene (resulting in constitutive BAFF overexpression) onto CD152-deficient mice did lead to increases in B-lineage cells and serum levels of certain SLE-associated IgG autoantibodies, renal immunopathology remained largely unaffected. Taken together, these results demonstrate that global T cell dysregulation, even in an otherwise non-autoimmune-prone host, can promote systemic humoral autoimmunity and immunopathology in a BAFF-independent manner. Moreover, supraphysiologic expression of BAFF in the setting of ongoing autoimmunity does not necessarily lead to greater immunopathology. These findings may help explain the limited clinical efficacy appreciated to date of BAFF antagonists in human SLE. PMID:18566449

  13. Therapeutic Potential of Hyporesponsive CD4+ T Cells in Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Jaxaira; Schafer, Carolina; Ubilla-Olguín, Gabriela; Catalán, Diego; Schinnerling, Katina; Aguillón, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells is crucial on immunity or tolerance induction. In an immature or semi-mature state, DCs induce tolerance through T-cell deletion, generation of regulatory T cells, and/or induction of T-cell anergy. Anergy is defined as an unresponsive state that retains T cells in an “off” mode under conditions in which immune activation is undesirable. This mechanism is crucial for the control of T-cell responses against self-antigens, thereby preventing autoimmunity. Tolerogenic DCs (tDCs), generated in vitro from peripheral blood monocytes of healthy donors or patients with autoimmune pathologies, were shown to modulate immune responses by inducing T-cell hyporesponsiveness. Animal models of autoimmune diseases confirmed the impact of T-cell anergy on disease development and progression in vivo. Thus, the induction of T-cell hyporesponsiveness by tDCs has become a promising immunotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of T-cell-mediated autoimmune disorders. Here, we review recent findings in the area and discuss the potential of anergy induction for clinical purposes. PMID:26441992

  14. Diffusion tensor imaging of normal brain development

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Shoko; Oishi, Kenichi; Faria, Andreia V.

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an MRI technique that can measure the macroscopic structural organization in brain tissues. DTI has been shown to provide information complementary to relaxation-based MRI about the changes in the brain's microstructure. In the pediatric population, DTI enables quantitative observation of the maturation process of white matter structures. Its ability to delineate various brain structures during developmental stages makes it an effective tool with which to characterize both the normal and abnormal anatomy of the developing brain. This review will highlight the advantages, as well as the common technical pitfalls of pediatric DTI. In addition, image quantification strategies for various DTI-derived parameters and the normal brain developmental changes associated with these parameters are discussed. PMID:23288475

  15. An attenuated temperature-sensitive strain of cytomegalovirus (tsm5) establishes immunity without development of CD8(+) T cell memory inflation.

    PubMed

    Beswick, Mark; Pachnio, Annette; Al-Ali, Abdulaziz; Sweet, Clive; Moss, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a widely prevalent herpesvirus that is well tolerated by an immune competent host yet establishes a state of chronic infection. The virus is thought to undergo frequent subclinical episodes of reactivation which leads to an unusually large accumulation of CMV-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, a phenomenon termed "memory inflation." The high magnitude of the CMV T cell response has been implicated in impaired immunity to heterologous pathogens such as EBV, influenza and West Nile virus. Here, using murine CMV (MCMV), we show that memory inflation of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells is avoided if mice are infected with a replication defective virus called temperature-sensitive mutant 5 (tsm5), which carries an attenuating mutation within the DNA primase gene. Mice infected with tsm5 do generate primary T cell responses towards viral proteins but these do not amass to skew the memory repertoire of CD8(+) T cells. Therefore, attenuation of the virus replication machinery may be valuable in future CMV vaccine designs because the virus remains immunogenic but does not contribute to CMV associated T cell immune senescence. PMID:23852921

  16. Immunophenotypic and antigen receptor gene rearrangement analysis in T cell neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    The author reviews the immunophenotypic profiles displayed by the major clinicopathologic categories of T cell neoplasia, the immunophenotypic criteria useful in the immunodiagnosis of T cell neoplasia, and the contributions made by antigen receptor gene rearrangement analysis to the understanding of T cell neoplasia. Neoplasms belonging to distinct clinicopathologic categories of T cell neoplasia often exhibit characteristic immunophenotypic profiles. Approximately 80% of lymphoblastic lymphomas and 20% of acute lymphoblastic leukemias express phenotypes consistent with prethymic and intrathymic stages of T cell differentiation, including intranuclear terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. Cutaneous T cell lymphomas of mycosis fungoides type usually express pan-T cell antigens CD2, CD5, and CD3, often lack the pan-T cell antigen CD7, and usually express the mature, peripheral helper subset phenotype, CD4+ CD8-. Cutaneous T cell lymphomas of nonmycosis fungoides type and peripheral T cell lymphomas often lack one or more pan-T cell antigens and, in addition, occasionally express the anomalous CD4+ CD8+ or CD4- CD8- phenotypes. T gamma-lymphoproliferative disease is divisable into two broad categories: those cases that are CD3 antigen positive and exhibit clonal T cell receptor beta chain (TCR-beta) gene rearrangements and those cases that are CD3 antigen negative and exhibit the TCR-beta gene germline configuration. Human T cell lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I) associated Japanese, Carribean, and sporadic adult T cell leukemia/lymphomas usually express pan-T cell antigens, the CD4+ CD8- phenotype, and various T cell-associated activation antigens, including the interleukin-2 receptor (CD25). Immunophenotypic criteria useful in the immunodiagnosis of T cell neoplasia include, in increasing order of utility, T cell predominance, T cell subset antigen restriction, anomalous T cell subset antigen expression, and deletion of one or more pan-T cell antigens. Only in exceptional circumstances do normal, non-neoplastic T cell populations express the CD4- CD8- or the CD4+ CD8+ phenotype and/or lack one or more pan-T cell antigens. T cell receptor beta chain gene rearrangement analysis represents an accurate, objective, and sensitive molecular genetic marker of T cell lineage and clonality that allows discrimination among non-T cell, polyclonal T cell and monoclonal T cell populations. Non-T cells exhibit the TCR-beta gene germline configuration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2495724

  17. Immunophenotypic and antigen receptor gene rearrangement analysis in T cell neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Knowles, D M

