Sample records for normotensas con diabetes

  1. todasuvida: Las personas con diabetes son ms

    E-print Network

    diabetes Controlesu todasuvida: Las personas con diabetes son más propensas a padecer de enfermedades del corazón que quienes no tienen diabetes. Boletín 631 D Las personas con diabetes tienen mayor- res relacionados con la diabetes, como derrame cerebral, mala circulación en las piernas y pies e

  2. con Diabetes Su diabetes s se puede controlar!

    E-print Network

    Do Well, Be Well con Diabetes ¡Su diabetes sí se puede controlar! Educational programs of the Texas, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating. to develop diabetes self-care skills, to improve eating habits and maintain good nutrition, to increase physical activity, to prevent diabetes complications

  3. Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes 2013 1 Formulario de Registro para Personas con Diabetes Formulario de Registro para Personas con Diabetes 2013

    E-print Network

    Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes ­ 2013 1 Formulario de Registro para Personas con Diabetes Formulario de Registro para Personas con Diabetes ­ 2013 Si usted NO TIENE diabetes, por favor NO LLENE este sobre diabetes en el Condado de _______________. D. El código postal en mi casa es __ __ __ __ __. E

  4. Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes 2013 1 Formulario de Conclusin para Personas con Diabetes Formulario de Conclusin para Personas con Diabetes 201

    E-print Network

    Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes ­ 2013 1 Formulario de Conclusión para Personas con Diabetes Formulario de Conclusión para Personas con Diabetes ­ 201 Si usted NO TIENE diabetes, por favor NO LLENE este últimos cuatro números de mi número telefónico son __ __ __ __. C. Marque todas las clases sobre diabetes

  5. Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Diabetes What is Diabetes? Too Much Glucose in the Blood Diabetes means ... high, causing pre-diabetes or diabetes. Types of Diabetes There are three main kinds of diabetes: type ...

  6. Meal Planning for People with Diabetes, 2nd Edition = Planificacion de Comidas para Personas con Diabetes, 2 Edicion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Migrant Resource Program, Inc., Austin, TX.

    This booklet provides information about diabetes and meal planning particularly designed for migrant individuals. The first section defines diabetes, explains different types of diabetes, lists results of uncontrolled diabetes, and describes the goals and components of a diabetic meal plan. The second section explains the exchange system of…

  7. Diabetes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

    1993-04-14

    Diabetes, in a variety of forms, affects many Americans and is the 4th leading cause of death by disease in the US. Diabetes is fundamentally a disease in which the body cannot produce or effectively use a critical hormone called insulin. Untreated / unmanaged diabetes can lead to blindness, kidney failure, heart disease, loss of limbs and stroke.

  8. [Diabetes].

    PubMed

    Egli, M; Ruiz, J

    2010-01-20

    In 2009 a novel screening strategy for diabetes based on the level of glycated hemoglobin has been proposed by the main international organizations, with a diagnostic threshold of 6.5%. The preventive efficacy of multiple risk factor control in type 2 diabetes reflected by the low rate of cardiac events in the DIAD 2 study calls for a revision of the current recommendations for coronary disease screening. In gestational diabetes, the linear correlation between degree of hyperglycemia and risk of associated complications in the HAPO study strenghtens the therapeutic targets for this frequent condition, which identifies women at high future risk of diabetes. No conclusive evidence for an increased risk of cancer associated with insulin glargin remains when taking into account all the data currently available on this topic. PMID:20170025

  9. Autopercepción de calidad de vida en adultos mayores con diabetes mellitus tipo 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NOÉ ALFARO ALFARO; MARÍA DEL RAYO; CAROTHERS ENRIQUEZ; SUGHEY GONZÁLEZ TORRES

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus type 2 is a high prevalence chronic disease, the first cause of specialist consult, second in family medicine and the most important cause for retirement in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Patients present macro and microvascular complications with no medical control. Diabetes Mellitus affect, physic, psychological, social and adults quality of life. The goal was to determine

  10. Stay at a Healthy Weight. Tips for Kids with Type 2 Diabetes = Mantente en un Peso Saludable. Consejos Para Muchachos con Diabetes Tipo 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A healthy weight means you are not too fat or too thin. Your doctor may have said that you should not gain more weight or that you need to lose a few pounds. If you have diabetes and are overweight, you are not alone. The steps you take to manage your weight will help you feel better and may improve your blood sugar or glucose (GLOO-kos) levels.…

  11. with Diabetes With Diabetes

    E-print Network

    with Diabetes Dining A Program For People With Diabetes And Their Families Now is the time to take charge of your diabetes. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a common, serious, and costly disease. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has reported that diabetes is the 6th leading cause of death

  12. Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Print and Share (PDF 372 KB) Diabetes ... 1-800-332-1088 to request a form. Diabetes Medicines The different kinds of diabetes medicines are ...

  13. Diabetes Dictionary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases Weight Control & Healthy Living Alternate Language URL Diabetes A-Z Page Content Diabetes topics are listed ... guide for treating low blood glucose. Adult-onset Diabetes See Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and ...

  14. Diabetic Neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Diabetic Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Diabetic Neuropathy? Is there any treatment? ... Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Diabetic Neuropathy? Diabetic neuropathy is a peripheral nerve disorder caused ...

  15. Diabetic Dermopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lesions on the legs are typical in long-standing diabetics. Overview Diabetic dermopathy, also known as shin ... be even more common in people with long-standing or poorly controlled diabetes. In people who do ...

  16. Diabetic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening problem that affects people with diabetes . It occurs when the body ... are poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis is sometimes the first sign of type ...

  17. Diabetic Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetic Emergencies It is estimated that more than 20 million people in the United States have diabetes, ... they have it. The best way to prevent diabetic emergencies is to effectively manage the disease through ...

  18. Diabetic Retinopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diabetic Retinopathy: What Is Diabetic Retinopathy? In This Topic What Is Diabetic Retinopathy? Causes and Risk Factors ... for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Low Vision More Vision Topics The information in ...

  19. Monogenic Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... types are • Permanent neonatal diabetes, a lifelong condition • Transient neonatal diabetes, which goes away during infancy but ... a sulfonylurea but others require insulin. Infants with transient neonatal diabetes may require insulin at first but ...

  20. Diabetes Insipidus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disease Organizations?? . (PDF, 345 KB)????? Alternate Language URL Diabetes Insipidus Page Content On this page: What is ... Hope through Research For More Information What is diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disease ...

  1. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

  2. Diagnósticos de enfermagem identificados em pessoas com diabetes tipo 2 mediante abordagem baseada no Modelo de Orem1 Nursing diagnosis identified in people with diabetes type 2 by means of an approach based on Orem's model Diagnósticos de enfermería identificados en personas con diabetes tipo 2 a través de abordaje basado en el modelo de Orem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alyne Coelho Moreira Milhomem; Fabiane Fassini Mantelli; Graziela Aparecida; Valente Lima

    This research aimed to describe some of the basic conditioning factors to self-care and analyze the nursing diagnosis of the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association among diabetes type 2 carriers by means of an approach based on Orem's theory. Seven diabetic people took part in this study; they were evaluated during the period of May to June of 2006. The

  3. Diabetes Insipidus

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) causes frequent urination. You become extremely thirsty, so you drink. Then you urinate. This ... is almost all water. DI is different from diabetes mellitus (DM), which involves insulin problems and high ...

  4. Diabetes Complications

    MedlinePLUS

    If you have diabetes, your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Over time, this can cause problems with other body ... as your kidneys, nerves, feet, and eyes. Having diabetes can also put you at a higher risk ...

  5. Diabetic Retinopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevalence Rates for Diabetic Retinopathy by Age, and Race/Ethnicity Hispanic Americans age 50 and older are ... Ethnicity 2010 Prevalence Rates of Diabetic Retinopathy by Race In 2010, Hispanic Americans age 50 and older ...

  6. Diabetes and kidney disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetic nephropathy; Nephropathy - diabetic; Diabetic glomerulosclerosis; Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease ... blood pressure. This is because if you have diabetic nephropathy, you likely also have high blood pressure. ...

  7. Diabetes insipidus - nephrogenic

    MedlinePLUS

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; Congenital diabetes insipidus ... be removed and returned to the blood. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) occurs when the kidney tubules do ...

  8. Diabetes Education Program INTRODUCTION TO DIABETES

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Diabetes Education Program INTRODUCTION TO DIABETES If you have just learned that you have diabetes or already have diabetes and have been told that a change in therapy is needed, you may feel frightened you to learn how to better manage your diabetes. WHAT IS DIABETES? Diabetes is a condition in which

  9. A new look at viruses in type 1 diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hee-Sook Jun; Ji-Won Yoon

    1995-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes results from the destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Genetic factors are believed to be a major com- ponent for the development of type 1diabetes, but the con- cordance rate for the development of diabetes in identical twins is only about 40%, suggesting that non-genetic factors play an important role in the expression of the disease. Viruses are

  10. Genetics of Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A A A Listen En Español Genetics of Diabetes You've probably wondered how you developed diabetes. ... to develop diabetes than others. What Leads to Diabetes? Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different ...

  11. The Diabetes EDUCATOR Volume 37, Number 6, November/December 2011

    E-print Network

    Boggess, May M.

    The Diabetes EDUCATOR 770 Volume 37, Number 6, November/December 2011 Ninfa C. Peña-Purcell, Ph Controlar Mi Diabetes! program (formerly Do Well, Be Well con Diabetes program) was supported by the US-46100-05910). DOI: 10.1177/0145721711423319 © 2011 The Author(s) An Empowerment-Based Diabetes Self

  12. Diabetic embryopathy.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Ulf J; Wentzel, Parri

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic embryopathy reflects a scientific enigma--how does a seemingly rich intrauterine environment manage to disturb the development of the embryo? Which compounds in that environment may be teratogenic--and how shall we find them? How can we investigate a putative dose-response nature of the teratogen, i.e., how can we monitor the effects of varied severity of the diabetic state (which can be varied in a number of metabolic ways) on the embryonic development? Here, the whole embryo culture (WEC) technique provides an excellent tool for such studies. WEC is thus currently used to investigate the effect of graded levels of diabetes (e.g., hyperglycemia, hyperketonemia, increased branched chain amino acid (BCAA) levels), and putative antiteratogenic agents (antioxidants, folic acid, arachidonic acid, inositol), as well as the effect of different embryonic genotypes on diabetes-induced (mal)development. WEC is the only method, which is able to couple specific embryonic maldevelopment to precise changes in substrate levels or the (epi)genotype of the embryo. Using this method, we have been able to demonstrate that a diabetic environment--culture of embryos in serum from diabetic animals or in serum with increased levels of glucose, ?-hydroxybutyrate or ?-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC)--causes increased embryonic maldevelopment, and that this dysmorphogenesis is blocked by the addition of ROS scavenging agents to the culture medium. Genetically, others and we have demonstrated that Pax-3 downregulation predisposes for diabetes-induced dysmorphogenesis. PMID:22669680

  13. Diabetic Diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to high blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels. Healthy eating helps keep your blood sugar in your target ... medicines, lifestyle, and other health problems you have. Healthy diabetic eating includes Limiting foods that are high in sugar ...

  14. Diabetic Pets

    MedlinePLUS

    ... made by a veterinarian. Because older dogs and cats are more likely to develop age-related diseases ... cataracts, which commonly develop in diabetic dogs and cats. Other problems that can occur include hind leg ...

  15. Immunizations - diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    The hepatitis B vaccine helps protect you from getting a liver infection due to the hepatitis B virus . People with diabetes ages 19 through 59 should get the vaccine. Your doctor can tell you if this vaccine ...

  16. Diabetic Retinopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... some people with diabetic retinopathy, blood vessels may swell and leak fluid. In other people, abnormal new ... ahead vision occurs. The fluid makes the macula swell, blurring vision. This condition is called macular edema. ...

  17. Air Travel and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Size: A A A Listen Air Travel and Diabetes We continue to advocate for the rights travelers ... to people with diabetes. Explore: Air Travel and Diabetes Fact Sheet: Air Travel and Diabetes This fact ...

  18. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Page Content On this page: ... increased risk of developing diabetes. [ Top ] Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Type 2 diabetes is a disorder ...

  19. Depression and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... see the NIMH booklet on Depression . What is diabetes? Diabetes is an illness that affects the way ... are starved of energy. How are depression and diabetes linked? Studies show that depression and diabetes may ...

  20. Diabetes and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. When ... pregnant women in the United States get gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is diabetes that happens for the ...

  1. American Diabetes Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... healthy and diabetic cooking. What’s YOUR Wish for Diabetes? Your photos and stories can help us envision a world without diabetes. Accept America’s Diabetes Challenge Join Tim McGraw and pledge to know ...

  2. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases Weight Control & Healthy Living Alternate Language URL Diabetes A-Z Page Content Diabetes topics are listed ... guide for treating low blood glucose. Adult-onset Diabetes See Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and ...

  3. Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Diabetic Heart Disease? The term "diabetic heart disease" (DHD) refers ... Kidney Diseases' Introduction to Diabetes Web page. What Heart Diseases Are Involved in Diabetic Heart Disease? DHD ...

  4. Diabetes and nerve damage

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy ... provider if you develop any symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. ... al. Evidence-based guideline: Treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: report of the American Academy of Neurology, the ...

  5. Diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zelmanovitz, Themis; Gerchman, Fernando; Balthazar, Amely PS; Thomazelli, Fúlvio CS; Matos, Jorge D; Canani, Luís H

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of chronic renal disease and a major cause of cardiovascular mortality. Diabetic nephropathy has been categorized into stages: microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria. The cut-off values of micro- and macroalbuminuria are arbitrary and their values have been questioned. Subjects in the upper-normal range of albuminuria seem to be at high risk of progression to micro- or macroalbuminuria and they also had a higher blood pressure than normoalbuminuric subjects in the lower normoalbuminuria range. Diabetic nephropathy screening is made by measuring albumin in spot urine. If abnormal, it should be confirmed in two out three samples collected in a three to six-months interval. Additionally, it is recommended that glomerular filtration rate be routinely estimated for appropriate screening of nephropathy, because some patients present a decreased glomerular filtration rate when urine albumin values are in the normal range. The two main risk factors for diabetic nephropathy are hyperglycemia and arterial hypertension, but the genetic susceptibility in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes is of great importance. Other risk factors are smoking, dyslipidemia, proteinuria, glomerular hyperfiltration and dietary factors. Nephropathy is pathologically characterized in individuals with type 1 diabetes by thickening of glomerular and tubular basal membranes, with progressive mesangial expansion (diffuse or nodular) leading to progressive reduction of glomerular filtration surface. Concurrent interstitial morphological alterations and hyalinization of afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles also occur. Podocytes abnormalities also appear to be involved in the glomerulosclerosis process. In patients with type 2 diabetes, renal lesions are heterogeneous and more complex than in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Treatment of diabetic nephropathy is based on a multiple risk factor approach, and the goal is retarding the development or progression of the disease and to decrease the subject's increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Achieving the best metabolic control, treating hypertension (<130/80 mmHg) and dyslipidemia (LDL cholesterol <100 mg/dl), using drugs that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, are effective strategies for preventing the development of microalbuminuria, delaying the progression to more advanced stages of nephropathy and reducing cardiovascular mortality in patients with diabetes. PMID:19825147

  6. Kidney Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    Kidney Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 31,2013 One of the more common long-term complications of diabetes is diabetic renal disease (" ... content was last reviewed on 7/5/2012. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  7. Diabetes Travel Tips Video

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... here: NDEP Home > Resources > Diabetes Travel Tips Video Diabetes Travel Tips Video Diabetes doesn’t keep David from traveling. But he ... about some of David’s tips for traveling with diabetes. Diabetes Travel Tips Subtitle Diabetes Travel Tips Transcript ...

  8. Diabetes Reunion Celebrating Sensibly with Diabetes

    E-print Network

    1 Lesson 4: Diabetes Reunion Celebrating Sensibly with Diabetes T oday is our final lesson on Cooking Well with Diabetes. In this lesson, we will focus on four key points, reviewing the concepts with diabetes may enjoy a small dessert. We also learned that we can reduce the sugar in certain recipes

  9. Diabetes Experience Spring 2014 Interprofessional Diabetes Experience

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Diabetes Experience Spring 2014 Interprofessional Diabetes Experience Phar 6226/Nurs 5011 Spring the opportunity to learn in-depth knowledge of diabetes mellitus through active, hands-on learning experience of living with diabetes, in which they will give "insulin" injections and check blood glucoses

  10. Diabetes insipidus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamad Maghnie

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus is a heterogeneous condition characterized by polyuria and polydipsia caused by a lack of secretion of vasopressin, its physiological suppression following excessive water intake, or kidney resistance to its action. In many patients, it is caused by the destruction or degeneration of the neurons that originate in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. Known causes of

  11. Technologies for Diabetes Genomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia W. Mueller

    The genetic risk for diabetes largely depends on the type of diabetes and the penetrance and severity of the effect of the contributing genes. This ranges from the high-risk mutations of neonatal diabetes and maturity- onset diabetes of the young to the lower, but still significant, risk conferred by common human leukocyte antigen alleles in type 1 diabetes to the

  12. Tips for Teens with Diabetes: What Is Diabetes?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Teens > What is Diabetes? Tips for Teens with Diabetes: What is Diabetes? Download This Publication (NDEP-63) Want this item ... life. Last reviewed: 11/01/2012 What is diabetes? Diabetes means that your blood glucose , also called ...

  13. Tips for Kids with Type 2 Diabetes: What Is Diabetes?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... life. Q * To learn more about diabetes American Diabetes Association 1-800-DIABETES (342-2383) www.diabetes.org/wizdom Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International 1-800-223-1138 • www. ...

  14. Causes of Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Diabetes Disease Organizations There are many organizations who provide ... PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Causes of Diabetes Page Content On this page: What is diabetes? ...

  15. Staying Healthy with Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Surveillance Diabetes Prevention and Control Staying Healthy with Diabetes Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... examinations and tests are needed for people with diabetes? Your doctors shouldâ?? Measure your blood pressure at ...

  16. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NKF Newsroom Contact Us You are here Home » Diabetes - A Major Risk Factor for Kidney Disease Diabetes ... of your body. Are there different types of diabetes? The most common ones are Type 1 and ...

  17. Types of Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... method to help control blood glucose levels without insulin injections). Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes, formerly called adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most common form of ...

  18. Diabetic Eye Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Diabetic Eye Disease Listen View this module and educate yourself, family, and friends about diabetic eye disease. This module includes descriptive audio and captioning. Diabetic ...

  19. Introduction to Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Statistics Research Resources Order About Us Español National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and Resources E-News ... Topics and Titles : Introduction to Diabetes Introduction to Diabetes Prediabetes Am I at Risk for Type 2 ...

  20. National Diabetes Prevention Program

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . National Diabetes Prevention Program Prevent Diabetes STAT: Get Involved Program Video: ... CDC/AMA Call to Action For Healthcare Providers Diabetes Prevention Recognition Program Program Topics About the Program Learn ...

  1. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get it. ... change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. Controlling ...

  2. Bronze Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    L.N., Akshatha; Shenoy, Mamatha T.; Yadav, Charu; Kamath, Nutan

    2015-01-01

    Thalassemia is a group of disorders characterized by deficient production of the ?-globin sub unit of hemoglobin. The mandatory blood transfusions in patients with thalassemia to maintain adequate erythrocyte levels, leads to iron overload. The prevalence of diabetes in patients with thalassemia varies from 6 to 14%. We here by present a known case of thalassemia major in an 18 year old boy. He was diagnosed with thalassemia before the age of one year and is on regular blood transfusion every two weeks since then. The repeated blood transfusion is one of the common causes for haemochromatosis. Iron overload initially leads to glucose abnormalities such as insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, which is followed by impaired secretion of insulin. Diagnosed as a case of bronze diabetes, this patient is on insulin therapy for the last two years. Currently the patient is on iron chelation therapy at Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. PMID:26023548

  3. Bronze diabetes.

    PubMed

    L N, Akshatha; Shenoy, Mamatha T; Yadav, Charu; M S, Rukmini; Kamath, Nutan

    2015-04-01

    Thalassemia is a group of disorders characterized by deficient production of the ?-globin sub unit of hemoglobin. The mandatory blood transfusions in patients with thalassemia to maintain adequate erythrocyte levels, leads to iron overload. The prevalence of diabetes in patients with thalassemia varies from 6 to 14%. We here by present a known case of thalassemia major in an 18 year old boy. He was diagnosed with thalassemia before the age of one year and is on regular blood transfusion every two weeks since then. The repeated blood transfusion is one of the common causes for haemochromatosis. Iron overload initially leads to glucose abnormalities such as insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, which is followed by impaired secretion of insulin. Diagnosed as a case of bronze diabetes, this patient is on insulin therapy for the last two years. Currently the patient is on iron chelation therapy at Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. PMID:26023548

  4. Diabetes Diagnosis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Marcy Hotchkiss (Landsdowne High School)

    1999-12-01

    In this inquiry-based lesson, students learn about diabetes mellitus and explore techniques for diagnosing and monitoring the disease. Students must propose a plan for testing two different case study patients, then carry out their plan using artificial samples from each patient. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 1999 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

  5. Diabetic hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Reaven, G M; Javorski, W C; Reaven, E

    1975-01-01

    The conference opened with the clinical presentation of a 50-year-old male with fasting hyperglycemia (296 mg per cent) and hypertriglyceridemia (2736 mg per cent). The discussion began with a summary of current concepts regarding the manner in which chylomicra (intestine) and very low density lipoproteins (intestine and liver) are formed, transported into the plasma, and removed from the circulation. This was followed by a consideration of diabetic hypertriglyceridemia in which this syndrome was subdivided into two categories. The first form is seen in patients with severe fasting hyperglycemia, and is characterized by marked insulin deficiency, decreased very low density lipoprotein production, a fall in the activity of lipoprotein lipase, and hypertriglyceridemia secondary to a defect in removal of lipoproteins from the plasma. In contrast the other form of diabetic hypertriglyceridemia is seen in patients with minimal abnormalities of carbohydrate tolerance, and in this instance insulin resistance, not insulin lack, seems to play the pivotal role. In these patients, the rise in plasma triglyceride levels seems to be secondary to increased production of very low density lipoproteins, presumably as a result of the hyperinsulinemia associated with the insulin resistance. The conference ended with an attempt to relate the patient presented to the models of diabetic hypertriglyceridemia that had been defined. PMID:168773

  6. Tips for Teens with Diabetes: About Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious disease. It means that one's blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Having too much glucose in a person's blood is not healthy. This paper offers tips for managing diabetes.

  7. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Diabetes under Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diabetes problems: Keep your diabetes under control Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your diabetes under control On this page: What are diabetes ... Abijaoude, M.S., R.D., L.D. [ Top ] National Diabetes Education Program 1 Diabetes Way Bethesda, MD 20814– ...

  8. Oral Diabetes Drugs (Treating Type 2 Diabetes)

    MedlinePLUS

    If You Have Type 2 Diabetes When you have diabetes, you have too much glucose, or sugar, in your blood. Th is can cause serious health problems, ... as heart disease, stroke, and blindness. People with diabetes who do not lower their blood sugar usually ...

  9. Diabetes and arterial hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Drury

    1983-01-01

    Summary  The epidemiology, pathogenesis, significance and management of hypertension in diabetic subjects are discussed. In Type 1 diabetes the presence of diastolic hypertension is closely related to the presence of diabetic nephropathy, from the stage of persistent proteinuria onwards. There may also be some elevation of systolic pressure. The apparent increased prevalence of hypertension in Type 2 diabetes is largely explicable,

  10. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 31,2013 The following statistics speak loud and clear that there is a strong correlation between ... content was last reviewed on 7/5/2012. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  11. Vanadium and diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Poucheret; Subodh Verma; Marc D. Grynpas; John H. McNeill

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrated in 1985 that vanadium administered in the drinking water to streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats restored elevated blood glucose to normal. Subsequent studies have shown that vanadyl sulfate can lower elevated blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides in a variety of diabetic models including the STZ diabetic rat, the Zucker fatty rat and the Zucker diabetic fatty rat. Long-term studies

  12. [Psychological aspects of diabetes].

    PubMed

    Hinneburg, Iris

    2014-06-01

    The diagnosis of diabetes shakes up everyday life for the patients. Therefore, diabetes therapy also has to consider psychological aspects helping patients to cope with their disease. Additionally, the incidence of some mental health problems such as depression are associated with diabetes and may interact with diabetes therapy. PMID:25051812

  13. Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Nardin; Roy Freeman

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is the most prevalent peripheral neuropathy in the Western world. It has been reported to affect\\u000a nearly 50% of people with diabetes (1,2). It is responsible for a significant proportion of the mortality and morbidity that accompany diabetes and ranks third in\\u000a lifetime expenditures associated with diabetic complications (3). Diabetic peripheral neuropathy was until recently thought to

  14. Diabetic cystopathy: A review ?.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhengyong; Tang, Ziwei; He, Changxiao; Tang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Herein we review and discuss epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies on diabetic cystopathy, a common chronic complication of diabetes mellitus with a variety of lower urinary tract symptoms, providing directions for future research. A search of published epidemiological, clinical, or preclinical trial literature was performed using the key words "diabetes", "diabetic cystopathy", "diabetic bladder dysfunction", "diabetic lower urinary tract dysfunction", "diabetic detrusor instability". The classic symptoms of diabetic cystopathy are decreased bladder sensation, increased bladder capacity, and impaired bladder emptying with resultant increased post-void residual volume. However, recent clinical evidence indicates a presence of storage symptoms, such as overactive bladder symptoms. The pathophysiology of diabetic cystopathy is multifactorial, including disturbances of the detrusor, neuron, urothelium, and urethra. Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and polyuria play important roles in inducing voiding dysfunction in diabetic individuals. Treatment choice depends on clinical symptoms and urodynamic abnormalities. Urodynamic evaluation is the cornerstone of diagnosis and determines management strategies. Diabetes mellitus could cause a variety of lower urinary tract symptoms, leading to diabetic cystopathy with broadly varied estimates of the prevalence rates. The exact prevalence and pathogenesis of diabetic cystopathy remains to be further investigated and studied in multicenter, large-scaled, or randomized basic and clinical trials, and a validated and standardized workup needs to be made, improving diabetic cystopathy management in clinical practice. Further studies involving only female diabetics are recommended. PMID:25619174

  15. Diabetic Kidney Disease (Diabetic Nephropathy) (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... elevated blood sugar levels ? Being overweight or obese ? Smoking ? Having a diabetes-related vision problem (diabetic retinopathy) or nerve damage (diabetic neuropathy) (see "Patient information: Diabetic neuropathy (Beyond ...

  16. "Control Your Diabetes. For Life."

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Control Your Diabetes. For Life." Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents For information about "Control Your Diabetes. For Life" campaign, visit www.YourDiabetesInfo.org or call toll- ...

  17. Diabetes Resources for Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Older Adults Text Size: S M L | About Diabetes Resources for Older Adults Diabetes occurs in people of ... issues that affect this population. Help me find resources for: Managing My Diabetes Preventing Type 2 Diabetes ...

  18. How to Treat Gestational Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A Listen En Español How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Be sure to see the latest Diabetes Forecast ... and a healthy start for your baby. Gestational Diabetes – Looking Ahead Gestational diabetes usually goes away after ...

  19. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > Kids > Diabetes Center > ... True or False: Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Diabetes False: When kids get type 1 diabetes , it's ...

  20. Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way you eat ... help you manage your weight. Healthy Eating with Diabetes Subtitle Healthy Eating with Diabetes Transcript Healthy Eating ...

  1. Candida albicans in the Oral Cavities of Diabetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Peters; Arthur N. Bahn; Gaida Barens

    1966-01-01

    SYNOPSIS IN INTERLINGUACANDIDA ALBICANS IN LE CAVITATE ORAL DE DIABETICOS.—Le relation del saccharomycete Candida albicans con diabete e con morbo periodontal esseva studiate in 200 diabeticos a morbo regulate, 200 diabeticos a morbo non regulate, e 200 nondiabeticos. Le gruppos esseva subdividite additionalmente in categorias a subjectos edentule e dentule. Le saccharomycete esseva isolate non minus frequemente ab le cavitate

  2. Diabetes Mellitus 1.-Qu es la Diabetes Mellitus?

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Diabetes Mellitus 1.- ¿Qué es la Diabetes Mellitus? La diabetes mellitus es un trastorno metabólico necesaria para desarrollar cualquier tipo de trabajo. La causa de la diabetes es una anomalía en la glucosuria 3.- ¿Cómo se detecta la Diabetes? El estudio de diabetes se realiza mediante la medición de la

  3. Radio PSA script in Spanish Para mi, la diabetes era un monstruo! Yo tema el mal que me pudiera hacer,

    E-print Network

    Radio PSA script in Spanish ¡Para mi, la diabetes era un monstruo! Yo temía el mal que me pudiera hacer, y no sabía cómo controlarlo. Entonces asistí a las clases "Do Well Be Well with Diabetes de que podría vivir bien y sentirme bien con la diabetes. Ahora siento que he dominado a ese monstruo

  4. Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Diabetes Disease Organizations There are many organizations who provide ... 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-onset Diabetes of ...

  5. Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It?

    MedlinePLUS

    Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? KidsHealth > Parents > Diabetes Center > Diabetes Basics > Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? Print A A ... in learning to live with the disease. About Diabetes Diabetes is a disease that affects how the ...

  6. Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It?

    MedlinePLUS

    Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? KidsHealth > Kids > Diabetes Center > What's Diabetes? > Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? Print A A ... What is it? Let's find out. What Is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that affects how the ...

  7. Diabetes Health Concerns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... need to know about diabetic retinopathy From Medline Plus ? Interactive tutorial on eye disease, diabetes, retinopathy prevention ... and how to prevent foot problems From Medline Plus ? Interactive tutorial on foot care, footwear, preventing injury, ...

  8. Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... heart disease (CHD), heart failure, and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Diabetes by itself puts you at risk for heart disease. Other risk factors include Family history of heart disease Carrying extra ...

  9. Type 1 diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more often if you have signs of diabetic eye disease . See the dentist every 6 months for a ... chances of developing common complications of diabetes , including: Eye disease Kidney disease Heart disease and stroke With type ...

  10. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  11. Managing Diabetes at School

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Managing Diabetes at School Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... the rest of the school year. Create a diabetes management plan with the school Meet with staff ...

  12. Tight Diabetes Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Tight Diabetes Control Keeping your blood glucose levels as close ... and syringes, than before. What About Type 2 Diabetes? The DCCT studied only people with type 1 ...

  13. Diabetes in African Americans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Diabetes Disease Organizations ?There are many organizations who provide ... Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian Heritage: Important Information about Diabetes Blood Tests Page Content On this page:? Introduction ...

  14. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ... of kidney problems. Are any dietary supplements for diabetes effective? There is not enough scientific evidence to ...

  15. Treating Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... making sure they grow and develop properly. Continue Healthy Eating and Following a Meal Plan Weight gain occurs ... 2 diabetes. The key is a balanced, healthy diet. Kids with diabetes benefit from the same kind ...

  16. Carbohydrates and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español ... Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth > Teens > Diabetes Center > ...

  17. Diabetic Vitrectomy Surgery

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Magwire, who is a registered nurse and certified diabetes educator. 00:01:06 MELISSA MAGWIRE, RN, CDE: ... questions you may have during the surgery about diabetes or the surgery. You can e-mail these ...

  18. Sleep Habits and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... news/Sleep_Habits_040215.html Sleep Habits and Diabetes HealthDay News Video - April 2, 2015 To use ... please enable JavaScript. Play video: Sleep Habits and Diabetes For closed captioning, click the CC button on ...

  19. Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home ... on Sept. 1, 2013 Related Resources Related Topics Diabetes and Eye Health - Eye M.D.-approved information ...

  20. [The diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Lechleitner, Monika; Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Francesconi, Mario

    2012-12-01

    These are the guidelines for preventive care, diagnosis and treatment of the diabetic foot syndrome. Diabetic neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, bone deformity and altered biomechanics are foot-related risk conditions. The position statement is focused on screening methods and recommendations for clinical care for diabetics, who currently have no foot ulcers. A decision pathway is offered with respect to diagnosis and management of diabetic patients at an increased risk or manifest injuries. PMID:23250452

  1. School and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for your child at home are needed at school, including a specific diabetes management plan, diabetes medications, and testing supplies. At school, ... inform you about any issues related to diabetes management at school, and be sure you regularly ask how things ...

  2. DIABETES PREVENTION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was a major clinical trial, or research study, aimed at discovering whether either diet and exercise or the oral diabetes drug metformin (Glucophage) could prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose toleranc...

  3. Diabetes Type 1

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is ... kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults ...

  4. Diabetes Type 2

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not ... You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, obese, have a family ...

