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Sample records for normotensas con diabetes

  1. Diabetes mellitus. Una enfermedad crnica asociada con niveles anormalmente altos del azcar de la glucosa en sangre. La causa de esta anormalidad es el hecho de

    E-print Network

    Fitze, Patrick

    Diabetes mellitus. Una enfermedad crónica asociada con niveles anormalmente altos del azúcar de la glucosa que se necesita absorber con la ayuda de la hormona insulina. La diabetes se debe a uno de estos acción de la insulina. Diabetes no insulinodependiente. Véase la entrada «Diabetes tipo 2». Diabetes tipo

  2. Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Diabetes What is Diabetes? Too Much Glucose in the Blood Diabetes means ... high, causing pre-diabetes or diabetes. Types of Diabetes There are three main kinds of diabetes: type ...

  3. Meal Planning for People with Diabetes, 2nd Edition = Planificacion de Comidas para Personas con Diabetes, 2 Edicion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Migrant Resource Program, Inc., Austin, TX.

    This booklet provides information about diabetes and meal planning particularly designed for migrant individuals. The first section defines diabetes, explains different types of diabetes, lists results of uncontrolled diabetes, and describes the goals and components of a diabetic meal plan. The second section explains the exchange system of…

  4. Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 01, 2011 National Diabetes Education Program. Overview of Diabetes in Children and Adolescents. Accessed January 01, 2011 National Institutes of Health. Type 1 Diabetes Fact Sheet. Accessed January 01, 2011 Diagnosis and ...

  5. Sulfonylurea Treatment Before Genetic Testing in Neonatal Diabetes: Pros and Cons

    PubMed Central

    Carmody, David; Bell, Charles D.; Hwang, Jessica L.; Dickens, Jazzmyne T.; Sima, Daniela I.; Felipe, Dania L.; Zimmer, Carrie A.; Davis, Ajuah O.; Kotlyarevska, Kateryna; Naylor, Rochelle N.; Philipson, Louis H.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Diabetes in neonates nearly always has a monogenic etiology. Earlier sulfonylurea therapy can improve glycemic control and potential neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with KCNJ11 or ABCC8 mutations, the most common gene causes. Objective: Assess the risks and benefits of initiating sulfonylurea therapy before genetic testing results become available. Design, Setting, and Patients: Observational retrospective study of subjects with neonatal diabetes within the University of Chicago Monogenic Diabetes Registry. Main Outcome Measures: Response to sulfonylurea (determined by whether insulin could be discontinued) and treatment side effects in those treated empirically. Results: A total of 154 subjects were diagnosed with diabetes before 6 months of age. A genetic diagnosis had been determined in 118 (77%), with 73 (47%) having a mutation in KCNJ11 or ABCC8. The median time from clinical diagnosis to genetic diagnosis was 10.4 weeks (range, 1.6 to 58.2 wk). In nine probands, an empiric sulfonylurea trial was initiated within 28 days of diabetes diagnosis. A genetic cause was subsequently found in eight cases, and insulin was discontinued within 14 days of sulfonylurea initiation in all of these cases. Conclusions: Sulfonylurea therapy appears to be safe and often successful in neonatal diabetes patients before genetic testing results are available; however, larger numbers of cases must be studied. Given the potential beneficial effect on neurodevelopmental outcome, glycemic control, and the current barriers to expeditious acquisition of genetic testing, an empiric inpatient trial of sulfonylurea can be considered. However, obtaining a genetic diagnosis remains imperative to inform long-term management and prognosis. PMID:25238204

  6. Stay at a Healthy Weight. Tips for Kids with Type 2 Diabetes = Mantente en un Peso Saludable. Consejos Para Muchachos con Diabetes Tipo 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A healthy weight means you are not too fat or too thin. Your doctor may have said that you should not gain more weight or that you need to lose a few pounds. If you have diabetes and are overweight, you are not alone. The steps you take to manage your weight will help you feel better and may improve your blood sugar or glucose (GLOO-kos) levels.…

  7. Diabetic Retinopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Diabetic Retinopathy What Is Diabetic Retinopathy? Click for more information Can Cause Vision Loss, Blindness Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of diabetes and a leading ...

  8. Diabetic Retinopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cases of Diabetic Retinopathy (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Diabetic retinopathy affects men and ... Cases of Diabetic Retinopathy (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Projections for Diabetic Retinopathy (2010- ...

  9. Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... 800-332-1088 to request a form. Diabetes Medicines The different kinds of diabetes medicines are listed ...

  10. Diabetic Nephropathy without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    López-Revuelta, Katia; Méndez Abreu, Angel A.; Gerrero-Márquez, Carmen; Stanescu, Ramona-Ionela; Martínez Marín, Maria Isabel; Pérez Fernández, Elia

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy without diabetes (DNND), previously known as idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis, is an uncommon entity and thus rarely suspected; diagnosis is histological once diabetes is discarded. In this study we describe two new cases of DNND and review the literature. We analyzed all the individualized data of previous publications except one series of attached data. DNND appears to be favored by recognized cardiovascular risk factors. However, in contrast with diabetes, apparently no factor alone has been demonstrated to be sufficient to develop DNND. Other factors not considered as genetic and environmental factors could play a role or interact. The most plausible hypothesis for the occurrence of DNND would be a special form of atherosclerotic or metabolic glomerulopathy than can occur with or without diabetes. The clinical spectrum of cardiovascular risk factors and histological findings support this theory, with hypertension as one of the characteristic clinical features. PMID:26239683

  11. Diabetic Neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Diabetic Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Diabetic Neuropathy? Diabetic neuropathy is a peripheral nerve disorder caused ...

  12. Diabetes Insipidus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disease Organizations?? . (PDF, 345 KB)????? Alternate Language URL Diabetes Insipidus Page Content On this page: What is ... diagnosed? Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disease ...

  13. Diabetes Myths

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Diabetes Myths There are many myths about diabetes that ... book-power-of-food-sticky.html More from diabetes.org Learn More: Special Book Promotion: Behind the ...

  14. Gestational diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar ( diabetes ) that starts or is first diagnosed during pregnancy. ... woman's blood. You are at greater risk for gestational diabetes if you: Are older than 25 when you ...

  15. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends on your type of diabetes, ... pills. Combination pills contain two kinds of diabetes medicine in one tablet. Some people take pills and ...

  16. Diabetic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diabetic ketoacidosis is sometimes the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who have not yet been diagnosed. ... in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing doses of ...

  17. Diabetic Neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by the American Academy of Family Physicians in cooperation with the American Diabetes Association. Symptoms What are ... men) and vaginal dryness (in women) Causes & Risk Factors What causes diabetic neuropathy? Diabetes causes the level ...

  18. Type 2 Diabetes: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... La diabetes es una afección en la cual el nivel de glucosa (también llamada azúcar) en sangre ... sangre demasiado alto puede dañar su organismo con el tiempo. La diabetes puede producir ataques cardíacos, accidentes ...

  19. Preventing Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Preventing Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) suggests these ...

  20. Diabetic Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of sugar (hyperglycemia), which can cause a diabetic coma. Symptoms of insulin shock include: Weakness, drowsiness Rapid ... in hands or feet Hunger Symptoms of diabetic coma include: Weak and rapid pulse Nausea Deep, sighing ...

  1. Diabetes Insipidus

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) causes frequent urination. You become extremely thirsty, so you drink. Then you urinate. This ... is almost all water. DI is different from diabetes mellitus (DM), which involves insulin problems and high ...

  2. Diabetes Complications

    MedlinePLUS

    If you have diabetes, your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Over time, this can cause problems with other body ... as your kidneys, nerves, feet, and eyes. Having diabetes can also put you at a higher risk ...

  3. Monogenic Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... form of monogenic diabetes? • What type of monogenic diabetes does my child (or do I) have? • What are the treatment options? • What are the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option? • Should I see a diabetes educator? • Should I see an endocrinologist? Resources • Find- ...

  4. Diabetes insipidus - nephrogenic

    MedlinePLUS

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; Congenital diabetes insipidus ... be removed and returned to the blood. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) occurs when the kidney tubules do ...

  5. Diabetic Neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Izenberg, Aaron; Perkins, Bruce A; Bril, Vera

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common condition and diabetics are prone to develop a spectrum of neuropathic complications ranging from symmetric and diffuse to asymmetric and focal neuropathies that may be associated with significant morbidity. Diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy is the most common of these complications, occurring in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as in those with prediabetes and glucose intolerance. In this review, the authors discuss the wide variety of neuropathies that can present in the context of diabetes, including the clinical manifestations, diagnostic features, and approach to management. PMID:26502765

  6. Genetics of Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A A A Listen En Español Genetics of Diabetes You've probably wondered how you developed diabetes. ... to develop diabetes than others. What Leads to Diabetes? Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different ...

  7. Diabetes and Insulin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Younger people can also develop type 2 diabetes. • Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that occurs only ... the baby is born. Women who have had gestational diabetes are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes ...

  8. [Diabetic neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Jiro; Kamiya, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic criteria of diabetic neuropathy that can be easily used at bedsides and have international consensus have not been established. The most important therapeutic strategy is to maintain strict glycemic control. In addition, treatment with an aldose reductase inhibitor that is innovated from the viewpoint of the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy would be useful for preventing the progression of diabetic neuropathy. For painful diabetic neuropathy, pregabalin and duloxetine effectively relieve the pain, and contribute to the improvement of the quality of life. PMID:26666151

  9. The Diabetes EDUCATOR Volume 37, Number 6, November/December 2011

    E-print Network

    Boggess, May M.

    The Diabetes EDUCATOR 770 Volume 37, Number 6, November/December 2011 Ninfa C. Peña-Purcell, Ph Controlar Mi Diabetes! program (formerly Do Well, Be Well con Diabetes program) was supported by the US-46100-05910). DOI: 10.1177/0145721711423319 © 2011 The Author(s) An Empowerment-Based Diabetes Self

  10. [Diabetic retinopathy].

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Harumi; Kato, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of vision loss in Japan. Recent progress in the treatments of diabetic retinopathy includes the use of pattern scan laser photocoagulation, subthreshold micropulse laser photocoagulation, and micro incision vitreous surgery with chandelier illumination and wide-angle viewing system. The use of triamcinolone, indocyanine green or brilliant blue G, which are used to visualize the vitreous and the internal limiting membrane, respectively, has greatly facilitated vitreous surgery. As for intraocular drug therapy, antivascular endothelial growth factor agents are now available for diabetic retinopathy, useful not only for treating diabetic macular edema, but also for controlling bleeding during vitreous surgery and for temporarily suppressing the symptoms of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26666149

  11. Diabetic Diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to high blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels. Healthy eating helps keep your blood sugar in your target ... medicines, lifestyle, and other health problems you have. Healthy diabetic eating includes Limiting foods that are high in sugar ...

  12. Diabetic Retinopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eye, including the retina, macula, lens and the optic nerve. Diabetic eye disease is a group of ... a group of diseases that damage the eye’s optic nerve—the bundle of nerve fibers that connects ...

  13. Diabetic Pets

    MedlinePLUS

    ... made by a veterinarian. Because older dogs and cats are more likely to develop age-related diseases ... cataracts, which commonly develop in diabetic dogs and cats. Other problems that can occur include hind leg ...

  14. Diabetes Trends

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... you can use for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetes Obesity Prediabetes About MedlinePlus Site Map ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  15. Diabetes and nerve damage

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy ... provider if you develop any symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. ... al. Evidence-based guideline: Treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: report of the American Academy of Neurology, the ...

  16. Depression and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... More Information on Diabetes Citations Reprints Depression and Diabetes Order a free hardcopy En Español Introduction Depression ... see the NIMH booklet on Depression . What is diabetes? Diabetes is an illness that affects the way ...

  17. Types of Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Types of Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes, formerly called juvenile diabetes or ...

  18. Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Diabetic Heart Disease? The term "diabetic heart disease" (DHD) refers ... Kidney Diseases' Introduction to Diabetes Web page. What Heart Diseases Are Involved in Diabetic Heart Disease? DHD ...

  19. Diabetes: Dental Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diabetes and Oral Health > Diabetes: Dental Tips Diabetes: Dental Tips Main Content Diabetes can cause serious problems ... damage the gum and bone that hold your teeth in place and may lead to painful chewing ...

  20. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Nov 10,2015 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  1. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Page Content On this page: ... increased risk of developing diabetes. [ Top ] Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Type 2 diabetes is a disorder ...

  2. Diabetes and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. When ... pregnant women in the United States get gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is diabetes that happens for the ...

  3. Kidney Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Kidney Disease & Diabetes Updated:Nov 10,2015 One of the more ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  4. Air Travel and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Size: A A A Listen Air Travel and Diabetes We continue to advocate for the rights travelers ... to people with diabetes. Explore: Air Travel and Diabetes Fact Sheet: Air Travel and Diabetes This fact ...

  5. Tips for Teens with Diabetes: What Is Diabetes?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alternate Language URL Español Tips for Teens with Diabetes: What is Diabetes? Page Content What i?s diabetes? Diabetes means that ... and nerves. ^ top Are there different types of diabetes? Yes. There are three main types of diabetes . ...

  6. Diabetes Travel Tips Video

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... here: NDEP Home > Resources > Diabetes Travel Tips Video Diabetes Travel Tips Video Diabetes doesn’t keep David from traveling. But he ... about some of David’s tips for traveling with diabetes. Diabetes Travel Tips Subtitle Diabetes Travel Tips Transcript ...

  7. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Diabetes Diabetes Center Eating Out When Your Child Has Diabetes Weight and Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child Eating Out When You Have Diabetes Meal Plans: ...

  8. Diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Studholme, Suki

    2008-05-01

    The focus of this article is to discuss the care given to an elderly lady, Mrs Pitt, (a pseudonym) who is suffering from Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and attending our Out Patient Department (OPD). It will start with a brief description of diabetes and the associated complications, and then give a more in-depth description of DR and the relevant anatomy and physiology. It will then give details of Mrs Pitt's history and her current care and treatment. All information will be supported by current, relevant literature. PMID:18578359

  9. Type 2 diabetes and oral antihyperglycemic drugs.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Cassia S; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Kurtz, Theodore W; Pershadsingh, Harrihar A; Avery, Mitchell A

    2008-01-01

    Type II diabetes is a heterogeneous disease where environment and genetics are important factors for the expression of the disease. The high cost for treating complications of diabetes is a burden for public health systems and governments worldwide. Type II diabetes has been causing debilitation worldwide for many decades, and a single drug that safely treats the disease has yet to be discovered. Sulfonylureas, biguanides, alpha-glucosidase, meglitinides, DPP-4 inhibitors and thiazolidinediones are among the classes of oral hypoglycemic drugs available to treat Type II diabetes, but concerns exist regarding safety and efficacy of these drugs. In this article we present the pros and cons of the six classes and discuss some of the latest advances towards the development of new drugs for the treatment of Type II diabetes. PMID:18220763

  10. [Diabetic maculopathy].

    PubMed

    Haritoglou, C; Kernt, M; Wolf, A

    2015-10-01

    Diabetic maculopathy is the result of multifactorial and complex alterations of the retinal capillaries in association with diabetes mellitus and is divided into two forms, ischemic maculopathy and diabetic macular edema. Diabetic macular edema is the leading cause of blindness among people of working age. The functional and morphological results of intravitreal pharmacotherapy in cases of fovea-involving macular edema using vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors such as ranibizumab and aflibercept obtained in large randomized clinical trials are excellent and are superior to results obtained with focal or grid laser coagulation alone. Steroids including dexamethasone and fluocinolone implants represent approved alternatives, although flucinolone is considered a second-line therapy in refractory and chronic cases. VEGF inhibitors can be used in different treatment strategies such as PRN and treat and extend strategies. Focal laser photocoagulation remains the gold standard for macular edema not involving the fovea (and therefore usually good visual acuity). Laser is also still indicated as a panretinal photocoagulation of peripheral retinal ischemic areas in order to prevent neovascular complications. It remains to be proven whether panretinal photocoagulation can have an effect on the treatment intervals of intravitreal pharmacotherapy, too. Surgical treatments such as vitrectomy are today limited to cases of macular edema with concomitant obvious tractional pathologies at the vitreoretinal interface. PMID:26420681

  11. Preventing Diabetes Problems: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... también conocida como glucosa en la sangre, con el tiempo puede causar problemas de diabetes. Un nivel ... conducir a ataques al corazón y derrames cerebrales. El daño a los ojos puede provocar pérdida de ...

  12. Diabetes and Vascular Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2 diabetes. Recently, studies show that type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents is increasing, particularly in American Indians, African Americans, and Hispanic/Latino Americans. Warning Signs Some symptoms of diabetes include: Frequent urination Excessive thirst Extreme hunger Unusual ...

  13. Diabetes: The Growing Epidemic

    E-print Network

    Diamant, Allison L.; Babey, Susan H.; Brown, E. Richard; Hastert, Theresa A.

    2007-01-01

    diabetes, is a significant and growing health problem that affects both adults and children,diabetes and obesity, and further policies should be developed to facilitate active living among childrenchildren and adults, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes

  14. Discrimination (Based on Diabetes)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about your rights in the workplace. School Discrimination Children with diabetes sometimes face problems in obtaining the care they ... for health care professionals, lawyers and parents of children with diabetes. Law Enforcement Diabetes needs do not stop when ...

  15. National Diabetes Education Program

    MedlinePLUS

    ... National Diabetes Month! What's your role in diabetes education and support? > Learn more November is National American ... Health Care Professionals and Teams The National Diabetes Education Program has updated its popular GAME PLAN toolkit ...

  16. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get it. ... change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. Controlling ...

  17. IMAGING THE DIABETIC FOOT

    E-print Network

    GOLD, R; TONG, D; CRIM, J; SEEGER, L

    1995-01-01

    or hindfoot. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is defined asDiabetic angiopathy Angiopathy leads to ischemia which, in combination with peripheral neuropathy,Peripheral neuropathy afflicts 10-15% of the 14 million American diabetics [

  18. "Diabetes is beatable!"

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Stories "Diabetes is beatable!" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... 1 Jeremy Williamson was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at the age of 13. It almost killed ...

  19. "Stop Diabetes Now!"

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Stop Diabetes Now!" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... Tips for Seniors at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Lifestyle changes that lead to weight loss—such ...

  20. "Diabetes has instant consequences…"

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Stories "Diabetes has instant consequences…" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... Washington, DC Type 1 Diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in the third grade, Madeleine "Maddie" Kuhn doesn' ...

  1. Screening for Gestational Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diabetes and Pregnancy: Gestational Diabetes ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Gestational Diabetes ( MedlinePlus) Glucose Tolerance Test ( MedlinePlus) January 2014 Task Force FINAL Recommendation | 4

  2. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePLUS

    ... back of your eye. This condition is called diabetic retinopathy . Diabetes also increases your risk of glaucoma and ... of Ophthalmology Retina Panel. Preferred Practice Pattern Guidelines. Diabetic retinopathy . 2012. Available at: www.aao.org/ppp. Accessed ...

  3. Diabetes Health Concerns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your doctor ? What you need to know about diabetic retinopathy From Medline Plus ? Interactive tutorial on eye disease, diabetes, retinopathy prevention and treatment Foot Problems From the CDC ... kidney disease From the National Kidney Foundation ? Diabetes ...

  4. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NKF Newsroom Contact Us You are here Home » Diabetes - A Major Risk Factor for Kidney Disease Diabetes ... of your body. Are there different types of diabetes? The most common ones are Type 1 and ...

  5. Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Baby Arrives Trouble Getting Pregnant Avoiding Pregnancy Articles Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... gestational diabetes must also take insulin. Problems of Gestational Diabetes in Pregnancy Blood sugar that is not well ...

  6. Diabetes, diabetes treatment and breast cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Virnig, Beth; Hendryx, Michael; Wen, Sijin; Chelebowski, Rowan; Chen, Chu; Rohan, Tomas; Tinker, Lesley; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Lessin, Lawrence; Margolis, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to assess the impact of pre-existing diabetes and diabetes treatment on breast cancer prognosis. 8,108 women with centrally confirmed invasive breast cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative diagnosed between 1998 and 2013 were followed through the date of death or September 20, 2013. Information on diabetes and diabetes therapy were obtained via self-report and face-to-face review of current medication containers, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate adjusted relative hazard ratios for overall mortality. The proportional subdistribution hazard model was used to estimate hazard ratios for breast cancer-specific mortality. Compared with women without diabetes, women with diabetes had significantly increased risk of overall mortality (HR 1.26 95 % CI 1.06–1.48), especially among those who took insulin or had longer duration of diabetes. However, diabetes was not associated with increased risk of breast cancer-specific mortality, regardless of type of treatment and duration of diabetes, despite the significant association of diabetes with unfavorable tumor characteristics. Our large prospective cohort study provides additional evidence that pre-existing diabetes increases risk of total mortality among women with breast cancer. The increased total mortality associated with diabetes was mainly driven by increased risk of dying from diseases other than breast cancer. Thus, the continuum of care for breast cancer patients with diabetes should include careful attention to CVD risk factors and other non-cancer conditions. PMID:25261292

  7. Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For More Information American Diabetes Association JDRF MedlinePlus Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-onset Diabetes of ...

  8. Tips for Teens with Diabetes: About Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious disease. It means that one's blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Having too much glucose in a person's blood is not healthy. This paper offers tips for managing diabetes.

  9. Diabetic retinopathy - ocular complications of diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Nentwich, Martin M; Ulbig, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    In industrialized nations diabetic retinopathy is the most frequent microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and the most common cause of blindness in the working-age population. In the next 15 years, the number of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus is expected to increase significantly. By the year 2030, about 440 million people in the age-group 20-79 years are estimated to be suffering from diabetes mellitus worldwide (prevalence 7.7%), while in 2010 there were 285 million people with diabetes mellitus (prevalence 6.4%). This accounts for an increase in patients with diabetes in industrialized nations by 20% and in developing countries by 69% until the year 2030. Due to the expected rise in diabetic patients, the need for ophthalmic care of patients (i.e., exams and treatments) will also increase and represents a challenge for eye-care providers. Development of optimized screening programs, which respect available resources of the ophthalmic infrastructure, will become even more important. Main reasons for loss of vision in patients with diabetes mellitus are diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Incidence or progression of these potentially blinding complications can be greatly reduced by adequate control of blood glucose and blood pressure levels. Additionally, regular ophthalmic exams are mandatory for detecting ocular complications and initiating treatments such as laser photocoagulation in case of clinical significant diabetic macular edema or early proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In this way, the risk of blindness can considerably be reduced. In advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy, pars-plana vitrectomy is performed to treat vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment. In recent years, the advent of intravitreal medication has improved therapeutic options for patients with advanced diabetic macular edema. PMID:25897358

  10. Diabetes in Children and Teens

    MedlinePLUS

    ... now younger people are also getting type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes used to be called adult-onset diabetes. But ... children and teens, due to more obesity. With Type 2 diabetes, the body does not make or use insulin ...

  11. National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2014

    MedlinePLUS

    ... unconsciousness, or death. Older patients with type 2 diabetes and children with type 1 diabetes are at particularly high ... type 2 diabetes and its complications. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, although uncommon, is being diagnosed more ...

  12. "Control Your Diabetes. For Life."

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Control Your Diabetes. For Life." Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents For information about "Control Your Diabetes. For Life" campaign, visit www.YourDiabetesInfo.org or ...

  13. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > Teens > Diabetes Center > ... which are false. Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. False: Type 1 diabetes happens when the cells ...

  14. How to Treat Gestational Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A Listen En Español How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Be sure to see the latest Diabetes Forecast ... and a healthy start for your baby. Gestational Diabetes – Looking Ahead Gestational diabetes usually goes away after ...

  15. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > Kids > Diabetes Center > ... True or False: Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Diabetes False: When kids get type 1 diabetes , it's ...

  16. Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way you eat ... help you manage your weight. Healthy Eating with Diabetes Subtitle Healthy Eating with Diabetes Transcript Healthy Eating ...

  17. UCD Diabetes Complications Research Centre

    E-print Network

    UCD Diabetes Complications Research Centre The UCD Diabetes Complications Research Centre (DCRC) investigates the microvascular complications of diabetes. Our work focuses on identifying novel drivers innovative therapeutic paradigms and biomarkers. Diabetes Complications Research Centre The DCRC comprises

  18. Diabetic Kidney Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your kidneys. Your kidneys clean your blood. If they are damaged, waste ... in your blood instead of leaving your body. Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. It ...

  19. Teen Diabetes Quiz

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Teen Diabetes Quiz Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents ... Photo: Stockdisc See page 16 for the answers. Diabetes causes your: Blood glucose to be too low ...

  20. American Diabetes Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes ... Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics Symptoms ...

  1. Epidemiology of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Forouhi, Nita Gandhi; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    The disease burden related to diabetes is high and rising in every country, fuelled by the global rise in the prevalence of obesity and unhealthy lifestyles. The latest estimates show a global prevalence of 382 million people with diabetes in 2013, expected to rise to 592 million by 2035. The aetiological classification of diabetes has now been widely accepted. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the two main types, with type 2 diabetes accounting for the majority (>85%) of total diabetes prevalence. Both forms of diabetes can lead to multisystem complications of microvascular endpoints, including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, and macrovascular endpoints including ischaemic heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. The premature morbidity, mortality, reduced life expectancy and financial and other costs of diabetes make it an important public health condition. PMID:25568613

  2. Smoking and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mühlhauser, I

    1990-01-01

    The frequency of smoking in diabetic patients is not appreciably different from that in the general population. As in non-diabetic subjects, smoking is a major cardiovascular risk factor in diabetic patients. For young diabetic patients, smoking has been identified as a risk for macroproteinuric nephropathy. In respect of retinopathy, study results are more controversial. Recent studies also suggest smoking as a risk indicator for extra-articular connective tissue changes and neuropathy. Patients who already present with vascular complications, pregnant women, and women who use oral contraceptive drugs appear to run a particularly high risk by smoking. Stopping smoking reduces the risk of vascular morbidity and mortality in non-diabetic subjects. Although no comparable studies are available for diabetic populations, it should be assumed that the beneficial effects of stopping smoking are applicable to diabetic patients as well. Programmes to encourage diabetic patients to stop smoking are scarce and have not been successful. PMID:2137057

  3. Know Your Diabetes ABCs

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Boykin has diabetes. She has suffered from heart disease and required bypass surgery because she was unaware of the link between diabetes and heart disease. Judith Fradkin, M.D.: What most people don' ...

  4. Weight and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with type 2 diabetes have a condition called insulin resistance in which their bodies are able to make ... who don't have diabetes also can have insulin resistance. People with insulin resistance are at high risk ...

  5. Tight Diabetes Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Tight Diabetes Control Keeping your blood glucose levels as close ... and syringes, than before. What About Type 2 Diabetes? The DCCT studied only people with type 1 ...

  6. Glycemic Index and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A A Listen En Español Glycemic Index and Diabetes The glycemic index, or GI, measures how a ... book-power-of-food-sticky.html More from diabetes.org Learn More: Special Book Promotion: Behind the ...

  7. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements On This Page Key Facts ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...

  8. Pregnancy and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Breastfeeding Diabetes and Pregnancy Diabetes Type 2 ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  9. Diabetes and kidney disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Kidney disease or kidney damage that occurs in people with diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. This condition is ... who have more severe and long-term (chronic) kidney disease may have symptoms such as: Fatigue most of ...

  10. Find a Diabetes Educator

    MedlinePLUS

    Home American Association of Diabetes Educators Cart Search Sign In My Profile My Membership MY AADE NETWORK AADE 7 System My Learning My Purchases Open ... Advertising DiMedex Media Resources Quote an Expert About Diabetes Education News from AADE AADE Practice Documents Diabetes ...

  11. Hyperglycemia and Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... follows the instructions and advice of the diabetes health care team and diabetes management plan, which should include instructions for sick days By regularly monitoring blood sugar levels, you will know when your child's blood ... the diabetes health care team for more information and to learn how ...

  12. Diabetes Type 2

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not ... You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, obese, have a family ...

  13. Diabetes Type 1

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is ... kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults ...

  14. DIABETES PREVENTION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was a major clinical trial, or research study, aimed at discovering whether either diet and exercise or the oral diabetes drug metformin (Glucophage) could prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose toleranc...