    1989-04-01

    The author reviews the immunophenotypic profiles displayed by the major clinicopathologic categories of T cell neoplasia, the immunophenotypic criteria useful in the immunodiagnosis of T cell neoplasia, and the contributions made by antigen receptor gene rearrangement analysis to the understanding of T cell neoplasia. Neoplasms belonging to distinct clinicopathologic categories of T cell neoplasia often exhibit characteristic immunophenotypic profiles. Approximately 80% of lymphoblastic lymphomas and 20% of acute lymphoblastic leukemias express phenotypes consistent with prethymic and intrathymic stages of T cell differentiation, including intranuclear terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. Cutaneous T cell lymphomas of mycosis fungoides type usually express pan-T cell antigens CD2, CD5, and CD3, often lack the pan-T cell antigen CD7, and usually express the mature, peripheral helper subset phenotype, CD4+ CD8-. Cutaneous T cell lymphomas of nonmycosis fungoides type and peripheral T cell lymphomas often lack one or more pan-T cell antigens and, in addition, occasionally express the anomalous CD4+ CD8+ or CD4- CD8- phenotypes. T gamma-lymphoproliferative disease is divisable into two broad categories: those cases that are CD3 antigen positive and exhibit clonal T cell receptor beta chain (TCR-beta) gene rearrangements and those cases that are CD3 antigen negative and exhibit the TCR-beta gene germline configuration. Human T cell lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I) associated Japanese, Carribean, and sporadic adult T cell leukemia/lymphomas usually express pan-T cell antigens, the CD4+ CD8- phenotype, and various T cell-associated activation antigens, including the interleukin-2 receptor (CD25). Immunophenotypic criteria useful in the immunodiagnosis of T cell neoplasia include, in increasing order of utility, T cell predominance, T cell subset antigen restriction, anomalous T cell subset antigen expression, and deletion of one or more pan-T cell antigens. Only in exceptional circumstances do normal, non-neoplastic T cell populations express the CD4- CD8- or the CD4+ CD8+ phenotype and/or lack one or more pan-T cell antigens. T cell receptor beta chain gene rearrangement analysis represents an accurate, objective, and sensitive molecular genetic marker of T cell lineage and clonality that allows discrimination among non-T cell, polyclonal T cell and monoclonal T cell populations. Non-T cells exhibit the TCR-beta gene germline configuration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2495724

  18. T Cells in Vascular Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lintermans, Lucas L.; Stegeman, Coen A.; Heeringa, Peter; Abdulahad, Wayel H.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation of the human vasculature is a manifestation of many different diseases ranging from systemic autoimmune diseases to chronic inflammatory diseases, in which multiple types of immune cells are involved. For both autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory diseases several observations support a key role for T lymphocytes in these disease pathologies, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous studies in several autoimmune diseases have demonstrated a significant role for a specific subset of CD4+ T cells termed effector memory T (TEM) cells. This expanded population of TEM cells may contribute to tissue injury and disease progression. These cells exert multiple pro-inflammatory functions through the release of effector cytokines. Many of these cytokines have been detected in the inflammatory lesions and participate in the vasculitic reaction, contributing to recruitment of macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, B cells, and T cells. In addition, functional impairment of regulatory T cells paralyzes anti-inflammatory effects in vasculitic disorders. Interestingly, activation of TEM cells is uniquely dependent on the voltage-gated potassium Kv1.3 channel providing an anchor for specific drug targeting. In this review, we focus on the CD4+ T cells in the context of vascular inflammation and describe the evidence supporting the role of different T cell subsets in vascular inflammation. Selective targeting of pathogenic TEM cells might enable a more tailored therapeutic approach that avoids unwanted adverse side effects of generalized immunosuppression by modulating the effector functions of T cell responses to inhibit the development of vascular inflammation. PMID:25352848

  19. Identification of a Late Stage of Small Noncycling pTα−  Pre-T Cells as Immediate Precursors of T Cell Receptor α/β+  Thymocytes

    PubMed Central

    Trigueros, César; Ramiro, Almudena R.; Carrasco, Yolanda R.; de Yebenes, Virginia G.; Albar, Juan P.; Toribio, María L.

    1998-01-01

    During thymocyte development, progression from T cell receptor (TCR)β to TCRα rearrangement is mediated by a CD3-associated pre-TCR composed of the TCRβ chain paired with pre-TCRα (pTα). A major issue is how surface expression of the pre-TCR is regulated during normal thymocyte development to control transition through this checkpoint. Here, we show that developmental expression of pTα is time- and stage-specific, and is confined in vivo to a limited subset of large cycling human pre-T cells that coexpress low density CD3. This restricted expression pattern allowed the identification of a novel subset of small CD3− thymocytes lacking surface pTα, but expressing cytoplasmic TCRβ, that represent late noncycling pre-T cells in which recombination activating gene reexpression and downregulation of T early α transcription are coincident events associated with cell cycle arrest, and immediately preceding TCRα gene expression. Importantly, thymocytes at this late pre-T cell stage are shown to be functional intermediates between large pTα+ pre-T cells and TCRα/β+ thymocytes. The results support a developmental model in which pre-TCR–expressing pre-T cells are brought into cycle, rapidly downregulate surface pre-TCR, and finally become small resting pre-T cells, before the onset of TCRα gene expression. PMID:9782117

  20. Recent Developments in Nonlinear Normal Mode Initialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of a balanced initial condition upon GLAS GCM forecasts and assimilation cycles was assessed. An effort to combine previous work on normal mode initialization at GLA is underway to develop an initialization process for the production version of the GLAS 4th order GCM. The major aspects of this work fall into two parts: vectorization of the linear projector code and the insertion of the mode projector and Machenhauer iteration algorithm into the full GLAS GCM. Memory and paging constraints place restrictions on the number of horizontal modes stored for initialization purposes, and on the manner in which they are stored. Only the first five vertical structures of the gravity modes are used. Differing phase and normalization conventions provided many elusive coding errors. A Machenhauer nonlinear normal mode initialization technique is used. This method entails the insertion of a modified version of the mode projector into the full GCM, and the modification of the GCM to allow for iterative calls to the projector.

  1. Herpesvirus saimiri transformed T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells restimulate identical antigen-specific human T cell clones.