  5. The Student with Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentworth, Samuel M.; Hoover, Joan

    1981-01-01

    Since nearly one million students suffer from diabetes, most teachers are likely to have a diabetic child in class at some time. Though most diabetic children are not likely to require an insulin injection during the day, it is necessary that every teacher be aware of the occasional problems which might arise. (JN)

  6. the Student with Diabetes

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    Helping the Student with Diabetes Succeed AGuide for School Personnel Updated Edition 2010 U for Disease Control and Prevention #12;ii www.YourDiabetesInfo.org Supporting Organizations This guide was produced by the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a federally sponsored partnership

  7. Kidney Disease of Diabetes

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    Kidney Disease of Diabetes National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse is the final stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure, accounting for nearly 44 percent of new cases.1 Even when diabetes is controlled, the disease can lead to CKD

  8. Gestational Diabetes and Future Risk of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sivaraman, Subash Chander; Vinnamala, Sudheer; Jenkins, David

    2013-01-01

    Background In this study of women with gestational diabetes we attempted to (a) Determine the magnitude of the long term risk of progression to diabetes and (b) Identify factors that predict the development of diabetes. Methods All women diagnosed with gestational diabetes (GDM) at Worcestershire Royal Hospital, UK from 1995 to 2003 were included in this observational cohort study and followed up till 2009. Diabetes was diagnosed if fasting glucose ? 7.0 mmol/L, random/two-hour glucose following 75 gram oral glucose test (OGTT) ? 11.1 mmol/L or HbA1c ? 7.0%. Results The risk of developing diabetes was 6.9% at five years and 21.1% at ten years following the initial diagnosis of GDM. Fasting and post-prandial glucose levels in the oral glucose tolerance test during pregnancy were associated with future risk of diabetes. There was no association with age, gestational age at diagnosis of GDM, numbers of previous and subsequent pregnancies. Conclusion Risk of progression to diabetes in a UK based cohort of women with GDM is estimated. Women with fasting antenatal glucose ? 7.0 mmol/L and/or an antenatal two-hour glucose ? 11.1 mmol/L are at higher risk and need close follow up. PMID:23519363

  9. Year in Diabetes 2012: The Diabetes Tsunami

    PubMed Central

    Jastreboff, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes affects more than 300 million individuals globally, contributing to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. As the incidence and prevalence of diabetes continue to escalate with the force of an approaching tsunami, it is imperative that we better define the biological mechanisms causing both obesity and diabetes and identify optimal prevention and treatment strategies that will enable a healthier environment and calmer waters. New guidelines from the American Diabetes Association/European Association of the Study of Diabetes and The Endocrine Society encourage individualized care for each patient with diabetes, both in the outpatient and inpatient setting. Recent data suggest that restoration of normal glucose metabolism in people with prediabetes may delay progression to type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, several large clinical trials have underscored the limitations of current treatment options once T2DM has developed, particularly in obese children with the disease. Prospects for reversing new-onset type 1 diabetes also appear limited, although recent clinical trials indicate that immunotherapy can delay the loss of ?-cell function, suggesting potential benefits if treatment is initiated earlier. Research demonstrating a role for the central nervous system in the development of obesity and T2DM, the identification of a new hormone that simulates some of the benefits of exercise, and the development of new ?-cell imaging techniques may provide novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers of early diabetes detection for optimization of interventions. Today's message is that a diabetes tsunami is imminent, and the only way to minimize the damage is to create an early warning system and improve interventions to protect those in its path. PMID:23185035

  10. Genetics of Type 1 Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Michels; Joy Jeffrey; George S. Eisenbarth

    \\u000a By the American Diabetes Association Classification, Type 1A Diabetes is the immune-mediated form of diabetes, while Type\\u000a 1B represents nonimmune-mediated forms of diabetes with beta-cell destruction leading to absolute insulin deficiency (1 ?).\\u000a There are additional forms of insulin-dependent diabetes with defined etiologies (“Other Specific Types of Diabetes:” genetic,\\u000a hormonal, and environmental). Finally, type 2 diabetes is, overall, the most

  11. Burns in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Khalili, Nasim

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT AND AIMS: Diabetic burn patients comprise a significant population in burn centers. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics of diabetic burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data were collected on 94 diabetic burn patients between March 20, 2000 and March 20, 2006. Of 3062 burns patients, 94 (3.1%) had diabetes; these patients were compared with 2968 nondiabetic patients with burns. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical analysis software SPSS 10.05. Differences between the two groups were evaluated using Student's t-test and the chi square test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: The major mechanism of injury for the diabetic patients was scalding and flame burns, as was also the case in the nondiabetic burn patients. The diabetic burn patients were significantly older, with a lower percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) than the nondiabetic burn population. There was significant difference between the diabetic and nondiabetic patients in terms of frequency of infection. No difference in mortality rate between diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was observed. The most common organism in diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was methicillin-resistant staphylococcus. Increasing %TBSA burn and the presence of inhalation injury are significantly associated with increased mortality following burn injury. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetics have a higher propensity for infection. Education for diabetic patients must include caution about potential burn mishaps and the complications that may ensue from burns. PMID:19902035

  12. Teleophthalmology in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, there have been rapid strides in progress in the fields of telecommunication and medical imaging. There is growing evidence regarding use of teleophthalmology for screening of diabetic retinopathy. This article highlights some pertinent questions regarding use of telescreening for diabetic retinopathy. It deals with evidence regarding accuracy of diagnosis, patients satisfaction and cost-effectiveness. The American Telemedicine Association have given certain guidelines for teleheath practices for diabetic retinopathy. The article discusses regarding these guidelines. Finally, a working model for diabetic retinopathy screening through teleophthalmology has been described. Telescreening for diabetic retinopathy seems to be a cost-effective, accurate, and reliable method for screening for diabetic retinopathy. The American Telemedicine Association has set up guidelines for telescreening that should be adhered to provide quality screening services to people with diabetes. PMID:24876576

  13. Rehabilitation in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Zdrenghea, D; Pop, Dana; Penciu, Oana; Zdrenghea, V; Zdrenghea, M

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity is very important for diabetic patients. In normal subjects physical activity postpones diabetes mellitus and in diabetic patients postpones the cardiovascular complications. In diabetic patients with cardiovascular disease, physical training increases exercise capacity, decreases complications and prolongs survival. Physical activity can be applied in diabetic patients as physical activity counseling or physical training, the second being recommended to be ambulatory and supervised but, sometimes, also home rehabilitation can be useful. Aerobic exercises, but also resistance exercises will be applied for a 30-60 min duration at least 3x/ week, recommended 5x/ week, and optimal every day. Some specific aspects of diabetic patients as hyper or hypoglycemia, autonomic or peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy, have to be considered during physical rehabilitation and sometimes physical training has to be modulated according to them. In conclusion, physical activity and training represent a real chance for every diabetic patient and has to be recommended and applied in all of them. PMID:21179912

  14. Diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Clara; Karrouz, Wassila; Douillard, Claire; Do Cao, Christine; Cortet, Christine; Wémeau, Jean-Louis; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine

    2013-12-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is characterized by hypotonic polyuria greater than 3 liters/24 hours in adults and persisting even during water deprivation. It is mostly due to a defect in arginin-vasopressin (AVP) synthesis (central DI); other causes are: AVP resistance (nephrogenic DI), abnormal thirst regulation (primary polydipsia) or early destruction of AVP by placental enzymes (gestational DI). A thorough medical history is warranted to investigate nocturnal persistence of polyuria (night waking being a good sign of its organic nature) to specify the onset and duration of the trouble, the medication use and the potential hereditary nature of the disorder. The next step is based on weight and blood pressure measurements and especially the quantification of beverages and diuresis over a 24-hour cycle. Assessment of signs of dehydration, bladder distention, pituitary hormone hyper- or hyposecretion, tumor chiasmatic syndrome, granulomatosis and cancer is required. The diagnosis is based on biological assessment, pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and results of a desmopressin test. In severe forms of DI, urine osmolality remains below 250 mOsmol/kg and serum sodium greater than 145 mmol/L. In partial forms of DI (urine osmolality between 250 and 750), the water deprivation test demonstrating the incapacity to obtain a maximal urine concentration is valuable, together with vasopressin or copeptin measurement. The pituitary MRI is done to investigate the lack of spontaneous hyperintensity signal in the posterior pituitary, which marks the absence of AVP and supports the diagnosis of central DI rather than primary polydipsia (although not absolute); it can also recognize lesions of the pituitary gland or pituitary stalk. Acquired central DI of sudden onset should suggest a craniopharyngioma or germinoma if it occurs before the age of 30 years, and metastasis after the age of 50 years. Fifteen to 20% of head trauma lead to hypopituitarism, including DI in 2% of cases. Transient or permanent DI is present in 8-9% of endoscopic transphenoidal surgeries. Current advances in DI concern the etiological work-up, with in particular the identification of IgG4-related hypophysitis or many genetic abnormalities, opening the field of targeted therapies in the years to come. PMID:24286605

  15. Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes Support Group 2014 Our support group is dedicated to adults of all ages (16 years and older) with type 1 diabetes. Each month most our time Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center will also present a short diabetes-related topic to get the discussion

  16. Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes Support Group

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes Support Group Our support group is dedicated to adults of all ages (16 years and older) with type 1 diabetes. Each month most our time will be for sharing and a professional from our diabetes center will present a short diabetes-related topic

  17. Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes Support Group Our support group is dedicated to adults of all ages (16 years and older) with type 1 diabetes. Each month most our time Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center will also present a short diabetes-related topic to get the discussion

  18. Chapter V: Diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Lepäntalo, M; Apelqvist, J; Setacci, C; Ricco, J-B; de Donato, G; Becker, F; Robert-Ebadi, H; Cao, P; Eckstein, H H; De Rango, P; Diehm, N; Schmidli, J; Teraa, M; Moll, F L; Dick, F; Davies, A H

    2011-12-01

    Ulcerated diabetic foot is a complex problem. Ischaemia, neuropathy and infection are the three pathological components that lead to diabetic foot complications, and they frequently occur together as an aetiologic triad. Neuropathy and ischaemia are the initiating factors, most often together as neuroischaemia, whereas infection is mostly a consequence. The role of peripheral arterial disease in diabetic foot has long been underestimated as typical ischaemic symptoms are less frequent in diabetics with ischaemia than in non-diabetics. Furthermore, the healing of a neuroischaemic ulcer is hampered by microvascular dysfunction. Therefore, the threshold for revascularising neuroischaemic ulcers should be lower than that for purely ischaemic ulcers. Previous guidelines have largely ignored these specific demands related to ulcerated neuroischaemic diabetic feet. Any diabetic foot ulcer should always be considered to have vascular impairment unless otherwise proven. Early referral, non-invasive vascular testing, imaging and intervention are crucial to improve diabetic foot ulcer healing and to prevent amputation. Timing is essential, as the window of opportunity to heal the ulcer and save the leg is easily missed. This chapter underlines the paucity of data on the best way to diagnose and treat these diabetic patients. Most of the studies dealing with neuroischaemic diabetic feet are not comparable in terms of patient populations, interventions or outcome. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a paradigm shift in diabetic foot care; that is, a new approach and classification of diabetics with vascular impairment in regard to clinical practice and research. A multidisciplinary approach needs to implemented systematically with a vascular surgeon as an integrated member. New strategies must be developed and implemented for diabetic foot patients with vascular impairment, to improve healing, to speed up healing rate and to avoid amputation, irrespective of the intervention technology chosen. Focused studies on the value of predictive tests, new treatment modalities as well as selective and targeted strategies are needed. As specific data on ulcerated neuroischaemic diabetic feet are scarce, recommendations are often of low grade. PMID:22172474

  19. Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Donghui

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is likely the third modifiable risk factor for pancreatic cancer after cigarette smoking and obesity. Epidemiological investigations have found that long-term type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a 1.5- to 2.0-fold increase in the risk of pancreatic cancer. A causal relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer is also supported by findings from prediagnostic evaluations of glucose and insulin levels in prospective studies. Insulin resistance and associated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation have been suggested to be the underlying mechanisms contributing to development of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer. Signaling pathways that regulate the metabolic process also play important roles in cell proliferation and tumor growth. Use of the antidiabetic drug metformin has been associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer in diabetics and recognized as an antitumor agent with the potential to prevent and treat this cancer. On the other hand, new-onset diabetes may indicate subclinical pancreatic cancer, and patients with new-onset diabetes may constitute a population in whom pancreatic cancer can be detected early. Biomarkers that help define high-risk individuals for clinical screening for pancreatic cancer are urgently needed. Why pancreatic cancer causes diabetes and how diabetes affects the clinical outcome of pancreatic cancer have yet to be fully determined. Improved understanding of the pathological mechanisms shared by diabetes and pancreatic cancer would be the key to the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies for this cancer. PMID:22162232

  20. Diabetes and periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Kalyani; Jain, Ashish; Sharma, RaviKant; Prashar, Savita; Jain, Rajni

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this review is to update the reader with practical knowledge concerning the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases. Exclusive data is available on the association between these two chronic diseases till date. Articles published on this relationship often provide the knowledge of definitions of diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases, prevalence, extent, severity of periodontal disease, complications of diabetes along with the possible underlying mechanisms. The authors reviewed human epidemiological studies, cross-sectional observations and longitudinal cohort, case control that evaluated variables exclusively over the past 30 years and the predominant findings from the “certain” articles are summarized in this review. This review clarifies certain queries such as 1) Do periodontal diseases have an effect on the metabolic control of diabetes? 2) Does diabetes act as a risk factor of periodontitis? 3) What are the possible underlying mechanisms relating the connection between these two chronic diseases? 4) What is the effect of periodontal intervention on metabolic control of diabetes? After a thorough survey of literature, it was observed that diabetes acts as a risk factor in development of periodontitis as periodontitis is significantly aggravated in patients suffering from diabetes having long term hyperglycemia. Different mechanisms underlying the association between the accelerated periodontal disease and diabetes are emerging but still more work is required. Major efforts are required to elucidate the impact of periodontal diseases on diabetes. At the same time, patients are needed to be made aware of regular periodontal maintenance schedule and oral hygiene. PMID:21731243

  1. Diabetic retinopathy – An update

    PubMed Central

    Alghadyan, Abdulrahman A.

    2011-01-01

    Management of diabetes should involve both systemic and ocular aspects. Control of hyperglycemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia are of major role in the management of diabetic retinopathy. In the ocular part; laser treatment remains the cornerstone of treatment of diabetic macular edema (focal/grid), severe non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (panretinal photocoagulation). There is a strong support to combination therapy. Using one or two intravitreal injections such as anti-VEGF and or steroid to reduce central macular thickness followed by focal or grid laser to give a sustained response may offer an alternative to treatment in diabetic macular edema. Anti-VEGF were found to be effective as an adjunct therapy in proliferative diabetic retinopathy patient who is going to have vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage with neovascularization, panretinal photocoagulation, and other ocular surgery such as cases with neovascular glaucoma and cataract with refractory macular edema. PMID:23960911

  2. Diabetes and depression.

    PubMed

    Holt, Richard I G; de Groot, Mary; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2014-06-01

    Diabetes and depression occur together approximately twice as frequently as would be predicted by chance alone. Comorbid diabetes and depression are a major clinical challenge as the outcomes of both conditions are worsened by the other. Although the psychological burden of diabetes may contribute to depression, this explanation does not fully explain the relationship between these 2 conditions. Both conditions may be driven by shared underlying biological and behavioral mechanisms, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, inflammation, sleep disturbance, inactive lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and environmental and cultural risk factors. Depression is frequently missed in people with diabetes despite effective screening tools being available. Both psychological interventions and antidepressants are effective in treating depressive symptoms in people with diabetes but have mixed effects on glycemic control. Clear care pathways involving a multidisciplinary team are needed to obtain optimal medical and psychiatric outcomes for people with comorbid diabetes and depression. PMID:24743941

  3. Diabetes and Depression

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Mary; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and depression occur together approximately twice as frequently as would be predicted by chance alone. Comorbid diabetes and depression are a major clinical challenge as the outcomes of both conditions are worsened by the other. Although the psychological burden of diabetes may contribute to depression, this explanation does not fully explain the relationship between these 2 conditions. Both conditions may be driven by shared underlying biological and behavioral mechanisms, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, inflammation, sleep disturbance, inactive lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and environmental and cultural risk factors. Depression is frequently missed in people with diabetes despite effective screening tools being available. Both psychological interventions and antidepressants are effective in treating depressive symptoms in people with diabetes but have mixed effects on glycemic control. Clear care pathways involving a multidisciplinary team are needed to obtain optimal medical and psychiatric outcomes for people with comorbid diabetes and depression. PMID:24743941

  4. Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an ecologic assessment1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee S Gross; Earl S Ford; Simin Liu

    Background: Type 2 diabetes is an epidemic that is affecting an ever-increasing proportion of the US population. Although con- sumption of refined carbohydrates has increased and is thought to be related to the increased risk of type 2 diabetes, the ecologic effect of changes in the quality of carbohydrates in the food supply on the risk of type 2 diabetes

  5. Diabetic Neuropathy (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... caused by diabetes (The Basics) Patient information: The ABCs of diabetes (The Basics) Patient information: Neuropathic pain ( ... information: Neuropathic pain (The Basics) Patient information: The ABCs of diabetes (The Basics) Patient information: Type 2 ...

  6. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... which are false. Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. False: Type 1 diabetes happens when the cells ... completely proven to be true yet. People with diabetes can never eat sweets. False: You can have ...

  7. DIABETES, OBESITY AND METABOLISM INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    DIABETES, OBESITY AND METABOLISM INSTITUTE AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE #12;THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE DIABETES, OBESITY AND METABOLISM INSTITUTE AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE "As we launch the Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism Institute at Northwestern Medicine, I

  8. Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?

    MedlinePLUS

    Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It? KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Endocrine Glands, Growth & Diabetes > Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It? Print ... in learning to live with the disease. About Diabetes Diabetes is a disease that affects how the ...

  9. For Men, Ignoring Diabetes Can Be Deadly

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes For Men, Ignoring Diabetes Can Be Deadly Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... Man's Guide to Living Well with Diabetes. Simpler Diabetes Care: Estimated Average Glucose (eAG) The American Diabetes ...

  10. Diabetic Retinopathy and Other Ocular Findings in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study

    PubMed Central

    Aiello, Lloyd Paul

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether intensive treatment (INT) with the goal of achieving blood glucose levels as close to the nondiabetic range as safely possible reduced the risk of onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D) compared with conventional therapy (CON). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) (1982–1993) was a multicenter, controlled clinical trial comparing INT with CON for onset and progression of DR. The Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study (1994–present) is an observational follow-up of the DCCT cohort. RESULTS Of the 1,441 DCCT subjects, 726 had no DR (primary prevention cohort) and 715 had mild DR (secondary intervention cohort) at baseline. Subjects were followed for a mean of 6.5 years. INT median HbA1c was 7% compared with CON median of 9%. INT reduced the adjusted mean risk for the development of DR by 76% and slowed progression of DR by 54% compared with CON. Following DCCT, the HbA1c levels in the original INT and CON groups converged (year 8, INT 7.98%; CON 8.07%); nevertheless, the groups continued to have a durable effect of initial assigned therapy with significantly lower incidence of further DR progression in the INT group (hazard reduction 53–56%). Severe retinal outcomes and procedures to treat them were reduced by 50% in the original INT group. CONCLUSIONS INT delays the onset and slows the progression of DR. Furthermore, the early effects of metabolic control continue to accrue over many years despite subsequent comparable glycemic control (metabolic memory). These results emphasize the need for optimizing glycemic control as early as possible in patients with diabetes. PMID:24356593

  11. Diabetes, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences. PMID:26195102

  12. Painful diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Amanda; Goutman, Stephen A; Callaghan, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a worldwide epidemic, and associated neuropathy is its most costly and disabling complication. Given the rising prevalence of painful diabetic neuropathy, it is increasingly important that we understand the best ways to diagnose and treat this condition. Diagnostic tests in this field are evolving rapidly. These include the use of skin biopsies to measure small unmyelinated fibers, as well as even newer techniques that can measure both small unmyelinated fibers and large myelinated fibers in the same biopsy. The main treatments for painful diabetic neuropathy remain management of the underlying diabetes and drugs for the relief of pain. However, emerging evidence points to major differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, including the ability of glycemic control to prevent neuropathy. Enhanced glucose control is much more effective at preventing neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes than in those with type 2 disease [corrected]. This dichotomy emphasizes the need to study the pathophysiologic differences between the two types of diabetes, because different treatments may be needed for each condition. The impact of the metabolic syndrome on neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes may account for the difference between the two types of diabetes and requires further study. Finally, neuropathic pain is under-recognized and undertreated despite an ever evolving list of effective drugs. Evidence exists to support several drugs, but the optimal sequence and combination of these drugs are still to be determined. PMID:24803311

  13. Diabetes and Insulin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... builds up in the blood. Over time, uncontrolled diabetes may cause serious complications including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, blindness, and nerve damage. Keeping blood glucose levels ...

  14. Diabetic Retinopathy: Nature and Extent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, W. Ronald; Patz, Arnall

    1978-01-01

    The authors discuss the incidence and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in juvenile and maturity onset diabetics, background and proliferative retinopathy, and current modalities of treatment. (Author)

  15. Diabetic neuralgic amyotrophy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Alan J.

    1981-01-01

    A rare neurological condition, neuralgic amyotrophy, in a diabetic is reported. Strong evidence for a causal relationship is suggested. Comment is made on striking similarities between the clinical presentation and course of both diabetic and neuralgic amyotrophy, inferring a similar end pathological process. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7312743

  16. Invigorated barley in diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok K. Tiwari

    With over 41 million diabetics, India has become diabetes-capital of the world. The country is also a leader in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity, with hypertension to join the list soon. Historical evidences suggest that the ancient Indian physicians were able to stabilize dia- betes, obesity and related metabolic syndrome effectively through recommendations, which are not different from

  17. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MD Jeff M Sands (Emory Univ Sch Med Dept Med, Renal Div)

    2006-02-13

    Physiology in Medicine review article. This articles describes how a patient gets diabetes insipidus, the effects of this disease on a patient, and the therapy to control this disease. This article also describes vasopressin, aquaporins, and the Bartter system, and their relationships with diabetes insipidus.

  18. The diabetic foot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew JM Boulton

    2006-01-01

    Foot problems remain a major cause of hospitalization amongst patients with diabetes and the lifetime risk for developing an ulcer for a person with diabetes was recently estimated to be as high as 25%. The main contributory factors that result in foot ulceration include peripheral neuropathy (somatic and autonomic), peripheral vascular disease, trauma, foot deformity and limited joint mobility. Several

  19. The diabetic foot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miles J Levy; Jonathan Valabhji

    2004-01-01

    Foot disease is a common complication of type-1 and type-2 diabetes. The term ‘diabetic foot’ refers to a spectrum of disease that includes the foot at risk of ulceration, the ulcerated foot, and the Charcot foot. Risk of ulceration is conferred by peripheral neuropathy, and peripheral vascular disease. The ulcerated foot can be classified as neuropathic, neuroischaemic or ischaemic. The

  20. The diabetic foot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miles J. Levy; Jonathan Valabhji

    2008-01-01

    Foot disease is a common complication of type-1 and type-2 diabetes. The term ‘diabetic foot’ refers to a spectrum of disease that includes the foot at risk of ulceration, the ulcerated foot, and the Charcot foot. Risk of ulceration is conferred by peripheral neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease. The ulcerated foot can be classified as neuropathic, neuroischaemic or ischaemic. The

  1. Hypoglycaemia in diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Heller

    Hypoglycaemia is a feared and common unwanted effect of diabetes treated with insulin or sulphonylureas, and is the main reason why insulin-treated individuals often fail to achieve the levels of glycaemic control necessary to prevent diabetic complications. Normal brain function depends upon a continuous supply of glucose. If blood glucose falls below normal, interruption of this supply leads to cerebral

  2. Diabetes Research and Training Centers: Diabetes Education. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, Bethesda, MD.

    Established in 1977 by the Diabetes Research and Education Act, the six Diabetes Research and Training Centers (DRTCs) located throughout the country offer resources for diabetes educators and other health professionals involved in treating or counseling people with diabetes. DRTCs provide continuing education, seminars, and workshops in…

  3. Diabetes Technologies and Their Role in Diabetes Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollipara, Sobha; Silverstein, Janet H.; Marschilok, Katie

    2009-01-01

    The 1993 Diabetes Complications and Control Trial (DCCT) showed that controlling blood glucose prevents and delays the progression of long term complications of diabetes. New diabetes technologies can make control of diabetes possible and safer. This paper reviews these technologies used to monitor blood glucose, administer insulin and evaluate…

  4. Animal Models of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Lizhu; Luo, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of today's main causes of blindness in numerous developed countries worldwide. The underlying pathogenesis of DR is complex and not well understood, thus impeding development of specific, effective treatment modalities. Consequently, the use of animal models of DR is of critical importance for investigating the pathogenesis of and treatment for DR. While rats and mice are the most commonly used animal models of DR, the zebrafish now appears to be a promising model. Nonhuman primates and humans have similar eye structures, and both can develop spontaneous diabetes mellitus (DM). Although various traditionally used animal models of DR undergo a number of pathological changes similar to those of human DR, several human variations, e.g. retinal neovascularization, cannot yet be fully mimicked in any existing animal model of DM. Since both the animal models and the methods chosen for inducing DR have great influence on experimental results, a clear understanding of available animal models is vital for planning an experimental design. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms, methodologies and pros and cons of the most commonly used animal models of DR. PMID:25835487

  5. Diabetic cardiomyopathy in Manipur

    PubMed Central

    Rothangpui; Singh, Sachin Deba; Singh, Premchand; Prasad, Lallan; Singh, Romeo K.; Ranabir, Salam

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of diabetic cardiomyopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus in Manipur and its correlation with different parameters like obesity, blood pressure, lipids, duration of diabetes, and glycemic control. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 type 2 diabetic patients were selected randomly. Anthropometric parameters were recorded, blood glucose levels and lipid profiles were determined, and the echocardiographic examinations were performed in all patients according to standard techniques. Ejection fraction (EF) was calculated by the formula LVEF% = (LVID)2 - (LVIDS)2. Left ventricular EF was considered normal when EF was 55 to 75%. Diastolic dysfunction was calculated by measuring E and A transmitral inflow velocity. Left ventricular mass in grams is calculated by the formula LVM (gm) = 1.04 × 0.8 [(LVID + PWT + IVST)3 - LVID3] + 0.6. Results and Conclusions: Diabetic cardiomyopathy was found in 40 patients (40%) of the total study, 29 males (44.6%) and 11 females (31.4%). PMID:21897899

  6. Type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Mark A; Eisenbarth, George S; Michels, Aaron W

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, knowledge of the pathogenesis and natural history of type 1 diabetes has grown substantially, particularly with regard to disease prediction and heterogeneity, pancreatic pathology, and epidemiology. Technological improvements in insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors help patients with type 1 diabetes manage the challenge of lifelong insulin administration. Agents that show promise for averting debilitating disease-associated complications have also been identified. However, despite broad organisational, intellectual, and fiscal investments, no means for preventing or curing type 1 diabetes exists, and, globally, the quality of diabetes management remains uneven. This Seminar discusses current progress in epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of type 1 diabetes, and prospects for an improved future for individuals with this disease. PMID:23890997

  7. Undiagnosed Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes in Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.

    2015-01-01

    Globally half of all diabetes mellitus is undiagnosed. We sought to determine the extent and characteristics of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes in Mexican Americans residing in the United States. This disadvantaged population with 50% lifetime risk of diabetes is a microcosm of the current pandemic. We accessed baseline data between 2004 and 2014 from 2,838 adults recruited to our Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC); a two-stage randomly selected ‘Framingham-like’ cohort of Mexican Americans on the US Mexico border with severe health disparities. We examined prevalence, risk factors and metabolic health in diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes. Two thirds of this Mexican American population has diabetes or pre-diabetes. Diabetes prevalence was 28.0%, nearly half undiagnosed, and pre-diabetes 31.6%. Mean BMI among those with diabetes was 33.5 kg/m2 compared with 29.0 kg/m2 for those without diabetes. Significant risk factors were low income and educational levels. Most with diabetes had increased waist/hip ratio. Lack of insurance and access to health services played a decisive role in failure to have diabetes diagnosed. Participants with undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes had similar measures of poor metabolic health similar but generally not as severe as those with diagnosed diabetes. More than 50% of a minority Mexican American population in South Texas has diabetes or pre-diabetes and is metabolically unhealthy. Only a third of diabetes cases were diagnosed. Sustained efforts are imperative to identify, diagnose and treat individuals in underserved communities. PMID:26186342

  8. Contraception and the Adolescent Diabetic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennoy, Ilene

    1989-01-01

    Data from a study of 11 teenage diabetics suggests that pregnancy among adolescent diabetics is more frequent than among the general population, at a time when diabetic control is poor because of psychosocial factors associated with adolescence. Current recommendations regarding contraception for diabetic women, focusing on barrier methods, are…

  9. Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes #12;Read other booklets at www.nhlbi.nih.gov. #12;Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes Delicious Heart Healthy Latino Recipes #12;Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes 1 Did you know that type 2 diabetes is a serious problem

  10. Genetic Counseling for Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Stephanie A.; Maloney, Kristin L.; Pollin, Toni I.

    2014-01-01

    Most diabetes is polygenic in etiology, with (type 1 diabetes, T1DM) or without (type 2 diabetes, T2DM) an autoimmune basis. Genetic counseling for diabetes generally focuses on providing empiric risk information based on family history and/or the effects of maternal hyperglycemia on pregnancy outcome. An estimated one to five percent of diabetes is monogenic in nature, e.g., maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), with molecular testing and etiology-based treatment available. However, recent studies show that most monogenic diabetes is misdiagnosed as T1DM or T2DM. While efforts are underway to increase the rate of diagnosis in the diabetes clinic, genetic counselors and clinical geneticists are in a prime position to identify monogenic cases through targeted questions during a family history combined with working in conjunction with diabetes professionals to diagnose and assure proper treatment and familial risk assessment for individuals with monogenic diabetes. PMID:25045596

  11. Progress on diabetic cerebrovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Houguang; Zhang, Xiaoming; Lu, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic cerebrovascular diseases are defined as cerebral vascular diseases induced by diabetes with sugar, fat and a series of nutrient substance metabolic disorders, resulting in intracranial large and small vessel diseases. About 20%-40% patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from cerebral blood vessel diseases. Diabetic cerebrovascular diseases are the main causes of death in patients with diabetes mellitus. The major clinical manifestations are asymptomatic cerebral atherosclerosis, stroke, cerebral small vessel disease and acute cerebral vascular disease. The pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of diabetic cerebrovascular disease are obviously different from non-diabetic cerebral vascular diseases. This paper will focus on the diabetic cerebrovascular disease, including its latest research progress. Diabetic cerebral large vascular disease and diabetic cerebral small vessel disease will be reviewed here. PMID:25428668

  12. [Diabetes in the youth].

    PubMed

    Rami-Merhar, Birgit; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Hofer, Sabine; Schober, Edith

    2012-12-01

    In contrast to adults Diabetes mellitus type 1 (DMT1) is the most frequent form of diabetes mellitus during childhood and adolescence (> 95 %). After diagnosis, the management of these DMT1-patients should take place in specialized paediatric centres, not in a primary care setting. The lifelong substitution of insulin is the cornerstone of therapy, the form of insulin-therapy should be adapted according to the age of the patient (conventional, intensified or pump therapy). Diabetes education is also an essential part in the management of diabetes patients and their families. The ISPAD (International Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes) recommends an HbA1c < 7.5 rel.%(IFCC < 58 mmol/mol) as good metabolic control, although it might be difficult to achieve this goal during different phases of life (e.g. toddlers or puberty). The aim of diabetes education and management is avoidance of acute and late diabetes related complications, as well as achievement of normal growth and psychosocial development and wellbeing. PMID:23250456

  13. Vitamin D and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    MITRI, JOANNA; PITTAS, ANASTASSIOS G.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis There has been increasing evidence suggesting that vitamin D may play an important role in modifying risk of diabetes. In this regard, Vitamin D has both direct and indirect effects, the latter via regulation of calcium effects on various mechanisms related to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, including pancreatic beta cell dysfunction, impaired insulin action and systemic inflammation. The human evidence comes primarily from many cross-sectional and prospective observational studies, most of which showed an inverse association between vitamin D status and prevalence or incidence of type 2 diabetes. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemia or incident type 2 diabetes has been reported in several trials with mixed results. The present article describes the biological plausibility behind the potential association between vitamin D and type 2 diabetes and summarizes the current evidence supporting a relation between vitamin D and type 2 diabetes and briefly reports on the potential association between vitamin D and type 1 diabetes. PMID:24582099

  14. Oxidative stress and diabetic cardiomyopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Cai; Y. James Kang

    2001-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious public health problem. Improvements in the treatment of noncardiac complications from diabetes have\\u000a resulted in heart disease becoming a leading cause of death in diabetic patients. Several cardiovascular pathological consequences\\u000a of diabetes such as hypertension affect the heart to varying degrees. However, hyperglycemia, as an independent risk factor,\\u000a directly causes cardiac damage and leads to diabetic

  15. Diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kamalakannan, D; Baskar, V; Barton, D; Abdu, T

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy compromises both the fetus and the mother. It usually occurs in the later stages of pregnancy and is also seen in newly presenting type 1 diabetes patients. Despite improvement in its incidence rates and outcomes over the years, it still remains a major clinical problem since it tends to occur at lower blood glucose levels and more rapidly than in non-pregnant patients often causing delay in the diagnosis. This article illustrates a typical case of diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy and reviews the literature to provide an insight into its pathophysiology and management. PMID:12954957

  16. Multiple Myeloma and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Zeinab A.; Zantout, Mira S.; Azar, Sami T.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell disorder that accounts for approximately 10% of all hematologic cancers. It is characterized by accumulation of clonal plasma cells, predominantly in the bone marrow. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing; therefore, it is expected that there will be an increase in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma with concomitant diabetes mellitus. The treatment of multiple myeloma and diabetes mellitus is multifaceted. The coexistence of the two conditions in a patient forms a major challenge for physicians. PMID:22363889

  17. Not all neuropathy in diabetes is of diabetic etiology: Differential diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy Freeman

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is the most common peripheral neuropathy in the developed world; however, not all patients\\u000a with diabetes and peripheral nerve disease have a peripheral neuropathy caused by diabetes. Several (although not all) studies\\u000a have drawn attention to the presence of other potential causes of a neuropathy in individuals with diabetes; 10% to 50% of\\u000a individuals with diabetes may

  18. Diabetes Research Institute Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... issue Enjoying the Holidays Gifts and Resolutions Diabetes Divorce August 2010 issue Eating Disorders Video: Eating Disorders ... DRI BioHub mini organ. Learn more > Support for Parents - Join the PEP Squad Do you have a ...