  15. The Diabetic Foot

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The diabetic foot presents a complex interplay of neuropathic, macrovascular, and microvascular disease on an abnormal metabolic background, complicated by an increased susceptibility to mechanical, thermal, and chemical injury and decreased healing ability. The abnormalities of diabetes, once present, are not curable. But most severe foot abnormalities in the diabetic are due to neglect of injury and are mostly preventable. The physician must ensure that the diabetic patient learns the principles of good foot care. If time for teaching is limited, this task must be delegated to a podiatrist or a diabetes nurse educator in a diabetes day centre. It is the physician's responsibility to confirm foot care by personal inspection of the feet of all diabetic patients at every visit. PMID:21234002

  16. Teleophthalmology in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, there have been rapid strides in progress in the fields of telecommunication and medical imaging. There is growing evidence regarding use of teleophthalmology for screening of diabetic retinopathy. This article highlights some pertinent questions regarding use of telescreening for diabetic retinopathy. It deals with evidence regarding accuracy of diagnosis, patients satisfaction and cost-effectiveness. The American Telemedicine Association have given certain guidelines for teleheath practices for diabetic retinopathy. The article discusses regarding these guidelines. Finally, a working model for diabetic retinopathy screening through teleophthalmology has been described. Telescreening for diabetic retinopathy seems to be a cost-effective, accurate, and reliable method for screening for diabetic retinopathy. The American Telemedicine Association has set up guidelines for telescreening that should be adhered to provide quality screening services to people with diabetes. PMID:24876576

  17. Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes Support Group 2014 Our support group is dedicated to adults of all ages (16 years and older) with type 1 diabetes. Each month most our time Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center will also present a short diabetes-related topic to get the discussion

  18. HAROLD SCHNITZER DIABETES HEALTH CENTER Type 1 Diabetes Support

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    HAROLD SCHNITZER DIABETES HEALTH CENTER Type 1 Diabetes Support Group 2015 Having type 1 diabetes getting a little old? Let us help brighten your day! Want to learn more about managing type 1 diabetes? Our support group is dedicated to adults of all ages (16 years and older) with type 1 diabetes. Each

  19. Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Steven R; Gardner, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema result from chronic damage to the neurovascular structures of the retina. The pathophysiology of retinal damage remains uncertain but includes metabolic and neuroinflammatory insults. These mechanisms are addressed by intensive metabolic control of the systemic disease and by the use of ocular anti-inflammatory agents, including vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors and corticosteroids. Improved understanding of the ocular and systemic mechanisms that underlie diabetic retinopathy will lead to improved means to diagnose and treat retinopathy and better maintain vision. PMID:26501152

  20. Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Donghui

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is likely the third modifiable risk factor for pancreatic cancer after cigarette smoking and obesity. Epidemiological investigations have found that long-term type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a 1.5- to 2.0-fold increase in the risk of pancreatic cancer. A causal relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer is also supported by findings from prediagnostic evaluations of glucose and insulin levels in prospective studies. Insulin resistance and associated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation have been suggested to be the underlying mechanisms contributing to development of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer. Signaling pathways that regulate the metabolic process also play important roles in cell proliferation and tumor growth. Use of the antidiabetic drug metformin has been associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer in diabetics and recognized as an antitumor agent with the potential to prevent and treat this cancer. On the other hand, new-onset diabetes may indicate subclinical pancreatic cancer, and patients with new-onset diabetes may constitute a population in whom pancreatic cancer can be detected early. Biomarkers that help define high-risk individuals for clinical screening for pancreatic cancer are urgently needed. Why pancreatic cancer causes diabetes and how diabetes affects the clinical outcome of pancreatic cancer have yet to be fully determined. Improved understanding of the pathological mechanisms shared by diabetes and pancreatic cancer would be the key to the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies for this cancer. PMID:22162232

  1. Diabetes and Depression

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Mary; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and depression occur together approximately twice as frequently as would be predicted by chance alone. Comorbid diabetes and depression are a major clinical challenge as the outcomes of both conditions are worsened by the other. Although the psychological burden of diabetes may contribute to depression, this explanation does not fully explain the relationship between these 2 conditions. Both conditions may be driven by shared underlying biological and behavioral mechanisms, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, inflammation, sleep disturbance, inactive lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and environmental and cultural risk factors. Depression is frequently missed in people with diabetes despite effective screening tools being available. Both psychological interventions and antidepressants are effective in treating depressive symptoms in people with diabetes but have mixed effects on glycemic control. Clear care pathways involving a multidisciplinary team are needed to obtain optimal medical and psychiatric outcomes for people with comorbid diabetes and depression. PMID:24743941

  2. Genitourinary infection in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Julka, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is known to increase the risk of infection and the commonest amongst them are the ones involving the genitourinary tract. The infections in a diabetic patient are unique in that they are recurrent, more severe, requiring hospitalization, and also have higher mortality than nondiabetics. Some infections are exclusively found in diabetics like the emphysematous pyelonephritis while others have their natural history complicated due to hyperglycemia. Asymptomatic bacteriuria may lead to albuminuria and urinary tract infection and may need to be treated in diabetics. Not just this certain organisms have a predilection for the genitourinary tract of the diabetic patient. All of the above makes the diabetic patient vulnerable to infections and therefore early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is mandatory. PMID:24251228

  3. Diabetes and Your Eyesight (Glaucoma)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diabetic eye disease also includes diabetic retinopathy and cataracts. Diabetic retinopathy, a disease which damages the tiny ... as 25,000 people go blind annually. A cataract is a clouding of the eye’s lens that ...

  4. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Diabetes Educators JDRF American Heart Association MedlinePlus Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Page Content On this ...

  5. Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A A A Listen En Español Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Download a paper version of the ... jan-italian-diabetes-cookbook-sticky.html More from diabetes.org Learn More: Special Book Promotion: Behind the ...

  6. DIABETES, OBESITY AND METABOLISM INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    DIABETES, OBESITY AND METABOLISM INSTITUTE AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE #12;THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE DIABETES, OBESITY AND METABOLISM INSTITUTE AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE "As we launch the Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism Institute at Northwestern Medicine, I

  7. [Diabetic fibrous mastopathy].

    PubMed

    Kribi, L; Chelli, M; Sellami, D; Ellouze, T; Tenzekhti, F; Mnif, N; Hamza, R

    1999-11-01

    Diabetic fibrous mastopathy was first described in 1984. This mastopathy usually occurs in patients with autoimmune disorders and often occurs in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. Little is known about this benign condition. Clinically and radiologically, this entity may simulate malignancy. The presence of an underlying auto-immune disorder or diabetes may suggest the correct diagnosis. The authors report two cases of fibrous mastopathy and suggest that core biopsy could replace surgical biopsy for diagnosis. PMID:10592917

  8. Diabetes Facts and Myths (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Diabetes Facts and Myths KidsHealth > Parents > Diabetes Center > Diabetes ... team first. Myth: Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. Fact: Type 1 diabetes is caused by a ...

  9. Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? KidsHealth > Parents > Diabetes Center > Diabetes ... in learning to live with the disease. About Diabetes Diabetes is a disease that affects how the ...

  10. For Men, Ignoring Diabetes Can Be Deadly

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes For Men, Ignoring Diabetes Can Be Deadly Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... Man's Guide to Living Well with Diabetes. Simpler Diabetes Care: Estimated Average Glucose (eAG) The American Diabetes ...

  11. Epidemiology of diabetes

    E-print Network

    Forouhi, Nita Gandhi; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2014-10-22

    (blood pressure, cholesterol and weight), including lifestyle behaviours (smoking), improveof about 4e7 years before clinical diagnosis, and as a hightype 2 diabetes can be reduced by intensive lifestyle intervention with diet or physical activity... Programmes (MC_UU_12015/5 and MC_UU_12015/1). A REFERENCES 1 DIAMOND Project Group. Incidence and trends of childhood type 1 diabetes worldwide 1990e1999. Diabet Med 2006; 23: 857e66. 2 Gale EA, Gillespie KM. Diabetes and gender. Diabetologia 2001; 44: 3e15...

  12. Diabetic Retinopathy: Nature and Extent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, W. Ronald; Patz, Arnall

    1978-01-01

    The authors discuss the incidence and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in juvenile and maturity onset diabetics, background and proliferative retinopathy, and current modalities of treatment. (Author)

  13. Diabetes Fact Sheet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their BMI are at risk for type 2 diabetes. Find BMI charts for children and teens. Older age: 45 or older. After ... their BMI are at risk for type 2 diabetes. Find BMI charts for children and teens. Older age: 45 or older. After ...

  14. Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Is an Ophthalmologist? Your Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment Tweet The best treatment for diabetic retinopathy is to prevent it. Strict control of your blood sugar will significantly reduce the long-term risk of vision loss. Treatment usually won't cure ...

  15. Paths to Diabetes

    E-print Network

    Apr 29, 2004 ... Diabetes is a disease of the body that affects the regulatory system. ... Finally, from these models, we can see how a person can get Diabetes, ... This form begins to infect individuals later in life around the age of forty ... Aside from the daily morbidity, patients may experience complications such as blindness, ...

  16. Peripartum management of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Pramila; Anakal, Manjunath

    2013-10-01

    The peripartum control of diabetes is very important for the well-being of the newborn as higher incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia is seen if maternal hyperglycemia happens during this period. Type of diabetes (type 1, type 2 or gestational diabetes) also has an effect on the glucose concentration during intrapartum period. During the latent phase of labor, the metabolic demands are stable but during active labor there is increased metabolic demand and decreased insulin requirement. After delivery once the placenta is extracted, insulin resistance rapidly comes down and in patients with pre-gestational diabetes there will be a sudden drop in insulin requirement and the insulin may not be required in women with gestational diabetes, but they just need close monitoring. During breast-feeding blood glucose levels fall because of high metabolic demand and women need to take extra calories to maintain the levels and more vigilance especially in type 1 and type 2 diabetic mothers is required. The protocols used for the management of peripartum management of diabetes mostly rely on glucose and insulin infusion to maintain maternal blood sugars between 70 and 110 mg/dl. The data is mostly from retrospective studies and few randomized control trials done mainly in type 1 diabetes patients. The review summarizes guidelines, which are used for peripartum management of blood glucose. PMID:24251226

  17. Diabetes Treatment Breakthrough.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Shelly; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Eight experts in visual impairment respond briefly to reports that intensive monitoring of blood glucose levels by persons with diabetes can lead to a 70% reduction in the progression of detectable diabetic retinopathy. Comments are generally optimistic, though some cautions are raised. (DB)

  18. Hepatic insulin gene therapy prevents diabetic enteropathy in STZ-treated CD-1 mice

    PubMed Central

    You, Shuo; Anitha, Mallappa; deSouza, Sean MD; Jia, Dingwu; Lu, Xianghua; Kozlowski, Miroslaw; Olson, Darin E; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Thulé, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    Depending on the population examined, from 6 to 83% of people with diabetes mellitus exhibit symptoms of altered gut motility, manifesting as dysphagia, reflux, early satiety, nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, or constipation. Hyperglycemia-induced cell loss within the enteric nervous system has been demonstrated in both diabetic rodents and patients with diabetes. Glycemic control is recommended to prevent diabetic gastroenteropathy but is often difficult to achieve with current treatment modalities. We asked if hepatic insulin gene therapy (HIGT) could inhibit the development of diabetic gastroenteropathy in mice. Bowel length, bowel transit, colonic muscle relaxation, and the numbers of both stimulatory and inhibitory neurons in the colonic myenteric plexus were compared in groups of diabetic mice (DM), control nondiabetic mice (Con), and diabetic mice treated with HIGT (HIGT). Delivery of a metabolically responsive insulin transgene to the liver of STZ-diabetic mice with an adeno-associated virus, sero-type 8 (AAV8) produced near-normal blood sugars for over 1 month and prevented anatomic, functional, and neurohistologic changes observed in diabetic mice. We conclude that in addition to normalizing oxidative metabolism in diabetic rodents, HIGT is sufficient to prevent the development of diabetic gastroenteropathy. PMID:26366426

  19. Diabetes Technologies and Their Role in Diabetes Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollipara, Sobha; Silverstein, Janet H.; Marschilok, Katie

    2009-01-01

    The 1993 Diabetes Complications and Control Trial (DCCT) showed that controlling blood glucose prevents and delays the progression of long term complications of diabetes. New diabetes technologies can make control of diabetes possible and safer. This paper reviews these technologies used to monitor blood glucose, administer insulin and evaluate…

  20. Diabetes Research and Training Centers: Diabetes Education. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, Bethesda, MD.

    Established in 1977 by the Diabetes Research and Education Act, the six Diabetes Research and Training Centers (DRTCs) located throughout the country offer resources for diabetes educators and other health professionals involved in treating or counseling people with diabetes. DRTCs provide continuing education, seminars, and workshops in…

  1. Undiagnosed Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes in Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.

    2015-01-01

    Globally half of all diabetes mellitus is undiagnosed. We sought to determine the extent and characteristics of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes in Mexican Americans residing in the United States. This disadvantaged population with 50% lifetime risk of diabetes is a microcosm of the current pandemic. We accessed baseline data between 2004 and 2014 from 2,838 adults recruited to our Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC); a two-stage randomly selected ‘Framingham-like’ cohort of Mexican Americans on the US Mexico border with severe health disparities. We examined prevalence, risk factors and metabolic health in diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes. Two thirds of this Mexican American population has diabetes or pre-diabetes. Diabetes prevalence was 28.0%, nearly half undiagnosed, and pre-diabetes 31.6%. Mean BMI among those with diabetes was 33.5 kg/m2 compared with 29.0 kg/m2 for those without diabetes. Significant risk factors were low income and educational levels. Most with diabetes had increased waist/hip ratio. Lack of insurance and access to health services played a decisive role in failure to have diabetes diagnosed. Participants with undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes had similar measures of poor metabolic health similar but generally not as severe as those with diagnosed diabetes. More than 50% of a minority Mexican American population in South Texas has diabetes or pre-diabetes and is metabolically unhealthy. Only a third of diabetes cases were diagnosed. Sustained efforts are imperative to identify, diagnose and treat individuals in underserved communities. PMID:26186342

  2. Std diabetes-forskningen vid

    E-print Network

    Linke, Heiner

    Stöd diabetes- forskningen vid Lunds universitet Du kan enkelt stödja diabetes- forskningen vid företagsgåvor. Alla bidrag, oavsett storlek, är lika välkomna. Märk din gåva med "Diabetes". Ange även avsändare;Hjälposslösagåtanmedvärldens snabbast växande sjukdom Diabetes är en av de stora folksjukdomarna

  3. Diabetes in Asians

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally, particularly in Asia. According to the 2013 Diabetes Atlas, an estimated 366 million people are affected by diabetes worldwide; 36% of those affected live in the Western Pacific region, with a significant proportion in East Asia. The reasons for this marked increase in the prevalence of diabetes can be extrapolated from several distinct features of the Asian region. First, the two most populated countries, China and India, are located in Asia. Second, Asians have experienced extremely rapid economic growth, including rapid changes in dietary patterns, during the past decades. As a result, Asians tend to have more visceral fat within the same body mass index range compared with Westerners. In addition, increased insulin resistance relative to reduced insulin secretory function is another important feature of Asian individuals with diabetes. Young age of disease onset is also a distinctive characteristic of these patients. Moreover, changing dietary patterns, such as increased consumption of white rice and processed red meat, contributes to the deteriorated lifestyle of this region. Recent studies suggest a distinctive responsiveness to novel anti-diabetic agents in Asia; however, further research and efforts to reverse the increasing prevalence of diabetes are needed worldwide. PMID:26435131

  4. [Type 2 diabetes complications].

    PubMed

    Schlienger, Jean-Louis

    2013-05-01

    People with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of many complications, which are mainly due to complex and interconnected mechanisms such as hyperglycemia, insulino-resistance, low-grade inflammation and accelerated atherogenesis. Cardi-cerebrovascular disease are frequently associated to type 2 diabetes and may become life threatening, particularly coronaropathy, stroke and heart failure. Their clinical picture are sometimes atypical and silencious for a long time. Type 2 diabetes must be considered as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Nephropathy is frequent in type 2 diabetes but has a mixed origin. Now it is the highest cause of end-stage renal disease. Better metabolic and blood pressure control and an improved management of microalbuminuria are able to slowdown the course of the disease. Retinopathy which is paradoxically slightly progressive must however be screened and treated in these rather old patients which are globally at high ophthalmologic risk. Diabetic foot is a severe complication secondary to microangiopathy, microangiopathy and neuropathy. It may be considered as a super-complication of several complications. Its screening must be done on a routine basis. Some cancer may be considered as an emerging complication of type 2 diabetes as well as cognitive decline, sleep apnea syndrome, mood disorders and bone metabolism impairments. Most of the type 2 diabetes complications may be prevented by a strategy combining a systematic screening and multi-interventional therapies. PMID:23528336

  5. Vitamin D and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    MITRI, JOANNA; PITTAS, ANASTASSIOS G.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis There has been increasing evidence suggesting that vitamin D may play an important role in modifying risk of diabetes. In this regard, Vitamin D has both direct and indirect effects, the latter via regulation of calcium effects on various mechanisms related to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, including pancreatic beta cell dysfunction, impaired insulin action and systemic inflammation. The human evidence comes primarily from many cross-sectional and prospective observational studies, most of which showed an inverse association between vitamin D status and prevalence or incidence of type 2 diabetes. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemia or incident type 2 diabetes has been reported in several trials with mixed results. The present article describes the biological plausibility behind the potential association between vitamin D and type 2 diabetes and summarizes the current evidence supporting a relation between vitamin D and type 2 diabetes and briefly reports on the potential association between vitamin D and type 1 diabetes. PMID:24582099

  6. Current Concepts in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Su Jeong

    2014-01-01

    For the past several decades, tremendous efforts have been made to decrease the complications of diabetes, including diabetic retinopathy. New diagnostic modalities like ultrawide field fundus fluorescein angiography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography has allowed more accurate diagnosis of early diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. Antivascular endothelial growth factors are now extensively used to treat diabetic retinopathy and macular edema with promising results. There remains uncertainty over the long term effects and the socioeconomic costs of these agents. PMID:25541604

  7. [Neuropathy and diabetic foot ulcers].

    PubMed

    Lobmann, R

    2015-05-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus worldwide and the most common cause of hospitalization in diabetic patients. The etiology of diabetic foot ulcerations is complex due to their multifactorial nature. Polyneuropathy plays an important role in the pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulceration. Proper adherence to standard treatment strategies and interdisciplinary cooperation can reduce the high rates of major amputations. PMID:25903093

  8. [Diabetes monitoring for the pregnant diabetic].

    PubMed

    Dradi Maraldi, C; Santini, C

    1994-06-01

    Diabetological care in pre-gestational (preGDM) and gestational (GDM) pregnant diabetic is an indispensable factor for the reduction of risk of mother, fetus and newborn complications. The adoption of an intensified therapy, aiming at maintaining almost normal glycemic values, and the improvement in fetal monitoring have led to a marked reduction, for instance, in fetal intrauterine death and in perinatal mortality rate in general. Furthermore, pregnancy programming allows good glycemic control since conception and a decrease in malformations. It is therefore, necessary to create interdisciplinary teams treating pregnant diabetics coordinately. Diabetological care involves the evaluation of risks from the first phases to the end of the pregnancy, therapeutical decisions on the basis of metabolic and non-metabolic parameters, the education of diabetic women, the coordination of the other specialized interventions and delivery programming together with the obstetrician and the neonatologist. The programs of checks to be executed on pregnant diabetics, during hospitalization and on outpatients, are here illustrated considering the meaning of: fasting glycemia and spontaneous glycemic curves, with goals both in preGDM and in GDM; HbA1c and fructosamine; glycosuria and ketonuria; plasmatic lipids and uricaemia; other non-metabolic checks, in particular blood pressure one. PMID:7968930

  9. Innate immunity in diabetes and diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Wada, Jun; Makino, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system includes several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs). These receptors detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in the extracellular and intracellular space. Intracellular NLRs constitute inflammasomes, which activate and release caspase-1, IL-1?, and IL-18 thereby initiating an inflammatory response. Systemic and local low-grade inflammation and release of proinflammatory cytokines are implicated in the development and progression of diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy. TLR2, TLR4, and the NLRP3 inflammasome can induce the production of various proinflammatory cytokines and are critically involved in inflammatory responses in pancreatic islets, and in adipose, liver and kidney tissues. This Review describes how innate immune system-driven inflammatory processes can lead to apoptosis, tissue fibrosis, and organ dysfunction resulting in insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, and renal failure. We propose that careful targeting of TLR2, TLR4, and NLRP3 signalling pathways could be beneficial for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy. PMID:26568190

  10. Advances in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Prakashchand; Jindal, Ankita; Saini, V K; Jindal, Sushil

    2014-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication of long-term diabetes mellitus (DM). Over the last 2 decades lot of work has been on early diagnosis of DR and screening programs have been designed to help the masses. Large numbers of clinical studies have been done for patients of diabetes and DR wherein the role of blood sugar control, metabolic control, role of oral medicines for DR, role of imaging, fluorescein angiography, and retinal photocoagulation has been studied. Newer treatment modalities are being devised and studied for better patient care. We discuss these issues in our review highlight and newer advances over the last few years. PMID:25364670

  11. Advances in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Prakashchand; Jindal, Ankita; Saini, V.K.; Jindal, Sushil

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication of long-term diabetes mellitus (DM). Over the last 2 decades lot of work has been on early diagnosis of DR and screening programs have been designed to help the masses. Large numbers of clinical studies have been done for patients of diabetes and DR wherein the role of blood sugar control, metabolic control, role of oral medicines for DR, role of imaging, fluorescein angiography, and retinal photocoagulation has been studied. Newer treatment modalities are being devised and studied for better patient care. We discuss these issues in our review highlight and newer advances over the last few years. PMID:25364670

  12. Photoreceptors in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Timothy S; Berkowitz, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Although photoreceptors account for most of the mass and metabolic activity of the retina, their role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy has been largely overlooked. Recent studies suggest that photoreceptors might play a critical role in the diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries, and thus can no longer be ignored. The present review summarizes diabetes-induced alterations in photoreceptor structure and function, and provides a rationale for further study of a role of photoreceptors in the pathogenesis of the retinopathy. PMID:26221514

  13. Diabetes in a nutshell and some unresolved questions Leif Groop, Lund University Diabetes Centre

    E-print Network

    Linke, Heiner

    Diabetes in a nutshell and some unresolved questions Leif Groop, Lund University Diabetes Centre Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized processes are involved in the development of diabetes. Currently diabetes is divided

  14. I Have Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NDEP's 15th Anniversary Diabetes HealthSense Expand Promotional Tools Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... Loved One Health Care Professionals Submit a Resource? Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  15. Minimizing Hypoglycemia in Diabetes.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    Hypoglycemia caused by treatment with a sulfonylurea, a glinide, or insulin coupled with compromised defenses against the resulting falling plasma glucose concentrations is a problem for many people with diabetes. It is often recurrent, causes significant morbidity and occasional mortality, limits maintenance of euglycemia, and impairs physiological and behavioral defenses against subsequent hypoglycemia. Minimizing hypoglycemia includes acknowledging the problem; considering each risk factor; and applying the principles of intensive glycemic therapy, including drug selection and selective application of diabetes treatment technologies. For diabetes health-care providers treating most people with diabetes who are at risk for or are suffering from iatrogenic hypoglycemia, these principles include selecting appropriate individualized glycemic goals and providing structured patient education to reduce the incidence of hypoglycemia. This is typically combined with short-term scrupulous avoidance of hypoglycemia, which often will reverse impaired awareness of hypoglycemia. Clearly, the risk of hypoglycemia is modifiable. PMID:26207052

  16. Living With Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NDEP's 15th Anniversary Diabetes HealthSense Expand Promotional Tools Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... Loved One Health Care Professionals Submit a Resource? Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  17. Diabetes Research Institute Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Biomaterial DRIF Makes Lead Gift to UM Teen Star Jake T. Austin Attends Kids Party Carnival for ... Extension 2010 DRI/DRIF Press Releases Diabetes Diplomat Stars in "Oliver" DRI Researcher Publishes in NEJM DRI ...

  18. Help Teens Manage Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... teens' coping and communication skills, healthy behaviors, and conflict resolution. The CST training helps diabetic teens to ... decisions about drugs and alcohol, and facing personal conflicts. Those teens who receive CST maintain better metabolic ...

  19. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

  20. Diabetes and eye disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... brain. Diabetic retinopathy is a main cause of blindness in Americans 20 to 74 years old. People ... pressure in the eye that can lead to blindness Macular edema -- blurry vision due to fluid leaking ...

  1. Personalized diabetes management

    E-print Network

    O'Hair, Allison Kelly

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we present a system to make personalized lifestyle and health decisions for diabetes management, as well as for general health and diet management. In particular, we address the following components of the ...

  2. Diabetes: Dealing With Feelings

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lived with diabetes for a while. If You've Just Been Diagnosed When people are first diagnosed ... whether you're eating right, and whether you've taken your medication. Sure, you understand that they ...

  3. Diabetes: Dental Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetes: Dental Tips For additional copies contact: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research National Oral Health Information Clearinghouse ... damage the gum and bone that hold your teeth in place and may lead to painful chewing ...

  4. Medicines for Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... kid stay healthy and feel good. All About Insulin The most common diabetes medicine is insulin, which ... lower blood sugar how long they last Continue Insulin Table The table below shows the types of ...

  5. Women and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and learn helpful tips about managing your diabetes medicines. Veal el video en espanol . Get tips on ... a healthy diet, exercising, and using FDA-approved medicines, insulin, and devices every day. FDA has lots ...

  6. Gestational Diabetes and Testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... I have a condition called polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) ? I am taking a medication called Glucophage (metformin) ? ... a lifetime™ AMERICAN COLLEGE OF NURSE -MIDWIVES Diabetes Testing during Pregnancy Do you need early screening for ...

  7. Diabetic corneal neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, R O; Peters, M A; Sobocinski, K; Nassif, K; Schultz, K J

    1983-01-01

    Corneal epithelial lesions can be found in approximately one-half of asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus. These lesions are transient and clinically resemble the keratopathy seen in staphylococcal keratoconjunctivitis. Staphylococcal organisms, however, can be isolated in equal percentages from diabetic patients without keratopathy. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy was found to be related to the presence of diabetic keratopathy after adjusting for age with analysis of covariance. The strongest predictor of both keratopathy and corneal fluorescein staining was vibration perception threshold in the toes (P less than 0.01); and the severity of keratopathy was directly related to the degree of diminution of peripheral sensation. Other predictors of keratopathy were: reduced tear breakup time (P less than 0.03), type of diabetes (P less than 0.01), and metabolic status as indicated by c-peptide fasting (P less than 0.01). No significant relationships were found between the presence of keratopathy and tear glucose levels, endothelial cell densities, corneal thickness measurements, the presence of S epidermidis, or with duration of disease. It is our conclusion that asymptomatic epithelial lesions in the nontraumatized diabetic cornea can occur as a manifestation of generalized polyneuropathy and probably represent a specific form of corneal neuropathy. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:6676964

  8. Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How the Body Works Main Page Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? KidsHealth > Kids > Diabetes Center > What's ... What is it? Let's find out. What Is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that affects how the ...

  9. Autophagy in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yan; Choi, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Increasing prevalence of diabetes has made the need for effective treatment of DN critical, and identifying new therapeutic targets to improve clinical management. Autophagy is a highly conserved “self-eating” pathway by which cells degrade and recycle macromolecules and organelles. Autophagy serves as an essential mechanism to maintain homeostasis of glomeruli and tubules, and plays important roles in human health and diseases. Impairment of autophagy is implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. Emerging body of evidence suggests that targeting the autophagic pathway to activate and restore autophagy activity may be renoprotective. Here we review current advances in our understanding of the roles of autophagy in diabetic kidney injury, focusing on studies in renal cells in culture, human kidney tissues, and experimental animal models of diabetes. We discuss the major nutrient-sensing signal pathways, and diabetes-induced altered intracellular metabolism and cellular events, including accumulation of advanced glycation end-products, increased oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, hypoxia, and activation of the renin angiotensin system, which modulate autophagic activity and contribute to the development of DN. We also highlight recent studies of autophagy and transforming growth factor-? in renal fibrosis, the final common response to injury that ultimately leads to end-stage kidney failure in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. These findings suggest the possibility that autophagy can be a therapeutic target against DN. PMID:25349246

  10. Long term complications of diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... much you need. DO NOT smoke. Smoking makes diabetes complications worse. If you do smoke, work with your ... Brownlee M, Aiello LP, Cooper ME, et al. Complications of diabetes mellitus. In: Mehmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg ...

  11. Family Health History and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... History Prevent Type 2 Diabetes in Your Family Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... Direction! It’s Never Too Early to Prevent Diabetes. ???? Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  12. Diabetic Neuropathy (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc. Patient information: Diabetic neuropathy (Beyond the Basics) Author Eva L Feldman, MD, ... This topic last updated: Dec 27, 2013. DIABETIC NEUROPATHY OVERVIEW — Neuropathy is the medical term for nerve ...

  13. Diabetes Insipidus, Central (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Definition: Hormones Endocrine System Immune System Kidneys and Urinary Tract Diabetes Center Word! Hormones Your Endocrine System Your Kidneys Diabetes Center Your Immune System Definition: ...

  14. Peripheral Artery Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Peripheral Artery Disease & Diabetes Updated:Nov 10,2015 People with diabetes are at higher risk of developing peripheral artery disease (PAD) . And individuals with PAD have a ...

  15. Emergency Meal Planning for Diabetics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Avoid high potassium fruit juices (orange juice). THREE-DAY DIABETIC GROCERY LIST FOR EMERGENCIES Item Amount (per ... Other Distilled water 5 one gallon jugs THREE-DAY DIABETIC MEAL PLAN FOR EMERGENCIES The sample meal ...

  16. Family Health History and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diabetes > Know Your Family Health History Family Health History and Diabetes En español Haywood, a physical education ... story > 1 2 3 4 5 Family health history is an important risk factor for developing type ...

  17. Diabetes mellitus and cancer.

    PubMed

    Czyzyk; Szczepanik

    2000-10-01

    Although an association between diabetes and cancer was found over 100 years ago, the issue underwent different interpretations over the subsequent decades, and only modern, prospective, epidemiological cohort and case-control studies conducted in several countries have provided reliable evidence of an increased cancer risk in diabetic patients, mainly in those with type 2 diabetes. This risk varies according to the tumor site: it is the greatest for primary liver cancer, moderately elevated for pancreatic cancer, and relatively low for colorectal, endometrial, breast, and renal cancers. The cause of the association is not clear and remains the subject of different hypotheses. The most frequently cited reason is the potential effect of insulin. Found in high concentrations, due to insulin resistance in most patients with type 2 diabetes, this hormone is believed to express a mitogenic effect. This hypothesis needs to be confirmed in appropriately programmed prospective studies, but it may already be helpful in choosing an adequate treatment for type 2 diabetes to achieve optimal metabolic control with a simultaneous reduction in hyperinsulinemia, such as diet, physical exercise, metformin, and acarbose. PMID:11025248

  18. Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    for Latino families? It affects men, women, and children. Nearly 1 in 10 adult Latinos has diabetes. OneProtect Your Heart Against Diabetes Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes #12;Read other booklets at www.nhlbi.nih.gov. #12;Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes Delicious Heart Healthy Latino Recipes

  19. Diabetes Education in Tribal Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Lars; Francis, Carolee Dodge

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes is a prevalent disease in the United States. The emergence of Type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents within the American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities brings increased public health and quality of life concerns. In this article, the authors describe an initiative titled "Diabetes Education in Tribal Schools K-12…

  20. Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diabetes) is far more common than type 1 (insulin-dependent diabetes), accounting for about 90 to 95 percent of ... diabetes has been diagnosed in 12.6% of non-Hispanic blacks, 11.8% of Hispanics, 8.4% ...

  1. DIABETES PREVENTION TRIAL TYPE 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Diabetes Prevention Trial--Type 1 (DPT-1) is a nationwide study to see if we can prevent or delay type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes. Nine medical centers and more than 350 clinics in the United States and Canada are taking part in the study.

  2. Case 22:Type II diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. It is composed of two types depending on the pathogenesis. Type I diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency and usually has its onset during childhood or teenage years. This is also called ketosis-prone diabetes. Type II diab...