    PubMed

    Daubenberger, C A; Nickel, B; Hbner, B; Siegler, U; Meinl, E; Pluschke, G

    2001-08-01

    Panels of human antigen-specific T cell clones (TCC) have been established by limiting dilution using Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) subtype C transformed T cells as antigen presenting cells (APC). They showed antigen-specific proliferation when peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), HVS-transformed T cells and Epstein Barr Virus transformed lymphoblastoid B cell lines (EBV-LCL) were used as APC. All T cell clones were CD4+ and HLA class II restricted. For a detailed analysis, two panels of T cell clones specific for an epitope located in the N-terminus of the Merozoite Surface Protein 1 (MSP-1) of Plasmodium falciparum were established from the same founder T cell line using either PBMC or HVS-transformed T cells as APC. TCR analysis of the two panels of TCC demonstrated that the same founder cells could be propagated in both culture systems. Furthermore, no difference in the cytokine expression pattern or antigen processing and co-stimulatory requirements was observed between TCC established on PBMC or HVS-transformed T cells. Based on the finding that HVS-transformed T cells can replace PBMC as APC for isolation and propagation of antigen-specific TCC, a protocol was developed and successfully executed, which allows to establish and maintain vaccine-specific T cell clones from 20 ml of blood. This method might be particularly significant in clinical trials of immune intervention strategies. PMID:11406156

  2. Chimeric Antigen Receptors Modified T-Cells for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hanren; Wang, Yao; Lu, Xuechun; Han, Weidong

    2016-07-01

    The genetic modification and characterization of T-cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) allow functionally distinct T-cell subsets to recognize specific tumor cells. The incorporation of costimulatory molecules or cytokines can enable engineered T-cells to eliminate tumor cells. CARs are generated by fusing the antigen-binding region of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) or other ligand to membrane-spanning and intracellular-signaling domains. They have recently shown clinical benefit in patients treated with CD19-directed autologous T-cells. Recent successes suggest that the modification of T-cells with CARs could be a powerful approach for developing safe and effective cancer therapeutics. Here, we briefly review early studies, consider strategies to improve the therapeutic potential and safety, and discuss the challenges and future prospects for CAR T-cells in cancer therapy. PMID:26819347

  3. The role of the T cell in autoimmune inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    T cells, in particular CD4+ T cells, have been implicated in mediating many aspects of autoimmune inflammation. However, current evidence suggests that the role played by CD4+ T cells in the development of rheumatoid inflammation exceeds that of activated proinflammatory T-helper (Th)1 effector cells that drive the chronic autoimmune response. Subsets of CD4+ T cells with regulatory capacity, such as CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and Th2 cells, have been identified, and recent observations suggest that in rheumatoid arthritis the function of these regulatory T cells is severely impaired. Thus, in rheumatoid arthritis, defective regulatory mechanisms might allow the breakdown of peripheral tolerance, after which the detrimental Th1-driven immune response evolves and proceeds to chronic inflammation. Here, we review the functional abnormalities and the contribution of different T cell subsets to rheumatoid inflammation. PMID:15833146

  4. T-Cell Signaling in HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Wasim; Herbein, Georges

    2013-01-01

    HIV exploits the T-cell signaling network to gain access to downstream cellular components, which serves as effective tools to break the cellular barriers. Multiple host factors and their interaction with viral proteins contribute to the complexity of HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease progression. HIV-1 proteins gp120, Nef, Tat and Vpr alter the T-cell signaling pathways by activating multiple transcription factors including NF-?B, Sp1 and AP-1. HIV-1 evades the immune system by developing a multi-pronged strategy. Additionally, HIV-1 encoded proteins influence the apoptosis in the host cell favoring or blocking T-cell apoptosis. Thus, T-cell signaling hijacked by viral proteins accounts for both viral persistence and immune suppression during HIV-1 infection. Here, we summarize past and present studies on HIV-1 T-cell signaling with special focus on the possible role of T cells in facilitating viral infection and pathogenesis PMID:23986795

  5. Deep Sequencing of the T-cell Receptor Repertoire Demonstrates Polyclonal T-cell Infiltrates in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Harden, Jamie L.; Hamm, David; Gulati, Nicholas; Lowes, Michelle A.; Krueger, James G.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that infiltration of pathogenic T-cells plays an important role in psoriasis pathogenesis. However, the antigen specificity of these activated T-cells is relatively unknown. Previous studies using T-cell receptor polymerase chain reaction technology (TCR-PCR) have suggested there are expanded T-cell receptor (TCR) clones in psoriatic skin, suggesting a response to an unknown psoriatic antigen. Here we describe the results of high-throughput deep sequencing of the entire αβ- and γδ- TCR repertoire in normal healthy skin and psoriatic lesional and non-lesional skin. From this study, we were able to determine that there is a significant increase in the abundance of unique β- and γ- TCR sequences in psoriatic lesional skin compared to non-lesional and normal skin, and that the entire T-cell repertoire in psoriasis is polyclonal, with similar diversity to normal and non-lesional skin. Comparison of the αβ- and γδ- TCR repertoire in paired non-lesional and lesional samples showed many common clones within a patient, and these close were often equally abundant in non-lesional and lesional skin, again suggesting a diverse T-cell repertoire. Although there were similar (and low) amounts of shared β-chain sequences between different patient samples, there was significantly increased sequence sharing of the γ-chain in psoriatic skin from different individuals compared to those without psoriasis. This suggests that although the T-cell response in psoriasis is highly polyclonal, particular γδ- T-cell subsets may be associated with this disease. Overall, our findings present the feasibility of this technology to determine the entire αβ- and γδ- T-cell repertoire in skin, and that psoriasis contains polyclonal and diverse αβ- and γδ- T-cell populations. PMID:26594339

  6. mTORC1 in Thymic Epithelial Cells Is Critical for Thymopoiesis, T-Cell Generation, and Temporal Control of γδT17 Development and TCRγ/δ Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Xia; Shin, Jinwook; Wang, Shang; Gorentla, Balachandra; Lin, Xingguang; Gao, Jimin; Qiu, Yu-Rong; Zhong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Thymus is crucial for generation of a diverse repertoire of T cells essential for adaptive immunity. Although thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are crucial for thymopoiesis and T cell generation, how TEC development and function are controlled is poorly understood. We report here that mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in TECs plays critical roles in thymopoiesis and thymus function. Acute deletion of mTORC1 in adult mice caused severe thymic involution. TEC-specific deficiency of mTORC1 (mTORC1KO) impaired TEC maturation and function such as decreased expression of thymotropic chemokines, decreased medullary TEC to cortical TEC ratios, and altered thymic architecture, leading to severe thymic atrophy, reduced recruitment of early thymic progenitors, and impaired development of virtually all T-cell lineages. Strikingly, temporal control of IL-17-producing γδT (γδT17) cell differentiation and TCRVγ/δ recombination in fetal thymus is lost in mTORC1KO thymus, leading to elevated γδT17 differentiation and rearranging of fetal specific TCRVγ/δ in adulthood. Thus, mTORC1 is central for TEC development/function and establishment of thymic environment for proper T cell development, and modulating mTORC1 activity can be a strategy for preventing thymic involution/atrophy. PMID:26889835