  19. Screening for Gestational Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... become too high and this can cause many health problems. Facts About Gestational Diabetes About 240,000 of ... woman and her baby at risk for serious health problems: • Pregnant women have a greater chance of complications ...

  20. Diabetes: Dealing With Feelings

    MedlinePLUS

    ... wonder why you were so upset. As you learn to manage diabetes on your own and take a more active role in your health, you may find it's a little easier dealing with the ups and downs. Back Continue ...

  1. Diabetes Interactive Atlas.

    PubMed

    Kirtland, Karen A; Burrows, Nilka R; Geiss, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    The Diabetes Interactive Atlas is a recently released Web-based collection of maps that allows users to view geographic patterns and examine trends in diabetes and its risk factors over time across the United States and within states. The atlas provides maps, tables, graphs, and motion charts that depict national, state, and county data. Large amounts of data can be viewed in various ways simultaneously. In this article, we describe the design and technical issues for developing the atlas and provide an overview of the atlas' maps and graphs. The Diabetes Interactive Atlas improves visualization of geographic patterns, highlights observation of trends, and demonstrates the concomitant geographic and temporal growth of diabetes and obesity. PMID:24503340

  2. Diabetes Interactive Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Nilka R.; Geiss, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    The Diabetes Interactive Atlas is a recently released Web-based collection of maps that allows users to view geographic patterns and examine trends in diabetes and its risk factors over time across the United States and within states. The atlas provides maps, tables, graphs, and motion charts that depict national, state, and county data. Large amounts of data can be viewed in various ways simultaneously. In this article, we describe the design and technical issues for developing the atlas and provide an overview of the atlas’ maps and graphs. The Diabetes Interactive Atlas improves visualization of geographic patterns, highlights observation of trends, and demonstrates the concomitant geographic and temporal growth of diabetes and obesity. PMID:24503340

  3. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

  4. Diabetes Experience Spring 2013

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    -depth knowledge of diabetes mellitus through active, hands-on learning. As a required part of this course strips, a lancet pen, alcohol wipes, sodium chloride for injection, syringes, a sharps container

  5. Personalized diabetes management

    E-print Network

    O'Hair, Allison Kelly

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we present a system to make personalized lifestyle and health decisions for diabetes management, as well as for general health and diet management. In particular, we address the following components of the ...

  6. Pharmacologic therapy for diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Gardlik, Roman; Fusekova, Ivana

    2015-07-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most serious complications of chronic diabetes mellitus and is the leading cause of blindness in working-age populations. Large, randomized studies have demonstrated the benefits of systemic and ocular therapy in the prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy. The process of angiogenesis plays a critical role in the development of diabetic complications. VEGF is part of the angiogenic process and gives rise to retinal neovascularizations, which are part of the proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Various types of anti-VEGF drugs for the treatment of diabetic macular edema are currently being tested in ongoing clinical trials. Recently published prospective studies addressing the impact of anti-VEGF drugs on diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy showed the clinical effects of these drugs and uncovered possible adverse effects. Herein we present a review on therapy of diabetic retinopathy with a special focus on anti-VEGF therapy. PMID:24571780

  7. Treatment of diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Robertson; D. J. Klein

    1992-01-01

    Summary  New treatment strategies for subjects with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) and Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus are being developed. Pilot studies utilising insulin itself have been reported to prevent Type 1 diabetes in subjects likely, by immunogenetic and physiologic criteria, to develop clinically overt disease, while the results of nicoti-namide trials in these subjects remain preliminary. Immunotherapy with cyclosporin A and

  8. Cannabis masks diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    This is the first series to identify that diabetic ketosis presenting in cannabis users has a different and conflicting acid base profile compared to non-cannabis users and can confuse the need for intensive or critical care in these at-risk patients. This association of drugtaking history and clinical presentation has implications for how the authors treat the drug using sector of the population with diabetes. PMID:22679145

  9. Diagnosing gestational diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    The newly proposed criteria for diagnosing gestational diabetes will result in a gestational diabetes prevalence of 17.8%,\\u000a doubling the numbers of pregnant women currently diagnosed. These new diagnostic criteria are based primarily on the levels\\u000a of glucose associated with a 1.75-fold increased risk of giving birth to large-for-gestational age infants (LGA) in the Hyperglycemia\\u000a Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study; they

  10. Vanadium Effects in Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TOD A. Clark; GRANT N. Pierce

    \\u000a Over the past twenty years vanadium compounds have garnered much attention with respect to the treatment of diabetes. Vanadium’s\\u000a attraction as a hypoglycaemic agent lies in its oral route of administration. Several different vanadium salts have been used\\u000a to treat both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in vivo, including sodium orthovanadate, sodium meta-vanadate and vanadyl sulphate.\\u000a In addition to

  11. Diabetes Prevention and Treatment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Backholer, Kathryn; Peeters, Anna; Herman, William H.; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Liew, Danny; Ademi, Zanfina; Magliano, Dianna J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Effective interventions to prevent, delay, or remit diabetes are currently available. However, their impact on the prevalence of diabetes at the population level is unknown. This study aimed to estimate the impact of a range of diabetes interventions on the population prevalence of diabetes for Australian adults between 2010 and 2025. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used the Australian Diabetes Projection Model to estimate the impact of a population-wide strategy, high-risk prevention, surgical diabetes treatment, and a combination strategy on the future population prevalence of diabetes and to estimate the number of diabetes cases that could be potentially prevented in the year 2025. RESULTS We estimate that a population-wide strategy would reduce the number of diabetes cases by 60,000–85,000 in 2025 from an estimated 2 million cases under the status quo scenario. A high-risk prevention strategy would result in 106,000 to 150,000 fewer cases of diabetes in 2025, and surgically induced weight loss would result in 3,000–6,000 fewer cases. No single intervention, or combination of interventions, reversed the increasing trend in diabetes prevalence over the next 15 years. CONCLUSIONS To reverse upward trends in diabetes prevalence in future years, it is essential that current approaches to diabetes prevention and treatment are optimized and implemented and that alternative approaches to reduce the prevalence of diabetes at a population level are developed. PMID:23637353

  12. Prevention of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lai, Leslie C

    2002-12-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. The World Health Organisation has estimated that there will be around 300 million diabetics by 2025. The largest increase will occur in Asia. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing due to a combination of factors: increasing lifespan, sedentary lifestyle, excessive intake of high energy foods, increasing prevalence of overweight/obese people. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Group has clearly shown that changes in the lifestyle of both overweight men and women with impaired glucose tolerance can reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 58%. This finding was confirmed by the Diabetes Prevention Programme which found that lifestyle intervention in individuals with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance reduced the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by 58%, whereas treatment with metformin reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes by only 31%. Both acarbose and troglitazone have also been shown to reduce the progression to diabetes in individuals who are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Since the cure for diabetes remains some way off our concerted efforts should be directed at prevention of diabetes in order to curb the increasing prevalence of diabetes worldwide. Lifestyle changes are more beneficial than long term drug therapy in the prevention of diabetes and should be actively promoted. PMID:12887163

  13. Learn the Facts about Diabetic Retinopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    LEARN THE FACTS About DIABETIC RETINOPATHY Diabetic retinopathy occurs when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels inside ... blood pressure, and cholesterol. KKick the smoking habit. LEARN MORE AT: www.nei.nih.gov/diabetes A ...

  14. Diabetes Facts and Myths (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... team first. Myth: Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. Fact: Type 1 diabetes is caused by a ... risk for developing the disease. Myth: Kids with diabetes can never eat sweets. Fact: Kids with diabetes ...

  15. Kidney Disease of Diabetes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC) is a service provided by a related department of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Visitors will find that the NKUDIC website has a special page on Kidney Disease of Diabetes which includes articles on the homepage about "The Course of Kidney Disease", "Preventing and Slowing Kidney Disease", and "Good Care Makes a Difference". On the left side of the homepage visitors will find some very interesting research timelines by the NIH, titled "Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow". There is a timeline for "Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure", "Diabetes, Type 1", and "Diabetes, Type 2". The "Yesterday" section explain to visitors the past methods of treating the disease, as well as past statistics about death and diseases caused by diabetes. The "Today" section explains how the disease is treated presently, and how statistics have improved regarding survival and occurrence of diabetes-related disease. Finally, the "Tomorrow" section highlights research studies that aim to improve the lives of diabetics, and interested visitors will find links to relevant websites.

  16. Diabetes mellitus and retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, P; Giusti, C; Pietrobono, D; La Torre, D; Diacono, D; Tamburrano, G

    2004-02-01

    The role of somatostatin and growth hormone in eye diseases recently became a matter of interest because of its link with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In diabetic patients the pathologic proliferation of blood vessels as a result of retinal ischemia is a major cause of blindness. The hypoxic portions of the retina release angiogenic factors, stimulating neovascularization. Somatostatin is a natural peptide hormone that affects the release of a number of other hormones, such as growth hormone, glucagon, insulin and gastrin. The somatostatin analog promises to be safe and effective treatment for severe diabetic retinopathy. This compound has been shown to block the local and systemic production of insulin-like growth factor 1 and growth hormone, which promote the angiogenesis and endothelial cell proliferation associated with proliferative retinopathy. Several studies have confirmed that using somatostatin analogs to block insulin-like growth factor 1 production is effective in reducing neovascularization and preventing disease progression to proliferative stage of diabetic retinopathy. Long-acting somatostatin analogs are currently being tested for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. The development of somatostatin analogs with increased selectivity for receptor subtypes will provide improved outcomes in the management of patients with diabetic retinopathy. PMID:15077918

  17. Diabetic corneal neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, R O; Peters, M A; Sobocinski, K; Nassif, K; Schultz, K J

    1983-01-01

    Corneal epithelial lesions can be found in approximately one-half of asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus. These lesions are transient and clinically resemble the keratopathy seen in staphylococcal keratoconjunctivitis. Staphylococcal organisms, however, can be isolated in equal percentages from diabetic patients without keratopathy. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy was found to be related to the presence of diabetic keratopathy after adjusting for age with analysis of covariance. The strongest predictor of both keratopathy and corneal fluorescein staining was vibration perception threshold in the toes (P less than 0.01); and the severity of keratopathy was directly related to the degree of diminution of peripheral sensation. Other predictors of keratopathy were: reduced tear breakup time (P less than 0.03), type of diabetes (P less than 0.01), and metabolic status as indicated by c-peptide fasting (P less than 0.01). No significant relationships were found between the presence of keratopathy and tear glucose levels, endothelial cell densities, corneal thickness measurements, the presence of S epidermidis, or with duration of disease. It is our conclusion that asymptomatic epithelial lesions in the nontraumatized diabetic cornea can occur as a manifestation of generalized polyneuropathy and probably represent a specific form of corneal neuropathy. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:6676964

  18. Osteoporosis, Fractures, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that osteoporosis and diabetes are prevalent diseases with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of bone fractures. In type 1 diabetes, the risk is increased by ?6 times and is due to low bone mass. Despite increased bone mineral density (BMD), in patients with type 2 diabetes the risk is increased (which is about twice the risk in the general population) due to the inferior quality of bone. Bone fragility in type 2 diabetes, which is not reflected by bone mineral density, depends on bone quality deterioration rather than bone mass reduction. Thus, surrogate markers and examination methods are needed to replace the insensitivity of BMD in assessing fracture risks of T2DM patients. One of these methods can be trabecular bone score. The aim of the paper is to present the present state of scientific knowledge about the osteoporosis risk in diabetic patient. The review also discusses the possibility of problematic using the study conclusions in real clinical practice. PMID:25050121

  19. Determinants of diabetes knowledge in a cohort of Nigerian diabetics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the consequences of the generational paradigm shift of lifestyle from the traditional African model to a more "western" standard is a replacement of communicable diseases by non-communicable or life style related diseases like diabetes. To address this trend, diabetes education along with continuous assessment of diabetes related knowledge has been advocated. Since most of the Nigerian studies assessing knowledge of diabetes were hospital-based, we decided to evaluate the diabetes related knowledge and its sociodemographic determinants in a general population of diabetics. Methods Diabetics (n?=?184) attending the 2012 world diabetes day celebration in a Nigerian community were surveyed using a two part questionnaire. Section A elicited information on their demographics characteristics and participation in update courses, and exercise, while section B assessed knowledge of diabetes using the 14 item Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Centre's Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test. Results We found that Nigerian diabetics had poor knowledge of diabetes, with pervasive fallacies. Majority did not have knowledge of "diabetes diet", "fatty food", "free food", effect of unsweetened fruit juice on blood glucose, treatment of hypoglycaemia, and the average duration glycosylated haemoglobin (haemoglobin A1) test measures blood glucose. Attaining tertiary education, falling under the 51-60 years age group, frequent attendance at seminars/updates and satisfaction with education received, being employed by or formerly working for the government, and claiming an intermediate, or wealthy income status was associated with better knowledge of diabetes. Conclusion Nigerian diabetics' knowledge of diabetes was poor and related to age, level of education, satisfaction with education received, employment status and household wealth. PMID:24593904

  20. Si, Yo Puedo Controlar Mi Diabetes!

    E-print Network

    ¡Si, Yo Puedo Controlar Mi Diabetes! ¡Si, Yo Puedo Controlar Mí Diabetes! (Si, Yo Puedo/Latinos with diabetes. The curriculum is predicated on the American Diabetes Association's national standards of care and lifestyle skills to better control their diabetes. Relevance · Diabetes costs Texas more than 12 billion

  1. Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes

    E-print Network

    Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes Lesson Topics ·WhatisDiabetes? ·Nutrition­FirstSteptoDiabetesManagement ·OneDiabetesDiet­NoLongertheSoleOption ·ManagingYourBloodGlucose ·NutritionalLabels ·DiabetesandExercise ·ForGoodMeasureatHomeandEatingOut ·DiabetesMedicines ·Preventingand

  2. Las personas con diabetes deben lograr un balance entre los

    E-print Network

    en un lado del plato y los alimentos bajos en carbohidratos al otro lado. Karen Halderson, MPH, RD bajos en carbohidratos, manteniendo cada uno en su propio lado del plato o de la mesa. Comer vegetales en diferentes lados de su plato y ver si su plato está "balanceado". Sin embargo, muchas veces

  3. Autophagy in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan; Choi, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Increasing prevalence of diabetes has made the need for effective treatment of DN critical and thereby identifying new therapeutic targets to improve clinical management. Autophagy is a highly conserved 'self-eating' pathway by which cells degrade and recycle macromolecules and organelles. Autophagy serves as an essential mechanism to maintain homeostasis of glomeruli and tubules, and plays important roles in human health and diseases. Impairment of autophagy is implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. Emerging body of evidence suggests that targeting the autophagic pathway to activate and restore autophagy activity may be renoprotective. In this review, we examine current advances in our understanding of the roles of autophagy in diabetic kidney injury, focusing on studies in renal cells in culture, human kidney tissues, and experimental animal models of diabetes. We discuss the major nutrient-sensing signal pathways and diabetes-induced altered intracellular metabolism and cellular events, including accumulation of advanced glycation end-products, increased oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, hypoxia, and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, which modulate autophagic activity and contribute to the development of DN. We also highlight recent studies of autophagy and transforming growth factor-? in renal fibrosis, the final common response to injury that ultimately leads to end-stage kidney failure in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. These findings suggest the possibility that autophagy can be a therapeutic target against DN. PMID:25349246

  4. Diabetes, Vision Loss, and You

    MedlinePLUS

    ... number of important vision rehabilitation principles - organization, contrast, lighting and glare control - to help perform many diabetes- ... desk lamp for your diabetes tasks area. Overhead lighting is usually not sufficient. Position your lamp so ...

  5. Health Tip: Diabetics Who Compete

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151875.html Health Tip: Diabetics Who Compete Follow these safety suggestions To use ... a medical alert bracelet that identifies you as diabetic. Snack and drink before, during and after your ...

  6. Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetic third nerve palsy; Pupil-sparing third cranial nerve palsy ... Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type -- is a mononeuropathy . This means that only one nerve is damaged. The condition affects the third cranial (oculomotor) ...

  7. Emergency Meal Planning for Diabetics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Avoid high potassium fruit juices (orange juice). THREE-DAY DIABETIC GROCERY LIST FOR EMERGENCIES Item Amount (per ... Other Distilled water 5 one gallon jugs THREE-DAY DIABETIC MEAL PLAN FOR EMERGENCIES The sample meal ...

  8. Diagnosis of Diabetes and Prediabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Diabetes Disease Organizations There are many organizations who provide ... PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Diagnosis of Diabetes and Prediabetes Page Content On this page: What ...

  9. Financial Help for Diabetes Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Diabetes Disease Organizations There are many organizations who provide ... KB). Alternate Language URL Español Financial Help for Diabetes Care Page Content On this page: How costly ...

  10. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Diabetes Disease Organizations There are many organizations who provide ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Page Content On this ...

  11. Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We Can ...

  12. Peripheral Artery Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Peripheral Artery Disease & Diabetes Updated:Oct 7,2014 People with diabetes are at higher risk of developing peripheral artery disease (PAD) . And individuals with PAD are four ...

  13. Molecular mechanisms of diabetic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bugger, Heiko; Abel, E. Dale

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, diabetes mellitus has become an epidemic and now represents one of the most prevalent disorders. Cardiovascular complications are the major cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetic patients. While ischaemic events dominate the cardiac complications of diabetes, it is widely recognised that the risk for developing heart failure is also increased in the absence of overt myocardial ischaemia and hypertension or is accelerated in the presence of these comorbidities. These diabetes-associated changes in myocardial structure and function have been called diabetic cardiomyopathy. Numerous molecular mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy following analysis of various animal models of type 1 or type 2 diabetes and in genetically modified mouse models. The steady increase in reports presenting novel mechanistic data on this subject expands the list of potential underlying mechanisms. The current review provides an update on molecular alterations that may contribute to the structural and functional alterations in the diabetic heart. PMID:24477973

  14. What is Diabetic Eye Disease?

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... United States, there are 14 million people with diabetes and while most will not lose their vision ... good deal higher among people with Type I diabetes -- the type that usually begins in childhood and ...

  15. Diabetes Insipidus, Central (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Definition: Hormones Endocrine System Immune System Kidneys and Urinary Tract Diabetes Center Word! Hormones Your Endocrine System Your Kidneys Diabetes Center Your Immune System Definition: ...

  16. Hypoxia in Diabetic Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Takiyama, Yumi; Haneda, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is now a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. In addition, DN accounts for the increased mortality in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and then patients without DN achieve long-term survival compatible with general population. Hypoxia represents an early event in the development and progression of DN, and hypoxia-inducible factor- (HIF-) 1 mediates the metabolic responses to renal hypoxia. Diabetes induces the “fraternal twins” of hypoxia, that is, pseudohypoxia and hypoxia. The kidneys are susceptible to hyperoxia because they accept 20% of the cardiac output. Therefore, the kidneys have specific vasculature to avoid hyperoxia, that is, AV oxygen shunting. The NAD-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) sirtuins are seven mammalian proteins, SIRTs 1–7, which are known to modulate longevity and metabolism. Recent studies demonstrated that some isoforms of sirtuins inhibit the activation of HIF by deacetylation or noncatalyzing effects. The kidneys, which have a vascular system that protects them against hyperoxia, unfortunately experience extraordinary hypernutrition today. Then, an unexpected overload of glucose augments the oxygen consumption, which ironically results in hypoxia. This review highlights the primary role of HIF in diabetic kidneys for the metabolic adaptation to diabetes-induced hypoxia. PMID:25054148

  17. Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    De Vriese, An S; Verbeuren, Tony J; Van de Voorde, Johan; Lameire, Norbert H; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2000-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease. The endothelium controls the tone of the underlying vascular smooth muscle through the production of vasodilator mediators. The endothelium-derived relaxing factors (EDRF) comprise nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin, and a still elusive endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation has been demonstrated in various vascular beds of different animal models of diabetes and in humans with type 1 and 2 diabetes. Several mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction have been reported, including impaired signal transduction or substrate availibility, impaired release of EDRF, increased destruction of EDRF, enhanced release of endothelium-derived constricting factors and decreased sensitivity of the vascular smooth muscle to EDRF. The principal mediators of hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction may be activation of protein kinase C, increased activity of the polyol pathway, non-enzymatic glycation and oxidative stress. Correction of these pathways, as well as administration of ACE inhibitors and folate, has been shown to improve endothelium-dependent vasodilation in diabetes. Since the mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction appear to differ according to the diabetic model and the vascular bed under study, it is important to select clinically relevant models for future research of endothelial dysfunction. PMID:10882379

  18. Diabetes Education in Tribal Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Lars; Francis, Carolee Dodge

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes is a prevalent disease in the United States. The emergence of Type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents within the American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities brings increased public health and quality of life concerns. In this article, the authors describe an initiative titled "Diabetes Education in Tribal Schools K-12…

  19. Diabetic Youths and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Melva

    1974-01-01

    In response to a need for a comprehensive program to fill the gap in services for children with diabetes and their families, the Diabetic Youth and Family Program of Wichita, Kansas is directing efforts to deal effectively and creatively with children's diabetic problems. (CS)

  20. Case 22:Type II diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. It is composed of two types depending on the pathogenesis. Type I diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency and usually has its onset during childhood or teenage years. This is also called ketosis-prone diabetes. Type II diab...

  1. DIABETES PREVENTION TRIAL TYPE 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Diabetes Prevention Trial--Type 1 (DPT-1) is a nationwide study to see if we can prevent or delay type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes. Nine medical centers and more than 350 clinics in the United States and Canada are taking part in the study....

  2. Ethnicity and type 2 diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Abate; Manisha Chandalia

    2001-01-01

    Though the overall prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in US and in all other westernized countries, significant differences are noted among different ethnic groups. The reasons for ethnic differences in the risk of type 2 diabetes are not entirely understood. For example, Asian Indians (people from India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh) have remarkably high prevalence of type 2 diabetes

  3. [Diabetes mellitus and cellular immunity].

    PubMed

    Paknys, Gintaras; Kondrotas, Anatolijus Juozas; Kevelaitis, Egidijus

    2006-01-01

    Interaction between diabetes mellitus and cellular immunity is reviewed in several aspects. Importance of cellular immunity in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus is discussed. Experimental mice models of this disease are presented which after the evaluation of similarities of immunologic parameters provide clues to potential mechanisms of the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. In an animal model of spontaneous type 1 diabetes mellitus, the non-obese diabetic mouse develops a spontaneous T cell-mediated insulitis, which is followed by overt diabetes. Disease can be transferred to young non-obese diabetic mice with diabetogenic T cells from older, affected animals. T cells can recognize various islet antigens, including insulin and islet cell enzyme called glutamic acid decarboxylase. Induction of T cell tolerance to these antigens retards the onset of diabetes in mice. Transgenic mouse models of type 1 diabetes mellitus confirm above-mentioned facts. Later alterations of cellular immunity are under the investigation. Disorders of mobilization and chemotaxis, phagocytosis and adherence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocyte function, defects of acquired cellular immunity are thoroughly discussed. Diabetes mellitus, particularly poorly controlled diabetes, impairs different functions and links of cellular immunity. Infections, which are found relatively more frequently in diabetic patients and against which primarily cellular immunity protects, are also reviewed. PMID:16467607

  4. Diabetes Epidemics in Korea: Reappraise Nationwide Survey of Diabetes "Diabetes in Korea 2007"

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ie Byung; Kim, Jaiyong; Kim, Dae Jung; Chung, Choon Hee; Oh, Jee-Young; Park, Seok Won; Lee, Juneyoung; Choi, Kyung Mook; Min, Kyung Wan; Park, Jeong Hyun; Son, Hyun Shik; Ahn, Chul Woo; Kim, Hwayoung; Lee, Sunhee; Lee, Im Bong; Choi, Injeoung

    2013-01-01

    There are many studies on the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and economic burden of diabetes across the past four decades in Korea. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of nationwide study regarding diabetes encompassing all age group. Eight years ago, the Committee on the Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus of Korean Diabetes Association collaborated with Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service to evaluate the status of diabetes care and characteristics in diabetic patients in Korea. In 2007, the collaborative task force team published a comprehensive survey titled "Diabetes in Korea 2007." In this review, we reappraise the diabetic epidemics from the joint report and suggest further studies that are needed to be investigated in the future. PMID:23991400

  5. Gut feelings about diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Laferrère, Blandine

    2013-01-01

    Studies of patients going into diabetes remission after gastric bypass surgery have demonstrated the important role of the gut in glucose control. The improvement of type 2 diabetes after gastric bypass surgery occurs via weight dependent and weight independent mechanisms. The rapid improvement of glucose levels within days after the surgery, in relation to change of meal pattern, rapid nutrient transit, enhanced incretin release and improved incretin effect on insulin secretion, suggest mechanisms independent of weight loss. Alternatively, insulin sensitivity improves over time as a function of weight loss. The role of bile acids and microbiome in the metabolic improvement after bariatric surgery remains to be determined. While most patients after bariatric surgery experienced sustained weight loss and improved metabolism, small scale studies have shown weight regain and diabetes relapse, the mechanisms of which remain unknown. PMID:22386248

  6. [Infection and diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Senneville, E

    2008-09-01

    The large number of factors that influence the outcome of patients with diabetic foot infections calls for a multidisciplinary management of such patients. Infection is always the consequence of a preexisting foot wound whose chronicity is facilitated by the diabetic peripheral neuropathy, whereas peripheral vascular disease is a factor of poor outcome, especially regarding the risk for leg amputation. Primary and secondary prevention of IPD depends both on the efficacy of wound off-loading. Antibiotic treatment should only be considered for clinically infected foot wounds for which diagnostic criteria have recently been proposed by international consensus. The choice of the antibiotic regimen should take into account the risk for selecting bacterial resistance, and as a consequence, agents with a narrow spectrum of activity should be preferred. Respect of the measures for preventing the spread of bacterial resistance in diabetic foot centers is particularly important. PMID:18822250

  7. Inflammation in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Johnny; Kern, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes causes a number of metabolic and physiologic abnormalities in the retina, but which of these abnormalities contribute to recognized features of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is less clear. Many of the molecular and physiologic abnormalities that have been found to develop in the retina in diabetes are consistent with inflammation. Moreover, a number of anti-inflammatory therapies have been found to significantly inhibit development of different aspects of DR in animal models. Herein, we review the inflammatory mediators and their relationship to early and late DR, and discuss the potential of anti-inflammatory approaches to inhibit development of different stages of the retinopathy. We focus primarily on information derived from in vivo studies, supplementing with information from in vitro studies were important. PMID:21635964

  8. [Diabetes in liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    García-Compeán, Diego; Jáquez-Quintana, Joel O; González-González, José A; Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Z; Maldonado-Garza, Hector J

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of overt diabetes mellitus (DM) in liver cirrhosis is about 30%. However, DM or impaired glucose tolerance can be observed in 90% after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with normal fasting plasma glucose. Type 2 DM may produce cirrhosis, whereas DM may be a complication of cirrhosis. The latter is known as «hepatogenous diabetes». Overt and subclinical DM is associated with liver complications and death in cirrhotic patients. Treating diabetes is difficult in cirrhotic patients because of the metabolic impairments due to liver disease and because the most appropriate pharmacologic treatment has not been defined. It is also unknown if glycemic control with hypoglycemic agents has any impact on the course of the liver disease. PMID:23628170

  9. [Diabetic macrovascular complications].

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2015-03-01

    Reactive derivatives from non-enzymatic glucose-protein condensation reactions, as well as lipids and nucleic acids exposed to reducing sugars, form a heterogeneous group of irreversible adducts called "advanced glycation end products(AGEs)". The formation and accumulation of AGEs have been known to progress at an accelerated rate under diabetes. There is accumulating evidence that AGEs and their receptor (RAGE) interaction elicits oxidative stress generation and subsequently evokes inflammatory and thrombogenic reactions, thereby being involved in vascular complications in diabetes. We, along with others, have recently found that pigment epithelium-derived factor(PEDF), a glycoprotein that belongs to the superfamily of serine protease inhibitors, has neuroprotective, anti-angiogenic, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties both in cell culture and animal models. In this review, we discuss the role of AGE-RAGE axis in diabetic macroangiopathy and its therapeutic intervention by PEDF. PMID:25812377

  10. Diabetes in Canadian Women

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Catherine; Booth, Gillian L

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic health condition affecting 4.8% of Canadian adults ? 20 years of age. The prevalence increases with age. According to the National Diabetes Surveillance System (NDSS) (1998–1999), approximately 12% of Canadians aged 60–74 years are affected. One-third of cases may remain undiagnosed. The projected increase in DM prevalence largely results from rising rates of obesity and inactivity. Key Findings DM in Canada appears to be more common among men than women. However, among Aboriginal Canadians, two-thirds of affected individuals are women. Although obesity is more prevalent among men than women (35% vs. 27%), the DM risk associated with obesity is greater for women. Socio-economic status is inversely related to DM prevalence but the income-related disparities are greater among women. Polycystic ovarian syndrome affects 5–7% of reproductive-aged women and doubles their risk for DM. Women with gestational diabetes frequently develop DM over the next 10 years. Data Gaps and Recommendations Studies of at risk ethnic/racial groups and women with gestational diabetes are needed. Age and culturally sensitive programs need to be developed and evaluated. Studies of low-income diabetic women are required before determining potential interventions. Lifestyle programs in schools and workplaces are needed to promote well-being and combat obesity/inactivity, together with lobbying of the food industry for needed changes. High depression rates among diabetic women influence self-care ability and health care expenditures. Health professionals need further training in the use of effective counseling skills that will assist people with DM to make and maintain difficult behavioural changes. PMID:15345079

  11. Neonatal diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Armentrout, D

    1995-01-01

    Neonatal diabetes mellitus is an uncommon disorder of unknown cause that can be encountered in the first days to weeks of life. Two forms--transient and permanent--have been described. Signs and symptoms of both forms are identical with the ongoing need for insulin therapy past the neonatal period the only method to distinguish between them. This article describes the infant with transient neonatal diabetes and reviews the clinical characteristics of both the transient and permanent forms. The role of the nurse practitioner in the care and management of these infants is also addressed. PMID:7769543

  12. Diabetes mellitus and dialysis.

    PubMed

    Stein, G; Fünfstück, R; Schiel, R

    2004-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is increasing, and in some countries is the single most important cause, for end-stage renal disease. In general, primarily elderly patients on renal replacement therapy, are not only affected by diabetes-related long-term complications, but also frequently with a wide range of co-morbidities. Apart from cardiac complications, the patients are subject to a wide range of vascular (i.e. peripheral vascular disease, stroke) and infectious complications. In the past this has been reflected by a relatively poor survival rate on dialysis, and minimized chances to obtain renal transplantation. Today, several renal replacement strategies are available, including the main 3: hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or kidney transplantation. For patients with diabetes mellitus, hemodialysis is the most commonly used therapy. Each dialysis unit should achieve an optimal dialysis adequacy represented by a single pool Kt/V of at least 1.2. The most important independent predictor of patient survival with hemodialysis treatment is age. Other factors related to complications are left ventricular hypertrophy, arterial hypertension, hypervolaemia and chronic anemia. Moreover, medial arterial calcification, malnutrition, gastrointestinal disorders and dialysis against low potassium dialysate are related to increased morbidity and mortality as well. An integral part of treatment is the availability of good vascular access. The survival rates of fistulas show a nearly twofold higher rate of failure for synthetic grafts compared with arteriovenous fistulas. The role of peritoneal dialysis in renal replacement therapy in patients with diabetic nephropathy is well established and used world-wide. Most patients with residual renal function start with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), but automated peritoneal dialysis can also be used. An unresolved problem associated with CAPD is the glucose absorption and caloric intake. The optimum adjustment of blood glucose values is made more difficult. Death rates of diabetic patients on peritoneal dialysis remain higher than in non-diabetics. The changes in peritoneal membrane thickness and vascular alterations in relationship to the duration of dialysis are caused mainly by glucose and glucose degradation products, such as advanced glycation endproduct (AGEs). Therefore, new peritoneal dialysis solutions are needed to reduce the complications and to delay a long-time function of the peritoneal membrane. Peritonitis remains still the major cause of discontinuation of dialysis but there is no increased risk in diabetic patients. Nevertheless, an integrative care of end-stage renal disease patients with diabetic nephropathy should be offered to the patient, starting on peritoneal dialysis and switch to hemodialysis if problems arise. During the whole time patients should be kept on the renal transplantation waiting list. PMID:15467507

  13. [Gestational diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Bancher-Todesca, Dagmar; Pollak, Arnold; Repa, Andreas; Lechleitner, Monika; Weitgasser, Raimund

    2012-12-01

    Gestational diabetes (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset during pregnancy and is associated with increased feto-maternal morbidity as well as long-term complications in mothers and offspring. Women detected to have diabetes early in pregnancy receive the diagnosis of overt, non-gestational, diabetes. GDM is diagnosed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) or fasting glucose concentrations (> 92 mg/dl). Screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes at the first prenatal visit (Evidence level B) is recommended in women at increased risk using standard diagnostic criteria (high risk: history of GDM or pre-diabetes (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance); malformation, stillbirth, successive abortions or birthweight > 4,500 g in previous pregnancies; obesity, metabolic syndrome, age > 45 years, vascular disease; clinical symptoms of diabetes (e.g. glucosuria). Performance of the OGTT (120 min; 75 g glucose) may already be indicated in the first trimester in some women but is mandatory between 24 and 28 gestational weeks in all pregnant women with previous non-pathological glucose metabolism (Evidence level B). Based on the results of the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study GDM is defined, if fasting venous plasma glucose exceeds 92 mg/dl or 1 h 180 mg/dl or 2 h 153 mg/dl after glucose loading (OGTT; international consensus criteria). In case of one pathological value a strict metabolic control is mandatory. All women should receive nutritional counseling and be instructed in blood glucose self-monitoring. If blood glucose levels cannot be maintained in the normal range (fasting < 95 mg/dl and 1 h after meals < 140 mg/dl) insulin therapy should be initiated. Maternal and fetal monitoring is required in order to minimize maternal and fetal/neonatal morbidity and perinatal mortality. After delivery all women with GDM have to be reevaluated as to their glucose tolerance by a 75 g OGTT (WHO criteria) 6-12 weeks postpartum and every 2 years in case of normal glucose tolerance (Evidence level B). All women have to be instructed about their (sevenfold increased relative) risk of type 2 diabetes at follow-up and possibilities for diabetes prevention, in particular weight management and maintenance/increase of physical activity. Monitoring of the development of the offspring and recommendation of healthy lifestyle of the children and family is recommended. PMID:23250453

  14. Osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Rishi; Chan, Claire Shu-Yi; Nather, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Osteomyelitis (OM) is a common complication of diabetic foot ulcers and/or diabetic foot infections. This review article discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of OM in the diabetic foot. Clinical features that point to the possibility of OM include the presence of exposed bone in the depth of a diabetic foot ulcer. Medical imaging studies include plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, and bone scintigraphy. A high index of suspicion is also required to make the diagnosis of OM in the diabetic foot combined with clinical and radiological studies. PMID:25147627

  15. Diabetes on the college campus.

    PubMed

    Kamboj, Manmohan K

    2005-02-01

    The college campus presents a unique scenario where older adolescents and young adults find themselves in an independent environment. The students with pre-existing diabetes face immense responsibility regarding their diabetes care and decision making, without the immediate presence of their parents and the pediatric diabetes team. In addition, there are many other students who may be faced with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus first identified in college. Current diabetes management strategies offer comprehensive care, which results in improved glycemic control and near-normal lifestyle. Continued effort at comprehensive diabetes education goes a long way toward giving these students healthy lives. This article reviews issues involving care of college students with diabetes. PMID:15748935

  16. Diabetes screening in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Gulley, Tauna; Boggs, Dusta; Mullins, Rebecca; Brock, Emily

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of diabetes has increased worldwide and the pathophysiological problems associated with diabetes increase the potential for employees' physical disabilities. These complications, including neuropathy, nephropathy, and visual impairment, negatively impact the job performance of employees and compromise workplace safety. Occupational health nurses can provide diabetes screening programs to employees and identify chronic disease risk factors early. This article describes an occupational diabetes screening program at a major corporation in Belize, Central America, defines diabetes, outlines the diabetes teaching plan, and presents the demographics of the participants and results of the screening. Cultural considerations and recommendations for future occupational diabetes screenings are proposed. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(11):444-446.]. PMID:25373027

  17. Diabetic Neuropathy: Mechanisms to Management

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, James L.; Vincent, Andrea; Cheng, Thomas; Feldman, Eva L.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathy is the most common and debilitating complication of diabetes and results in pain, decreased motility, and amputation. Diabetic neuropathy encompasses a variety of forms whose impact ranges from discomfort to death. Hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress in diabetic neurons and results in activation of multiple biochemical pathways. These activated pathways are a major source of damage and are potential therapeutic targets in diabetic neuropathy. Though therapies are available to alleviate the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy, few options are available to eliminate the root causes. The immense physical, psychological, and economic cost of diabetic neuropathy underscores the need for causally targeted therapies. This review covers the pathology, epidemiology, biochemical pathways, and prevention of diabetic neuropathy, as well as discusses current symptomatic and causal therapies and novel approaches to identify therapeutic targets. PMID:18616962

  18. 78 FR 26641 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Diabetes Mellitus Interagency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ...and Kidney Diseases, Diabetes Mellitus Interagency...Workshop SUMMARY: The Diabetes Mellitus Interagency...DMICC) will hold a 2-day workshop on June...Executive Secretary of the Diabetes Mellitus Interagency...emerging opportunities for type 1 diabetes research...

