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1

todasuvida: Las personas con diabetes son ms  

E-print Network

diabetes Controlesu todasuvida: Las personas con diabetes son más propensas a padecer de enfermedades del corazón que quienes no tienen diabetes. Boletín 631 D Las personas con diabetes tienen mayor- res relacionados con la diabetes, como derrame cerebral, mala circulación en las piernas y pies e

2

con Diabetes Su diabetes s se puede controlar!  

E-print Network

Do Well, Be Well con Diabetes ¡Su diabetes sí se puede controlar! Educational programs of the Texas, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating. to develop diabetes self-care skills, to improve eating habits and maintain good nutrition, to increase physical activity, to prevent diabetes complications

3

Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes 2013 1 Formulario de Conclusin para Personas con Diabetes Formulario de Conclusin para Personas con Diabetes 201  

E-print Network

Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes ­ 2013 1 Formulario de Conclusión para Personas con Diabetes Formulario de Conclusión para Personas con Diabetes ­ 201 Si usted NO TIENE diabetes, por favor NO LLENE este últimos cuatro números de mi número telefónico son __ __ __ __. C. Marque todas las clases sobre diabetes

4

Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes 2013 1 Formulario de Registro para Personas con Diabetes Formulario de Registro para Personas con Diabetes 2013  

E-print Network

Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes ­ 2013 1 Formulario de Registro para Personas con Diabetes Formulario de Registro para Personas con Diabetes ­ 2013 Si usted NO TIENE diabetes, por favor NO LLENE este sobre diabetes en el Condado de _______________. D. El código postal en mi casa es __ __ __ __ __. E

5

Beneficios del ejercicio fsico en los pacientes con diabetes Benefits of exercise in patients with diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical exercise has important health benefi ts. Physical inactivity is as- sociated with an increased risk of chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes mellitus. In contrast, moderate levels of physical exercise produce con- siderable benefi ts in diabetic patients, especially in those with type 2 dia- betes mellitus. At the onset of the disease, modifi cation of lifestyle, with improvements

. Caballero Figueroa; M. Hernndez Garca

6

Creencias en salud en preadolescentes con diabetes tipo 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health Beliefs in Type 1 Diabetes Teenagers. The study of health beliefs shows that it is during the adolescent period that takes place the formation of these important repertoires that will determine in part the behaviors related to health along life. The present study explore several health and disease beliefs in a sample of 70 type I diabetic teenagers (8-

Carolina Greco; Jess Gil Roales-Nieto

2007-01-01

7

Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Diabetes What is Diabetes? Too Much Glucose in the Blood Diabetes means ... high, causing pre-diabetes or diabetes. Types of Diabetes There are three main kinds of diabetes: type ...

8

Meal Planning for People with Diabetes, 2nd Edition = Planificacion de Comidas para Personas con Diabetes, 2 Edicion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides information about diabetes and meal planning particularly designed for migrant individuals. The first section defines diabetes, explains different types of diabetes, lists results of uncontrolled diabetes, and describes the goals and components of a diabetic meal plan. The second section explains the exchange system of

National Migrant Resource Program, Inc., Austin, TX.

9

Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... prevent or delay the start of type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented. ... Elsevier; 2011:chap 31. Eisenbarth GS, Buse JB. Type 1 diabetes mellitus. In: Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen ...

10

Diabetes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Diabetes, in a variety of forms, affects many Americans and is the 4th leading cause of death by disease in the US. Diabetes is fundamentally a disease in which the body cannot produce or effectively use a critical hormone called insulin. Untreated / unmanaged diabetes can lead to blindness, kidney failure, heart disease, loss of limbs and stroke.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

1993-04-14

11

Estilo de vida y adherencia al tratamiento de la poblacin canaria con diabetes mellitus tipo 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifestyle and Treatment Adherence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus People in the Canary Islands Background: The Canary Islands population experiences the highest type 2 diabetes (DM2) mortality in Spain. We stu died lifestyle, unknown DM2 and treatment adherence in dia betics of these islands. Methods: cross-sectional study of 6729 subjects from the general population (age 18-75) that participate in the

Antonio Cabrera de Len; Jos Carlos del Castillo Rodrguez; Santiago Domnguez Coello; Mara del Cristo Rodrguez Prez; Buenaventura Brito Daz; Carlos Borges lamo; Lourdes Carrillo Fernndez; Delia Almeida Gonzlez; Jos Juan Alemn Snchez; Ana Gonzlez Hernndez; Armando Aguirre-Jaime

2009-01-01

12

Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... to develop type 2 diabetes later in life. Polycystic ovary syndrome Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that occurs when an imbalance ... to form on the ovaries. Women who have PCOS are at an increased risk of developing type ...

13

Control de la enfermedad en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2: una muestra regiomontana Illness's control in patient suffering mellitus type 2 diabetes: a Monterrey's sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to carry out a descriptive analysis about the type of control in patients suffering diabetes mellitus type 2, as well as their relationship with the current state of the illness. Results obtained in 94 mature patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 attending an uni- versity hospital in the city of Monterrey (Mexico) are

Rafael Armando; Samaniego Gara; Javier lvarez Bermdez

14

Stay at a Healthy Weight. Tips for Kids with Type 2 Diabetes = Mantente en un Peso Saludable. Consejos Para Muchachos con Diabetes Tipo 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A healthy weight means you are not too fat or too thin. Your doctor may have said that you should not gain more weight or that you need to lose a few pounds. If you have diabetes and are overweight, you are not alone. The steps you take to manage your weight will help you feel better and may improve your blood sugar or glucose (GLOO-kos) levels.

US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

2005-01-01

15

with Diabetes With Diabetes  

E-print Network

with Diabetes Dining A Program For People With Diabetes And Their Families Now is the time to take charge of your diabetes. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a common, serious, and costly disease. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has reported that diabetes is the 6th leading cause of death

16

Estudio bacteriolgico de pacientes con pie diabtico infectado en el Hospital Arzobispo Loayza Bacteriologic study of diabetic foot infected at Arzobispo Loayza Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the frequency of diabetic foot's infections and the antibiotic sensibility at Arzobispo Loayza Hospital. Methods: A descriptive study on diabetic foot was carried out at Arzobispo Loayza Hospital. Aerobic bacteria were isolated and the Kirby-Bauer method was used. Results: 95 diabetic patients had infected ulcerations in lower limb. 132 bacteria were isolated. Gram positive aerobic bacteria predominated

Federico Elguera Falcn; Jos Sols Villanueva; Luis Neyra Arizmendiz

17

Diabetes Insipidus  

MedlinePLUS

... Z List of Topics and Titles : Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes Insipidus On this page: What is diabetes insipidus? ... Hope through Research For More Information What is diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disease ...

18

Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Print and Share (PDF 372 KB) Diabetes ... 1-800-332-1088 to request a form. Diabetes Medicines The different kinds of diabetes medicines are ...

19

Diabetic Neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Diabetic Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Diabetic Neuropathy? Is there any treatment? ... Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Diabetic Neuropathy? Diabetic neuropathy is a peripheral nerve disorder caused ...

20

Diabetes Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

21

Monogenic Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... gene. In contrast, the most common types of diabetestype 1 and type 2are caused by multiple genes ( ... some children with monogenic diabetes are misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes and are given insulin. When correctly diagnosed, some ...

22

Diagnsticos de enfermagem identificados em pessoas com diabetes tipo 2 mediante abordagem baseada no Modelo de Orem1 Nursing diagnosis identified in people with diabetes type 2 by means of an approach based on Orem's model Diagnsticos de enfermera identificados en personas con diabetes tipo 2 a travs de abordaje basado en el modelo de Orem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aimed to describe some of the basic conditioning factors to self-care and analyze the nursing diagnosis of the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association among diabetes type 2 carriers by means of an approach based on Orem's theory. Seven diabetic people took part in this study; they were evaluated during the period of May to June of 2006. The

Alyne Coelho Moreira Milhomem; Fabiane Fassini Mantelli; Graziela Aparecida; Valente Lima

23

Canadian Diabetes Association National Nutrition Committee Technical Review: Nonnutritive Intense Sweeteners in Diabetes Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada state that up to 10% of daily calories can be derived from sugars. However, individuals with diabetes may also be relying on alternative, low-calorie sweetening agents (providing little or no calories along with sweet taste) to con- trol carbohydrate intake, blood glucose, weight

Rjeanne Gougeon; Mark Spidel; Kristy Lee; Catherine J. Field

2004-01-01

24

La automonitorizacin glucmica en los pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 no tratados con insulina, es una tcnica apropiada para todos los pacientes? Capillary blood glucose monitoring in non-insulin treated patients with type 2 diabetes. Is that technique appropriate for all patients?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no unanimous consensus in medical literature regarding the benefi ts of glucose self-monitoring in the metabolic control (evaluated according to the HbA1c) in patients with non-insulin treated diabetes. Our experience in the follow-up of a small group of patients that, after suffering a coronary episode, joined an educational programme would appear to support the process of self-monitoring, fi

L. Sez de Ibarra; R. Gaspar; A. Obesso; A. M. Bermejo; P. Martnez

2008-01-01

25

Diabetes and Vascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... for daily life. There are several types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes (previously called juvenile diabetes) is an autoimmune ... 5-10% of Americans who are diagnosed with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes (previously called adult onset ...

26

Diabetes Insipidus  

MedlinePLUS

Diabetes insipidus (DI) causes frequent urination. You become extremely thirsty, so you drink. Then you urinate. This ... is almost all water. DI is different from diabetes mellitus (DM), which involves insulin problems and high ...

27

Diabetes Complications  

MedlinePLUS

If you have diabetes, your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Over time, this can cause problems with other body ... as your kidneys, nerves, feet, and eyes. Having diabetes can also put you at a higher risk ...

28

Diabetic Retinopathy  

MedlinePLUS

... Prevalence Rates for Diabetic Retinopathy by Age, and Race/Ethnicity Hispanic Americans age 50 and older are ... Ethnicity 2010 Prevalence Rates of Diabetic Retinopathy by Race In 2010, Hispanic Americans age 50 and older ...

29

Diabetic Neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

... need to be treated at a hospital. In severe cases, you may need to have your foot amputated (removed). Because diabetes makes ... What can I do to avoid diabetic neuropathy? The most important thing is to keep ...

30

Diabetes insipidus - nephrogenic  

MedlinePLUS

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; Congenital diabetes insipidus ... be removed and returned to the blood. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) occurs when the kidney tubules do ...

31

A new look at viruses in type 1 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 1 diabetes results from the destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Genetic factors are believed to be a major com- ponent for the development of type 1diabetes, but the con- cordance rate for the development of diabetes in identical twins is only about 40%, suggesting that non-genetic factors play an important role in the expression of the disease. Viruses are

Hee-Sook Jun; Ji-Won Yoon

1995-01-01

32

Diabetes Education Program INTRODUCTION TO DIABETES  

E-print Network

Diabetes Education Program INTRODUCTION TO DIABETES If you have just learned that you have diabetes or already have diabetes and have been told that a change in therapy is needed, you may feel frightened you to learn how to better manage your diabetes. WHAT IS DIABETES? Diabetes is a condition in which

Oliver, Douglas L.

33

The Diabetes EDUCATOR Volume 37, Number 6, November/December 2011  

E-print Network

The Diabetes EDUCATOR 770 Volume 37, Number 6, November/December 2011 Ninfa C. Peña-Purcell, Ph Controlar Mi Diabetes! program (formerly Do Well, Be Well con Diabetes program) was supported by the US-46100-05910). DOI: 10.1177/0145721711423319 © 2011 The Author(s) An Empowerment-Based Diabetes Self

Boggess, May M.

34

Diabetic cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a distinct primary disease process, independent of coronary artery disease, which leads to heart failure in diabetic patients. Epidemiological and clinical trial data have confirmed the greater incidence and prevalence of heart failure in diabetes. Novel echocardiographic and MR (magnetic resonance) techniques have enabled a more accurate means of phenotyping diabetic cardiomyopathy. Experimental models of diabetes have provided a range of novel molecular targets for this condition, but none have been substantiated in humans. Similarly, although ultrastructural pathology of the microvessels and cardiomyocytes is well described in animal models, studies in humans are small and limited to light microscopy. With regard to treatment, recent data with thiazoledinediones has generated much controversy in terms of the cardiac safety of both these and other drugs currently in use and under development. Clinical trials are urgently required to establish the efficacy of currently available agents for heart failure, as well as novel therapies in patients specifically with diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:19364331

Asghar, Omar; Al-Sunni, Ahmed; Khavandi, Kaivan; Khavandi, Ali; Withers, Sarah; Greenstein, Adam; Heagerty, AnthonyM.; Malik, RayazA.

2009-01-01

35

Diabetes in African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... and Titles : Diabetes in African Americans Diabetes in African Americans 4 Steps to Manage Your Diabetes for Life ... to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Tips to help African Americans at risk for type 2 diabetes move more ...

36

Types of Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... this page please turn Javascript on. Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes, formerly called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, ... in children, teenagers or young adults. Treatment for type 1 diabetes includes taking insulin shots or using an insulin ...

37

Diabetic Retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensive medical management of persons with diabetes, especially both glycemic control as well as blood pressure control,\\u000a has been proven by randomized controlled clinical trials to be highly beneficial in reducing both the development and progression\\u000a of diabetic retinopathy in both types 1 and 2 diabetes. It is possible that aggressive therapy of dyslipidemia in this population\\u000a may also

Emily Y. Chew

38

Paediatric diabetes.  

PubMed

Diabetes does not spare any section of society, and its prevalence in the paediatric and adolescent age group is rising. This review highlights the etiological and clinical features of childhood diabetes, including secular changes in epidemiology. It discusses the aspects of non pharmacological and pharmacological therapy which are unique to the paediatric age group, and explores current use of novel therapeutic modalities. The article calls for modulation of the psychological environment of the child with diabetes, to help improve his or her quality of life, and sensitizes physicians to take proactive, affirmative action to address the special needs of children with type1 diabetes. PMID:24601207

Kalra, Sanjay

2013-09-01

39

Neonatal Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Nine distinct genetic conditions have been identified in the last 12 years causing neonatal diabetes mellitus through failure of normal pancreatic development, islet cell dysfunction or ?-cell destruction. This review will focus on the three conditions about which our understanding of the pathology and in some cases the treatment options has greatly increased: transient neonatal diabetes mellitus,

J. P. H. Shield

2007-01-01

40

Diabetic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Diabetic neuropathy (DN) refers to symptoms and signs of neuropathy in a patient with diabetes in whom other causes of neuropathy have been excluded. Distal symmetrical neuropathy is the commonest accounting for 75% DN. Asymmetrical neuropathies may involve cranial nerves, thoracic or limb nerves; are of acute onset resulting from ischaemic infarction of vasa nervosa. Asymmetric neuropathies in diabetic patients should be investigated for entrapment neuropathy. Diabetic amyotrophy, initially considered to result from metabolic changes, and later ischaemia, is now attributed to immunological changes. For diagnosis of DN, symptoms, signs, quantitative sensory testing, nerve conduction study, and autonomic testing are used; and two of these five are recommended for clinical diagnosis. Management of DN includes control of hyperglycaemia, other cardiovascular risk factors; ? lipoic acid and L carnitine. For neuropathic pain, analgesics, non?steroidal anti?inflammatory drugs, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants are recommended. The treatment of autonomic neuropathy is symptomatic. PMID:16461471

Bansal, V; Kalita, J; Misra, U K

2006-01-01

41

Diabetes Insipidus  

MedlinePLUS

... but not thirst and fluid intake. This fluid overload can lead to water intoxi cation, a condition ... current studies, visit www.ClinicalTrials.gov. For More Information The Diabetes Insipidus and Related Disorders Network 535 ...

42

Diabetes Superfoods  

MedlinePLUS

... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... purchase processed grains like bread made from enriched wheat flour, you dont get these. A few ...

43

Diabetic Diet  

MedlinePLUS

... high blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels. Healthy eating helps keep your blood sugar in your target ... diabetes. A registered dietitian can help make an eating plan just for you. It should take into ...

44

Gestational diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

Gestational diabetes most often starts halfway through the pregnancy. All pregnant women should receive an oral glucose tolerance test between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy to look for the condition. Women who have risk ...

45

Diabetic Nephropathy  

MedlinePLUS

... products from your body. The blood vessels have holes that are big enough to allow tiny waste ... could mean that your diabetes has damaged the holes in the blood vessels of your kidneys. This ...

46

Diabetic Pets  

MedlinePLUS

... made by a veterinarian. Because older dogs and cats are more likely to develop age-related diseases ... cataracts, which commonly develop in diabetic dogs and cats. Other problems that can occur include hind leg ...

47

Diabetic Retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication that eventually afflicts virtually all patients with diabetes mellitus\\u000a (DM) (1). Despite decades of research, there is presently no known cure or means of preventing DR, and DR remains the leading cause\\u000a of new-onset blindness in working-aged Americans (1). Several nationwide clinical trials have demonstrated that scatter (panretinal) laser photocoagulation reduces the 5-year

Lloyd Paul Aiello; Jerry Cavallerano

48

Diabetic Neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic neuropathies (DN) are a heterogeneous group of disorders that include a wide range of abnormalities. They can be\\u000a focal or diffuse, proximal or distal, affecting both peripheral and autonomic nervous systems, causing morbidity with significant\\u000a impact on the quality of life of the person with diabetes, resulting in early mortality. Distal symmetric polyneuropathy,\\u000a the most common form of DN,

Aaron I. Vinik

49

Air Travel and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Size: A A A Listen Air Travel and Diabetes We continue to advocate for the rights travelers ... to people with diabetes. Explore: Air Travel and Diabetes Fact Sheet: Air Travel and Diabetes This fact ...

50

Diabetes and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. When ... pregnant women in the United States get gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is diabetes that happens for the ...

51

Diabetic Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Diabetic Heart Disease? The term "diabetic heart disease" (DHD) refers ... Kidney Diseases' Introduction to Diabetes Web page. What Heart Diseases Are Involved in Diabetic Heart Disease? DHD ...

52

Hypogonadotrophic Hypogonadism in Type 2 Diabetes, Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work shows a high prevalence of low testosterone and inappropriately low LH and FSH con- centrations in type 2 diabetes. This syndrome of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HH) is associated with obesity, and other features of the metabolic syndrome (obesity and overweight, hypertension and hyperlipide- mia) in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the duration of diabetes or HbA1c were not

Paresh Dandona; Sandeep Dhindsa; Ajay Chaudhuri; Vishal Bhatia; Shehzad Topiwala; Priya Mohanty

2008-01-01

53

Diabetes Reunion Celebrating Sensibly with Diabetes  

E-print Network

1 Lesson 4: Diabetes Reunion Celebrating Sensibly with Diabetes T oday is our final lesson on Cooking Well with Diabetes. In this lesson, we will focus on four key points, reviewing the concepts with diabetes may enjoy a small dessert. We also learned that we can reduce the sugar in certain recipes

54

Diabetes Experience Spring 2014 Interprofessional Diabetes Experience  

E-print Network

Diabetes Experience Spring 2014 Interprofessional Diabetes Experience Phar 6226/Nurs 5011 Spring the opportunity to learn in-depth knowledge of diabetes mellitus through active, hands-on learning experience of living with diabetes, in which they will give "insulin" injections and check blood glucoses

Thomas, David D.

55

Diabetic retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic retinopathy is the principal cause of irreversible blindness in patients of working age in the industrialized world (1,2). For some types of retinopathy (eg, proliferative disease), effective treatment in the form of laser photocoagulation has been available for more than 20 years, but many patients seek help too late when treatment is no longer effective. Macular edema, which is

Hamish M. A. Towler

2003-01-01

56

Diabetic Retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular disease that leads to capillary occlusion. It affects the retinal precapillary arterioles, capillaries and venules. Early pathological features include thickening of the basement membrane, loss of pericytes and the development of microaneurysms. Persistent hyperglycaemia is considered to be the primary cause of changes in the vascular endothelium. Capillary occlusion then occurs as a result of

Shona Macleod; John V Forrester

2002-01-01

57

Irradiated lymphocytes do not adoptively transfer diabetes or prevent spontaneous disease in the BB/W rat  

SciTech Connect

Diabetes in the BB/W rat is autoimmune in origin, and lymphocytes from acutely diabetic animals activated by concanavalin A (con A) induce the disease in adoptive recipients. We report that irradiation of these cells prevents adoptive transfer of diabetes. Through 60 days of age, diabetes occurred in none of 47 BB/W rats given irradiated con A cells, but in 21 of 36 (58%) given nonirradiated cells. Between 60 and 130 days of age, however, spontaneous diabetes occurred in 18 of 34 untreated control rats (53%) and 16 of 32 rats (50%) given two injections of irradiated con A activated spleen cells. We conclude that irradiation prevents adoptive transfer of BB/W rat diabetes and that irradiated con A activated lymphocytes from acutely diabetic rats do not protect against spontaneous disease in susceptible recipients.