  7. Generation of the alloreactive T-cell repertoire: interaction of T-cell genotype and maturation environment.

    PubMed Central

    Gress, R E; Hodes, R J

    1982-01-01

    The influences of the T-cell genotype and the T-cell maturation environment on generation of the T-cell alloreactive repertoire were evaluated in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses to Kb mutant determinants expressed by the strains B6. C-H-2bm1 and B6-H2-bm6. By constructing bone marrow chimeras using either H-2b of H-2d mice as the source of donor cells and either H-2d or H-2b irradiated mice as recipients, it was first determined whether the T-cell major histocompatibility complex genotype alone determines the alloreactive repertoire. The results of such experiments indicated that H-2b T cells that have matured in a normal H-2b environment (C57BL/6N, C57BL/10Sn) or H-2d T cells that have matured in a chimeric H-2b environment (B10.D2 leads to C57BL/10Sn) are responsive to Kbm1 and Kbm6 determinants while H-2b T cells that have matured in an H-2d chimeric environment (C57BL/10Sn leads to B10.D2) have a diminished responsiveness to H-2bm1 and are completely unresponsive to H-2bm6. These findings showed that T-cell genotype alone does not determine the alloreactive repertoire to mutant Kbm1 and Kbm6 determinants and suggested that the T-cell maturation environment plays a critical role in this process. Further studies were carried out to determine whether the T-cell maturation environment alone determines this repertoire, such that maturation in an H-2b but not in an H-2d environment is both necessary and sufficient to generate reactivity to Kbm6. Experiments in which either H-2d responder populations neonatally made tolerant to H-2b or unlabeled target blocking of normal H-2d responders were used provided evidence that T cells specific for Kbm6 mutant determinants are present in the repertoire of H-2d T cells that have matured in an H-2d environment. These findings suggest that the alloreactive T-cell repertoire is not determined by the T-cell major histocompatibility complex genotype alone or by the T-cell maturation environment alone but rather than it is the product of unique interactions between the two. PMID:6181512

  8. Giant cell vasculitis is a T cell-dependent disease.

    PubMed Central

    Brack, A.; Geisler, A.; Martinez-Taboada, V. M.; Younge, B. R.; Goronzy, J. J.; Weyand, C. M.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic vasculitis that preferentially targets medium-sized and large arteries. The etiopathogenesis of the syndrome is not known, and because of the paucity of information concerning the mechanisms of blood vessel wall damage, treatment options are limited. Clues to pathogenic events in this arteritis may derive from understanding the function of tissue-infiltrating cells. Arterial injury in GCA is associated with the formation of granulomas that are composed of T cells, activated macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. To examine the role of T cells, we implanted inflamed temporal arteries from patients with GCA into severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice and studied whether the vascular lesions were T cell-dependent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Temporal artery specimens from patients with GCA were engrafted into SCID mice. The histomorphologic appearance of fresh arteries and grafts retrieved from the mice was compared by two-color immunohistochemistry, and the functional profile of tissue-infiltrating cells was analyzed by semiquantifying cytokine transcription with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay system. The repertoire of tissue-infiltrating T cells was assessed for the presence of dominant T cell populations by using T cell receptor beta-chain-specific PCR followed by sequencing. To investigate the role of T cells in the activation of tissue-infiltrating macrophages, T cells were depleted from the arterial grafts by treating the mice with T cell-specific antibodies and the production of monokines was monitored. To demonstrate the disease relevance of T cells expanding in the implants, T cells were isolated from tissue segments and adoptively transferred into mice implanted with syngeneic arteries. The in situ production of lymphokines was then determined. RESULTS: The inflammatory infiltrate penetrating all layers of the arterial wall persisted in the xenotransplants, indicating that the inflammatory foci represent independent functional units. Similar quantities of T cell- and macrophage-derived cytokines were detected in fresh and engrafted tissue. However, the diversity of tissue-infiltrating T cells decreased following implantation. T cells with identical T cell receptors were expanded in different mice that had been engrafted with tissue fragments from the same patient, indicating that T cell survival in the arterial wall was a nonrandom process. To confirm the disease relevance of these T cells, T cell depletion and reconstitution experiments were performed. Antibody-mediated elimination of T cells from the xenotransplants resulted in the attenuation of the production of the monokines, IL-1 beta and IL-6. Adoptive transfer of syngeneic tissue-derived T cells, but not of peripheral blood T cells, into engrafted SCID mice enhanced the transcription of IL-2 and IFN-gamma in the implanted arteries. CONCLUSIONS: The vascular lesions of GCA are maintained in human artery-mouse chimeras, indicating that all cellular and noncellular components necessary for the disease are present in the temporal artery. Activation of tissue-infiltrating T cells and macrophages depends upon an infrequent subpopulation of lesional T cells that have a survival advantage in the xenotransplants. The selective proliferation of these T cells in the arteries suggests that there is recognition of a locally expressed antigen. Therefore, these T cells should be candidate targets for the development of novel therapeutic strategies in GCA. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 5 PMID:9307981

  9. Harnessing Regulatory T cells to Suppress Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, Alison N.; Hansbro, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an essential role in maintaining the homeostatic balance of immune responses. Asthma is an inflammatory condition of the airways that is driven by dysregulated immune responses toward normally innocuous antigens. Individuals with asthma have fewer and less functional Tregs, which may lead to uncontrolled effector cell responses and promote proasthmatic responses of T helper type 2, T helper 17, natural killer T, antigen-presenting, and B cells. Tregs have the capacity to either directly or indirectly suppress these responses. Hence, the induced expansion of functional Tregs in predisposed or individuals with asthma is a potential approach for the prevention and treatment of asthma. Infection by a number of micro-organisms has been associated with reduced prevalence of asthma, and many infectious agents have been shown to induce Tregs and reduce allergic airways disease in mouse models. The translation of the regulatory and therapeutic properties of infectious agents for use in asthma requires the identification of key modulatory components and the development and trial of effective immunoregulatory therapies. Further translational and clinical research is required for the induction of Tregs to be harnessed as a therapeutic strategy for asthma. PMID:20097830