  3. The Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The Diabetes Prevention Program is a randomized clinical trial testing strategies to prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals with elevated fasting plasma glucose concentrations and impaired glucose tolerance. The 27 clinical centers in the U.S. are recruiting at least 3,000 participants of both sexes, ~50% of whom are minority patients and 20% of whom are ?65 years old, to be assigned at random to one of three intervention groups: an intensive lifestyle intervention focusing on a healthy diet and exercise and two masked medication treatment groups—metformin or placebo—combined with standard diet and exercise recommendations. Participants are being recruited during a 2 2/3-year period, and all will be followed for an additional 3 1/3 to 5 years after the close of recruitment to a common closing date in 2002. The primary outcome is the development of diabetes, diagnosed by fasting or post-challenge plasma glucose concentrations meeting the 1997 American Diabetes Association criteria. The 3,000 participants will provide 90% power to detect a 33% reduction in an expected diabetes incidence rate of at least 6.5% per year in the placebo group. Secondary outcomes include cardiovascular disease and its risk factors; changes in glycemia, ?-cell function, insulin sensitivity, obesity, diet, physical activity, and health-related quality of life; and occurrence of adverse events. A fourth treatment group—troglilazone combined with standard diet and exercise recommendations—was included initially but discontinued because of the liver toxicity of the drug. This randomized clinical trial will test the possibility of preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in individuals at high risk. PMID:10189543

  4. Diabetes foot disease: the Cinderella of Australian diabetes management?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the greatest public health challenges to face Australia. It is already Australia’s leading cause of kidney failure, blindness (in those under 60?years) and lower limb amputation, and causes significant cardiovascular disease. Australia’s diabetes amputation rate is one of the worst in the developed world, and appears to have significantly increased in the last decade, whereas some other diabetes complication rates appear to have decreased. This paper aims to compare the national burden of disease for the four major diabetes-related complications and the availability of government funding to combat these complications, in order to determine where diabetes foot disease ranks in Australia. Our review of relevant national literature indicates foot disease ranks second overall in burden of disease and last in evidenced-based government funding to combat these diabetes complications. This suggests public funding to address foot disease in Australia is disproportionately low when compared to funding dedicated to other diabetes complications. There is ample evidence that appropriate government funding of evidence-based care improves all diabetes complication outcomes and reduces overall costs. Numerous diverse Australian peak bodies have now recommended similar diabetes foot evidence-based strategies that have reduced diabetes amputation rates and associated costs in other developed nations. It would seem intuitive that “it’s time” to fund these evidence-based strategies for diabetes foot disease in Australia as well. PMID:23021818

  5. Metabolomics in childhood diabetes.

    PubMed

    Frohnert, Brigitte I; Rewers, Marian J

    2016-02-01

    Recent increases in the incidence of both type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in children and adolescents point to the importance of environmental factors in the development of these diseases. Metabolomic analysis explores the integrated response of the organism to environmental changes. Metabolic profiling can identify biomarkers that are predictive of disease incidence and development, potentially providing insight into disease pathogenesis. This review provides an overview of the role of metabolomic analysis in diabetes research and summarizes recent research relating to the development of T1D and T2D in children. PMID:26420304

  6. Orthopedic complications in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gehling, Daniel J; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Ebraheim, Nabil A

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with a number of lower extremity orthopedic conditions and complications including fractures, Charcot neuroarthropathy, plantar ulcers, and infection. These complications are of significant clinical concern in terms of morbidity, mortality, and socioeconomic costs. A review of each condition is discussed, with particular emphasis on the clinical importance, diagnostic considerations, and orthopedic treatment recommendations. The goal of the article is to provide a clinical picture of the challenges that orthopedic surgeons confront, and highlight the need for specific clinical guidelines in diabetic patients. PMID:26211990

  7. Imaging in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Salz, David A.; Witkin, Andre J.

    2015-01-01

    While the primary method for evaluating diabetic retinopathy involves direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, various imaging modalities are of significant utility in the screening, evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of different presentations and manifestations of this disease. This manuscript is a review of the important imaging modalities that are used in diabetic retinopathy, including color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, B-scan ultrasonography, and optical coherence tomography. The article will provide an overview of these different imaging techniques and how they can be most effectively used in current practice. PMID:25949070

  8. Type II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Edelman, S V

    1998-01-01

    Type II diabetes is a common disorder whose prevalence is increasing in the United States and throughout the world. Type II diabetes is also associated with several other metabolic abnormalities such as central obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, which contributes to the very high rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The main pathologic defects in diabetes consist of excessive hepatic glucose production, peripheral insulin resistance, and defective beta-cell secretory function. The duration and severity of the hyperglycemia dictate the microvascular complications, no matter what the etiology of the glucose intolerance, and the goals of therapy should be similar to those of insulin-dependent type I diabetic patients. Initiation of nonpharmacologic therapy should be started as soon as the diagnosis is made. Pharmacologic agents should be initiated if the glycemic goals are not met with a 3-month trial of diet and exercise. The cornerstone of therapy consists of a regular exercise routine along with a diet consisting of 40% to 50% complex carbohydrates, 10% to 20% protein, and monounsaturated fats such as canola oil and olive oil. If nonpharmacologic therapy does not achieve adequate glycemic control, initiation of an oral antidiabetic agent is warranted. In addition to the sulfonylureas, which work by stimulating insulin secretion, we now have metformin, which inhibits excessive hepatic glucose production; acarbose, which delays the absorption of carbohydrates in the gut; and troglitazone, which reduces insulin, resistance primarily in skeletal muscle. The selection of an initial oral antidiabetic agent depends on patient characteristics such as the presence of obesity and dyslipidemia, the duration of diabetes, and other concomitant conditions. Combination therapy with two or three of the different classes of oral antidiabetic agents is effective and has been used throughout the world. When maximum doses of oral antidiabetic agents do not adequately control glycemia, insulin therapy is necessary. In selected patients, combination therapy consisting of bedtime intermediate-acting insulin in addition to daytime oral antidiabetic agent(s) can be an effective method to normalize glucose control without the need for rigorous insulin regimens. When combination therapy fails, a split-mixed regimen using premixed 70/30 insulin prebreakfast and predinner can be very effective in obese subjects. In thin insulin-requiring subjects with type II diabetes, more intensive regimens may be required. In general, the risk of severe hypoglycemia is quite low in patients with type II diabetes, and the main adverse effect of insulin therapy is weight gain. Prevention and aggressive treatment of glucose intolerance and the other adverse metabolic conditions associated with type II diabetes will not only have a positive effect on the quality of life but also provide long-term cost savings. PMID:9506190

  9. Diabetes Mellitus Standards of Care.

    PubMed

    Mays, Lucy

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes is a worldwide epidemic with a high cost regarding consumption of health care resources and is associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality. The complex nature of diabetes requires the use of evidence-based guidelines regarding diabetes management. These evidence-based guidelines are lengthy and do not readily translate into nursing care. As an integral component of the interprofessional team, the nurse must provide a thorough assessment of patients with diabetes and work to achieve individual patient treatment goals. Evaluation of patient progress toward treatment goals with regular/frequent follow-up is necessary to promote effective self-management of diabetes. PMID:26596658

  10. Diabetes mellitus and oral health.

    PubMed

    Kudiyirickal, Marina George; Pappachan, Joseph M

    2015-05-01

    The oral health is influenced by systemic health, and one of the most common chronic diseases encountered in dental practice is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes can worsen oral infections and vice versa. In the literature, periodontitis and diabetes in the young to middle-aged adults have been the most widely researched area. Understanding the patho-physiology, clinical manifestations and management of different types of orofacial diseases in diabetic patients are important to the diabetologist and the dentist for the optimal care of patients with these diseases. This review explores the inter-link between diabetes and oral health. PMID:25487035

  11. Inflammatory Cytokines in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Donate-Correa, Javier; Martín-Núñez, Ernesto; Muros-de-Fuentes, Mercedes; Mora-Fernández, Carmen; Navarro-González, Juan F.

    2015-01-01

    Probably, the most paradigmatic example of diabetic complication is diabetic nephropathy, which is the largest single cause of end-stage renal disease and a medical catastrophe of worldwide dimensions. Metabolic and hemodynamic alterations have been considered as the classical factors involved in the development of renal injury in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, the exact pathogenic mechanisms and the molecular events of diabetic nephropathy remain incompletely understood. Nowadays, there are convincing data that relate the diabetes inflammatory component with the development of renal disease. This review is focused on the inflammatory processes that develop diabetic nephropathy and on the new therapeutic approaches with anti-inflammatory effects for the treatment of chronic kidney disease in the setting of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25785280

  12. Diabetes screening in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Gulley, Tauna; Boggs, Dusta; Mullins, Rebecca; Brock, Emily

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of diabetes has increased worldwide and the pathophysiological problems associated with diabetes increase the potential for employees' physical disabilities. These complications, including neuropathy, nephropathy, and visual impairment, negatively impact the job performance of employees and compromise workplace safety. Occupational health nurses can provide diabetes screening programs to employees and identify chronic disease risk factors early. This article describes an occupational diabetes screening program at a major corporation in Belize, Central America, defines diabetes, outlines the diabetes teaching plan, and presents the demographics of the participants and results of the screening. Cultural considerations and recommendations for future occupational diabetes screenings are proposed. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(11):444-446.]. PMID:25373027

  13. Diabetic Neuropathy: Mechanisms to Management

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, James L.; Vincent, Andrea; Cheng, Thomas; Feldman, Eva L.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathy is the most common and debilitating complication of diabetes and results in pain, decreased motility, and amputation. Diabetic neuropathy encompasses a variety of forms whose impact ranges from discomfort to death. Hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress in diabetic neurons and results in activation of multiple biochemical pathways. These activated pathways are a major source of damage and are potential therapeutic targets in diabetic neuropathy. Though therapies are available to alleviate the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy, few options are available to eliminate the root causes. The immense physical, psychological, and economic cost of diabetic neuropathy underscores the need for causally targeted therapies. This review covers the pathology, epidemiology, biochemical pathways, and prevention of diabetic neuropathy, as well as discusses current symptomatic and causal therapies and novel approaches to identify therapeutic targets. PMID:18616962

  14. Management of diabetic renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Eboh, Cecil

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end stage renal failure (ESRF) worldwide, representing over 50% of patients on renal replacement therapy in some parts of the world. The condition is common in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, although the incidence appears to be declining, especially in type 1 diabetes. More than 1 in 3 people with type 2 diabetes have impaired kidney function. Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis and natural history of the condition have enabled us to consider earlier therapy aimed at renal preservation and reduction in cardiovascular morbidity. Microalbuminuria is now established as the earliest risk marker for nephropathy in type 1 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. This review examines the current concepts in the pathogenesis and management of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:26244141

  15. Diabetes mellitus in elderly

    PubMed Central

    Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Mahgoun, Souad

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) frequency is a growing problem worldwide, because of long life expectancy and life style modifications. In old age (?60–65 years old), DM is becoming an alarming public health problem in developed and even in developing countries as for some authors one from two old persons are diabetic or prediabetic and for others 8 from 10 old persons have some dysglycemia. DM complications and co-morbidities are more frequent in old diabetics compared to their young counterparts. The most frequent are cardiovascular diseases due to old age and to precocious atherosclerosis specific to DM and the most bothersome are visual and cognitive impairments, especially Alzheimer disease and other kind of dementia. Alzheimer disease seems to share the same risk factors as DM, which means insulin resistance due to lack of physical activity and eating disorders. Visual and physical handicaps, depression, and memory troubles are a barrier to care for DM treatment. For this, old diabetics are now classified into two main categories as fit and independent old people able to take any available medication, exactly as their young or middle age counterparts, and fragile or frail persons for whom physical activity, healthy diet, and medical treatment should be individualized according to the presence or lack of cognitive impairment and other co-morbidities. In the last category, the fundamental rule is “go slowly and individualize” to avoid interaction with poly medicated elder persons and fatal iatrogenic hypoglycemias in those treated with sulfonylureas or insulin. PMID:26693423

  16. Tuberculosis and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... which the vast majority of deaths in the developing world • One in three people in the world is ... with latent TB have a lifelong risk of developing and falling sick with active ... 25+ by WHO region and World Bank Income Group, 2008 DIABETES FACTS: • 350 million ...

  17. Adjusting to Childhood Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne Bennett

    Insulin dependent diabetes is an incurable disease requiring complex management by the patient and/or his family. Previous research has found that there is no specific personality type associated with this or other diseases, nor do chronically ill persons exhibit characteristic behavioral or emotional problems. An attempt to identify the…

  18. Cystic fibrosis related diabetes.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Donal; O'Connell, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Improved life expectancy in cystic fibrosis (CF) has led to an expanding population of adults with CF, now representing almost 50 % of the total CF population. This creates new challenges from long-term complications such as diabetes mellitus (DM), a condition that is present in 40 %-50 % of adults with CF. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) results from a primary defect of insulin deficiency and although sharing features with type 1 (DM1) and type 2 diabetes (DM2), it is a clinically distinct condition. Progression to diabetes is associated with poorer CF clinical outcomes and increased mortality. CFRD is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and the prevalence of microvascular complications is lower than DM1 or DM2. Rather, the primary goal of insulin therapy is the preservation of lung function and optimization of nutritional status. There is increasing evidence that appropriate screening and early intervention with insulin can reverse weight loss and improve pulmonary function. This approach may include targeting postprandial hyperglycemia not detected by standard diagnostic tests such as the oral glucose tolerance test. Further clinical research is required to guide when and how much to intervene in patients who are already dealing with the burden of one chronic illness. PMID:24915888

  19. Diabetes-Friendly Recipes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tasty diabetes-friendly recipes. Snacks and Appetizers Honey-Ginger Fruit Dip Fresh ginger adds the "wow" factor to this dip. It ... advance. Fruit Salad with Cranberry Poppy Seed Dressing Ginger-tinged cranberry dressing complements the summertime fruits in ...

  20. Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your blood sugar numbers. Keep these factors in mind: Most people with type 2 diabetes only need to check their blood sugar once or twice a day. If your blood sugar level is under control, you may only need to check it a ...

  1. Vitamin D and diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On the basis of evidence from animal and human studies, vitamin D has emerged as a potential risk modifier for type 1 and type 2 diabetes (t1DM and t2DM). Vitamin D is thought to have both direct (through activation of the vitamin D receptor) and indirect (via regulation of calcium homeostasis) eff...

  2. Corro el riesgo de tener diabetes

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    ¿Corro el riesgo de tener diabetes gestacional? DEPARTAMENTO DE SALUD Y SERVICIOS HUMANOS DE LOS Eunice Kennedy Shriver #12;¿Qué es la diabetes gestacional? La diabetes gestacional es cuando una mujer lo había tenido, tiene diabetes gestacional. La diabetes gestacional se presenta en aproximadamente

  3. Nutrition Recommendations and Interventions for Diabetes–2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is important in preventing diabetes, managing existing diabetes, and preventing, or at least slowing, the rate of development of diabetes complications. It is, therefore, important at all levels of diabetes prevention. MNT is also an integral component of diabetes sel...

  4. What the Teacher Should Know About Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Harriet, Ed.; Rolloff, Charlene, Ed.

    This short manual is designed to provide the practicing teacher with basic information on diabetes, and the role (s)he plays in providing health supervision and care for the diabetic child in his/her classroom. The document consists of four pages, describing (1) components of diabetes management and symptoms of diabetes; (2) emergency diabetic

  5. Qu es la diabetes? Cules son los sntomas de la diabetes?

    E-print Network

    Fitze, Patrick

    ¿Qué es la diabetes? ¿Cuáles son los síntomas de la diabetes? ¿Cuál es el nivel óptimo de azúcar en sangre? ¿Cuáles son los factores de riesgo de la diabetes? ¿Cuál es el tratamiento de la diabetes? ¿Puede prevenirse la diabetes? ¿Tiene cura la diabetes? Preguntas frecuentes Unión EUropEa Vii programa Marco de i

  6. The Missed Patient With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuanping; Geiss, Linda S.; Cheng, Yiling J.; Beckles, Gloria L.; Gregg, Edward W.; Kahn, Henry S.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study examined the association between access to health care and three classifications of diabetes status: diagnosed, undiagnosed, and no diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Using data from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we identified 110 “missed patients” (fasting plasma glucose >125 mg/dl but without diagnoses of diabetes), 704 patients with diagnosed diabetes, and 4,782 people without diabetes among adults aged 18–64 years. The population percentage undetected among adults with diabetes and the odds ratio of being undetected among adults who reported not having diabetes were compared between groups based on their access to health care. RESULTS—Among those with diabetes, the percentages having undetected diabetes were 42.2% (95% CI 36.7–47.7) among the uninsured, 25.9% (22.9–28.9) among the insured, 49.3% (43.0–55.6) for those uninsured >1 year, 38.7% (29.2–48.2) for those uninsured ?1 year, and 24.5% (21.7–27.3) for those continuously insured over the past year. Type of insurance, number of times receiving health care in the past year, and routine patterns of health care utilization were also associated with undetected diabetes. Multivariate adjustment indicated that having undetected diabetes was associated with being uninsured (odds ratio 1.7 [95% CI 1.0–2.9]) and with being uninsured >1 year (2.6 [1.4–5.0]). CONCLUSIONS—Limited access to health care, especially being uninsured and going without insurance for a long period, was significantly associated with being a “missed patient” with diabetes. Efforts to increase detection of diabetes may need to address issues of access to care. PMID:18753665

  7. Menopause and risk of diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Catherine; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Crandall, Jill P.; Dabelea, Dana; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Hamman, Richard F.; Montez, Maria G.; Perreault, Leigh; Foulkes, Mary A.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study objective was to examine the association between menopause status and diabetes risk among women with glucose intolerance and to determine if menopausal status modifies response to diabetes prevention interventions. Methods The study population included women in premenopause (n=708), natural postmenopause (n=328), and bilateral oophorectomy (n=201) in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a randomized placebo-controlled trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among glucose intolerant adults. Associations between menopause and diabetes risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models that adjusted for demographic variables (age, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes mellitus), waist circumference, insulin resistance and corrected insulin response. Similar models were constructed after stratification by menopause type and hormone therapy (HT) use. Results After adjustment for age, there was no association between natural menopause or bilateral oophorectomy and diabetes risk. Differences by study arm were observed in women who reported bilateral oophorectomy. In the lifestyle arm, women with bilateral oophorectomy had a lower adjusted hazard for diabetes (HR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04, 0.94), although observations were too few to determine if this was independent of HT use. No significant differences were seen in the metformin (HR 1.29, 95% CI 0.63, 2.64) or placebo arms (HR 1.37, 95% CI 0.74, 2.55). Conclusions Among women at high-risk for diabetes, natural menopause was not associated with diabetes risk and did not affect response to diabetes prevention interventions. In the lifestyle intervention, bilateral oophorectomy was associated with decreased diabetes risk. PMID:21709591

  8. Musculoskeletal manifestations of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Merashli, M; Chowdhury, T A; Jawad, A S M

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are increasing significantly worldwide. Whilst vascular complications of diabetes are well recognized, and account for principle mortality and morbidity from the condition, musculoskeletal manifestations of diabetes are common and whilst not life threatening, are an important cause of morbidity, pain and disability. Joints affected by diabetes include peripheral joints and the axial skeleton. Charcot neuroarthropathy is an important cause of deformity and amputation associated with peripheral neuropathy. A number of fibrosing conditions of the hands and shoulder are recognized, including carpal tunnel syndrome, adhesive capsulitis, tenosynovitis and limited joint mobility. People with diabetes are more prone to gout and osteoporosis. Management of these conditions requires early recognition and close liaison between diabetes and rheumatology specialists. PMID:26025688

  9. Cognitive Dysfunction and Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kodl, Christopher T.; Seaquist, Elizabeth R.

    2008-01-01

    The deleterious effects of diabetes mellitus on the retinal, renal, cardiovascular, and peripheral nervous systems are widely acknowledged. Less attention has been given to the effect of diabetes on cognitive function. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus have been associated with reduced performance on numerous domains of cognitive function. The exact pathophysiology of cognitive dysfunction in diabetes is not completely understood, but it is likely that hyperglycemia, vascular disease, hypoglycemia, and insulin resistance play significant roles. Modalities to study the effect of diabetes on the brain have evolved over the years, including neurocognitive testing, evoked response potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging. Although much insightful research has examined cognitive dysfunction in patients with diabetes, more needs to be understood about the mechanisms and natural history of this complication in order to develop strategies for prevention and treatment. PMID:18436709

  10. Considering a diabetes management company.

    PubMed

    Harrington, R L

    1989-01-01

    In today's cost-conscious environment, outside management services are increasingly becoming integrated components of a hospital's overall structure and diversification strategy. Diabetes patients represent a significant percentage of hospital admission rates and market share; correspondingly, hospitals are initiating diabetes product lines to attain a leadership position in diabetes treatment. A management firm specializing in diabetes may offer significant advantages over in-house program development. A careful analysis of the company and its product will help identify a quality service that can meet both the needs of the hospital and the community it serves. Diabetes educators can play an important role in determining the need and feasibility of a managed service and in the evaluation of competing diabetes management firms. PMID:2791855

  11. Non-Proteinuric Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Nicolas Roberto; Villa, Juan; Hernandez Gallego, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy patients traditionally show significant macroalbuminuria prior to the development of renal impairment. However, this clinical paradigm has recently been questioned. Epidemiological surveys confirm that chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosed by a low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is more common in diabetic patients than in the non-diabetic population but a low number of patients had levels of proteinuria above that which traditionally defines overt diabetic nephropathy (>500 mg/g). The large number of patients with low levels of proteinuria suggests that the traditional clinical paradigm of overt diabetic nephropathy is changing since it does not seem to be the underlying renal lesion in most of diabetic subjects with CKD. PMID:26371050

  12. Eating Out When Your Child Has Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pregnant? What to Expect Eating Out When Your Child Has Diabetes KidsHealth > Parents > Diabetes Center > Diet & Nutrition > Eating Out When Your Child Has Diabetes Print A A A Text Size What's in ...

  13. Taking Care of Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... American Diabetes Association, Inc. 10/13 Toolkit No. 16 What is type 2 diabetes? Everyone’s blood has ... women) Triglycerides Below 150 mg/dL Toolkit No. 16: Taking Care of?Type 2 Diabetes continued Provided ...

  14. Diabetes Control: Why It's Important (For Kids)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Games Kids' Medical Dictionary En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Girls and Puberty Boys and Puberty ... Main Page Diabetes Control: Why It's Important KidsHealth > Kids > Diabetes Center > Medication & Monitoring > Diabetes Control: Why It's ...

  15. "Don't take diabetes for granted."

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Stories "Don't take diabetes for granted." Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... shocked when I was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. I thought I was eating right, exercising enough– ...

  16. Type 2 Diabetes and Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood sugars can Also called adult onset or non-insulin dependent diabet , es damage the kidneys, heart, and eyes; and predispose type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects how diabetics ...

  17. Diabetic Diet - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Principles of Diabetic Diet English ??????? - ???? (Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Sample Diabetic Meal Plan English ????????? - ???? (Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Khmer (Khmer) Diabetes Meal ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... Glossary definitions Reviewed April 2010 What is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus? Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a disorder of ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... Glossary definitions Reviewed April 2010 What is neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus? Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is a disorder of ...

  20. Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It? KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Endocrine ... in learning to live with the disease. About Diabetes Diabetes is a disease that affects how the ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Type 1 diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Type 1 diabetes On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed March 2013 What is type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is a disorder characterized by ...

  2. How Is Diabetes Treated in Children?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Is Diabetes Treated in Children? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... worse over time. back to top Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is most often diagnosed in ...

  3. Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Diabetes Medicines—Always Discuss Them with Your Healthcare Provider ...

  4. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fund National Kidney Foundation American Diabetes Association JDRF Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Español Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your kidneys healthy Page Content On ...

  5. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Mouth Healthy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dental and Craniofacial Research American Diabetes Association JDRF Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Español Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your mouth healthy Page Content On ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... definitions Reviewed July 2011 What is permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus? Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus is a type ...

  7. Women and Diabetes: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A A A Listen En Español Women and Diabetes: Frequently Asked Questions Why are women with diabetes ... book-power-of-food-sticky.html More from diabetes.org Learn More: Special Book Promotion: Behind the ...

  8. Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning about Prediabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes There are several ways ... mg/dl – 199 mg/dl Preventing Type 2 Diabetes You will not develop type 2 diabetes automatically ...

  9. Diabetes in Europe: an update.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, T; Rosenbauer, J; Wild, S H; Spijkerman, A M W; Baan, C; Forouhi, N G; Herder, C; Rathmann, W

    2014-02-01

    Diabetes is among the leading causes of death in the IDF Europe Region (EUR), continues to increase in prevalence with diabetic macro- and microvascular complications resulting in increased disability and enormous healthcare costs. In 2013, the number of people with diabetes is estimated to be 56 million in EUR with an overall estimated prevalence of 8.5%. However, estimates of diabetes prevalence in 2013 vary widely in the 56 diverse countries in EUR from 2.4% in Moldova to 14.9% in Turkey. Trends in diabetes prevalence also vary between countries with stable prevalence since 2002 for many countries but a doubling of diabetes prevalence in Turkey. For 2035, a further increase of nearly 10 million people with diabetes is projected for the EUR. Prevalence of type 1 has also increased over the past 20 years in EUR and there was estimated to be 129,350 cases in children aged 0-14 years in 2013. Registries provide valid information on incidence of type 1 diabetes with more complete data available for children than for adults. There are large differences in distribution of risk factors for diabetes at the population level in EUR. Modifiable risk factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, smoking behaviour (including secondhand smoking), environmental pollutants, psychosocial factors and socioeconomic deprivation could be tackled to reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Europe. In addition, diabetes management is a major challenge to health services in the European countries. Improved networking practices of health professionals and other stakeholders in combination with empowerment of people with diabetes and continuous quality monitoring need to be further developed in Europe. PMID:24300019

  10. The Emerging Diabetes Online Community

    PubMed Central

    Hilliard, Marisa E.; Sparling, Kerri M.; Hitchcock, Jeff; Oser, Tamara K.; Hood, Korey K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes self-management is complex and demanding, and isolation and burnout are common experiences. The Internet provides opportunities for people with diabetes to connect with one another to address these challenges. The aims of this paper are to introduce readers to the platforms on which Diabetes Online Community (DOC) participants interact, to discuss reasons for and risks associated with diabetes-related online activity, and to review research related to the potential impact of DOC participation on diabetes outcomes. Methods Research and online content related to diabetes online activity is reviewed, and DOC writing excerpts are used to illustrate key themes. Guidelines for meaningful participation in DOC activities for people with diabetes, families, health care providers, and industry are provided. Results Common themes around DOC participation include peer support, advocacy, self-expression, seeking and sharing diabetes information, improving approaches to diabetes data management, and humor. Potential risks include access to misinformation and threats to individuals’ privacy, though there are limited data on negative outcomes resulting from such activities. Likewise, few data are available regarding the impact of DOC involvement on glycemic outcomes, but initial research suggests a positive impact on emotional experiences, attitudes toward diabetes, and engagement in diabetes management behaviors. Conclusion The range of DOC participants, activities, and platforms is growing rapidly. The Internet provides opportunities to strengthen communication and support among individuals with diabetes, their families, health care providers, the health care industry, policy makers, and the general public. Research is needed to investigate the impact of DOC participation on self-management, quality of life, and glycemic control, and to design and evaluate strategies to maximize its positive impact. PMID:25901500

  11. Tau pathology in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Nie, Sheng-Dan; Wang, Shan

    2013-08-01

    Neurodegenerative tauopathy characterized by hyperphosphorylation tau has been implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetic central nervous system (CNS) complication. Emerging evidence has suggested that hyperphosphorylation tau is caused by an imbalance of protein kinase and phosphatase activity. This review focuses on the contributions of impaired insulin signaling to diabetes-related tauopathy through disrupting the balance of tau-related protein kinases and phosphatases. In addition, we describe tau pathology as a potential target for central neuronal degeneration in diabetes mellitus. PMID:24020118

  12. Diabetic nephropathy – complications and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Andy KH

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a significant cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal failure globally. Much research has been conducted in both basic science and clinical therapeutics, which has enhanced understanding of the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy and expanded the potential therapies available. This review will examine the current concepts of diabetic nephropathy management in the context of some of the basic science and pathophysiology aspects relevant to the approaches taken in novel, investigative treatment strategies. PMID:25342915

  13. Inflammation in diabetic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Patricia M; Getino-Melián, María A; Domínguez-Pimentel, Virginia; Navarro-González, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus entails significant health problems worldwide. The pathogenesis of diabetes is multifactorial, resulting from interactions of both genetic and environmental factors that trigger a complex network of pathophysiological events, with metabolic and hemodynamic alterations. In this context, inflammation has emerged as a key pathophysiology mechanism. New pathogenic pathways will provide targets for prevention or future treatments. This review will focus on the implications of inflammation in diabetes mellitus, with special attention to inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25126391

  14. THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE DIABETES, OBESITY AND

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    . DIABETES CENTER " #12;Highlights include: Type 1 diabetes - Often first diagnosed in children, weTHE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE DIABETES, OBESITY AND METABOLISM INSTITUTE AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE DIABETES CENTER #12;THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE AswelaunchtheDiabetes

  15. Diagnosis of gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Coustan, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Previous approaches to diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have included 50 g, 75 g and 100 g glucose challenges, lasting 1-3 hours, with 1 or 2 elevations required. Thresholds were validated by their predictive value for subsequent diabetes, or were the same thresholds used in non-pregnant individuals. None were based on their prediction of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Diagnostic paradigms vary throughout the world, making comparisons impossible and severely limiting communication among investigators. The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study collected outcome data on > 23,000 pregnancies recruited prospectively in nine countries after a blinded 75 g, 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24-28 weeks gestation. Primary outcomes (LGA, PCS, neonatal hypoglycemia, high cord C-peptide), and most secondary outcomes (e.g. preeclampsia, preterm birth, shoulder dystocia and birth injury), were significantly, directly and continuously related to each of the three plasma glucose measurements. The International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) developed recommendations for the use of a 75 g, 2-h OGTT, ? 1 elevation diagnosing GDM, with thresholds: fasting plasma glucose ? 5.1 mmol/L (92 mg/dL) , 1 h ? 10 mmol/L (180 mg/dL) and 2 h ? 8.5 mmol/L (153 mg/dL). These have generated wide discussion and are currently being considered throughout the world. They are pregnancy outcome-based; the 75 g glucose load will bring consistency to GTTs; universal adoption will lead to consistency of diagnostic criteria worldwide; studies of treatment at similarly mild levels of glycemia have demonstrated improvement in outcomes; use of a single abnormal value will obviate the confusion arising when one elevated value is encountered. The primary argument against the recommendations is that prevalence of GDM will rise to 16-18 %, increasing health care costs. Balanced against this is the world-wide epidemic of obesity, prediabetes and diabetes. PMID:25083890

  16. Subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pascoe, M. K.; Low, P. A.; Windebank, A. J.; Litchy, W. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrophysiologic, autonomic, and neuropathologic characteristics and the natural history of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy and its response to immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of Mayo Clinic patients with diabetes who had subacute onset and progression of proximal weakness. The responses of treated versus untreated patients were compared statistically. RESULTS: During the designated study period, 44 patients with subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy were encountered. Most patients were middle-aged or elderly, and no sex preponderance was noted. The proximal muscle weakness often was associated with reduced or absent lower extremity reflexes. Associated weight loss was a common finding. Frequently, patients had some evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, but it invariably was accompanied by concomitant axonal degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was usually increased. Diffuse and substantial autonomic failure was generally present. In most cases, a sural nerve biopsy specimen suggested demyelination, although evidence of an inflammatory infiltrate was less common. Of 12 patients who received treatment (with prednisone, intravenous immune globulin, or plasma exchange), 9 had improvement of their conditions, but 17 of 29 untreated patients (59%) with follow-up also eventually had improvement, albeit at a much slower rate. Improvement was usually incomplete. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the entity of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy is an extensive and severe variant of bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, with some features suggestive of an immune-mediated cause. It differs from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in that most cases have a more restricted distribution and seem to be monophasic and self-limiting. The efficacy of immunotherapy is unproved, but such intervention may be considered in the severe and progressive cases or ones associated with severe neuropathic pain.