Mordes, J.P.; Handler, E.S.; Like, A.A.; Nakano, K.; Rossini, A.A.

1986-06-01

58

Tips for Teens with Diabetes: What Is Diabetes?  

MedlinePLUS

... Teens > What is Diabetes? Tips for Teens with Diabetes: What is Diabetes? Download This Publication (NDEP-63) Want this item ... life. Last reviewed: 11/01/2012 What is diabetes? Diabetes means that your blood glucose , also called ...

59

Tips for Kids with Type 2 Diabetes: What Is Diabetes?  

MedlinePLUS

... life. Q * To learn more about diabetes American Diabetes Association 1-800-DIABETES (342-2383) www.diabetes.org/wizdom Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International 1-800-223-1138 www. ...

60

Staying Healthy with Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Surveillance Diabetes Prevention and Control Staying Healthy with Diabetes Language: English Espaol (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... examinations and tests are needed for people with diabetes? Your doctors should?? Measure your blood pressure at ...

61

Native Americans and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... they're developing the eye disease or the heart or kidney disease of diabetes. Many people do ... a diabetic herself, but she also treats diabetic patients. Because of her heritage she feels a special ...

62

Diabetes Health Concerns  

MedlinePLUS

... necessary screening tests. Top of Page How can diabetes affect cardiovascular health? Cardiovascular disease is the leading ... triglyceride, weight, and blood pressure problems related to diabetes? People with type 2 diabetes have high rates ...

63

Introduction to Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Espaol National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and Resources E-News ... Topics and Titles : Introduction to Diabetes Introduction to Diabetes Prediabetes Am I at Risk for Type 2 ...

64

Diabetic Nerve Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get it. ... change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. Controlling ...

65

Women and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Diabetes is a serious ... More in Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth ...

66

Carbohydrates and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthy Weight: Your Personal Plan Dealing With Anger Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth > Teens > Diabetes Center > Diabetes & Nutrition > ... Healthy Diet Balancing Your Carbs Carbs and Blood Sugar Keeping your blood sugar levels on track means ...

67

Tuberculosis and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

TUBERCULOSIS & DIABETES COLLABORATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR CARE AND CONTROL OF TUBERCULOSIS AND DIABETES WHO Sept 2011 For more information: ... increase by 50% by 2030 THE LINKS BETWEEN TUBERCULOSIS AND DIABETES People with a weak immune system, ...

68

Tight Diabetes Control  

MedlinePLUS

... test strips and syringes, than before. What About Type 2 Diabetes? The DCCT studied only people with type 1 ... control can also prevent complications in people with type 2 diabetes. Most people with type 2 diabetes do not ...

69

Treating Type 2 Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... the suggestions of the diabetes health care team. Type 2 Diabetes Treatment Basics The blood glucose level is the ... the glucose to get into the cells. In type 2 diabetes, the body doesn't respond normally to insulin, ...

70

Pre-Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... In someone with pre-diabetes or diabetes, these levels rise very high or fall slowly, so they will ... to increase exercise and improve diet, blood sugar levels will probably eventually rise to diabetic levels. Once this happens, medication is ...

71

Gestational Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Gestational diabetes (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. GDM is becoming an increasing health problem worldwide and one of the most common complications of pregnancy. The prevalence of GDM in Central Europe is 57%. GDM is associated with increased feto-maternal morbidity as well as long-term complications in mothers and

Alexandra Kautzky-Willer; Dagmar Bancher-Todesca

2003-01-01

72

Diabetes Diagnosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry-based lesson, students learn about diabetes mellitus and explore techniques for diagnosing and monitoring the disease. Students must propose a plan for testing two different case study patients, then carry out their plan using artificial samples from each patient. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological Society?s 1999 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Ms. Marcy Hotchkiss (Landsdowne High School)

1999-12-01

73

Diabetic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine the relationships among large, small, and autonomic fiber neurophysiological measures in a cross-sectional study of patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We assessed 130 individuals: 25 healthy subjects and 105 subjects with diabetes. Subjects were classified by the presence or absence of neuropathy by physical examination. All subjects underwent autonomic testing, nerve conduction studies, quantitative sensory testing, and nerve-axon reflex vasodilation in addition to quantifiable neurological examination and symptom scores. Correlation and cluster analysis were used to determine relationships between and among different neurophysiological testing parameters. RESULTS Results of neurophysiological tests were abnormal in patients with clinical evidence of diabetic neuropathy compared with results in healthy control subjects and in those without neuropathy (P < 0.01, all tests). The correlations among individual tests varied widely, both within (r range <0.5>0.9, NS to <0.001) and between test groups (r range <0.2>0.5, NS to <0.01). A two-step hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that neurophysiological tests do not aggregate by typical small, large, or autonomic nerve fiber subtypes. CONCLUSIONS The modest correlation coefficients seen between the different testing modalities suggest that these techniques measure different neurophysiological parameters and are therefore not interchangeable. However, the data suggest that only a small number of neurophysiological tests are actually required to clinically differentiate individuals with neuropathy from those without. The natural clustering of both patients and healthy control subjects suggests that variations in the population will need to be considered in future studies of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:20805259

Gibbons, Christopher H.; Freeman, Roy; Veves, Aristidis

2010-01-01

74

Tips for Teens with Diabetes: About Diabetes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diabetes is a serious disease. It means that one's blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Having too much glucose in a person's blood is not healthy. This paper offers tips for managing diabetes.

National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), 2010

2010-01-01

75

Vanadium and diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrated in 1985 that vanadium administered in the drinking water to streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats restored elevated blood glucose to normal. Subsequent studies have shown that vanadyl sulfate can lower elevated blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides in a variety of diabetic models including the STZ diabetic rat, the Zucker fatty rat and the Zucker diabetic fatty rat. Long-term studies

Patrick Poucheret; Subodh Verma; Marc D. Grynpas; John H. McNeill

1998-01-01

76

Neuroprotection in Diabetic Encephalopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing evidence has shown that diabetes may be associated with learning and memory deficits in humans. These cognitive disorders, called diabetic encephalopathy, can impair the daily performance of diabetic individuals. In recent years, some neuroprotective measures have been proposed to prevent diabetic neuropathology. This review attempts to show a summary of different experimental measures that have been described to improve

Seyyed Amirhossein Fazeli

2009-01-01

77

Orthopaedics and diabetes.  

PubMed

With about 12% of orthopaedic patients being diabetic and a large proportion of them being obese as well, orthopaedic surgeons are commonly involved in managing diabetic patients in both outpatient and inpatient setting. This review summarizes current concepts in diabetes management including specific orthopaedic issues and future directions of diabetes management. PMID:24350506

Kurup, Harish; Thomas, Manoj

2013-10-01

78

Diabetes in Elderly Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes is common in the elderly population. By the age of 75, approximately 20% of the population are afflicted with this illness. Diabetes in elderly adults is metabolically distinct from diabetes in younger patient populations, and the approach to therapy needs to be different in this age group. Diabetes is associated with substantial mor- bidity from macro- and microvascular complications.

Graydon S. Meneilly; Daniel Tessier

2001-01-01

79

Management of Diabetic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is the commonest cause of neuropathy worldwide. Diabetic neuropathy (DN) develops in about 410% of diabetic patients after 5 years and in 15% after 20 years. Four main mechanisms have been postulated to underlie the pathogenesis of DN. Diabetic neuropathy can be divided into symmetrical and asymmetrical neuropathies. Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy (DAN) parallels the severity of DSN, and affects primarily the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary and integumentary systems. The cornerstone of treatment of diabetic neuropathy is optimization of glycaemic control. Future treatments for diabetic neuropathy should address the underlying pathogenesis. PMID:23386794

Ali, Raymond Azman

2003-01-01

80

Diabetic retinopathy - ocular complications of diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

In industrialized nations diabetic retinopathy is the most frequent microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and the most common cause of blindness in the working-age population. In the next 15 years, the number of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus is expected to increase significantly. By the year 2030, about 440 million people in the age-group 20-79 years are estimated to be suffering from diabetes mellitus worldwide (prevalence 7.7%), while in 2010 there were 285 million people with diabetes mellitus (prevalence 6.4%). This accounts for an increase in patients with diabetes in industrialized nations by 20% and in developing countries by 69% until the year 2030. Due to the expected rise in diabetic patients, the need for ophthalmic care of patients (i.e., exams and treatments) will also increase and represents a challenge for eye-care providers. Development of optimized screening programs, which respect available resources of the ophthalmic infrastructure, will become even more important. Main reasons for loss of vision in patients with diabetes mellitus are diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Incidence or progression of these potentially blinding complications can be greatly reduced by adequate control of blood glucose and blood pressure levels. Additionally, regular ophthalmic exams are mandatory for detecting ocular complications and initiating treatments such as laser photocoagulation in case of clinical significant diabetic macular edema or early proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In this way, the risk of blindness can considerably be reduced. In advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy, pars-plana vitrectomy is performed to treat vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment. In recent years, the advent of intravitreal medication has improved therapeutic options for patients with advanced diabetic macular edema. PMID:25897358

Nentwich, Martin M; Ulbig, Michael W

2015-01-01

81

The Costs of Diabetes  

E-print Network

The increasing number of diabetic patients has reached a level of epidemic globally. The mortality from diabetes mellitus is also increasing and has been ranked as one of the ten major causes of death in many countries. Diabetes is becoming one of the major public health problems because a great proportion of the healthcare expenditure has been spent on the treatment of its associated morbidity and mortality. In Taiwan, diabetes has been ranked as the fifth leading cause of death since 1987 and the number of mortality from diabetes keeps on increasing. The prevalence of diabetes is also increasing in Taiwan over the past decades. Chronic diabetic complications are common and glycemic control status has been poor. There are about 540 thousand drug-treated diabetic patients in Taiwan and they used up about 11.5 % of the total healthcare expenditure reimbursed by the National Health Insurance. Most of the diabetic complications are preventable by controlling blood glucose and the associated atherosclerotic risk factors. A recent study also showed that even diabetes itself could be prevented by regular exercise and dietary control. In the war against diabetes, preventing the occurrence of chronic diabetic complications or diabetes itself seems to be the most efficient and effective way to reduce the great burden of diabetes. Key words: Diabetes mellitus, healthcare cost, preventive medicine 1

Tseng Chin-hsiao

82

Children and Diabetes: SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth  

MedlinePLUS

... Diabetes Public Health Resource Share Compartir Children and Diabetes On this Page SEARCH Facts Implications SEARCH Research Centers For More Information SEARCH Publications SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Diabetes is one of the most ...

83

How to Treat Gestational Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... A Listen En Espaol How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Be sure to see the latest Diabetes Forecast ... and a healthy start for your baby. Gestational Diabetes Looking Ahead Gestational diabetes usually goes away after ...

84

"Control Your Diabetes. For Life."  

MedlinePLUS

... Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Control Your Diabetes. For Life." Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents For information about "Control Your Diabetes. For Life" campaign, visit www.YourDiabetesInfo.org or call toll- ...

85

Diabetes: What's True and False?  

MedlinePLUS

... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > Kids > Diabetes Center > ... True or False: Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Diabetes False: When kids get type 1 diabetes , it's ...

86

Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

... and Titles : Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke On this page: What is ... stroke. [Top] What is the connection between diabetes, heart disease, and stroke? If you have diabetes, you ...

87

Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

... and stroke. What is the connection between diabetes, heart disease, and stroke? If you have diabetes, you are ... and Stroke What are the risk factors for heart disease and stroke in people with diabetes? Diabetes itself ...

88

Lucentis Approved for Diabetic Retinopathy  

MedlinePLUS

... Approved for Diabetic Retinopathy Among diabetics with macular edema (*this news item will not be available after ... with diabetic retinopathy who also have diabetic macular edema, abnormal blood vessels can grow and rupture on ...

89

Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... and Type 2 Diabetes Your chance of getting type 2 diabeteswhich used to be called adult-onset diabetes ... steps to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes by reaching and maintaining a healthy weight, moving ...

90

Diabetes in Children and Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... teens was type 1. It was called juvenile diabetes. With Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is ... TV, computer, and video Children and teens with type 1 diabetes may need to take insulin. Type 2 diabetes ...

91

Diabetes, diabetic complications, and fracture risk.  

PubMed

Diabetes and osteoporosis are both common diseases with increasing prevalences in the aging population. There is increasing evidence corroborating an association between diabetes mellitus and bone. This review will discuss the disease complications of diabetes on the skeleton, highlighting findings from epidemiological, molecular, and imaging studies in animal models and humans. Compared to control subjects, decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been observed in type 1 diabetes mellitus, while on average, higher BMD has been found in type 2 diabetes; nonetheless, patients with both types of diabetes are seemingly at increased risk of fractures. Conventional diagnostics such as DXA measurements and the current fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) risk prediction algorithm for estimating risk of osteoporotic fractures are not sufficient in the case of diabetes. A deterioration in bone microarchitecture and an inefficient distribution of bone mass with insufficiency of repair and adaptation mechanisms appear to be factors of relevance. A highly complex and heterogeneous molecular pathophysiology underlies diabetes-related bone disease, involving hormonal, immune, and perhaps genetic pathways. The detrimental effects of chronically elevated glucose levels on bone should be added to the more well-known complications of diabetes. PMID:25648962

Oei, Ling; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Zillikens, M Carola; Oei, Edwin H G

2015-04-01

92

Arizona Diabetes Strategic Plan  

E-print Network

Diabetes is a serious and costly disease in Arizona. The number of people with diabetes in Arizona grows each year. In fact, since 1990 the prevalence of diabetes in Arizona has doubled from 4 percent to 8.5 percent in 2006. We know that type 2 diabetes, which is the most common type of diabetes, can be prevented and that people with diabetes can live healthy and long lives with the proper care. Through education, increasing access to care, and other public health strategies, we have a great opportunity to work with our partners in Arizona to reduce the burden of diabetes on individuals, families, and communities. The Arizona Diabetes Strategic Plan is the first plan in Arizona to address diabetes from a public health perspective for the entire State. It uses public health strategies to address opportunities for improvements in healthcare systems, the diabetes workforce, community partnerships, and local and organizational policies. We have great hope that by working together with partners throughout Arizona that we will be able to reduce the prevalence rate of diabetes and improve the lives of people living with diabetes in Arizona. We are proud to be a part of the Arizona Diabetes Coalition. Sincerely,

unknown authors

93

Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It?  

MedlinePLUS

Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? KidsHealth > Parents > Diabetes Center > Diabetes Basics > Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? Print A A ... in learning to live with the disease. About Diabetes Diabetes is a disease that affects how the ...

94

Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It?  

MedlinePLUS

Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? KidsHealth > Kids > Diabetes Center > What's Diabetes? > Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? Print A A ... What is it? Let's find out. What Is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that affects how the ...

95

Type 2 Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... tests must be done. Diabetes blood tests: Fasting blood glucose level. Diabetes is diagnosed if it is higher than ... treatment at first is to lower your high blood glucose levels. Long-term goals are to prevent problems from ...

96

Diabetes Travel Tips Video  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Disease Control and Prevention , and more than 200 public and private organizations. Home Publications Resources Diabetes Facts Press I Have Diabetes Am I at Risk? Health Care Professionals, Businesses & Schools Partners & Community Organizations About ...

97

If I Had - Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Diabetes (Interview with Dr. James Meigs, MD, MPH, Massachusetts General Hospital) If I Had - Diabetes - Dr. David M. Nathan, MD, Massachusetts General Hospital; Harvard Medical School Back to Home ...

98

Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 31,2013 The following statistics speak loud and clear that there is a strong correlation between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. Heart diseases and stroke are ...

99

Diabetes in Youth  

MedlinePLUS

... it is routinely assumed to be type 1. Type 1 diabetes develops when the body's immune system destroys pancreatic ... it can occur at any age. People with type 1 diabetes must have daily insulin injections or be on ...

100

Discrimination (Based on Diabetes)  

MedlinePLUS

... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen Discrimination If you suspect that you or a family ... other helpful information about driving with diabetes. Explore: Discrimination Legal Advocacy People with diabetes face discrimination at ...

101

Diabetic Kidney Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... too high. Over time, this can damage your kidneys. Your kidneys clean your blood. If they are damaged, waste ... in your blood instead of leaving your body. Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. It ...

102

Staying Healthy with Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Public Health Resource Share Compartir Staying Healthy with Diabetes On this Page What routine medical examinations and ... examinations and tests are needed for people with diabetes? Your doctors should Measure your blood pressure at ...

103

Diabetes: Dealing With Feelings  

MedlinePLUS

... Story (Video) Talking to Your Parents - or Other Adults School Counselors Managing Your Medical Care School and Diabetes Your Diabetes Health Care Team Contact Us Print Additional resources Send to a friend Reprint guidelines Share this ...

104

Diabetes Research and News  

MedlinePLUS

... three monthsblood pressure and cholesterol. The report, published online in Diabetes Care, shows that, from 1988 ... of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, were published online March 1 in The Journal of Clinical ...

105

National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse  

MedlinePLUS

... Statistics Research Resources About Us Espaol National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and Resources E-News Subscribe to E-news Go Health Information Services National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse National Digestive Diseases ...

106

Epidemiology of diabetes  

PubMed Central

The disease burden related to diabetes is high and rising in every country, fuelled by the global rise in the prevalence of obesity and unhealthy lifestyles. The latest estimates show a global prevalence of 382 million people with diabetes in 2013, expected to rise to 592 million by 2035. The aetiological classification of diabetes has now been widely accepted. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the two main types, with type 2 diabetes accounting for the majority (>85%) of total diabetes prevalence. Both forms of diabetes can lead to multisystem complications of microvascular endpoints, including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, and macrovascular endpoints including ischaemic heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. The premature morbidity, mortality, reduced life expectancy and financial and other costs of diabetes make it an important public health condition. PMID:25568613

Forouhi, Nita Gandhi; Wareham, Nicholas J.

2014-01-01

107

Diabetes: Oral Effects  

MedlinePLUS

... can increase your risk of tooth decay (cavities). Saliva normally washes away sugars and bits of food ... with uncontrolled diabetes may have decreased flow of saliva. However, it's not clear whether diabetics have more ...

108

Adrenomedullin and diabetes  

PubMed Central

Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a peptide hormone widely expressed in different tissues, especially in the vasculature. Apart from its vasodilatatory and hypotensive effect, it plays multiple roles in the regulation of hormonal secretion, glucose metabolism and inflammatory response. ADM regulates insulin balance and may participate in the development of diabetes. The plasma level of ADM is increased in people with diabetes, while in healthy individuals the plasma ADM concentration remains low. Plasma ADM levels are further increased in patients with diabetic complications. In type 1 diabetes, plasma ADM level is correlated with renal failure and retinopathy, while in type 2 diabetes its level is linked with a wider range of complications. The elevation of ADM level in diabetes may be due to hyperinsulinemia, oxidative stress and endothelial injury. At the same time, a rise in plasma ADM level can trigger the onset of diabetes. Strategies to reduce ADM level should be explored so as to reduce diabetic complications. PMID:24936257

Wong, Hoi Kin; Tang, Fai; Cheung, Tsang Tommy; Cheung, Bernard Man Yung

2014-01-01

109

Weight and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... blood sugar levels under control. Continue Weight and Type 2 Diabetes Most people are overweight when they're diagnosed with type 2 diabetes . Being overweight or obese increases a person's risk ...

110

Teen Diabetes Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

... enjoy Teens with diabetes should not eat at fast food restaurants. True False Teens get type 2 diabetes ... and dance. Answer: B You can eat at fast-food restaurants, just not every day. When you do, ...

111

Diabetes Health Concerns  

MedlinePLUS

... you need to know about diabetic retinopathy From Medline Plus ? Interactive tutorial on eye disease, diabetes, retinopathy prevention ... feet and how to prevent foot problems From Medline Plus ? Interactive tutorial on foot care, footwear, preventing injury, ...

112

Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes has been shown to be increasing at a rapid rate in the United States. There estimates of 23.6 million individuals with diabetes with 1.6 million new cases being diagnosed annually. [1] Diabetes has long been known as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Experts indicate 38% of patients admitted to the hospital are diabetic.[2] Therefore one

Barbara Bobbi Leeper; Dl Mcgee

1979-01-01

113

DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY: FRESH PERSPECTIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Diabetes is the disorder most often linked with development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the USA, Europe, South America, Japan, India, and Africa. Kidney disease is as likely to develop in long-duration non-insulin dependent diabetes (type 2) as in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1). Nephropathy in diabetes if suboptimally managed follows a predictable course starting with

Eli A. Friedman

114

[Screening for diabetic retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concurrent with the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus, the incidence of diabetic retinopathy is also rising. Timely recognition with the aid of screening, followed by laser therapy, can prevent the greater part of the resulting visual impairment and blindness. However, many patients with diabetes are not screened or not screened adequately. The necessary screening frequency is annually or biannually, depending

W. W. Hartstra; F. Holleman; J. B. Hoekstra; R. O. Schlingemann

2007-01-01

115

the Student with Diabetes  

E-print Network

Helping the Student with Diabetes Succeed AGuide for School Personnel Updated Edition 2010 U for Disease Control and Prevention #12;ii www.YourDiabetesInfo.org Supporting Organizations This guide was produced by the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a federally sponsored partnership

Rau, Don C.