  19. Diabetes: Biomarkers to Cures Diabetes Expertise at the UBC Life Sciences institute

    E-print Network

    Strynadka, Natalie

    : R o b F r a s e r Diabetes: Biomarkers to Cures Diabetes Expertise at the UBC Life Sciences institute The Life Sciences Institute (LSI) Diabetes Research Group, with its unique complement of diabetes research programs, has

  20. Diabetes and HIV.

    PubMed

    Quin, John

    2014-12-01

    The co-existence of diabetes mellitus and HIV infection poses significant challenges for both patient and physician. This article reviews the clinical problems, the implications for treatment plans and potential confusions that can arise when managing patients who have both conditions. PMID:25468855

  1. Ghrelin, obesity and diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Wiedmer; Rubén Nogueiras; Fabio Broglio; David D'Alessio; Matthias H Tschöp

    2007-01-01

    The high prevalence of obesity and diabetes will lead to higher rates of morbidity and mortality. The search for drugs to treat these metabolic disorders has, therefore, intensified. The stomach-derived peptide ghrelin regulates food intake and body weight. Recent work suggests that ghrelin also controls glucose metabolism. In addition, current evidence suggests that most of the actions of ghrelin could

  2. Gestational Diabetes and Testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... risk factors for GDM. This is why most health care providers offer the test to all pregnant women. A few women have ... a high chance of getting gestational diabetes. Your health care provider will offer a screening test early in pregnancy or at 24-28 weeks ...

  3. Vitamin D and diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On the basis of evidence from animal and human studies, vitamin D has emerged as a potential risk modifier for type 1 and type 2 diabetes (t1DM and t2DM). Vitamin D is thought to have both direct (through activation of the vitamin D receptor) and indirect (via regulation of calcium homeostasis) eff...

  4. Epidemiology of diabetes

    E-print Network

    Forouhi, Nita Gandhi; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2014-10-22

    by screening (ADDITION- Europe): a cluster-randomised trial. Lancet 2011; 378: 156e67. 23 Simmons RK, Echouffo-Tcheugui JB, Sharp SJ, et al. Effect of screening for type 2 diabetes on population mortality over 10 years: the ADDITION-Cambridge cluster e...

  5. [Diabetes and Ramadan].

    PubMed

    Zantar, Amina; Azzoug, Said; Belhimer, Faiza; Chentli, Farida

    2012-11-01

    Ramadan, one of the five pillars of Islam, is a holy month for Muslims. During this month, they have a duty to fast every day from sunrise to sunset. This religion spares diabetics and persons with chronic illnesses from this duty, because lack of eating and drinking all the day has many bad consequences on their health. But, because of a very strong habit, by solidarity with the family, or by fear of exclusion from the society, many diabetics insist on fasting as demonstrated by numerous studies. The problem is, when they fast, diabetics are at risk from complications such as severe hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, dehydration and thrombosis. To avoid this, consensus and recommendations have emerged in order to develop new approaches that would minimize the various complications. It appears from different recommendations that only diabetics whose equilibrium is stable, free of degenerative complications, and able to manage properly their diseases will be allowed to fast. The physician's role is to assist the faithful person to Ramadan by raising awareness of lifestyle and dietary rules, daily self-monitoring, and a new adjustment of treatment. PMID:22959493

  6. Diabetes: The Science Inside

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Healthy People Library Project

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to provide basic information about type 2 diabetes: what causes it, how it affects the body, and how it can be prevented and treated. Supported byScience Education Partnership Award (SEPA)from the National Center for Research Resources Grant # 5R25RR15601.

  7. Diagnosing gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E A

    2011-03-01

    The newly proposed criteria for diagnosing gestational diabetes will result in a gestational diabetes prevalence of 17.8%, doubling the numbers of pregnant women currently diagnosed. These new diagnostic criteria are based primarily on the levels of glucose associated with a 1.75-fold increased risk of giving birth to large-for-gestational age infants (LGA) in the Hyperglycemia Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study; they use a single OGTT. Thus, of 23,316 pregnancies, gestational diabetes would be diagnosed in 4,150 women rather than in 2,448 women if a twofold increased risk of LGA were used. It should be recognised that the majority of women with LGA have normal glucose levels during pregnancy by these proposed criteria and that maternal obesity is a stronger predictor of LGA. The expected benefit of a diagnosis of gestational diabetes in these 1,702 additional women would be the prevention of 140 cases of LGA, 21 cases of shoulder dystocia and 16 cases of birth injury. The reproducibility of an OGTT for diagnosing mild hyperglycaemia is poor. Given that (1) glucose is a weak predictor of LGA, (2) treating these extra numbers has a modest outcome benefit and (3) the diagnosis may be based on a single raised OGTT value, further debate should occur before resources are allocated to implementing this change. PMID:21203743

  8. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Q& ... Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading All About Allergies First Aid: What to Do Pregnant? What to ... Kids who have diabetes have trouble taking energy from food and delivering it to the trillions of cells ...

  9. Teen Diabetes Quiz

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Indian, Alaska Native, African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian American, or Pacific Islander All of the above If you get angry or feel sad about your diabetes, you can feel better if you: Keep your feelings inside Speak up and ask for help Blame yourself or ...

  10. Diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sibai, Baha M; Viteri, Oscar A

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancies complicated by diabetic ketoacidosis are associated with increased rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. A high index of suspicion is required, because diabetic ketoacidosis onset in pregnancy can be insidious, usually at lower glucose levels, and often progresses more rapidly as compared with nonpregnancy. Morbidity and mortality can be reduced with early detection of precipitating factors (ie, infection, intractable vomiting, inadequate insulin management or inappropriate insulin cessation, ?-sympathomimetic use, steroid administration for fetal lung maturation), prompt hospitalization, and targeted therapy with intensive monitoring. A multidisciplinary approach including a maternal-fetal medicine physician, medical endocrinology specialists familiar with the physiologic changes in pregnancy, an obstetric anesthesiologist, and skilled nursing is paramount. Management principles include aggressive volume replacement, initiation of intravenous insulin therapy, correction of acidosis, correction of electrolyte abnormalities and management of precipitating factors, as well as monitoring of maternal-fetal response to treatment. When diabetic ketoacidosis occurs after 24 weeks of gestation, fetal status should be continuously monitored given associated fetal hypoxemia and acidosis. The decision for delivery can be challenging and must be based on gestational age as well as maternal-fetal responses to therapy. The natural inclination is to proceed with emergent delivery for nonreassuring fetal status that is frequently present during the acute episode, but it is imperative to correct the maternal metabolic abnormalities first, because both maternal and fetal conditions will likewise improve. Prevention strategies should include education of diabetic pregnant women about the risks of diabetic ketoacidosis, precipitating factors, and the importance of reporting signs and symptoms in a timely fashion. PMID:24463678

  11. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. Author manuscript Anti-CD38 autoantibodies in type? diabetes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Diabetes Metab Res Rev. Author manuscript Page /1 12 Anti-CD38 autoantibodies in type? diabetes.mallone@inserm.fr> Abstract Human diabetes mellitus comprises two main clinical entities: type 1 and type 2 diabetes. While type 1 diabetes is autoimmune in origin, type 2 diabetes is due to a decreased sensitivity to insulin

  12. Renal function in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dabla, Pradeep Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the kidney disease that occurs as a result of diabetes. Cardiovascular and renal complications share common risk factors such as blood pressure, blood lipids, and glycemic control. Thus, chronic kidney disease may predict cardiovascular disease in the general population. The impact of diabetes on renal impairment changes with increasing age. Serum markers of glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria identify renal impairment in different segments of the diabetic population, indicating that serum markers as well as microalbuminuria tests should be used in screening for nephropathy in diabetic older people. The American Diabetes Association and the National Institutes of Health recommend Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated from serum creatinine at least once a year in all people with diabetes for detection of kidney dysfunction. eGFR remains an independent and significant predictor after adjustment for conventional risk factors including age, sex, duration of diabetes, smoking, obesity, blood pressure, and glycemic and lipid control, as well as presence of diabetic retinopathy. Cystatin-C (Cys C) may in future be the preferred marker of diabetic nephropathy due differences in measurements of serum creatinine by various methods. The appropriate reference limit for Cys C in geriatric clinical practice must be defined by further research. Various studies have shown the importance of measurement of albuminuria, eGFR, serum creatinine and hemoglobin level to further enhance the prediction of end stage renal disease. PMID:21537427

  13. Diabetes: changing the fate of diabetics in the dialysis unit.

    PubMed

    Broumand, Behrooz

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is very high worldwide. According to the World Health Organization in 2000 the worldwide prevalence of DM was 171,000,000. Diabetic nephropathy is a major vascular complication of DM. If DM is not treated early and adequately, many diabetic patients may reach end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to advanced irreversible diabetic nephropathy. In many countries diabetic nephropathy has become the single most frequent cause of prevalent ESRD patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). In the early era of renal replacement therapy (RRT) by means of intermittent hemodialysis the prognosis of diabetic patients undergoing MHD was extremely poor and disappointing. While the prognosis of patients suffering from diabetic ESRD and maintained by chronic intermittent dialysis has greatly improved, the rehabilitation rate and survival of these patients continue to be worse than those of non-diabetic patients. A preexisting severely compromised cardiovascular condition, vascular access problems, diabetic foot disease, interdialytic weight gain, and intradialytic hypotension explain most of the less favorable outcome. Despite improved techniques and more aggressive medical therapy in recent years, a review of the fate of diabetics in dialysis units since 1972 reveals that these patients have had significant morbidity and mortality. We still have a long way to go in order to achieve more ideal outcomes for our patients. Most of the diabetic ESRD patients are still maintained by MHD, but they can choose other modalities of RRT such as chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), kidney and kidney plus pancreas transplantation. The results of different studies and national registries on the mortality and morbidity of ESRD patients being maintained on different modalities of dialysis are conflicting. It can be concluded that the two modalities of dialysis (CAPD and MHD) are almost comparable in terms of survival. The recent suggestions for nocturnal daily hemodialysis, short daily hemodialysis, and an integrative care approach for the management of diabetics with ESRD provides better promise for these patients. PMID:17170536

  14. Menopause and risk of diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Catherine; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Crandall, Jill P.; Dabelea, Dana; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Hamman, Richard F.; Montez, Maria G.; Perreault, Leigh; Foulkes, Mary A.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study objective was to examine the association between menopause status and diabetes risk among women with glucose intolerance and to determine if menopausal status modifies response to diabetes prevention interventions. Methods The study population included women in premenopause (n=708), natural postmenopause (n=328), and bilateral oophorectomy (n=201) in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a randomized placebo-controlled trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among glucose intolerant adults. Associations between menopause and diabetes risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models that adjusted for demographic variables (age, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes mellitus), waist circumference, insulin resistance and corrected insulin response. Similar models were constructed after stratification by menopause type and hormone therapy (HT) use. Results After adjustment for age, there was no association between natural menopause or bilateral oophorectomy and diabetes risk. Differences by study arm were observed in women who reported bilateral oophorectomy. In the lifestyle arm, women with bilateral oophorectomy had a lower adjusted hazard for diabetes (HR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04, 0.94), although observations were too few to determine if this was independent of HT use. No significant differences were seen in the metformin (HR 1.29, 95% CI 0.63, 2.64) or placebo arms (HR 1.37, 95% CI 0.74, 2.55). Conclusions Among women at high-risk for diabetes, natural menopause was not associated with diabetes risk and did not affect response to diabetes prevention interventions. In the lifestyle intervention, bilateral oophorectomy was associated with decreased diabetes risk. PMID:21709591

  15. The Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is a 27-center randomized clinical trial designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of interventions that may delay or prevent development of diabetes in people at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eligibility requirements were age ?25 years, BMI ?24 kg/m2 (?22 kg/m2 for Asian-Americans), and impaired glucose tolerance plus a fasting plasma glucose of 5.3–6.9 mmol/l (or ?6.9 mmol for American Indians). Randomization of participants into the DPP over 2.7 years ended in June 1999. Baseline data for the three treatment groups—intensive lifestyle modification, standard care plus metformin, and standard care plus placebo—are presented for the 3,234 participants who have been randomized. RESULTS Of all participants, 55% were Caucasian, 20% were African-American, 16% were Hispanic, 5% were American Indian, and 4% were Asian-American. Their average age at entry was 51 ± 10.7 years (mean ± SD), and 67.7% were women. Moreover, 16% were <40 years of age, and 20% were ?60 years of age. Of the women, 48% were postmenopausal. Men and women had similar frequencies of history of hypercholesterolemia (37 and 33%, respectively) or hypertension (29 and 26%, respectively). On the basis of fasting lipid determinations, 54% of men and 40% of women fit National Cholesterol Education Program criteria for abnormal lipid profiles. More men than women were current or former cigarette smokers or had a history of coronary heart disease. Furthermore, 66% of men and 71% of women had a first-degree relative with diabetes. Overall, BMI averaged 34.0 ± 6.7 kg/m2 at baseline with 57% of the men and 73% of women having a BMI ?30 kg/m2. Average fasting plasma glucose (6.0 ± 0.5 mmol/l) and HbA1c (5.9 ± 0.5%) in men were comparable with values in women (5.9 ± 0.4 mmol/l and 5.9 ± 0.5%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS The DPP has successfully randomized a large cohort of participants with a wide distribution of age, obesity, and ethnic and racial backgrounds who are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The study will examine the effects of interventions on the development of diabetes. PMID:11092283

  16. Symptomatic diabetic and non-diabetic neuropathies in a series of 100 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Lozeron, Pierre; Nahum, Laurence; Lacroix, Catherine; Ropert, Angèle; Guglielmi, Jean-Marc; Said, Gérard

    2002-05-01

    We have reviewed the clinical and pathological data of a series of 100 consecutive diabetic patients with symptomatic neuropathy in order to learn more about the causes of neuropathy in this population and on the signs and symptoms that could suggest another cause than diabetes in this setting. After diagnostic procedures, patients were assigned one (at most two) of a final total of 18 different causes of neuropathy. Diabetes accounted for 74 % of the neuropathies in the whole group of patients and for 79 % of those with a fiber length dependent pattern of neuropathy. One third of patients had a neuropathy unrelated to diabetes. As a group, 71 % of the patients presented either a length dependent diabetic polyneuropathy (LDDP) or a proximal diabetic neuropathy (PDN). The LDDP group was biased towards more severely affected patients owing to our specialization. Conversely, most patients with proximal diabetic neuropathy had usual features. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy that was diagnosed in 9 % of the patients was the most common non-diabetic cause of neuropathy in this population. We conclude that a short interval between diagnosis of diabetes and the onset of the neuropathy, early motor deficit, markedly asymmetrical deficit and generalized areflexia, which are all uncommon in the LDDP, argue in favor of a non diabetic origin of the neuropathy and should lead to further investigation. PMID:12021947

  17. Diabetic foot: prevention and interventions.

    PubMed

    Venermo, Maarit; Lepäntalo, Mauri

    2008-01-01

    The number of diabetics will increase almost 70% in developed countries during the next 20 years. Peripheral arterial disease is a common and costly complication among diabetics. The incidence of cardiovascular disease (mortality and morbidity) due to atherosclerosis, is higher among patients with diabetes than in those without diabetes. Also, amputation incidence is 5-10-fold higher compared to nondiabetics. Due to neuropathy, infections and underlying PAD, ulcers in diabetic foot leads too often to amputation. Urgent evaluation of lower extremity circulation, treatment of infections and surgical procedures, including revisions and revascularizations, are often needed. Intensive management of diabetes, including glycaemic and platelet aggregation control, treatment of hypertension and dyslipidemia, as well as nonpharmacological interventions, decreases both micro- and macrovascular complications. PMID:19791427

  18. Glycation and diabetes: The RAGE connection

    E-print Network

    Hudson, Barry I.; Hofmann, Marion A.; Bucciarelli, Loredana; Wendt, Thoralf; Moser, Bernhard; Lu, Yan; Qu, Wu; Stern, David M.; D'Agati, Vivette; Yan, Shirley ShiDu; Yan, Shi Fang; Grant, Peter J.; Schmidt, Ann Marie

    2002-12-25

    at sites of vascular disease in both animal models of diabetes and human diabetic subjects. Blockade of RAGE in animal models of diabetes suppresses development of dysfunction in the vasculature and atherosclerosis development. Genetic studies of RAGE...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... Glossary definitions Reviewed April 2010 What is neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus? Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is a disorder of ...

  20. Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Diabetes Medicines—Always Discuss Them with Your Healthcare Provider ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... definitions Reviewed July 2011 What is permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus? Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus is a type ...

  2. Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning about Prediabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes There are several ways ... mg/dl – 199 mg/dl Preventing Type 2 Diabetes You will not develop type 2 diabetes automatically ...

  3. Sexual and Urologic Problems of Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Diabetes Disease Organizations There are many organizations who provide ... Language URL Español Sexual and Urologic Problems of Diabetes Page Content On this page: Diabetes and Sexual ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... Glossary definitions Reviewed April 2010 What is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus? Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a disorder of ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Type 1 diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Type 1 diabetes On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed March 2013 What is type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is a disorder characterized by ...

  6. How Is Diabetes Treated in Children?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Is Diabetes Treated in Children? Search the Consumer Updates Section ... worse over time. back to top Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is most often diagnosed in ...

  7. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Feet Healthy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your feet healthy Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your feet healthy On this page: ... Information More in the Series Acknowledgments How can diabetes affect my feet? Too much glucose , * also called ...

  8. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Mouth Healthy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Statistics Research Resources Order About Us Español National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and Resources E-News ... Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your mouth healthy Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your mouth healthy On this page: ...

  9. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Statistics Research Resources Order About Us Español National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and Resources E-News ... Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your kidneys healthy Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your kidneys healthy On this page: ...

  10. Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life

    MedlinePLUS

    ... previous page Related Topics Diabetes Related Documents PDF Living with Diabetes Download PDF Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Managing Complications ...

  11. Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2 National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse #12;#12;Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2 #12;#12;Contents Learn about Diabetes ............................................................ 1 What is diabetes? .............................................................. 2 What

  12. [Sleep and diabetes].

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Angela; Philippe, Jacques; Jornayvaz, François R

    2012-06-01

    Sleep needs in adults are estimated to be 7 to 8 hours per night. During the last forty years, sleep duration has decreased by about 2 hours per night, as a result of our lifestyle, workload, social activities and access to technology. There are several social, economic and public health consequences due to chronic sleep deprivation. Current data suggests that sleep deprivation as well as poor quality of sleep have an impact on the incidence and prevalence of both obesity and type 2 diabetes. Screening for sleep disorders and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) should be routinely performed in an increased number of patients, particularly those at high risk, i.e. obese, diabetic and hypertensive patients. PMID:22730615

  13. When to suspect 'funny' diabetes.

    PubMed

    Grant, Paul; Velusamy, Anand; Thomas, Ellen; Chakera, Ali J

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes comes in many shapes and forms. It is important for the general physician to recognise when clinical characteristics, response to treatment and associated features suggest an alternative variety of diabetes, over and above the traditional type 1 and type 2 forms which are far more common. Key to these suspicions are taking a clear history of the development of the diabetes and being aware of the family history. PMID:25468854

  14. Diabetic nephropathy - complications and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lim, Andy Kh

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a significant cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal failure globally. Much research has been conducted in both basic science and clinical therapeutics, which has enhanced understanding of the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy and expanded the potential therapies available. This review will examine the current concepts of diabetic nephropathy management in the context of some of the basic science and pathophysiology aspects relevant to the approaches taken in novel, investigative treatment strategies. PMID:25342915

  15. Inflammation in diabetic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Patricia M; Getino-Melián, María A; Domínguez-Pimentel, Virginia; Navarro-González, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus entails significant health problems worldwide. The pathogenesis of diabetes is multifactorial, resulting from interactions of both genetic and environmental factors that trigger a complex network of pathophysiological events, with metabolic and hemodynamic alterations. In this context, inflammation has emerged as a key pathophysiology mechanism. New pathogenic pathways will provide targets for prevention or future treatments. This review will focus on the implications of inflammation in diabetes mellitus, with special attention to inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25126391

  16. Hemorheological Disorders in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young I.; Mooney, Michael P.; Cho, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to review hemorheological disorders in diabetes mellitus. Several key hemorheological parameters, such as whole blood viscosity, erythrocyte deformability, and aggregation, are examined in the context of elevated blood glucose level in diabetes. The erythrocyte deformability is reduced, whereas its aggregation increases, both of which make whole blood more viscous compared to healthy individuals. The present paper explains how the increased blood viscosity adversely affects the microcirculation in diabetes, leading to microangiopathy. PMID:19885302

  17. LiquichekTM Diabetes Control

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Carlos

    LiquichekTM Diabetes Control Bio-Rad Laboratories D I A B E T E S / H E M O G L O B I N C O N T R O L S #12;LiquichekTM Diabetes Control Hemoglobin A1C Hemoglobin, Total A liquid human whole blood based product designed to monitor the performance of hemoglobin tests associated with diabetes

  18. Obesity and Diabetes Epidemics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anette Hjartåker; Hilde Langseth; Elisabete Weiderpass

    The prevalence of overweight (body mass index, BMI, between 25 and 30 kg\\/m2) and obesity (BMI of 30 kg\\/m2 or higher) is increasing rapidly worldwide, especially in developing countries and countries undergoing economic transition\\u000a to a market economy. One consequence of obesity is an increased risk of developing type II diabetes.\\u000a \\u000a Overall, there is considerable evidence that overweight and obesity

  19. Diabetes in pregnancy 1985

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Hadden

    1986-01-01

    The art of obstetrics is not a subject which is often discussed in the pages ofDiabetologia. However, as the care of the diabetic mother and her offspring is rightly an interdisciplinary responsibility between obstetrician,\\u000a diabetologist and neonatologist, it is important that each has s. close understanding of the various problems. Dr. M.I. Drury\\u000a (Dublin), speaking as an internist, raises a

  20. Diagnosis of gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Coustan, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Previous approaches to diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have included 50 g, 75 g and 100 g glucose challenges, lasting 1-3 hours, with 1 or 2 elevations required. Thresholds were validated by their predictive value for subsequent diabetes, or were the same thresholds used in non-pregnant individuals. None were based on their prediction of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Diagnostic paradigms vary throughout the world, making comparisons impossible and severely limiting communication among investigators. The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study collected outcome data on > 23,000 pregnancies recruited prospectively in nine countries after a blinded 75 g, 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24-28 weeks gestation. Primary outcomes (LGA, PCS, neonatal hypoglycemia, high cord C-peptide), and most secondary outcomes (e.g. preeclampsia, preterm birth, shoulder dystocia and birth injury), were significantly, directly and continuously related to each of the three plasma glucose measurements. The International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) developed recommendations for the use of a 75 g, 2-h OGTT, ? 1 elevation diagnosing GDM, with thresholds: fasting plasma glucose ? 5.1 mmol/L (92 mg/dL) , 1 h ? 10 mmol/L (180 mg/dL) and 2 h ? 8.5 mmol/L (153 mg/dL). These have generated wide discussion and are currently being considered throughout the world. They are pregnancy outcome-based; the 75 g glucose load will bring consistency to GTTs; universal adoption will lead to consistency of diagnostic criteria worldwide; studies of treatment at similarly mild levels of glycemia have demonstrated improvement in outcomes; use of a single abnormal value will obviate the confusion arising when one elevated value is encountered. The primary argument against the recommendations is that prevalence of GDM will rise to 16-18 %, increasing health care costs. Balanced against this is the world-wide epidemic of obesity, prediabetes and diabetes. PMID:25083890

  1. Idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deirdre O’Donovan; Christine Feinle-Bisset; Karen Jones; Michael Horowitz

    2003-01-01

    Opinion statement  The management of both diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis often represents a substantial clinical challenge. In formulating\\u000a recommendations for therapy, it should be recognized that these are based on less than optimal evidence; in particular, there\\u000a are substantial deficiencies in current knowledge relating to the pathophysiology of gastroparesis, as well as the natural\\u000a history of gastrointestinal symptoms, and the majority

  2. Subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pascoe, M. K.; Low, P. A.; Windebank, A. J.; Litchy, W. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrophysiologic, autonomic, and neuropathologic characteristics and the natural history of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy and its response to immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of Mayo Clinic patients with diabetes who had subacute onset and progression of proximal weakness. The responses of treated versus untreated patients were compared statistically. RESULTS: During the designated study period, 44 patients with subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy were encountered. Most patients were middle-aged or elderly, and no sex preponderance was noted. The proximal muscle weakness often was associated with reduced or absent lower extremity reflexes. Associated weight loss was a common finding. Frequently, patients had some evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, but it invariably was accompanied by concomitant axonal degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was usually increased. Diffuse and substantial autonomic failure was generally present. In most cases, a sural nerve biopsy specimen suggested demyelination, although evidence of an inflammatory infiltrate was less common. Of 12 patients who received treatment (with prednisone, intravenous immune globulin, or plasma exchange), 9 had improvement of their conditions, but 17 of 29 untreated patients (59%) with follow-up also eventually had improvement, albeit at a much slower rate. Improvement was usually incomplete. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the entity of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy is an extensive and severe variant of bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, with some features suggestive of an immune-mediated cause. It differs from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in that most cases have a more restricted distribution and seem to be monophasic and self-limiting. The efficacy of immunotherapy is unproved, but such intervention may be considered in the severe and progressive cases or ones associated with severe neuropathic pain.

  3. Diabetic retinopathy in acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Azzoug, Said; Chentli, Farida

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Although growth hormone (GH) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR), DR is deemed to be rare in patients with GH excess. Our aim was to study its prevalence in subjects with acromegaly suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM), to analyze its characteristics, and to look for predictive factors such as age at diagnosis, GH concentration and duration, DM duration, DM control, and family background. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with acromegaly and DM (21 males, 19 females), median age = 50 years, underwent a systematic ophthalmological examination with dilated funduscopy to seek diabetic retinopathy. Results: Among this population, 05 (12.5%) had DR. It was at an early stage or background retinopathy in 3 cases and at a more advanced stage or proliferative retinopathy in 2 cases. We did not find any correlation with age at diagnosis, GH levels and duration, DM duration and family history of DM, but poor glycemic control seems to play a role although statistical analysis showed borderline significance. Conclusion: From this study, we conclude that prevalence of DR in patients with acromegaly is 12.5%, and it is slight or moderate. Among studied factors, only poor glycemic control seems to be implicated in its development. PMID:24944939

  4. Gallbladder function in diabetic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Shreiner, D.P.; Sarva, R.P.; Van Thiel, D.; Yingvorapant, N.

    1986-03-01

    Gallbladder emptying and filling was studied in eight diabetic and six normal control patients. None of the patients had gallstones. Cholescintigraphy was performed using (/sup 99m/Tc)disofenin, and gallbladder emptying was studied using a 45-min i.v. infusion of the octapeptide of cholecystokinin (OP-CCK) 20 ng/kg X hr. The peak filling rate was greater in diabetic than in normal subjects; however, emptying of the gallbladder in response to OP-CCK was significantly less in the diabetic subjects (51.6 +/- 10.4% compared with 77.2 +/- 4.9%). When the diabetic group was subdivided into obese and nonobese diabetics, the obese diabetics had a much lower percentage of emptying than the nonobese diabetics (30.0 +/- 10.4% compared with 73.1 +/- 9.3%). These findings suggest that obese diabetics may have impaired emptying of the gallbladder even in the absence of gallstones. The more rapid rate of gallbladder filling in obesity may indicate hypotonicity of the gallbladder. The combination of these abnormalities may predispose the obese diabetic to the development of gallstones.

  5. Help Prevent Diabetes with Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2011-07-01

    This animated video segment adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, featuring American Indian characters, explains how children can help prevent diabetes through regular physical activity.

  6. [Diabetic retinopathy: new therapeutic possibilities].

    PubMed

    Guex-Crosier, Yan; Behar-Cohen, Francine

    2015-01-14

    Diabetic retinopathy affects an increasing number of persons, about 4 millions in Europe, a number that will probably double until 2030. If we consider that 25-30% of patients are affected by diabetic retinopathy, an ophthalmologic screening and early therapy will allow a better visual prognosis and avoid severe ocular complications such as diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. A summary of current ophthalmologic literature was performed and was focused on the role of anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) therapies and intraocular drug delivery of corticosteroids in a pathology that was recently classified in inflammatory pathologies. PMID:25799661

  7. The Diabetes Pearl: Diabetes biobanking in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is associated with considerable comorbidity and severe complications, which reduce quality of life of the patients and require high levels of healthcare. The Diabetes Pearl is a large cohort of patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, covering different geographical areas in the Netherlands. The aim of the study is to create a research infrastructure that will allow the study of risk factors, including biomarkers and genetic determinants for severe diabetes complications. Methods/design Baseline examinations began November 2009 and will continue through 2012. By the end of 2012, it is expected that 7000 patients with type 2 diabetes will be included in the Diabetes Pearl cohort. To ensure quality of the data collected, standard operation procedures were developed and used in all 8 recruitment centers. From all patients who provide informed consent, the following information is collected: personal information, medication use, physical examination (antropometry, blood pressure, electrocardiography (ECG), retina photographs, ankle-brachial index, peripheral vibration perception), self-report questionnaire (socio-economic status, lifestyle, (family) history of disease, and psychosocial well-being), laboratory measurements (glucose, A1c, lipid profile, kidney function), biobank material (storage of urine and blood samples and isolated DNA). All gathered clinical data and biobank information is uploaded to a database for storage on a national level. Biobanks are maintained locally at all recruitment centers. Discussion The Diabetes Pearl is large-scale cohort of type 2 diabetes patients in the Netherlands aiming to study risk factors, including biomarkers and genetic markers, for disease deterioration and the development of severe diabetes complications. As a result of the well-designed research design and the national coverage, the Diabetes Pearl data can be of great value to national and international researchers with an interest in diabetes related research. PMID:23130988

  8. Diabetes, Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover, Diabetes Control, and Bone

    PubMed Central

    Starup-Linde, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to have late complications including micro vascular and macro vascular disease. This review focuses on another possible area of complication regarding diabetes; bone. Diabetes may affect bone via bone structure, bone density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover. The aim of the present review is to examine in vivo from humans on biochemical markers of bone turnover in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Furthermore, the effect of glycemic control on bone markers and the similarities and differences of type 1- and type 2-diabetics regarding bone markers will be evaluated. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, and SveMed+ with the search terms: “Diabetes mellitus,” “Diabetes mellitus type 1,” “Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus,” “Diabetes mellitus type 2,” “Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus,” “Bone,” “Bone and Bones,” “Bone diseases,” “Bone turnover,” “Hemoglobin A Glycosylated,” and “HbA1C.” After removing duplicates from this search 1,188 records were screened by title and abstract and 75 records were assessed by full text for inclusion in the review. In the end 43 records were chosen. Bone formation and resorption markers are investigated as well as bone regulating systems. T1D is found to have lower osteocalcin and CTX, while osteocalcin and tartrate-resistant acid are found to be lower in T2D, and sclerostin is increased and collagen turnover markers altered. Other bone turnover markers do not seem to be altered in T1D or T2D. A major problem is the lack of histomorphometric studies in humans linking changes in turnover markers to actual changes in bone turnover and further research is needed to strengthen this link. PMID:23482417

  9. Diabetes Research: A Perspective From the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fradkin, Judith E.; Rodgers, Griffin P.