  17. Pirfenidone for diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kumar; Ix, Joachim H; Mathew, Anna V; Cho, Monique; Pflueger, Axel; Dunn, Stephen R; Francos, Barbara; Sharma, Shoba; Falkner, Bonita; McGowan, Tracy A; Donohue, Michael; Ramachandrarao, Satish; Xu, Ronghui; Fervenza, Fernando C; Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2011-06-01

    Pirfenidone is an oral antifibrotic agent that benefits diabetic nephropathy in animal models, but whether it is effective for human diabetic nephropathy is unknown. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 77 subjects with diabetic nephropathy who had elevated albuminuria and reduced estimated GFR (eGFR) (20 to 75 ml/min per 1.73 m²). The prespecified primary outcome was a change in eGFR after 1 year of therapy. We randomly assigned 26 subjects to placebo, 26 to pirfenidone at 1200 mg/d, and 25 to pirfenidone at 2400 mg/d. Among the 52 subjects who completed the study, the mean eGFR increased in the pirfenidone 1200-mg/d group (+3.3 ± 8.5 ml/min per 1.73 m²) whereas the mean eGFR decreased in the placebo group (-2.2 ± 4.8 ml/min per 1.73 m²; P = 0.026 versus pirfenidone at 1200 mg/d). The dropout rate was high (11 of 25) in the pirfenidone 2400-mg/d group, and the change in eGFR was not significantly different from placebo (-1.9 ± 6.7 ml/min per 1.73 m²). Of the 77 subjects, 4 initiated hemodialysis in the placebo group, 1 in the pirfenidone 2400-mg/d group, and none in the pirfenidone 1200-mg/d group during the study (P = 0.25). Baseline levels of plasma biomarkers of inflammation and fibrosis significantly correlated with baseline eGFR but did not predict response to therapy. In conclusion, these results suggest that pirfenidone is a promising agent for individuals with overt diabetic nephropathy. PMID:21511828

  18. Diabetic nephropathy and antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Tavafi, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Context Oxidative stress has crucial role in pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Despite satisfactory results from antioxidant therapy in rodent, antioxidant therapy showed conflicting results in combat with DN in diabetic patients. Evidence Acquisitions Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar,Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. Results Treatment of DN in human are insufficient with rennin angiotensin system (RAS) blockers, so additional agent ought to combine with this management. Meanwhile based on DN pathogenesis and evidences in experimental and human researches, the antioxidants are the best candidate. New multi-property antioxidants may be improved human DN that show high power antioxidant capacity, long half-life time, high permeability to mitochondrion, improve body antioxidants enzymes activity and anti-inflammatory effects. Conclusions Based on this review and our studies on diabetic rats, rosmarinic acid a multi-property antioxidant may be useful in DN patients, but of course, needs to be proven in clinical trials studies. PMID:24475422

  19. Regenerative medicine in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Matveyenko, Aleksey; Vella, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Diabetes is a common multisystem disease that results in hyperglycemia due to a relative or absolute insulin deficiency. Improved glycemic control decreases the risk of development and progression of microvascular and, to a lesser extent, macrovascular complications and prevents symptomatic hyperglycemia. However, complex treatment regimens aimed at improving glycemic control are associated with an increased incidence of hypoglycemia. On paper at least, cellular therapies arising from reprogramed stem cells or other somatic cell types would provide ideal therapy for diabetes and the prevention of its complications. This hypothesis has led to intensive efforts to grow ? cells from various sources. In this review, we provide an overview of ?-cell development as well as the efforts reported to date in terms of cellular therapy for diabetes. Engineering ?-cell replacement therapy requires an understanding of how ? cells respond to other metabolites such as amino acids, free fatty acids, and ketones. Indeed, efforts thus far have been characterized by an inability of cellular replacement products to adequately respond to metabolites that normally couple the metabolic state to ?-cell function and insulin secretion. Efforts to date intended to capitalize on current knowledge of islet cell development and stimulus-secretion coupling of the ? cell are encouraging but as yet of little clinical relevance. PMID:25841258

  20. New Concepts in Diabetic Embryopathy

    PubMed Central

    Reece, E. Albert

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Diabetes mellitus is responsible for nearly 10% of fetal anomalies in diabetic pregnancies. Although aggressive perinatal care and glycemic control are available in developed countries, the birth defect rate in diabetic pregnancies remains much higher than that in the general population. Major cellular activities--i.e., proliferation and apoptosis--and intracellular metabolic conditions--i.e., nitrosative, oxidative, and endoplasmic reticulum stress--have been demonstrated to be associated with diabetic embryopathy using animal models. Translating advances made in animal studies into clinical applications in humans will require collaborative efforts across the basic research, preclinical, and clinical communities. PMID:23702113

  1. Tips for Teens with Diabetes: What Is Diabetes?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sheet Francine Kaufman, M.D., Head, Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism at Childrens Hospital Los Angeles and Janet Silverstein, M.D., Professor and Chief, Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida, ... National Diabetes Education Program is jointly sponsored by the National ...

  2. Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Colberg, Sheri R.; Sigal, Ronald J.; Fernhall, Bo; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Blissmer, Bryan J.; Rubin, Richard R.; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Albright, Ann L.; Braun, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Although physical activity (PA) is a key element in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, many with this chronic disease do not become or remain regularly active. High-quality studies establishing the importance of exercise and fitness in diabetes were lacking until recently, but it is now well established that participation in regular PA improves blood glucose control and can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes, along with positively affecting lipids, blood pressure, cardiovascular events, mortality, and quality of life. Structured interventions combining PA and modest weight loss have been shown to lower type 2 diabetes risk by up to 58% in high-risk populations. Most benefits of PA on diabetes management are realized through acute and chronic improvements in insulin action, accomplished with both aerobic and resistance training. The benefits of physical training are discussed, along with recommendations for varying activities, PA-associated blood glucose management, diabetes prevention, gestational diabetes mellitus, and safe and effective practices for PA with diabetes-related complications. PMID:21115758

  3. Diabetes and stem cell function.

    PubMed

    Fujimaki, Shin; Wakabayashi, Tamami; Takemasa, Tohru; Asashima, Makoto; Kuwabara, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common serious metabolic diseases that results in hyperglycemia due to defects of insulin secretion or insulin action or both. The present review focuses on the alterations to the diabetic neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle, including stem cells in both tissues, and the preventive effects of physical activity on diabetes. Diabetes is associated with various nervous disorders, such as cognitive deficits, depression, and Alzheimer's disease, and that may be caused by neural stem cell dysfunction. Additionally, diabetes induces skeletal muscle atrophy, the impairment of energy metabolism, and muscle weakness. Similar to neural stem cells, the proliferation and differentiation are attenuated in skeletal muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells. However, physical activity is very useful for preventing the diabetic alteration to the neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle. Physical activity improves neurogenic capacity of neural stem cells and the proliferative and differentiative abilities of satellite cells. The present review proposes physical activity as a useful measure for the patients in diabetes to improve the physiological functions and to maintain their quality of life. It further discusses the use of stem cell-based approaches in the context of diabetes treatment. PMID:26075247

  4. Diabetes and blood pressure (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...

  5. Psychosocial Predictors of Diabetes Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, Mary T.; Rollison, Julia; Camporese, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether a perception of responsibility for disease onset and self-blame might influence disease management in people with diabetes. Methods: Our survey assessed perceived responsibility for disease onset, self-blame, anger, social support, and disease management in a sample of 46 individuals with diabetes. Results: As…

  6. Magnesium and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Barbagallo, Mario; Dominguez, Ligia J

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with both extracellular and intracellular magnesium (Mg) deficits. A chronic latent Mg deficit or an overt clinical hypomagnesemia is common in patients with type 2 diabetes, especially in those with poorly controlled glycemic profiles. Insulin and glucose are important regulators of Mg metabolism. Intracellular Mg plays a key role in regulating insulin action, insulin-mediated-glucose-uptake and vascular tone. Reduced intracellular Mg concentrations result in a defective tyrosine-kinase activity, postreceptorial impairment in insulin action and worsening of insulin resistance in diabetic patients. A low Mg intake and an increased Mg urinary loss appear the most important mechanisms that may favor Mg depletion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Low dietary Mg intake has been related to the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Benefits of Mg supplementation on metabolic profiles in diabetic patients have been found in most, but not all clinical studies and larger prospective studies are needed to support the potential role of dietary Mg supplementation as a possible public health strategy in diabetes risk. The aim of this review is to revise current evidence on the mechanisms of Mg deficiency in diabetes and on the possible role of Mg supplementation in the prevention and management of the disease. PMID:26322160

  7. Diabetes risk: antioxidants or lifestyle?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global prevalence of type-2 diabetes and its associated cardiovascular disease is increasing, possibly due to the present pandemic of obesity and overweight. It is projected that by the year 2025, more than 300 million people worldwide will have diabetes. In the United States, between the two NH...

  8. Juvenile Diabetes and Rehabilitation Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, J. Blair; Gregg, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    Severe complications of diabetes are more likely to occur with the juvenile diabetic and problems of psychosocial adjustment are recurring and difficult. Implications for the rehabilitation counselor are discussed in terms of employment considerations, the effects of complications, genetic counseling, and cooperation with other professionals.…

  9. DPP4 in Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Röhrborn, Diana; Wronkowitz, Nina; Eckel, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) is a glycoprotein of 110?kDa, which is ubiquitously expressed on the surface of a variety of cells. This exopeptidase selectively cleaves N-terminal dipeptides from a variety of substrates, including cytokines, growth factors, neuropeptides, and the incretin hormones. Expression of DPP4 is substantially dysregulated in a variety of disease states including inflammation, cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Since the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), are major regulators of post-prandial insulin secretion, inhibition of DPP4 by the gliptin family of drugs has gained considerable interest for the therapy of type 2 diabetic patients. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the DPP4-incretin axis and evaluate most recent findings on DPP4 inhibitors. Furthermore, DPP4 as a type II transmembrane protein is also known to be cleaved from the cell membrane involving different metalloproteases in a cell-type-specific manner. Circulating, soluble DPP4 has been identified as a new adipokine, which exerts both para- and endocrine effects. Recently, a novel receptor for soluble DPP4 has been identified, and data are accumulating that the adipokine-related effects of DPP4 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Importantly, circulating DPP4 is augmented in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects, and it may represent a molecular link between obesity and vascular dysfunction. A critical evaluation of the impact of circulating DPP4 is presented, and the potential role of DPP4 inhibition at this level is also discussed. PMID:26284071

  10. DPP4 in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Röhrborn, Diana; Wronkowitz, Nina; Eckel, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) is a glycoprotein of 110?kDa, which is ubiquitously expressed on the surface of a variety of cells. This exopeptidase selectively cleaves N-terminal dipeptides from a variety of substrates, including cytokines, growth factors, neuropeptides, and the incretin hormones. Expression of DPP4 is substantially dysregulated in a variety of disease states including inflammation, cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Since the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), are major regulators of post-prandial insulin secretion, inhibition of DPP4 by the gliptin family of drugs has gained considerable interest for the therapy of type 2 diabetic patients. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the DPP4–incretin axis and evaluate most recent findings on DPP4 inhibitors. Furthermore, DPP4 as a type II transmembrane protein is also known to be cleaved from the cell membrane involving different metalloproteases in a cell-type-specific manner. Circulating, soluble DPP4 has been identified as a new adipokine, which exerts both para- and endocrine effects. Recently, a novel receptor for soluble DPP4 has been identified, and data are accumulating that the adipokine-related effects of DPP4 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Importantly, circulating DPP4 is augmented in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects, and it may represent a molecular link between obesity and vascular dysfunction. A critical evaluation of the impact of circulating DPP4 is presented, and the potential role of DPP4 inhibition at this level is also discussed. PMID:26284071

  11. Cybersecurity for Connected Diabetes Devices.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes devices are increasingly connected wirelessly to each other and to data-displaying reader devices. Threats to the accurate flow of information and commands may compromise the function of these devices and put their users at risk of health complications. Sound cybersecurity of connected diabetes devices is necessary to maintain confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the data and commands. Diabetes devices can be hacked by unauthorized agents and also by patients themselves to extract data that are not automatically provided by product software. Unauthorized access to connected diabetes devices has been simulated and could happen in reality. A cybersecurity standard designed specifically for connected diabetes devices will improve the safety of these products and increase confidence of users that the products will be secure. PMID:25883162

  12. [New treatments for diabetic retinopathy].

    PubMed

    Massin, P

    2011-09-01

    Even if several studies have clearly demonstrated that a good control of glycemia and arterial pressure allow reducing the incidence and the progression of diabetic retinopathy, there is currently no drug treatment to prevent the incidence or progression of diabetic retinopathy. However, significant progress has been made in treating the complications of diabetic retinopathy, including diabetic macular edema. Ranibizumab is effective in improving visual acuity in diabetic macular edema, but at the cost of repeated injections and monthly follow-ups. It has obtained a marketing authorization (MA) in this indication. Injections of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide are also effective in reducing macular edema and in improving visual acuity but at the cost of significant side effects and without MA for intraocular use. The latter must be proposed after failure and/or injection of anti-VEGF or laser therapy. PMID:21696846

  13. The diabetic patient in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan; Aljabri, Khalid S

    2014-04-01

    During the month of Ramadan, all healthy, adult Muslims are required to fast from dawn to sunset. Fasting during Ramadan involves abstaining from food, water, beverages, smoking, oral drugs, and sexual intercourse. Although the Quran exempts chronically ill from fasting, many Muslims with diabetes still fast during Ramadan. Patients with diabetes who fast during the month of Ramadan can have acute complications. The risk of complications in fasting individuals with diabetes increases with longer periods of fasting. All patients with diabetes who wish to fast during Ramadan should be prepared by undergoing a medical assessment and engaging in a structured education program to undertake the fast as safely as possible. Although some guidelines do exist, there is an overwhelming need for better designed clinical trials which could provide us with evidence-based information and guidance in the management of patients with diabetes fasting Ramadan. PMID:24761380

  14. Diabetic Macular Edema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Conceição; Pires, Isabel; Cunha-Vaz, José

    The optical coherence tomography (OCT), a noninvasive and noncontact diagnostic method, was introduced in 1995 for imaging macular diseases. In diabetic macular edema (DME), OCT scans show hyporeflectivity, due to intraretinal and/or subretinal fluid accumulation, related to inner and/or outer blood-retinal barrier breakdown. OCT tomograms may also reveal the presence of hard exudates, as hyperreflective spots with a shadow, in the outer retinal layers, among others. In conclusion, OCT is a particularly valuable diagnostic tool in DME, helpful both in the diagnosis and follow-up procedure.

  15. Monitoring glycemia in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Healy, Sara J; Dungan, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of glycemic control is a key component of the diabetes treatment plan. Patients who are not meeting targets often require more intensive monitoring, ranging from frequent self-monitored glucose to continuous glucose monitoring in order to facilitate medication and lifestyle changes. However, more intensive monitoring demands more training and a structured plan for interpretation and use of the data. Better patient and provider tools to support decision-making and progress toward an artificial pancreas may help to alleviate this burden. PMID:25456642

  16. Entrevista con Sabina Berman

    E-print Network

    Hind, Emily

    2000-04-01

    el arte más estilizado, más lejano a la realidad. Para mí, la comedia es el género más cercano. Lo que implica nada más la distancia de un público que está viendo cuan pequeños somos finalmente. ¿Por qué te interesa trabajar con la historia en... mí me pareció fascinante que él pensara en la democracia con tal intensidad descartando el cincuenta por ciento de la población. Igual que ellos [los revolucionarios]. En México se hizo la revolución para la igualdad, la fraternidad de los...

  17. Diabetes autoantibodies do not predict progression to diabetes in adults: the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Dabelea, D.; Ma, Y.; Knowler, W. C.; Marcovina, S.; Saudek, C. D.; Arakaki, R.; White, N. H.; Kahn, S. E.; Orchard, T. J.; Goldberg, R.; Palmer, J.; Hamman, R. F.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To determine if the presence of diabetes autoantibodies predicts the development of diabetes among participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Methods A total of 3050 participants were randomized into three treatment groups: intensive lifestyle intervention, metformin and placebo. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 autoantibodies and insulinoma-associated-2 autoantibodies were measured at baseline and participants were followed for 3.2 years for the development of diabetes. Results The overall prevalence of GAD autoantibodies was 4.0%, and it varied across racial/ethnic groups from 2.4% among Asian-Pacific Islanders to 7.0% among non-Hispanic black people. There were no significant differences in BMI or metabolic variables (glucose, insulin, HbA1c, estimated insulin resistance, corrected insulin response) stratified by baseline GAD antibody status. GAD autoantibody positivity did not predict diabetes overall (adjusted hazard ratio 0.98; 95% CI 0.56–1.73) or in any of the three treatment groups. Insulinoma-associated-2 autoantibodies were positive in only one participant (0.033%). Conclusions These data suggest that ‘diabetes autoimmunity’, as reflected by GAD antibodies and insulinoma-associated-2 autoantibodies, in middle-aged individuals at risk for diabetes is not a clinically relevant risk factor for progression to diabetes. PMID:24646311

  18. DIABETES MELLITUS COMO FACTOR DE RIESGO DE DEMENCIA EN LA POBLACIÓN ADULTA MAYOR MEXICANA

    PubMed Central

    Silvia, Mejía-Arango; Clemente, y Zúñiga-Gil

    2012-01-01

    Introduccion La diabetes mellitus y las demencias constituyen dos problemas crecientes de salud entre la población adulta mayor del mundo y en particular de los paises en desarrollo. Hacen falta estudios longitudinales sobre el papel de la diabetes como factor de riesgo para demencia. Objetivo Determinar el riesgo de demencia en sujetos Mexicanos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Materiales y Metodos Los sujetos diabéticos libres de demencia pertenecientes al Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México fueron evaluados a los dos años de la línea de base. Se estudió el papel de los factores sociodemográficos, de otras comorbilidades y del tipo de tratamiento en la conversión a demencia. Resultados Durante la línea de base 749 sujetos (13.8%) tuvieron diabetes. El riesgo de desarrollar demencia en estos individuos fue el doble (RR, 2.08 IC 95%, 1.59–2.73). Se encontró un riesgo mayor en individuos de 80 años y más (RR 2.44 IC 95%, 1.46–4.08), en los hombres (RR, 2.25 IC 95%, 1.46–3.49) y en sujetos con nivel educativo menor de 7 años. El estar bajo tratamiento con insulina incrementó el riesgo de demencia (RR, 2.83, IC 95%, 1.58–5.06). Las otras comorbilidades que aumentaron el riesgo de demencia en los pacientes diabéticos fueron la hipertensión (RR, 2.75, IC 95%, 1.86–4.06) y la depresión (RR, 3.78, 95% IC 2.37–6.04). Conclusión Los sujetos con diabetes mellitus tienen un riesgo mayor de desarrollar demencia, La baja escolaridad y otras comorbilidades altamente prevalentes en la población Mexicana contribuyen a la asociación diabetes-demencia. PMID:21948010

  19. Diabetic foot burns: a case series.

    PubMed

    Nerone, Vincent S; Springer, Kevin D; Atway, Said A

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury in diabetic patients has been a recent topic of interest in published studies. Previous studies have shown increased complications in diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic controls who have sustained these injuries. A paucity of research has been devoted to foot-specific diabetic burn injury. We present a case series evaluating the mechanisms and complications of diabetic foot burns. PMID:24746533

  20. Diabetes Mellitus, type 1 Roxanne Diaz Caceres

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    Diabetes Mellitus, type 1 Roxanne Diaz Caceres Prof. Brutlag - BIOC 118Q - Autumn 2010 Pro Prod as "Juvenile Diabetes" Defect in insulin secretion or action Can lead to blindness, kidney failure, heart diabetes. · A random blood glucose test can also be used to diagnose diabetes. A blood glucose level of 200

  1. Platelets and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Santilli, Francesca; Simeone, Paola; Liani, Rossella; Davì, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Platelet activation plays a key role in atherothrombosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and increased in vivo platelet activation with enhanced thromboxane (TX) biosynthesis has been reported in patients with impairment of glucose metabolism even in the earlier stages of disease and in the preclinical phases. In this regards, platelets appear as addresses and players carrying and transducing metabolic derangement into vascular injury. The present review critically addresses key pathophysiological aspects including (i) hyperglycemia, glycemic variability and insulin resistance as determinants and predictors of platelet activation, (ii) inflammatory mediators derived from platelets, such as soluble CD40 ligand, soluble CD36, Dickkopf-1 and probably soluble receptor for advanced glycation-end-products (sRAGE), which expand the functional repertoire of platelets from players of hemostasis and thrombosis to powerful amplifiers of inflammation by promoting the release of cytokines and chemokines, cell activation, and cell-cell interactions; (iii) molecular mechanisms underpinning the less-than-expected antithrombotic protection by aspirin (ASA), despite regular antiplatelet prophylaxis at the standard dosing regimen, and (iv) stratification of patients deserving different antiplatelet strategies, based on the metabolic phenotype. Taken together, these pathophysiological aspects may contribute to the development of promising mechanism-based therapeutic strategies to reduce the progression of atherothrombosis in diabetic subjects. PMID:25986598

  2. [Management of gestational diabetes].

    PubMed

    Philips, J C; Emonts, P; Pintiaux, A; Kirkpatrick, C; Scheen, A J

    2013-09-01

    Pregnancy is associated with relative carbohydrate intolerance and insulin resistance. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is recognized as a risk factor for a number of adverse outcomes during pregnancy, including excessive fetal growth, increased incidence of birth trauma and neonatal metabolic abnormalities. This recognition has led to recommendations to screen all pregnant women for GDM and to treat those whose glucose tolerance tests exceed threshold criteria. Numerous epidemiological studies show that GDM affects between 1 and 25% of pregnancies, depending on the ethnicity of the population studied and the diagnostic criteria. Intervention to change lifestyle and, if maternal hyperglycemia persists, treatment with additional oral medication or insulin injections have shown to improve perinatal outcomes. Patients with GDM have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the years after delivery and these women are encouraged to practice specific health behaviours (dietary habits, physical activity) during the postpartum period. The present article discusses the management of GDM in the light of data from the latest studies and international recommendations. PMID:24180206

  3. Clinical profile of diabetic foot in India.

    PubMed

    Pendsey, Sharad

    2010-12-01

    The clinical profile of diabetes differs across the world on account of differences in social, economic, and cultural factors. India is referred to as the capital of type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes as well its complications like the diabetic foot is increasing constantly. This article on the clinical profile of the diabetic foot describes commonly observed problems in India, certain atypical features, and the successful implementation of a national project on reducing leg amputations. PMID:21134956

  4. Medical management of diabetic retinopathy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Malek, Mojtaba; Khamseh, Mohammad E; Aghili, Rokhsareh; Emami, Zahra; Najafi, Laily; Baradaran, Hamid R

    2012-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global health problem affecting 366 million people worldwide and its prevalence is growing rapidly. Diabetic eye disease is present in up to 25% of diabetic subjects. Diabetic retinopathy is a chronic complication of diabetes that can result in blindness. Generally, there are two stages of diabetic retinopathy, non-proliferative and proliferative. The longer a person has diabetes and the poorer metabolic control, the higher the chance of developing diabetic retinopathy. The majority of people with type 2 diabetes will ultimately develop diabetic retinopathy.  Multifactorial therapy targeted to lifestyle modification and optional glycemic control reduces the risk. However, diabetic retinopathy develops or progresses with time.  Primary (preventive) strategies include glycemic, lipid, and blood pressure control.  Glycemic control effectively reduces the incidence of diabetic retinopathy. In additional, its effect on progression of diabetic retinopathy has been demonstrated in randomized clinical trials.  Furthermore, tight control of blood pressure significantly reduces the progression of retinopathy and visual loss. However, the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Eye Study Group has shown that intensive blood pressure control has no beneficial effect on reducing the rate of diabetic retinopathy in subjects with type 2 diabetes.  Elevated serum lipids and dyslipidemias are associated with a higher risk of diabetic retinopathy. The beneficial effects of lipid-lowering agents on the progression of retinopathy have been reported. Intensive combination therapy for dyslipidemia has been shown to effectively reduce the rate of progression of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes.  Secondary strategies are focused on various pathophysiologic approaches such as blockade of the renin angiotensin system (RAS), anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, somatostatin analogues, protein kinase inhibitors, and anti-inflammatory agents.  The purpose of the current overview is to look into the medical management of diabetic retinopathy, and to explore the primary (preventive) measures as well as secondary strategies proposed to be effective in its medical management. PMID:23020540

  5. Diabetic Kidney Disease (Diabetic Nephropathy) (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... everyone, but are especially important if you have diabetic nephropathy: ? Limit the amount of salt you eat (see "Patient information: Low-sodium diet (Beyond the Basics)" ) ? If you smoke, quit smoking ( ...

  6. Gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Alfadhli, Eman M.

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common medical complication of pregnancy. It is associated with maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. Maintaining adequate blood glucose levels in GDM reduces morbidity for both mother and baby. There is a lack of uniform strategies for screening and diagnosing GDM globally. This review covers the latest update in the diagnosis and management of GDM. The initial treatment of GDM consists of diet and exercise. If these measures fail to achieve glycemic goals, insulin should be initiated. Insulin analogs are more physiological than human insulin, and are associated with less risk of hypoglycemia, and may provide better glycemic control. Insulin lispro, aspart, and detemir are approved to be used in pregnancy. Insulin glargine is not approved in pregnancy, but the existing studies did not show any contraindications. The use of oral hypoglycemic agents; glyburide and metformin seems to be safe and effective in pregnancy. PMID:25828275

  7. Diabetes Resources for Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Story Sandra’s Story Promotional Tools for Managing Diabetes Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... it to use as a handout or poster. Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  8. Diabetic Complications and Amputation Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... because of two complications of diabetes: nerve damage (neuropathy) and poor circulation. Neuropathy causes loss of feeling in your feet, taking ... to the bone. Because of poor circulation and neuropathy in the feet, cuts or blisters can easily ...

  9. Peptides and methods against diabetes

    DOEpatents

    Albertini, Richard J. (Underhill Center, VT); Falta, Michael T. (Hinesburg, VT)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to methods of preventing or reducing the severity of diabetes. In one embodiment, the method involves administering to the individual a peptide having substantially the sequence of a on-conserved region sequence of a T cell receptor present on the surface of T cells mediating diabetes or a fragment thereof, wherein the peptide or fragment is capable of causing an effect on the immune system to regulate the T cells. In particular, the T cell receptor has the V.beta. regional V.beta.6 or V.beta.14. In another embodiment, the method involves gene therapy. The invention also relates to methods of diagnosing diabetes by determining the presence of diabetes predominant T cell receptors.

  10. Gestational diabetes: A clinical update

    PubMed Central

    Kampmann, Ulla; Madsen, Lene Ring; Skajaa, Gitte Oeskov; Iversen, Ditte Smed; Moeller, Niels; Ovesen, Per

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing in prevalence in tandem with the dramatic increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Much controversy surrounds the diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes, emphasizing the importance and relevance of clarity and consensus. If newly proposed criteria are adopted universally a significantly growing number of women will be diagnosed as having GDM, implying new therapeutic challenges to avoid foetal and maternal complications related to the hyperglycemia of gestational diabetes. This review provides an overview of clinical issues related to GDM, including the challenges of screening and diagnosis, the pathophysiology behind GDM, the treatment and prevention of GDM and the long and short term consequences of gestational diabetes for both mother and offspring. PMID:26240703

  11. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hepatitis B can be spread through sharing needles, syringes, or other injection equipment. In addition, the hepatitis ... devices or other diabetes-care equipment such as syringes or insulin pens. How infectious is the hepatitis ...

  12. Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with type 2 diabetes have a condition called insulin resistance . They're able to make insulin but their ... glucose levels within a normal range. People with insulin resistance are often overweight and don't exercise very ...

  13. Diabetes, Dyslipidemia, and Heart Protection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... triglycerides (fats in the blood) Dyslipidemia contributes to atherosclerosis (“hardening” of the arteries), a disease in which ... People with diabetes are more likely to develop atherosclerosis, heart disease, poor circulation, and stroke than people ...

  14. Eating Out and Diabetes Risk

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... that can lead to healthy tomorrows. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetes Type 2 Diets Nutrition About MedlinePlus ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  15. Type 2 Diabetes and Wine

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcohol Diabetes Type 2 Diets About MedlinePlus ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  16. [Diabetes mellitus, antidiabetics and bone].