116

Diabetes Type 2  

MedlinePLUS

Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not ... You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, obese, have a family ...

117

Diabetes Type 1  

MedlinePLUS

Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is ... kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults ...

118

What Is Diabetic Retinopathy?  

MedlinePLUS

... that causes damage to the optic nerve. Watch how vitreous hemorrhage affects your eyes. Next Page: Diabetic Retinopathy Causes Written ... injections to treat diabetic retinopathy cause stomach pain? How early does diabetes affect the eye? At what age should we do ...

119

"Diabetes is beatable!"  

MedlinePLUS

... if they take the time. To learn, be positive, keep clean, and keep going! We can find a cure for diabetes. It's exciting, especially what's going on at the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, the American Diabetes Association, and the National Institutes of Health. Fall 2009 ...

120

Leukocytes in Diabetic Retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common diabetic complications, and is a major cause of new blindness in the working-age population of developed countries. Progression of vascular abnormalities, including the selective loss of pericytes, formation of acellular capillaries, thickening of the basement membrane, and increased vascular permeability characterizes early nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). Capillary occlusion, as shown on fluorescein

Rakesh Chibber; Bahaedin M. Ben-Mahmud; Surina Chibber; Eva M. Kohner

2007-01-01

121

DIABETES PREVENTION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was a major clinical trial, or research study, aimed at discovering whether either diet and exercise or the oral diabetes drug metformin (Glucophage) could prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose toleranc...

122

Vision Disorders in Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

iabetes, particularly diabetic retinopathy, is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in people age 20-74 years in the United States. Approximately 8% of those who are legally blind are reported to have diabetes as the etiol- ogy, and it is estimated that more than 12% of new cases of blindness are attributable to diabetes. Twelve percent of insulin-dependent

Ronald Klein; Barbara E. K. Klein

123

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies for the Management of the Diabetic Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bridge between oral and systemic health exists and becomes more concrete as data con- tinue to emerge in support of this relationship. The medical management of diabetes is affected by the presence of chronic infections, such as periodontitis. This article reviews the pathogenesis of periodontal disease as it relates to diabetes. The author discusses patient susceptibility in terms of

Maria Emanuel Ryan

124

Diabetes Mellitus and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Diabetes has been associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in most, but not all, studies. Findings have also been inconclusive with regard to sex and subsite in the colorectum. To resolve these inconsistencies, we con- ducted a meta-analysis of published data on the association between diabetes and the incidence and mortality of colorec- tal cancer. Methods: We

Susanna C. Larsson; Nicola Orsini; Alicja Wolk

125

C-peptide and Glucagon Profiles in Minority Children with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to determine the extent of insulin deficiency and glucagon excess in the hyperglycemia of type 2 diabetes in children. The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents has increased substantially over the past several years. Because insulin and glucagon action both regulate blood glucose con- centration, we studied their responses to mixed

VATCHARAPAN UMPAICHITRA; WILLIAM BASTIAN; DORIS TAHA; MARY A. BANERJI; THEODORE W. AVRUSKIN; SALVADOR CASTELLS

2010-01-01

126

Islet Cell Hormonal Responses to Hypoglycemia After Human Islet Transplantation for Type 1 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Islet transplantation can eliminate severe hypoglycemic episodes in patients with type 1 diabetes; however, whether intrahepatic islets respond appropriately to hypo- glycemia after transplantation has not been fully studied. We evaluated six islet transplant recipients, six type 1 diabetic subjects, and seven nondiabetic control subjects using a stepped hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp. Also, three islet transplant recipients and the seven con- trol

Michael R. Rickels; Mark H. Schutta; Rebecca Mueller; James F. Markmann; Clyde F. Barker; Ali Naji; Karen L. Teff

2005-01-01

127

2011 Diabetes in Iowa  

E-print Network

What is diabetes? How can it be managed and prevented? Diabetes is a chronic illness that is diagnosed based on a person having elevated levels of blood sugar (blood glucose). Most people with diabetes find its management challenging and a lifelong commitment. But, people with diabetes can live normal and healthy lives and avoid many, if not all, of the complications of diabetes. To do this, they must resolve to take control of their health and have needed social and medical support in this undertaking. In adults, most diabetes is type 2, which responds well to keeping normal body weight, being physically active, eating a balanced diet and taking medication when needed. Type 2 diabetes is so strongly associated with choosing healthy behaviors that most persons with normal blood sugar levels or with pre-diabetes can go a long way toward keeping themselves from ever developing diabetes if they take on the tough work of managing their weight, physical activity levels and diet. Social systems and physical environmental supports are essential to the success of Iowans individual efforts to prevent and control diabetes. Iowa Ranking Nationally: In 2010, 8 of every 100 Iowa adults had diagnosed diabetes, while nationally the median rate was 8.7% (median = half of states had higher, half had lower rates). State rates ranged from 5.8 % to 12.4%. Diagnosed adult diabetes prevalence rates in Iowa have historically been about the same as or slightly below the U.S. median rate. What are the implications of the increase in diabetes prevalence? Who in Iowa is working to prevent, manage and control diabetes? What are type 1 and 2 diabetes? See pages 7 and 8.

unknown authors

128

Genetics of Type 1 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a By the American Diabetes Association Classification, Type 1A Diabetes is the immune-mediated form of diabetes, while Type\\u000a 1B represents nonimmune-mediated forms of diabetes with beta-cell destruction leading to absolute insulin deficiency (1 ?).\\u000a There are additional forms of insulin-dependent diabetes with defined etiologies (Other Specific Types of Diabetes: genetic,\\u000a hormonal, and environmental). Finally, type 2 diabetes is, overall, the most

Aaron Michels; Joy Jeffrey; George S. Eisenbarth

129

Diabetes mellitus in cats.  

PubMed

Feline diabetes is a multifactorial disease with genetic and environmental factors, including diet, excess body weight, and physical inactivity, involved in its pathogenesis. Although type 2 diabetes is most common in cats, most cats are insulin-dependent at the time of diagnosis. If good glycemic control can be achieved early after diagnosis, a substantial proportion of diabetic cats go into clinical remission. Diabetic remission may be facilitated by using a low-carbohydrate-high-protein diet combined with a long-acting insulin, such as glargine, administered twice daily. Rather than just controlling clinical signs, these new treatment modalities make curing feline diabetes a realistic goal for practitioners. PMID:15627634

Rand, Jacquie S; Marshall, Rhett D

2005-01-01

130

National Diabetes Fact Sheet  

E-print Network

> 18.4% of all people in this age group have diabetes. Age 20 years or older: 15.6 million. 8.2% of all people in this age group have diabetes. Under age 20: 123,000. 0.16% of all people in this age group have diabetes. Prevalence of diabetes by sex in people 20 years or older* Men: 7.5 million. 8.2% of all men have diabetes. Women: 8.1 million. 8.2% of all women have diabetes. Prevalence of diabetes by race/ethnicity in people 20 years or older* Non-Hispanic whites: 11.3 million. 7.8% of all non-Hispanic whites have diabetes. Non-Hispanic blacks: 2.3 million. 10.8% of all non-Hispanic blacks have diabetes. On average, non-Hispanic blacks are 1.7 times as likely to have diabetes as non-Hispanic whites of similar age. Mexican Americans: 1.2 million. 10.6% of all Mexican Americans have diabetes. On average, Mexican Am

Department Of Health; Undiagnosed Million People

131

Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes  

E-print Network

Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes Support Group Our support group is dedicated to adults of all ages (16 years and older) with type 1 diabetes. Each month most our time Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center will also present a short diabetes-related topic to get the discussion

Chapman, Michael S.

132

Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes  

E-print Network

Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes Support Group 2014 Our support group is dedicated to adults of all ages (16 years and older) with type 1 diabetes. Each month most our time Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center will also present a short diabetes-related topic to get the discussion

Chapman, Michael S.

133

Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes Support Group  

E-print Network

Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes Support Group Our support group is dedicated to adults of all ages (16 years and older) with type 1 diabetes. Each month most our time will be for sharing and a professional from our diabetes center will present a short diabetes-related topic

Chapman, Michael S.

134

Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is likely the third modifiable risk factor for pancreatic cancer after cigarette smoking and obesity. Epidemiological investigations have found that long-term type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a 1.5- to 2.0-fold increase in the risk of pancreatic cancer. A causal relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer is also supported by findings from prediagnostic evaluations of glucose and insulin levels in prospective studies. Insulin resistance and associated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation have been suggested to be the underlying mechanisms contributing to development of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer. Signaling pathways that regulate the metabolic process also play important roles in cell proliferation and tumor growth. Use of the antidiabetic drug metformin has been associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer in diabetics and recognized as an antitumor agent with the potential to prevent and treat this cancer. On the other hand, new-onset diabetes may indicate subclinical pancreatic cancer, and patients with new-onset diabetes may constitute a population in whom pancreatic cancer can be detected early. Biomarkers that help define high-risk individuals for clinical screening for pancreatic cancer are urgently needed. Why pancreatic cancer causes diabetes and how diabetes affects the clinical outcome of pancreatic cancer have yet to be fully determined. Improved understanding of the pathological mechanisms shared by diabetes and pancreatic cancer would be the key to the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies for this cancer. PMID:22162232

Li, Donghui

2011-01-01

135

AMERICAN DIABETES ASSOCIATION  

E-print Network

OBJECTIVE Diabetes is the fifth leading cause of death by disease in the U.S. Diabetes also contributes to higher rates of morbiditypeople with diabetes are at higher risk for heart disease, blindness, kidney failure, extremity amputations, and other chronic conditions. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate the direct medical and indirect productivity-related costs attributable to diabetes and 2) to calculate and compare the total and per capita medical expenditures for people with and without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Medical expenditures were estimated for the U.S. population with and without diabetes in 2002 by sex, age, race/ethnicity, type of medical condition, and health care setting. Health care use and total health care expenditures attributable to diabetes were estimated using etiological fractions, calculated based on national health care survey data. The value of lost productivity attributable to diabetes was also estimated based on estimates of lost workdays, restricted activity days, prevalence of permanent disability, and mortality attributable to diabetes. RESULTS Direct medical and indirect expenditures attributable to diabetes in 2002 were estimated at $132 billion. Direct medical expenditures alone totaled $91.8 billion and comprised

unknown authors

136

Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Diabetes under Control  

MedlinePLUS

... problems: Keep your diabetes under control Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your diabetes under control On this page: ... a pharmacist a dentist an eye doctor a foot doctor You are the most important member of ...

137

Tips for Teens with Diabetes: What Is Diabetes?  

MedlinePLUS

... In type 1 diabetes, the cells in the pancreas that make insulin are destroyed. If you have ... or juvenile diabetes. In type 2 diabetes , the pancreas still makes some insulin but cells cannot use ...

138

Diabetic Kidney Disease (Diabetic Nephropathy) (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... Often people who have diabetic nephropathy also have high blood pressure. DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY RISK FACTORS There are several factors that can increase your risk of developing diabetic nephropathy. These include: ? Having chronically elevated blood ...

139

Diabetes Mellitus 1.-Qu es la Diabetes Mellitus?  

E-print Network

Diabetes Mellitus 1.- ¿Qué es la Diabetes Mellitus? La diabetes mellitus es un trastorno metabólico necesaria para desarrollar cualquier tipo de trabajo. La causa de la diabetes es una anomalía en la glucosuria 3.- ¿Cómo se detecta la Diabetes? El estudio de diabetes se realiza mediante la medición de la

Escolano, Francisco

140

Genitourinary infection in diabetes  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is known to increase the risk of infection and the commonest amongst them are the ones involving the genitourinary tract. The infections in a diabetic patient are unique in that they are recurrent, more severe, requiring hospitalization, and also have higher mortality than nondiabetics. Some infections are exclusively found in diabetics like the emphysematous pyelonephritis while others have their natural history complicated due to hyperglycemia. Asymptomatic bacteriuria may lead to albuminuria and urinary tract infection and may need to be treated in diabetics. Not just this certain organisms have a predilection for the genitourinary tract of the diabetic patient. All of the above makes the diabetic patient vulnerable to infections and therefore early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is mandatory. PMID:24251228

Julka, Sandeep

2013-01-01

141

Financial Help for Diabetes Care  

MedlinePLUS

... For More Information Acknowledgments How costly is diabetes management and treatment? Diabetes management and treatment is expensive. ... websites for needed diabetes testing supplies by using keywords such as glucose test strips or the names ...

142

DIABETES, OBESITY AND METABOLISM INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

DIABETES, OBESITY AND METABOLISM INSTITUTE AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE #12;THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE DIABETES, OBESITY AND METABOLISM INSTITUTE AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE "As we launch the Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism Institute at Northwestern Medicine, I

Engman, David M.

143

American Association of Diabetes Educators  

MedlinePLUS

... outstanding contributions to diabetes education. More AADE Blog: Diabetes, Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fracture: Not a Sweet Combination ... more here . Events MARCH 25 Webinar - Immunizations and Diabetes Understand recent changes in immunization recommendations to be ...

144

Diabetes: What's True and False?  

MedlinePLUS

... which are false. Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. False: Type 1 diabetes happens when the cells ... person's risk for developing the disease. People with diabetes can never eat sweets. False: You can have ...

145

Diabetes Resources for Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Professionals, Businesses & Schools Partners & Community Organizations About NDEP | Contact Us | Site Map Tengo diabetes Corro riesgo? You are here: NDEP Home > Resources > Diabetes Resources for Older Adults Text Size: S M L | About Diabetes Resources for ...

146

What is Diabetic Eye Disease?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... least half will show signs of a diabetic eye disease and the most common of these by far ... vision. Announcer: Diabetic retinopathy is not the only eye disease that may affect people with diabetes. Others include ...

147

Shoes and Orthotics for Diabetics  

MedlinePLUS

... for Your Diabetic Feet Diabetic Foot Problems Foot Ulcers and the Total Contact Cast The Diabetic Foot and Risk: How to Prevent Losing Your Leg ?The American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) offers information on this site as ...

148

National Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2011  

MedlinePLUS

... Rate of new cases of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among youth aged <20 years, by race/ethnicity, ... are currently in progress or are being planned. Type 2 diabetes was previously called noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus ( ...

149

For Men, Ignoring Diabetes Can Be Deadly  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes For Men, Ignoring Diabetes Can Be Deadly Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... Man's Guide to Living Well with Diabetes. Simpler Diabetes Care: Estimated Average Glucose (eAG) The American Diabetes ...

150

Diabetes and Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Diabetes mellitus affects about 20% of adults older than 65 years of age and its prevalence among Americans is reaching epidemic\\u000a proportions. In cross-sectional studies, diabetes mellitus has been associated with various complications and comorbid conditions,\\u000a especially psychiatric disorders. The relationship between diabetes and depression is particularly complex. Evidence demonstrates\\u000a high co-occurrence of these disorders, with associated poorer medical outcomes.

Maria D. Llorente; Julie E. Malphurs

151

Diabetes in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

ConclusionsThe adolescent diabetic has a totally different set of problems from either the child or adult with diabetes. Failure to recognise this and deal with it will result in non-compliance and non-attendance at the clinic. Anyone taking on the care of a teenage diabetic must be prepared to try to resolve all their problems in the one clinic. There is

R. B. Tattersall; J. Lowe

1981-01-01

152

Prevalencia de diabetes mellitus e hiperlipidemias en indgenas otomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine prevalence and risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) and hyperlipidemias in a population of Otomi Indians. Material and methods. A cross-sec- tional study was conducted between 1996 and 1997, in a con- venience sample of 91 Otomi Indians, aged 15 to 77 years, in the comunities of Yosphi and El Rincon, Queretaro, Mexico. Fasting blood samples were

Claudia Alvarado-Osuna; Feliciano Milian-Suazo; Victoria Valles-Snchez

2001-01-01

153

Treatment of obese diabetics.  

PubMed

Fat accumulation is a typical phenomenon in the pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes. Also Type 1 diabetics are getting obese these days living in an environment with typical caloric overfeeding and low physical activity. Weight reduction is an important part of therapy in all obese diabetic patients. Orlistat is the only accessible antiobesity drug today. Weight neutral antidiabetics like metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors can be also used. Incretin analogues (exenatide and liraglutide) are also very important drugs inducing weight loss in diabetic and also in nondiabetic patients. Insulin therapy causes mostly weight gain. Long acting insulin analogues are able to induce small weight loss in Type 1 diabetes or only a small weight increase or weight loss in Type 2 diabetic patients. Procedures of bariatric surgery are very important in the treatment being able to induce remission of Type 2 diabetes. Weight reduction can be supported also using the new class of antiadiabetic drugs- SGLT inhibitors which are blocking glucose absorption in kidneys. The use of new incretine analogues injected at the interval of one to two weeks is the most important strategy for the treatment of obese Type 2 diabetic patients and perhaps also of Type 1 diabetic patients even in combination with insulin. PMID:23393696

Svacina, Stepn

2012-01-01

154

Globalization of Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes is a global public health crisis that threatens the economies of all nations, particularly developing countries. Fueled by rapid urbanization, nutrition transition, and increasingly sedentary lifestyles, the epidemic has grown in parallel with the worldwide rise in obesity. Asia's large population and rapid economic development have made it an epicenter of the epidemic. Asian populations tend to develop diabetes at younger ages and lower BMI levels than Caucasians. Several factors contribute to accelerated diabetes epidemic in Asians, including the normal-weight metabolically obese phenotype; high prevalence of smoking and heavy alcohol use; high intake of refined carbohydrates (e.g., white rice); and dramatically decreased physical activity levels. Poor nutrition in utero and in early life combined with overnutrition in later life may also play a role in Asia's diabetes epidemic. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have contributed substantially to our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology, but currently identified genetic loci are insufficient to explain ethnic differences in diabetes risk. Nonetheless, interactions between Westernized diet and lifestyle and genetic background may accelerate the growth of diabetes in the context of rapid nutrition transition. Epidemiologic studies and randomized clinical trials show that type 2 diabetes is largely preventable through diet and lifestyle modifications. Translating these findings into practice, however, requires fundamental changes in public policies, the food and built environments, and health systems. To curb the escalating diabetes epidemic, primary prevention through promotion of a healthy diet and lifestyle should be a global public policy priority. PMID:21617109

2011-01-01

155

Painful diabetic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Diabetes is a worldwide epidemic, and associated neuropathy is its most costly and disabling complication. Given the rising prevalence of painful diabetic neuropathy, it is increasingly important that we understand the best ways to diagnose and treat this condition. Diagnostic tests in this field are evolving rapidly. These include the use of skin biopsies to measure small unmyelinated fibers, as well as even newer techniques that can measure both small unmyelinated fibers and large myelinated fibers in the same biopsy. The main treatments for painful diabetic neuropathy remain management of the underlying diabetes and drugs for the relief of pain. However, emerging evidence points to major differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, including the ability of glycemic control to prevent neuropathy. Enhanced glucose control is much more effective at preventing neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes than in those with type 2 disease [corrected]. This dichotomy emphasizes the need to study the pathophysiologic differences between the two types of diabetes, because different treatments may be needed for each condition. The impact of the metabolic syndrome on neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes may account for the difference between the two types of diabetes and requires further study. Finally, neuropathic pain is under-recognized and undertreated despite an ever evolving list of effective drugs. Evidence exists to support several drugs, but the optimal sequence and combination of these drugs are still to be determined. PMID:24803311

Peltier, Amanda; Goutman, Stephen A; Callaghan, Brian C

2014-01-01

156

Iron and Diabetes Risk  

PubMed Central

Iron overload is a risk factor for diabetes. The link between iron and diabetes was first recognized in pathologic conditionshereditary hemochromatosis and thalassemiabut high levels of dietary iron also impart diabetes risk. Iron plays a direct and causal role in diabetes pathogenesis mediated both by ?-cell failure and insulin resistance. Iron is also a factor in the regulation of metabolism in most tissues involved in fuel homeostasis, with the adipocyte in particular serving an iron-sensing role. The underlying molecular mechanisms mediating these effects are numerous and incompletely understood, but include oxidant stress and modulation of adipokines and intracellular signal transduction pathways. PMID:23473030

Simcox, Judith A.; McClain, Donald A.