  10. Utilizing Regulatory T Cells Against Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Mohammad; Fino, Kristin; Lei, Fengyang; Xiong, Xiaofang; Song, Jianxun

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential for normal immune surveillance systems, and their dysfunction leads to development of diseases, such as autoimmune disorders. CD4+CD25+ Treg cells are well-known suppressive cells, which express the transcription factor Foxp3, are indispensable for the maintenance of immune self-tolerance and homeostasis by suppressing aberrant or excessive immune response. Other Foxp3? Treg cells include Tr1, Th3, CD8+CD28?/?, and Qa1-restricted T cells; however, the contribution of these Treg cells to self-tolerance, immune homeostasis as well as preventing autoimmunity is not well defined. Here, we discuss the phenotypes and function of Foxp3+ Treg cells and the potential use of such Treg cells against rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Of note, even though most expanded populations of Foxp3+ Treg cells exhibit suppressive activity, tissue-associated or antigen-specific Treg cells appear superior in suppressing local autoimmune disorders such as RA. In addition, utilizing tissue-associated Foxp3+ Treg cells from stem cells may stable Foxp3 expression and avoid induction of a potentially detrimental systemic immunosuppression. PMID:25152867

  11. Alemtuzumab in T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Dearden, Claire E; Matutes, Estella

    2006-01-01

    The humanized monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab binds to the CD52 antigen, a glycoprotein which is widely expressed on normal and malignant B and T lymphocytes. Recently it has been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials that alemtuzumab has clinical activity in mature T-cell diseases such as T-prolymphocytic leukaemia and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, inducing responses in up to two thirds of heavily pre-treated relapsed/refractory patients. Response was associated with improved survival. The toxicity profile for the antibody is manageable. The major complications are infusional reactions associated with initial injections, and prolonged lymphopenia associated with reactivation of viruses. Future studies will be directed towards alternative (subcutaneous) routes and schedules of administration, use as first-line therapy, combination strategies, and role of alemtuzumab to purge minimal residual bone-marrow disease prior to stem-cell transplantation. PMID:16997184

  12. Human Papillomavirus Genome-Wide Identification of T-Cell Epitopes for Peptide Vaccine Development Against Cervical Cancer: An Integration of Computational Analysis and Experimental Assay.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Zheng, Xianfang; Hu, Chuancui; Cao, Yunxia

    2015-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has long been documented as the primary factor causing cervical cancer and other complications, and development of immunotherapeutic vaccines against HPV is thought to be an important approach in preventing women from HPV infections. It is known that the first step in vaccine development is to find potent T-cell epitopes in HPV proteins that can be effectively recognized and presented by the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. In the current study, we proposed a synthetic pipeline that integrates computational analysis and experimental assay to discover new peptide epitopes from HPV genome with high affinity to the HLA-A*0201, one of the most frequent HLA allele in Caucasian and Asian populations. In the procedure, a structure-based three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) methodology was described and several 3D-QSAR predictors were established using a set of activity-known HLA binders. The best predictor was then employed to perform extrapolation over the HPV genome to screen potential protein fragments with high HLA binding potency. Consequently, 10 peptides were suggested as promising candidates and their affinities toward HLA-A*0201 were assayed using a standard T2 cell surface stabilization test. Four peptides--LLITSNINA from protein E1 (BL50 = 7244 nM), VLLCVCLLI from protein E5 (BL50 = 9118 nM), VLLLWITAA from protein E5 (BL50 = 3388 nM), and LLMGTLGIV from protein E7 (BL50 = 5500 nM)--were identified as high-affinity binders. Further, the structural basis and binding mode of HLA-A*0201-LLITSNINA complex was examined in detail, revealing a complicated network of nonbonded interactions across the complex interface that should render high stability and specificity for the interaction system. PMID:26418056

  13. Pre-miRNA Loop Nucleotides Control the Distinct Activities of mir-181a-1 and mir-181c in Early T Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Sibiao; Chen, Chang-Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Background Mature miRNAs can often be classified into large families, consisting of members with identical seeds (nucleotides 2 through 7 of the mature miRNAs) and highly homologous ?21-nucleotide (nt) mature miRNA sequences. However, it is unclear whether members of a miRNA gene family, which encode identical or nearly identical mature miRNAs, are functionally interchangeable in vivo. Methods and Findings We show that mir-181a-1, but not mir-181c, can promote CD4 and CD8 double-positive (DP) T cell development when ectopically expressed in thymic progenitor cells. The distinct activities of mir-181a-1 and mir-181c are largely determined by their unique pre-miRNA loop nucleotidesnot by the one-nucleotide difference in their mature miRNA sequences. Moreover, the activity of mir-181a-1 on DP cell development can be quantitatively influenced by nucleotide changes in its pre-miRNA loop region. We find that both the strength and the functional specificity of miRNA genes can be controlled by the pre-miRNA loop nucleotides. Intriguingly, we note that mutations in the pre-miRNA loop regions affect pre-miRNA and mature miRNA processing, but find no consistent correlation between the effects of pre-miRNA loop mutations on the levels of mature miRNAs and the activities of the mir-181a-1/c genes. Conclusions These results demonstrate that pre-miRNA loop nucleotides play a critical role in controlling the activity of miRNA genes and that members of the same miRNA gene families could have evolved to achieve different activities via alterations in their pre-miRNA loop sequences, while maintaining identical or nearly identical mature miRNA sequences. PMID:18974849