    PubMed

    Svacina, Stepán

    2010-01-01

    A short review of current opinions on a questionable and controversial disease--diabetic osteopathy--is presented. Bone metabolism is influenced by antidiabetic drugs. Positive effects are attributed to the insulin and metformin therapy. Use of thiazolidindiones is accompanied by a higher risk of bone fractures in diabetic women. Very interesting and also promising is the effect of glucagon like peptide-1 and the new antidiabetic drug class- incretin analogues on bone metabolism. PMID:20662475

  17. Bone scintigraphy in diabetic osteoarthropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Eymontt, M.J.; Alavi, A.; Dalinka, M.K.; Kyle, G.C.

    1981-08-01

    Bone scans of patients with diabetic osteoarthropathy of the ankle and foot were characterized by a combination of diffuse and focal increased uptake, similar to that seen with hyperemia and reactive new bone formation. Scintigraphy showed more extensive abnormalities than radiography, with the scan abnormalities sometimes preceding the radiographic changes. The clinical and scintigraphic appearance of osteoarthropathy may improve following strict diabetic control and non-weight-bearing.

  18. Diabetes: Models, Signals and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobelli, C.

    2010-07-01

    Diabetes and its complications impose significant economic consequences on individuals, families, health systems, and countries. The control of diabetes is an interdisciplinary endeavor, which includes significant components of modeling, signal processing and control. Models: first, I will discuss the minimal (coarse) models which describe the key components of the system functionality and are capable of measuring crucial processes of glucose metabolism and insulin control in health and diabetes; then, the maximal (fine-grain) models which include comprehensively all available knowledge about system functionality and are capable to simulate the glucose-insulin system in diabetes, thus making it possible to create simulation scenarios whereby cost effective experiments can be conducted in silico to assess the efficacy of various treatment strategies - in particular I will focus on the first in silico simulation model accepted by FDA as a substitute to animal trials in the quest for optimal diabetes control. Signals: I will review metabolic monitoring, with a particular emphasis on the new continuous glucose sensors, on the crucial role of models to enhance the interpretation of their time-series signals, and on the opportunities that they present for automation of diabetes control. Control: I will review control strategies that have been successfully employed in vivo or in silico, presenting a promise for the development of a future artificial pancreas and, in particular, I will discuss a modular architecture for building closed-loop control systems, including insulin delivery and patient safety supervision layers.

  19. Tips for Teens with Diabetes: Make Healthy Food Choices

    MedlinePLUS

    ... topic: Living with Diabetes for Adults Living with Diabetes for Children & Adolescents Risk & Prevention for Adults Risk for Children & ... topic: Living with Diabetes for Adults Living with Diabetes for Children & Adolescents Risk & Prevention for Adults Risk for Children & ...

  20. Can Eye Screening for Diabetic Kids Be Delayed a Bit?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... younger, and had type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Children with type 2 diabetes and those at high ... Diseases Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetes in Children and Teens Diabetes Type 1 Eye Diseases About ...

  1. It's Not Too Late to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... topic: Living with Diabetes for Adults Living with Diabetes for Children & Adolescents Risk & Prevention for Adults Risk for Children & ... topic: Living with Diabetes for Adults Living with Diabetes for Children & Adolescents Risk & Prevention for Adults Risk for Children & ...

  2. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diabetes screening tests. 410.18 Section...Other Health Services § 410.18 Diabetes screening tests. (a) Definitions...the following definitions apply: Diabetes means diabetes mellitus,...

  3. Four Steps to Manage Your Diabetes for Life

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Language URL Español 4 Steps to Manage Your Diabetes for Life Page Content Contents Step 1: Learn ... diabetes care each day. Step 1: Learn about diabetes. What is diabetes? There are three main types ...

  4. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diabetes screening tests. 410.18 Section...Other Health Services § 410.18 Diabetes screening tests. (a) Definitions...the following definitions apply: Diabetes means diabetes mellitus,...

  5. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diabetes screening tests. 410.18 Section...Other Health Services § 410.18 Diabetes screening tests. (a) Definitions...the following definitions apply: Diabetes means diabetes mellitus,...

  6. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diabetes screening tests. 410.18 Section...Other Health Services § 410.18 Diabetes screening tests. (a) Definitions...the following definitions apply: Diabetes means diabetes mellitus,...

  7. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diabetes screening tests. 410.18 Section...Other Health Services § 410.18 Diabetes screening tests. (a) Definitions...the following definitions apply: Diabetes means diabetes mellitus,...

  8. Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Association of Diabetes Educators American Diabetes Association JDRF Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... KB). Alternate Language URL Español Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2 Page Content Learn ...

  9. What I Need to Know about Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Español What I need to know about Diabetes Medicines Page Content On this page: What do diabetes ... diabetes medicines, food choices, and physical activity. [ Top ] Medicines ?for My Diabetes Ask your doctor what type ...

  10. Diabetic cardiomyopathy: is resistin a culprit?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease, including heart failure (HF), is the major cause of death in patients with diabetes. A contributing factor to the occurrence of HF in such patients is the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Recent evidence demonstrates that perturbations associated with adipokines secretion and signaling result in lusitropic and inotropic defects in diabetic cardiomyopathy. This perspective editorial will discuss the central role of resistin, a recently discovered adipokine, in the maladaptive cardiac phenotype seen in diabetic hearts. Given the pleiotropic effects of resistin, strategies targeting the control of resistin levels may constitute a potentially viable therapeutic utility in patients with diabetes and diabetes-induced cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26543825

  11. Electrochemistry in diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Heller, Adam; Feldman, Ben

    2010-07-20

    Diabetes devastates lives and burdens society. Hypoglycemic (low glucose) episodes cause blackouts, and severe ones are life-threatening. Periods of hyperglycemia (high glucose) cause circulatory disease, stroke, amputations, blindness, kidney failure and nerve degeneration. In this Account, we describe the founding of TheraSense, now a major part of Abbott Diabetes Care, and the development of two products that have improved the lives of people with diabetes. The first, a virtually painless microcoulometer (300 nL volume), the FreeStyle blood glucose monitoring system, was approved by the FDA and became available in 2000. In 2009, this system was used in more than one billion blood assays. The second, the enzyme-wiring based, subcutaneously-implanted FreeStyle Navigator continuous glucose monitoring system, was approved by the FDA and became available in the United States in 2008. The strips of the FreeStyle blood glucose monitoring system comprise a printed parallel plate coulometer, with a 50 microm gap between two facing printed electrodes, a carbon electrode and a Ag/AgCl electrode. The volume of blood between the facing plates is accurately controlled. The glucose is electrooxidized through catalysis by a glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and an Os(2+/3+) redox mediator, which is reduced by the glucose-reduced enzyme and is electrooxidized on the carbon electrode. Initially the system used pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent GDH but now uses flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent GDH. Because the facing electrodes are separated by such a small distance, shuttling of electrons by the redox couple could interfere with the coulometric assay. However, the Os(2+/3+) redox mediator is selected to have a substantially negative formal potential, between 0.0 and -0.2 V, versus that of the facing Ag/AgCl electrode. This makes the flow of a shuttling current between the two electrodes virtually impossible because the oxidized Os(3+) complex cannot be appreciably reduced at the more positively poised Ag/AgCl electrode. The FreeStyle Navigator continuous glucose monitoring system uses a subcutaneously implanted miniature plastic sensor connected to a transmitter to measure glycemia amperometrically and sends the information to a PDA-like device every minute. The sensor consists of a narrow (0.6 mm wide) plastic substrate on which carbon-working, Ag/AgCl reference, and carbon counter electrodes are printed in a stacked geometry. The active wired enzyme sensing layer covers only about 0.1 mm(2) of the working electrode and is overlaid by a flux-limiting membrane. It resides at about 5 mm depth in the subcutaneous adipose tissue and monitors glucose concentrations over the range 20-500 mg/dL. Its core component, a miniature, disposable, amperometric glucose sensor, has an electrooxidation catalyst made from a crosslinked adduct of glucose oxidase (GOx) and a GOx wiring redox hydrogel containing a polymer-bound Os(2+/3+) complex. Because of the selectivity of the catalyst for glucose, very little current flows in the absence of glucose. That feature, either alone or in combination with other features of the sensor, facilitates the one-point calibration of the system. The sensor is implanted subcutaneously and replaced by the patient after 5 days use with minimal pain. The wearer does not feel its presence under the skin. PMID:20384299

  12. Parental Longevity and Diabetes Risk in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, Jill P.; Perreault, Leigh; Marcovina, Santica M.; Bray, George A.; Saudek, Christopher D.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Knowler, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Longevity clusters in families, and parental longevity may be associated with lower risk of chronic diseases in their children. It is unknown if diabetes risk is associated with parental longevity. Methods. We evaluated participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program with a parental history questionnaire at study entry. We classified them into five groups: premature death (parental death at age < 50 years), parental longevity (living to at least 80 years), and three intermediate groups (alive by age 49 but dying at age 50–59, 60–69, or 70–79). Those with alive parents and younger than 80 years were excluded. We analyzed separately effects of paternal (n = 2,165) and maternal (n = 1,739) longevity on diabetes incidence and risk after an average follow-up of 3.2 years. Results. At baseline, more diabetes risk factors (parental history of diabetes, coronary heart disease, higher body mass index, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, and corrected insulin response) were found in participants whose parents died prematurely. Diabetes incidence was 9.5 cases/100 person-years in the 229 whose fathers died prematurely. In the 618 with paternal longevity, the rate was 6.6 cases/100 person-years (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.68 [0.49–0.94]). The rates were 10.7 cases/100 person-years (n = 156) and 7.3 cases/100 person-years (n = 699, hazard ratio = 0.67 [95% confidence interval 0.47–0.95]) for those with maternal premature death or longevity, respectively. Associations with demographic and diabetes risk factors had minimal influence on the reduced risk found in those with paternal (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.52–1.16) and maternal (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.41–1.01) longevity. Conclusion. Parental longevity is associated with lower diabetes incidence in adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21852284

  13. Silent diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    López-Revuelta, Katia; Galdo, Patricia Peña; Stanescu, Ramona; Parejo, Leticia; Guerrero, Carmen; Pérez-Fernández, Elia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To examine the risk of renal events in patients with biopsy-proven diabetic nephropathy (DN) and its possible associated factors. METHODS: Clinical and histological data of 60 patients diagnosed with diabetic nephropathy were retrospectively collected. Patients with evidence or suspicion of other nephropathies were excluded from the study. The final event was defined as renal replacement therapy (RRT) initiation or progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), according to the KDIGO 2012 definition of a decrease in CKD category and a decrease in GFR of 25% or more. RESULTS: A total of 45 patients with a follow-up of at least 3 mo were included. Most of the patients presented type 2 DM, with a mean age of 58.3 years old. The time of evolution of DM was 9.6 ± 7.8 years, although in 13 patients, it was less than 5 years. A total of 62% of patients reached the final event in a median period of 3.4 years (95%CI: 2.1-4.7), with 21 of them requiring dialysis. The factors that were independently associated with renal survival were estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the time of biopsy, cardiovascular disease (CVD) history and HbA1c less than 7%. Therefore, for each 10 mL/min per 1.73 m2 reduction in eGFR, we obtained a DN progression risk of HR = 2 (1.3-3.0) (P = 0.001); patients with CVD were at greater risk for DN progression (HR = 2.8, 1.1-7.1, P = 0.032), and CKD patients with HbA1c < 7% demonstrated greater renal risk than patients with HbA1c ? 7%, with an HR of 2.9 (1.0-8.4) (P = 0.054). CONCLUSION: A past history of CVD is a risk factor for DN progression. Levels of HbA1c less than 7% could favor an eGFR decrease in these patients. PMID:24527402

  14. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    NEGRATO, Carlos Antonio; TARZIA, Olinda; JOVANOVI?, Lois; CHINELLATO, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most commonly known human chronic disorders. The relationship between PD and several systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. Objective: The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with knowledge concerning the relationship between PD and DM. Many articles have been published in the english and Portuguese literature over the last 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of DM, PD and different clinical criteria were applied to determine the prevalence, extent and severity of PD, levels of glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. Methods: This paper provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research conducted using the BBO (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia), MEDLINE, LILACS and PubMed for Controlled Trials databases, in english and Portuguese languages published from 1960 to October 2012. Primary research reports on investigations of relationships between DM/DM control, PD/periodontal treatment and PD/DM/diabetes-related complications identified relevant papers and meta-analyses published in this period. Results: This paper describes the relationship between PD and DM and answers the following questions: 1- The effect of DM on PD, 2- The effects of glycemic control on PD and 3- The effects of PD on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Conclusions: The scientific evidence reviewed supports diabetes having an adverse effect on periodontal health and PD having an adverse effect on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Further research is needed to clarify these relationships and larger, prospective, controlled trials with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to establish that treating PD can positively influence glycemic control and possibly reduce the burden of diabetes-related complications. PMID:23559105

  15. The diabetic foot: a review.

    PubMed

    Ricco, J B; Thanh Phong, L; Schneider, F; Illuminati, G; Belmonte, R; Valagier, A; Régnault De La Mothe, G

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) is among the most frequent complications of diabetes. Neuropathy and ischaemia are the initiating factors and infection is mostly a consequence. We have shown in this review that any DFU should be considered to have vascular impairment. DFU will generally heal if the toe pressure is >55 mmHg and a transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2) <30 mmHg has been considered to predict that a diabetic ulcer may not heal. The decision to intervene is complex and made according to the symptoms and clinical ?ndings. If both an endovascular and a bypass procedure are possible with an equal outcome to be expected, endovascular treatments should be preferred. Primary and secondary mid-term patency rates are better after bypass, but there is no difference in limb salvage. Bedridden patients with poor life expectancy and a non-revascularisable leg are indications for performing a major amputation. A deep infection is the immediate cause of amputation in 25% to 50% of diabetic patients. Patients with uncontrolled abscess, bone or joint involvement, gangrene, or necrotising fasciitis have a "foot-at risk" and need prompt surgical intervention with debridement and revascularisation. As demonstrated in this review, foot ulcer in diabetic is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Early referral, non-invasive vascular testing, imaging and intervention are crucial to improve DFU healing and to prevent amputation. Diabetics are eight to twenty-four times more likely than non-diabetics to have a lower limb amputation and it has been suggested that a large part of those amputations could be avoided by an early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:24126512

  16. Self testing for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, M; Alban-Davies, H; Cook, C; Day, J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To develop a simple, economically viable, and effective means of population screening for diabetes mellitus. DESIGN--A postal request system for self testing for glycosuria with foil wrapped dipsticks. Preprandial and postprandial tests were compared with a single postprandial test. The subjects were instructed how to test, and a result card was supplied on which to record and return the result. All those recording a positive test result and 50 people recording a negative result were invited for an oral glucose tolerance test. SETTING--General practice in east Suffolk, list size 11534. PATIENTS--All subjects aged 45-70 years registered with the practice were identified by Suffolk Family Health Services Authority (n = 3057). The 73 subjects known to have diabetes from the practice's register were excluded, leaving 2984 subjects, 2363 (79.2%) of whom responded. 1167 subjects completed the single test and 1196 the two tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Response rate and number of patients with glycosuria. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of a single postprandial test and preprandial and postprandial tests. Number of new cases of diabetes identified and cost of screening. RESULTS--Of the patients completing the single postprandial test, 29 had a positive result, an oral glucose tolerance test showed that eight (28%) had diabetes, six (21%) impaired glucose tolerance, and 14 (48%) normal glucose tolerance. 44 of the group who tested before and after eating had a positive result; nine (20%) had diabetes, five (11%) impaired tolerance, and 26 (11%) normal tolerance. Screening cost 59p per subject and 81 pounds per case detected. Of the 17 people with previously undiagnosed diabetes, eight were asymptomatic and 11 had not visited their general practitioner in the past three months. CONCLUSIONS--A postal request system for self testing for postprandial glycosuria in people aged 45-70 is a simple and effective method of population screening for diabetes mellitus. PMID:1912918

  17. Animal Models of Diabetic Uropathy

    PubMed Central

    Daneshgari, Firouz; Leiter, Edward H.; Liu, Guiming; Reeder, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of debilitating and costly diseases with multiple serious complications. Lower urinary tract complications or Diabetic Uropathy (DU) are among the most common complications of DM, surpassing the widely recognized complications such as neuropathy and nephropathy1. DU develops in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic humans and very little is known about the natural history of these common and troublesome complications. Animal models have the potential to reveal mechanisms and aid in the development of treatment strategies. Methods We present a review of available animal models of DM relative to their use in the study of DU. Results Both large animal and small animal models of DM are available. While large animals such as dogs and swine may closely mirror the human disease in size and phenotype, the length of time between onset and development of diabetic complications and associated husbandry expenditures can make the acquisition of data from statistically valid sample sizes prohibitively expensive. In contrast small animal models (rats and mice) have much lower expenditures for larger numbers of animals, compressed observation time due to shorter lifespan and mice are readily manipulated genetically to facilitate the isolation of the effect of single genes (transgenic and knockout mice). Type 1 DM can be induced chemically using streptozotocin which is selectively toxic to pancreatic beta cells. Type 2 DM models have been developed by selective breeding for hyperglycemia with or without associated obesity. There are several well characterized and predictable animal models of DM in which the presence of DU has been demonstrated. Conclusions Diabetic Uropathy, including diabetic bladder dysfunction have been more frequently studied among small animals of type I diabetes. Recent availability of transgenic models provides a new opportunity for further studies of DU among mice models of both types I and II DM. PMID:19846143

  18. Pathology of human diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Najafian, Behzad; Alpers, Charles E; Fogo, Agnes B

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) develops in a subset of diabetic patients, on average about 15 years after onset of metabolic abnormalities. The earliest lesions consist of thickened glomerular basement membranes (GBM), mild mesangial expansion, and arteriolar accumulation of hyaline. Mesangiolysis and exuberant mesangial repair then develop, ultimately resulting in marked increase in mesangial matrix. Established nephropathy is characterized by mesangial expansion which may be nodular, so-called Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules, hyaline in both afferent and efferent arterioles, and markedly thickened GBM by electron microscopy. Podocyte loss may be a crucial contributor to this progressive sclerosis. There is a distinct predilection of segmental sclerosis to occur at the glomerulotubular junction in type 1 diabetic patients, which can lead to disruption of outflow from the glomerulus, resulting in so-called a tubular glomeruli. A recent classification of DN may be useful for categorizing stages of development of the diabetic lesions. Diabetic injury also affects the tubulointerstitium. Tubular basement membranes thicken in parallel to GBM. Early interstitial inflammation with predominantly mononuclear cells is followed by later increased interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Lesions in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients share many similarities, with more severe vascular disease and heterogeneous lesions, perhaps reflecting older age and comorbid conditions such as hypertension, in the latter. Diabetic patients typically undergo diagnostic renal biopsies only when the clinical course is not typical for DN, and not surprisingly, a range of other lesions may then be present in addition to DN. DN also recurs or occurs de novo in the transplant, developing more quickly than in the native kidney. Efforts to develop rodent animal models that more completely capture these key features of human DN will allow advances to be made in understanding pathogenesis and targeting novel treatment. PMID:21659756

  19. Recent Trends in Diabetes Knowledge, Perceptions, and Behaviors: Implications for National Diabetes Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccinino, Linda; Griffey, Susan; Gallivan, Joanne; Lotenberg, Lynne Doner; Tuncer, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Examine trends in diabetes-related knowledge, perceptions, and behavior among U.S. adults with and without a diagnosis of diabetes and among subpopulations at risk. Discuss implications for national diabetes education and for the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) in particular. Methods: Three population-based NDEP National…

  20. Overview of Diabetes in Children and Adolescents. A Fact Sheet from the National Diabetes Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes in U.S. children and adolescents may be increasing and many more new cases of type 2 diabetes are being reported in young people. Standards of care for managing children with diabetes issued by the American Diabetes Association in January 2005 provide more guidance than previously given. To update primary care providers and their…

  1. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  2. Unmet needs in Diabetes research and management Erik Renstrm, Lund University Diabetes Centre

    E-print Network

    Linke, Heiner

    Unmet needs in Diabetes research and management Erik Renström, Lund University Diabetes Centre There are many unmet needs in diabetes research and disease management. The hormone- producing pancreatic islet is central in development of the disease. Type 1-diabetes is currently seen as the result of an autoimmune

  3. DIABETES/METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS RESEARCH ARTICLE Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2003; 19: 288298.

    E-print Network

    Sastry, Ann Marie

    DIABETES/METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS RESEARCH ARTICLE Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2003; 19: 288 Nerve collagens from diabetic and nondiabetic Sprague­Dawley and biobreeding rats: an atomic force Accepted: 14 January 2003 Abstract Background Alterations in rat's nerve collagens due to diabetes may

  4. DIABETES/METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS RESEARCH ARTICLE Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2004; 20: 322329.

    E-print Network

    Paschou, Peristera

    DIABETES/METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS RESEARCH ARTICLE Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2004; 20: 322 Genetic screening for individuals at high risk for type 1 diabetes in the general population using HLA diabetes in Finland, University of Turku, Turku, Finland 2 Department of Virology, University of Turku

  5. DIABETES/METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS RESEARCH ARTICLE Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2005; 21: 264270.

    E-print Network

    Crawford, John R.

    DIABETES/METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS RESEARCH ARTICLE Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2005; 21: 264 Design and development of a scale measuring fear of complications in type 1 diabetes Emily P. Taylor1 John R. Crawford2 Ann E. Gold3* 1 Department of Diabetes, Grampian University Hospitals Trust, Aberdeen

  6. Erythropoietin and diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Maiese, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a 30.4 kDa growth factor and cytokine that governs cell proliferation, immune modulation, metabolic homeostasis, vascular function, and cytoprotection. EPO is under investigation for the treatment of variety of diseases, but appears especially suited for the treatment of disorders of metabolism that include diabetes mellitus (DM). DM and the complications of this disease impact a significant portion of the global population leading to disability and death with currently limited therapeutic options. In addition to its utility for the treatment of anemia, EPO can improve cardiac function, reduce fatigue, and improve cognition in patients with DM as well as regulate cellular energy metabolism, obesity, tissue repair and regeneration, apoptosis, and autophagy in experimental models of DM. Yet, EPO can have adverse effects that involve the vasculature system and unchecked cellular proliferation. Critical to the cytoprotective capacity and the potential for a positive clinical outcome with EPO are the control of signal transduction pathways that include protein kinase B, the mechanistic target of rapamycin, Wnt signaling, mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class, silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and AMP activated protein kinase. Therapeutic strategies that can specifically target and control EPO and its signaling pathways hold great promise for the development of new and effective clinical treatments for DM and the complications of this disorder. PMID:26516410

  7. Materials for Diabetes Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Bratlie, Kaitlin M.; York, Roger L.; Invernale, Michael A.; Langer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This review is focused on the materials and methods used to fabricate closed-loop systems for type 1 diabetes therapy. Herein, we give a brief overview of current methods used for patient care and discuss two types of possible treatments and the materials used for these therapies–(i) artificial pancreases, comprised of insulin producing cells embedded in a polymeric biomaterial, and (ii) totally synthetic pancreases formulated by integrating continuous glucose monitors with controlled insulin release through degradable polymers and glucose-responsive polymer systems. Both the artificial and the completely synthetic pancreas have two major design requirements: the device must be both biocompatible and be permeable to small molecules and proteins, such as insulin. Several polymers and fabrication methods of artificial pancreases are discussed: microencapsulation, conformal coatings, and planar sheets. We also review the two components of a completely synthetic pancreas. Several types of glucose sensing systems (including materials used for electrochemical, optical, and chemical sensing platforms) are discussed, in addition to various polymer-based release systems (including ethylene-vinyl acetate, polyanhydrides, and phenylboronic acid containing hydrogels). PMID:23184741

  8. Vascular imaging in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Levitt, K; Vivas, L; Courtney, B; Connelly, K A

    2014-04-01

    Diabetes is a global epidemic affecting individuals of all socioeconomic backgrounds. Despite intensive efforts, morbidity and mortality secondary to the micro- and macrovascular complications remain unacceptably high. As a result, the use of imaging modalities to determine the underlying pathophysiology, early onset of complications, and disease progression has become an integral component of the management of such individuals. Echocardiography, stress echocardiography, and nuclear imaging have been the mainstay of noninvasive cardiovascular imaging tools to detect myocardial ischemia, but newer modalities such as cardiac MRI, cardiac CT, and PET imaging provide incremental information not available with standard imaging. While vascular imaging to detect cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial disease non-invasively has traditionally used ultrasound, CT- and MRI-based techniques are increasingly being employed. In this review, we will provide an outline of recent studies utilizing non-invasive imaging techniques to assist in disease diagnosis as well as monitoring disease progression. In addition, we will review the evidence for newer modalities such as MR spectroscopy, 3D intravascular ultrasound, and optical coherence tomography that provide exquisite detail of metabolic function and coronary anatomy not available with standard imaging, but that have not yet become mainstream. PMID:24493479

  9. Long-Term Complications of Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... only thing that determines a person's risk for diabetes complications. Other factors, like genes, can also play a ... the body that can be most affected by diabetes complications are the: eyes kidneys nerves heart and blood ...

  10. Gestational Diabetes: A Guide for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sumaria de los Consumidores Aug. 25, 2010 Gestational Diabetes Related Products Future Research Needs: Prioritizing Research Needs ... Women" /> Consumer Summary – Aug. 5, 2009 Gestational Diabetes: A Guide for Pregnant Women Formats Consumer Guide ( ...

  11. Gestational Diabetes: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... de los EE. UU. Alternate Language URL English Lo que usted debe saber sobre la diabetes gestacional ... bueno para usted ni para su bebé. Por lo general, la diabetes gestacional se diagnostica durante la ...

  12. Too Few Psychiatric Patients Screened for Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 155667.html Too Few Psychiatric Patients Screened for Diabetes: Study Commonly prescribed antipsychotic medications tied to greater ... WEDNESDAY, Nov. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Despite guidelines, diabetes screening rates are low among adults with severe ...

  13. Fighting Diabetes' Deadly Impact on Minorities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fighting Diabetes' Deadly Impact on Minorities Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... family. You can also inherit a predisposition for diabetes, a disease that disproportionally affects racial and ethnic ...

  14. Diabetes Takes a Toll on Women's Hearts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154609.html Diabetes Takes a Toll on Women's Hearts Studies find ... 15, 2015 MONDAY, Sept. 14, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Diabetes may be harder on women's hearts than it ...

  15. Type 2 Diabetes Widespread in Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Type 2 Diabetes Widespread in Adults Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table ... survey data, researchers found that the prevalence of diabetes in U.S. adults is continuing to rise. And ...

  16. Diabetes: Dealing With Feelings (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Head Lice Vomiting Chickenpox Helping Kids Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Diabetes: Dealing With Feelings ... with their peers. Find ways to cope with bullying. Sometimes kids pick on peers with diabetes or ...

  17. Overview of Diabetes in Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... well as consideration of teens’ emerging autonomy and independence. Diabetes presents unique issues for young people with ... of hypoglycemia with potentially disastrous consequences. Transition to Independence: Children with diabetes––depending on their age and ...

  18. Diabetes - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Samoa) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog (Tagalog) Thai (???????) Tigrinya (tigrinya) Tongan (Lea Fakatonga) Ukrainian (??????????) ... English Tagalog (Tagalog) PDF National Diabetes Education Program Thai (???????) 4 Steps to Control Your Diabetes for ...

  19. Experiences of adolescents with type 1 diabetes 

    E-print Network

    Yule, Sara Davina

    2013-07-02

    Type 1 diabetes is a condition which affects the lives of thousands of young people throughout the UK. Existing research has recognised the difficulties that adolescents have in managing their diabetes, and a large amount ...

  20. Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Download PDF Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF Click here ...

  1. Living With Diabetes: Keep Your Feet Healthy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... More Information More Information CDC's Division of Diabetes Translation en español Chapter 9. Foot Problems, from ... Disease Prevention and Health Promotion , Division of Diabetes Translation Page maintained by: Office of the Associate Director ...

  2. Biometry of eyes in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, X.; Suheimat, Marwan; Efron, Nathan; Edwards, Katie; Pritchard, Nicola; Mathur, Ankit; Mallen, Edward A. H.; Atchison, David A.

    2015-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of a large range of biometric and optical parameters in people with type 1 diabetes. The parameters of 74 people with type 1 diabetes and an age matched control group were assessed. Most of the people with diabetes had low levels of neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy. Marginal or no significant differences were found between groups for corneal shape, corneal thickness, pupil size, and pupil decentrations. Relative to the control group, the diabetes group demonstrated smaller anterior chamber depths, more curved lenses, greater lens thickness and lower lens equivalent refractive index. While the optics of diabetic eyes make them appear as older eyes than those of people of the same age without diabetes, the differences did not increase significantly with age. Age-related changes in the optics of the eyes of people with diabetes need not be accelerated if the diabetes is well controlled. PMID:25798297

  3. Beware of Illegally Sold Diabetes Treatments

    MedlinePLUS

    ... products," said Gary Coody, R.Ph., national health fraud coordinator for FDA. "Failure to follow well-established ... venden ilegalmente BeSafeRx: Know Your Online Pharmacy Health Fraud Scams CDC Diabetes Public Health Resource NIH Diabetes ...

  4. At-Risk Drinking Among Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Susan E.; Engler, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a serious chronic disease, affecting an increasing number of individuals worldwide. Adherence to diabetes self-care behaviors is key to the successful management of the disease. At-risk drinking is common among diabetic patients and is associated with inferior diabetes treatment adherence and outcomes, resulting in increased mortality and morbidity. Furthermore, individuals with diabetes who engage in at-risk drinking are also in danger of incurring the negative consequences of at-risk drinking found in the general population. Research suggests that alcohol use screening and intervention do not commonly occur during the course of primary care treatment for diabetes. While methods for reducing alcohol use in this population have been largely unexplored to date, brief interventions to reduce at-risk drinking have been well-validated in other patient populations and offer the promise to reduce at-risk drinking among diabetic patients, resulting in improved diabetes treatment adherence and outcomes. PMID:24357927

  5. A Relentless Illness—Fighting Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues A Relentless Illness— Fighting Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... have tried to take "control" of this relentless illness. The millions who suffer from diabetes still confront ...

  6. Modulation of Nociception in Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

    E-print Network

    Katz, Natalie

    2014-05-31

    modalities are often ineffective and carry significant risk of systemic adverse effects. The work contained herein used a rodent model of painful diabetic neuropathy following induction of diabetes with the pancreatic beta cell toxin, streptozocin (STZ...