2013-01-01

157

Diabetic Retinopathy: Nature and Extent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors discuss the incidence and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in juvenile and maturity onset diabetics, background and proliferative retinopathy, and current modalities of treatment. (Author)

Coughlin, W. Ronald; Patz, Arnall

1978-01-01

158

Las personas con diabetes deben lograr un balance entre los  

E-print Network

en un lado del plato y los alimentos bajos en carbohidratos al otro lado. Karen Halderson, MPH, RD bajos en carbohidratos, manteniendo cada uno en su propio lado del plato o de la mesa. Comer vegetales en diferentes lados de su plato y ver si su plato está "balanceado". Sin embargo, muchas veces

159

Pycnogenol for diabetic retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic retinopathy represents a serious health threat to a rapidly growing numberof patients with diabetes mellitus. The retinal microangiopathy is characterised byvascular lesions with exudate deposits and haemorrhages causing vision loss.Pycnogenol, a standardised extract of the bark of the French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), is known to increase capillary resistance. Pycnogenol has been tested for treatment and prevention of retinopathy

Frank Schnlau; Peter Rohdewald

2001-01-01

160

Diabetes Treatment Breakthrough.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight experts in visual impairment respond briefly to reports that intensive monitoring of blood glucose levels by persons with diabetes can lead to a 70% reduction in the progression of detectable diabetic retinopathy. Comments are generally optimistic, though some cautions are raised. (DB)

Baker, Shelly; And Others

1993-01-01

161

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physiology in Medicine review article. This articles describes how a patient gets diabetes insipidus, the effects of this disease on a patient, and the therapy to control this disease. This article also describes vasopressin, aquaporins, and the Bartter system, and their relationships with diabetes insipidus.

MD Jeff M Sands (Emory Univ Sch Med Dept Med, Renal Div)

2006-02-13

162

Fad diets in diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight reduction is notoriously difficult to achieve and may be more difficult to attain in people with diabetes on insulin therapy and insulin secretagogues. People with diabetes may turn to fad diet books to help them lose weight. The most popular diet books are The Atkins Diet, The South Beach Diet, The pH Diet, The Blood Group Diets and The

Eleanor J Baldwin

2004-01-01

163

Diabetes and Hispanic Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... rate for lower extremity amputation per 1,000 diabetic population Not available at this time At a glance Death Rate: Age-Adjusted Diabetes Death Rates per 100,000 (2010) Hispanics Non-Hispanic White Hispanic/Non-Hispanic White Ratio Male ...

164

Gestational Diabetes and Testing  

MedlinePLUS

... a healthy baby. You can! Journal of Midwifery & Womens Health www.jmwh.org 135 2006 by the American ... E S FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT GESTATIONAL DIABETES National Womens Health Information Center Diabetes http://www.4woman.gov/faq/ ...

165

Diabetes, prediabetes and uricaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThree diabetes surveys carried out at two yearly intervals on 10000 men aged 40 years and over have enabled us to compare four groups of subjects with regard to their serum uric acid level in relation to carbohydrate metabolism. Prediabetics, that is, persons who screened negative at previous surveys and subsequently developed diabetes, had a higher mean uric acid level

J. B. Herman; J. H. Medalie; U. Goldbourt

1976-01-01

166

Diabetic foot infections.  

PubMed

Diabetic foot infection, defined as soft tissue or bone infection below the malleoli, is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus leading to hospitalization and the most frequent cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputation. Diabetic foot infections are diagnosed clinically based on the presence of at least two classic findings of inflammation or purulence. Infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Most diabetic foot infections are polymicrobial. The most common pathogens are aerobic gram-positive cocci, mainly Staphylococcus species. Osteomyelitis is a serious complication of diabetic foot infection that increases the likelihood of surgical intervention. Treatment is based on the extent and severity of the infection and comorbid conditions. Mild infections are treated with oral antibiotics, wound care, and pressure off-loading in the outpatient setting. Selected patients with moderate infections and all patients with severe infections should be hospitalized, given intravenous antibiotics, and evaluated for possible surgical intervention. Peripheral arterial disease is present in up to 40% of patients with diabetic foot infections, making evaluation of the vascular supply critical. All patients with diabetes should undergo a systematic foot examination at least once a year, and more frequently if risk factors for diabetic foot ulcers exist. Preventive measures include patient education on proper foot care, glycemic and blood pressure control, smoking cessation, use of prescription footwear, intensive care from a podiatrist, and evaluation for surgical interventions as indicated. PMID:23939696

Gemechu, Fassil W; Seemant, Fnu; Curley, Catherine A

2013-08-01

167

Diabetes and exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise is frequently recommended in the management of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and can improve glucose uptake by increasing insulin sensitivity and lowering body adiposity. Both alone and when combined with diet and drug therapy, physical activity can result in improvements in glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. In addition, exercise can also help to prevent the onset

N. S. Peirce

1999-01-01

168

Stem cells and diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting 25% of the population. Transplantation of isolated islets of Langerhans from donor pancreata could be a cure for diabetes; however, such an approach is limited by the scarcity of the transplantation material and the long-term side effects of immunosuppressive therapy. These problems may be overcome by using a renewable source of cells, such

G Bern; T Len-Quinto; R Enseat-Waser; E Montanya; F Martn; B Soria

2001-01-01

169

Diabetes mellitus prevention.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to review lifestyle modification interventions and pharmacological clinical studies designed to prevent diabetes and provide evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of Diabetes Mellitus. A review of relevant literature compiled via a literature search (PUBMED) of English-language publications between 1997 and 2010 was conducted. It is found that people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus can halt the development of the disease. Lifestyle modification intervention with reduction of 5%-10% of excess body weight and increase in moderate physical activity by 150 min/wk has consistently proven to reduce the appearance of diabetes in different at-risk populations. Pharmacologic interventions have also demonstrated the prevention of the appearance of diabetes in persons at risk. Bariatric surgery has decreased the appearance of diabetes patients in a select group of individuals. The progression from prediabetes to diabetes mellitus can be prevented. Lifestyle modification intervention changes with weight loss and increased physical activity are currently recommended for the prevention of diabetes. PMID:22020084

Allende-Vigo, Myriam Zaydee

2015-01-01

170

Diabetes and exercise (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A person with type 2 diabetes can use exercise to help control their blood sugar levels and provide energy their muscles need to ... day. By maintaining a healthy diet and sufficient exercise, a person ... sugar in the normal non-diabetic range without medication.

171

Living with Diabetic Retinopathy  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... know that the diabetes would cause problems with my eyes. That was my biggest mistake -- not seeing a diabetes specialist. I ... is wonderful because I can pour out the water with both hands and the lid ... 1:08 PM The talking clock is my best little gadget because I use it as ...

172

Diabetes and Insulin  

MedlinePLUS

... you have. There are three main types of diabetes: Type 1 occurs when the pancreas stops making insulin. It ... but may occur later in life. People with type 1 diabetes need insulin to survive. FacT SheeT Pancreas www. ...

173

Genetics of Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... not enough. One proof of this is identical twins. Identical twins have identical genes. Yet when one twin has type 1 diabetes, the other gets the ... at most only half the time. When one twin has type 2 diabetes, the other's risk is ...

174

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

MedlinePLUS

... and more insulin. As a result, blood glucose levels rise. Type 2 diabetes runs in families. It most often affects people who are older than 40. But type 2 diabetes is now being seen in ... levels. They include: Excessive urination, thirst and hunger Weight ...

175

Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy among Omani diabetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo study the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in a population of patients attending a diabetic clinic and to evaluate the medical risk factors underlying its development.METHODS500 randomly selected diabetic patients attending the diabetes clinic in Al Buraimi hospital were referred to the ophthalmology department where they were fully evaluated for the absence or presence of retinopathy. Any retinopathy present was

Ossama A W El Haddad; Mohammed Kamal Saad

1998-01-01

176

Diabetes Technologies and Their Role in Diabetes Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1993 Diabetes Complications and Control Trial (DCCT) showed that controlling blood glucose prevents and delays the progression of long term complications of diabetes. New diabetes technologies can make control of diabetes possible and safer. This paper reviews these technologies used to monitor blood glucose, administer insulin and evaluate

Kollipara, Sobha; Silverstein, Janet H.; Marschilok, Katie

2009-01-01

177

Type 1 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, knowledge of the pathogenesis and natural history of type 1 diabetes has grown substantially, particularly with regard to disease prediction and heterogeneity, pancreatic pathology, and epidemiology. Technological improvements in insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors help patients with type 1 diabetes manage the challenge of lifelong insulin administration. Agents that show promise for averting debilitating disease-associated complications have also been identified. However, despite broad organisational, intellectual, and fiscal investments, no means for preventing or curing type 1 diabetes exists, and, globally, the quality of diabetes management remains uneven. This Seminar discusses current progress in epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of type 1 diabetes, and prospects for an improved future for individuals with this disease. PMID:23890997

Atkinson, Mark A; Eisenbarth, George S; Michels, Aaron W

2015-01-01

178

Diabetes in elderly.  

PubMed

Diabetes is a major public health problem in the world and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Aging of the population is expected to further increase the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, particularly in the age group over 65. According to the 2011 census, in Croatia, 17.7% of thepopulation were elderly, and the estimated prevalence of diabetes in this age group is 15-20%. Taking care of elderly diabetics has its own characteristics compared to other age groups, and a particular challenge for the family physician due to comorbidity and polymedication, as well as more frequent complications of the disease and more common side effects of treatment. The aim of this article is to show the treatment of diabetes in elderly, in the light of new studies (ACCORD, ADVANCE and VADT), and to present revised professional societies (ADA, AHA, ACC) recommendations, focusing on the individualized approach. PMID:25643559

Vrdoljak, Davorka; Pavlov, Renata

2014-12-01

179

Effects of Behavioral Family Systems Therapy for Diabetes on Adolescents' Family Relationships, Treatment Adherence, and Metabolic Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Behavioral family systems therapy (BFST) for adolescents with diabetes has improved family relationships and communication, but effects on adherence and metabolic con- trol were weak. We evaluated a revised intervention, BFST for diabetes (BFST-D). Methods One hundred and four families were randomized to standard care (SC) or to 12 sessions of either an educational support group (ES) or a

Tim Wysocki; Michael A. Harris; Lisa M. Buckloh; Deborah Mertlich; Amanda Sobel Lochrie; Alexandra Taylor; Michelle Sadler; Nelly Mauras; Neil H. White

2006-01-01

180

Diabetes Risk after Gestational Diabetes What is the link between  

E-print Network

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes? Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes that is diagnosed during pregnancy and increases risk of complications during pregnancy and birth for both mother and fetus. While GDM may go away after pregnancy, women who have had GDM are seven times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than women who have not had GDM in pregnancy. The children of pregnancies affected by GDM may also have a greater risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. What is the prevalence of GDM? GDM affects at least 7 percent[1] and possibly as many as 18 percent of pregnancies in the United States. Using new diagnostic criteria, an international, multicenter study of gestational diabetes found that 18 percent of the pregnancies were affected by gestational diabetes.[2] Who is at risk for developing diabetes after GDM? Immediately after pregnancy, 5 to 10 percent of women with GDM are found to have diabetes, usually type 2.[1

unknown authors

181

Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes  

E-print Network

Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes #12;Read other booklets at www.nhlbi.nih.gov. #12;Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes Delicious Heart Healthy Latino Recipes #12;Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes 1 Did you know that type 2 diabetes is a serious problem

Bandettini, Peter A.

182

Pharmacological Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the better options of controlling diabetes mellitus and although the prognosis of diabetic retinopathy has markedly improved by laser treatment and vitreoretinal surgery, diabetic retinopathy still is the leading cause of blindness in working age people in industrialized countries. Little has changed in the last decades regarding the prognosis of ocular complications in diabetes mellitus. We therefore need better

Gabriele E. Lang

2007-01-01

183

Pathogenesis of feline diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common form of spontaneous diabetes mellitus that occurs in domestic cats bears close resemblance clinically and pathologically to human type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). For example, the typical diabetic cat is obese and middle-aged, and has low but detectable circulating insulin levels. However, the most striking similarity is the occurrence of islet amyloidosis (IA) in nearly all diabetic cats

T. D O'Brien

2002-01-01

184

OXIDATIVE STRESS IN DIABETES MELLITUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to evaluate oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus by the measurement of biophysical parameters (changes) of hemoglobin macromolecule and some biochemical parameters on two groups of diabetic patients, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). This study has been conducted on 45 NIDDM, 30 IDDM, compared to 20 healthy subjects. Blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin

S. A. MOUSSA

2008-01-01

185

The diabetic foot and ankle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus is a common malady of our time with ever increasing numbers of patients presenting with diabetic foot and ankle pathology. Diabetes requires treatment by a multidisciplinary team and vascular disease requires management involving vascular surgeons. There is, however, an increasing burden on the orthopaedic surgeon with ulceration, foot deformity, osteomyelitis and Charcot osteo-arthropathy being direct complications of diabetes.

James C. Stanley; Andrew M. Collier

2009-01-01

186

Angiogenesis in diabetes and obesity.  

PubMed

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and obesity continues to increase globally. Diabetic vascular complications are the main chronic diabetic complications and associated with mortality and disability. Angiogenesis is a key pathological characteristic of diabetic microvascular complications. However, there are two tissue-specific paradoxical changes in the angiogenesis in diabetic microvascular complications: an excessive uncontrolled formation of premature blood vessels in some tissues, such as the retina, and a deficiency in the formation of small blood vessels in peripheral tissues, such as the skin. This review will discuss the paradoxical phenomena of angiogenesis and its underlying mechanism in obesity, diabetes and diabetic complications. PMID:25663658

Cheng, Rui; Ma, Jian-Xing

2015-03-01

187

[Type 2 diabetes complications].  

PubMed

People with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of many complications, which are mainly due to complex and interconnected mechanisms such as hyperglycemia, insulino-resistance, low-grade inflammation and accelerated atherogenesis. Cardi-cerebrovascular disease are frequently associated to type 2 diabetes and may become life threatening, particularly coronaropathy, stroke and heart failure. Their clinical picture are sometimes atypical and silencious for a long time. Type 2 diabetes must be considered as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Nephropathy is frequent in type 2 diabetes but has a mixed origin. Now it is the highest cause of end-stage renal disease. Better metabolic and blood pressure control and an improved management of microalbuminuria are able to slowdown the course of the disease. Retinopathy which is paradoxically slightly progressive must however be screened and treated in these rather old patients which are globally at high ophthalmologic risk. Diabetic foot is a severe complication secondary to microangiopathy, microangiopathy and neuropathy. It may be considered as a super-complication of several complications. Its screening must be done on a routine basis. Some cancer may be considered as an emerging complication of type 2 diabetes as well as cognitive decline, sleep apnea syndrome, mood disorders and bone metabolism impairments. Most of the type 2 diabetes complications may be prevented by a strategy combining a systematic screening and multi-interventional therapies. PMID:23528336

Schlienger, Jean-Louis

2013-05-01

188

Gestational diabetes: diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:To review the diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes.Epidemiology:In the United States, approximately 2 to 5% of all pregnant women have gestational diabetes. Those women with a family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, Asian or native American race, Latina ethnicity or obesity are at higher risk for developing gestational diabetes.Conclusion:Women with gestational diabetes who are treated appropriately can achieve

Y W Cheng; A B Caughey

2008-01-01

189

Diabetic angiopathy and angiogenic defects  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is one of the most serious health problems in the world. A major complication of diabetes is blood vessel disease, termed angiopathy, which is characterized by abnormal angiogenesis. In this review, we focus on angiogenesis abnormalities in diabetic complications and discuss its benefits and drawbacks as a therapeutic target for diabetic vascular complications. Additionally, we discuss glucose metabolism defects that are associated with abnormal angiogenesis in atypical diabetic complications such as cancer. PMID:22853690

2012-01-01

190

Diabetes in South Asians.  

PubMed

Economic, dietary and other lifestyle transitions have been occurring rapidly in most South Asian countries, making their populations more vulnerable to developing Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Recent data show an increasing prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in urban areas as well as in semi-urban and rural areas, inclusive of people belonging to middle and low socio-economic strata. Prime determinants for Type 2 diabetes in South Asians include physical inactivity, imbalanced diets, abdominal obesity, excess hepatic fat and, possibly, adverse perinatal and early life nutrition and intra-country migration. It is reported that Type 2 diabetes affects South Asians a decade earlier and some complications, for example nephropathy, are more prevalent and progressive than in other races. Further, prevalence of pre-diabetes is high, and so is conversion to diabetes, while more than 50% of those who are affected remain undiagnosed. Attitudes, cultural differences and religious and social beliefs pose barriers in effective prevention and management of Type 2 diabetes in South Asians. Inadequate resources, insufficient healthcare budgets, lack of medical reimbursement and socio-economic factors contribute to the cost of diabetes management. The challenge is to develop new translational strategies, which are pragmatic, cost-effective and scalable and can be adopted by the South Asian countries with limited resources. The key areas that need focus are: generation of awareness, prioritizing health care for vulnerable subgroups (children, women, pregnant women and the underprivileged), screening of high-risk groups, maximum coverage of the population with essential medicines, and strengthening primary care. An effective national diabetes control programme in each South Asian country should be formulated, with these issues in mind. PMID:24975549

Misra, A; Ramchandran, A; Jayawardena, R; Shrivastava, U; Snehalatha, C

2014-10-01

191

Diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy compromises both the fetus and the mother. It usually occurs in the later stages of pregnancy and is also seen in newly presenting type 1 diabetes patients. Despite improvement in its incidence rates and outcomes over the years, it still remains a major clinical problem since it tends to occur at lower blood glucose levels and more rapidly than in non-pregnant patients often causing delay in the diagnosis. This article illustrates a typical case of diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy and reviews the literature to provide an insight into its pathophysiology and management. PMID:12954957

Kamalakannan, D; Baskar, V; Barton, D; Abdu, T

2003-01-01

192

Know Your Diabetes ABCs  

MedlinePLUS

... the importance of blood pressure, cholesterol and diabetes management to prevent heart attacks and strokes. Sharon Boykin: If I had paid more attention to this years ago and changed my lifestyle then, I probably wouldn't have to ...

193

Treatments for Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... trasplante de rin. Tambin incluye sugerencias para localizar recursos locales. Versin PDF (274 KB) * Hypoglycemia (Low Blood ... la diabetes Ayuda a los pacientes a obtener informacin acerca del manejo de la glucosa en sangre. ...

194

Screening for Gestational Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Diabetes What is the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force? The Task Force is an independent group of ... recommendation statement. To learn more, visit the Task Force Web site. USPSTF Recommendation Grades Grade Definition A ...

195

School and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... care team. Continue Communicating With Educators The school staff should be made aware of your child's diagnosis ... might need to make To keep the school staff informed, consider reviewing your child's diabetes management plan ...

196

Glycemic Index and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... whole grain breads and cereals (like barley, whole wheat bread, rye bread, and all-bran cereal). Meats ...

197

Infant of diabetic mother  

MedlinePLUS

... medicines to treat other effects of diabetes. High bilirubin levels are treated with light therapy (phototherapy). Rarely, ... Congenital heart defects Heart failure High bilirubin level ... lungs Neonatal polycythemia (more red blood cells than normal) -- ...

198

Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)  

MedlinePLUS

... but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. Prediabetes is also called impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG), depending on the test used to measure blood glucose levels. Having prediabetes ...

199

Diabetic Eye Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

200

Diabetes Interactive Atlas  

PubMed Central

The Diabetes Interactive Atlas is a recently released Web-based collection of maps that allows users to view geographic patterns and examine trends in diabetes and its risk factors over time across the United States and within states. The atlas provides maps, tables, graphs, and motion charts that depict national, state, and county data. Large amounts of data can be viewed in various ways simultaneously. In this article, we describe the design and technical issues for developing the atlas and provide an overview of the atlas maps and graphs. The Diabetes Interactive Atlas improves visualization of geographic patterns, highlights observation of trends, and demonstrates the concomitant geographic and temporal growth of diabetes and obesity. PMID:24503340

Burrows, Nilka R.; Geiss, Linda S.

2014-01-01

201

Managing Diabetes at School  

MedlinePLUS

... Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ... School JDRF, Type 1 Diabetes in School Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ...

202

Diabetes and Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... it. It is very important not to replace proven conventional medical treatment for diabetes with an unproven ... pear cactus, and sweet potato. None have been proven to be effective. Safety Information on the safety ...

203

Causes of Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... cells, similar to type 1 diabetes. Medications and Chemical Toxins Some medications, such as nicotinic acid and ... rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, lupus, and ulcerative colitis. Many chemical toxins can damage or destroy beta cells in ...

204

Diabetes Movie (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life ... Ideas for Kids Tips for Treating the Flu Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Diabetes Movie KidsHealth > ...

205

Personalized diabetes management  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we present a system to make personalized lifestyle and health decisions for diabetes management, as well as for general health and diet management. In particular, we address the following components of the ...

O'Hair, Allison Kelly

2013-01-01

206

National Diabetes Education Program  

MedlinePLUS

... With or at Risk for Diabetes ?a free online resource > Learn More Follow us ... e-newsletter Email Address What is NDEP promoting? Messages, videos, media releases, and other tools to help partners spread ...

207

Diabetes Fact Sheet  

MedlinePLUS

... Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders Minority womens health American Indians/Alaska Natives Pregnancy What is diabetes? What is ... teaches at a junior high school on an American Indian reservation in New Mexico. Rose has had type ...