  14. Retargeting Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus to Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Associated Adult T-Cell Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Dillon; Ramos, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive cancer of CD4/CD25+ T lymphocytes, the etiological agent of which is human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). ATL is highly refractory to current therapies, making the development of new treatments a high priority. Oncolytic viruses such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) are being considered as anticancer agents since they readily infect transformed cells compared to normal cells, the former appearing to exhibit defective innate immune responses. Here, we have evaluated the efficacy and safety of a recombinant VSV that has been retargeted to specifically infect and replicate in transformed CD4+ cells. This was achieved by replacing the single VSV glycoprotein (G) with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp160 to create a hybrid fusion protein, gp160G. The resultant virus, VSV-gp160G, was found to only target cells expressing CD4 and retained robust oncolytic activity against HTLV-1 actuated ATL cells. VSV-gp160G was further noted to be highly attenuated and did not replicate efficiently in or induce significant cell death of primary CD4+ T cells. Accordingly, VSV-gp160G did not elicit any evidence of neurotoxicity even in severely immunocompromised animals such as NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγ-c-null (NSG) mice. Importantly, VSV-gp160G effectively exerted potent oncolytic activity in patient-derived ATL transplanted into NSG mice and facilitated a significant survival benefit. Our data indicate that VSV-gp160G exerts potent oncolytic efficacy against CD4+ malignant cells and either alone or in conjunction with established therapies may provide an effective treatment in patients displaying ATL. IMPORTANCE Adult T cell leukemia (ATL) is a serious form of cancer with a high mortality rate. HTLV-1 infection is the etiological agent of ATL and, unfortunately, most patients succumb to the disease within a few years. Current treatment options have failed to significantly improve survival rate. In this study, we developed a recombinant strain of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) that specifically targets transformed CD4+ T cells through replacement of the G protein of VSV with a hybrid fusion protein, combining domains from gp160 of HIV-1 and VSV-G. This modification eliminated the normally broad tropism of VSV and restricted infection to primarily the transformed CD4+ cell population. This effect greatly reduced neurotoxic risk associated with VSV infection while still allowing VSV to effectively target ATL cells. PMID:26378177

  15. Novel treatments for T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Chan Yoon; Oki, Yasuhiro; Fanale, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    T-cell lymphomas are a biologically and clinically diverse collection of diseases that collectively account for 10% to 15% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Unlike B-cell lymphomas, the response of T-cell lymphomas to standard anthracycline-containing chemotherapy regimens is suboptimal and the prognosis of patients is accordingly poor. To address these shortcomings, there has been a proliferation in biologic agents with novel mechanisms of action that target surface antigens, signaling pathways, or cellular processes. Given the large number of candidate molecules showing preclinical promise and the rarity of these diseases, drug development for peripheral T-cell lymphoma is challenging. We provide an overview of agents that have recently been approved for relapsed/refractory T-cell lymphoma and highlight efforts to introduce these agents into front-line treatment protocols in combination with chemotherapy. We discuss biologic doublets currently being evaluated as "chemotherapy-free" salvage regimens and highlight some of the most promising investigational agents in early clinical development. PMID:25993211

  16. Stat5 is required for IL-2-induced cell cycle progression of peripheral T cells.

    PubMed

    Moriggl, R; Topham, D J; Teglund, S; Sexl, V; McKay, C; Wang, D; Hoffmeyer, A; van Deursen, J; Sangster, M Y; Bunting, K D; Grosveld, G C; Ihle, J N

    1999-02-01

    Many cytokines activate two highly homologous Stat proteins, 5a and 5b. Mice deficient in both genes lack all growth hormone and prolactin functions but retain functions associated with cytokines such as erythropoietin. Here, we demonstrate that, while lymphoid development is normal, Stat5a/b mutant peripheral T cells are profoundly deficient in proliferation and fail to undergo cell cycle progression or to express genes controlling cell cycle progression. In addition, the mice lack NK cells, develop splenomegaly, and have T cells with an activated phenotype, phenotypes seen in IL-2 receptor beta chain-deficient mice. These phenotypes are not seen in mice lacking Stat5a or Stat5b alone. The results demonstrate that the Stat5 proteins, redundantly, are essential mediators of IL-2 signaling in T cells. PMID:10072077

  17. Memory T cells need CD28 costimulation to remember

    PubMed Central

    Boesteanu, Alina C.; Katsikis, Peter D.

    2010-01-01

    The activation and expansion of nave T cells require costimulatory signals provided by CD28 and TNF family members. In contrast, for many years it was believed that memory T cells do not require CD28 costimulation for expansion during secondary responses. This was based on in vitro experiments that suggested the re-activation of memory T cells is somewhat independent of costimulation. Recent in vivo evidence, however, has challenged this and shown that both CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells require CD28 costimulation for maximal expansion and pathogen clearance. This requirement has important implications for host immunity, vaccine development and immunotherapeutics. PMID:19268606

  18. γδ T Cell Immunotherapy—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hirohito; Tanaka, Yoshimasa

    2015-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy utilizing Vγ9Vδ2 T cells has been developed over the past decade. A large number of clinical trials have been conducted on various types of solid tumors as well as hematological malignancies. Vγ9Vδ2 T cell-based immunotherapy can be classified into two categories based on the methods of activation and expansion of these cells. Although the in vivo expansion of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells by phosphoantigens or nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-bis) has been translated to early-phase clinical trials, in which the safety of the treatment was confirmed, problems such as activation-induced Vγ9Vδ2 T cell anergy and a decrease in the number of peripheral blood Vγ9Vδ2 T cells after infusion of these stimulants have not yet been solved. In addition, it is difficult to ex vivo expand Vγ9Vδ2 T cells from advanced cancer patients with decreased initial numbers of peripheral blood Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. In this article, we review the clinical studies and reports targeting Vγ9Vδ2 T cells and discuss the development and improvement of Vγ9Vδ2 T cell-based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25686210

  19. Primary Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma With Coexpression of T-Cell Receptors ?? and ??.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Vishwas; Shim, Eun-Hee; Knapp, Charles F; Hughey, Lauren; Elmets, Craig A; McKay, Kristopher

    2016-01-01

    T lymphocytes belong to 2 distinct sublineages that express either ?? or ?? T-cell receptor (TCR) complex. Although malignancy is a great instigator of lineage infidelity, as exemplified by aberrant expression of numerous lineage markers in lymphoma cells, malignant T cells rarely coexpress ?? and ?? TCR complexes. Similarly, only rare cases of CD4/CD8 double-positive primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma have been reported. In this report, we describe a remarkable case of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma coexpressing ?? and ?? TCR complexes, strong diffuse CD8, and a very restricted coexpression of CD4 and CD8. A 66-year-old man was referred to our center for treatment of a persistent eczematoid eruption of 6 years of duration. An initial biopsy demonstrated not only marked spongiosis, but also an epidermotropic population of CD4 small mature T cells with partial expression of CD8. The process remained indolent for another year, followed by an abrupt progression with development of plaques and tumors. Repeat biopsies of these lesions demonstrated a superimposed population of large anaplastic T cells extensively involving the dermis and epidermis. The large cells showed a strong uniform expression of CD3, CD8, CD45RA, CD5, granzyme, TIA1, perforin, TCR-?, and TCR-? and a weaker but unambiguous expression of CD4, CD25, CD2, and CD56. TCR gene rearrangement studies showed clonal rearrangements for TCR-? and TCR-? with identical peaks to those seen in the biopsy from a year earlier. The patient developed lymphadenopathy, with a biopsy showing nodal involvement by a morphologically and phenotypically identical neoplastic T-cell population. The disease showed partial response to systemic chemotherapy with development of new plaques, but these new lesions have regressed with radiation therapy. PMID:26258878