  7. TIME AND BIOGRAPHY IN DIABETIC EXPERIENCE

    E-print Network

    Maines, David R.

    1983-04-01

    This paper offers a preliminary analysis of temporality in the lives of diabetics. It is argued that time unites the various aspects of diabetic experience, including the disease itself, and the social, emotional, institutional, and technological...

  8. Targeting SGK1 in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Görlach, Agnes; Vallon, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Compelling evidence is accumulating pointing to a pathophysiological role of the serum-and-glucocorticoid-inducible-kinase-1 (SGK1) in the development and complications of diabetes. SGK1 is ubiquitously expressed with exquisitely high transcriptional volatility. Stimulators of SGK1 expression include hyperglycemia, cell shrinkage, ischemia, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. SGK1 is activated by insulin and growth factors via phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, 3-phosphoinositide dependent kinase PDK1 and mTOR. SGK1 activates ion channels (including ENaC, TRPV5, ROMK, KCNE1/KCNQ1 and CLCKa/Barttin), carriers (including NCC, NKCC, NHE3, SGLT1 and EAAT3), and the Na+/K+-ATPase. It regulates the activity of several enzymes (e.g. glycogen-synthase-kinase-3, ubiquitin-ligase Nedd4-2, phosphomannose-mutase-2), and transcription factors (e.g. forkhead-transcription-factor FOXO3a, ?-catenin, nuclear-factor-kappa-B NF?B). A common SGK1 gene variant (~3–5% prevalence in Caucasians, ~10% in Africans) is associated with increased blood pressure, obesity and type 2 diabetes. In patients suffering from type 2 diabetes, SGK1 presumably contributes to fluid retention and hypertension, enhanced coagulation, and increased deposition of matrix proteins leading to tissue fibrosis such as diabetic nephropathy. Accordingly, targeting SGK1 may favourably influence occurrence and course of type 2 diabetes. PMID:19764891

  9. Language barrier and its relationship to diabetes and diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Language barrier is an important determinant of health care access and health. We examined the associations of English proficiency with type-2 diabetes (T2DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Asian Indians living in Singapore, an urban city where English is the predominant language of communication. Methods This was a population-based, cross-sectional study. T2DM was defined as HbA1c ?6.5%, use of diabetic medication or a physician diagnosis of diabetes. Retinal photographs were graded for the severity of DR including vision-threatening DR (VTDR). Presenting visual impairment (VI) was defined as LogMAR visual acuity?>?0.30 in the better-seeing eye. English proficiency at the time of interview was assessed. Results The analyses included 2,289 (72.1%) English-speaking and 885 (27.9%) Tamil- speaking Indians. Tamil-speaking Indians had significantly higher prevalence of T2DM (46.2 vs. 34.7%, p?diabetes, higher prevalence of DR (36.0 vs. 30.6%, p?diabetic retinopathy. Social policies and health interventions that address language-related health disparities may help reduce the public health impact of T2DM in societies with heterogeneous populations. PMID:22974298

  10. Diabetic dermopathy (“shin spots”) and diabetic bullae (“bullosis diabeticorum”) at the same patient

    PubMed Central

    Brzezinski, Piotr; Chiriac, Anca E; Pinteala, Tudor; Foia, Liliana; Chiriac, Anca

    2015-01-01

    We present a diabetic patient with associated two diabetic dermatoses: diabetic dermopathy (“shin spots”) and diabetic bullae. A 34-year-old man, with long history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and moderate obesity presented to Dermatology Unit for diagnosis of his skin lesions. On clinical examination multiple, light brown, irregular patches, with atrophic scars and crusts over large bullae were observed on the anterior aspect of both legs.

  11. Facing Diabetes: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diabetes. Off the gridiron, he raises funds for children with diabetes. Patti LaBelle: It was only after collapsing on ... Fast Facts There are three main types of diabetes: type 1, usually first diagnosed in children, teens, or young adults; type 2, once called ...

  12. Introduction The Diabetic Retinopathy Study estab-

    E-print Network

    Palanker, Daniel

    Introduction The Diabetic Retinopathy Study estab- lished panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) as an effective treatment for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (ET- DRS, 1991). While the exact mecha- nism produced in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy scheduled for PRP using 100-, 20- and 10-ms

  13. Snapshot: Diabetes in the United States

    MedlinePLUS

    ... J, Eriksson J, et al; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Group. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 2001; 344:1343–1350. CDC’s Division of Diabetes Translation works toward a world free of the devastation ...

  14. Overview of Diabetes in Children and Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Francine R.; Gallivan, Joanne M.; Warren-Boulton, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Type 1 and type 2 diabetes affect about 186,000 youth under age 20. Previously considered an adult disease, type 2 diabetes is becoming increasingly common in overweight minority youth over 10 years of age. Criteria help to identify young people at risk for type 2 diabetes as well as those with the disease. Prevention or delay of type 2 requires…

  15. Exercise: An Alternative Therapy for Gestational Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artal, Raul

    1996-01-01

    Exercise is encouraged in the management of pregnant women with gestational diabetes or women with Type II diabetes who become pregnant. Although non-weight-bearing exercises may be best for sedentary women, moderate workouts appear to be safe for most women with gestational diabetes. The role of exercise, risk factors, warning signs, and examples…

  16. Type 2 Diabetes and Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maalouf, Naim M.

    2008-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased propensity for uric acid nephrolithiasis. In individuals with diabetes, this increased risk is due to a lower urine pH that results from obesity, dietary factors, and impaired renal ammoniagenesis. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of uric acid stone disease in patients with diabetes are hereby reviewed, and potential molecular mechanisms are proposed.

  17. Diabetes and Retinal Vascular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eui Seok; Sorenson, Christine M.; Sheibani, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes predominantly affects the microvascular circulation of the retina resulting in a range of structural changes unique to this tissue. These changes ultimately lead to altered permeability, hyperproliferation of endothelial cells and edema, and abnormal vascularization of the retina with resulting loss of vision. Enhanced production of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress are primary insults with significant contribution to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). We have determined the identity of the retinal vascular cells affected by hyperglycemia, and have delineated the cell autonomous impact of high glucose on function of these cells. We discuss some of the high glucose specific changes in retinal vascular cells and their contribution to retinal vascular dysfunction. This knowledge provides novel insight into the molecular and cellular defects contributing to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, and will aid in the development of innovative, as well as target specific therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR. PMID:25667739

  18. [Management of elderly onset diabetes].

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Motoshi; Nakano, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    As the percentage of elderly persons in Japan increases, so do the rates of overweight, insulin resistance, and elderly onset diabetes. Elderly onset diabetes is characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, lower HbA1c levels, and less frequent retinopathy. The treatment of elderly onset diabetes involves numerous challenges, such as cognitive impairment, depression, vision/hearing impairment, and difficulty performing activities of daily living. One of the medical treatments, glinides and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, must be taken before every meal. However, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors need to be taken only once or twice daily and are well tolerated by older adults. The target HbA1c should be individualized, and a reasonable goal for HbAlc(NGSP) in healthy adults with good functional status is 7% to 9%. PMID:24397178

  19. Diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Stefánsson, Einar

    2009-07-01

    A variety of treatment options are available for the treatment of diabetic macular edema. They include laser photocoagulation, anti-VEGF drugs, intravitreal steroids, and vitrectomy with or without release of vitreoretinal traction. A full understanding of the physiological mechanisms of these treatment modalities allows sensible combination of treatment options. Retinal photocoagulation has repeatedly been shown to improve retinal oxygenation, as does vitrectomy. Oxygen naturally reduces VEGF production and thereby decreases leakage of plasma proteins from capillaries into the tissue. In addition, vitrectomy allows faster clearance of cytokines, such as VEGF, from the retina into the vitreous cavity. The VEGF-lowering effect of photocoagulation and vitrectomy can be augmented with anti-VEGF drugs and corticosteroids reduce the effect of VEGF on capillary permeability. Starling's law explains vasogenic edema, which is controlled by osmotic and hydrostatic gradients between vessel and tissue. It explains how VEGF-induced vascular permeability causes plasma protein to leak into the tissue interstitial space, thus decreasing the osmotic pressure gradient between vessel and tissue, resulting in water accumulation, i.e. edema. This is reversed by reducing VEGF production, which is achieved with laser treatment; or by removing VEGF with antibodies or vitrectomy; or by reducing the permeability effect with steroids. At the same time, Starling's law takes into account hemodynamic changes that affect the hydrostatic gradient. High arterial blood pressure and hypoxic vasodilatation increase the hydrostatic pressure in the microcirculation, which increases water flux from vessel to tissue and induce edema. Treatment of arterial hypertension or reversal of retinal hypoxia with laser reverses this pathophysiology and reduces edema. Newton's third law explains, that vitreoretinal traction decreases hydrostatic tissue pressure in the retina, increases the pressure gradient between vessel and tissue, and stimulates water fluxes from vessel into tissue, leading to edema. Release of vitreoretinal traction reverses this mechanism and reduces edema. PMID:23960851

  20. [Treatment of elderly diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Rušavý, Zden?k; Žourek, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes has become a pandemic disease over the past 50 years. Its incidence increases the most rapidly in the senior population, i.e. among people older than 65. In a number of countries 1/4 of the people with diabetes are now older than 65 years. Geriatrics now examines numerous differences regarding the senior patients, which often lead to somewhat different therapeutic procedures as compared to the treatment of other adult patients. This paper aims to show some different aspects of the treatment of an elderly patient with diabetes. The intensity of diabetes treatment in the elderly is mainly defined by the incidence of symptoms caused by diabetic decompensation which negatively affect quality of life and are likely to increase mortality. The treatment goals expressed by HbA1c, fasting and post-prandial glycemia, should be set individually based on age, initial HbA1c, present comorbidities and the level of frailty of an elderly patient. An effort to reduce weight regarding people at an older age is probably inappropriate and maybe even harmful, while physical activity reduces mortality and slows muscle catabolism at every age. Ideal is normal walking for 20-30 minutes a day. Except for "very fit elders" without renal insufficiency, the sulfonylurea treatment is unsuitable and perhaps even harmful. It significantly increases the incidence of different types of hypoglycemia and very likely overall mortality as well. The basis of diabetes treatment for the elderly is the effort to perform any regular exercise. In regard to medication treatment it is recommended to choose metformin or gliptin following the rule "start low, go slow", i.e. start with low medication doses and increase them at a slow pace. The main goal of the treatment is to maintain the good quality of life as long as possible, without symptoms associated with hyperglycemia with minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia development. PMID:25894262

  1. Diabetes and Oral Implant Failure

    PubMed Central

    Chrcanovic, B.R.; Albrektsson, T.; Wennerberg, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate whether there are any effects of diabetes mellitus on implant failure rates, postoperative infections, and marginal bone loss. An electronic search without time or language restrictions was undertaken in March 2014. The present review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies. The search strategy resulted in 14 publications. The I2 statistic was used to express the percentage of total variation across studies due to heterogeneity. The inverse variance method was used for the random effects model when heterogeneity was detected or for the fixed effects model when heterogeneity was not detected. The estimates of an intervention for dichotomous outcomes were expressed in risk ratio and in mean difference in millimeters for continuous outcomes, both with a 95% confidence interval. There was a statistically significant difference (p = .001; mean difference = 0.20, 95% confidence interval = 0.08, 0.31) between diabetic and non-diabetic patients concerning marginal bone loss, favoring non-diabetic patients. A meta-analysis was not possible for postoperative infections. The difference between the patients (diabetic vs. non-diabetic) did not significantly affect implant failure rates (p = .65), with a risk ratio of 1.07 (95% confidence interval = 0.80, 1.44). Studies are lacking that include both patient types, with larger sample sizes, and that report the outcome data separately for each group. The results of the present meta-analysis should be interpreted with caution because of the presence of uncontrolled confounding factors in the included studies. PMID:24928096

  2. Refraction in Adults with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barbara E. K.; Lee, Kristine E.; Klein, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Objective(s) Examine refraction, change in refraction, and risk factors for change in refraction in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Methods Population based study. Modified Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study refractions and a standard history were obtained for all participants. Baseline and ten-year follow-up data were available. Results Age was significantly associated with refraction in persons with younger-onset diabetes (T1D) and those with older-onset diabetes (T2D); refractions were similar for both groups. Persons of similar age with T1D were likely to be more myopic than those with T2D (P<.01). Years of education were significantly associated with more myopic refraction (P<.0001). In those with T1D on average there was a ?.35 diopter (D) change in refraction over 10 years. However, there was a systematic decrease in myopic shift with increasing age at baseline. Those with longer duration of diabetes and with proliferative retinopathy were more likely to have hyperopic shifts in refraction. In those with T2D there was, on average, a +.25D change in refraction over the 10 years but there was little consistency in the amount of change by age at baseline. There were no other significant effects on change in refraction in this group. Conclusions In persons of similar age, those with T1D are likely to be slightly more myopic than those with T2D. Overall, mean refractions and the important risk factors of age and education are similar to those reported in non-diabetic populations. PMID:21220629

  3. Anorexia nervosa and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Powers, P S; Malone, J I; Duncan, J A

    1983-04-01

    Four patients who developed anorexia nervosa after the onset of diabetes mellitus are described. It is postulated that the co-occurrence of the two conditions was not coincidental, but that each contributed to the development of the other. The nature and treatment of diabetes offer numerous opportunities for the anorexic patient to lose weight by a variety of dangerous maneuvers, including adjustment of the insulin dose, failure to inject insulin, secret vomiting, and failure to provide urine samples. Treatment of patients with both conditions is a therapeutic challenge to the psychiatrist and diabetologist. A behavior management program combined with psychotherapy is most often effective. PMID:6833199

  4. Fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes in adult

    PubMed Central

    Jali, M. V.; Kambar, Sanjay; Hiremath, M. B.; Wasedar, Jyothi; Jali, Sujata M.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes has distinctive features like younger age at onset, presence of large intraductal calculi, aggressive course of the disease, and proneness for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic calculi are the hallmark for the diagnosis. We report a 32-year-old male patient, a known case of diabetes since 2 years, presented with recurrent pain abdomen, malabsorption, and neuropathic symptoms. The diagnosis was established on the basis of clinical examination, biochemical and radiological investigations. He was prescribed two doses of premix insulin and pancreatic enzyme supplements for relief of abdominal pain and steatorrhea. PMID:26605223

  5. A Boon for the Diabetic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Diabetics are no longer concerned with scheduling activities around peaking insulin levels since the use of an external pump from Pacesetter Systems, Inc. used to deliver insulin continuously at a preprogrammed individually adjusted rate. The pump wearer can lead a more normal existence, even participate in sports or travel, and there is an even greater benefit. Research indicates that infusion of "short acting" insulin in tiny amounts over a long period - instead of "long- acting" insulin has helped many diabetics achieve better control of blood sugar levels, thereby minimizing the possibility of complications and, in some cases, even halting the progression of complications.

  6. Ocular complications of diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sayin, Nihat; Kara, Necip; Pekel, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a important health problem that induces ernestful complications and it causes significant morbidity owing to specific microvascular complications such as, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, and macrovascular complications such as, ischaemic heart disease, and peripheral vasculopathy. It can affect children, young people and adults and is becoming more common. Ocular complications associated with DM are progressive and rapidly becoming the world’s most significant cause of morbidity and are preventable with early detection and timely treatment. This review provides an overview of five main ocular complications associated with DM, diabetic retinopathy and papillopathy, cataract, glaucoma, and ocular surface diseases. PMID:25685281

  7. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Choi, Jina; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Paik, Man-Jeong; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae-Ran; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    HemoHIM (a new herbal preparation of three edible herbs: Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe) was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100?mg/kg) once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200?mg/kg, i.p.). In diabetic mice, HemoHIM effectively improved hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance compared to the diabetic control group as well as elevated plasma insulin levels with preservation of insulin staining in pancreatic ?-cells. HemoHIM treatment restored thymus weight, white blood cells, lymphocyte numbers, and splenic lymphocyte populations (CD4+ T and CD8+ T), which were reduced in diabetic mice, as well as IFN-? production in response to Con A stimulation. These results indicate that HemoHIM may have potential as a glucose-lowering and immunomodulatory agent by enhancing the immune function of pancreatic ?-cells in STZ-induced diabetic mice. PMID:25045390

  8. Soybeans Ameliolate Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young Eun; Ahn, Soo Kyung; Lee, Won Taek; Lee, Jong Eun; Park, Seung Hwa; Yoon, Bang Bu

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most frequent and serious complications of diabetes mellitus. Soybeans have been shown to reduce urinary albumin excretion and total cholesterol in non-diabetic patients with nephrotic syndrome. However, reports focusing specifically on diabetic nephropathy are scarce and the available results are inconsistent. It was reported that soybean consumption reduced urinary protein excretion in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy, whereas it was found to elicit an increase in urinary protein excretion when soybeans were consumed by type 2 diabetic patients. This study aims to investigate the effects of soybean in diabetic nephropathy, particularly the effects of consuming soybeans on the histopathology of diabetic nephropathy, using aquaporin (AQP) and osteopontin (OPN) expression as diagnostic markers. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of three groups: control, diabetic with red chow diet and diabetic with soybean diet. For histological examination, the expression of OPN and AQP, renal function and hemoglobin A1c were evaluated at the end of the study. Improvements in glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions were demonstrated in the diabetic rat group given a soybean diet. OPN and AQP expression were suppressed in the kidney specimens of diabetic rats with the soybean diet. In conclusion, soybeans may prevent the weight loss and morphological disruption of the kidney associated with diabetes mellitus. Soybeans also may improve glycemic control. It seems likely that long-term control of blood glucose levels using a soybean diet could prevent the progression of diabetes mellitus, and therefore, nephropathy could be prevented. PMID:18955330

  9. Diabetes UK Position Statement. Competency frameworks in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Simmons, D; Deakin, T; Walsh, N; Turner, B; Lawrence, S; Priest, L; George, S; Vanterpool, G; McArdle, J; Rylance, A; Terry, G; Little, P

    2015-05-01

    The quality, skills and attitudes of staff working in the healthcare system are central to multidisciplinary learning and working, and to the delivery of the quality of care patients expect. Patients want to know that the staff supporting them have the right knowledge and attitudes to work in partnership, particularly for conditions such as diabetes where 95% of all care is delivered by the person with diabetes themselves. With the current changes in the NHS structures in England, and the potential for greater variation in the types of 'qualified provider', along with the recent scandal at Mid-Staffordshire Hospital, staff need to be shown to be competent and named/accredited or recognized as such. This will help to restore faith in an increasingly devolved delivery structure. The education and validation of competency needs to be consistently delivered and assured to ensure standards are maintained for different roles and disciplines across each UK nation. Diabetes UK recommends that all NHS organizations prioritize healthcare professional education, training and competency through the implementation of a National Diabetes Competency Framework and the phased approach to delivery to address this need. PMID:25611804

  10. Diabetes in children. Adjusting to normal life as a diabetic.

    PubMed

    Williams, Georgina; Paul, Siba Prosad; Hicks, Sarah

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes is a chronic childhood condition, presenting with raised blood sugar. The classic signs and symptoms may not be evident early on, especially in younger children, so it is important that health professionals maintain a high level of suspicion about diabetes when presented with non-specific symptoms eg. abdominal pain, lethargy, delayed wound healing, etc. When a child is first diagnosed, not only does the young person and their family have to cope with the emotional impact of diagnosis, but they also need to understand the huge amounts of information given to them. Health care practitioners provide essential support in helping them come to terms with, as well as manage, this condition. In this article we explain how diabetes is diagnosed and some of the common issues that arise in the ongoing care of the young person, with a particular emphasis on managing daily challenges. Community practitioners play a vital role in detecting symptoms early and making a referral, as well as supporting children with diabetes post-diagnosis in the community. PMID:23342705

  11. Lifestyle modification in management of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sahay, B K; Sahay, Rakesh K

    2002-03-01

    India has the largest diabetic population in the world. Change in eating habits, increasing weight and decreased physical activity are major factors leading to increased incidence of type 2 diabetes. Obesity is the most important modifiable risk factor. Smoking is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diet and exercise are primary therapeutic options for its management. Dietary management should not only aim to achieve glycaemic control but to normalise dyslipidaemia. Smoking cessation reduces the risk of morbidity and mortality in CAD. Exercise improves the condition of a diabetic patient. Exercise includes yoga practices which have a role to play in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. PMID:12408279

  12. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  13. Diabetes mellitus: The epidemic of the century

    PubMed Central

    Kharroubi, Akram T; Darwish, Hisham M

    2015-01-01

    The epidemic nature of diabetes mellitus in different regions is reviewed. The Middle East and North Africa region has the highest prevalence of diabetes in adults (10.9%) whereas, the Western Pacific region has the highest number of adults diagnosed with diabetes and has countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes (37.5%). Different classes of diabetes mellitus, type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes and other types of diabetes mellitus are compared in terms of diagnostic criteria, etiology and genetics. The molecular genetics of diabetes received extensive attention in recent years by many prominent investigators and research groups in the biomedical field. A large array of mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that play a role in the various steps and pathways involved in glucose metabolism and the development, control and function of pancreatic cells at various levels are reviewed. The major advances in the molecular understanding of diabetes in relation to the different types of diabetes in comparison to the previous understanding in this field are briefly reviewed here. Despite the accumulation of extensive data at the molecular and cellular levels, the mechanism of diabetes development and complications are still not fully understood. Definitely, more extensive research is needed in this field that will eventually reflect on the ultimate objective to improve diagnoses, therapy and minimize the chance of chronic complications development. PMID:26131326

  14. DAPD: A Knowledgebase for Diabetes Associated Proteins.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Krishnasamy; Jayakumararaj, Ramaraj; Karthikeyan, Muthusamy

    2015-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomics and proteomics provide a solid foundation for understanding the pathogenesis of diabetes. Proteomics of diabetes associated pathways help to identify the most potent target for the management of diabetes. The relevant datasets are scattered in various prominent sources which takes much time to select the therapeutic target for the clinical management of diabetes. However, additional information about target proteins is needed for validation. This lacuna may be resolved by linking diabetes associated genes, pathways and proteins and it will provide a strong base for the treatment and planning management strategies of diabetes. Thus, a web source "Diabetes Associated Proteins Database (DAPD)" has been developed to link the diabetes associated genes, pathways and proteins using PHP, MySQL. The current version of DAPD has been built with proteins associated with different types of diabetes. In addition, DAPD has been linked to external sources to gain the access to more participatory proteins and their pathway network. DAPD will reduce the time and it is expected to pave the way for the discovery of novel anti-diabetic leads using computational drug designing for diabetes management. DAPD is open accessed via following url www.mkarthikeyan.bioinfoau.org/dapd. PMID:26357271

  15. Malformations in Infants of Diabetic Mothers

    PubMed Central

    MILLS, JAMES L.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal insulin-dependent diabetes has long been associated with congenital malformations. As other causes of mortality and morbidity have been eliminated or reduced, malformations have become increasingly prominent. Although there is not universal agreement, the great majority of investigators find a two- to threefold increase in malformations in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic mothers. This increase is not seen in infants of gestational diabetics. It probably is not present in women whose diabetes can be controlled by diet or oral hypoglycemic agents. The risk does not appear to be primarily genetic since diabetic fathers do not have an increased number of malformed offspring. Most studies show a generalized increase in malformations involving multiple organ systems. Multiple malformations seem to be more common in diabetic than non-diabetic infants. Caudal regression has the strongest association with diabetes, occurring roughly 200 times more frequently in infants of diabetic mothers than in other infants. The teratogenic mechanism in diabetes is not known. Hyperglycemia may be important but human studies focusing on the period of organogenesis are lacking. Hypoglycemia has also been suggested based mainly on animal experiments. Insulin appears unlikely. Numerous other factors including vascular disease, hypoxia, ketone and amino acid abnormalities, glycosylation of proteins, or hormone imbalances could be teratogenic. None has been studied in sufficient detail to make a judgment. A large-scale prospective study is required to determine early fetal loss rates, correlate metabolic status during organogenesis with outcome, and assess the effect of diabetic control on malformation rates. PMID:20973049

  16. Diabetes mellitus: The epidemic of the century.

    PubMed

    Kharroubi, Akram T; Darwish, Hisham M

    2015-06-25

    The epidemic nature of diabetes mellitus in different regions is reviewed. The Middle East and North Africa region has the highest prevalence of diabetes in adults (10.9%) whereas, the Western Pacific region has the highest number of adults diagnosed with diabetes and has countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes (37.5%). Different classes of diabetes mellitus, type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes and other types of diabetes mellitus are compared in terms of diagnostic criteria, etiology and genetics. The molecular genetics of diabetes received extensive attention in recent years by many prominent investigators and research groups in the biomedical field. A large array of mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that play a role in the various steps and pathways involved in glucose metabolism and the development, control and function of pancreatic cells at various levels are reviewed. The major advances in the molecular understanding of diabetes in relation to the different types of diabetes in comparison to the previous understanding in this field are briefly reviewed here. Despite the accumulation of extensive data at the molecular and cellular levels, the mechanism of diabetes development and complications are still not fully understood. Definitely, more extensive research is needed in this field that will eventually reflect on the ultimate objective to improve diagnoses, therapy and minimize the chance of chronic complications development. PMID:26131326

  17. Diabetic Cataract—Pathogenesis, Epidemiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pollreisz, Andreas; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Cataract in diabetic patients is a major cause of blindness in developed and developing countries. The pathogenesis of diabetic cataract development is still not fully understood. Recent basic research studies have emphasized the role of the polyol pathway in the initiation of the disease process. Population-based studies have greatly increased our knowledge concerning the association between diabetes and cataract formation and have defined risk factors for the development of cataract. Diabetic patients also have a higher risk of complications after phacoemulsification cataract surgery compared to nondiabetics. Aldose-reductase inhibitors and antioxidants have been proven beneficial in the prevention or treatment of this sightthreatening condition in in vitro and in vivo experimental studies. This paper provides an overview of the pathogenesis of diabetic cataract, clinical studies investigating the association between diabetes and cataract development, and current treatment of cataract in diabetics. PMID:20634936

  18. Relationship between diabetes and periodontal infection

    PubMed Central

    Llambés, Fernando; Arias-Herrera, Santiago; Caffesse, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a high prevalent disease. In the United States 47.2% of adults ? 30 years old have been diagnosed with some type of periodontitis. Longitudinal studies have demonstrated a two-way relationship between diabetes and periodontitis, with more severe periodontal tissue destruction in diabetic patients and poorer glycemic control in diabetic subjects with periodontal disease. Periodontal treatment can be successful in diabetic patients. Short term effects of periodontal treatment are similar in diabetic patients and healthy population but, more recurrence of periodontal disease can be expected in no well controlled diabetic individuals. However, effects of periodontitis and its treatment on diabetes metabolic control are not clearly defined and results of the studies remain controversial. PMID:26185600

  19. Role of yoga in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sahay, B K

    2007-02-01

    The science of yoga is an ancient one. It is a rich heritage of our culture. Several older books make a mention of the usefulness of yoga in the treatment of certain diseases and preservation of health in normal individuals. The effect of yogic practices on the management of diabetes has not been investigated well. We carried out well designed studies in normal individuals and those with diabetes to assess the role of yogic practices on glycaemic control, insulin kinetics, body composition exercise tolerance and various co-morbidities like hypertension and dyslipidemia. These studies were both short term and long-term. These studies have confirmed the useful role of yoga in the control of diabetes mellitus. Fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels came down significantly. Good glycaemic status can be maintained for long periods of time. There was a lowering of drug requirement and the incidence of acute complications like infection and ketosis was significantly reduced. There were significant changes in the insulin kinetics and those of counter-regulatory hormones like cortisol. There was a decrease in free fatty acids. There was an increase in lean body mass and decrease in body fat percentage. The number of insulin receptors was also increased. There was an improvement in insulin sensitivity and decline in insulin resistance. All these suggest that yogic practices have a role even in the prevention of diabetes. There is a beneficial effect on the co-morbid conditions like hypertension and dyslipidemia. PMID:17571741

  20. Importance of Depression in Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustman, Patrick J.; Clouse, Ray E.; Anderson, Ryan J.

    Depression doubles the likelihood of comorbid depression, which presents as major depression in 11% and subsyndromal depression in 31% of patients with the medical illness. The course of depression is chronic, and afflicted patients suffer an average of one episode annually. Depression has unique importance in diabetes because of its association…

  1. Thermal stress and diabetic complications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshinori; Yabunaka, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Ichiro; Noro, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Agishi, Yuko

    1995-06-01

    Activities of erythrocyte aldose reductase were compared in 34 normal subjects, 45 diabetic patients, and nine young men following immersion in water at 25, 39, and 42° C. Mean basal enzyme activity was 1.11 (SEM 0.12) U/g Hb and 2.07 (SEM 0.14) U/g Hb in normal controls and diabetic patients, respectively ( P<0.0001). Activities of the enzyme showed a good correlation with hemaglobin A1 (HbA1) concentrations ( P<0.01) but not with fasting plasma glucose concentrations. After immersion at 42° C for 10 min, enzyme activity was increased by 37.6% ( P<0.01); however, the activity decreased by 52.2% ( P<0.005) after immersion for 10 min at 39° C and by 47.0% ( P<0.05) at 25° C. These changes suggest that heat stress might aggravate diabetic complications, and body exposure to hot environmental conditions is not recommended for diabetic patients.

  2. Diabetes: Models, Signals, and Control

    PubMed Central

    Cobelli, Claudio; Man, Chiara Dalla; Sparacino, Giovanni; Magni, Lalo; De Nicolao, Giuseppe; Kovatchev, Boris P.