    2013-01-01

    This is the third in a series of articles, invited by the editors of Diabetes, that describes the research programs and aims of organizations committed to funding and fostering diabetes-related research. The first piece, contributed by the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, appeared in the January 2012 issue of Diabetes. The second piece that describes the American Diabetes Association’s research program appeared in the June 2012 issues of Diabetes and Diabetes Care. PMID:23349536

  10. Influence of menopause on diabetes and diabetes risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily D. Szmuilowicz; Cynthia A. Stuenkel; Ellen W. Seely

    2009-01-01

    Many postmenopausal women live with diabetes mellitus; however, little information is available about how the changes that occur around the time of menopause might uniquely affect management of diabetes mellitus in this population. Although the weight gain that commonly occurs during the menopausal transition is largely attributable to aging rather than the transition itself, changes in body composition have been

  11. Diabetic mastopathy: an uncommon complication of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kirby, R X; Mitchell, D I; Williams, N P; Cornwall, D A; Cawich, S O

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Whilst most consequences of diabetes mellitus are well recognized, breast-related complications remain obscure. The term diabetic mastopathy (DMP) attempts to describe the breast-related consequences of diabetes. Methods. We report the clinicopathologic findings in a patient with DMP and review the literature on this uncommon entity. Results. A 33-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes had excision biopsy of a 2?cm breast lump. Histopathologic evaluation revealed classic features of DMP: parenchymal fibrosis; keloid-like hyalinization of interlobular stroma; adipose tissue entrapment; lobular compression; dense chronic inflammatory cell infiltration; and lymphoid follicle formation. Conclusion. Clinicians should be aware of DMP as a differential for breast disease in women with uncontrolled diabetes. PMID:23936718

  12. Diabetes and blood pressure (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...

  13. Diabetes and Stem Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Fujimaki, Shin; Wakabayashi, Tamami; Takemasa, Tohru; Asashima, Makoto; Kuwabara, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common serious metabolic diseases that results in hyperglycemia due to defects of insulin secretion or insulin action or both. The present review focuses on the alterations to the diabetic neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle, including stem cells in both tissues, and the preventive effects of physical activity on diabetes. Diabetes is associated with various nervous disorders, such as cognitive deficits, depression, and Alzheimer's disease, and that may be caused by neural stem cell dysfunction. Additionally, diabetes induces skeletal muscle atrophy, the impairment of energy metabolism, and muscle weakness. Similar to neural stem cells, the proliferation and differentiation are attenuated in skeletal muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells. However, physical activity is very useful for preventing the diabetic alteration to the neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle. Physical activity improves neurogenic capacity of neural stem cells and the proliferative and differentiative abilities of satellite cells. The present review proposes physical activity as a useful measure for the patients in diabetes to improve the physiological functions and to maintain their quality of life. It further discusses the use of stem cell-based approaches in the context of diabetes treatment.

  14. Diabetes Mellitus ve Oksidatif Stres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilgün Altan; Aylin Sepici Dinçel; Cemile Koca

    Oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus may play an important role in the pathogenesis of early and long term complications of human diabetes, like microangiopathy and neuropathy. Protein glycation and glucose autoxidation can generate free radicals that can catalyze lipid peroxidation. Other potential mechanisms of oxidative stress include the reduction of anti-oxidant defense. In this paper, the free radicals and anti-oxidant

  15. Diabetes as Experienced by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meldman, Linda S.

    1987-01-01

    Explored adolescents' perspective of their diabetic management by interviewing 12 adolescent counselors-in-training at a diabetic youth camp. Interviews were analyzed using the constant comparative method; themes were further grouped into three categories: psychosocial, developmental, and clinical. A striking finding throughout the data was the…

  16. Quality Measurement in Diabetes Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian F. Leas; Bettina Berman; Kathryn M. Kash; Albert G. Crawford; Richard W. Toner; Neil I. Goldfarb; David B. Nash

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate diabetes quality measurement efforts, assess their strengths and areas for im- provement, and identify gaps not adequately addressed by these measures. We conducted an environmental scan of diabetes quality measures, focusing on metrics included in the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse or promulgated by leading measurement organizations. Key informant interviews were also completed with thought leaders

  17. Morgan: A Case of Diabetes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lisa Marie Rubin

    2002-01-01

    This case teaches about the causes and effects of Type 2 diabetes by working through the various options available to a young Native American woman suffering from the disease. The case can be used in a variety of settings, including nutrition classrooms, herbal drug courses, physiology courses, medical schools, nursing schools, pharmacy schools, diabetes workshops, and even weight loss clinics.

  18. Psychosocial Predictors of Diabetes Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, Mary T.; Rollison, Julia; Camporese, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether a perception of responsibility for disease onset and self-blame might influence disease management in people with diabetes. Methods: Our survey assessed perceived responsibility for disease onset, self-blame, anger, social support, and disease management in a sample of 46 individuals with diabetes. Results: As…

  19. Diabetic Nephropathy: The Proteinuria Hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. Williams

    2005-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Proteinuria, nearly a universal finding in progressive kidney disease, has been the subject of frequent recent analyses in the renal literature. Proteinuria is a hallmark of diabetic nephropathy: microalbuminuria is the principal early predictor for progression of diabetic glomerulopathy, and proteinuria may be viewed as a measure of the severity and promoter of progression of nephropathy. Methods: This article

  20. Diabetes risk: antioxidants or lifestyle?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global prevalence of type-2 diabetes and its associated cardiovascular disease is increasing, possibly due to the present pandemic of obesity and overweight. It is projected that by the year 2025, more than 300 million people worldwide will have diabetes. In the United States, between the two NH...

  1. Diabetic artefacts in forensic practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. P. Murty

    2009-01-01

    A case is presented where confusion arose about skin lesions and whether they were diabetic or electrical in origin. The deceased was a known diabetic and hypertensive man.A middle-aged person in early fifties was found unconscious in the cell and judicial autopsy was performed. He was facing trial for capital punishment of being allegedly involved in drug trafficking and money

  2. Epidemiology, Mechanisms and Management of Diabetic Gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Bharucha, Adil E.; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent evidence of the significant impact of gastroparesis on morbidity and mortality mandates optimized management of this condition. Gastroparesis affects nutritional state and, in diabetics, it also has deleterious effects on glycemic control and secondary effects on organs that lead to increased mortality. First-line treatment includes restoration of nutrition and medications (prokinetic and antiemetic). Aim To review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, impact, natural history, time trends and treatment of gastroparesis with particular focus on diabetic gastroparesis. Methods The pros and cons of current treatment options including metoclopramide are discussed. Second-line approaches include surgery, venting gastrostomy or jejunostomy, and gastric electrical stimulation; most of these treatments are based on open-label treatment trials. Results/Conclusions In the future, drugs that target the underlying defects and new prokinetics such as newer 5-HT4 agonists (which appear to be devoid of cardiac or vascular effects), ghrelin agonists, new approaches to pacing the stomach, and stem cell therapies may bring more effective treatments to ameliorate the management of patients with gastroparesis. PMID:20951838

  3. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vinik, Aaron I; Maser, Raelene E; Mitchell, Braxton D; Freeman, Roy

    2003-05-01

    Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes. Despite its relationship to an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and its association with multiple symptoms and impairments, the significance of DAN has not been fully appreciated. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on the cohort studied and the methods of assessment. In randomly selected cohorts of asymptomatic individuals with diabetes, approximately 20% had abnormal cardiovascular autonomic function. DAN frequently coexists with other peripheral neuropathies and other diabetic complications, but DAN may be isolated, frequently preceding the detection of other complications. Major clinical manifestations of DAN include resting tachycardia, exercise intolerance, orthostatic hypotension, constipation, gastroparesis, erectile dysfunction, sudomotor dysfunction, impaired neurovascular function, "brittle diabetes," and hypoglycemic autonomic failure. DAN may affect many organ systems throughout the body (e.g., gastrointestinal [GI], genitourinary, and cardiovascular). GI disturbances (e.g., esophageal enteropathy, gastroparesis, constipation, diarrhea, and fecal incontinence) are common, and any section of the GI tract may be affected. Gastroparesis should be suspected in individuals with erratic glucose control. Upper-GI symptoms should lead to consideration of all possible causes, including autonomic dysfunction. Whereas a radiographic gastric emptying study can definitively establish the diagnosis of gastroparesis, a reasonable approach is to exclude autonomic dysfunction and other known causes of these upper-GI symptoms. Constipation is the most common lower-GI symptom but can alternate with episodes of diarrhea. Diagnostic approaches should rule out autonomic dysfunction and the well-known causes such as neoplasia. Occasionally, anorectal manometry and other specialized tests typically performed by the gastroenterologist may be helpful. DAN is also associated with genitourinary tract disturbances including bladder and/or sexual dysfunction. Evaluation of bladder dysfunction should be performed for individuals with diabetes who have recurrent urinary tract infections, pyelonephritis, incontinence, or a palpable bladder. Specialized assessment of bladder dysfunction will typically be performed by a urologist. In men, DAN may cause loss of penile erection and/or retrograde ejaculation. A complete workup for erectile dysfunction in men should include history (medical and sexual); psychological evaluation; hormone levels; measurement of nocturnal penile tumescence; tests to assess penile, pelvic, and spinal nerve function; cardiovascular autonomic function tests; and measurement of penile and brachial blood pressure. Neurovascular dysfunction resulting from DAN contributes to a wide spectrum of clinical disorders including erectile dysfunction, loss of skin integrity, and abnormal vascular reflexes. Disruption of microvascular skin blood flow and sudomotor function may be among the earliest manifestations of DAN and lead to dry skin, loss of sweating, and the development of fissures and cracks that allow microorganisms to enter. These changes ultimately contribute to the development of ulcers, gangrene, and limb loss. Various aspects of neurovascular function can be evaluated with specialized tests, but generally these have not been well standardized and have limited clinical utility. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is the most studied and clinically important form of DAN. Meta-analyses of published data demonstrate that reduced cardiovascular autonomic function as measured by heart rate variability (HRV) is strongly (i.e., relative risk is doubled) associated with an increased risk of silent myocardial ischemia and mortality. The determination of the presence of CAN is usually based on a battery of autonomic function tests rather than just on one test. Proceedings from a consensus conference in 1992 recommended that three tests (R-R variation, Valsalva maneuver, and postural blood pressure

  4. The diabetic patient in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan; Aljabri, Khalid S

    2014-04-01

    During the month of Ramadan, all healthy, adult Muslims are required to fast from dawn to sunset. Fasting during Ramadan involves abstaining from food, water, beverages, smoking, oral drugs, and sexual intercourse. Although the Quran exempts chronically ill from fasting, many Muslims with diabetes still fast during Ramadan. Patients with diabetes who fast during the month of Ramadan can have acute complications. The risk of complications in fasting individuals with diabetes increases with longer periods of fasting. All patients with diabetes who wish to fast during Ramadan should be prepared by undergoing a medical assessment and engaging in a structured education program to undertake the fast as safely as possible. Although some guidelines do exist, there is an overwhelming need for better designed clinical trials which could provide us with evidence-based information and guidance in the management of patients with diabetes fasting Ramadan. PMID:24761380

  5. The diabetic patient in Ramadan

    PubMed Central

    Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan; Aljabri, Khalid S.

    2014-01-01

    During the month of Ramadan, all healthy, adult Muslims are required to fast from dawn to sunset. Fasting during Ramadan involves abstaining from food, water, beverages, smoking, oral drugs, and sexual intercourse. Although the Quran exempts chronically ill from fasting, many Muslims with diabetes still fast during Ramadan. Patients with diabetes who fast during the month of Ramadan can have acute complications. The risk of complications in fasting individuals with diabetes increases with longer periods of fasting. All patients with diabetes who wish to fast during Ramadan should be prepared by undergoing a medical assessment and engaging in a structured education program to undertake the fast as safely as possible. Although some guidelines do exist, there is an overwhelming need for better designed clinical trials which could provide us with evidence-based information and guidance in the management of patients with diabetes fasting Ramadan. PMID:24761380

  6. [Apollinaire Bouchardat and diabetes].

    PubMed

    Chast, François; Slama, Gérard

    2007-01-01

    Apollinaire Bouchardat (1806-1886) begins its hospital formation by the pharmacy internship and then starts his medical studies. He becomes chief pharmacist of the Hôtel-Dieu in 1835 and during 20 years, he devotes his life to the study of diabetes. Through observations and experiments, he builds new concepts allowing to establish the bases of clinical diabetology due to a solid competence in fundamental sciences and his intelligence in semiologic observations. He studied urine glucose as a reflect of the clinical state of the patients and, in order to carry out its exact measurement, he recommended the use of the polarimeter. He engaged himself in many studies concerning well as the patients diet as to their way of life. Thus he recommended a large decrease in starchy foods and sugars, he encouraged physical exercise and considered that, since the assumption of responsibility of the diabetic was serious, it could foresee the remission of disease. Due to encouraging results, he developed self-monitoring by the patients by the means of simple chemical reagents, convinced that making patients responsible, despite difficulties of the diet, could modify their attitude. Precursor of the modern diabetology, one can consider that he founded it as a true medical discipline. Its major work: De la Glycosurie ou diabète sucré, son traitement hygénigue is pro-bably the first textbook on diabetes, associating clinical observations, experimental steps and proposals for a treatment based on the patients' way of life: mainly diet and exercise: still preached steps, a hundred and fifty years later. PMID:18348493

  7. Diabetic foot osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Hartemann-Heurtier, A; Senneville, E

    2008-04-01

    Bone infection in the diabetic foot is always a complication of a preexisting infected foot wound. Prevalence can be as high as 66%. Diagnosis can be suspected in two mains conditions: no healing (or no depth decrease) in spite of appropriate care and off-loading, and/or a visible or palpated bone with a metal probe. The first recommended diagnostic step is to perform (and if necessary to repeat) plain radiographs. After a four-week treatment period, if plain radiographs are still normal, suspicion for bone infection will persist in case of bad evolution despite optimized management of off-loading and arterial disease. It is only in such cases that other diagnosis methods than plain radiographs must be used. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen cultured from bone samples, followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Among enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus sp. are the most common, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Surprisingly, bacteria usually considered contaminant (as coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) and Corynebacterium sp.) have been documented to be pathogens in the osteomyelitis of diabetic foot. Traditional approach to treatment of chronic osteomyelitis was by surgical resection of infected and necrotic bone. But new classes of antibiotics have both the required spectrum of activity and the capacity to penetrate and concentrate in the infected bone. Recently, several observations of osteomyelitis remission following non-surgical management with a prolonged course of antibiotics have been published. Lastly, combined approach with local bone excision and antibiotics has been proposed. Prospective trials should be undertaken to determine the relative roles of surgery and antibiotics in managing diabetic foot osteomyelitis. PMID:18242114

  8. Diabetic Macular Edema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Conceição; Pires, Isabel; Cunha-Vaz, José

    The optical coherence tomography (OCT), a noninvasive and noncontact diagnostic method, was introduced in 1995 for imaging macular diseases. In diabetic macular edema (DME), OCT scans show hyporeflectivity, due to intraretinal and/or subretinal fluid accumulation, related to inner and/or outer blood-retinal barrier breakdown. OCT tomograms may also reveal the presence of hard exudates, as hyperreflective spots with a shadow, in the outer retinal layers, among others. In conclusion, OCT is a particularly valuable diagnostic tool in DME, helpful both in the diagnosis and follow-up procedure.

  9. Diabetes und Schwangerschaft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kleinwechter

    Zusammenfassung  Von 1987 bis 2007 konnte bei rund 7800 Schwangerschaften mit präkonzeptionell bekanntem Diabetes in Bayern ein Rückgang der\\u000a perinatalen Mortalität von 2,1 auf 0,8% dokumentiert werden. Die neue Leitlinie des Institute of Medicine (IOM) ist nach Überprüfung\\u000a an 680.000 bayerischen Schwangerschaften für adipöse Schwangere nicht optimal. Bariatrische Chirurgie, vorrangig ein Roux-en-Y-Magenbypass,\\u000a verringert bei extrem adipösen Frauen deren Schwangerschaftskomplikationen, besonders die Inzidenz

  10. [Diabetes and diet revisited].

    PubMed

    Miggiano, G A D; Gagliardi, L

    2006-01-01

    In the treatment of diabetes the diet has an important role complementary to the pharmaceutical treatment. The diet must provide the right amount of nutrients and calories in order for the individual to reach and maintain the ideal weight, stabilize the blood glucose levels close to the norm, and attain an optimal lipid profile. The daily caloric intake is represented by 55-60% of carbohydrates with a preference for nutrients rich in fiber and with a low blood glucose index. Of the daily caloric intake 10% may include sucrose as long as it is consumed in the context of a balanced meal. A moderate use of fructose is allowed, and an increased intake of fiber is encouraged. The consumption of proteins represents about 10-15% of the daily caloric intake. A consumption close to the lower limits of the range (about 0,8 gr/kg of body weight) is required for diabetes patients with nephropathy, while a daily intake of 0,6 gr/kg of body weight is considered to be the malnutrition risk factor for lower levels. The total intake of fats required is < or = 30%, of which saturated fatty acids are less than 8-10% (with a further restriction to 7-8% for individuals with LDL cholesterol of > or = 100mg/dl and other cardiovascular risk factors), the polyunsaturated fatty acids less than 10%, and the monounsaturated fatty acids at 10-15% of the total caloric intake. The intake of cholesterol through the diet should be <300 mg/die and still lower (< 200 mg/die) for individuals with high levels of LDL cholesterol. Multivitamin supplements are recommended only for certain categories of diabetic patients that may be at risk of micronutrient deficiency. A moderate quantity of alcohol (5-15 gr/die) is allowed in the case of stabilized diabetes and lack of hypertrigliceridemia. Although the diet may determine a ponderal decrease of up to 10% of the initial weight, it is good to insert a correct nutritional program into a well defined behavioral program that, other than a reduced caloric intake, takes into consideration an increased energetic expenditure through physical activity. PMID:17147053

  11. Tips for Teens with Diabetes: Dealing with the Ups and Downs of Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Downs of Diabetes Tips for Teens with Diabetes: Dealing With the Ups and Downs of Diabetes Download This Publication (NDEP-81) Want this item now? Download it here: Tips for Teens with Diabetes: Dealing With the Ups and Downs of Diabetes - ...

  12. Learn about Diabetes You can learn how to take care of your diabetes and

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    1 Learn about Diabetes You can learn how to take care of your diabetes and prevent some of the serious problems diabetes can cause. The more you know, the better you can manage your diabetes. Share this booklet with your family and friends so they will understand more about diabetes. Also make sure to ask

  13. What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that causes you to have high blood sugar.

    E-print Network

    What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that causes you to have high blood sugar. DIABETES IS HIGH BLOOD SUGAR We all have sugar in our blood. When you have diabetes you have too much sugar in your blood muscles can then use sugar for fuel. Insulin keeps blood sugar in balance. #12; If you have diabetes

  14. The Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes Support Group

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    The Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes Support Group Our support group is dedicated to adults of all ages (16 years and older) with type 1 diabetes. Each month most our time will be for sharing and a professional from our diabetes center will present a short diabetes-related topic

  15. Diabetes Care. Author manuscript Hyperglycemia, type 2 diabetes, and depressive symptoms: the British

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Diabetes Care. Author manuscript Page /1 5 Hyperglycemia, type 2 diabetes, and depressive symptoms calixte cavalier 34093 MONTPELLIER CEDEX 5,FR Steno Diabetes Center9 Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte suggestion that impaired fasting glucose may protect against depression, whereas a diagnosis of diabetes

  16. Type 2 diabetes drugs: a review.

    PubMed

    Freeland, Barbara; Farber, Margo S

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes is a common diagnosis for home care patients. Diabetes drugs are now available that target the multiple defects of metabolism that characterize Type 2 diabetes. Understanding the wide variety of medications available will assist clinicians in guiding their patients through the complexities of diabetes self-care to promote optimal glucose control. PMID:26034820

  17. with Diabetes Dining A Program For

    E-print Network

    with Diabetes Dining A Program For People With Diabetes And Their Families Pre to anyone with diabetes, and their family members or caregivers. Classes will include demonstrations on how. There will be an opportunity to taste a variety of main dishes, side dishes, and desserts. The class seeks to improve diabetes

  18. Dietary Changes for Persons with Diabetes

    E-print Network

    D. Dietary Changes for Persons with Diabetes #12;Reference Guide HANDOUT Working with Persons Who Have Diabetes Follow these guidelines to work with consumers who request nutrition information on preventing or treating diabetes. Without Written Prescriptions If a client with diabetes seeks assistance

  19. February 2014AZ1617 What is diabetes?

    E-print Network

    Sanderson, Mike

    February 2014AZ1617 What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that your blood glucose, also called get into the cells of your body for energy. People with diabetes don't make enough insulin or the body cells do not respond to insulin, causing glucose to build up in the blood. (See Figure: Diabetes

  20. Role of MicroRNAs in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Guiliang

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. Multiple and complex factors including various genetic and physiological changes can lead to Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. However, the major mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diabetes remain obscure. With the recent discovery of MicroRNAs (miRNAs), these small ribonucleotides have been implicated as new players in the pathogenesis of diabetes and diabetes-associated complications. MiRNAs have been shown to regulate insulin production, insulin secretion, and insulin action. This review summarizes the recent progress in the cutting-edge research of miRNAs involved diabetes and diabetes related complications. PMID:18655850

  1. Mucormycosis Caused byRhizopus microsporusvar.microsporus: Cellulitis in the Leg of a Diabetic Patient Cured by Amputation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BURTON C. WEST; ARNOLD D. OBERLE; ANDKYUNG J. KWON-CHUNG

    1995-01-01

    Mucormycosis accompanied the development of bacterial infection in the leg of a diabetic African-American man. Local injury, diabetic ketoacidosis, renal insufficiency, and antimicrobial therapy were factors that con- tributedtothepathogenesisofthemucormycosis.ThecellulitiswascausedinpartbyRhizopusmicrosporusvar. microsporusandwascuredbyamputation.Wereportthisunusualcaseofmucormycosistoemphasizethevalue of fungal identification, to illustrate a dramatic and successful clinical result, and to draw attention to an apparentroleforbacterialinfectionanditstreatmentinthepathogenesisofmucormycosis.Itisthethirdcase report of mucormycosis in a human in whichR. microsporusvar.microsporuswas definitively identified as

  2. Doble descontrol Est claro que tener diabetes aumenta la probabilidad de sufrir depresin y viceversa,

    E-print Network

    Quirk, Gregory J.

    trastornos alimentarios. El epidemiólogo Orville Disdier, ayudante de investigación y datos estadísticos de otros trastornos mentales como consecuencia de ello. Sin embargo, sobre la dinámica que se da cuando la aliviar los trastornos mentales más relacionados con la diabetes. Hallazgos Lo que encontró Disdier fue

  3. Diabetes Risk Factors, Diabetes Risk Algorithms, and the Prediction of Future Frailty: the Whitehall II Prospective Cohort Study

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Diabetes Risk Factors, Diabetes Risk Algorithms, and the Prediction of Future Frailty.ac.uk Running head Diabetes risk scores and frailty Key Words Ageing, frailty, diabetes risk scores, diabetes;2 Abstract Objective: To examine whether established diabetes risk factors and diabetes risk algorithms

  4. The epidemiology of diabetes in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Jung

    2011-08-01

    Diabetes is an increasing global health problem worldwide. Diabetes and its complications have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Korea. The prevalence of diabetes in Korea has increased six- to seven-fold from 1.5% to 9.9% in the past 40 years. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose also increased to about 20% in 2009. The International Diabetes Federation has estimated that the prevalence of diabetes will rise to 11.4% in 2030. Possible risk factors for diabetes in Korea are age, male gender, obesity, prediabetes, gestational diabetes, smoking, decreased physical activity, and short sleep duration. With increasing obesity, especially in childhood, and improved longevity, the prevalence of diabetes is expected to dramatically increase more than previously estimated. Therefore, public efforts to introduce healthy lifestyle changes and diabetic prevention programs are necessary to reduce the global epidemic of diabetes. PMID:21977448

  5. Metabolic Dysfunction in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Isfort, Michael; Stevens, Sarah C.W.; Schaffer, Stephen; Jong, Chian Ju; Wold, Loren E.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is defined as cardiac disease independent of vascular complications during diabetes. The number of new cases of DCM is rising at epidemic rates in proportion to newly diagnosed cases of diabetes mellitus (DM) throughout the world. DCM is a heart failure syndrome found in diabetic patients that is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced diastolic function, with or without concurrent systolic dysfunction, occurring in the absence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. DCM and other diabetic complications are caused in part by elevations in blood glucose and lipids, characteristic of DM. Although there are pathological consequences to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, the combination of the two metabolic abnormalities potentiates the severity of diabetic complications. A natural competition exists between glucose and fatty acid metabolism in the heart that is regulated by allosteric and feedback control and transcriptional modulation of key limiting enzymes. Inhibition of these glycolytic enzymes not only controls flux of substrate through the glycolytic pathway, but also leads to the diversion of glycolytic intermediate substrate through pathological pathways, which mediate the onset of diabetic complications. The present review describes the limiting steps involved in the development of these pathological pathways and the factors involved in the regulation of these limiting steps. Additionally, therapeutic options with demonstrated or postulated effects on DCM are described. PMID:23443849

  6. Diabetes and immunity to tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Nuria; Kornfeld, Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Summary The dual burden of tuberculosis and diabetes has attracted much attention in the past decade as diabetes prevalence has increased dramatically in countries already afflicted with a high burden of tuberculosis. The confluence of these two major diseases presents a serious threat to global public health; at the same time it also presents an opportunity to learn more about the key elements of human immunity to tuberculosis that may be relevant to the general population. Some effects of diabetes on innate and adaptive immunity which are potentially relevant to tuberculosis defense have been identified, but have yet to be verified in humans and are unlikely to fully explain the interaction of these two disease states. This review provides an update on the clinical and epidemiological features of tuberculosis in the diabetic population and relates them to recent advances in understanding the mechanistic basis of tuberculosis susceptibility and other complications of diabetes. Issues that merit further investigation, such as geographic host and pathogen differences in the diabetes/tuberculosis interaction, the role of hyperglycemia-induced epigenetic reprogramming in immune dysfunction and the impact of diabetes on lung injury and fibrosis caused by tuberculosis, are highlighted in this review. PMID:24448841

  7. [Atypical neuropathies associated with diabetes].

    PubMed

    Lozeron, P

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes is the leading cause of neuropathy worldwide and, due to the epidemic progression of the affection, prevalence of diabetic neuropathies will increase in the near future. Beside the typical diabetic neuropathy pattern and the common entrapment neuropathies, several unusual clinical forms have been described with either a symmetrical or an asymmetrical pattern. Treatment-induced neuropathy is an acute sensory affection most commonly related to acute glycemic control. Pain is debilitating and associated with vegetative dysfunction. Prevention is important, as resolution is often incomplete. Several patterns or asymmetrical neuropathies of inflammatory and ischemic origin were described long ago in the lower limb. They are debilitating, most often painful and require steroid treatment. Other patterns affecting the thoracolumbar region or the upper limbs or involving a painless motor deficit must be identified as specific treatments are sometimes needed. An association between diabetes and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy has not been demonstrated but diagnosis may be suggested due to the misleading low conduction velocities seen in classical diabetic neuropathy. Like any other patient, the diabetic patient may present a neuropathy unrelated to diabetes. To facilitate patient care, neurologists should be aware of such clinical entities. PMID:25459114

  8. Diabetes in young: Beyond type 1

    PubMed Central

    Virmani, Anju; Kulkarni, Abhishek

    2012-01-01

    Although majority of diabetes in children is type1 diabetes, childhood type2 diabetes prevalence is rapidly increasing due to changing lifestyle. Most patients can be definitely grouped into either of the two but some present diagnostic difficulty due to overlapping and non specific clinical features and laboratory findings. MODY and several other diseases affecting the pancreas also result in childhood diabetes. Treatment of diabetes in children presents unique challenges and primary prevention is of prime importance. PMID:23565393

  9. [Epidemiology of diabetic foot problems].

    PubMed

    Richard, J-L; Schuldiner, S

    2008-09-01

    Since diabetes mellitus is growing at epidemic proportions worldwide, the prevalence of diabetes-related complications is bound to increase. Diabetic foot disorders, a major source of disability and morbidity, are a significant burden for the community and a true public health problem. Many epidemiological data have been published on the diabetic foot but they are difficult to interpret because of variability in the methodology and in the definitions used in these studies. Moreover, there is a lack of consistency in population characteristics (ethnicity, social level, accessibility to care) and how results are expressed. In westernized countries, two of 100 diabetic patients are estimated to suffer from a foot ulcer every year. Amputation rates vary considerably: incidence ranges from 1 per thousand in the Madrid area and in Japan to up to 20 per thousand in some Indian tribes in North America. In metropolitan France, the incidence of lower-limb amputation is approximately 2 per thousand but with marked regional differences, and in French overseas territories, the incidence rate is much higher. Nevertheless, the risk for ulceration and amputation is much higher in diabetics compared to the nondiabetic population: the lifetime risk of a diabetic individual developing an ulcer is as high as 25% and it is estimated that every 30s an amputation is performed for a diabetic somewhere in the world. As reviewed in this paper, peripheral neuropathy, arterial disease, and foot deformities are the main factors accounting for this increased risk. Age and sex as well as social and cultural status are contributing factors. Knowing these factors is essential to classify every diabetic using a risk grading system and to take preventive measures accordingly. PMID:18822247

  10. Diabetes Education in Tribal Schools

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carolee Dodge Francis

    2006-03-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations are in the midst of a Type 2 diabetes epidemic. To address this crisis, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) began funding a national initiative titled "Diabetes Education in Tribal Schools (DETS) K-12 Curriculum Project." The lesson plans are structured in the 5E learning cycle and instructional model--Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate because it supports a constructivist teaching strategy and is based on how student learning occurs.

  11. Preconditioning the diabetic human myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Sivaraman, Vivek; Hausenloy, Derek J; Wynne, Abigail M; Yellon, Derek M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to determine whether human diabetic myocardium is amenable to the cardioprotective actions of ischaemic preconditioning. Human right atrial appendages were harvested from diabetic and non-diabetic patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The atrial trabeculae were isolated and subjected to 90 min. of hypoxia followed by 120 min. of reoxygenation, following which the percentage recovery of baseline contractile function was determined. The atrial trabeculae were randomized to: (i) controls (groups 1 and 3); (ii) standard hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) protocol consisting of 4 min. of hypoxia/16 min. of reoxygenation before the 90 min. index hypoxic period (groups 2 and 4); (iii) Prolonged HPC protocol consisting of: 7 min. of hypoxia /16 min. of reoxygenation before the index hypoxic period (group 5). In addition, basal levels of Akt phosphorylation were determined in right atrial appendages harvested from non-diabetic patients and diabetic patients to determine whether PI3K-Akt signalling is down-regulated in the diabetic heart. Standard HPC improved baseline contractile function in human atrial trabeculae harvested from non-diabetic patients (52.4 ± 3.8% with HPC versus 30.0 ± 3.2% in control: P= 0.001; N= 6/group), but not in atrial trabeculae isolated from diabetic patients (22.6 ± 3.3% with HPC versus 28.5 ± 1.9% in control: P > 0.05; N= 6/group). However, the prolonged HPC protocol did improve baseline contractile function in atrial trabeculae harvested from diabetic patients (42.0 ± 2.4% with HPC versus 28.5 ± 1.9% in control: P= 0.001; N? 6/group). Western blot analysis demonstrated lower levels of phosphorylated Akt in diabetic myocardium compared to non-diabetic myocardium (0.13 ± 0.03 arbitrary units versus 0.39 ± 0.11 arbitrary units: P= 0.047; N? 4/group). From the data obtained it appears that the threshold for preconditioning the diabetic myocardium is elevated which may be related to the down-regulation of the PI3K-Akt pathway. PMID:19508386

  12. [Schizophrenia, diabetes mellitus and antipsychotics].