208

"Diabetes has instant consequences"  

MedlinePLUS

... 2009 Table of Contents Photo: Christopher Klose Maddie Kuhn, 19 Washington, DC Type 1 Diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in the third grade, Madeleine "Maddie" Kuhn doesn't let the disease inhibit her. The ...

209

Diabetes and kidney disease  

MedlinePLUS

... level, which you can do by: Eating healthy foods Getting regular exercise Taking medicine or insulin as ... et al. Diabetic nephropathy. In: Taal MW, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, et al., eds. Brenner and Rector's ...

210

Diabetes Interactive Atlas.  

PubMed

The Diabetes Interactive Atlas is a recently released Web-based collection of maps that allows users to view geographic patterns and examine trends in diabetes and its risk factors over time across the United States and within states. The atlas provides maps, tables, graphs, and motion charts that depict national, state, and county data. Large amounts of data can be viewed in various ways simultaneously. In this article, we describe the design and technical issues for developing the atlas and provide an overview of the atlas' maps and graphs. The Diabetes Interactive Atlas improves visualization of geographic patterns, highlights observation of trends, and demonstrates the concomitant geographic and temporal growth of diabetes and obesity. PMID:24503340

Kirtland, Karen A; Burrows, Nilka R; Geiss, Linda S

2014-01-01

211

Hyperglycemia and Diabetic Ketoacidosis  

MedlinePLUS

... properly, kids with hyperglycemia may be unusually tired. Checking for High Blood Sugar Levels As part of ... deep breathing confusion unconsciousness ("diabetic coma") Back Continue Checking for DKA How do you know if your ...

212

Type 1 diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... doctor before starting any exercise program. People with type 1 diabetes must take special steps before, during, and after physical activity or exercise. MANAGING YOUR BLOOD SUGAR Checking your blood sugar level yourself and writing down ...

213

Help Teens Manage Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... teens' coping and communication skills, healthy behaviors, and conflict resolution. The CST training helps diabetic teens to ... decisions about drugs and alcohol, and facing personal conflicts. Those teens who receive CST maintain better metabolic ...

214

[Diabetes mellitus and autoimmune neuropathy].  

PubMed

The term "diabetic neuropathy" refers to many varieties of neuropathies, including diabetic peripheral neuropathies (DPNs). DPNs are categorized into generalized and focal/multifocal varieties. Diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) and diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) are typical DPNs, and their development is clearly linked to hyperglycemia and subsequent metabolic and ischemic change. On the other hand, other forms of neuropathy, including multifocal diabetic neuropathies (e.g., lumbosacral, thoracic, and cervical radiculoplexus neuropathies) are thought to be associated with inflammatory or immune processes. Diabetic patients can also develop chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). CIDP in diabetic patients (DM-CIDP) should be ruled out, especially in patients with advanced DSPN. Recently, it was reported that diabetic radiculoplexus neuropathies as well as CIDP respond favorably to immunotherapy. Thus, these immune-mediated diabetic neuropathies are treatable, and should be differentiated from advanced DSPN. PMID:24523312

Deguchi, Takahisa; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Takashima, Hiroshi

2014-02-01

215

Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus that can lead to irreversible\\u000a visual loss. Intraretinal microvascular changes, such as altered retinal vascular permeability and eventual retinal vessel\\u000a and capillary closure, characterize NPDR. Macular edema, the most frequent cause of visual loss in NPDR, may result from increased\\u000a vascular leakage. Retinal hypoxia, secondary to chronic hyperglycemia, triggers

Catherine B. Meyerle; Emily Y. Chew; Frederick L. Ferris

216

Diabetic Retinopathy and Nephropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a nearly 25-yr period beginning in 1979, four diabetic renal-retinal syndrome meetings were held in New York City.\\u000a They were led by Eli Friedman and Francis LEsperance, who brought together epidemiologists, bench scientists, clinicians,\\u000a nephrologists, and ophthalmologists involved in research and clinical care of persons with diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy\\u000a (14). The renal-retinal syndrome was defined in these meetings

Ronald Klein

217

Pathogenesis of feline diabetes.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is the result of inadequate insulin secretion. In cats this is often associated with conditions that reduce insulin sensitivity and increase the requirement for insulin secretion. Obesity, and acromegaly, and pancreatitis are common predisposing causes of diabetes in cats. The mechanisms that prevent the pancreatic ? cells from secreting adequate amounts of insulin are not well understood, but may include inflammatory mediators, reactive oxygen species, toxic intracellular protein oligomers, and toxicity from increased blood glucose concentrations. PMID:23522168

Rand, Jacquie S

2013-03-01

218

Diabetes and Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

While everyone can benefit from exercise, those who have diabetes derive even more benefit than most other people. Many people\\u000a are aware of the benefits of exercise, but have difficulty incorporating physical activity into their lifestyles. The goal\\u000a of this chapter is to review and discuss the practical aspects of using exercise to prevent and manage diabetes.

Scott Going; Betsy Dokken

219

Diabetes and foot care.  

PubMed

Essential facts People with diabetes are 30 times more likely to have an amputation than those without the condition, and up to 80 per cent of these are believed to be preventable. There are more than 6,000 amputations a year in England. These operations are costly to the NHS and have a devastating effect on the patient. Only 50 per cent of people with diabetes who undergo an amputation survive for two years. PMID:25627508

2015-01-28

220

Brittle diabetes: psychopathological aspects.  

PubMed

Background. The term "brittle" is used to described an uncommon subgroup of type I diabetics whose lives are disrupted by severe glycaemic instability with repeated and prolonged hospitalization. Psychosocial problems are the major perceived underlying causes of brittle behaviour. Aim of this study is a systematic psychopathological assessement of brittleness using specific parameters of general psychopathology and personality traits following the multiaxial format (axis I and II) of the current DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Methods. Patients comprised 21 brittle type I diabetics and a case-control group of 21 stable diabetics, matched for age, gender, years of education, and diabetes duration. General psychopathology and the DSM-IV-TR personality traits/disorders were assessed using the Syptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Results. The comparison for SCL-90-R parameters exclusively revealed higher scores in "Phobic Anxiety" subscale in brittle diabetics. No differences in all the other SCL-90-R primary symptom dimensions and in the three SCL-90-R global distress indices were observed between the two diabetic groups, as well as in the all MCMI-III clinical syndrome categories corresponding to DSM-IV-TR specific psychiatric disorders. However, brittle patients presented lower scores in MCMI-III compulsive personality traits and higher scores in paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent, depressive, and passive-aggressive personality traits. Conclusions. In this study, brittle diabetics show no differencies in terms of global severity of psychopathological distress and axis I specific DSM-IV-TR diagnoses in comparison with non-brittle subjects (except for phobic anxiety). Differently, brittle diabetics are characterized from less functional and maladaptive personality features and suffer more frequently and intensively from specific pathological personality traits of all DSM-IV-TR clusters. PMID:24897966

Pelizza, Lorenzo; Bonazzi, Federica; Scaltriti, Sara; Milli, Bruna; Giuseppina, Chierici

2014-01-01

221

The Diabetic Foot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic foot problems remain all too common and are likely to increase in prevalence over the next few decades. It has been\\u000a estimated that an individual with diabetes now has a 25% risk of developing a foot ulcer at some time during their lifespan.\\u000a A number of controversies are discussed in this chapter starting with the key question of the

Andrew J. M. Boulton

222

Peripheral neuropathy in diabetes.  

PubMed

Peripheral neuropathy is common complication of diabetes. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy among diabetic patients on the basis of loss of vibration sensation had been studied. Detailed clinical history of each patient including age, gender, duration of diabetes, foot ulcer and biothesiometry was recorded in 211 diabetic patients between 20 and 80 years of age. It was observed that all patients under 30 years age (n = 8) felt vibration below 15 volts (no risk zone); 77% (24 out of 31) of the patients in the age group of 30-39 years were in the no risk zone, and 23% (n = 7) had mild peripheral neuropathy. Sixty per cent of the patients between 40 and 50 years (n = 44) were in the no risk zone, while 32% (n = 24) had mild peripheral neuropathy, 5% (n = 4) had moderate neuropathy and 3% (n = 2) had severe peripheral neuropathy. Amongst patients above 50 years of age, 31% (n = 31) were in no risk zone, 34% (n = 34) had mild peripheral neuropathy, 22% (n = 20) had moderate peripheral neuropathy and 13% (n = 13) had severe peripheral neuropathy. Of the patients with diabetes for less than 5 years, 58% had no neuropathy, and only 3% had severe neuropathy. Of the patients with diabetes for 5 to 15 years, 50% had no neuropathy, 30% had mild, and 10% had severe peripheral neuropathy. When patients with diabetes for over 15 years were studied, only 6% had no neuropathy and 19% had severe peripheral neuropathy. The study re-establishes that the severity of peripheral neuropathy increases with age and vibration perception decreses progressively with increased duration of diabetes. Vibration perception threshold testing helps to identify the high risk subjects who require special counselling and education to protect their feet. PMID:24761495

Majumder, A; Chatterjee, S; Maji, D

2013-06-01

223

Diabetes Facts and Myths (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... team first. Myth: Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. Fact: Type 1 diabetes is caused by a ... risk for developing the disease. Myth: Kids with diabetes can never eat sweets. Fact: Kids with diabetes ...

224

Sexual and Urologic Problems of Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Espaol National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and Resources E-News ... Problems of Diabetes Sexual and Urologic Problems of Diabetes On this page: Diabetes and Sexual Problems What ...

225

Guidance for Industry Diabetes Mellitus --Evaluating  

E-print Network

Guidance for Industry Diabetes Mellitus -- Evaluating Cardiovascular Risk in New Antidiabetic Diabetes Mellitus -- Evaluating Cardiovascular Risk in New Antidiabetic Therapies to Treat Type 2 Diabetes.................................................................................................. 3 #12;Contains Nonbinding Recommendations Guidance for Industry1 Diabetes Mellitus -- Evaluating

Arizona, University of

226

Type 2 Diabetes Widespread in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Type 2 Diabetes Widespread in Adults Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table ... pre-diabetes have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes, the most common form of diabetes, and for ...

227

Type 2 Diabetes and TZDs (Thiazolidinediones)  

MedlinePLUS

... Type 2 Diabetes and TZDs Share: Fact Sheet Type 2 Diabetes and TZDs April, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol ... A. Leiter, MD Julio Rosenstock, MD What is type 2 diabetes? When you have type 2 diabetes, your blood ...

228

Diabetes May Affect Kids' Brain Growth  

MedlinePLUS

... Pages Blood Sugar Diabetes in Children and Teens Diabetes Type 1 FRIDAY, Dec. 26, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- High blood ... on: Blood Sugar Diabetes in Children and Teens Diabetes Type 1 Recent Health News Page last updated on 29 ...

229

JAMA Patient Page: Diabetic Foot Ulcers  

MedlinePLUS

... American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Diabetic Foot Ulcers D iabetic foot ulcers are sores or wounds on the feet that ... preventing diabetic foot ulcers. WHAT CAUSES DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS? FOR MORE INFORMATION National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse 1- ...

230

Bone Quality in Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is associated with increased risk of fracture, although type 2 diabetes is characterized by normal bone mineral density (BMD). The fracture risk of type 1 diabetes increases beyond an explained by a decrease of BMD. Thus, diabetes may be associated with a reduction of bone strength that is not reflected in the measurement of BMD. Based on the present definition, both bone density and quality, which encompass the structural and material properties of bone, are important factors in the determination of bone strength. Diabetes reduces bone quality rather than BMD. Collagen cross-linking plays an important role in bone strength. Collagen cross-links can be divided into lysyl hydroxylase and lysyl oxidase-mediated enzymatic immature divalent cross-links, mature trivalent cross-links, and glycation- or oxidation-induced non-enzymatic cross-links (Advanced Glycation End-products: AGEs) such as pentosidine. These types of cross-links differ in the mechanism of formation and in function. Not only hyperglycemia, but also oxidative stress induces the reduction in enzymatic beneficial cross-links and the accumulation of disadvantageous AGEs in bone. In this review, we describe the mechanism of low bone quality in diabetes. PMID:23785354

Saito, Mitsuru; Marumo, Keishi

2013-01-01

231

Kidney Disease of Diabetes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC) is a service provided by a related department of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Visitors will find that the NKUDIC website has a special page on Kidney Disease of Diabetes which includes articles on the homepage about "The Course of Kidney Disease", "Preventing and Slowing Kidney Disease", and "Good Care Makes a Difference". On the left side of the homepage visitors will find some very interesting research timelines by the NIH, titled "Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow". There is a timeline for "Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure", "Diabetes, Type 1", and "Diabetes, Type 2". The "Yesterday" section explain to visitors the past methods of treating the disease, as well as past statistics about death and diseases caused by diabetes. The "Today" section explains how the disease is treated presently, and how statistics have improved regarding survival and occurrence of diabetes-related disease. Finally, the "Tomorrow" section highlights research studies that aim to improve the lives of diabetics, and interested visitors will find links to relevant websites.

232

Diabetes and pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

Research suggests a possible link between type 2 diabetes and several malignancies. Animal models have shown that hyperinsulinemic state underlying diabetes promotes tumor formation through stimulation of insulin-IGF-1 pathway; a possible role of inflammation is also proposed. One such link which has been under considerable study for years is that between diabetes and pancreatic cancer. Although epidemiological evidence points towards a reciprocal link between the two, the cause-effect relationship still remains unclear. This link was the subject of a large German epidemiological study presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting 2014 (Abstract #1604), which underscored the link between diabetes and some cancers. Schmidt et al. performed a retrospective database analysis over a 12 year period and reported an increased risk of certain types of cancer in diabetic patients. The most significant association (HR 2.17) was found for pancreatic cancer. Given the high mortality of pancreatic cancer, prevention through timely screening could play an important role in improving prognosis. Older subjects with recent-onset diabetes represent a high-risk group and hence are potential targets for pancreatic cancer screening thereby enabling its early diagnosis at a curable stage. PMID:25076332

Burney, Saira; Irfan, Khadija; Saif, Muhammad Wasif; Masud, Faisal

2014-07-01

233

Neuropeptides and diabetic retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Diabetic retinopathy, a common complication of diabetes, develops in 75% of patients with type 1 and 50% of patients with type 2 diabetes, progressing to legal blindness in about 5%. In the recent years, considerable efforts have been put into finding treatments for this condition. It has been discovered that peptidergic mechanisms (neuropeptides and their analogues, activating a diverse array of signal transduction pathways through their multiple receptors) are potentially important for consideration in drug development strategies. A considerable amount of knowledge has been accumulated over the last three decades on human retinal neuropeptides and those elements in the pathomechanisms of diabetic retinopathy which might be related to peptidergic signal transduction. Here, human retinal neuropeptides and their receptors are reviewed, along with the theories relevant to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy both in humans and in experimental models. By collating this information, the curative potential of certain neupeptides and their analogues/antagonists can also be discussed, along with the existing clinical treatments of diabetic retinopathy. The most promising peptidergic pathways for which treatment strategies may be developed at present are stimulation of the somatostatin-related pathway and the pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide-related pathway or inhibition of angiotensinergic mechanisms. These approaches may result in the inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor production and neuronal apoptosis; therefore, both the optical quality of the image and the processing capability of the neural circuit in the retina may be saved. PMID:23043302

Gbriel, Robert

2013-01-01

234

Fenugreek Prevents the Development of STZ-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy in a Rat Model of Diabetes  

PubMed Central

The present study aims to examine the protective effect of fenugreek and the underlying mechanism against the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats. A rat model of diabetes was successfully established by direct injection of STZ and then the rats were administered an interventional treatment of fenugreek. Parameters of renal function, including blood glucose, albuminuria, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), dimethyl formamide (DMF), blood urine nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), and kidney index (KI), were detected in the three groups (Con, DN, and DF). Oxidative stress was determined by the activity of antioxidase. Extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and other morphological alterations were evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry and electron microscope. Quantitive (q)PCR was employed to detect the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and protein expression was determined with western blot analysis. DN rats in the present study demonstrated a significant renal dysfunction, ECM accumulation, pathological alteration, and oxidative stress, while the symptoms were evidently reduced by fenugreek treatment. Furthermore, the upregulation of TGF-?1 and CTGF at a transcriptional and translational level in DN rats was distinctly inhibited by fenugreek. Consequently, fenugreek prevents DN development in a STZ-induced diabetic rat model. PMID:25057273

Jin, Yingli; Shi, Yan; Zou, Yinggang; Miao, Chunsheng; Sun, Bo; Li, Cai

2014-01-01

235

Determinants of diabetes knowledge in a cohort of Nigerian diabetics  

PubMed Central

Background One of the consequences of the generational paradigm shift of lifestyle from the traditional African model to a more "western" standard is a replacement of communicable diseases by non-communicable or life style related diseases like diabetes. To address this trend, diabetes education along with continuous assessment of diabetes related knowledge has been advocated. Since most of the Nigerian studies assessing knowledge of diabetes were hospital-based, we decided to evaluate the diabetes related knowledge and its sociodemographic determinants in a general population of diabetics. Methods Diabetics (n?=?184) attending the 2012 world diabetes day celebration in a Nigerian community were surveyed using a two part questionnaire. Section A elicited information on their demographics characteristics and participation in update courses, and exercise, while section B assessed knowledge of diabetes using the 14 item Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Centre's Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test. Results We found that Nigerian diabetics had poor knowledge of diabetes, with pervasive fallacies. Majority did not have knowledge of "diabetes diet", "fatty food", "free food", effect of unsweetened fruit juice on blood glucose, treatment of hypoglycaemia, and the average duration glycosylated haemoglobin (haemoglobin A1) test measures blood glucose. Attaining tertiary education, falling under the 51-60years age group, frequent attendance at seminars/updates and satisfaction with education received, being employed by or formerly working for the government, and claiming an intermediate, or wealthy income status was associated with better knowledge of diabetes. Conclusion Nigerian diabetics' knowledge of diabetes was poor and related to age, level of education, satisfaction with education received, employment status and household wealth. PMID:24593904

2014-01-01

236

Diabetes from humans to cats.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in humans and in cats. The general prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and in particular of type 2 diabetes, has risen dramatically in recent years. This increase has often been linked to the rise in the obesity pandemic because obesity and the ensuing metabolic consequences constitute major risk factors for human type 2 and for feline diabetes. Feline diabetes shares many features of human type 2 diabetes in respect to its pathophysiology, underlying risk factors and treatment strategies. This review will briefly summarize major characteristics in the human and the feline disease and where available, point out the current knowledge on similarities and differences. PMID:23247272

Osto, M; Zini, E; Reusch, C E; Lutz, T A

2013-02-01

237

Si, Yo Puedo Controlar Mi Diabetes!  

E-print Network

¡Si, Yo Puedo Controlar Mi Diabetes! ¡Si, Yo Puedo Controlar Mí Diabetes! (Si, Yo Puedo/Latinos with diabetes. The curriculum is predicated on the American Diabetes Association's national standards of care and lifestyle skills to better control their diabetes. Relevance · Diabetes costs Texas more than 12 billion

238

Statins and diabetes.  