    2010-01-01

    The control of diabetes is an interdisciplinary endeavor, which includes a significant biomedical engineering component, with traditions of success beginning in the early 1960s. It began with modeling of the insulin-glucose system, and progressed to large-scale in silico experiments, and automated closed-loop control (artificial pancreas). Here, we follow these engineering efforts through the last, almost 50 years. We begin with the now classic minimal modeling approach and discuss a number of subsequent models, which have recently resulted in the first in silico simulation model accepted as substitute to animal trials in the quest for optimal diabetes control. We then review metabolic monitoring, with a particular emphasis on the new continuous glucose sensors, on the analyses of their time-series signals, and on the opportunities that they present for automation of diabetes control. Finally, we review control strategies that have been successfully employed in vivo or in silico, presenting a promise for the development of a future artificial pancreas and, in particular, discuss a modular architecture for building closed-loop control systems, including insulin delivery and patient safety supervision layers. We conclude with a brief discussion of the unique interactions between human physiology, behavioral events, engineering modeling and control relevant to diabetes. PMID:20936056

  3. Treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Petropoulos, Ioannis N.; Alam, Uazman; Malik, Rayaz A.

    2015-01-01

    Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a debilitating consequence of diabetes that may be present in as many as one in five patients with diabetes. The objective assessment of PDN is difficult, making it challenging to diagnose and assess in both clinical practice and clinical trials. No single treatment exists to prevent or reverse neuropathic changes or to provide total pain relief. Treatment of PDN is based on three major approaches: intensive glycaemic control and risk factor management, treatments based on pathogenetic mechanisms, and symptomatic pain management. Clinical guidelines recommend pain relief in PDN through the use of antidepressants such as amitriptyline and duloxetine, the ?-aminobutyric acid analogues gabapentin and pregabalin, opioids and topical agents such as capsaicin. Of these medications, duloxetine and pregabalin were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2004 and tapentadol extended release was approved in 2012 for the treatment of PDN. Proposed pathogenetic treatments include ?-lipoic acid (stems reactive oxygen species formation), benfotiamine (prevents vascular damage in diabetes) and aldose-reductase inhibitors (reduces flux through the polyol pathway). There is a growing need for studies to evaluate the most potent drugs or combinations for the management of PDN to maximize pain relief and improve quality of life. A number of agents are potential candidates for future use in PDN therapy, including Nav 1.7 antagonists, N-type calcium channel blockers, NGF antibodies and angiotensin II type 2 receptor antagonists. PMID:25553239

  4. Targeting Fat to Prevent Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Jaswinder K.; Vidal-Puig, Antonio J.

    2015-01-01

    An emerging view is that obesity causes metabolic problems when adipose tissue fails to meet the increased demands for fat storage. A study in this issue of Cell Metabolism (Waki et al., 2007) has identified harmine as a proadipogenic small molecule that promotes energy expenditure in white adipose tissue and delays the onset of obesity-associated diabetes. PMID:17488634

  5. Phytochemicals for treatment of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Firdous, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent metabolic disorders characterized by increased blood glucose levels and improper primary metabolism resulting from the defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. It is one of the most common health problems worldwide, and the prevalence of this disease is rapidly increasing, leading to microvascular (retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy) and macrovascular (heart attack, stroke and peripheral vascular disease) complications (Umar et al., 2010[18]). The number of individuals with diabetes is increasing due to population growth, aging, urbanization and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. According to recent estimates, the greatest absolute increase in the number of patients with diabetes will be in India and the total number is projected to 79.4 million in 2030. It is expected that about 366 million are likely to be diabetic by the year 2030 (Rahman and Zaman, 1989[14]). Medicinal plants are the main source of organic compounds such as polyphenols, tannins, alkaloids, carbohydrates, terpenoids, steroids and flavonoids. These organic compounds represent a source for the discovery and development of new types of antidiabetic molecules. Many compounds isolated from plant sources have been reported to show antidiabetic activity. The key messages summarize some recent information in the field of antidiabetic phytochemicals. PMID:26417272

  6. A human virus improves diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single inoculation of mice with Ad36, a human adenovirus, lastingly improved high fat diet-induced-diabetes (DID), while Ad2, another human adenovirus did not. The study objective in these 2 studies was to determine if Ad36 could be used as a tool to reveal novel pathways for improving dysglycemia...

  7. Burden of Diabetes Related Complications Among Hypertensive and Non Hypertensive Diabetics: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kesavamoorthy, Goutham; Singh, Awnish K; Sharma, Shruti; Kasav, Jyoti Bala; Joshi, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes and hypertension are the conditions with overlapping risk factors and complications. Objective of present study was to compare the burden of complications of diabetes among hypertensive and non hypertensive diabetes individuals. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at Saveetha medical college and hospital, Chennai, India. A total of 100 diabetics having hypertension and 50 non-hypertensive diabetic patients were enrolled on the basis of purposive sampling. Information about sociodemograpic characteristics, general health, health distress, diabetes symptoms, communication with physician, healthcare utilization and lifetime occurrence of diabetes related complications. Mean, standard deviation and median of continuous variables and proportion of categorical variables were recorded. Results Average age of the hypertensive diabetes patients (M=57; SD=11) was higher than non hypertensive diabetes patients (M=52; SD=11) which was statistically significant (p=.009). Diabetic neuropathy was reported by 45% of the hypertensive and 38% of the non-hypertensive diabetics. Mean self reported general health score was higher among hypertensive diabetic participants (M=3.4; SD=1) in comparison to non hypertensive diabetic participants (M=3; SD=1) and it was found statistically significant (p=.03) indicating towards poor self health perception among hypertensive’s. Results of the study have shown that the proportion of participants who have prepared any list of questions before visiting doctor’s clinic (fairly often to always) was significantly higher among hypertensive diabetics (30%) in comparison to non-hypertensive diabetics (14%). Conclusion The proportion of participants reporting diabetes neuropathy and retinopathy was higher among hypertensive diabetics in comparison to non hypertensive diabetics. PMID:26500926

  8. Animal Models of Diabetic Macrovascular Complications: Key Players in the Development of New Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Heinonen, Suvi E.; Genové, Guillem; Bengtsson, Eva; Hübschle, Thomas; Åkesson, Lina; Hiss, Katrin; Benardeau, Agnes; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Jönsson-Rylander, Ann-Cathrine; Gomez, Maria F.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a lifelong, incapacitating metabolic disease associated with chronic macrovascular complications (coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease) and microvascular disorders leading to damage of the kidneys (nephropathy) and eyes (retinopathy). Based on the current trends, the rising prevalence of diabetes worldwide will lead to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, novel means to prevent and treat these complications are needed. Under the auspices of the IMI (Innovative Medicines Initiative), the SUMMIT (SUrrogate markers for Micro- and Macrovascular hard end points for Innovative diabetes Tools) consortium is working on the development of novel animal models that better replicate vascular complications of diabetes and on the characterization of the available models. In the past years, with the high level of genomic information available and more advanced molecular tools, a very large number of models has been created. Selecting the right model for a specific study is not a trivial task and will have an impact on the study results and their interpretation. This review gathers information on the available experimental animal models of diabetic macrovascular complications and evaluates their pros and cons for research purposes as well as for drug development. PMID:25785279

  9. Animal models of diabetic macrovascular complications: key players in the development of new therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Suvi E; Genové, Guillem; Bengtsson, Eva; Hübschle, Thomas; Åkesson, Lina; Hiss, Katrin; Benardeau, Agnes; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Jönsson-Rylander, Ann-Cathrine; Gomez, Maria F

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a lifelong, incapacitating metabolic disease associated with chronic macrovascular complications (coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease) and microvascular disorders leading to damage of the kidneys (nephropathy) and eyes (retinopathy). Based on the current trends, the rising prevalence of diabetes worldwide will lead to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, novel means to prevent and treat these complications are needed. Under the auspices of the IMI (Innovative Medicines Initiative), the SUMMIT (SUrrogate markers for Micro- and Macrovascular hard end points for Innovative diabetes Tools) consortium is working on the development of novel animal models that better replicate vascular complications of diabetes and on the characterization of the available models. In the past years, with the high level of genomic information available and more advanced molecular tools, a very large number of models has been created. Selecting the right model for a specific study is not a trivial task and will have an impact on the study results and their interpretation. This review gathers information on the available experimental animal models of diabetic macrovascular complications and evaluates their pros and cons for research purposes as well as for drug development. PMID:25785279

  10. Understanding Gestational Diabetes: A Practical Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This brochure addresses the problem of gestational diabetes and answers the most frequently asked questions about the disease. It begins by defining gestational diabetes and discussing its cause, then addresses such topics as: (1) how gestational diabetes differs from other types of diabetes; (2) who is at risk for developing gestational diabetes

  11. DIABETES, VOL. 49, NOVEMBER 2000 1955 Brief Genetics Report

    E-print Network

    Cox, Nancy J.

    DIABETES, VOL. 49, NOVEMBER 2000 1955 Brief Genetics Report -Cell Transcription Factors and Diabetes No Evidence for Diabetes-Associated Mutations in the Gene Encoding the Basic Helix of diabetes that resembles maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) in many respects. This result prompted

  12. Providing a Safe Environment for Students with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, Janet H.; Jackson, Crystal C.; Bobo, Nichole; Kaufman, Francine R.; Butler, Sarah; Marschilok, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Current diabetes regimens require more effort than ever before. The level of diabetes control students are able to maintain is affected greatly by their ability to care for their diabetes during the school day. This article reviews use of School Health Plans and Diabetes Medical Management Plans in schools. Students with diabetes, their families,…

  13. Development of a diabetes education program based on modified AADE diabetes education curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yue-Ping; Wu, Liao-Fang; Su, Zhen-Fang; Zhou, Qiu-Hong

    2014-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and acceptability of a diabetes education program tailored to patients with type 2 diabetes in communities and the preliminary outcomes of the intervention. Methods: Two-phase, one group, mixed-method study design was used. Modified American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) diabetes education curriculum was used as the framework for the program. Patients with diabetes participated in classes and diabetes conversation map discussion. Feasibility and acceptability of the program were evaluated by the ability to recruit and retain participants and their satisfaction with the program. Diabetes knowledge test and the summary of diabetes self-care activities (SDSCA) were used to evaluate the knowledge and behavior changes of the patients. Results: 40 patients completed the program and the attrition rate was 11.1%. All participants were “very satisfied” with the program. Significant improvement in diabetes knowledge and blood glucose monitoring and foot care were reported. Conclusion: The diabetes education program based on modified AADE diabetes education curriculum combined with diabetes conversation map may be effective in patients with type 2 diabetes. Practice Implications: Flexible time schedule and a control group should be designed in the future study. PMID:24753774

  14. Cytotoxicity of silver dressings on diabetic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shi-Bo; Yoon, Won-Young; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Cui, Zheng-Jun; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2013-06-01

    A large number of silver-based dressings are commonly used in the management of chronic wounds that are at risk of infection, including diabetic foot ulcers. However, there are still controversies regarding the toxicity of silver dressings on wound healing. The purpose of this study was to objectively test the cytotoxicity of silver dressings on human diabetic fibroblasts. Human diabetic fibroblasts were obtained from the foot skin of four diabetic foot ulcer patients and cultured. The effect of five silver-containing dressing products (Aquacel Ag, Acticoat*Absorbent, Medifoam Ag, Biatain Ag and PolyMem Ag) and their comparable silver-free dressing products on morphology, proliferation and collagen synthesis of the cultured human diabetic fibroblasts were compared in vitro. In addition, extracts of each dressing were tested in order to examine the effect of other chemical components found in the dressings on cytotoxicity. The diabetic fibroblasts cultured with each silver-free dressing adopted the typical dendritic and fusiform shape. On the other hand, the diabetic fibroblasts did not adopt this typical morphology when treated with the different silver dressings. All silver dressings tested in the study reduced the viability of the diabetic fibroblasts and collagen synthesis by 54-70 and 48-68%, respectively, when compared to silver-free dressings. Silver dressings significantly changed the cell morphology and decreased cell proliferation and collagen synthesis of diabetic fibroblasts. Therefore, silver dressings should be used with caution when treating diabetic wounds. PMID:22533495

  15. The association between diabetes and depression

    PubMed Central

    Gemeay, Essmat M.; Moawed, Salma A.; Mansour, Essmat A.; Ebrahiem, Nagat E.; Moussa, Ihab M.; Nadrah, Wafaa O.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of depression among Saudi patients, and to correlate between the presence of depression and type of diabetes. Methods: The research approach was descriptive with a convenient subject of 100 male and female patients (27 subjects with Type 1 diabetes, 29 subjects with Type 2 diabetes, and 44 subjects with gestational diabetes) from March to June 2014 at Al-Solimania Primary Health Care Center, Al-Olaya, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients were interviewed individually using an interview questionnaire sheet formulated by researchers to assess lifestyle items, and Beck depression inventory was used to screen for depression. Results: Thirty-seven percent of those suffering from Type 1 diabetes, and 37.9% of subjects with Type 2 diabetes were diagnosed with depression, while only 13.6% of subjects with gestational diabetes were diagnosed with depression. The results also showed that more than half of the study subjects do not comply with either glucose check, or diet regimen. Conclusion: This study revealed that there is an association between diabetes and depression although the correlation between depression and diabetes is not significant, while there is significant relation with changes in body image. Patients with diabetes should be screened for depression, provided referral to appropriate social services and psychosocial support, and involvement of mental health professions when needed. PMID:26446333

  16. Endoneurial Microvascular Pathology in Feline Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Estrella, Jeannelyn S.; Nelson, Richard N.; Sturges, B.K.; Vernau, Karen M.; Williams, D. Collette; LeCouteur, Richard A.; Shelton, G. Diane; Mizisin, Andrew P.

    2008-01-01

    Endoneurial capillaries in nerve biopsies from 12 adult diabetic cats with varying degrees of neurological dysfunction were examined for evidence of microvascular pathology and compared to nerves obtained at autopsy from 7 adult non-diabetic cats without clinical evidence of neurological dysfunction. As reported previously (Mizisin et al., 2007), the diabetic cats had elevated glycosylated hemoglobin and serum fructosamine levels, decreased motor nerve conduction velocity and compound muscle action potentials (CMAP), and markedly decreased myelinated nerve fiber densities. Compared to non-diabetic cats, there was a non-significant 26% increase in capillary density and a significant (P<0.009) 45% increase in capillary size in diabetic cats. Capillary luminal size was also significantly (P<0.001) increased, while an index of vasoconstriction was significantly decreased (P<0.001) in diabetic cats compared to non-diabetic controls. No differences in endothelial cell size, endothelial cell number or pericyte size were detected between non-diabetic and diabetic cats. In diabetic cats, basement membrane thickening, seen as a reduplication of the basal lamina, was significantly (P<0.0002) increased by 73% compared to non-diabetic controls. Regression analysis of either myelinated nerve fiber density or CMAP amplitude against basement membrane size demonstrated a negative correlation with significant slopes (P<0.03 and P<0.04, respectively). These data demonstrate that myelinated nerve fiber injury in feline diabetic neuropathy is associated with microvascular pathology and that some of these changes parallel those documented in experimental rodent and human diabetic neuropathy. PMID:18207200

  17. New insights from monogenic diabetes for “common” type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tallapragada, Divya Sri Priyanka; Bhaskar, Seema; Chandak, Giriraj R.

    2015-01-01

    Boundaries between monogenic and complex genetic diseases are becoming increasingly blurred, as a result of better understanding of phenotypes and their genetic determinants. This had a large impact on the way complex disease genetics is now being investigated. Starting with conventional approaches like familial linkage, positional cloning and candidate genes strategies, the scope of complex disease genetics has grown exponentially with scientific and technological advances in recent times. Despite identification of multiple loci harboring common and rare variants associated with complex diseases, interpreting and evaluating their functional role has proven to be difficult. Information from monogenic diseases, especially related to the intermediate traits associated with complex diseases comes handy. The significant overlap between traits and phenotypes of monogenic diseases with related complex diseases provides a platform to understand the disease biology better. In this review, we would discuss about one such complex disease, type 2 diabetes, which shares marked similarity of intermediate traits with different forms of monogenic diabetes. PMID:26300908

  18. Diabetes City: How Urban Game Design Strategies Can Help Diabetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knöll, Martin

    Computer Games are about to leave their “electronic shells” and enter the city. So-called Serious Pervasive Games (SPGs) [1] allow for hybrid - simultaneously physical and virtual - experiences, applying technologies of ubiquitous computing, communication and “intelligent” interfaces. They begin to focus on non-entertaining purposes. The following article a) presents game design strategies as a missing link between pervasive computing, Ambient Intelligence and user’s everyday life. Therefore it spurs a discussion how Pervasive Healthcare focusing on the therapy and prevention of chronic diseases can benefit from urban game design strategies. b) Moreover the article presents the development and work in progress of “DiabetesCity“ - an educational game prototype for young diabetics.

  19. Comparison of the effects of gestational weight gain on pregnancy outcomes between non-diabetic and diabetic women

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Ji Man; Kim, Tae Hyun; Hahn, Myeong Hi; Cho, Geum Joon; Hong, Soon Cheol; Oh, Min Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Appropriate gestational weight gain (GWG) is important in diabetic women. Current GWG guideline is for US general population, but not specific for diabetic women. We compared the effect of GWG on perinatal outcomes between diabetic and non-diabetic women. Methods Fifty two hundred and twelve women who delivered live singleton infants at Korea University Medical Center from January 2009 to December 2013 were included. One hundred twenty-nine overt diabetes women and 322 gestational diabetes women were categorized as diabetic women, and the others were categorized as none-diabetic women. 5,212 women were categorized by GWG (low 1,081; adequate 2,102; or high 2,029; according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines), and each of the 3 GWG groups was categorized into 2 groups; diabetic or non-diabetic women. And then, we compared perinatal outcomes between diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Results In each 3 GWG groups, primary cesarean section delivery, high birth weight, and large for gestational age rates were significantly higher in diabetic women than non-diabetic women. Only in adequate GWG group, preterm birth rate was significantly higher in diabetic women than non-diabetic women. Conclusion Our study shows that diabetic women had higher rates of adverse perinatal outcomes than non-diabetic women, although they achieved same GWG. It suggests that current GWG guideline may not be adequate for diabetic women, and that diabetic women may need more strict GWG control than normal population. PMID:26623409

  20. Type 1 diabetes pathogenesis - Prevention???

    PubMed

    Krishna, C S Muralidhara; Srikanta, S

    2015-04-01

    Pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is multi-faceted, including, autoimmunity, genetics and environment. Autoimmunity directed against pancreatic islet cells results in slowly progressive selective beta-cell destruction ("Primary autoimmune insulitis"), culminating over years in clinically manifested insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Circulating serum autoantibodies directed against the endocrine cells of the islets of Langerhans (Islet cell autoantibodies - ICAb) are an important hallmark of this disease. Assays for islet cell autoantibodies have facilitated the investigation and understanding of several facets in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. Their applications have extended into clinical practice and have opened new avenues for early preclinical prediction and preventive prophylaxis in IDDM/type 1 DM. Recently, surprisingly, differences in insulin content between T1DM islets, as well as, 'patchy' or 'lobular' destruction of islets have been described. These unique pathobiological phenomena, suggest that beta cell destruction may not always be inexorable and inevitably complete/total, and thus raise hopes for possible therapeutic interruption of beta cell autoimmunity - destruction and cure of type 1 diabetes. "Recurrent or secondary autoimmune insulitis" refers to the rapid reappearance of islet cell autoantibodies post pancreas transplant, and selective islet beta cell destruction in the grafted pancreas [never forgetting or "anamnestic" beta cell destructive memory], in the absence of any graft pancreas rejection [monozygotic twin to twin transplantation]. The one definite environmental factor is congenital rubella, because of which a subset of children subsequently develop type 1 diabetes. The putative predisposing factors are viruses, gluten and cow's milk. The putative protective factors include gut flora, helminths, viral infections, and Vitamin D. Prevention of T1DM can include: Primary prevention strategies before the development of autoantibodies and Secondary prevention regimens after autoantibody development. Once islet cell autoantibodies have developed, the goal is to establish a therapeutic regimen to preserve at least 90% of the beta cells, and prevent the development of hyperglycaemia. The targets for T1DM reversal should include autoimmunity, beta cell regeneration and protection of beta cell mass. Anti-CD3 teplizumab and anti-CD3 otelixizumab have been shown to provide C-peptide preservation. The unanswered questions in diabetes research include elimination of autoimmune memory responses, reestablishment of immune self-tolerance, and mechanisms of disease initiation. PMID:25941654

  1. Type 1 diabetes pathogenesis – Prevention???

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, C. S. Muralidhara; Srikanta, S.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is multi-faceted, including, autoimmunity, genetics and environment. Autoimmunity directed against pancreatic islet cells results in slowly progressive selective beta-cell destruction (“Primary autoimmune insulitis”), culminating over years in clinically manifested insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Circulating serum autoantibodies directed against the endocrine cells of the islets of Langerhans (Islet cell autoantibodies - ICAb) are an important hallmark of this disease. Assays for islet cell autoantibodies have facilitated the investigation and understanding of several facets in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. Their applications have extended into clinical practice and have opened new avenues for early preclinical prediction and preventive prophylaxis in IDDM/type 1 DM. Recently, surprisingly, differences in insulin content between T1DM islets, as well as, ‘patchy’ or ‘lobular’ destruction of islets have been described. These unique pathobiological phenomena, suggest that beta cell destruction may not always be inexorable and inevitably complete/total, and thus raise hopes for possible therapeutic interruption of beta cell autoimmunity – destruction and cure of type 1 diabetes. “Recurrent or secondary autoimmune insulitis” refers to the rapid reappearance of islet cell autoantibodies post pancreas transplant, and selective islet beta cell destruction in the grafted pancreas [never forgetting or “anamnestic” beta cell destructive memory], in the absence of any graft pancreas rejection [monozygotic twin to twin transplantation]. The one definite environmental factor is congenital rubella, because of which a subset of children subsequently develop type 1 diabetes. The putative predisposing factors are viruses, gluten and cow's milk. The putative protective factors include gut flora, helminths, viral infections, and Vitamin D. Prevention of T1DM can include: Primary prevention strategies before the development of autoantibodies and Secondary prevention regimens after autoantibody development. Once islet cell autoantibodies have developed, the goal is to establish a therapeutic regimen to preserve at least 90% of the beta cells, and prevent the development of hyperglycaemia. The targets for T1DM reversal should include autoimmunity, beta cell regeneration and protection of beta cell mass. Anti-CD3 teplizumab and anti-CD3 otelixizumab have been shown to provide C-peptide preservation. The unanswered questions in diabetes research include elimination of autoimmune memory responses, reestablishment of immune self-tolerance, and mechanisms of disease initiation. PMID:25941654

  2. 76 FR 20358 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Diabetes Mellitus Interagency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...workshop will discuss new and emerging opportunities for type 1 diabetes research supported by the Special Statutory Funding Program for Type 1 Diabetes Research. Any interested person may file written...

  3. 78 FR 26641 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Diabetes Mellitus Interagency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ...workshop will discuss new and emerging opportunities for type 1 diabetes research supported by the Special Statutory Funding Program for Type 1 Diabetes Research. An agenda for the DMICC workshop will...

  4. Diabetes and tuberculosis: the impact of the diabetes epidemic on tuberculosis incidence

    E-print Network

    Stevenson, Catherine R.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Roglic, Gojka; Williams, Brian G.; Lauer, Jeremy A.; Dye, Christopher; Unwin, Nigel

    2007-09-06

    Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of mortality in developing countries, and in these countries diabetes prevalence is increasing rapidly. Diabetes increases the risk of TB. Our aim was to assess the potential impact...

  5. Familial Clustering of Type 2 Diabetes among Omanis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sinani, Sawsan; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Al-Mamari, Ali; Woodhouse, Nicholas; Al-Shafie, Omaima; Hassan, Mohammed; Al-Yahyaee, Said; Albarwani, Sulayma; Jaju, Deepali; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Abri, Mohammed; Rizvi, Syed; Bayoumi, Riad

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to screen Omani individuals for the familial aggregation of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A random cohort of 1182 Omani individuals visiting the Family Medicine Clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman, for regular medical checkup, aged ?40 years, were sampled. Patients were categorized into three groups: (1) individuals who claim not to have diabetes and had no family history of diabetes; (2) individuals who claim not to have diabetes but had family history of diabetes; (3) individuals with diabetes. Only 16% of these Omani individuals had no diabetes and no family history of diabetes. Another separate random cohort of 234 Omani type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, from the Diabetes Clinic at SQUH, were interviewed and questioned about their family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results Ninety five percent of the patients had a family history of diabetes. Eighty percent had first degree relatives with diabetes and 46% had second degree relatives with diabetes. At least one parent with diabetes was reported among 55% of these diabetics, while maternal diabetes (55%) was found to be higher than paternal diabetes (47%). However, only 15% had both parents with diabetes. Furthermore, almost half of the 234 diabetics were having at least one of the following relatives with diabetes: brother, sister, aunt or an uncle. Conclusion The findings of this study confirm familial aggregation of diabetes among the Omani population. Compared to other populations, familial aggregation of type 2 diabetes mellitus among Omanis is relatively very high, and is perhaps due to the very high degree of consanguinity among Omanis. Since almost everyone seems to have a genetic predisposition to diabetes, the dramatic lifestyle changes over the past 25 years, could tip the population into an epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24498483

  6. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Get, set, go From diabetes capital of the world to diabetes care capital of the world

    PubMed Central

    Magon, Navneet

    2011-01-01

    Screening and diagnosis for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as well as interventions for its management evoke considerable controversy. There are different types of screening methods: universal or risk-based, one step or two step. Different thresholds for diagnosis of GDM have been in vogue. Previous definition and diagnostic criteria had no place for diagnosis of overt diabetes in pregnancy. Following Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO) study and International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) recommendations, new screening and diagnostic criteria around the world seem to be gaining consensus. The present recommendation given by IADPSG for screening and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in pregnancy has two discrete phases. The first is detection of women with overt diabetes not previously diagnosed or treated outside of pregnancy. Universal early testing in populations is recommended at the first prenatal visit. The second phase is a 75-g OGTT at 24–28 week gestation in all women not previously found to have overt diabetes or GDM. ACHOIS and MFMU Network trails have proven benefit in treating hyperglycemias less than what is diagnostic for diabetes. DIPSI has shown the alternative way for resource-challenged communities. Efforts from all stake holders with interest in GDM are required to make the diabetes capital of the world into the diabetes care capital of the world. PMID:21897891

  7. Type 2 Diabetes and Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Helzner, Elizabeth Purchase; Contrera, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Hearing impairment (HI) and type 2 diabetes are both highly prevalent disabling conditions. Type 2 diabetes has been modestly associated with a higher likelihood of HI in many, but not all, population-based studies, with stronger associations found in studies that included younger age groups. Pathophysiologic studies suggest that persons with diabetes are predisposed to HI in the higher frequencies. Proposed mechanisms underlying the association between diabetes and HI include the combined contributions of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress to cochlear microangiopathy and auditory neuropathy. In this review, we highlight recent population-based studies of type 2 diabetes and HI and examine evidence for diabetes-induced pathophysiologic changes that may result in damage to the auditory system. PMID:26699766

  8. Corneal autofluorescence in presence of diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovati, Luigi; Docchio, Franco; Azzolini, Claudio; Van Best, Jaap A.

    1998-06-01

    Recently corneal autofluorescence has been proposed as an ocular diagnostic tool for diabetic retinopathy. The method is based on the sensible increase of the natural fluorescence of corneal tissue within specific wavelength in presence of early stage of diabetic retinopathy. The main advantages of this method are that the corneal autofluorescence has been demonstrated to be not age-related and that the cornea is readily accessible to be investigated. In this study 47 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 51 non-insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus patients aged 20 - 90 years have been considered. Patients were selected from the Eye Clinic of S. Raffaele Hospital. The modified Airlie House classification was used to grade the diabetic retinopathy. Corneal autofluorescence has been measured by using both a specifically designed instrument and the Fluorotron Master. Corneal autofluorescence mean value for each diabetic retinopathy measured by using both the instruments correlated with the retinopathy grade.

  9. The Comorbidity of Diabetes Mellitus and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Katon, Wayne J.

    2009-01-01

    Several factors, including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and an aging population, contribute to epidemic rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Depression frequently occurs comorbidly with diabetes although it is unrecognized and untreated in approximately two thirds of patients with both conditions. The course of depression in patients with both diabetes and depression is chronic and severe. Up to 80% of patients with diabetes and depression will experience a relapse of depressive symptoms over a 5-year period. Depression is associated with nonadherence to diabetes self-care—including following dietary restrictions, medication compliance, and blood glucose monitoring—resulting in worse overall clinical outcomes. Due to potential negative health consequences associated with comorbid diabetes and depression, both conditions should be optimally treated to maximize patient outcomes. PMID:18954592

  10. [Type LADA diabetes--interrogation points].