    PubMed

    Gury, C

    2004-01-01

    During the last years, a contribution of antipsychotic drugs in the increase of diabetes prevalence in schizophrenic population has been repetitively suggested. The debate focused mainly on the second-generation antipsychotics. The analysis of the scientific literature indicates however that this discussion is not recent and an increase of diabetes prevalence in schizophrenic populations was already described before the introduction of neuroleptics. Then, after the introduction of the first neuroleptics in the 1950s, an increase of diabetes prevalence was reported among treated patients and the same alarms occurred in the 1990s after the introduction of second-generation antipsychotics. These treatments were related to an increase of glucose tolerance impairment, type II diabetes and diabetic acidoketosis. Recent epidemiological studies have confirmed the increase prevalence of diabetes in schizophrenic patients, particularly in schizophrenic patients before any antipsychotic treatment. Among the suggested mechanisms, there are sedentary life (due to hospitalisation and sedative effects of neuroleptics), food imbalance, shared genetic factors for diabetes and schizophrenia. Moreover, the frequency of the metabolic syndrome is increased in schizophrenic populations. This syndrome associates blood glucose increase, lipid metabolism disorders and android obesity. This could explain--via an increase of the cortisol production--the increase of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases observed in schizoprhenic patients. Thus, it seems well established that schizophrenia is associated with an increased risk for diabetes. It is however more difficult to evaluate the role of antipsychotic treatment as a causative factor of diabetes. Indeed, there are many published case reports or diabetes or diabetic acidoketosis after an antipsychotic treatment, but the level of evidence in controlled trials is low. Many studies were performed on large databases, but were retrospective and subjected to many flaws: concomitant diseases not taken into account, diabetes status evaluated by drug consumption, unknown diabetes status before antipsychotic treatment, etc. In the few prospective studies performed, no significant differences between the atypical versus typical antipsychotics were evidenced for new cases of diabetes. Moreover, in general population, the glucose tolerance impairment is underdiagnosed and it is estimated that people with a glucose tolerance impairment have a 5-10% annual risk of type II diabetes. Thus, this concern has to be replaced among the world epidemic increase of diabetes and in a population of patients whose the disease itself and life style are risk factors for diabetes. Some studies have explored the pathophysiological mechanisms that could support a diabetogenic effect of antipsychotics. Although it does not seem to be a direct effect of antipsychotics on insulin secretion by pancreatic cells, body weight increase has been evidence for both typical and atypical antipsychotics. However, it remains unclear whether this weight increase is responsible for a visceral adiposity, which is a risk factor better fitted to the cardiovascular mortality tha the body weight itself. Other hypotheses involving an effect on the leptin, which regulates the appetite, have been proposed. In waiting of new prospective controlled studies, and without denying the impact of antipsychotics on the glucose and lipid metabolisms (on the weight increase, for example), it should be recognized that the benefit/risk ratio remains largely in favour of the treatment, particularly for the atypical antipsychotics, more effective and better tolerated at the neurological level than the conventional antipsychotics. One of the benefits of the mainly articles in professional media about this concern is to draw attention on the metabolism disorders in schizophrenic patients, which are important risk factor of their frequent cardiovascular surmortality whatever the causes. Consequently, it is advised to monitor glucose and lipid metabolisms of schizophren

  13. Tolerating diabetes: an alternative therapeutic approach for diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Calcutt, Nigel A

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming apparent that a number of pathogenic mechanisms contribute to diabetic neuropathy, so that therapeutic interventions that target one particular mechanism may have limited success. A recently published preclinical study has adopted an alternative approach by using a novel small molecule to induce heat-shock protein 70. This confers upon neurons, and perhaps other cells of the nervous system, the ability to better tolerate the diverse stresses associated with diabetes rather than intervening in their production. PMID:20842208

  14. Protein O-GlcNAcylation in diabetes and diabetic complications

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junfeng; Hart, Gerald W

    2014-01-01

    The post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues of proteins by O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is highly ubiquitous, dynamic and inducible. Protein O-GlcNAcylation serves as a key regulator of critical biological processes including transcription, translation, proteasomal degradation, signal transduction and apoptosis. Increased O-GlcNAcylation is directly linked to insulin resistance and to hyperglycemia-induced glucose toxicity, two hallmarks of diabetes and diabetic complications. In this review, we briefly summarize what is known about protein O-GlcNAcylation and nutrient metabolism, as well as discuss the commonly used tools to probe changes of O-GlcNAcylation in cultured cells and in animal models. We then focus on some key proteins modified by O-GlcNAc, which play crucial roles in the etiology and progression of diabetes and diabetic complications. Proteomic approaches are also highlighted to provide a system view of protein O-GlcNAcylation. Finally, we discuss how aberrant O-GlcNAcylation on certain proteins may be exploited to develop methods for the early diagnosis of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. PMID:23992419

  15. 65 FR 83130 - Medicare Program; Expanded Coverage for Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-12-29

    ...health care practice: nutrition, social work, clinical...of diabetes. (ii) Nutrition. (iii) Exercise and...Preconception care, pregnancy, and gestational diabetes...Relationships among nutrition, exercise,...

  16. Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes With the Mediterranean Diet

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Bulló, Monica; Babio, Nancy; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Basora, Josep; Estruch, Ramon; Covas, Maria Isabel; Corella, Dolores; Arós, Fernando; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Ros, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the effects of two Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interventions versus a low-fat diet on incidence of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a three-arm randomized trial in 418 nondiabetic subjects aged 55–80 years recruited in one center (PREDIMED-Reus, northeastern Spain) of the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea [PREDIMED] study, a large nutrition intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Participants were randomly assigned to education on a low-fat diet (control group) or to one of two MedDiets, supplemented with either free virgin olive oil (1 liter/week) or nuts (30 g/day). Diets were ad libitum, and no advice on physical activity was given. The main outcome was diabetes incidence diagnosed by the 2009 American Diabetes Association criteria. RESULTS After a median follow-up of 4.0 years, diabetes incidence was 10.1% (95% CI 5.1–15.1), 11.0% (5.9–16.1), and 17.9% (11.4–24.4) in the MedDiet with olive oil group, the MedDiet with nuts group, and the control group, respectively. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of diabetes were 0.49 (0.25–0.97) and 0.48 (0.24–0.96) in the MedDiet supplemented with olive oil and nuts groups, respectively, compared with the control group. When the two MedDiet groups were pooled and compared with the control group, diabetes incidence was reduced by 52% (27–86). In all study arms, increased adherence to the MedDiet was inversely associated with diabetes incidence. Diabetes risk reduction occurred in the absence of significant changes in body weight or physical activity. CONCLUSIONS MedDiets without calorie restriction seem to be effective in the prevention of diabetes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:20929998

  17. Gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Alfadhli, Eman M.

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common medical complication of pregnancy. It is associated with maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. Maintaining adequate blood glucose levels in GDM reduces morbidity for both mother and baby. There is a lack of uniform strategies for screening and diagnosing GDM globally. This review covers the latest update in the diagnosis and management of GDM. The initial treatment of GDM consists of diet and exercise. If these measures fail to achieve glycemic goals, insulin should be initiated. Insulin analogs are more physiological than human insulin, and are associated with less risk of hypoglycemia, and may provide better glycemic control. Insulin lispro, aspart, and detemir are approved to be used in pregnancy. Insulin glargine is not approved in pregnancy, but the existing studies did not show any contraindications. The use of oral hypoglycemic agents; glyburide and metformin seems to be safe and effective in pregnancy. PMID:25828275

  18. Epidermal innervation in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ebenezer, Gigi; Polydefkis, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The skin is innervated by small sensory and autonomic fibers. In the epidermis, sensory fibers are present as unmyelinated C fibers that terminate as free nerve endings. The determination of epidermal nerve fiber (ENF) density using the immunohistochemical method is a powerful tool that provides insight into a population of nerve fibers that is prominently altered in small fiber neuropathy. The superficial location of epidermal nerve fibers allows repeated sampling of these nerves in a relatively noninvasive fashion, and in sites that cannot be assessed through conventional electrodiagnostic techniques. These features have allowed investigators to diagnose diabetic neuropathy earlier in the course of disease. ENF density holds promise as a biomarker for neuropathic pain and is a sensitive indicator of neuropathic progression. Finally, the ability to injure these fibers in a standardized fashion has led to novel measures of human axonal regeneration that may provide a more sensitive ruler by which to assess promising regenerative compounds in clinical trials. PMID:25410228

  19. Childhood and adolescent diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dunger, David B; Regan, Fiona M; Acerini, Carlo L

    2005-01-01

    Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and its principal binding protein IGFBP-3 are reduced, whereas those of the inhibitory binding protein, IGFBP-1, tend to be high in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). These abnormalities are thought to arise because of relative portal hypoinsulinaemia and partial resistance at the hepatic growth hormone (GH) receptor. During adolescence, reductions in IGF-I and IGF bioactivity lead to feedback for GH hypersecretion and the elevated GH and low IGF-I levels lead to an increase of the normal insulin resistance encountered during puberty. Low IGF-I levels, but in particular elevated GH levels, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathic complications, in particular, renal hypertrophy, glomerular hyperfiltration and the development of microalbuminuria. Early study of IGF-I replacement with recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) demonstrated, in the short term, reductions in GH hypersecretion with improved insulin sensitivity and, in the longer term, reductions in insulin requirements and improvements in HbA1c levels. However, larger doses of rhIGF-I were associated with retinopathy either due to rapid improvements in glycaemic control or direct effects of high levels of 'free' IGF-I. More recently, pilot studies using the combination of rhIGF-I/rhIGFBP-3 have confirmed the physiological efficacy of IGF-I replacement in T1DM. The combined treatment is better tolerated and may result in reduced tissue exposure to high levels of 'free' IGF-I. Longer term clinical studies with this IGF-I/IGFBP-3 combination are needed. PMID:15879693

  20. National Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2011

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on chronic dialysis or with a kidney • transplant. Nervous system disease About 60% to 70% of people with diabetes have mild to severe forms of nervous system damage. The results of such damage • include impaired ...

  1. Peptides and methods against diabetes

    DOEpatents

    Albertini, Richard J. (Underhill Center, VT); Falta, Michael T. (Hinesburg, VT)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to methods of preventing or reducing the severity of diabetes. In one embodiment, the method involves administering to the individual a peptide having substantially the sequence of a on-conserved region sequence of a T cell receptor present on the surface of T cells mediating diabetes or a fragment thereof, wherein the peptide or fragment is capable of causing an effect on the immune system to regulate the T cells. In particular, the T cell receptor has the V.beta. regional V.beta.6 or V.beta.14. In another embodiment, the method involves gene therapy. The invention also relates to methods of diagnosing diabetes by determining the presence of diabetes predominant T cell receptors.

  2. Cognitive Interventions for Older Diabetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sheila; Scogin, Forrest

    1998-01-01

    Older diabetic adults should receive memory training to improve their compliance with medication taking. The intervention should include comprehensible medical instructions, assistance with remembering the nutritional values of food, and higher order skills for disease management. (SK)

  3. Pathogenesis of Human Diabetic Neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rayaz Ahmed Malik; Aristides Veves

    Experimental studies have provided multiple mechanisms for the development of diabetic neuropathy, yet very few findings have\\u000a been replicated in patients. Hyperglycemia mediated nerve damage may begin very early even prior to overt diabetes as evidenced\\u000a by several recent studies in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Polyol pathway abnormalities have been exhaustively\\u000a explored in animals, but studies in man are

  4. Gene expression in diabetic nephropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Hohenadel; Fokko J. van der Woude

    2004-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common complication of diabetes types 1 and 2. One of the hallmarks of DN is the development\\u000a of mesangial expansion, which occurs through accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Altered local gene expression\\u000a of humoral factors (eg, transforming growth factor-â, connective tissue growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor) can lead to increased\\u000a production of ECM

  5. A Pathfinder for Juvenile Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maxine Streeter

    2000-01-01

    Organized especially for students, parents, and guardians of Lincoln High School in Dallas, Texas, this pathfinder includes fiction and nonfiction books with helpful information on the research, diagnosis, and treatment of diabetes. Fiction is added for leisurely entertainment and comparison to reality. Care and self-help informational books; low-fat, high-fiber recipe books; and magazines especially for diabetics are given. It provides

  6. Entrevista con Vicente Leñero

    E-print Network

    Day, Stuart A.

    2004-01-01

    también en la vida profesional de Leñero. Poco después de este acontecimiento algunos de los ex-colaboradorcs de Excélsior, dirigidos nuevamen te por Julio Scherer y con Leñero como vocal, forman una agencia de noticias que empieza con dos máquinas... de la primera edición de Proceso, Leñero decide ignorar este incidente para hacerlo materia de su novela testimonial Los periodistas, al mismo tiempo que lo instituye en travesura para no sucumbir ante el miedo. Su formación periodística, combinada...

  7. Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Insulin Treatment (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for type 2 diabetes (The Basics) Patient information: Low blood sugar in people with diabetes (The Basics) Patient information: Diabetes and diet (The Basics) Patient information: Diabetic ketoacidosis (The Basics) ...

  8. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... needed to control type 2 diabetes. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease in which levels of ... controlled with diet, exercise, and medicines. How does diabetes develop? Glucose is carried in the blood to ...

  9. Diabetes in Older People - A Disease You Can Manage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can do to lower your risk. What Is Diabetes? Our bodies change the food we eat into ... people with diabetes, called an endocrinologist. Types Of Diabetes There are two kinds of diabetes that can ...

  10. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diabetes screening tests. 410.18 Section...Other Health Services § 410.18 Diabetes screening tests. (a) Definitions...the following definitions apply: Diabetes means diabetes mellitus,...

  11. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diabetes screening tests. 410.18 Section...Other Health Services § 410.18 Diabetes screening tests. (a) Definitions...the following definitions apply: Diabetes means diabetes mellitus,...

  12. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diabetes screening tests. 410.18 Section...Other Health Services § 410.18 Diabetes screening tests. (a) Definitions...the following definitions apply: Diabetes means diabetes mellitus,...

  13. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diabetes screening tests. 410.18 Section...Other Health Services § 410.18 Diabetes screening tests. (a) Definitions...the following definitions apply: Diabetes means diabetes mellitus,...

  14. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diabetes screening tests. 410.18 Section...Other Health Services § 410.18 Diabetes screening tests. (a) Definitions...the following definitions apply: Diabetes means diabetes mellitus,...

  15. Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zbiti, N; Souly, K; Errami, Z; Guendouz, L; Benamar, L; Ezaitouni, F; Ouzeddoun, N; Bayahia, R; Chabraoui, A; Rhou, H

    2012-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of post-kidney transplantation diabetes (PTDM) and to assess its risk factors, we retrospectively studied 92 non-diabetic kidney transplant patients. The immunosuppressive drugs used to prevent rejection included prednisone, a calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine or tacrolimus) and an antimetabolite (azathioprine or mycofenolate mofetil). Diabetes was defined according to the WHO criteria and the American Diabetes Association. The mean age of our patients was 35.8 ± 10.5 years, and there was a clear male predominance (56 men and 36 women). The graft was from living related donor in 71/92 (76%) patients. The prevalence of diabetes in post-kidney transplant was 15.2%. The factors increasing the occurrence of PTDM included advanced age, high doses of steroids and cyclosporine. Management of PTDM included diet modification, oral anti-diabetic and insulin. We conclude that the prevalence of PTDM is significant in our transplant population and risk factors for its development are multiple and require aggressive multifaceted management. PMID:22982936

  16. Diabetic heart and the cardiovascular surgeon.

    PubMed

    Yosefy, Chaim

    2008-06-01

    The importance of diabetes mellitus (diabetes) as a cause of mortality and morbidity is well known. The number of patients increases alongside aging of the population and increase in the prevalence of obesity and sedentary life style. Diabetes affects approximately 8% of the USA population. Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes occurs in 20% of cases, and type II (insulin-independent or maturity onset) diabetes occurs in 80% of the diabetic population diabetes mellitus type II is preceded by longstanding asymptomatic hyperglycemia, which accounts for the development of long-term diabetic complications. The main macrovascular complications for which diabetes has been a well established risk factor throughout the cardiovascular system, are: coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral vascular disease (PVD), increased intima-media thickness (IMT) and stroke. Considering the cardiovascular surgeon, diabetes is associated with an increased rate of early and late complications following coronary artery bypass grafting. Diabetic patients have also been known to have an increased incidence of complications after elective major vascular surgery such as carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and leg amputations due to PVD. Cardiovascular surgeons frequently treat diabetic patients either because diabetes is incidental to another disease requiring surgery, or due to diabetes-related complication such as occlusive vascular disease, neuropathy or infection. Approximately 50% of diabetics undergo one,or more operations during their lifetime. This paper reviews the relationship between diabetic patients and their cardiovascular surgeons. In order to understand this relationship, one must first examine the underlying mechanisms by which hyperglycemia causes hazardous pre and post operative consequences. Then, one must examine the existing evidence of how diabetes correlates with these cardiovascular consequences, followed by the need for multidisciplinary team work which helps the surgeon to cope with diabetic patients. PMID:18537602

  17. Electrochemistry in diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Heller, Adam; Feldman, Ben

    2010-07-20

    Diabetes devastates lives and burdens society. Hypoglycemic (low glucose) episodes cause blackouts, and severe ones are life-threatening. Periods of hyperglycemia (high glucose) cause circulatory disease, stroke, amputations, blindness, kidney failure and nerve degeneration. In this Account, we describe the founding of TheraSense, now a major part of Abbott Diabetes Care, and the development of two products that have improved the lives of people with diabetes. The first, a virtually painless microcoulometer (300 nL volume), the FreeStyle blood glucose monitoring system, was approved by the FDA and became available in 2000. In 2009, this system was used in more than one billion blood assays. The second, the enzyme-wiring based, subcutaneously-implanted FreeStyle Navigator continuous glucose monitoring system, was approved by the FDA and became available in the United States in 2008. The strips of the FreeStyle blood glucose monitoring system comprise a printed parallel plate coulometer, with a 50 microm gap between two facing printed electrodes, a carbon electrode and a Ag/AgCl electrode. The volume of blood between the facing plates is accurately controlled. The glucose is electrooxidized through catalysis by a glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and an Os(2+/3+) redox mediator, which is reduced by the glucose-reduced enzyme and is electrooxidized on the carbon electrode. Initially the system used pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent GDH but now uses flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent GDH. Because the facing electrodes are separated by such a small distance, shuttling of electrons by the redox couple could interfere with the coulometric assay. However, the Os(2+/3+) redox mediator is selected to have a substantially negative formal potential, between 0.0 and -0.2 V, versus that of the facing Ag/AgCl electrode. This makes the flow of a shuttling current between the two electrodes virtually impossible because the oxidized Os(3+) complex cannot be appreciably reduced at the more positively poised Ag/AgCl electrode. The FreeStyle Navigator continuous glucose monitoring system uses a subcutaneously implanted miniature plastic sensor connected to a transmitter to measure glycemia amperometrically and sends the information to a PDA-like device every minute. The sensor consists of a narrow (0.6 mm wide) plastic substrate on which carbon-working, Ag/AgCl reference, and carbon counter electrodes are printed in a stacked geometry. The active wired enzyme sensing layer covers only about 0.1 mm(2) of the working electrode and is overlaid by a flux-limiting membrane. It resides at about 5 mm depth in the subcutaneous adipose tissue and monitors glucose concentrations over the range 20-500 mg/dL. Its core component, a miniature, disposable, amperometric glucose sensor, has an electrooxidation catalyst made from a crosslinked adduct of glucose oxidase (GOx) and a GOx wiring redox hydrogel containing a polymer-bound Os(2+/3+) complex. Because of the selectivity of the catalyst for glucose, very little current flows in the absence of glucose. That feature, either alone or in combination with other features of the sensor, facilitates the one-point calibration of the system. The sensor is implanted subcutaneously and replaced by the patient after 5 days use with minimal pain. The wearer does not feel its presence under the skin. PMID:20384299

  18. Diabetes A Growing Epidemic Michael McKee, MD, MPH

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    Diabetes ­ A Growing Epidemic Michael McKee, MD, MPH March 28, 2013 #12;Goals Diabetes Introduction Types of Diabetes Testing Prevention Treatments #12;In Memory of Benno Houver Bernd "Benno" Houver (1973-2013) #12;Diabetes Info 25.8 million people in the USA (8.3%) have diabetes ~25% of people with diabetes do

  19. Outcomes of polytrauma patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of diabetes mellitus in patients with multiple system injuries remains obscure. This study was designed to increase knowledge of outcomes of polytrauma in patients who have diabetes mellitus. Methods Data from the Trauma Audit and Research Network was used to identify patients who had suffered polytrauma during 2003 to 2011. These patients were filtered to those with known outcomes, then separated into those with diabetes, those known to have other co-morbidities but not diabetes and those known not to have any co-morbidities or diabetes. The data were analyzed to establish if patients with diabetes had differing outcomes associated with their diabetes versus the other groups. Results In total, 222 patients had diabetes, 2,558 had no past medical co-morbidities (PMC), 2,709 had PMC but no diabetes. The diabetic group of patients was found to be older than the other groups (P <0.05). A higher mortality rate was found in the diabetic group compared to the non-PMC group (32.4% versus 12.9%), P <0.05). Rates of many complications including renal failure, myocardial infarction, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis were all found to be higher in the diabetic group. Conclusions Close monitoring of diabetic patients may result in improved outcomes. Tighter glycemic control and earlier intervention for complications may reduce mortality and morbidity. PMID:25026864

  20. Advances in Diabetes for the Millennium: Diabetes in Women

    PubMed Central

    Jovanovic, Lois

    2004-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus may afflict men and women equally, but the suffering associated with diabetes when it appears in a woman affects every aspect of her life. As a young child, her growth and development as well as her emotional and intellectual functioning may be impaired. In addition, her puberty may be delayed or premature, and when she is ready for childbearing, her health may preclude a successful pregnancy and/or her chances of bearing a healthy child may be poor to impossible. With the advent of insulin and treatment programs to improve glucose control, the diabetic woman now has an opportunity to lead a near-normal life. As devices have automated insulin delivery and as the use of self-blood glucose monitoring has assisted in deriving a protocol of safely normalizing blood glucose, the health of a diabetic woman now is equal to her nondiabetic sister. This review outlines the rationale of programs of normalized glycemia for diabetic women and suggests strategies to achieve success. PMID:15647708

  1. Amadori albumin in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Neelofar, Km.; Ahmad, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation of macromolecules in diabetes mellitus (DM) is accelerated due to persistent hyperglycemia. Reducing sugar such as glucose reacts non enzymatically with free €-amino groups of proteins through series of reactions forming Schiff bases. These bases are converted into Amadori product and further into AGEs. Non enzymatic glycation has the potential to alter the biological, structural and functional properties of macromolecules both in vitro and in vivo. Studies have suggested that amadori as well as AGEs are involved in the micro-macro vascular complications in DM, but most studies have focused on the role of AGEs in vascular complications of diabetes. Recently putative AGE-induced patho-physiology has shifted attention from the possible role of amadori-modified proteins, the predominant form of the glycated proteins in the development of the diabetic complications. Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in circulation contains 59 lysine and 23 arginine residues that could, in theory be involved in glycation. Albumin has dual nature, first as a marker of intermediate glycation and second as a causative agent of the damage of tissues. Among the blood proteins, hemoglobin and albumin are the most common proteins that are glycated. HSA with a shorter half life than RBC, appears to be an alternative marker of glycemic control as it can indicate blood glucose status over a short period (2-3 weeks) and being unaffected by RBCs life span and variant haemoglobin, anemia etc which however, affect HbA1c. On the other hand, Amadori albumin may accumulate in the body tissues of the diabetic patients and participate in secondary complications. Amadori-albumin has potential role in diabetic glomerulosclerosis due to long term hyperglycaemia and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. This review is an approach to compile both the nature of glycated albumin as a damaging agent of tissues and as an intermediate diagnostic marker and its potential role in diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25593824

  2. The diabetic foot: a review.

    PubMed

    Ricco, J B; Thanh Phong, L; Schneider, F; Illuminati, G; Belmonte, R; Valagier, A; Régnault De La Mothe, G

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) is among the most frequent complications of diabetes. Neuropathy and ischaemia are the initiating factors and infection is mostly a consequence. We have shown in this review that any DFU should be considered to have vascular impairment. DFU will generally heal if the toe pressure is >55 mmHg and a transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2) <30 mmHg has been considered to predict that a diabetic ulcer may not heal. The decision to intervene is complex and made according to the symptoms and clinical ?ndings. If both an endovascular and a bypass procedure are possible with an equal outcome to be expected, endovascular treatments should be preferred. Primary and secondary mid-term patency rates are better after bypass, but there is no difference in limb salvage. Bedridden patients with poor life expectancy and a non-revascularisable leg are indications for performing a major amputation. A deep infection is the immediate cause of amputation in 25% to 50% of diabetic patients. Patients with uncontrolled abscess, bone or joint involvement, gangrene, or necrotising fasciitis have a "foot-at risk" and need prompt surgical intervention with debridement and revascularisation. As demonstrated in this review, foot ulcer in diabetic is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Early referral, non-invasive vascular testing, imaging and intervention are crucial to improve DFU healing and to prevent amputation. Diabetics are eight to twenty-four times more likely than non-diabetics to have a lower limb amputation and it has been suggested that a large part of those amputations could be avoided by an early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:24126512

  3. 76 FR 20358 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Diabetes Mellitus Interagency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...Digestive and Kidney Diseases Diabetes Mellitus Interagency...Notice of Workshop The Diabetes Mellitus Interagency...DMICC) will hold a 2-day workshop on May...and collaboration on diabetes among government entities...emerging opportunities for type 1 diabetes research...

  4. Michigan Diabetes Outreach Networks: A Public Health Approach to Strengthening Diabetes Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah L. Krein; Mandi L. Klamerus

    2000-01-01

    This study describes a statewide public health approach to strengthen diabetes care; evaluates diabetes-related processes of care for individuals enrolled in the Michigan Diabetes Outreach Network (MDON) program; and, examines MDON in the context of priorities for diabetes care and public health policy. Organizational information was obtained through semi-structured interviews. Program outcomes are examined using data from client intake and

  5. SMART DIABETIC SOCKS: Embedded Device for Diabetic Foot Prevention Antoine Perrier1,2,3

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    and amputation [4]. This monitoring strategy is largely based on renewed vigilance of the diabetic patient whichSMART DIABETIC SOCKS: Embedded Device for Diabetic Foot Prevention Antoine Perrier1,2,3 , Nicolas (repetitive high stress, ill-fitting footwear, or an object inside the shoe) associated to diabetes

  6. Overview of Diabetes in Children and Adolescents. A Fact Sheet from the National Diabetes Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes in U.S. children and adolescents may be increasing and many more new cases of type 2 diabetes are being reported in young people. Standards of care for managing children with diabetes issued by the American Diabetes Association in January 2005 provide more guidance than previously given. To update primary care providers and their…

  7. Diabetes Care . Author manuscript Antidepressant use before and after the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Diabetes Care . Author manuscript Page /1 9 Antidepressant use before and after the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal modeling study Mika Kivim kiä 1 2 3 * , Adam G. Tab ká 4 , Debbie A University of Helsinki , FI Steno Diabetes Center10 Steno Diabetes Center , Gentofte,DK * Correspondence

  8. Diabetes Metab . Author manuscript Epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy: expected vs reported prevalence of

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Diabetes Metab . Author manuscript Page /1 10 Epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy: expected vs due to retinopathy are amongst the most feared complications in diabetic patients. As the number of diabetic patients is predicted to increase, a corresponding increase in the number of patients affected

  9. New safety concerns over diabetes drugs Two drugs commonly prescribed to treat diabetes

    E-print Network

    Feigon, Brooke

    New safety concerns over diabetes drugs Two drugs commonly prescribed to treat diabetes double of Type II Diabetes. Prescriptions for the drugs, known as thiazolidinediones, have doubled over the last. The results are published in the August edition of the journal Diabetes Care. Congregation 2007 page 5­9 Race

  10. DIABETES/METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS RESEARCH ARTICLE Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2005; 21: 264270.

    E-print Network

    Crawford, John R.

    DIABETES/METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS RESEARCH ARTICLE Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2005; 21: 264 Design and development of a scale measuring fear of complications in type 1 diabetes Emily P. Taylor1 John R. Crawford2 Ann E. Gold3* 1 Department of Diabetes, Grampian University Hospitals Trust, Aberdeen

  11. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  12. DIABETES/METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS REVIEW ARTICLE Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2008; 24: 604610.

    E-print Network

    Strathclyde, University of

    DIABETES/METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS REVIEW ARTICLE Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2008; 24: 604 Nanomedicine and its potential in diabetes research and practice John C. Pickup1* Zheng-Liang Zhi1 Faaizah Khan­100 nm. Although the science is still in its infancy, it has major potential applications in diabetes

  13. DIABETES/METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS RESEARCH ARTICLE Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2003; 19: 288298.

    E-print Network

    Sastry, Ann Marie

    DIABETES/METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS RESEARCH ARTICLE Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2003; 19: 288 Nerve collagens from diabetic and nondiabetic Sprague­Dawley and biobreeding rats: an atomic force Accepted: 14 January 2003 Abstract Background Alterations in rat's nerve collagens due to diabetes may

  14. Materials for Diabetes Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Bratlie, Kaitlin M.; York, Roger L.; Invernale, Michael A.; Langer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This review is focused on the materials and methods used to fabricate closed-loop systems for type 1 diabetes therapy. Herein, we give a brief overview of current methods used for patient care and discuss two types of possible treatments and the materials used for these therapies–(i) artificial pancreases, comprised of insulin producing cells embedded in a polymeric biomaterial, and (ii) totally synthetic pancreases formulated by integrating continuous glucose monitors with controlled insulin release through degradable polymers and glucose-responsive polymer systems. Both the artificial and the completely synthetic pancreas have two major design requirements: the device must be both biocompatible and be permeable to small molecules and proteins, such as insulin. Several polymers and fabrication methods of artificial pancreases are discussed: microencapsulation, conformal coatings, and planar sheets. We also review the two components of a completely synthetic pancreas. Several types of glucose sensing systems (including materials used for electrochemical, optical, and chemical sensing platforms) are discussed, in addition to various polymer-based release systems (including ethylene-vinyl acetate, polyanhydrides, and phenylboronic acid containing hydrogels). PMID:23184741

  15. Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vijan, Sandeep

    2010-03-01

    This issue provides a clinical overview of type 2 diabetes focusing on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, practice improvement, and patient information. Readers can complete the accompanying CME quiz for 1.5 credits. Only ACP members and individual subscribers can access the electronic features of In the Clinic. Non-subscribers who wish to access this issue of In the Clinic can elect "Pay for View." Subscribers can receive 1.5 category 1 CME credits by completing the CME quiz that accompanies this issue of In the Clinic. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including PIER (Physicians' Information and Education Resource) and MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic from these primary sources in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing division and with assistance of science writers and physician writers. Editorial consultants from PIER and MKSAP provide expert review of the content. Readers who are interested in these primary resources for more detail can consult www.acponline.org, http://pier.acponline.org, and other resources referenced within each issue of In the Clinic. PMID:20194231

  16. Mayombian ethnic, vegetables low intake, insulin treatment, diabetic nephropathy and severe diabetic retinopathy are determinants of blindness in diabetic Africans

    PubMed Central

    Moise, Mvitu Muaka; Benjamin, Longo-Mbenza; Enoch, Cibanda Yokobo; Igor, Longo Phemba

    2013-01-01

    AIM To determine the frequency and causes of blindness in diabetic Africans. METHODS The study was a cross-sectional survey carried out among known black diabetics consecutively admitted at the Teaching Hospital, University of Kinshasa, between 2005 and 2007. Examination methods included interviewer-administered structured questionnaire, eye examinations (visual acuity, tonometry, funduscopy), and fasting plasma glycaemia test. RESULTS Of the 227 patients examined, 15.9% had blindness. Univariate analyses showed significant association between female, severity of diabetic retinopathy, Mayombian ethnic group, use of insulin treatment, low intake of vegetables, diabetic nephropathy, open angle glaucoma and blindness in all diabetics. After logistic regression, only diabetic nephropathy, use of insulin treatment, macular oedema, Mayombian ethnic group and vegetables low intake were the independent risk factors of blindness in all diabetics. However, after logistic regression in the sub-group with diabetic retinopathy, only open angle glaucoma and proliferative diabetic retinopathy were the independent determinants of blindness. CONCLUSION The majority of the causes of blindness in these diabetic Africans are avoidable. It is recommended that appropriate diabetes care, nutrition education, periodic eye examination and laser photocoagulation facilities should be provided for treating diabetics in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24195057

  17. Diabetes - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ??????) Hmong (Hmoob) Japanese (???) Khmer (Khmer) Korean (???) Laotian (Lao) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Portuguese (português) ... English Khmer (Khmer) PDF National Diabetes Education Program Korean (???) 4 Steps to Control Your Diabetes for ...

  18. Biometry of eyes in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Adnan, X; Suheimat, Marwan; Efron, Nathan; Edwards, Katie; Pritchard, Nicola; Mathur, Ankit; Mallen, Edward A H; Atchison, David A

    2015-03-01

    This is a comprehensive study of a large range of biometric and optical parameters in people with type 1 diabetes. The parameters of 74 people with type 1 diabetes and an age matched control group were assessed. Most of the people with diabetes had low levels of neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy. Marginal or no significant differences were found between groups for corneal shape, corneal thickness, pupil size, and pupil decentrations. Relative to the control group, the diabetes group demonstrated smaller anterior chamber depths, more curved lenses, greater lens thickness and lower lens equivalent refractive index. While the optics of diabetic eyes make them appear as older eyes than those of people of the same age without diabetes, the differences did not increase significantly with age. Age-related changes in the optics of the eyes of people with diabetes need not be accelerated if the diabetes is well controlled. PMID:25798297

  19. How Can Diabetic Heart Disease Be Prevented?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Diabetic Heart Disease Be Prevented? Taking action to control ... lifestyle changes and medicines, go to "How Is Diabetic Heart Disease Treated?" Rate This Content: NEXT >> September ...