PubMed

Lipid abnormalities play an important part in raising the cardiovascular risk in diabetic subjects. The main components of diabetic dyslipidemia are increased plasma triglycerides, low concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, preponderance of small, dense low-density lipoprotein, and excessive postprandial lipemia. Small, dense low-density lipoprotein, the elevation in remnant triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles, and the low high-density lipoprotein are the most powerful atherogenic components. The coexistence of these three factors strongly aggravates the lipid accumulation in the arterial wall and the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. The position of diabetes in cardiovascular risk assessment has been recently reviewed in the Harmonized Clinical Guidelines on Prevention of Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease. In general, patients with diabetes carry a high risk for cardiovascular disease, but the absolute risk varies depending on the type of diabetes, age, and population baseline risk. The Adult Treatment Program III (ATP III) and the American Heart Association have designated diabetes as a high-risk condition and recommended intensive risk-factor management. Concerning therapeutic targets, both ATP III and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines have identified low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as the first priority of lipid lowering, and the optimal level was set at less than 2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL). There is strong evidence, coming from landmark secondary prevention studies, that LDL lowering in people with diabetes is associated with significant clinical benefits. The benefits of statin therapy in type 2 diabetics can no longer be questioned. Ongoing clinical trials will help clarify the question of whether increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with fibrates in the presence of low low-density lipoprotein levels (lower than 3.4 mmol/L, or 130 mg/dL) will be more beneficial than statin therapy alone. The new paradigms in risk-reduction therapies for type 2 diabetic subjects are focused on cardiovascular disease prevention, rather than only on glucose or lipid control. Therapeutic lifestyle changes are considered primary therapies for hyperglycemia and coexisting metabolic syndrome, which can be diagnosed in more than half of type 2 diabetes subjects. New perspectives of lipid management in type 2 diabetes should take into account that insulin resistance, increased lipolysis, and overproduction of large, buoyant, very low density lipoprotein particles are at the base of diabetic dyslipidemia. Accordingly, drugs acting in the regulatory steps of very low density lipoprotein assembly should be developed. Activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), as occurs with fibrates, lowers free fatty acids (FFAs) and triglyceride levels. PPARgamma agonism, as demonstrated by the thiazolidinediones, increases triglyceride lipolysis, FFA transport, and conversion of FFAs to triglycerides. As separate activation of PPARalpha and PPARgamma improves lipid metabolism, the development of new drugs integrating PPARalpha and PPARgamma activity (PPAR-alpha/gamma agonists) is a promising line that may further improve insulin resistance, FFA metabolism, and consequently, atherogenic diabetic dyslipidemia. PMID:15861314

Carmena, Rafael; Betteridge, D John

2004-11-01

239

Bacterial pneumonia: comparison between diabetics and non-diabetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the causative organisms, antimicrobial susceptibility, and outcome of community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia\\u000a in diabetics and to compare this with non-diabetics, sputum cultures done at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in the period\\u000a between January 1998 and December 1999 were reviewed. A total of 354 cases were studied, of which 125 (35%) were diabetics.\\u000a Diabetic patients were older with a

D. H. Akbar

2001-01-01

240

Epidemiology of Diabetes and Diabetes-Related Complications  

PubMed Central

In 2005, it was estimated that more than 20 million people in the United States had diabetes. Approximately 30% of these people had undiagnosed cases. Increased risk for diabetes is primarily associated with age, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity. Diabetes-related complicationsincluding cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, neuropathy, blindness, and lower-extremity amputationare a significant cause of increased morbidity and mortality among people with diabetes, and result in a heavy economic burden on the US health care system. With advances in treatment for diabetes and its associated complications, people with diabetes are living longer with their condition. This longer life span will contribute to further increases in the morbidity associated with diabetes, primarily in elderly people and in minority racial or ethnic groups. In 2050, the number of people in the United States with diagnosed diabetes is estimated to grow to 48.3 million. Results from randomized controlled trials provide evidence that intensive lifestyle interventions can prevent or delay the onset of diabetes in high-risk individuals. In addition, adequate and sustained control of blood sugar levels, blood pressure, and blood lipid levels can prevent or delay the onset of diabetes-related complications in people with diabetes. Effective interventions, at both the individual and population levels, are desperately needed to slow the diabetes epidemic and reduce diabetes-related complications in the United States. This report describes the current diabetes epidemic and the health and economic impact of diabetes complications on individuals and on the health care system. The report also provides suggestions by which the epidemic can be curbed. PMID:18801858

Deshpande, Anjali D; Harris-Hayes, Marcie; Schootman, Mario

2008-01-01

241

Autophagy in Diabetic Nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Increasing prevalence of diabetes has made the need for effective treatment of DN critical, and identifying new therapeutic targets to improve clinical management. Autophagy is a highly conserved self-eating pathway by which cells degrade and recycle macromolecules and organelles. Autophagy serves as an essential mechanism to maintain homeostasis of glomeruli and tubules, and plays important roles in human health and diseases. Impairment of autophagy is implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. Emerging body of evidence suggests that targeting the autophagic pathway to activate and restore autophagy activity may be renoprotective. Here we review current advances in our understanding of the roles of autophagy in diabetic kidney injury, focusing on studies in renal cells in culture, human kidney tissues, and experimental animal models of diabetes. We discuss the major nutrient-sensing signal pathways, and diabetes-induced altered intracellular metabolism and cellular events, including accumulation of advanced glycation end-products, increased oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, hypoxia, and activation of the renin angiotensin system, which modulate autophagic activity and contribute to the development of DN. We also highlight recent studies of autophagy and transforming growth factor-? in renal fibrosis, the final common response to injury that ultimately leads to end-stage kidney failure in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. These findings suggest the possibility that autophagy can be a therapeutic target against DN. PMID:25349246

Ding, Yan; Choi, Mary E.

2014-01-01

242

Prognosis in diabetic nephropathy.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To assess the effect of long term antihypertensive treatment on prognosis in diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN--Prospective study of all insulin dependent diabetic patients aged under 50 with onset of diabetes before the age of 31 who developed diabetic nephropathy between 1974 and 1978 at Steno Memorial Hospital. SETTING--Outpatient diabetic clinic in tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS--Forty five patients (20 women) with a mean age of 30 (SD 7) years and a mean duration of diabetes of 18 (7) years at onset of persistent proteinuria were followed until death or for at least 10 years. INTERVENTIONS--Antihypertensive treatment was started a median of three (0-13) years after onset of nephropathy. Four patients (9%) received no treatment, and 9 (20%), 13 (29%), and 19 (42%) were treated with one, two, or three drugs, respectively. The median follow up was 12 (4-15) years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Arterial blood pressure and death. RESULTS--Mean blood pressure at start of antihypertensive treatment was 148/95 (15/50) mm Hg. Systolic blood pressure remained almost unchanged (slope -0.01 (95% confidence interval -0.39 to 0.37) mm Hg a year) while diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly (0.87 (0.65 to 1.10) mm Hg a year) during antihypertensive treatment. The cumulative death rate was 18% (8 to 32%) 10 years after onset of nephropathy, in contrast to previous reports of 50% to 77% 10 years after onset of nephropathy. As in previous studies, uraemia was the main cause of death (9 patients; 64%). CONCLUSIONS--The prognosis of diabetic nephropathy has improved during the past decade largely because of effective antihypertensive treatment. PMID:2504376

Parving, H. H.; Hommel, E.

1989-01-01

243

Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Disease Control and Prevention , and more than 200 public and private organizations. Home Publications Resources Diabetes Facts Press I Have Diabetes Am I at Risk? Health Care Professionals, Businesses & Schools Partners & Community Organizations About ...

244

Family Health History and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Diabetes > Know Your Family Health History Family Health History and Diabetes En espaol Haywood, a physical education ... story > 1 2 3 4 5 Family health history is an important risk factor for developing type ...

245

Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type  

MedlinePLUS

Diabetic third nerve palsy; Pupil-sparing third cranial nerve palsy ... Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type -- is a mononeuropathy . This means that only one nerve is damaged. The condition affects the third cranial (oculomotor) ...

246

Diabetes Insipidus, Central (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Definition: Hormones Endocrine System Immune System Kidneys and Urinary Tract Diabetes Center Word! Hormones Your Endocrine System Your Kidneys Diabetes Center Your Immune System Definition: ...

247

Peripheral Artery Disease and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Peripheral Artery Disease & Diabetes Updated:Oct 7,2014 People with diabetes are at higher risk of developing peripheral artery disease (PAD) . And individuals with PAD are four ...

248

Diabetes, Vision Loss, and You  

MedlinePLUS

... number of important vision rehabilitation principles - organization, contrast, lighting and glare control - to help perform many diabetes- ... desk lamp for your diabetes tasks area. Overhead lighting is usually not sufficient. Position your lamp so ...

249

Living with Type 1 Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 Research Highlights Research Excellence Honorees How Grant Money is Divided Funding ... you have type 1 diabetes. What now? At its core, proper type 1 diabetes management is composed of a handful of elements: blood ...

250

Living with Diabetic Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Diabetic Heart Disease Diabetic heart disease (DHD) increases the likelihood of earlier and more ... also tend to have less success from certain heart disease treatments, such as coronary artery bypass grafting and ...

251

What Causes Diabetic Heart Disease?  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Diabetic Heart Disease? At least four complex processes, alone or combined, ... attack or even death. The Interaction of Coronary Heart Disease, High Blood Pressure, and Diabetes Each of these ...

252

Diabetes and Your Eyesight (Glaucoma)  

MedlinePLUS

... and Glaucoma The relationship between diabetes and open-angle glaucoma (the most common type of glaucoma), has ... question. Similarly, the likelihood of someone with open-angle glaucoma developing diabetes is higher than that of ...

253

Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... trouble controlling their blood sugar levels . Weight and Type 2 Diabetes Most people are overweight when they're diagnosed with type 2 diabetes . Being overweight or obese increases the risk for ...

254

Diagnosis of Diabetes and Prediabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... located behind the stomach. As the blood glucose level rises after a meal, the pancreas is triggered to ... insulin in response to meals, and blood glucose levels rise. Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that ...

255

Diabetes and exercise  

PubMed Central

Exercise is frequently recommended in the management of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and can improve glucose uptake by increasing insulin sensitivity and lowering body adiposity. Both alone and when combined with diet and drug therapy, physical activity can result in improvements in glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. In addition, exercise can also help to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes, in particular in those at higher risk, and has an important role in reducing the significant worldwide burden of this type of diabetes. Recent studies have improved our understanding of the acute and long term physiological benefits of physical activity, although the precise duration, intensity, and type of exercise have yet to be fully elucidated. However, in type 1 diabetes, the expected improvements in glycaemic control with exercise have not been clearly established. Instead significant physical and psychological benefits of exercise can be achieved while careful education, screening, and planning allow the metabolic, microvascular, and macrovascular risks to be predicted and diminished. ??? PMID:10378067

Peirce, N. S.

1999-01-01

256

Epigenetic changes in diabetes.  

PubMed

Diabetes is a multifactorial disease with numerous pathways influencing its progression and recent observations suggest that the complexity of the disease cannot be entirely accounted for by genetic predisposition. A compelling argument for an epigenetic component is rapidly emerging. Epigenetic processes at the chromatin template significantly sensitize transcriptional and phenotypic outcomes to environmental signaling information including metabolic state, nutritional requirements and history. Epigenetic mechanisms impact gene expression that could predispose individuals to the diabetic phenotype during intrauterine and early postnatal development, as well as throughout adult life. Furthermore, epigenetic changes could account for the accelerated rates of chronic and persistent microvascular and macrovascular complications associated with diabetes. Epidemiological and experimental animal studies identified poor glycemic control as a major contributor to the development of diabetic complications and highlight the requirement for early intervention. Early exposure to hyperglycemia can drive the development of complications that manifest late in the progression of the disease and persist despite improved glycemic control, indicating a memory of the metabolic insult. Understanding the molecular events that underlie these transcriptional changes will significantly contribute to novel therapeutic interventions to prevent, reverse or retard the deleterious effects of the diabetic milieu. PMID:23398084

Keating, S T; El-Osta, A

2013-07-01

257

Pathophysiology of Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is now regarded as an epidemic, with the population of patients expected to rise to 380 million by 2025. Tragically, this will lead to approximately 4 million people around the world losing their sight from diabetic retinopathy, the leading cause of blindness in patients aged 20 to 74 years. The risk of development and progression of diabetic retinopathy is closely associated with the type and duration of diabetes, blood glucose, blood pressure, and possibly lipids. Although landmark cross-sectional studies have confirmed the strong relationship between chronic hyperglycaemia and the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, the underlying mechanism of how hyperglycaemia causes retinal microvascular damage remains unclear. Continued research worldwide has focussed on understanding the pathogenic mechanisms with the ultimate goal to prevent DR. The aim of this paper is to introduce the multiple interconnecting biochemical pathways that have been proposed and tested as key contributors in the development of DR, namely, increased polyol pathway, activation of protein kinase C (PKC), increased expression of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), haemodynamic changes, accelerated formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), oxidative stress, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), and subclinical inflammation and capillary occlusion. New pharmacological therapies based on some of these underlying pathogenic mechanisms are also discussed. PMID:24563789

Tarr, Joanna M.; Kaul, Kirti; Chopra, Mohit; Kohner, Eva M.; Chibber, Rakesh

2013-01-01

258

Hypoxia in Diabetic Kidneys  

PubMed Central

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is now a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. In addition, DN accounts for the increased mortality in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and then patients without DN achieve long-term survival compatible with general population. Hypoxia represents an early event in the development and progression of DN, and hypoxia-inducible factor- (HIF-) 1 mediates the metabolic responses to renal hypoxia. Diabetes induces the fraternal twins of hypoxia, that is, pseudohypoxia and hypoxia. The kidneys are susceptible to hyperoxia because they accept 20% of the cardiac output. Therefore, the kidneys have specific vasculature to avoid hyperoxia, that is, AV oxygen shunting. The NAD-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) sirtuins are seven mammalian proteins, SIRTs 17, which are known to modulate longevity and metabolism. Recent studies demonstrated that some isoforms of sirtuins inhibit the activation of HIF by deacetylation or noncatalyzing effects. The kidneys, which have a vascular system that protects them against hyperoxia, unfortunately experience extraordinary hypernutrition today. Then, an unexpected overload of glucose augments the oxygen consumption, which ironically results in hypoxia. This review highlights the primary role of HIF in diabetic kidneys for the metabolic adaptation to diabetes-induced hypoxia. PMID:25054148

Takiyama, Yumi; Haneda, Masakazu

2014-01-01

259

Experimental diabetic neuropathy: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic neuropathy consists of several clinical syndromes affecting motor, sensory and autonomic nerves. Of these the most\\u000a common is distal symmetric sensory polyneuropathy usually referred to as diabetic neuropathy. Animal studies, mainly in diabetic\\u000a rodents, have contributed tremendously to our understanding of this disease. From these it is clear that the pathogenesis\\u000a of diabetic neuropathy is multifactorial involving sequentially occurring

A. A. F. Sima; K. Sugimoto

1999-01-01

260

Periodontal health and diabetes awareness among Saudi diabetes patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aimed to examine diabetic patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, regarding their general diabetic and oral health-related awareness and practices, their awareness of the association of diabetes with periodontal disease, and their sources of diabetes-related information. Methods Diabetic patients (n=454) who were receiving care at the diabetes clinic in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from October 2013 to May 2014, completed a six-part questionnaire assessing their sociodemographic characteristics, general and oral health awareness and practices, and sources of diabetes-related information. Descriptive statistics were used to report the results. Results The responses indicated inadequate health-related practices in the surveyed group: 22.2% brushed their teeth twice daily, 73.6% never flossed their teeth, and while 80.2% visited a physician in the past year, only 12.6% visited a dentist during the same year. Of the respondents, 94.8% reported that they had never received advice on oral hygiene tasks in relation to diabetes from a health professional. Awareness about the diabetes and periodontal disease association was limited: 46.7% knew that diabetics have gum problems more often if their blood sugar stays very high, and only 21.8% knew that gum disease makes it harder to control blood sugar in diabetic patients. A significant association (P<0.05) was found between a higher level of education and greater general and oral awareness, as well as a significant association (P<0.05) between longer duration of disease, regular exercise, and regular visits to the physician and awareness about diabetes mellitus. Additionally, a significant association (P<0.05) was found between regular dental visits and both periodontal disease and diabetes awareness. Family and friends were the main source of diabetes-related information, and the Internet was the least likely source. Conclusion Customized educational programs should be planned for diabetic patients according to community needs. PMID:25673974

Bahammam, Maha A

2015-01-01

261

Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gestational diabetes mellitus is a common but controversial disorder. While no large ran- domized controlled trials show that screening for and treating gestational diabetes affect perinatal outcomes, multiple studies have documented an increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes in patients with the disorder. Data on perinatal mortality, however, are inconsis- tent. In some prospective studies, treatment of gestational diabetes has resulted

DAVID K. TUROK; STEPHEN D. RATCLIFFE; ELIZABETH G. BAXLEY

2003-01-01

262

DIABETES PREVENTION TRIAL TYPE 1  

EPA Science Inventory

The Diabetes Prevention Trial--Type 1 (DPT-1) is a nationwide study to see if we can prevent or delay type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes. Nine medical centers and more than 350 clinics in the United States and Canada are taking part in the study....

263

Common crossroads in diabetes management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and impact of type 2 diabetes are reaching epidemic proportions in the United States. Data suggest that effective management can reduce the risk for both microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes. In treating patients with diabetes, physicians must be prepared not only to tailor the initial treatment to the individual and his or her disease severity but also

Michael Valitutto

2008-01-01

264

Endocrinological Disturbances in Diabetic Retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus were extensively studied from many aspects. The aim of this work was to elucidate the possible interplay of insulin, glucagon, prolactin, growth hormone, T3, and T4 in pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Forty patients with diabetic retinopathy (group II) and twenty age-matched control (group I) were investigated. Plasma levels of both insulin and glucagon were significantly

A. A. Hafiez; E. Shalaby; H. Atia; M. A. Abdel-Hafez; A. B. Hammad

1985-01-01

265

Visual evoked responses in diabetes.  

PubMed Central

It is commonly believed that diabetic optic neuropathy is very rare and visual loss in diabetes usually is attributed to other causes. We studied the extent of optic nerve involvement in 16 diabetics with no retinopathy or ocular disease and having an almost visual acuity, using visual evoked responses produced by pattern reversal stimulation. Comparing the responses with a group of 35 healthy subjects, the latency was increased by more than one standard deviation in 13 diabetics (81%) and by more than three standard deviations in 10 diabetics (62.5%), often associated with marked reduction in amplitude. There was good correlation between conduction in the optic nerve and peripheral sensory nerve. No correlation was noted to occur with duration of diabetes or diabetic control except perhaps with juvenile onset diabetes. Normal visual acuity was noted in many cases with severely slowed conduction showing early subclinical affection of optic nerves in diabetes. The extent of central nervous system involvement in diabetes has only recently been realised because of lack of physiological techniques and study of optic nerves in diabetes has not been attempted so far. The high incidence of abnormality of visual evoked potentials in diabetes could invalidate the usefulness of this test in diagnosing multiple sclerosis. Images PMID:6886702

Puvanendran, K; Devathasan, G; Wong, P K

1983-01-01

266

Hallux Ulceration in Diabetic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We undertook a prospective cohort study to assess risk factors associated with hallux ulceration, and to determine the incidence of healing or amputation, in consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus who were treated over the observation period extending from September 2004 to March 2005, at the Jabir Abu Eliz Diabetic Centre, Khartoum City, Sudan. There were 122 diabetic patients in the

Mohamed ElMakki Ahmed; Abdulhakim O. Tamimi; Seif I. Mahadi; AbuBakr H. Widatalla; Mohamed A. Shawer

2010-01-01

267

[Diabetic nephropathy--update 2012].  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is the leading single cause for renal replacement therapy. Its development and progression, however, can be ameliorated by adequate therapy. The present article represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association and the Austrian Society for Nephrology for the prevention and treatment of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23262747

Auinger, Martin; Edlinger, Roland; Prischl, Friedrich; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Prager, Rudolf; Rosenkranz, Alexander R; Roden, Michael; Saemann, Marcus; Clodi, Martin; Schernthaner, Guntram

2012-12-01

268

Case 22:Type II diabetes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. It is composed of two types depending on the pathogenesis. Type I diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency and usually has its onset during childhood or teenage years. This is also called ketosis-prone diabetes. Type II diab...

269

Diabetes Education in Tribal Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diabetes is a prevalent disease in the United States. The emergence of Type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents within the American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities brings increased public health and quality of life concerns. In this article, the authors describe an initiative titled "Diabetes Education in Tribal Schools K-12

Helgeson, Lars; Francis, Carolee Dodge

2006-01-01

270

Type 1 diabetes in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 1 diabetes is a multifactorial disease which results from a T-cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells in genetically predisposed individuals. The risk for individuals of developing type 1 diabetes varies remarkably according to country of residence and race. Japan has one of the lowest incidence rates of type 1 diabetes in the world, and recognises at least

E. Kawasaki; N. Matsuura; K. Eguchi

2006-01-01

271

Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young  

MedlinePLUS

... Top ] What do I need to know about genetic testing and counseling? Testing for monogenic diabetes involves providing ... a monogenic form of diabetes in the future. Genetic testing can also be helpful in selecting the most ...

272

[Diabetes and hypertension].  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension are major cardiovascular risk factors with high co-morbidity. Microalbuminuria is an independent risk marker, and routine monitoring of urinary albumin is mandatory in patients with diabetes and hypertension. The therapeutic goal of antihypertensive treatment is < 130/80 mm Hg, however in the presence of nephropathy < 125/75 mm Hg should be achieved. Therapy is based on lifestyle-interventions including 1) weight reduction, 2) regular moderate physical activity, 3) modification of diet with restriction of salt- and alcohol consumption as well as 4) cessation of smoking. Renin- and ACE-inhibitors as well as AT1-receptor antagonists are drugs of first choice, delaying the progression of diabetic nephropathy most effectively. PMID:19876807

Sayk, F; Iwen, K A; Lehnert, H

2009-11-01

273

[Diabetic macrovascular complications].  