    PubMed

    Otto-Buczkowska, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Type LADA diabetes is a form of autoimmune-mediated diabetes in adults. The progression of beta-cell failure is slower than in childhood type 1 diabetes. Patients with LADA present with more preserved beta cell function than those with classic type l diabetes. The diagnosis of LADA according to Immunology Diabetes Society is based on three features: age over 35 years, the presence at least one of four circulating autoantibodies to pancreatic islet cell antigens and lack of requirement for insulin at least 6 month after diagnosis. The level of C-peptide secretion after stimulation with intravenous glucagon administration helped to diagnosis. The optimal treatment of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is not established. Consider that early insulin treatment would result in better preservation of beta-cell function and metabolic control. PMID:23789301

  11. Hospital readmission of patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Daniel J

    2015-04-01

    Hospital readmission is a high-priority health care quality measure and target for cost reduction. Despite broad interest in readmission, relatively little research has focused on patients with diabetes. The burden of diabetes among hospitalized patients, however, is substantial, growing, and costly, and readmissions contribute a significant portion of this burden. Reducing readmission rates of diabetic patients has the potential to greatly reduce health care costs while simultaneously improving care. Risk factors for readmission in this population include lower socioeconomic status, racial/ethnic minority, comorbidity burden, public insurance, emergent or urgent admission, and a history of recent prior hospitalization. Hospitalized patients with diabetes may be at higher risk of readmission than those without diabetes. Potential ways to reduce readmission risk are inpatient education, specialty care, better discharge instructions, coordination of care, and post-discharge support. More studies are needed to test the effect of these interventions on the readmission rates of patients with diabetes. PMID:25712258

  12. Association of fasting insulin and C peptide with diabetic retinopathy in Latinos with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Jane Z; Guo, Xiuqing; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E; Weinreb, Robert N; Genter, Pauline; Hsiao, Fone-Ching; Goodarzi, Mark O; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Ipp, Eli

    2014-01-01

    Objective Residual insulin secretion provides important protection against the development of diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes. The data to support this in type 2 diabetes are unclear. We therefore tested in type 2 diabetes whether markers of residual beta-cell function are associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy, an important microvascular complication of diabetes. Design Prospective, cross-sectional, family-based study. Participants 585 Latino type 2 diabetic participants, ascertained in families via a proband either with known diabetes duration of greater than 10?years and/or with diabetic retinopathy. Outcome measures Circulating levels of fasting insulin and C peptide measured and correlated to degree of diabetic retinopathy, assessed by digital fundus photography and graded using the Modified Airlie House Classification and the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale (range: levels 10–85). Results Fasting plasma insulin (?=?0.29; 95% CI ?0.38 to ?0.20; p<0.0001) and C peptide (?=?0.21; 95% CI ?0.30 to ?0.13; p<0.0001) concentrations in these diabetic participants were significantly correlated with retinopathy and its degree of severity. This relationship remained significant after adjusting for potential covariates including age, gender, glycosylated hemoglobin, duration of diabetes, blood pressure, and renal function. Conclusions These data suggest that residual endogenous insulin secretion is associated with the presence of diabetic retinopathy and its severity in Latinos with familial type 2 diabetes. It remains to be proven whether beta-cell targeted therapies, to maintain beta-cell mass and/or function in addition to glycemic control, will further the goal of preventing diabetic microvascular disease. PMID:25452868

  13. La salud en personas con discapacidad intelectual en España: estudio europeo POMONA-II

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencía Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ramón; Martorell, Almudena; González-Gordón, Rodrigo G.; Mérida-Gutiérrez, M. Reyes; Ángel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodríguez, Alicia; García-Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Pérez-Vicente, Amado; García-Ibáñez, José; Aguilera-Inés, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Introducción Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patrón diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atención sanitaria entre personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) y población general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas con DI y compararlos con datos de población general. Pacientes y métodos Se utilizó el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos con DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon según el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utilizó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos con los de la población general. Resultados La muestra con DI presentó 25 veces más casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% presentó dolor bucal, y existió una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patologías como la diabetes, la hipertensión, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. También presentaron una menor participación en programas de prevención y promoción de la salud, un mayor número de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patrón de salud de las personas con DI difiere del de la población general, y éstas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promoción de salud y de formación profesional específicamente diseñados para la atención de personas con DI, así como la implementación de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta población. PMID:21948011

  14. A Student with Diabetes Is in My Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal-Malek, Andrea; Greenspan, Jan

    1999-01-01

    Guidelines for managing the child with diabetes in educational settings address the nature of diabetes, attitudes of students with diabetes, common misconceptions, effects on students in the classroom, helpful strategies, and resources. (DB)

  15. 42 CFR 410.146 - Diabetes outcome measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diabetes outcome measurements. 410.146 Section...MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.146...

  16. "As a native nation, we must fight diabetes…"

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Stories "As a native nation, we must fight diabetes…" Past Issues / ... Springs, Az. Type 2 I didn't know a thing about diabetes when I was diagnosed, but ...

  17. 76 FR 34130 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  18. 77 FR 18302 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  19. 76 FR 66120 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  20. 75 FR 13647 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...applications for exemptions from the diabetes standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  1. 75 FR 50797 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial...published a Notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from twenty...

  2. 77 FR 74271 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  3. 76 FR 20073 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  4. 77 FR 64585 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial...published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from 28...

  5. 77 FR 52384 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  6. 78 FR 24795 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  7. 76 FR 5243 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial...published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from...

  8. 75 FR 52813 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  9. 78 FR 56988 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial...requested such an exemption from the diabetes prohibition in 49 CFR...

  10. 75 FR 69734 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  11. 76 FR 17475 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  12. 76 FR 47290 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial...published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from...

  13. 78 FR 20381 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  14. 76 FR 40439 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  15. 77 FR 20876 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  16. 77 FR 75493 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial...published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from 14...

  17. 78 FR 64267 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial...requested such an exemption from the diabetes prohibition in 49 CFR...

  18. 78 FR 38435 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  19. 78 FR 1923 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  20. 77 FR 56258 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  1. 78 FR 65034 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial...requested such an exemption from the diabetes prohibition in 49 CFR...

  2. 75 FR 1449 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial...published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from...

  3. 78 FR 14406 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  4. 75 FR 36775 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  5. 77 FR 33551 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial...requested such an exemption from the diabetes prohibition in 49 CFR...

  6. 78 FR 19798 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial...published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from 19...

  7. 78 FR 63298 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial...requested such an exemption from the diabetes prohibition in 49 CFR...

  8. 78 FR 7852 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  9. 76 FR 55460 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  10. 76 FR 72031 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial...requested such an exemption from the diabetes prohibition in 49 CFR...

  11. 76 FR 71112 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  12. 76 FR 61140 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  13. 78 FR 26419 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  14. 78 FR 16032 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  15. 78 FR 32704 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  16. 76 FR 34127 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  17. 78 FR 63285 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial...requested such an exemption from the diabetes prohibition in 49 CFR...

  18. 76 FR 78722 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  19. 77 FR 59447 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  20. 77 FR 65931 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  1. 75 FR 25919 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...applications for exemptions from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...prohibition for persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  2. 78 FR 22599 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  3. 75 FR 28677 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...applications for exemptions from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  4. 77 FR 63411 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  5. 77 FR 533 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  6. 78 FR 50482 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  7. 76 FR 9854 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  8. 78 FR 76397 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial...published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from 16...

  9. 77 FR 13686 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  10. 78 FR 50486 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  11. 76 FR 1496 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  12. 77 FR 70530 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  13. 75 FR 34206 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  14. 75 FR 77947 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  15. 77 FR 5870 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  16. 75 FR 52809 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  17. 76 FR 78720 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  18. 76 FR 25769 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  19. 77 FR 27842 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial...requested such an exemption from the diabetes prohibition in 49 CFR...

  20. 75 FR 42477 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  1. 77 FR 3549 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  2. 76 FR 64165 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  3. 77 FR 36333 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  4. 76 FR 9862 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  5. 78 FR 1927 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  6. 76 FR 32012 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  7. 78 FR 38439 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  8. 78 FR 63295 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial...requested such an exemption from the diabetes prohibition in 49 CFR...

  9. 76 FR 17478 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  10. 76 FR 71111 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial...published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from sixteen...

  11. 78 FR 60014 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial...published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from 16...

  12. 76 FR 78725 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  13. 77 FR 48587 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  14. 75 FR 14652 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...applications for exemptions from the diabetes standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  15. 76 FR 79756 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  16. 77 FR 46149 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  17. 75 FR 64394 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial...published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from...

  18. 75 FR 63536 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  19. 77 FR 10612 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  20. 77 FR 40941 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  1. 78 FR 63280 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial...requested such an exemption from the diabetes prohibition in 49 CFR...

  2. 42 CFR 410.146 - Diabetes outcome measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diabetes outcome measurements. 410.146 Section...MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.146...

  3. 42 CFR 410.146 - Diabetes outcome measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diabetes outcome measurements. 410.146 Section...MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.146...

  4. 42 CFR 410.146 - Diabetes outcome measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diabetes outcome measurements. 410.146 Section...MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.146...

  5. 42 CFR 410.146 - Diabetes outcome measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diabetes outcome measurements. 410.146 Section...MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.146...

  6. Visual Impairment and Diabetes: A Personal and Professional Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, A. W.

    1993-01-01

    A nurse educator specializing in diabetes recounts her own experience with vision loss resulting from diabetic retinopathy, considers the roles of rehabilitation specialists and diabetes educators, and urges the two professional groups to work together more closely. (DB)

  7. Diabetes Complications | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Complications Tailoring Diabetes Treatment to the Patient Past Issues / Fall 2012 ... been reported for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. How was the NIH involved? These are guidelines ...

  8. Resolve to Prevent or Delay Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... do for your health right now. What are Diabetes and Prediabetes? Diabetes is a disease in which ...

  9. "Small Steps, Big Rewards": Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Small Steps, Big Rewards": Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Past Issues / Fall ... These are the plain facts in "Small Steps. Big Rewards: Prevent Type 2 Diabetes," an education campaign ...

  10. 76 FR 22940 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ...from its rule prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from...diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b...a Program to Qualify Individuals with Insulin-Treated Diabetes Mellitus to...

  11. Translating Sweetness: Type 2 Diabetes, Race, Research, and Outreach

    E-print Network

    Battle, James

    2012-01-01

    simple focus on the genetics of Type 2 diabetes alone (Tang,genetics researchers. Understanding contemporary Type 2 diabetes,Diabetes Mellitus: A "Thrifty" Genotype Rendered Detrimental by "Progress? ” American Journal of Human Genetics

  12. EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISE INTERVENTION ON PAINFUL DIABETIC NEUROPATHY

    E-print Network

    Yoo, Min

    2013-05-31

    Background: Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes. While the beneficial effect of exercise on diabetes has been well established, its effect specifically on painful DPN has not been thoroughly explored...

  13. Ayurvedic treatments for diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Kalpana; Mohan, Roshni; Ramaratnam, Sridharan; Panneerselvam, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetes frequently use complimentary and alternative medications including Ayurvedic medications and hence it is important to determine their efficacy and safety. Objectives To assess the effects of Ayurvedic treatments for diabetes mellitus. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 10, 2011), MEDLINE (until 31 August 2011), EMBASE (until 31 August 2011), AMED (until 14 October 2011), the database of randomised trials from South Asia (until 14 October 2011), the database of the grey literature (OpenSigle, until 14 October 2011) and databases of ongoing trials (until 14 October 2011). In addition we performed hand searches of several journals and reference lists of potentially relevant trials. Selection criteria We included randomized trials of at least two months duration of Ayurvedic interventions for diabetes mellitus. Participants of both genders, all ages and any type of diabetes were included irrespective of duration of diabetes, antidiabetic treatment, comorbidity or diabetes related complications. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data. Risk of bias of trials was evaluated as indicated in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention. Main results Results of only a limited number of studies could be combined, in view of different types of interventions and variable quality of data. We found six trials of proprietary herbal mixtures and one of whole system Ayurvedic treatment. These studies enrolled 354 participants ( 172 on treatment, 158 on controls, 24 allocation unknown). The treatment duration ranged from 3 to 6 months. All these studies included adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. With regard to our primary outcomes, significant reductions in glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting blood sugar (FBS) or both were observed with Diabecon, Inolter and Cogent DB compared to placebo or no additional treatment, while no significant hypoglycaemic response was found with Pancreas tonic and Hyponidd treatment. The study of whole system Ayurvedic treatment did not provide data on HbA1c and FBS values. One study of Pancreas tonic treatment did not detect a significant change in health-related quality of life. The main adverse effects reported were drug hypersensitivity (one study, one patient in the treatment arm); hypoglycaemic episodes (one study, one participant in the treatment arm; none had severe hypoglycaemia) and gastrointestinal side effects in one study (1 of 20 in the intervention group and 0 of 20 participants in the control group). None of the included studies reported any deaths, renal, hematological or liver toxicity. With regard to our secondary outcomes, post prandial blood sugar (PPBS) was lower among participants treated with Diabecon, was unchanged with Hyponidd and was higher in patients treated with Cogent DB. Treatment with Pancreas tonic and Hyponidd did not affect lipid profile significantly, while patients treated with Inolter had significantly higher HDL- and lower LDL-cholesterol as well as lower triglycerides. Cogent DB treated participants also had lower total cholesterol and triglycerides. Studies of treatment with Diabecon reported increased fasting insulin levels; one study of treatment with Diabecon reported higher stimulated insulin levels and fasting C-peptide levels in the treatment group. There was no significant difference in fasting and stimulated C-peptide and insulin levels with Hyponidd, Cogent DB and Pancreas tonic treatment. The study of Inolter did not assess these outcomes. No study reported on or was designed to investigate diabetic complications, death from any cause and economic data. Authors’ conclusions Although there were significant glucose-lowering effects with the use of some herbal mixtures, due to methodological deficiencies and small sample sizes we are unable to draw any definite conclusions regarding their efficacy. Though no significant adverse events were reported, there is insufficient evidence at present to recommend the use of these interventions in routine

  14. Diabetic artefacts in forensic practice.

    PubMed

    Murty, O P

    2009-05-01

    A case is presented where confusion arose about skin lesions and whether they were diabetic or electrical in origin. The deceased was a known diabetic and hypertensive man. A middle-aged person in early fifties was found unconscious in the cell and judicial autopsy was performed. He was facing trial for capital punishment of being allegedly involved in drug trafficking and money laundering. He had few marks over his fingers and foot which were considered to be electric marks produced in electric torture. also had fracture of skull and ischemic necrosis of right side of cerebrum; and contrecoup lesions. Findings are documented with photographs of the lesions. The article also depicts photographs of the scene where the victim had fallen and sustained skull fracture. PMID:19329080

  15. Diabetes decreases limbic extracellular dopamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Murzi, E; Contreras, Q; Teneud, L; Valecillos, B; Parada, M A; De Parada, M P; Hernandez, L

    1996-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) was measured by ventral striatum (including nucleus accumbens) microdialysis in freely moving streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic male rats. DA and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) basal levels and amphetamine-induced DA increase were lower in diabetic than in normal rats. These results are discussed in terms of decreased DA neuron activity and DA receptor hypersensitivity in the mesolimbic system of STZ-diabetic rats. PMID:8848251

  16. Type 1 diabetes mellitus-common cases

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Surender

    2015-01-01

    Tight glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients is associated with the risk of hypoglycemia. Diabetic patients are forced to change their lifestyle to adjust to the disease condition and survive it. The best way to manage diabetes would be to develop a therapy, which could adjust to the patient's conditions. Here, I present few cases wherein switching to a long-acting basal insulin analog helped combat recurrent hypoglycemic episodes experienced by the patients. PMID:25941660

  17. Transdermal innovations in diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Rao, Rekha; Mahant, Sheefali; Chhabra, Lovely; Nanda, Sanju

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, an endocrine disorder affecting glucose metabolism, has been crippling mankind for the past two centuries. Despite the advancements in the understanding pertaining to its pathogenesis and treatment, the currently available therapeutic options are far from satisfactory. The growing diabetic population increases the gravity of the situation. The shortcomings of the conventional drug delivery systems necessitate the need to delve into other routes. On account of its merits over other routes, the transdermal approach has drawn the interest of the researchers around the world. The transdermal drug delivery systems are aimed to achieve therapeutic concentrations of the drug through skin. These systems are designed so that the drug can be delivered at a pre-determined and controlled rate. This makes it particularly conducive to treat chronic disorders like diabetes. Correspondingly, the adverse effects and inconvenience concomitant with oral and parentral route are circumvented. This article attempts to outline the development of transdermal drug delivery systems to optimize diabetes pharmacotherapy. It not only covers the transdermal approaches adopted to fine-tune insulin delivery, but also, discusses various transdermal drug delivery systems fabricated to improve the therapeutic performance of oral hypoglycaemic agents. Such formulations include the advanced drug delivery systems, namely, transferosomal gels, microemulsions, self-dissolving micropiles, nanoparticles, insulin pumps, biphasic lipid systems, calcium carbonate nanoparticles, lecithin nanoparticles; physical techniques such as iontophoresis and microneedles and, drugs formulated as transdermal patches. In addition to this, the authors have also shed light on the future prospects and patented and commercial formulations of antidiabetic agents. PMID:25418713

  18. An interpretable rule-based diagnostic classification of diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate. Various complications are associated with type 2 diabetes, with diabetic nephropathy being the leading cause of renal failure among diabetics. Often, when patients are diagnosed with diabetic nephropathy, their renal functions have already been significantly damaged. Therefore, a risk prediction tool may be beneficial for the implementation of early treatment and prevention. Results In the present study, we developed a decision tree-based model integrating genetic and clinical features in a gender-specific classification for the identification of diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetic patients. Clinical and genotyping data were obtained from a previous genetic association study involving 345 type 2 diabetic patients (185 with diabetic nephropathy and 160 without diabetic nephropathy). Using a five-fold cross-validation approach, the performance of using clinical or genetic features alone in various classifiers (decision tree, random forest, Naïve Bayes, and support vector machine) was compared with that of utilizing a combination of attributes. The inclusion of genetic features and the implementation of an additional gender-based rule yielded better classification results. Conclusions The current model supports the notion that genes and gender are contributing factors of diabetic nephropathy. Further refinement of the proposed approach has the potential to facilitate the early identification of diabetic nephropathy and the development of more efficient treatment in a clinical setting. PMID:25707942

  19. The Difference in Self-Esteem between Type I Diabetics and Type II Diabetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerbrock, Linda Kay

    Diabetes Mellitus is a disease which can affect an individual both physically and emotionally. Type I diabetics, representing about 10% of the diabetic population, can be characterized as having little or no insulin supply in their pancreas. Usually under the age of 30, they are required to take one or more insulin injections daily and must follow…

  20. Effects of Physical Activity on Diabetes Management and Lowering Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Connie L.; Soros, Arlette; Sothern, Melinda S.; Vargas, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity is a proven form of diabetes management and is considered a cornerstone in the prevention of diabetes. In children with diabetes, physical activity may improve insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Aerobic-based physical activity lasting 40-60 minutes daily for a minimum of four months is shown to enhance…

  1. Home-Based Diabetes Symptom Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans with Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Alexandra A.; Brown, Sharon A.; Horner, Sharon D.; Zuñiga, Julie; Arheart, Kristopher L.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated an innovative diabetes symptom awareness and self-management educational program for Mexican Americans, a fast growing minority population experiencing a diabetes epidemic. Patients with diabetes need assistance interpreting and managing symptoms, which are often annoying and potentially life-threatening. A repeated…

  2. Quality of Life in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Who Participate in Diabetes Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Ruth; Cureton, Virginia Young; Canham, Daryl L.

    2006-01-01

    Quality of life in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes is a growing area of interest in pediatric research. The complex diabetes regimen imposes challenges for an adolescent. Adolescents diagnosed with diabetes are a group that appears to be at risk for having a poor health-related quality of life. Although research supports the positive relationship…

  3. Lipid mediators in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The implications of lipid lowering drugs in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy have been considered. At the same time, the clinical efficacy of lipid lowering drugs has resulted in improvement in the cardiovascular functions of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with or without diabetes, but no remarkable improvement has been observed in the kidney outcome. Earlier lipid mediators have been shown to cause accumulative effects in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Here, we attempt to analyze the involvement of lipid mediators in DN. The hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of diacyglycerol (DAG) is one of the causes for the activation of protein kinase C (PKCs), which is responsible for the activation of pathways, including the production of VEGF, TGF?1, PAI-1, NADPH oxidases, and NF?B signaling, accelerating the development of DN. Additionally, current studies on the role of ceramide are one of the major fields of study in DN. Researchers have reported excessive ceramide formation in the pathobiological conditions of DN. There is less report on the effect of lipid lowering drugs on the reduction of PKC activation and ceramide synthesis. Regulating PKC activation and ceramide biosynthesis could be a protective measure in the therapeutic potential of DN. Lipid lowering drugs also upregulate anti-fibrotic microRNAs, which could hint at the effects of lipid lowering drugs in DN. PMID:25206927

  4. Autonomic Neuropathy in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Verrotti, Alberto; Prezioso, Giovanni; Scattoni, Raffaella; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified, which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention, and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss, and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population. PMID:25520703

  5. Epidemiology of fractures in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ann V

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes affects an increasing proportion of older adults, the population that is also at elevated risk of fracture. Type 2 diabetes itself increases the risk of fracture, particularly in African-American and Latino populations. In Western countries, overweight and obesity, associated with reduced fracture risk, are highly prevalent in diabetic patients. Studies in East Asian countries that have a lower prevalence of obesity with diabetes may help to disentangle the effects of diabetes and obesity on the skeleton. Type 2 diabetes is also associated with higher bone density, and as a result standard tools for fracture prediction tend to underestimate fracture risk in this population, an important challenge for risk assessment in the clinical setting. Contributing factors to the increased fracture risk in type 2 diabetes include more frequent falls and deficits in diabetic bone, not captured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), that are as yet not clearly understood. Recent epidemiological studies indicate that poor glycemic control contributes to increased fracture risk although intensive lowering of A1C is not effective in preventing fracture. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Bone and diabetes". PMID:26027505

  6. New insights on diabetes and bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Carolina A; Barreto, Fellype C; Dempster, David W

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic metabolic disease worldwide whose prevalence has increased during the last decades. Besides its more commonly recognized complications, such as macrovascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, diabetes related bone disease has gained growing attention. Diabetic patients are more prone to fracture than the general population as well as to low turnover bone disease in the chronic kidney disease setting. In this review, we discuss the relationship between diabetes and bone as well as the pathogenesis of bone fragility in T2D. PMID:26648499

  7. Adipokines, diabetes and atherosclerosis: an inflammatory association

    PubMed Central

    Freitas Lima, Leandro C.; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; do Socorro de França Silva, Maria; Cruz, Josiane de Campos; Sousa Santos, Sérgio H.; de Oliveira Monteiro, Matheus M.; Balarini, Camille de Moura

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases can be considered the most important cause of death in diabetic population and diabetes can in turn increase the risk of cardiovascular events. Inflammation process is currently recognized as responsible for the development and maintenance of diverse chronic diseases, including diabetes and atherosclerosis. Considering that adipose tissue is an important source of adipokines, which may present anti and proinflammatory effects, the aim of this review is to explore the role of the main adipokines in the pathophysiology of diabetes and atherosclerosis, highlighting the therapeutic options that could arise from the manipulation of these signaling pathways both in humans and in translational models. PMID:26578976

  8. Trends in the Diabetes Epidemic in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kyoung Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of mortality and increased disability-adjusted life years worldwide. In Korea, the prevalence of diabetes increased from 8.6% to 11.0% in 2001 to 2013 and the prevalence of adult obesity, which is the most important risk factor of diabetes, increased from 29.2% to 31.8% during the same period. There has been a dramatic increase in the number of obese Koreans with diabetes in recent decades and the prevalence of diabetes in people aged 40 years and older also increased in 2001 to 2013. Nevertheless, the mean age at the first diagnosis of diabetes was very similar for men in 2005 and 2013, while the mean age for women decreased slightly. There is an inverse linear relationship between body mass index and age at the diagnosis of diabetes among those who are newly diagnosed. Accordingly, the prevalence of diabetes is increasingly shifting to younger individuals and those who are obese. Therefore, public efforts should focus on healthy lifestyle changes, primary prevention measures, screening for the early detection of diabetes, and long-term management. PMID:26194073

  9. Nodal gap substance in diabetic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Seneviratne, K. N.; Weerasuriya, A.

    1974-01-01

    Anoxia and KC1 have been used to inactivate peripheral nerves by depolarization conduction block. Investigation of the inactivation patterns in isolated sciatic nerves of healthy and alloxan-diabetic rats suggests that the paranodal gap substance of healthy nerve behaves as an effective periaxonal diffusion barrier. In diabetic nerve the permeability of this barrier is significantly increased. A marked reduction in the K' binding capacity of the nodal gap substance has been demonstrated in myelinated nerves of human diabetics and alloxan diabetic rats. Images PMID:4276085

  10. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and renal stones

    PubMed Central

    Nerli, Rajendra; Jali, Mallikarjuna; Guntaka, Ajay Kumar; Patne, Pravin; Patil, Shivagouda; Hiremath, Murigendra Basayya

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of urinary stone disease has shown a steep rise in recent decades along with marked modifications in dietary habits and life- style. There has been an increased prevalence of urinary stone disease in patients with diabetes. We took up this study to determine the association of diabetes mellitus with kidney stones in patients undergoing surgical treatment. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with renal stones for surgical management formed the study group. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by noting the weight and height of the patient. The extracted stone/stone fragments were analyzed to determine the chemical composition. Urinary pH was similarly noted in all. Results: The mean BMI among the diabetics was 26.35 ± 5.20 (range 17.75-35.60), whereas the mean BMI among the non-diabetics was 23.41 ± 2.85 (range 17.71-31.62) (P < 0.0004). The incidence of uric acid calculi in the diabetics was significantly high (P < 0.03). The mean urinary pH among the diabetics was 5.61 ± 0.36 and among the non-diabetics was 6.87 ± 0.32, which was significantly lower (P < 0.000044). Conclusions: There is a strong association between type 2 diabetes and uric acid stone formation. There is also a strong association between diabetes mellitus, BMI, and also with lower urinary pH. PMID:26605219

  11. Growth Factors in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zia Ali

    2003-01-01

    Many growth factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Alteration of growth factors and their receptors in diabetes has been shown in both experimental and clinical studies. Sustained hyperglycemia resulting from long-standing diabetes leads to several biochemical abnormalities that consequently result in retinal hypoxia. Retinal oxygenation state regulates various growth factors that promote angiogenesis in order to meet the oxygen demands of the tissue. However, unregulated expression of these growth factors and induction of complex cascades leading to augmentation of other proangiogenic factors, which may not be regulated by tissue oxygenation, leads to uncontrolled retinal neovascularization and blindness in diabetic patients. PMID:14668050

  12. Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (???????) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tigrinya (tigrinya) Amharic (amarunya) Diabetes: Foot Care amarunya (Amharic) Bilingual PDF Harborview Medical ...

  13. Treating Depression in Diabetes: Emerging findings

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Sarah; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Wilkinson, Jesse L.; Safren, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Depression in patients with diabetes is associated with poorer adherence and worse health outcomes, however treating depression may help improve these outcomes. The present systematic review identified published papers evaluating treatments for depression in patients with diabetes. Seventeen studies that met criteria were identified, indicating that psychosocial interventions, particularly cognitive-behavior therapy, anti-depressant medications, and collaborative care are effective in the treatment of depression in patients with diabetes. Evidence for the efficacy of these interventions in improving glycemic control was mixed. No study targeted adherence to treatment or health behaviors in addition to depression, which may be necessary to maximize improvement in diabetes outcomes such as glycemic control. PMID:21300190

  14. Real life with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yagnik, Deepak

    2015-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a form of diabetes mellitus that results from the autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Those affected by this disorder have a challenging life, both in terms of health and social adjustments. Various "alternative medicines" are offered to them in an effort to cure. Research has shown that good control over diabetes can be maintained through regular self-monitoring of blood glucose and frequent checking of diabetic complications. Here, I describe a female with T1DM and her journey with the disorder. PMID:25941661

  15. diabetes.ca | 1-800 BANTING*This document reflects the 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines. 2013 Copyright Fibre+ diabetes

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    diabetes.ca | 1-800 BANTING*This document reflects the 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines. ©2013 Copyright Fibre+ diabetes Why is it good for me? · controls blood glucose. How much fibre do I need? For adults the Canadian Diabetes Association recommends 25 ­ 50 grams

  16. Diabetes and Pregnancy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ?????? ????? ????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Diabetes during Pregnancy Dijabetis u trudno?i - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (????) Diabetes during Pregnancy ????? - ???? ( ...

  17. Incidence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Mexican Americans

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2005-06-23

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Angina Pectoris; Death, Sudden, Cardiac; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Peripheral Vascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Diabetes Mellitus

  18. Planificación Neuroquirúrgica con Software Osirix

    PubMed Central

    Jaimovich, Sebastián Gastón; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La individualidad anatómica es clave para reducir el trauma quirúrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimágenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatómica, permitiendo planificar la intervención quirúrgica. Con este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia con el software Osirix. Descripción de la técnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente con meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en área premotora; Caso 2: Paciente con macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por vía transeptoesfenoidal en otra institución con una resección parcial; Caso 3: Paciente con lesiones en pedúnculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realizó la planificación prequirúrgica con el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imágenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatómicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusión: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusión y reconstrucción en 3D de imágenes, analizar la anatomía individual del paciente y planificar de forma rápida, simple, segura y económica cirugías de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor con las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permitió comprender la anatomía post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscópico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposición, logrando la resección tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permitió obtener las coordenadas estereotáxicas y trayectoria de una lesión sin representación tomográfica. Conclusión: En casos de no contar con costosos sistemas de neuronavegación o estereotáxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la cirugía, con el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617

  19. Alteration of pulmonary function in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide with an alarming rate. It is associated with the development of various chronic complications. The aim of this study was to explore the alteration of pulmonary function, and its association with renal complications in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on three groups; 40 diabetic subjects without nephropathy (urinary albumin<30 mg/day), 40 subjects with nephropathy (urinary albumin?30 mg/day), and 40 healthy subjects as the control group. The subjects with nephropathy were divided into those with microalbuminuria (urinary albumin=30-300 mg/day) and those with macroalbuminuria (urinary albumin>300 mg/day) .Diabetic subjects were matched to the control group in terms of age, sex, and BMI. Pulmonary function tests were performed and the results were compared between groups. Results Forced vital capacity (FVC; % predicted), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; % predicted), and peak expiratory flow (PEF; % predicted) were significantly lower in subjects with diabetic nephropathy compared to the healthy controls (P<0.05). Meanwhile, in diabetic subjects, FVC and FEV1 were lower in those with diabetic nephropathy compared to those with normal albumin excretion (P<0.05). On the other hand, FEV1/FVC was significantly higher in diabetic people with nephropathy. Furthermore, a significant difference was observed between FVC and FEV1 in diabetic people with microalbuminuria compared to those with macroalbuminuria. Conclusions This study showed that the pulmonary function was impaired in people with Diabetes. The progression of diabetic nephropathy to more advanced stages was also associated with more impairment of pulmonary function. PMID:23618325

  20. Prevalence of Atherosclerosis in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kisiel, Bart?omiej; Kruszewski, Robert; Juszkiewicz, Aleksandra; K?os, Krzysztof; T?ustochowicz, Ma?gorzata; T?ustochowicz, Witold

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To compare the prevalence of preclinical atherosclerosis in diabetic vs. non-diabetic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients; (2) to determine the influence of classical and RA-related factors on atherosclerosis; (3) to assess the usefulness of combined carotid and femoral ultrasonography in detecting atherosclerosis. Methods: The study comprised 42 non-diabetic RA patients, 42 diabetic RA patients and 42 controls. Intima media thickness (IMT) was measured in the common carotid and superficial femoral arteries. These vessels were screened for atherosclerotic plaque. Results: Plaque was more prevalent in diabetic RA patients than in non-diabetic RA patients or controls. Carotid IMT and femoral IMT were higher in diabetic RA patients compared to controls. So was femoral IMT in diabetic compared to non-diabetic RA patients. The prevalence of increased IMT and plaque was comparable in carotid ultrasonography and combined carotid and femoral ultrasonography in all groups. Conclusions: Subclinical atherosclerosis was found to be higher in diabetic RA patients than in non-diabetic RA patients. The combination of carotid and femoral artery ultrasonography did not improve the detection of atherosclerosis in RA.