  20. Diabetes in American Indians and Alaska Natives

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Linda S. Geiss, William H. Herman, and Philip J. Smith Chapter 12: Disability in Diabetes (PDF, 0.18 ... E. Reiber, Edward J. Boyko, and Douglas G. Smith? Chapter 19: Heart Disease and Diabetes (PDF, 0. ...

  1. Diabetic gastroparesis: pathophysiology, evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Adam D; Kadirkamanathan, Sri S; Aziz, Qasim

    2012-08-01

    As the incidence of diabetes mellitus inexorably rises, the burden of its complications is becoming increasingly problematic. Among the most bothersome, but often under-recognized, inadequately investigated and poorly managed, is diabetic gastroparesis. PMID:22875523

  2. Type 2 Diabetes and Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 8 years old. What Causes Type 2 Diabetes? Obesity is the main cause of Type 2 Diabetes. ... 95th percentile, a person is considered overweight; and obesity occurs when BMI is greater than the 95th ...

  3. Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diabetes medicine Not eating enough during meals or snacks after you have taken insulin or diabetes medicine ... your blood sugar levels. Make sure you have snacks with you. Talk to your doctor about reducing ...

  4. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Eyes Healthy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Diabetes Disease Organizations There are many organizations who provide ... PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Español Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your eyes healthy Page Content On ...

  5. Gestational Diabetes: A Guide for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sumaria de los Consumidores Aug. 25, 2010 Gestational Diabetes Related Products Future Research Needs: Prioritizing Research Needs ... Women" /> Consumer Summary – Aug. 5, 2009 Gestational Diabetes: A Guide for Pregnant Women Formats Consumer Guide ( ...

  6. A1C Test and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Diabetes Disease Organizations ?There are many organizations who provide ... KB). Alternate Language URL The A1C Test and Diabetes Page Content On this page: What is the ...

  7. Gestational Diabetes: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Diabetes Disease Organizations There are many organizations who provide ... Español What I need to know about Gestational Diabetes Page Content On this page: What is gestational ...

  8. DMA : a diabetes disease management system

    E-print Network

    Dubey, Anil Kumar, 1967-

    2003-01-01

    There is a clear and present need to improve the quality of diabetes care. Information technology can be used as a means to that end. In this article, we discuss the design and implementation of a web-based diabetes ...

  9. A Relentless Illness—Fighting Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... I became vigilant about managing my diabetes. Mary's husband, S. Robert Levine, M.D., has chaired JDRF's Government ... encouragement of my physician and best friend, my husband Robert. Need more information on Diabetes? From www. ...

  10. TIME AND BIOGRAPHY IN DIABETIC EXPERIENCE

    E-print Network

    Maines, David R.

    1983-04-01

    This paper offers a preliminary analysis of temporality in the lives of diabetics. It is argued that time unites the various aspects of diabetic experience, including the disease itself, and the social, emotional, ...

  11. Snapshot: Diabetes in the United States

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HEALTH PROFESSIONAL LEARN MORE AT www.cdc.gov/diabetes/prevention OR SPEAK TO YOUR DOCTOR LEARN MORE AT ... Knowler WC, BarrettConner E, Fowler SE, et al; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of ...

  12. Experiences of adolescents with type 1 diabetes 

    E-print Network

    Yule, Sara Davina

    2013-07-02

    Type 1 diabetes is a condition which affects the lives of thousands of young people throughout the UK. Existing research has recognised the difficulties that adolescents have in managing their diabetes, and a large amount ...

  13. Managing diabetic macular edema: The leading cause of diabetes blindness.

    PubMed

    Romero-Aroca, Pedro

    2011-06-15

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the leading cause of blindness in young adults in developed countries, affecting 12% of type 1 and 28% of type 2 diabetic patients. The gold standard DME treatment should be based on a good control of glycemia along with control of lipids and renal function. However, despite the systemic metabolic control values being essential for patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR), it has proven to be insufficient for DME if it appears. With these patients, additional measures are needed in order to avoid the subsequent loss of vision. While laser treatment of DME has been the only valid treatment so far, it has been inadequate in chronic cases. The introduction of new treatments, such as intravitreal corticosteroids or anti-VEGF drugs, have recently shown their safety and efficacy and together with laser photocoagulation are becoming the treatments of choice in the management of DME. PMID:21860693

  14. Atypical Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Hüseyin; Co?ar, Ramazan; Çiftçi, Özcan; Sar?, I??lay Kalan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus and can lead to death if untreated. It is a complex metabolic state characterised by hyperglycaemia, acidosis and ketonuria. Bonsai is one of the herbal incense products that contains synthetic cannabinoid and can be easily accessible via the internet in many countries. It cannot be detected in blood and urine studies using conventional methods. Synthetic cannabinoid abuse is associated with severe side effects, including tachycardia, high blood pressure, acidosis, excess sedation and coma. Case Report: A 17-year-old male patient was brought to the emergency department with sudden onset of dyspnoea. Laboratory investigations revealed hyperglycaemia, acidosis and ketonuria. He was admitted to the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. He was not considered a typical case of diabetic ketoacidosis because of the tendency to hypokalaemia, persistent tachycardia and bronchoscopic findings. We learned from his friends that he had used cannabis for a week and used bonzai on the day that he was brought to the emergency service. Conclusion: Diabetic ketoacidosis with prolonged acidosis and tendency to hypokalaemia are investigated for the consumption of synthetic cannabinoids. PMID:25759786

  15. Gut microbiota, probiotics and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Aline Corado; Bueno, Allain Amador; de Souza, Rávila Graziany Machado; Mota, João Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a condition of multifactorial origin, involving several molecular mechanisms related to the intestinal microbiota for its development. In type 2 diabetes, receptor activation and recognition by microorganisms from the intestinal lumen may trigger inflammatory responses, inducing the phosphorylation of serine residues in insulin receptor substrate-1, reducing insulin sensitivity. In type 1 diabetes, the lowered expression of adhesion proteins within the intestinal epithelium favours a greater immune response that may result in destruction of pancreatic ? cells by CD8+ T-lymphocytes, and increased expression of interleukin-17, related to autoimmunity. Research in animal models and humans has hypothesized whether the administration of probiotics may improve the prognosis of diabetes through modulation of gut microbiota. We have shown in this review that a large body of evidence suggests probiotics reduce the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, as well as increase the expression of adhesion proteins within the intestinal epithelium, reducing intestinal permeability. Such effects increase insulin sensitivity and reduce autoimmune response. However, further investigations are required to clarify whether the administration of probiotics can be efficiently used for the prevention and management of diabetes. PMID:24939063

  16. Optimal treatment of diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DRP) is a common complication caused by multiple biochemical abnormalities of the underlying metabolic disease. While the incidence of DRP appears to decline due to evidence-based changes in diabetes management, the predicted increase in patients affected in particular by type 2 diabetes may outweigh the positive trend. The diagnosis is based on the alterations of the vessels, usually indicating abnormalities of the blood–retinal barrier and increased vasoregression, but the neuroglial elements appear equally vulnerable to the diabetic condition. Control of blood glucose, blood pressure and timely identification of coincident nephropathy are important to prevent progression to vision-threatening stages. Guidelines give specific indications for laser photocoagulation, in particular when euglycemia is no longer effective in preventing progression to advanced stages. Intravitreal administration of antibodies directed against the single best characterized propagator of clinically significant macular edema, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), has become popular despite uncertainty about the patient subgroups which benefit best and the optimum administration schedule. Multifactorial intervention beyond glycemic control includes antihypertensive, lipid-lowering and antiaggregatory and is effective in type 2 diabetic patients with high-risk profiles, in particular coincident nephropathy. PMID:23626903

  17. Gut microbiota, probiotics and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a condition of multifactorial origin, involving several molecular mechanisms related to the intestinal microbiota for its development. In type 2 diabetes, receptor activation and recognition by microorganisms from the intestinal lumen may trigger inflammatory responses, inducing the phosphorylation of serine residues in insulin receptor substrate-1, reducing insulin sensitivity. In type 1 diabetes, the lowered expression of adhesion proteins within the intestinal epithelium favours a greater immune response that may result in destruction of pancreatic ? cells by CD8+ T-lymphocytes, and increased expression of interleukin-17, related to autoimmunity. Research in animal models and humans has hypothesized whether the administration of probiotics may improve the prognosis of diabetes through modulation of gut microbiota. We have shown in this review that a large body of evidence suggests probiotics reduce the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, as well as increase the expression of adhesion proteins within the intestinal epithelium, reducing intestinal permeability. Such effects increase insulin sensitivity and reduce autoimmune response. However, further investigations are required to clarify whether the administration of probiotics can be efficiently used for the prevention and management of diabetes. PMID:24939063

  18. Hippocampal neuronal apoptosis in type 1 diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen-Guo Li; Weixian Zhang; George Grunberger; Anders A. F Sima

    2002-01-01

    Duration-related cognitive impairment is an increasingly recognized complication of type 1 diabetes. To explore potential underlying mechanisms, we examined hippocampal abnormalities in the spontaneously type 1 diabetic BB\\/W rat. As a functional assay of cognition, the Morris water maze test showed significantly prolonged latencies in 8-month diabetic rats not present at 2 months of diabetes. These abnormalities were associated with

  19. Testing of diabetes-associated WFS1 polymorphisms in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Florez; K. A. Jablonski; J. McAteer; M. S. Sandhu; N. J. Wareham; I. Barroso; P. W. Franks; D. Altshuler; W. C. Knowler

    2008-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  Wolfram syndrome (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and deafness) is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in WFS1 have been reproducibly associated with type 2 diabetes. We therefore examined the effects of these variants on diabetes incidence\\u000a and response to interventions in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), in which a lifestyle intervention or

  20. Sympathetic nerve hyperactivity in non-diabetic offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Huggett; A. J. Hogarth; A. F. Mackintosh; D. A. S. G. Mary

    2006-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  Type 2 diabetes mellitus with hyperinsulinaemia is a state of sympathetic nerve hyperactivity, which can develop subsequently in non-diabetic first-degree offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes. Although both type 2 diabetes and sympathetic activation are major cardiovascular risk factors, the level of sympathetic nerve activity is as yet unknown in offspring of type 2 diabetic patients who are ostensibly

  1. Spontaneous diabetes in dogs and cats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Gepts; D. Toussaint

    1967-01-01

    Summary  A histological study of 30 spontaneously diabetic dogs and 5 spontaneously diabetic cats is presented. — The islets of Langerhans and the B cells were strongly reduced in number in a large majority of the diabetic dogs. The B cells were often degranulated and hydropic. In cases of longer duration, the islets were scarce and B cells could no longer

  2. Am I at Risk for Gestational Diabetes?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their lifetime. If you had gestational diabetes, your health care provider will test you for diabetes 6 weeks after you give ... 2 If the first test is negative, your health care provider will test you every year for diabetes. Eating a healthy ...

  3. Type 2 diabetes - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic (lifelong) disease. If you have type 2 diabetes, your body has trouble using the insulin it ... can get too high. Over time, people with type 2 diabetes may not have enough insulin. Most people with ...

  4. Application to the Diabetic Retinopathy Study

    E-print Network

    Heckman, Nancy E.

    Chapter 4 Application to the Diabetic Retinopathy Study In this chapter we apply the log hazard regression model to data collected to study the effect of laser treatment on diabetic retinopathy (see Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, 1981). We give a description of this study in Section 4

  5. Dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arshag D Mooradian

    2009-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. The characteristic features of diabetic dyslipidemia are a high plasma triglyceride concentration, low HDL cholesterol concentration and increased concentration of small dense LDL-cholesterol particles. The lipid changes associated with diabetes mellitus are attributed to increased free fatty acid flux secondary to insulin resistance. The availability of

  6. Overview of Diabetes in Children and Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Francine R.; Gallivan, Joanne M.; Warren-Boulton, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Type 1 and type 2 diabetes affect about 186,000 youth under age 20. Previously considered an adult disease, type 2 diabetes is becoming increasingly common in overweight minority youth over 10 years of age. Criteria help to identify young people at risk for type 2 diabetes as well as those with the disease. Prevention or delay of type 2 requires…

  7. Epigenetic phenomena linked to diabetic complications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciano Pirola; Aneta Balcerczyk; Jun Okabe; Assam El-Osta

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2) and the complications associated with this condition are an urgent public health problem, as the incidence of diabetes mellitus is steadily increasing. Environmental factors, such as diet and exposure to hyperglycemia, contribute to the etiology of diabetes mellitus and its associated microvascular and macrovascular complications. These vascular complications are the main cause of

  8. Taking Care of Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... year. What do I need to know about healthy eating, physical activity, and medicines? Healthy eating Many people think that having diabetes means you ... people with diabetes can manage their diabetes with healthy eating and exercise. However, your doctor may need to ...

  9. Gestational diabetes screening – OGTT or HAPO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Burrell; Z Kropiwnicka; R Howard; E Casey; L Phillips

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Diabetes Guideline (2008) recommends more screening for gestational diabetes in the UK. With increase in obesity, more women delaying childbirth, thus entering pregnancy with co-morbidities, and more ethnic minorities (CEMACH Report 2006–2008) results is an increase in gestational diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) remains the preferred screening test, but the

  10. Exercise: An Alternative Therapy for Gestational Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artal, Raul

    1996-01-01

    Exercise is encouraged in the management of pregnant women with gestational diabetes or women with Type II diabetes who become pregnant. Although non-weight-bearing exercises may be best for sedentary women, moderate workouts appear to be safe for most women with gestational diabetes. The role of exercise, risk factors, warning signs, and examples…

  11. The Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    The Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Investing in the future of diabetes care and support more than $100 billion per year. The personal costs ­ emotional, physical and financial ­ to patients, and cardiovascular disease. · Diabetes doubles a person's overall risk of death because it increases the risk

  12. Diabetes Mellitus Glucose Prediction by Linear and

    E-print Network

    Diabetes Mellitus Glucose Prediction by Linear and Bayesian Ensemble Modeling Fredrik St was diagnosed with diabetes type 1. Being an engineer with a control and systems oriented curriculum I realized of diabetes glucose metabolism, and bringing new hope of technical solutions to support the management

  13. Diabetes Education Program Blood Glucose Monitoring

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Diabetes Education Program Blood Glucose Monitoring Self Blood Glucose Monitoring is an easy way to assess your diabetes control. This information will help you and your doctor see how your treatment plan in a very short amount of time with a simple finger prick. Your diabetes educator will help you select

  14. What'sforLunch? Campaign Against Diabetes

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    What'sforLunch? n 1 n What's For Lunch at cunY? Campaign Against Diabetes City University of New and diabetes. #12;n 2 n What's for Lunch at cunY? Stacy, a psychology student at Queens College, is hungry, has just been diagnosed with pre-diabetes. She is trying hard to find food that will help her to lose

  15. Association of oral candidiasis with diabetic control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L V Hill; M H Tan; L H Pereira; J A Embil

    1989-01-01

    Factors associated with oral candidiasis in 51 diabetics were examined. The prevalence of oral yeast infection was 49 (n = 25)%. The association with diabetic control, as measured by fasting blood glucose concentration, urinary glucose concentration, and glycosylated haemoglobin, with the presence of yeast was analysed in the 51 diabetic patients. Glycosylated haemoglobin above 12% was strongly associated with oral

  16. Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes 2014 1 Registration Form for People with Diabetes Registration Form for People with Diabetes 2014

    E-print Network

    Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes ­ 2014 1 Registration Form for People with Diabetes Registration Form for People with Diabetes ­ 2014 Please complete this form ONLY IF YOU HAVE DIABETES. Thank you. A numbers of my telephone number are __ __ __ __. C. I will attend diabetes education classes

  17. Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes 2014 1 Wrap-Up Form for People with Diabetes Wrap-Up Form for People with Diabetes 2014

    E-print Network

    Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes ­ 2014 1 Wrap-Up Form for People with Diabetes Wrap-Up Form for People with Diabetes ­ 2014 Please complete this form ONLY IF YOU HAVE DIABETES. Thank you. A. The month. _____ Walk or do some other similar activity at least 30 minutes on 5 days each week 3. _____ Take diabetes

  18. Vitamin D and autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zella, Julia B; DeLuca, Hector F

    2003-02-01

    The biologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), is a potent modulator of the immune system as well as a regulator of bone and mineral metabolism. Vitamin D-deficiency in infancy and vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms may be risk factors for insulin-dependent Diabetes mellitus (IDDM). 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and its analogs significantly repress the development of insulitis and diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, a model of human IDDM. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) may modulate IDDM disease pathogenesis by repression of type I cytokines, inhibition of dendritic cell maturation, and upregulation of regulatory T cells. The function of vitamin D as a genetic and environmental determining factor for IDDM, the protective role of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and its analogs in a mouse model of IDDM, and the possible mechanisms by which this protection occurs will be reviewed. PMID:12520517

  19. Diabetic nephropathy: a national dialogue.

    PubMed

    Breyer, Matthew D; Coffman, Thomas M; Flessner, Michael F; Fried, Linda F; Harris, Raymond C; Ketchum, Christian J; Kretzler, Matthias; Nelson, Robert G; Sedor, John R; Susztak, Katalin

    2013-09-01

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases-supported Kidney Research National Dialogue (KRND) asked the scientific community to formulate and prioritize research objectives that would improve our understanding of kidney function and disease. Several high-priority objectives for diabetic nephropathy were identified in data and sample collection, hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing, and translation promotion. The lack of readily available human samples linked to comprehensive phenotypic, clinical, and demographic data remains a significant obstacle. With data and biological samples in place, several possibilities exist for using new technologies to develop hypotheses. Testing novel disease mechanisms with state-of-the-art tools should continue to be the foundation of the investigative community. Research must be translated to improve diagnosis and treatment of people. The objectives identified by the KRND provide the research community with future opportunities for improving the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23788618

  20. Trying to understand gestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Women with normal glucose tolerance pre-gravid and developing gestational diabetes in late gestation have subclinical metabolic dysfunction prior to conception compared with women with normal glucose tolerance. Because of the 60 % decrease in insulin sensitivity with normal pregnancy, these women develop clinical hyperglycaemia/gestational diabetes in late gestation. The metabolic dysfunction includes impaired insulin response, decreased hepatic suppression of glucose production during insulin infusion and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, i.e. peripheral insulin resistance. The insulin resistance in normal glucose tolerance pregnancy is related to a decrease in the post-receptor insulin signalling cascade, specifically decreased insulin receptor substrate 1 tyrosine phosphorylation. In women with normal glucose tolerance this is reversed post-partum. In contrast, in gestational diabetes, in addition to the decrease in insulin receptor substrate 1 tyrosine phosphorylation, there is an additional decrease in tyrosine phosphorylation of the intracellular portion of the insulin receptor that is not related to the insulin receptor protein content. Post-partum women with gestational diabetes, who had retention of gestational weight gain, had no significant improvement in insulin sensitivity and increased inflammation expressed as increased plasma and skeletal muscle tumour necrosis factor alpha. The increased inflammation or meta-inflammation is a hallmark of obesity and during pregnancy develops in both white adipose tissue and placenta. Last gene array studies of placenta were associated with alterations in gene expression relating primarily to lipid in contrast to glucose metabolic pathways in gestational diabetes compared with Type 1 diabetes. Future studies are directed at decreasing inflammation prior to and during pregnancy using various lifestyle and nutritional interventions. PMID:24341419

  1. Cell Biology: Sorting Out Diabetes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Charisse M. Orme (Yale University School of Medicine; Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, and Department of Cell Biology)

    2009-05-29

    Early during the development of type 2 diabetes, insulin's ability to stimulate the cellular uptake of glucose from the blood is compromised. Muscle is the main tissue responsible for this absorption, and insulin enhances glucose movement into muscle cells through the GLUT4 transporter at the cell surface. This hallmark action of insulin is conserved in vertebrates, and the molecular machinery by which it occurs is thought to be similar among mammals. On page 1192 of this issue, Vassilopoulos et al. (4) identify a key protein that mediates insulin action in humans, but not in mice, a distinction with potential implications for understanding glucose metabolism and diabetes pathophysiology.

  2. Diabetic Myonecrosis: An Atypical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, José Hernán; Torres, Oberto; Mangual García, Michelle M.; Palermo, Coromoto; Miranda, María de Lourdes; González, Eva; Espinoza, Ignacio Chinea; Laboy, Ivan; Miranda, Mirelis; Dávila, Kyrmarie; Tirado, Rafael; Padilla, Mildred

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic myonecrosis is a frequently unrecognized complication of longstanding and poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. The clinical presentation is swelling, pain, and tenderness of the involved muscle, most commonly the thigh muscles. Management consists of conservative measures including analgesia and rest. Short-term prognosis is good, but long-term prognosis is poor with most patients dying within 5 years. Failure to properly identify this condition will expose the patient to aggressive measures that could result in increased morbidity. To our knowledge this is the first case reported in which there was involvement of multiple muscle groups including upper and lower limbs. PMID:23862080

  3. Diabetic foot ulcerations: an overview.

    PubMed

    Daniels, T R

    1998-09-01

    The development of a diabetic neuropathic ulcer is a multifactorial process with an emphasis on mechanical abnormalities. In the absence of vascular compromise, up to 90 percent of neuropathic ulcers will heal with proper ulcer debridement, treatment of infection and relief of weight from the ulcerated area. A thorough understanding of the etiology of a neuropathic ulcer is an essential component in the appropriate management of these patients. Treatment of the diabetic neuropathic ulcer is a multidisciplinary clinical problem and each member of the team has a unique role to play. PMID:9866607

  4. The effects of vanadium treatment on bone in diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Facchini, D M; Yuen, V G; Battell, M L; McNeill, J H; Grynpas, M D

    2006-03-01

    Vanadium-based drugs lower glucose by enhancing the effects of insulin. Oral vanadium drugs are being tested for the treatment of diabetes. Vanadium accumulates in bone, though it is not known if incorporated vanadium affects bone quality. Nine- to 12-month-old control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic female Wistar rats were given bis(ethylmaltolato)oxovanadium(IV) (BEOV), a vanadium-based anti-diabetic drug, in drinking water for 12 weeks. Non-diabetic rats received 0, 0.25 or 0.75 mg/ml BEOV. Groups of diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with 0.25-0.75 mg/ml BEOV as necessary to lower blood glucose in each rat. In diabetic rats, this resulted in a Controlled Glucose group, simulating relatively well-managed diabetes, and an Uncontrolled Glucose group, simulating poorly managed diabetes. Plasma insulin, glucose and triglyceride assays assessed the diabetic state. Bone mineral density (BMD), mechanical testing, mineral assessment and histomorphometry measured the effects of diabetes on bone and the effects of BEOV on non-diabetic and diabetic bone. Diabetes decreased plasma insulin and increased plasma glucose and triglycerides. In bone, diabetes decreased BMD, strength, mineralization, bone crystal length, and bone volume and connectivity. Treatment was effective in incorporating vanadium into bone. In all treated groups, BEOV increased osteoid volume. In non-diabetic bone, BEOV increased cortical bone toughness, mineralization and bone formation. In controlled glucose rats, BEOV lowered plasma glucose and improved BMD, mechanical strength, mineralization, bone crystal length and bone formation rate. In poorly controlled rats, BEOV treatment slightly lowered plasma glucose but did not improve bone properties. These results suggest that BEOV improves diabetes-related bone dysfunction primarily by improving the diabetic state. BEOV also appeared to increase bone formation. Our study found no negative effects of vanadium accumulation in bone in either diabetic or non-diabetic rats at the dose given. PMID:16256449

  5. T cell vaccination against autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Formby, B; Shao, T

    1993-01-01

    The diabetogenic autoimmune process was accelerated in 23 days nonirradiated postnatal nonobese diabetic (NOD) female mice by adoptive transfer of pathogenic, polyclonal CD4+ 8- T cells isolated from diabetic spleens. Recipient mice developed hyperglycemia 15 days after transfer of pathogenic immune cells with typical histological signs of pancreatic infiltration. The CD4+V beta 8+ T cells isolated from diabetic spleens and activated by surface-immobilized anti-TCRV beta 8 monoclonal antibody (mAb, clone F23.1) induced suppression of a diabetogenic disease process accelerated earlier by adoptively transferred polyclonal CD4+8- T cells. When CD4+V beta 8+ T cells isolated from diabetic spleens were activated by cross-linking TCRV beta 8 and systemically injected into young female NOD mice, an endogenous immunosuppressive circuit was stimulated that completely prevented development of insulitis and disease. A suppressor mechanism involving CD8+ T cells might be involved since in vitro these cells strongly proliferated in response to irradiated CD4+ V beta 8+ T cells that in blocking experiments with specific mAb was found to be class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted. Hence, T cells expressing the CD8 phenotype specifically respond to idiotypic or ergotypic determinants on the inducing activated CD4+V beta 8+ T cells and effectively suppress a diabetogenic disease process by a mechanism that may involve T-T cell interactions. PMID:8096128

  6. Diabetes UK Position Statement. Competency frameworks in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Simmons, D; Deakin, T; Walsh, N; Turner, B; Lawrence, S; Priest, L; George, S; Vanterpool, G; McArdle, J; Rylance, A; Terry, G; Little, P

    2015-05-01

    The quality, skills and attitudes of staff working in the healthcare system are central to multidisciplinary learning and working, and to the delivery of the quality of care patients expect. Patients want to know that the staff supporting them have the right knowledge and attitudes to work in partnership, particularly for conditions such as diabetes where 95% of all care is delivered by the person with diabetes themselves. With the current changes in the NHS structures in England, and the potential for greater variation in the types of 'qualified provider', along with the recent scandal at Mid-Staffordshire Hospital, staff need to be shown to be competent and named/accredited or recognized as such. This will help to restore faith in an increasingly devolved delivery structure. The education and validation of competency needs to be consistently delivered and assured to ensure standards are maintained for different roles and disciplines across each UK nation. Diabetes UK recommends that all NHS organizations prioritize healthcare professional education, training and competency through the implementation of a National Diabetes Competency Framework and the phased approach to delivery to address this need. PMID:25611804

  7. Understanding type 1 diabetes: etiology and models.

    PubMed

    Acharjee, Satarupa; Ghosh, Bijaya; Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E; Nair, Anroop B

    2013-08-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a complex disease involving a combination of factors, such as genetic susceptibility, immunologic dysregulation and exposure to environmental triggers. Animal models serve an important function both in elucidating the pathophysiology and preliminary screening of antidiabetic molecules. Hence, the development of models for type 1 diabetes can be broadly divided into 3 categories, namely: identification of spontaneously developing type 1 diabetes mellitus strains, creating diabetes-prone species through gene transfer techniques and forced destruction of islet cells through chemical or surgical means. This review discusses the models used to study type 1 diabetes with special emphasis on genetics. PMID:24070892

  8. Review of Therapeutic Advances in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Chirag P.; Chen, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of prolonged diabetes. It is one of the leading causes of vision loss in working age adults and a significant source of morbidity. To reduce the incidence and severity of diabetic retinopathy, it is important to identify patients at risk and promptly implement intensive glycemic and hypertensive control. To date, there are many interventions that can limit moderate and severe vision loss in people with diabetes, including laser photocoagulation, vitrectomy surgery, and intravitreal pharmacological injections. This review aims to define the different stages of diabetic retinopathy and the important therapeutic advances developed to address the major causes of vision loss in each stage. PMID:23148170

  9. An unusual presentation of diabetic amyotrophy: myoclonus

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Syed Amir; Chhetri, Suresh Kumar; Lekwuwa, Godwin; Majeed, Tahir

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic amyotrophy is a distinctive form of diabetic neuropathy. It is characterised by a weakness and wasting of proximal muscles of the lower limbs with associated pain. We report a case of an elderly patient with unusual presentation of diabetic amyotrophy. He presented with myoclonic jerks and recurrent falls. Examination findings and electrophysiological studies were consistent with a diagnosis of diabetic amyotrophy. He responded well to steroids with marked improvement in strength of the lower limb muscles and complete resolution of myoclonic jerks. Diabetic amyotrophy presenting as myoclonic jerks has been rarely reported before. PMID:23386493

  10. Diabetes mellitus: The epidemic of the century

    PubMed Central

    Kharroubi, Akram T; Darwish, Hisham M

    2015-01-01

    The epidemic nature of diabetes mellitus in different regions is reviewed. The Middle East and North Africa region has the highest prevalence of diabetes in adults (10.9%) whereas, the Western Pacific region has the highest number of adults diagnosed with diabetes and has countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes (37.5%). Different classes of diabetes mellitus, type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes and other types of diabetes mellitus are compared in terms of diagnostic criteria, etiology and genetics. The molecular genetics of diabetes received extensive attention in recent years by many prominent investigators and research groups in the biomedical field. A large array of mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that play a role in the various steps and pathways involved in glucose metabolism and the development, control and function of pancreatic cells at various levels are reviewed. The major advances in the molecular understanding of diabetes in relation to the different types of diabetes in comparison to the previous understanding in this field are briefly reviewed here. Despite the accumulation of extensive data at the molecular and cellular levels, the mechanism of diabetes development and complications are still not fully understood. Definitely, more extensive research is needed in this field that will eventually reflect on the ultimate objective to improve diagnoses, therapy and minimize the chance of chronic complications development. PMID:26131326

  11. Association between diabetic nephropathy and other diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications.

    PubMed

    Chandy, Anila; Pawar, Basant; John, Mary; Isaac, Rajesh

    2008-11-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is found to be significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy and coronary artery disease. Few studies have also shown an association between diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy, and peripheral vascular disease. A cross sectional study was done among consecutive type 2 diabetics presenting to Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana from June 2004 to May 2005. Patients were subjected to the clinical and laboratory investigations 174 patients were studied over a period of one year. Diabetic nephropathy was found to be associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy and cardiovascular disease by univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, diabetic nephropathy was again significantly associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and coronary artery disease. We conclude that close association between diabetic nephropathy and other micro and macrovascular complications exists in our Indian patients also. PMID:18974577

  12. Oral Health and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Renata S.; Marlow, Nicole M.; Fernandes, Jyotika K.

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been described as a new epidemic. Approximately 285 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, and this number is predicted to increase by about 50% by year 2030.This article will review oral health manifestations of diabetes, and discuss associations between periodontal disease and diabetes. Although there is a strong body of evidence that supports the relationship between oral health and T2DM, oral health awareness is lacking among patients with diabetes and other health professionals. There is a need for the treating physician to be educated about the various oral manifestations of diabetes so that they can be diagnosed early and timely referrals to oral health specialists can be made. The established link between periodontitis and diabetes calls for an increased need to study ways to control both diseases, particularly among populations with health disparities and limited access to oral and health care. PMID:23531957

  13. Diabetes mellitus: Trends in northern India

    PubMed Central

    Gutch, Manish; Razi, Syed Mohd; Kumar, Sukriti; Gupta, Keshav Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is becoming a global health issue with more than 80% diabetics living in developing countries. India accounts for 62.4 million diabetics (2011). Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes Study (ICMR-INDIAB) study showed highest weighted prevalence rate in the north India among all studied regions. Diabetes in north India has many peculiarities in all aspects from risk factors to control programmers. North Indians are becoming more prone for diabetes and dyslipidemia because rapid westernization of living style and diet due rapid migration to metropolitan cities for employment. North Indian diabetes is plagued with gender bias against females, poor quality of health services, myths, and lack of disease awareness compounded with small number of prevention and awareness programmers that too are immature to counteract the growing pandemic. PMID:25285295

  14. The diabetic foot management - recent advance.

    PubMed

    Sinwar, Prabhu Dayal

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic ulceration of the foot represents a major global medical, social and economic problem. It is the commonest major end-point of diabetic complications. Diabetic neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are the main etiological factors in foot ulceration and may act alone, together, or in combination with other factors such as microvascular disease, biomechanical abnormalities, limited joint mobility and increased susceptibility to infection. In the diabetic foot, distal sensory polyneuropathy is seen most commonly. The advent of insulin overcame the acute problems of ketoacidosis and infection, but could not prevent the vascular and neurological complications. Management of diabetic neuropathic ulcer by appropriate and timely removal of callus, control of infection and reduction of weight bearing forces. Management of diabetic ischaemic foot are medical management, surgical management and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of stenosed and occluded lower extremity arteries. Foot ulceration in persons with diabetes is the most frequent precursor to amputation. PMID:25638739

  15. The epidemiology of diabetes and cancer.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, Bendix; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Friis, Søren

    2014-10-01

    The literature on cancer occurrence in persons with diabetes has almost invariably been concerned with relative measures. In this paper, we briefly review this, but the aim is to quantify the absolute occurrence of diabetes and cancer in the population in order to give a fuller picture, which also includes the competing mortality risk. Overall, we find that some 35 % of the population will have a diagnosis of diabetes in their lifetime, 44 % a diagnosis of cancer, and about 15 % will have both diagnoses. The impact of differing mortality between persons with and without diabetes is illustrated by the fact that a person without diabetes at age 50 has a smaller lifetime risk of cancer than a person aged 50 with diabetes. Thus, the differences in cancer occurrence between persons with and without diabetes are of quantitatively smaller importance than the differences in mortality. PMID:25156543

  16. Relationship between diabetes and periodontal infection

    PubMed Central

    Llambés, Fernando; Arias-Herrera, Santiago; Caffesse, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a high prevalent disease. In the United States 47.2% of adults ? 30 years old have been diagnosed with some type of periodontitis. Longitudinal studies have demonstrated a two-way relationship between diabetes and periodontitis, with more severe periodontal tissue destruction in diabetic patients and poorer glycemic control in diabetic subjects with periodontal disease. Periodontal treatment can be successful in diabetic patients. Short term effects of periodontal treatment are similar in diabetic patients and healthy population but, more recurrence of periodontal disease can be expected in no well controlled diabetic individuals. However, effects of periodontitis and its treatment on diabetes metabolic control are not clearly defined and results of the studies remain controversial. PMID:26185600

  17. Entrevista con Sergio Vodanovic

    E-print Network

    Agosin, Marjorie

    1984-04-01

    de pionero dentro del teatro chileno contemporáneo. Este es el tema de la entrevista cuyas preguntas fueron contestadas directamente por Vodanovic y transcritas en la misma manera como aparecen en el texto. ¿Cómo ves tú el teatro chileno desde el... remora de los teatros que antes eran líderes, de los teatros universitarios que, en general, se mantienen dentro de una posición de dar obras clásicas u obras de teatros universal, y con mucho temor respecto al teatro chileno. ¿ Tú crees que el público...