  20. New Strategies in Engineering T-cell Receptor Gene-Modified T cells to More Effectively Target Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Thomas M; Stromnes, Ingunn M; Chapuis, Aude G; Greenberg, Philip D

    2015-12-01

    The immune system, T cells in particular, have the ability to target and destroy malignant cells. However, antitumor immune responses induced from the endogenous T-cell repertoire are often insufficient for the eradication of established tumors, as illustrated by the failure of cancer vaccination strategies or checkpoint blockade for most tumors. Genetic modification of T cells to express a defined T-cell receptor (TCR) can provide the means to rapidly generate large numbers of tumor-reactive T cells capable of targeting tumor cells in vivo. However, cell-intrinsic factors as well as immunosuppressive factors in the tumor microenvironment can limit the function of such gene-modified T cells. New strategies currently being developed are refining and enhancing this approach, resulting in cellular therapies that more effectively target tumors and that are less susceptible to tumor immune evasion. Clin Cancer Res; 21(23); 5191-7. 2015 AACR. PMID:26463711

  1. Pre-existing anti-Salmonella vector immunity prevents the development of protective antigen-specific CD8 T-cell frequencies against murine listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Sevil Domènech, Victòria E; Panthel, Klaus; Meinel, Katrin M; Winter, Sebastian E; Rüssmann, Holger

    2007-10-01

    Our laboratory has focused its research on the use of the type III secretion system of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to translocate heterologous antigens directly into the cytosol of antigen-presenting cells. We have previously reported that the single oral immunization of mice with a recombinant Salmonella aroA/sptP mutant strain expressing the translocated Yersinia outer protein E fused to the immunodominant antigen p60 from Listeria monocytogenes in a type III-mediated fashion results in the efficient induction of p60-specific CD8 T cells and confers protection against a lethal Listeria challenge infection. In the present study, we determined whether pre-existing anti-Salmonella vector immunity influences the induction of p60-specific CD8 T cells and modulates protective immunity against listeriosis after oral vaccination with recombinant Salmonella. After single oral immunization, the Salmonella aroA/sptP double mutant strain was found to colonize spleens of mice for 21days. In contrast, the period of colonization was significantly shortened to 6days due to anti-Salmonella vector immunity after second oral immunization. The latter scenario led to the induction of low-level frequencies of antigen-specific CD8 T cells. Compared to the significantly higher numbers of p60-specific T lymphocytes elicited after single oral immunization, the low amount of Listeria-specific CD8 T cells did not confer protection against listeriosis. PMID:17913544

  2. Transcriptional regulator Id2 mediates CD8+ T cell immunity.

    PubMed

    Cannarile, Michael A; Lind, Nicholas A; Rivera, Richard; Sheridan, Alison D; Camfield, Kristin A; Wu, Bei Bei; Cheung, Kitty P; Ding, Zhaoqing; Goldrath, Ananda W

    2006-12-01

    Transcriptional programs that initiate and sustain the proliferation, differentiation and survival of CD8(+) T cells during immune responses are not completely understood. Here we show that inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2), an antagonist of E protein transcription factors, was upregulated in CD8(+) T cells during infection and that expression of Id2 was maintained in memory CD8(+) T cells. Although Id2-deficient naive CD8(+) T cells recognized antigen and proliferated normally early after infection, effector CD8(+) T cells did not accumulate because the cells were highly susceptible to apoptosis. Id2-deficient CD8(+) T cells responding to infection had changes in the expression of genes that influence survival and had altered memory formation. Our data emphasize the importance of Id2 in regulating gene expression by CD8(+) T cells and the magnitude of effector responses, suggesting a mechanism involving Id protein- and E protein-mediated survival and differentiation of mature T cells. PMID:17086188

  3. Identification and retrospective validation of T-cell epitopes in the hepatitis C virus genotype 4 proteome: an accelerated approach toward epitope-driven vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hady, Karim M; Gutierrez, Andres H; Terry, Frances; Desrosiers, Joe; De Groot, Anne S; Azzazy, Hassan M E

    2014-01-01

    With over 150 million people chronically infected worldwide and millions more infected annually, hepatitis C continues to pose a burden on the global healthcare system. The standard therapy of hepatitis C remains expensive, with severe associated side effects and inconsistent cure rates. Vaccine development against the hepatitis C virus has been hampered by practical and biological challenges posed by viral evasion mechanisms. Despite these challenges, HCV vaccine research has presented a number of candidate vaccines that progressed to phase II trials. However, those efforts focused mainly on HCV genotypes 1 and 2 as vaccine targets and barely enough attention was given to genotype 4, the variant most prevalent in the Middle East and central Africa. We describe herein the in silico identification of highly conserved and immunogenic T-cell epitopes from the HCV genotype 4 proteome, using the iVAX immunoinformatics toolkit, as targets for an epitope-driven vaccine. We also describe a fast and inexpensive approach for results validation using the empirical data on the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) as a reference. Our analysis identified 90 HLA class I epitopes of which 20 were found to be novel and 19 more had their binding predictions retrospectively validated; empirical data for the remaining 51 epitopes was insufficient to validate their binding predictions. Our analysis also identified 14 HLA class II epitopes, of which 8 had most of their binding predictions validated. Further investigation is required regarding the efficacy of the identified epitopes as vaccine targets in populations where HCV genotype 4 is most prevalent. PMID:25424944

  4. Interleukin-27 in T Cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Yukiko; Fujio, Keishi; Okamura, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-27, a member of IL-12/IL-23 heterodimeric family of cytokines, has pleiotropic properties that can enhance or limit immune responses. IL-27 acts on various cell types, including T cells, B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells and non-hematopoietic cells. Intensive studies have been conducted especially on T cells, revealing that various subsets of T cells respond uniquely to IL-27. IL-27 induces expansion of Th1 cells by activating signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1-mediated T-bet signaling pathway. On the other hand, IL-27 suppresses immune responses through inhibition of the development of T helper (Th) 17 cells and induction of IL-10 production in a STAT1- and STAT3-dependent manner. IL-27 is a potentially promising cytokine for therapeutic approaches on various human diseases. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of IL-27 related to T cell subsets, its structure, and production mechanism. PMID:25633106

  5. Molecular analysis of T-cell clonality in ulcerative jejunitis and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Ashton-Key, M.; Diss, T. C.; Pan, L.; Du, M. Q.; Isaacson, P. G.