PubMed

Reactive derivatives from non-enzymatic glucose-protein condensation reactions, as well as lipids and nucleic acids exposed to reducing sugars, form a heterogeneous group of irreversible adducts called "advanced glycation end products(AGEs)". The formation and accumulation of AGEs have been known to progress at an accelerated rate under diabetes. There is accumulating evidence that AGEs and their receptor (RAGE) interaction elicits oxidative stress generation and subsequently evokes inflammatory and thrombogenic reactions, thereby being involved in vascular complications in diabetes. We, along with others, have recently found that pigment epithelium-derived factor(PEDF), a glycoprotein that belongs to the superfamily of serine protease inhibitors, has neuroprotective, anti-angiogenic, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties both in cell culture and animal models. In this review, we discuss the role of AGE-RAGE axis in diabetic macroangiopathy and its therapeutic intervention by PEDF. PMID:25812377

Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

2015-03-01

274

Diabetes foot disease: the Cinderella of Australian diabetes management?  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is one of the greatest public health challenges to face Australia. It is already Australias leading cause of kidney failure, blindness (in those under 60?years) and lower limb amputation, and causes significant cardiovascular disease. Australias diabetes amputation rate is one of the worst in the developed world, and appears to have significantly increased in the last decade, whereas some other diabetes complication rates appear to have decreased. This paper aims to compare the national burden of disease for the four major diabetes-related complications and the availability of government funding to combat these complications, in order to determine where diabetes foot disease ranks in Australia. Our review of relevant national literature indicates foot disease ranks second overall in burden of disease and last in evidenced-based government funding to combat these diabetes complications. This suggests public funding to address foot disease in Australia is disproportionately low when compared to funding dedicated to other diabetes complications. There is ample evidence that appropriate government funding of evidence-based care improves all diabetes complication outcomes and reduces overall costs. Numerous diverse Australian peak bodies have now recommended similar diabetes foot evidence-based strategies that have reduced diabetes amputation rates and associated costs in other developed nations. It would seem intuitive that its time to fund these evidence-based strategies for diabetes foot disease in Australia as well. PMID:23021818

2012-01-01

275

Diabetes foot disease: the Cinderella of Australian diabetes management?  

PubMed

Diabetes is one of the greatest public health challenges to face Australia. It is already Australia's leading cause of kidney failure, blindness (in those under 60?years) and lower limb amputation, and causes significant cardiovascular disease. Australia's diabetes amputation rate is one of the worst in the developed world, and appears to have significantly increased in the last decade, whereas some other diabetes complication rates appear to have decreased. This paper aims to compare the national burden of disease for the four major diabetes-related complications and the availability of government funding to combat these complications, in order to determine where diabetes foot disease ranks in Australia. Our review of relevant national literature indicates foot disease ranks second overall in burden of disease and last in evidenced-based government funding to combat these diabetes complications. This suggests public funding to address foot disease in Australia is disproportionately low when compared to funding dedicated to other diabetes complications. There is ample evidence that appropriate government funding of evidence-based care improves all diabetes complication outcomes and reduces overall costs. Numerous diverse Australian peak bodies have now recommended similar diabetes foot evidence-based strategies that have reduced diabetes amputation rates and associated costs in other developed nations. It would seem intuitive that "it's time" to fund these evidence-based strategies for diabetes foot disease in Australia as well. PMID:23021818

Lazzarini, Peter A; Gurr, Joel M; Rogers, Joseph R; Schox, Andrew; Bergin, Shan M

2012-01-01

276

Nonglycemic targets in diabetes.  

PubMed

In conclusion, targets for patients with diabetes have actually become simpler with the release of new guidelines. The targets discussed in this article are summarized in Box 3. Finally, as clinicians and patients with diabetes struggle with the overwhelming burden of care, clinicians should consider the increasingly codified ethic of minimally disruptive medicine, which considers not just what patients and doctors can do but what patients' priorities, wishes, and needs are rather than the many specialist tests and treatment options available. Finding the balance may be easier with the new evidence-based and more straightforward guidelines. PMID:25456650

DeWitt, Dawn; Dugdale, David C; Adam, William R

2015-01-01

277

Diabetes - Eye Complications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program explains how diabetes affects eyesight, specifically the prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy. It also reviews eye anatomy, other eye problems, and their treatment. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

278

Controlling diabetes, controlling diabetics: moral language in the management of diabetes type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary management of diabetes places heavy emphasis on control, particularly control of blood sugars and of food consumption. Interviews with people living with diabetes type 2 show how identity and social relationships are negotiated through what is often a contradictory language of control, surveillance, discipline and responsibility. People frequently discuss diabetes-related behaviour in terms that position themselves or others as

Dorothy Broom; Andrea Whittaker

2004-01-01

279

Diabetes mellitus and oral health.  

PubMed

The oral health is influenced by systemic health, and one of the most common chronic diseases encountered in dental practice is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes can worsen oral infections and vice versa. In the literature, periodontitis and diabetes in the young to middle-aged adults have been the most widely researched area. Understanding the patho-physiology, clinical manifestations and management of different types of orofacial diseases in diabetic patients are important to the diabetologist and the dentist for the optimal care of patients with these diseases. This review explores the inter-link between diabetes and oral health. PMID:25487035

Kudiyirickal, Marina George; Pappachan, Joseph M

2014-12-01

280

Pancreatitis and diabetes in cats.  

PubMed

Pancreatitis is an important potential cause and complicating factor in cases of diabetes mellitus. Pancreatitis can lead to development of diabetes mellitus, which may be transient (diabetic remission) or permanent through destruction and loss of ? cells. Pancreatitis can also be a complicating factor in management of diabetic cats by exacerbating or inducing peripheral insulin resistance, particularly at times of intensified pancreatitic inflammation. Pancreatitis is commonly associated with other inflammatory conditions-especially inflammatory bowel disease and cholangiohepatitis-and its presence makes management of diabetes mellitus more challenging. PMID:23522174

Caney, Sarah M A

2013-03-01

281

Diabetes mellitus and oral care.  

PubMed

Diabetes is a common condition. Its incidence is increasing. It can lead to medical complications including visual impairment, neuropathies, renal and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes can have an adverse effect on oral health and healthcare. Conversely, poor oral health can have an adverse effect on blood glucose control. Repeated oral infections can indicate uncontrolled diabetes and lead to its diagnosis. Whereas hyperglycaemia may occur in untreated diabetes, hypoglycaemic episodes are not uncommon in well-controlled diabetes Type 2. The tight glycaemic control required to prevent its long-term complications can be destabilized by infection, anxiety or missed meals. PMID:15188524

Fiske, Janice

2004-05-01

282

Rheumatic manifestations in diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus (DM), a worldwide high prevalence disease, is associated with a large variety of rheumatic manifestations. For most of these affections, pathophysiologic correlations are not well established. Some of them, such as diabetic cheiroarthropathy, neuropathic arthritis, diabetic amyotrophy, diabetic muscle infraction, are considered intrinsic complications of DM. For others, like diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis or reflex sympathetic dystrophy, DM is considered a predisposing condition. In most cases, these affections cause pain and disability, affecting the quality of life of diabetic patients, but once correctly diagnosed, they often respond to the treatment, that generally requires a multidisciplinary team. This article reviews some epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of these conditions. PMID:23049626

Serban, AL; Udrea, GF

2012-01-01

283

Osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot  

PubMed Central

Osteomyelitis (OM) is a common complication of diabetic foot ulcers and/or diabetic foot infections. This review article discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of OM in the diabetic foot. Clinical features that point to the possibility of OM include the presence of exposed bone in the depth of a diabetic foot ulcer. Medical imaging studies include plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, and bone scintigraphy. A high index of suspicion is also required to make the diagnosis of OM in the diabetic foot combined with clinical and radiological studies. PMID:25147627

Malhotra, Rishi; Chan, Claire Shu-Yi; Nather, Aziz

2014-01-01

284

Osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot.  

PubMed

Osteomyelitis (OM) is a common complication of diabetic foot ulcers and/or diabetic foot infections. This review article discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of OM in the diabetic foot. Clinical features that point to the possibility of OM include the presence of exposed bone in the depth of a diabetic foot ulcer. Medical imaging studies include plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, and bone scintigraphy. A high index of suspicion is also required to make the diagnosis of OM in the diabetic foot combined with clinical and radiological studies. PMID:25147627

Malhotra, Rishi; Chan, Claire Shu-Yi; Nather, Aziz

2014-01-01

285

Preconception care in diabetic women  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Diabetes is increasingly becoming prevalent worldwide. Pregnancy with diabetes is prone to maternal and fetal complications. Preconception care (PCC) is an important factor in alleviating gestational complications in those women who suffer from diabetes. This study seeks to gain insight into experiences of diabetic women and providers about PCC. Subjects and Methods: The present research was a qualitative research conducted on eight women with diabetes during the reproductive age and 15 health care providers of the public and private medical centers, which provide health care for women with diabetes in Isfahan (Iran), with a qualitative approach. Based on the aims of research, purposive sampling was done through semi-structuralized individual interview. Data were analyzed using conventional qualitative content analysis method. Results: Data analysis revealed three major categories: (1) Health centers weakness in providing PCC for diabetic women, (2) lack of a comprehensive PCC plan for diabetic women and (3) diabetic women's negligence about having planned pregnancy. Conclusion: In order to improve diabetic women's health, precise training of students, health care providers and patients themselves with respect to PCCs should be taken into account. Designing diabetic PCC system is an essential factor to succeed in this trend.

Nekuei, Nafisehsadat; Kohan, Shahnaz; Kazemi, Ashraf

2015-01-01

286

[New insights in steroid diabetes].  

PubMed

Glucocorticoids (GC) are the cornerstone in the treatment of numerous chronic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. GC treatment is accompanied by significant metabolic adverse effects, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and diabetes, visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia and skeletal muscle atrophy. GCs are the most common cause of drug-induced diabetes mellitus. However, not everyone treated with glucocorticoids develops diabetes. Predictors of development of diabetes are age, weight, family history of diabetes mellitus, or personal history of gestational diabetes. There is evidence that patients with decreased insulin secretory reserve are much more likely to develop diabetes. Diabetes from topical steroid use is uncommon, but high-dose steroids have been associated with significant hyperglycemia, including development of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome and even diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Several mechanisms contribute to the development of hyperglycemia and steroid-induced diabetes, including decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity, increased hepatic glucose production, and inhibition of pancreatic insulin production and secretion. Physicians treating patients with GCs should be aware of the induction of metabolic disturbances and should not solely rely on fasting measurements. In addition, our review indicates that insulin therapy could be considered when treating patients on GC therapy. PMID:23814973

Kurir, Tina Ticinovi?; Bozi?, Josko; Markoti?, Anita; Novak, Anela

2012-10-01

287

Diabetes and Risk of Cancer  

PubMed Central

Diabetes and cancer represent two complex, diverse, chronic, and potentially fatal diseases. Cancer is the second leading cause of death, while diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death with the latter still likely underreported. There is a growing body of evidence published in recent years that suggest substantial increase in cancer incidence in diabetic patients. The worldwide prevalence of diabetes was estimated to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. About 26.9% of all people over 65 have diabetes and 60% have cancer. Overall, 818% of cancer patients have diabetes. In the context of epidemiology, the burden of both diseases, small association between diabetes and cancer will be clinically relevant and should translate into significant consequences for future health care solutions. This paper summarizes most of the epidemiological association studies between diabetes and cancer including studies relating to the general all-site increase of malignancies in diabetes and elevated organ-specific cancer rate in diabetes as comorbidity. Additionally, we have discussed the possible pathophysiological mechanisms that likely may be involved in promoting carcinogenesis in diabetes and the potential of different antidiabetic therapies to influence cancer incidence. PMID:23476808

Habib, Samy L.; Rojna, Maciej

2013-01-01

288

Inflammatory Cytokines in Diabetic Nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Probably, the most paradigmatic example of diabetic complication is diabetic nephropathy, which is the largest single cause of end-stage renal disease and a medical catastrophe of worldwide dimensions. Metabolic and hemodynamic alterations have been considered as the classical factors involved in the development of renal injury in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, the exact pathogenic mechanisms and the molecular events of diabetic nephropathy remain incompletely understood. Nowadays, there are convincing data that relate the diabetes inflammatory component with the development of renal disease. This review is focused on the inflammatory processes that develop diabetic nephropathy and on the new therapeutic approaches with anti-inflammatory effects for the treatment of chronic kidney disease in the setting of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25785280

Donate-Correa, Javier; Martn-Nez, Ernesto; Muros-de-Fuentes, Mercedes; Mora-Fernndez, Carmen; Navarro-Gonzlez, Juan F.

2015-01-01

289

The spectrum of diabetic neuropathies.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is associated with many different neuropathic syndromes, ranging from a mild sensory disturbance as can be seen in a diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy, to the debilitating pain and weakness of a diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy. The etiology of these syndromes has been studied extensively, and may vary among metabolic, compressive, and immunological bases for the different disorders, as well as mechanisms yet to be discovered. Many of these disorders of nerve appear to be separate conditions with different underlying mechanisms, and some are caused directly by diabetes mellitus, whereas others are associated with it but not caused by hyperglycemia. This article discusses a number of the more common disorders of nerve found with diabetes mellitus. It discusses the symmetrical neuropathies, particularly generalized diabetic polyneuropathy, and then the focal or asymmetrical types of diabetes-associated neuropathy. PMID:18194747

Tracy, Jennifer A; Dyck, P James B

2008-02-01

290

The Spectrum of Diabetic Neuropathies  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is associated with many different neuropathic syndromes, ranging from a mild sensory disturbance as can be seen in a diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy, to the debilitating pain and weakness of a diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy. The etiology of these syndromes has been extensively studied, and may vary among metabolic, compressive, and immunological bases for the different disorders, as well as mechanisms yet to be discovered. Many of these disorders of nerve appear to be separate conditions with different underlying mechanisms, and some are directly caused by diabetes mellitus, whereas others are associated with it but not caused by hyperglycemia. We discuss a number of the more common disorders of nerve found with diabetes mellitus. We discuss the symmetrical neuropathies, particularly generalized diabetic polyneuropathy, and then the focal or asymmetrical types of diabetes-associated neuropathy. PMID:18194747

Tracy, Jennifer A.; Dyck, P. James B.

2009-01-01

291

Diabetic Neuropathy: Mechanisms to Management  

PubMed Central

Neuropathy is the most common and debilitating complication of diabetes and results in pain, decreased motility, and amputation. Diabetic neuropathy encompasses a variety of forms whose impact ranges from discomfort to death. Hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress in diabetic neurons and results in activation of multiple biochemical pathways. These activated pathways are a major source of damage and are potential therapeutic targets in diabetic neuropathy. Though therapies are available to alleviate the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy, few options are available to eliminate the root causes. The immense physical, psychological, and economic cost of diabetic neuropathy underscores the need for causally targeted therapies. This review covers the pathology, epidemiology, biochemical pathways, and prevention of diabetic neuropathy, as well as discusses current symptomatic and causal therapies and novel approaches to identify therapeutic targets. PMID:18616962

Edwards, James L.; Vincent, Andrea; Cheng, Thomas; Feldman, Eva L.

2014-01-01

292

Diabetes: Biomarkers to Cures Diabetes Expertise at the UBC Life Sciences institute  

E-print Network

: R o b F r a s e r Diabetes: Biomarkers to Cures Diabetes Expertise at the UBC Life Sciences institute The Life Sciences Institute (LSI) Diabetes Research Group, with its unique complement of diabetes research programs, has

Strynadka, Natalie

293

Diabetes Report Card 2012: National and State Profile of Diabetes and Its Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Diabetes Public Health Resource Share Compartir Diabetes Report Card 2012: National and State Profile of Diabetes and Its Complications The Diabetes Report Card 2012 uses 2010 data (the most recent ...

294

78 FR 26641 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Diabetes Mellitus Interagency...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and Kidney Diseases, Diabetes Mellitus Interagency...Workshop SUMMARY: The Diabetes Mellitus Interagency...DMICC) will hold a 2-day workshop on June...Executive Secretary of the Diabetes Mellitus Interagency...emerging opportunities for type 1 diabetes research...

2013-05-07

295

Diabetic Wound Care  

MedlinePLUS

... of the foot. Of those who develop a foot ulcer, 6 percent will be hospitalized due to infection or other ... develop a foot ulcer will require an amputation. Foot ulceration precedes 85 percent of diabetes-related amputations. Research has shown, however, ...

296

Vitamin D and diabetes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

On the basis of evidence from animal and human studies, vitamin D has emerged as a potential risk modifier for type 1 and type 2 diabetes (t1DM and t2DM). Vitamin D is thought to have both direct (through activation of the vitamin D receptor) and indirect (via regulation of calcium homeostasis) eff...

297

Fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (FCPD).  

PubMed

Fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (FCPD) is an uncommon form of diabetes that occurs as a result of chronic calcific pancreatitis, in the absence of alcohol abuse. The disease is restricted to tropical regions of the world, and southern India has the highest known prevalence of FCPD. The typical patient with FCPD is a lean adolescent or young adult of either sex, presenting with history of recurrent bouts of abdominal pain and steatorrhea. Demonstration of large, discrete pancreatic calculi by plain radiographs or ultrasonography of the abdomen is diagnostic. While the exact etiology of FCPD is unknown, genetic, nutritional and inflammatory factors have been hypothesized to play a role. Diabetes in FCPD is often brittle and difficult to control; most patients require multiple doses of insulin for control of glycemia. However, in spite of high blood glucose levels, patients rarely develop ketosis. Malabsorption responds to pancreatic enzyme supplementation. Surgical removal of stones is indicated for symptomatic relief of intractable pain. While patients with FCPD develop microvascular complications as frequently as those with type 2 diabetes, macrovascular disease is uncommon. Development of pancreatic malignancy is the most dreaded complication and should be suspected in any patient who complains of weight loss, back pain or jaundice. PMID:25395047

Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Mohan, Viswanathan

2015-02-01

298

Paths to Diabetes  

E-print Network

Apr 29, 2004 ... Diabetes is a disease of the body that affects the regulatory system. ... The blood source allows the hormones to be secreted directly into the blood where they act globally on the ... and promoting gluconeogenesis (production of glucose from precursors or ingested food). ... This usually occurs in childhood.

299

Management of Diabetic Gastroparesis  

PubMed Central

Symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis occur in 5% to 12% of patients with diabetes. Such a complication can affect both prognosis and management of the diabetes; therefore, practicing clinicians are challenged by the complex management of such cases. Gastroparesis is a disorder characterized by a delay in gastric emptying after a meal in the absence of a mechanical gastric outlet obstruction. This article is an evidence-based overview of current management strategies for diabetic gastroparesis. The cardinal symptoms of diabetic gastroparesis are nausea and vomiting. Gastroesophageal scintiscanning at 15-minute intervals for 4 hours after food intake is considered the gold standard for measuring gastric emptying. Retention of more than 10% of the meal after 4 hours is considered an abnormal result, for which a multidisciplinary management approach is required. Treatment should be tailored according to the severity of gastroparesis, and 25% to 68% of symptoms are controlled by prokinetic agents. Commonly prescribed prokinetics include metoclopramide, domperidone, and erythromycin. In addition, gastric electrical stimulation has been shown to improve symptoms, reduce hospitalizations, reduce the need for nutritional support, and improve quality of life in several open-label studies. PMID:21372345

Aljarallah, Badr M.

2011-01-01

300

Hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, and diabetes.  

PubMed

At present the two different mechanisms underlying the hypertriglyceridemia of diabetes are reasonably well defined. The rationale of therapy has grown from this knowledge. One form of hyperlipidemia is due to the hyperinsulinemia which results from the patient's resistance to insulin. The approach to treatment aims to overcome the insulin resistance. In most patients this is done by treating their obesity. The other form of hypertriglyceridemia results from insulin deficiency and is treated by bringing the patient's diabetes under control. There is strongly suggestive evidence that hypertriglyceridemia may be associated with a high risk of atherosclerosis. The reason for treating hypertriglyceridemia in general, and in the diabetic in particular, is to reduce this risk. However, it must be conceded that, at the moment, there is no information about the effect of lower triglyceride levels on the incidence of atherosclerosis. Hence much epidemiologic research is needed before our rationale for treatment can move from the realm of hope to the realm of definite proof. In the mean time an attack on this and the other risk factors is the best way we have to attempt to prevent the major complication of diabetes, atherosclerosis. PMID:206921

Steiner, G

1978-03-01

301

Diabetes Research Institute Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Lanzoni, Ph.D. PEP Talk eNewsletter Summer Camp Planning Doc Talk Coping TrialNet Ketones 9 Holiday Tips Teen Contract Pump Part 2 Pump Part 1 Sick Day Management Halloween Nighttime Testing 2 Nighttime Testing 1 Diabetes ...

302

Kidney Disease of Diabetes  

E-print Network

Kidney Disease of Diabetes National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse The Burden of Kidney Failure Each year in the United States, more than 100,000 people are diagnosed with kidney failure, a serious condition in which the kidneys fail to rid the body of wastes.1 Kidney failure

Baker, Chris I.

303

Diabetes: The Science Inside  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this book is to provide basic information about type 2 diabetes: what causes it, how it affects the body, and how it can be prevented and treated. Supported byScience Education Partnership Award (SEPA)from the National Center for Research Resources Grant # 5R25RR15601.