  18. Entrevista con Santiago García

    E-print Network

    Baycroft, Bernard

    1982-04-01

    muchas resistencias que había entre la gente de tea tro a este fenómeno de la creación colectiva, que aparece compitiendo con el autor y entrando al terreno de la creatividad artística. ¿Cómo es esto diferente a la práctica del Teatro Experimental de... teatral que nosotros estamos produciendo porque el tener este pú blico y un campo de experimentación tan fecundo como es ése de los sectores populares, más avanzados, más revolucionarios, más progresistas de nuestro país, garantizaría ya la...

  19. Entrevista con Enrique Buenaventura

    E-print Network

    Dí ez, Luys A.

    1981-04-01

    el individuo; entrañable y sencillo, conversador penetrante y muy ameno. Y fue en esta capacidad, aprovechando una falla en la programación, que una tarde le acompañamos a ver A Chorus Line, el musical de Bennett, que le iba a interesar... todavía muestran las huellas de los terribles bombardeos e incendios, con las paredes acribilladas por todas partes. Y luego las historias que iba contando todo el mundo, tantas que en realidad sería muy difícil escoger. Yo he seleccionado unas pocas y...

  20. Type 2 Diabetes in Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan M. Delamater; Farrah Jacquez; Anna Maria Patino-Fernandez

    \\u000a This chapter first describes type 2 diabetes in youth including symptoms and the treatment regimen and reviews studies concerning\\u000a its epidemiology. Common problems, co-morbidities, and cultural issues are then considered. The role of the behavioral health\\u000a clinician is discussed next, followed by consideration of methodological issues and future research.

  1. Insomnia in Diabetic Hemodialysis Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Youb Han; Jong-Woo Yoon; Sang-Kyung Jo; Jin-Ho Shin; Chol Shin; Jung-Bok Lee; Dae-Ryong Cha; Won-Yong Cho; Heui-Jung Pyo; Hyoung-Kyu Kim; Kyu-Bec Lee; Hyang Kim; Kyung-Wook Kim; Yong-Seop Kim; Jeong-Ho Lee; Sang-Eun Park; Chang-Soo Kim; Kyeong-So Wea; Kyung-Shik Oh; Tae-See Chung; Sang-Yeol Suh

    2002-01-01

    Background: Insomnia is one of the most common problems in dialysis patients, and likely to contribute impairment in quality of life, which has a positive correlation with patients’ survival. In diabetic patients, morbidity and mortality are substantially higher than in the nondiabetic counterparts, and also the incidence of sleep disturbances. However, there is no means to predict sleep disturbance in

  2. A human virus improves diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single inoculation of mice with Ad36, a human adenovirus, lastingly improved high fat diet-induced-diabetes (DID), while Ad2, another human adenovirus did not. The study objective in these 2 studies was to determine if Ad36 could be used as a tool to reveal novel pathways for improving dysglycemia...

  3. Estrogens and the diabetic kidney

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Maric; Shannon Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Across all ages, the incidence and rate of progression of most nondiabetic renal diseases are markedly higher in men compared with age-matched women. These observations suggest that female sex may be renoprotective. In the setting of diabetes, however, this female protection against the development and progression of renal disease is diminished.Objective: This review aimed to summarize our current understanding

  4. Gut Microbiota, Obesity and Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Bibiloni; Mathieu Membrez; Chieh Jason Chou

    2009-01-01

    The growing epidemic of obesity is no longer restricted to developed countries. In 2005, the World Health Organization alerted that there were approximately 400 million obese adults worldwide, and approximately 20 million children worldwide were overweight. Obesity is a complex health issue with serious consequences such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and others. Behavioral, genetic and environmental factors have

  5. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum and diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, A J; Casey, J H

    1997-03-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a rare complication of diabetic ketoacidosis. We report two patients with this complication who presented to a Sydney hospital within one week. Although both patients were young backpackers, staying at the same hostel, we believe this was coincidental. PMID:9076268

  6. Importance of Depression in Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustman, Patrick J.; Clouse, Ray E.; Anderson, Ryan J.

    Depression doubles the likelihood of comorbid depression, which presents as major depression in 11% and subsyndromal depression in 31% of patients with the medical illness. The course of depression is chronic, and afflicted patients suffer an average of one episode annually. Depression has unique importance in diabetes because of its association…

  7. Entoptic Evaluation of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond A. Applegate; Arthur Bradley; J. van Heuven; Bailey L. Lee; Charles A. Garcia

    Purpose. Studies using optimized entoptic viewing of the parafoveal retinal vasculature have shown that normal subjects see their own capillaries with greater detail in the fovea than seen typically in fluorescein angiography. The authors have extended these investigations to per- sons with diabetes to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy with which they can detect and locate their own parafoveal

  8. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study at 30 Years: Overview

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, David M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) was designed to test the glucose hypothesis and determine whether the complications of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) could be prevented or delayed. The Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) observational follow-up determined the durability of the DCCT effects on the more-advanced stages of diabetes complications including cardiovascular disease (CVD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The DCCT (1982–1993) was a controlled clinical trial in 1,441 subjects with T1DM comparing intensive therapy (INT), aimed at achieving levels of glycemia as close to the nondiabetic range as safely possible, with conventional therapy (CON), which aimed to maintain safe asymptomatic glucose control. INT utilized three or more daily insulin injections or insulin pump therapy guided by self-monitored glucose. EDIC (1994–present) is an observational study of the DCCT cohort. RESULTS The DCCT followed >99% of the cohort for a mean of 6.5 years and demonstrated a 35–76% reduction in the early stages of microvascular disease with INT, with a median HbA1c of 7%, compared with CONV, with a median HbA1c of 9%. The major adverse effect of INT was a threefold increased risk of hypoglycemia, which was not associated with a decline in cognitive function or quality of life. EDIC showed a durable effect of initial assigned therapies despite a loss of the glycemic separation (metabolic memory) and demonstrated that the reduction in early-stage complications during the DCCT translated into substantial reductions in severe complications and CVD. CONCLUSIONS DCCT/EDIC has demonstrated the effectiveness of INT in reducing the long-term complications of T1DM and improving the prospects for a healthy life span. PMID:24356592

  9. Type 1 diabetes--still the commonest form of diabetes in children.

    PubMed

    Sabin, Matthew A; Cameron, Fergus J; Werther, George A

    2009-09-01

    Obesity is rife within the community, and associated conditions such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease threaten the future health of our children. While type 2 diabetes has been the focus of much media attention, type 1 diabetes mellitus remains the commonest form of newly diagnosed diabetes in childhood. This case study acts to remind practitioners that all young people (even those with established obesity) who present with symptoms, and/or biochemical derangements compatible with diabetes, should be managed acutely in order to avoid a delayed diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. PMID:19893797

  10. Electrophysiological studies in diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, Albert; Buchthal, Fritz

    1970-01-01

    In 30 patients with diabetic neuropathy sensory potentials in the median nerve, motor conduction in the lateral popliteal and median nerves, and electromyographic findings in distal and proximal muscles were compared with the severity of symptoms and signs. All patients had abnormalities in at least one of the electrophysiological parameters. The sensory potentials were the most sensitive indicator of subclinical involvement; abnormalities were found in 24 patients, 12 of whom had no sensory symptoms or signs and five of whom had no other clinical or electrophysiological evidence of neuropathy in the upper extremities. This indicates that sensory nerve fibres may be affected before motor. The next most sensitive parameter was the presence of fibrillation potentials, found in more than half the distal muscles examined. Slowing in motor conduction in the lateral popliteal nerve was the only electrophysiological change correlated to the severity of the neuropathy, and no other electrophysiological parameter was correlated to the duration or the severity of the neuropathy or the diabetes. An onset of neuropathy before or simultaneously with the manifestations of the diabetes, as well as the frequent occurrence of asymptomatic changes in sensory conduction, support the evidence at hand that the neuropathy develops concomitantly with and as an integral part of the metabolic disturbance rather than as a consequence of the vascular complications of diabetes. Of three patients with clinical signs or symptoms of a diabetic amyotrophy, two had asymptomatic electrophysiological abnormalities in distal nerves and muscles, consistent with widespread involvement of the peripheral nerves. The third patient had electromyographic changes in the medial vastus muscles suggestive of a myopathy. Motor and sensory conduction in distal and proximal nerves were normal. Images PMID:5505671

  11. Providing a Safe Environment for Students with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, Janet H.; Jackson, Crystal C.; Bobo, Nichole; Kaufman, Francine R.; Butler, Sarah; Marschilok, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Current diabetes regimens require more effort than ever before. The level of diabetes control students are able to maintain is affected greatly by their ability to care for their diabetes during the school day. This article reviews use of School Health Plans and Diabetes Medical Management Plans in schools. Students with diabetes, their families,…

  12. What I need to know about Gestational Diabetes

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    What I need to know about Gestational Diabetes National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse #12;#12;What I need to know about Gestational Diabetes #12;#12;Contents What is gestational diabetes?................................. 1 What causes gestational diabetes? ........................ 3 What are my chances of getting

  13. Protect Your Eyes Diabetes can hurt your body over time.

    E-print Network

    eyes. Because you have diabetes, you are at risk for developing diabetic eye disease. You may also hear can cause vision loss or even blindness. When diabetes damages the blood vessels in your eyes, this is called diabetic eye disease. Normal Swollen Leaking #12; Diabetic eye disease can be prevented. The first

  14. [Diabetes of rich, diabetes of poor. Diabetes as an evidence for health inequalities in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Dimé, Mamadou

    2013-01-01

    This paper's objective is to show how diabetes is the place of polarization of new uncertainties in Senegal and also to highlight how this "disease of modernity" is the source of pronounced health inequalities in urban and rural Senegalese areas. PMID:23916198

  15. Crnica ornitolgica con las citas

    E-print Network

    Carrete, Martina

    Crónica ornitológica con las citas más relevantes del año 2000 Estudio de la avifauna de las balsas seguimiento que ha realizado a la avifauna del paraje. · La crónica ornitológica del año 2000, con las

  16. Association of genetic variants with diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Saliha; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Mahdi, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy accounts for the most serious microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy will continue to increase in future posing a major challenge to the healthcare system resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. It occurs as a result of interaction between both genetic and environmental factors in individuals with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Genetic susceptibility has been proposed as an important factor for the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy, and various research efforts are being executed worldwide to identify the susceptibility gene for diabetic nephropathy. Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms have been found in various genes giving rise to various gene variants which have been found to play a major role in genetic susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy. The risk of developing diabetic nephropathy is increased several times by inheriting risk alleles at susceptibility loci of various genes like ACE, IL, TNF-?, COL4A1, eNOS, SOD2, APOE, GLUT, etc. The identification of these genetic variants at a biomarker level could thus, allow the detection of those individuals at high risk for diabetic nephropathy which could thus help in the treatment, diagnosis and early prevention of the disease. The present review discusses about the various gene variants found till date to be associated with diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25512783

  17. Diabetes and sexual dysfunction: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Esposito, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in nearly all countries. It has been associated with sexual dysfunction, both in males and in females. Diabetes is an established risk factor for sexual dysfunction in men, as a threefold increased risk of erectile dysfunction was documented in diabetic men, as compared with nondiabetic men. Among women, evidence regarding the association between diabetes and sexual dysfunction are less conclusive, although most studies have reported a higher prevalence of female sexual dysfunction in diabetic women as compared with nondiabetic women. Female sexual function appears to be more related to social and psychological components than to the physiological consequence of diabetes. Hyperglycemia, which is a main determinant of vascular and microvascular diabetic complications, may participate in the pathogenetic mechanisms of sexual dysfunction in diabetes. Moreover, diabetic people may present several clinical conditions, including hypertension, overweight and obesity, metabolic syndrome, cigarette smoking, and atherogenic dyslipidemia, which are themselves risk factors for sexual dysfunction, both in men and in women. The adoption of healthy lifestyles may reduce insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress – all of which are desirable achievements in diabetic patients. Improved well-being may further contribute to reduce and prevent sexual dysfunction in both sexes. PMID:24623985

  18. Association of genetic variants with diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Saliha; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Mahdi, Farzana

    2014-12-15

    Diabetic nephropathy accounts for the most serious microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy will continue to increase in future posing a major challenge to the healthcare system resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. It occurs as a result of interaction between both genetic and environmental factors in individuals with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Genetic susceptibility has been proposed as an important factor for the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy, and various research efforts are being executed worldwide to identify the susceptibility gene for diabetic nephropathy. Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms have been found in various genes giving rise to various gene variants which have been found to play a major role in genetic susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy. The risk of developing diabetic nephropathy is increased several times by inheriting risk alleles at susceptibility loci of various genes like ACE, IL, TNF-?, COL4A1, eNOS, SOD2, APOE, GLUT, etc. The identification of these genetic variants at a biomarker level could thus, allow the detection of those individuals at high risk for diabetic nephropathy which could thus help in the treatment, diagnosis and early prevention of the disease. The present review discusses about the various gene variants found till date to be associated with diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25512783

  19. Elevated Transferrin Saturation and Risk of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ellervik, Christina; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik Ullits; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Frandsen, Merete; Birgens, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that elevated transferrin saturation is associated with an increased risk of any form of diabetes, as well as type 1 or type 2 diabetes separately. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used two general population studies, The Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS, N = 9,121) and The Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS, N = 24,195), as well as a 1:1 age- and sex-matched population-based case-control study with 6,129 patients with diabetes from the Steno Diabetes Centre and 6,129 control subjects, totaling 8,535 patients with diabetes and 37,039 control subjects. RESULTS In the combined studies, odds ratios in those with transferrin saturation ?50% vs. <50% were 2.1 (95% CI 1.3–3.4; P = 0.003) for any form of diabetes; 2.6 (1.2–5.6; P = 0.01) for type 1 diabetes; and 1.7 (1.4–2.1; P = 0.001) for type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Elevated transferrin saturation confers a two- to threefold increased risk of developing any form of diabetes, as well as type 1 and type 2 diabetes separately. PMID:21873562

  20. Diabetes City: How Urban Game Design Strategies Can Help Diabetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knöll, Martin

    Computer Games are about to leave their “electronic shells” and enter the city. So-called Serious Pervasive Games (SPGs) [1] allow for hybrid - simultaneously physical and virtual - experiences, applying technologies of ubiquitous computing, communication and “intelligent” interfaces. They begin to focus on non-entertaining purposes. The following article a) presents game design strategies as a missing link between pervasive computing, Ambient Intelligence and user’s everyday life. Therefore it spurs a discussion how Pervasive Healthcare focusing on the therapy and prevention of chronic diseases can benefit from urban game design strategies. b) Moreover the article presents the development and work in progress of “DiabetesCity“ - an educational game prototype for young diabetics.

  1. Lipodystrophic diabetes mellitus: a lesson for other forms of diabetes?

    PubMed

    Ficarella, Romina; Laviola, Luigi; Giorgino, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    Lipodystrophies are a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue and metabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance, increased levels of free fatty acids, abnormal adipocytokine secretion, and ectopic fat deposition, which are also observed in patients with visceral obesity and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pathophysiological, biochemical, and genetic studies suggest that impairment in multiple adipose tissue functions, including adipocyte maturation, lipid storage, formation and/or maintenance of the lipid droplet, membrane composition, DNA repair efficiency, and insulin signaling, results in severe metabolic and endocrine consequences, ultimately leading to specific lipodystrophic phenotypes. In this review, recent evidences on the causes and metabolic processes of lipodystrophies will be presented, proposing a disease model that could be potentially informative for better understanding of common metabolic diseases in humans, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25687500

  2. Entrevista con Wilberto Cantón

    E-print Network

    Vé lez, Joseph F.

    1979-10-01

    FALL 1979 71 Entrevista con Wilberto Cantón JOSEPH F. VÉLEZ Señor Cantón, ¿quisiera usted decirme donde y cuándo nació?1 Nací en la ciudad de Mérida, Yucatán, el día 15 de julio de 1925. ¿Puede usted ahora decirnos un poco de su educación... primaria, secundaria y universitaria, ya haya sido en México o en el extranjero? Sí. Yo hice mis primeros estudios allá en la ciudad de Mérida y, posterior mente, vine a México, y aquí cursé el bachillerato y mi profesión, que es de abogado. Terminé...

  3. Treatment of Diabetic Sensory Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zilliox, Lindsay; Russell, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Opinion statement No current disease-modifying treatments have been shown definitively in randomized clinical trials to reduce or reverse diabetic sensory polyneuropathy (DSP). It is increasingly recognized that individuals with “prediabetes” or impaired glucose regulation can already have a “small-fiber” neuropathy, or mild DSP, in which sensory axons of both small and larger diameter are damaged. Small-fiber neuropathy is frequently associated with pain, and these patients may present to a neurologist for evaluation before the underlying glucose dysregulation has been diagnosed. It is important to identify these individuals, because aggressive diabetic control and lifestyle interventions can delay the onset of diabetes and may reverse small-fiber neuropathy associated with early diabetes mellitus. Although treatment currently focuses on pain associated with DSP, attention should be paid to potential risk factors for neuropathy. For example, glycemic control and hyperlipidemia should be improved with diet, exercise, and medications. Hypertension that is a risk marker for more severe neuropathy should be treated. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers not only treat hypertension but also may directly reduce the progression of neuropathy. Class I or II clinical studies support the use of sodium valproate, pregabalin, duloxetine, amitriptyline, gabapentin, venlafaxine, opioids, and topical capsaicin in treating diabetic neuropathic pain. Pregabalin and gabapentin are relatively well tolerated and have few medication interactions. Sodium valproate has been shown to be effective but is not recommended for use in women of childbearing potential, and patients must be monitored for hepatotoxicity and thrombocytopenia. Tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline are often used for nocturnal pain but require caution in the elderly or anyone with cardiac disease. Venlafaxine and duloxetine successfully treat neuropathic pain independently of their effect on depression. Opioid medications are associated with a high rate of adverse effects but with careful monitoring, they can be effective in treating resistant neuropathic pain. Capsaicin is an effective topical treatment that lacks systemic side effects. The lidocaine patch is effective in relieving pain associated with postherpetic neuralgia, but only class III evidence supports its use for diabetic neuropathic pain. No current Class I or II studies support other treatment modalities. PMID:21274758

  4. Predictors, consequences and costs of diabetes-related lower extremity amputation complicating type 2 diabetes: The Fremantle Diabetes Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Davis; P. E. Norman; D. G. Bruce; T. M. E. Davis

    2006-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  The aims of this study were to assess the incidence, predictors, consequences, and inpatient cost of lower extremity amputation (LEA) in a community-based cohort of type 2 diabetic patients.Methods  Between 1993 and 1996, 1,294 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited to the longitudinal, observational Fremantle Diabetes Study. LEAs and mortality from cardiac causes were monitored until 30 June 2005. Inpatient

  5. Diabetes and tuberculosis: the impact of the diabetes epidemic on tuberculosis incidence

    E-print Network

    Stevenson, Catherine R; Forouhi, Nita G; Roglic, Gojka; Williams, Brian G; Lauer, Jeremy A; Dye, Christopher; Unwin, Nigel

    2007-09-06

    Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of mortality in developing countries, and in these countries diabetes prevalence is increasing rapidly. Diabetes increases the risk of TB. Our aim was to assess the potential impact...

  6. Smart Diabetic Socks: Embedded device for diabetic foot prevention

    E-print Network

    Perrier, Antoine; Luboz, Vincent; Bucki, Marek; Cannard, Francis; Diot, Bruno; Colin, Denis; Rin, Delphine; Bourg, Jean-Philippe; Payan, Yohan

    2014-01-01

    1) Objectives Most foot ulcers are the consequence of a trauma (repetitive high stress, ill-fitting footwear, or an object inside the shoe) associated to diabetes. They are often followed by amputation and shorten life expectancy. This paper describes the prototype of the Smart Diabetic Socks that has been developed in the context of the French ANR TecSan project. The objective is to prevent pressure foot ulcers for diabetic persons. 2) Material and methods A fully wireless, customizable and washable "smart sock" has been designed. It is made of a textile which fibers are knitted in a way they provide measurements of the pressure exerted under and all around the foot in real-life conditions. This device is coupled with a subject-specific Finite Element foot model that simulates the internal strains within the soft tissues of the foot. 3) Results A number of derived stress indicators can be computed based on that analysis, such as the accumulated stress dose, high internal strains or peak pressures near bony p...

  7. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Get, set, go From diabetes capital of the world to diabetes care capital of the world.

    PubMed

    Magon, Navneet

    2011-07-01

    Screening and diagnosis for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as well as interventions for its management evoke considerable controversy. There are different types of screening methods: universal or risk-based, one step or two step. Different thresholds for diagnosis of GDM have been in vogue. Previous definition and diagnostic criteria had no place for diagnosis of overt diabetes in pregnancy. Following Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO) study and International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) recommendations, new screening and diagnostic criteria around the world seem to be gaining consensus. The present recommendation given by IADPSG for screening and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in pregnancy has two discrete phases. The first is detection of women with overt diabetes not previously diagnosed or treated outside of pregnancy. Universal early testing in populations is recommended at the first prenatal visit. The second phase is a 75-g OGTT at 24-28 week gestation in all women not previously found to have overt diabetes or GDM. ACHOIS and MFMU Network trails have proven benefit in treating hyperglycemias less than what is diagnostic for diabetes. DIPSI has shown the alternative way for resource-challenged communities. Efforts from all stake holders with interest in GDM are required to make the diabetes capital of the world into the diabetes care capital of the world. PMID:21897891

  8. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  9. Diabetic retinopathy in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Cohort: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Davis, E. J.; Davis, C.; Saadine, J.; D'Agostino, R. B.; Dabelea, D.; Dolan, L.; Garg, S.; Lawrence, J. M.; Pihoker, C.; Rodriguez, B. L.; Klein, B. E.; Klein, R.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The aim of this pilot study was to generate an initial estimate of the prevalence and correlates of diabetic retinopathy in a racially and ethnically diverse sample of youth with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A pilot study was conducted among 222 individuals with Type 1 diabetes (79% non-Hispanic white, 21% other) and 43 with Type 2 diabetes (28% non-Hispanic white, 72% other), all of > 5 years duration (mean duration 6.8 years) who participated in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Diabetic retinopathy was assessed using non-mydriatic retinal photography of both eyes. Results The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 17% for Type 1 diabetes and 42% for Type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 1.50, 95% CI 0.58–3.88; P = 0.40 adjusted for age, duration, gender, race/ethnicity, parental education and HbA1c. HbA1c was significantly higher among those with any diabetic retinopathy (adjusted mean 79 mmol/mol, 9.4%) vs. no diabetic retinopathy (adjusted mean 70 mmol/mol, 8.6%) (P = 0.015). LDL cholesterol was also significantly higher among those with any diabetic retinopathy (adjusted mean 107.2 mg/dl) compared with those without diabetic retinopathy (adjusted mean 97.9 mg/dl) (P = 0.04). Conclusions The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in contemporary young individuals was substantial, particularly among minority youth and those with Type 2 diabetes. Further long-term study of diabetic retinopathy in youth is needed. PMID:22269205

  10. Medial arterial calcification in the feet of diabetic patients and matched non-diabetic control subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Young; J. E. Adams; G. F. Anderson; A. J. M. Boulton; P. R. Cavanagh

    1993-01-01

    Summary  The prevalence and distribution of medial arterial calcification was assessed in the feet of four subject groups; 54 neuropathic diabetic patients with previous foot ulceration (U), median age 60.5 (50.5–67 interquartile range) years, duration of diabetes 19.5 (9.9–29.9) years; 40 neuropathic diabetic patients without a foot ulcer history (N), age 68 (62–73) years, duration of diabetes 14.0 (8.0–28.0) years; 43

  11. Cell-Based Therapies for Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Lynn C.; Neu, Matthew B.; Grant, Maria B.

    2013-01-01

    Autologous endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) populations represent a novel treatment for therapeutic revascularization and vascular repair for diabetic patients with complications including diabetic retinopathy. Current therapies are applicable to late-stage disease and carry significant side effects, whereas cell-based therapy may provide an alternative by repairing areas of vasodegeneration and reversing ischemia. However, EPCs from diabetic patients with vascular complications are dysfunctional. Moreover, the diabetic environment poses its own challenges and complicates the use of autologous EPCs. Before EPCs become the ideal “cell therapy,” the optimal EPC must be determined, any functional dysfunction must be corrected prior to use, and the diabetic milieu will require modification to accept the EPCs. This review describes the rationale for harnessing the vascular reparative properties of EPCs with emphasis on the molecular and phenotypic nature of healthy EPCs, how diabetes alters them, and novel strategies to improve dysfunctional EPCs. PMID:21611766

  12. Pathogenesis of diabetic cerebral vascular disease complication

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ren-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most potent independent risk factors for the development of diabetic cerebral vascular disease (CVD). Many evidences suggested that hyperglycemia caused excess free fatty acids, the loss of endothelium-derived nitric oxide, insulin resistance, the prothrombotic state, endothelial dysfunction, the abnormal release of endothelial vasoactivators, vascular smooth muscle dysfunction, oxidative stress, and the downregulation of miRs participated in vessel generation and recovery as well as the balance of endotheliocytes. In turn, these abnormalities, mainly via phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, polyol, hexosamine, protein kinase C activation, and increased generation of advanced glycosylation end products pathway, play an important role in inducing diabetic CVD complication. A deeper comprehension of pathogenesis producing diabetic CVD could offer base for developing new therapeutic ways preventing diabetic CVD complications, therefore, in the paper we mainly reviewed present information about the possible pathogenesis of diabetic CVD complication. PMID:25685278

  13. Clinical guidelines on contraception and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S

    1997-09-01

    Diabetic women present an interesting challenge to the reproductive health-care physician and gynecologist. Good preconceptual counselling reduces the risk of adverse consequences of the pregnancy to the mother and the fetus and should be encouraged. Poor metabolic control has been linked with an increased risk of congenital malformations. The low-dose combined pill (COC) does not appear to increase the risk of diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes. Young healthy diabetic women under 25 years old may be prescribed the low-dose COC with careful metabolic monitoring. The copper intrauterine contraceptive device is a useful choice in diabetic women with vascular disease, proliferative retinopathy and nephropathy. The progestogen-only pill and barrier methods may sometimes have unacceptable failure rates in diabetic women who may require to avoid a pregnancy at any cost. When a couple's family is complete, sterilization and vasectomy should be encouraged. PMID:9678088

  14. Diabetes, Oxidative Stress and Physical Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Atalay, Mustafa; Laaksonen, David E.

    2002-01-01

    Oxidative stress, an imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defense capacity of the body, is closely associated with aging and a number of diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and diabetic complications. Several mechanisms may cause oxidative insult in diabetes, although their exact contributions are not entirely clear. Accumulating evidence points to many interrelated mechanisms that increase production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species or decrease antioxidant protection in diabetic patients. In modern medicine, regular physical exercise is an important tool in the prevention and treatment of diseases including diabetes. Although acute exhaustive exercise increases oxidative stress, exercise training has been shown to up regulate antioxidant protection. This review aims to summarize the mechanisms of increased oxidative stress in diabetes and with respect to acute and chronic exercise. PMID:24672266

  15. Curcumin and Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong-wei; Fu, Min; Gao, Si-Hua; Liu, Jun-Li

    2013-01-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa), a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, has been used for the treatment of diabetes in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine. The active component of turmeric, curcumin, has caught attention as a potential treatment for diabetes and its complications primarily because it is a relatively safe and inexpensive drug that reduces glycemia and hyperlipidemia in rodent models of diabetes. Here, we review the recent literature on the applications of curcumin for glycemia and diabetes-related liver disorders, adipocyte dysfunction, neuropathy, nephropathy, vascular diseases, pancreatic disorders, and other complications, and we also discuss its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The applications of additional curcuminoid compounds for diabetes prevention and treatment are also included in this paper. Finally, we mention the approaches that are currently being sought to generate a “super curcumin” through improvement of the bioavailability to bring this promising natural product to the forefront of diabetes therapeutics. PMID:24348712

  16. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventional studies assessing the effect of the Mediterranean diet on diabetes control and the management of diabetes-related complications. The above mentioned data are explored on the basis of evaluating the Mediterranean diet as a whole dietary pattern, rather than focusing on the effect of its individual components. Possible protective mechanisms of the Mediterranean diet against diabetes are also briefly discussed. PMID:24714352

  17. Association of oral candidiasis with diabetic control.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, L V; Tan, M H; Pereira, L H; Embil, J A

    1989-01-01

    Factors associated with oral candidiasis in 51 diabetics were examined. The prevalence of oral yeast infection was 49 (n = 25)%. The association with diabetic control, as measured by fasting blood glucose concentration, urinary glucose concentration, and glycosylated haemoglobin, with the presence of yeast was analysed in the 51 diabetic patients. Glycosylated haemoglobin above 12% was strongly associated with oral yeast infection (odds ratio = 13.00) (p less than 0.001), while fasting blood and urinary glucose concentrations were not. The risk of oral candidiasis among diabetics wearing dentures was significantly higher than among dentate diabetics (odds ratio = 4.78). After controlling for the effect of denture wearing, glycosylated haemoglobin greater than 12% remained highly predictive of oral yeast infection, particularly among diabetics without dentures. PMID:2732344

  18. "As a native nation, we must fight diabetes…"

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Stories "As a native nation, we must fight diabetes…" Past Issues / ... Springs, Az. Type 2 I didn't know a thing about diabetes when I was diagnosed, but ...

  19. JAMA Patient Page: Starting Insulin Treatment for Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body does not use insulin properly and, over time, cannot make enough insulin. Some people with type 2 diabetes will need treatment with insulin. The Importance of Insulin in Treating Type 2 Diabetes Diabetes ...

  20. Diabetic Foot and Risk: How to Prevent Losing Your Leg

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Complete List AOFAS / FootCareMD / Conditions / Diabetic Foot The Diabetic Foot and Risk: How to Prevent Losing Your ... Page Content Don't deny you are a diabetic Anyone who has ever had an elevated blood ...

  1. Emerging Applications for Intelligent Diabetes Management Cindy Marling, Matthew Wiley

    E-print Network

    Bunescu, Razvan C.

    , including blindness, amputations, kidney failure, strokes, and heart attacks (Diabetes Control and ComplicaEmerging Applications for Intelligent Diabetes Management Cindy Marling, Matthew Wiley and Razvan Shubrook and Frank Schwartz Appalachian Rural Health Institute Diabetes and Endocrine Center Ohio

  2. How to Help a Loved One Cope with Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NDEP Home > Publications How to Help a Loved One Cope with Diabetes Download This Publication (NDEP-57) ... learn more about managing diabetes. Ask your loved one about coping with diabetes and how you can ...

  3. 76 FR 47290 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial...published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from...

  4. 76 FR 78722 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  5. 76 FR 17475 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  6. Diabetes and Flu: What You Need to Know and Do

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Reports to Congress Surveillance Diabetes Prevention and Control Diabetes and the Flu Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from Influenza (The Flu) Information for People with Diabetes (either type 1 OR type 2) and Their ...

  7. 78 FR 68139 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  8. 76 FR 47291 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  9. 77 FR 533 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  10. 77 FR 13686 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  11. 75 FR 69734 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  12. 75 FR 52809 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  13. 76 FR 17478 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  14. 78 FR 38439 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  15. 76 FR 71111 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial...published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from sixteen...

  16. 77 FR 70530 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  17. 76 FR 34127 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  18. 76 FR 64165 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  19. 78 FR 64267 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial...requested such an exemption from the diabetes prohibition in 49 CFR...

  20. 78 FR 32704 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  1. 77 FR 64585 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial...published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from 28...

  2. 77 FR 33551 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial...requested such an exemption from the diabetes prohibition in 49 CFR...

  3. 76 FR 61140 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  4. 77 FR 64181 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  5. 76 FR 78720 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  6. 77 FR 48587 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  7. 78 FR 56988 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial...requested such an exemption from the diabetes prohibition in 49 CFR...

  8. 77 FR 20876 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  9. 76 FR 71112 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  10. 75 FR 36775 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  11. 77 FR 75493 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial...published a notice of receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from 14...

  12. 78 FR 24795 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  13. 77 FR 74271 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  14. 77 FR 52384 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  15. 78 FR 16758 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  16. 75 FR 13647 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...applications for exemptions from the diabetes standard; request for comments...against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  17. 77 FR 5870 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  18. Tips for Teens: Lower Your Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Teens: Lower Your Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Download This Publication (NDEP-87) Want this item ... reviewed: 11/01/2012 What is type 2 diabetes? Diabetes means that blood glucose, also called blood ...

  19. 78 FR 14406 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  20. 77 FR 27842 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ...of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial...requested such an exemption from the diabetes prohibition in 49 CFR...