    1997-01-01

    Ulcerative jejunitis (UJ) and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) are closely related conditions both associated with celiac disease. Benign-appearing inflammatory ulcers are seen in both, which has led to the suggestion that UJ is a manifestation of EATL. The aim of this study was to investigate this relationship using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect T-cell gene rearrangement. PCR amplification of the T-cell receptor gamma-chain gene was performed on DNA extracted from lymphoma, associated inflammatory ulcers, and intervening mucosa in six EATL cases and from ulcers and intervening mucosa of seven cases of UJ. In two of these cases, DNA from a subsequent lymphoma was also studied. The PCR products from the tumor and an ulcer from one EATL case, two ulcers from one case of UJ, and one ulcer and subsequent cutaneous lymphoma from one UJ case were sequenced. Twenty-five ulcers from twelve cases of Crohn's disease, twenty sections of normal bowel, and nine celiac biopsies were included as controls. A monoclonal T-cell population defined by a dominant band equal in size to that amplified from the lymphoma was identified in at least one ulcer from four informative EATL cases and from intervening mucosa in three. Monoclonality was demonstrated in at least one, and up to thirteen, ulcers from all seven cases of UJ, in intervening mucosa in five, and in the two subsequent lymphomas. Sequencing showed the same clone was present in the tumor and the ulcer in the EATL case, in two of three ulcers from the UJ case, and in an ulcer and subsequent cutaneous lymphoma in one UJ case. All Crohn's disease ulcers and all sections of normal bowel were polyclonal. One of nine celiac biopsies showed a dominant band. In conclusion, we have shown that T-cell monoclonality is a feature of the ulcers in both UJ and EATL and that the same clone is present in EATL and its associated inflammatory ulcers and in UJ and subsequently developing lymphoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9250161

  6. Retargeting T cells to GD2 pentasaccharide on human tumors using Bispecific humanized antibody.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Cheng, Ming; Guo, Hongfen; Chen, Yuedan; Huse, Morgan; Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2015-03-01

    Anti-disialoganglioside GD2 IgG antibodies have shown clinical efficacy in solid tumors that lack human leukocyte antigens (e.g., neuroblastoma) by relying on Fc-dependent cytotoxicity. However, there are pain side effects secondary to complement activation. T-cell retargeting bispecific antibodies (BsAb) also have clinical potential, but it is thus far only effective against liquid tumors. In this study, a fully humanized hu3F8-BsAb was developed, in which the anti-CD3 huOKT3 single-chain Fv fragment (ScFv) was linked to the carboxyl end of the anti-GD2 hu3F8 IgG1 light chain, and was aglycosylated at N297 of Fc to prevent complement activation and cytokine storm. In vitro, hu3F8-BsAb activated T cells through classic immunologic synapses, inducing GD2-specific tumor cytotoxicity at femtomolar EC50 with >10?-fold selectivity over normal tissues, releasing Th1 cytokines (TNF?, IFN?, and IL2) when GD2? tumors were present. In separate murine neuroblastoma and melanoma xenograft models, intravenous hu3F8-BsAb activated T cells in situ and recruited intravenous T cells for tumor ablation, significantly prolonging survival from local recurrence or from metastatic disease. Hu3F8-BsAb, but not control BsAb, drove T cells and monocytes to infiltrate tumor stroma. These monocytes were necessary for sustained T-cell proliferation and/or survival and contributed significantly to the antitumor effect. The in vitro and in vivo antitumor properties of hu3F8-BsAb and its safety profile support its further clinical development as a cancer therapeutic, and provide the rationale for exploring aglycosylated IgG-scFv as a structural platform for retargeting human T cells. PMID:25542634

  7. Retargeting T cells to GD2 pentasaccharide on human tumors using bispecific humanized antibody

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Cheng, Ming; Guo, Hongfen; Chen, Yuedan; Huse, Morgan; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-disialoganglioside GD2 IgG antibodies have shown clinical efficacy in solid tumors that lack human leukocyte antigens (e.g. neuroblastoma) by relying on Fc-dependent cytotoxicity. However, there are pain side effects secondary to complement activation. T-cell retargeting bispecific antibodies (BsAb) also have clinical potential, but it is thus far only effective against liquid tumors. In this study, a fully humanized hu3F8-BsAb was developed, in which the anti-CD3 huOKT3 single chain Fv fragment (ScFv) was linked to the carboxyl end of the anti-GD2 hu3F8 IgG1 light chain, and was aglycosylated at N297 of Fc to prevent complement activation and cytokine storm. In vitro, hu3F8-BsAb activated T cells through classic immunological synapses, inducing GD2-specific tumor cytotoxicity at femtomolar EC50 with >105-fold selectivity over normal tissues, releasing Th1 cytokines (TNF?, IFN? and IL2) when GD2(+) tumors were present. In separate murine neuroblastoma and melanoma xenograft models, intravenous hu3F8-BsAb activated T cells in situ and recruited intravenous T cells for tumor ablation, significantly prolonging survival from local recurrence or from metastatic disease. Hu3F8-BsAb, but not control BsAb, drove T cells and monocytes to infiltrate tumor stroma. These monocytes were necessary for sustained T-cell proliferation and/or survival and contributed significantly to the antitumor effect. The in vitro and in vivo antitumor properties of hu3F8-BsAb and its safety profile support its further clinical development as a cancer therapeutic, and provide the rationale for exploring aglycosylated IgG-scFv as a structural platform for retargeting human T cells. PMID:25542634

  8. TIM3 Mediates T Cell Exhaustion during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Pushpa; Jacques, Miye K.; Zhu, Chen; Steblenko, Katherine M.; Stowell, Britni L.; Madi, Asaf; Anderson, Ana C.; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Behar, Samuel M.

    2016-01-01

    While T cell immunity initially limits Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, why T cell immunity fails to sterilize the infection and allows recrudescence is not clear. One hypothesis is that T cell exhaustion impairs immunity and is detrimental to the outcome of M. tuberculosis infection. Here we provide functional evidence for the development T cell exhaustion during chronic TB. Second, we evaluate the role of the inhibitory receptor T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain–containing-3 (TIM3) during chronic M. tuberculosis infection. We find that TI