Healthy People Library Project

2003-01-01

304

Diabetic autonomic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThis review attempts to outline the present understanding of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The clinical features have been increasingly recognised but knowledge of the localization and morphology of the lesions and their pathogenesis remains fragmentary. A metabolic causation as postulated in somatic nerves accords best with clinical observations. Most bodily systems, particularly the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and urogenital, are involved with added

B. F. Clarke; D. J. Ewing; I. W. Campbell

1979-01-01

305

Competency frameworks in diabetes.  

PubMed

The quality, skills and attitudes of staff working in the healthcare system are central to multidisciplinary learning and working, and to the delivery of the quality of care patients expect. Patients want to know that the staff supporting them have the right knowledge and attitudes to work in partnership, particularly for conditions such as diabetes where 95% of all care is delivered by the person with diabetes themselves. With the current changes in the NHS structures in England, and the potential for greater variation in the types of 'qualified provider', along with the recent scandal at Mid-Staffordshire Hospital, staff need to be shown to be competent and named/accredited or recognized as such. This will help to restore faith in an increasingly devolved delivery structure. The education and validation of competency needs to be consistently delivered and assured to ensure standards are maintained for different roles and disciplines across each UK nation. Diabetes UK recommends that all NHS organizations prioritize healthcare professional education, training and competency through the implementation of a National Diabetes Competency Framework and the phased approach to delivery to address this need. PMID:25611804

Simmons, D; Deakin, T; Walsh, N; Turner, B; Lawrence, S; Priest, L; George, S; Vanterpool, G; McArdle, J; Rylance, A; Terry, G; Little, P

2015-05-01

306

Pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief analysis of the pathological picture of diabetic retinopathy, of which only the topographical distribution of the vascular lesions appears to be specific, the results obtained with 2 new methods of study of the retinal circulation, are presented. These methods are vitreous fluorophotometry and fluorometric determination of segmental retinal blood flow. Vitreous fluorophotometry has shown that a disturbance

J. G. Cunha-Vaz

1978-01-01

307

Diabetes Education Program HYPOGLYCEMIA  

E-print Network

Diabetes Education Program HYPOGLYCEMIA (Low Blood Glucose) Definition: Random Blood Sugar less of Glutose (glucose gel) 6 to 7 Lifesavers 3 - 4 Glucose tablets Repeat blood sugar in 10 to 15 minutes TO THE EMERGENCY ROOM!!! If blood glucose is less than 50 mg/dl treat with 30 gm. Carbohydrates. 15 grams, 15

Oliver, Douglas L.

308

The diabetic foot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic foot problems are common throughout the world, resulting in major medical, social and economic consequences for the patients, their families, and society. Foot ulcers are more likely to be of neuropathic origin, and therefore eminently preventable. People at greatest risk of ulceration can easily be identified by careful clinical examination of the feet: education and frequent follow-up is indicated

Haris M. Rathur; Andrew J. M. Boulton

2007-01-01

309

Diabetic foot ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we describe the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of diabetic foot ulceration, and its effect on patients and society. The condition deserves more attention, both from those who provide care and those who fund research. Epidemiology Incidence and prevalence Although accurate figures are difficult to obtain for the prevalence or incidence of foot ulcers, the results of cross-

William J Jeffcoate; Keith G Harding

2003-01-01

310

Presentations of Diabetic Feet  

Microsoft Academic Search

afflicted with diabetes mellitus have high rates of morbidity and mortality ow- ing to the many complications of the disease. The complications can manifest themselves as ophthalmic, renal, vascular, neurologic, and pedal diseases. Unfortu- nately, the most often overlooked or neglected complications involve the feet. It is estimated that in the United States foot disease is five times more prevalent

Michael A. Pliskin; William F. Todd; Gary W. Edelson

311

Diabetes and Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... blood sugar level should be before and after exercise. If your blood sugar level is too low or too high right ... diabetes Talk to your doctor about the right exercise for you. Check your blood sugar level before and after exercising. Check your feet ...

312

Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... on "Find a Nutrition Professional") Exercise Regularly Exercise is another way to keep blood sugar under control. It helps to balance food intake. ... who has had gestational diabetes to continue to exercise and eat a healthy diet after ... sugar every 1 to 3 years. More Information Gestational ...

313

Have Diabetes. Will Travel.  

MedlinePLUS

... preprinted pharmacy label that identifies the medicine. The airline industry recommends that patients travel with their original pharmacy labeled packaging. Keep your diabetes medications and emergency snacks with you at ... bin. If the airline offers a meal for your flight call ahead ...

314

Diabetes and Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that the problem of effective care of diabetes mellitus presents an opportunity for the emerging field of health psychology. Discusses behavioral interventions that aid in treatment of this disease by reducing its energy mobilizing effects on the nervous system. (Author/AOS)

Surwit, Richard S.; And Others

1983-01-01

315

Diabetes and eye disease  

MedlinePLUS

... level by: Eating healthy foods Getting regular exercise Checking your blood sugar as often as instructed by your diabetes health care provider and keeping a record of your numbers so you know the types of foods and activities that affect your blood ...

316

Medication or Lifestyle for Pre-Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Diagnosis & Monitoring of Diabetes Prevention & Treatment of Diabetes Diabetes Tools & Resources Heart Attack About Heart Attacks Warning Signs of a Heart ... Lifestyle? Success Strategies Resources for Pre-diabetes About Diabetes ... Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Target Heart Rates 3 Heart Attack Symptoms in Women 4 What are the Symptoms ...

317

Facing Diabetes: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... Fast Facts There are three main types of diabetes: type 1, usually first diagnosed in children, teens, or young ... Find Out More Learn more at medlineplus.gov ; type "diabetes" in the ... Diabetes Association at 1-800-DIABETES. Go to the American Diabetes Association ...

318

Diabetes Metab Res Rev. Author manuscript Anti-CD38 autoantibodies in type? diabetes  

E-print Network

Diabetes Metab Res Rev. Author manuscript Page /1 12 Anti-CD38 autoantibodies in type? diabetes.mallone@inserm.fr> Abstract Human diabetes mellitus comprises two main clinical entities: type 1 and type 2 diabetes. While type 1 diabetes is autoimmune in origin, type 2 diabetes is due to a decreased sensitivity to insulin

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

319

Type 2 Diabetes, Medication-Induced Diabetes, and Monogenic Diabetes in Canadian Children  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine in Canadian children aged <18 years the 1) incidence of type 2 diabetes, medication-induced diabetes, and monogenic diabetes; 2) clinical features of type 2 diabetes; and 3) coexisting morbidity associated with type 2 diabetes at diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This Canadian prospective national surveillance study involved a network of pediatricians, pediatric endocrinologists, family physicians, and adult endocrinologists. Incidence rates were calculated using Canadian Census population data. Descriptive statistics were used to illustrate demographic and clinical features. RESULTS From a population of 7.3 million children, 345 cases of nontype 1 diabetes were reported. The observed minimum incidence rates of type 2, medication-induced, and monogenic diabetes were 1.54, 0.4, and 0.2 cases per 100,000 children aged <18 years per year, respectively. On average, children with type 2 diabetes were aged 13.7 years and 8% (19 of 227) presented before 10 years. Ethnic minorities were overrepresented, but 25% (57 of 227) of children with type 2 diabetes were Caucasian. Of children with type 2 diabetes, 95% (206 of 216) were obese and 37% (43 of 115) had at least one comorbidity at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS This is the first prospective national surveillance study in Canada to report the incidence of type 2 diabetes in children and also the first in the world to report the incidence of medication-induced and monogenic diabetes. Rates of type 2 diabetes were higher than expected with important regional variation. These results support recommendations that screening for comorbidity should occur at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. PMID:20067956

Amed, Shazhan; Dean, Heather J.; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; Sellers, Elizabeth A.C.; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Laubscher, Tessa A.; Dannenbaum, David; Shah, Baiju R.; Booth, Gillian L.; Hamilton, Jill K.

2010-01-01

320

Atypical diabetes in children: ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes mellitus also known as atypical or flatbush diabetes is being increasingly recognised worldwide. These patients are typically obese, middle-aged men with a strong family history of type 2 diabetes. The aetiology and pathophysiological mechanism is still unclear but some initial research suggests that patients with ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes have a unique predisposition to glucose desensitisation. These patients have negative autoantibodies typically associated with type 1 diabetes but have shown to have human leucocyte antigen (HLA) positivity. At initial presentation, there is an impairment of both insulin secretion and action. ? Cell function and insulin sensitivity can be markedly improved by initiating aggressive diabetes management to allow for discontinuation of insulin therapy within a few months of treatment. These patients can be maintained on oral hypoglycaemic agents and insulin therapy can be safely discontinued after few months depending on their ? cell function. PMID:23302548

Vaibhav, Atul; Mathai, Mathew; Gorman, Shaun

2013-01-01

321

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Positive Predictor of Type 2 Diabetes?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to consider the relative benefits of screening for type two diabetes mellitus in women with a previous pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus. Recent studies suggest that women who experience GDM are at a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes within 1020 years of their index pregnancy. If considered as a stand-alone indicator of the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, GDM is a poor diagnostic test. Most women do not develop GDM during pregnancy and of those that do most do not develop type 2 diabetes. There is, however, a clear need for better early detection of predisposition to disease and/or disease onset to significantly impact on this global pandemic. The putative benefits of multivariate approaches and first trimester and preconception screening to increase the sensitivity of risk assignment modalities for type 2 diabetes are proposed. PMID:22675354

Rice, Gregory E.; E. Illanes, Sebastian; Mitchell, Murray D.

2012-01-01

322

Entrevista con Ricardo Halac  

E-print Network

capitalismo, que cada vez es ms abstracto, financiero, ingobernable. Pero el racionalismo subsiste en su vieja forma en el pensamiento de izquierda: en la Unin Sovitica, en China, en las democracias populares, se est "construyendo11 el hombre nuevo. En... 1968, con la muerte del "Che" Guevara en Bolivia, luego de una campaa "racionalmente" perfecta, los bolivianos se tenan que insubordinar y seguirlo. Entra en crisis entonces el pensamiento racional en el mundo entero. Hasta las grandes religiones...

Glickman, Nora

1990-04-01

323

Menopause and risk of diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program  

PubMed Central

Objective The study objective was to examine the association between menopause status and diabetes risk among women with glucose intolerance and to determine if menopausal status modifies response to diabetes prevention interventions. Methods The study population included women in premenopause (n=708), natural postmenopause (n=328), and bilateral oophorectomy (n=201) in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a randomized placebo-controlled trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among glucose intolerant adults. Associations between menopause and diabetes risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models that adjusted for demographic variables (age, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes mellitus), waist circumference, insulin resistance and corrected insulin response. Similar models were constructed after stratification by menopause type and hormone therapy (HT) use. Results After adjustment for age, there was no association between natural menopause or bilateral oophorectomy and diabetes risk. Differences by study arm were observed in women who reported bilateral oophorectomy. In the lifestyle arm, women with bilateral oophorectomy had a lower adjusted hazard for diabetes (HR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04, 0.94), although observations were too few to determine if this was independent of HT use. No significant differences were seen in the metformin (HR 1.29, 95% CI 0.63, 2.64) or placebo arms (HR 1.37, 95% CI 0.74, 2.55). Conclusions Among women at high-risk for diabetes, natural menopause was not associated with diabetes risk and did not affect response to diabetes prevention interventions. In the lifestyle intervention, bilateral oophorectomy was associated with decreased diabetes risk. PMID:21709591

Kim, Catherine; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Crandall, Jill P.; Dabelea, Dana; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Hamman, Richard F.; Montez, Maria G.; Perreault, Leigh; Foulkes, Mary A.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

324

Reprogramming diabetic stem or progenitor cells for treating diabetic complications  

Cancer.gov

Bone marrow-derived stem or progenitor cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been shown to be effective for repairing cardiovascular disease. However, recent studies have shown that autologous cells derived from diabetic patients are not as effective as those from non-diabetic or healthy volunteers. As many cardiovascular disease patients who are candidate for cell therapy have diabetes as co-morbid condition, new measures are required to reverse their dysfunction.

325

Higher incidence of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 than in type 1 diabetes in early-onset diabetes in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher incidence of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 than in type 1 diabetes in early-onset diabetes in Japan.BackgroundWhether the type of diabetes, race, and year and age of diagnosis affect the incidence of diabetic vascular complications is unknown. That both type 1 and type 2 diabetes occur in the young Japanese population prompted us to investigate whether the type of

Hiroki Yokoyama; Maki Okudaira; Toshika Otani; Akiko Sato; Junnoske Miura; Hiroko Takaike; Hitomi Yamada; Kazuko Muto; Yasuko Uchigata; Yasuo Ohashi; Yasuhiko Iwamoto

2000-01-01

326

Diabetic Complications in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rat Models  

PubMed Central

We overviewed the pathophysiological features of diabetes and its complications in obese type 2 diabetic rat models: Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rat, Wistar fatty rat, Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat and Spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rat. Pancreatic changes with progression of diabetes were classified into early changes, such as islet hypertrophy and degranulation of ? cells, and degenerative changes, such as islet atrophy and fibrosis of islet with infiltration of inflammatory cells. Renal lesions in tubuli and glomeruli were observed, and nodular lesions in glomeruli were notable changes in OLETF and SDT fatty rats. Among retinal changes, folding and thickening were interesting findings in SDT fatty rats. A decrease of motor nerve conduction velocity with progression of diabetes was presented in obese diabetic rats. Other diabetic complications, osteoporosis and sexual dysfunction, were also observed. Observation of bone metabolic abnormalities, including decrease of osteogenesis and bone mineral density, and sexual dysfunction, including hypotestosteronemia and erectile dysfunction, in obese type 2 diabetic rats have been reported. PMID:24770637

Katsuda, Yoshiaki; Ohta, Takeshi; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Kemmochi, Yusuke; Sasase, Tomohiko; Tong, Bin; Shinohara, Masami; Yamada, Takahisa

2014-01-01

327

Retinal vascular tortuosity in persons with diabetes and diabetic retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim\\/hypothesisThe aim of this hypothesis was to examine the association of retinal vessel tortuosity with diabetes and diabetic retinopathy\\u000a (DR).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsA clinic-based study of 327 participants (224 with diabetes and 103 non-diabetic controls) aged ?18years. DR was graded from\\u000a fundus photographs according to the modified Airlie House Classification system and categorised into mild non-proliferative\\u000a DR (NPDR), moderate NPDR and vision-threatening

M. B. Sasongko; T. Y. Wong; T. T. Nguyen; C. Y. Cheung; J. E. Shaw; J. J. Wang

328

Diabetic complications in obese type 2 diabetic rat models.  

PubMed

We overviewed the pathophysiological features of diabetes and its complications in obese type 2 diabetic rat models: Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rat, Wistar fatty rat, Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat and Spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rat. Pancreatic changes with progression of diabetes were classified into early changes, such as islet hypertrophy and degranulation of ? cells, and degenerative changes, such as islet atrophy and fibrosis of islet with infiltration of inflammatory cells. Renal lesions in tubuli and glomeruli were observed, and nodular lesions in glomeruli were notable changes in OLETF and SDT fatty rats. Among retinal changes, folding and thickening were interesting findings in SDT fatty rats. A decrease of motor nerve conduction velocity with progression of diabetes was presented in obese diabetic rats. Other diabetic complications, osteoporosis and sexual dysfunction, were also observed. Observation of bone metabolic abnormalities, including decrease of osteogenesis and bone mineral density, and sexual dysfunction, including hypotestosteronemia and erectile dysfunction, in obese type 2 diabetic rats have been reported. PMID:24770637

Katsuda, Yoshiaki; Ohta, Takeshi; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Kemmochi, Yusuke; Sasase, Tomohiko; Tong, Bin; Shinohara, Masami; Yamada, Takahisa

2014-01-01

329

among NYS adults, by diabetes status, 2008 With Diabetes Without Diabetes  

E-print Network

Complete loss of permanent teeth is more common among New Yorkers with diabetes (15.5%) than those without diabetes (3.6%) (see Figure 1). Adults without all permanent teeth are less likely to have visited a dentist in the past year (27.8%) than adults who still have permanent teeth (76.4%)(data not shown). Among adults with teeth, 72.7 % of adults with diabetes reported visiting a dentist or dental clinic within the past year, compared to 76.8 % of adults without diabetes. Overall, the percentage of adults who have seen a dentist in the past year is below the goal of 83.0 % established by the Prevention Agenda Toward the Healthiest State (see Figure 2). Public health importance: Information for Action # 2011-8 Annual dental visits are less prevalent among adults with diabetes than among adults without diabetes in New York State. Diabetes increases both the prevalence and severity of oral complications including gum infection, gum disease, and tooth loss. 1 Because chronic periodontal inflammation has been identified as a potential risk factor for poor glycemic control, routine dental care may help prevent complications from diabetes. 2 Although adults with diabetes are at an increased need for regular dental care compared to adults without diabetes, they are not more likely to receive it. 25

unknown authors

330

Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Mouth Healthy  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Espaol National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and Resources E-News ... Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your mouth healthy Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your mouth healthy On this page: ...

331

Genetics Home Reference: Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus  

MedlinePLUS

... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... Glossary definitions Reviewed April 2010 What is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus? Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a disorder of ...

332

Genetics Home Reference: Type 1 diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Type 1 diabetes On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed March 2013 What is type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is a disorder characterized by ...

333

How Is Diabetes Treated in Children?  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol How Is Diabetes Treated in Children? Search the Consumer Updates Section ... worse over time. back to top Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is most often diagnosed in ...

334

Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Eyes Healthy  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Espaol National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and Resources E-News ... Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your eyes healthy Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your eyes healthy On this page: ...

335

Gestational Diabetes: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Espaol National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and Resources E-News ... Gestational Diabetes: What You Need to Know Gestational Diabetes: What You Need to Know On this page: ...

336

Genetics Home Reference: Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus  

MedlinePLUS

... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... definitions Reviewed July 2011 What is permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus? Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus is a type ...

337

Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Kidneys Healthy  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Espaol National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and Resources E-News ... Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your kidneys healthy Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your kidneys healthy On this page: ...

338

Genetics Home Reference: Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus  

MedlinePLUS

... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... Glossary definitions Reviewed April 2010 What is neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus? Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is a disorder of ...

339

Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Feet Healthy  

MedlinePLUS

... Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your feet healthy Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your feet healthy On this page: ... Information More in the Series Acknowledgments How can diabetes affect my feet? Too much glucose , * also called ...

340

Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Diabetes MedicinesAlways Discuss Them with Your Healthcare Provider ...

341

Women at High Risk for Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... or a pump to manage their diabetes. 1 Type 2 diabetes accounts for about 95% of all cases diagnosed ... Be Done to Reduce the Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes? Research has shown that the following lifestyle modifications ...

342

Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes The Basics Take Action! Ver en espaol Content ... do a lot to prevent or delay getting type 2 diabetes (dy-ah-BEE-teez), including: Watching your weight ...

343

Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2  

E-print Network

Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2 National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse #12;#12;Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2 #12;#12;Contents Learn about Diabetes ............................................................ 1 What is diabetes? .............................................................. 2 What

Rau, Don C.

344

Ten Ways Hispanics and Latinos Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Diabetes Ten Ways Hispanics and Latinos Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Hispanics and Latinos are at high risk for ... Diabetes Ten Ways Hispanics and Latinos Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes The National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) is urging ...

345

Diabetes - Foot Care  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program explains how diabetes affects the feet. It reviews what diabetics can do to help prevent serious complications through daily foot care, regular foot care, proper footwear, injury avoidance, and regular checkups. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

346

Hyperkalemia in diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Potassium filtered at the glomerulus is almost completely reabsorbed before the distal tubule; it must therefore be secreted into the collecting duct. The rate of potassium secretion is determined by a number of factors, notably aldosterone, distal sodium delivery, and serum potassium. Normal serum potassium is maintained by the interplay of passive leak of potassium from the cells and its active return to the cells. Transmembrane potassium distribution is influenced largely by acid-base equilibrium and hormones including insulin and catecholamines. In the diabetic with ketoacidosis hyperkalemia, in the face of potassium depletion, is attributable to reduced renal function, acidosis, release of potassium from cells due to glycogenolysis, and lack of insulin. Chronic hyperkalemia in diabetics is most often attributable to hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism but other conditions including urinary tract obstruction may also contribute. A variety of clinical situations (e.g., volume depletion) and drugs (e.g., nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents, and heparin) may acutely provoke hyperkalemia in susceptible individuals. PMID:2141843

Uribarri, J; Oh, M S; Carroll, H J

1990-01-01

347

Diabetes: an investor's perspective.  

PubMed

Total health care expenditure in 2006 was $2.1 trillion. This figure is estimated to double within the next few years as the cost of treating diabetes and other chronic conditions continues to rise. Moreover, the baby boomer demographic is anticipated to place an enormous burden on the health care system and employer-based health insurance premiums were increased at rates as high as 10% per year in 2006.The quest to address these challenges has also created opportunities for investment, particularly in the fields of telemedicine, health care information technology, and medical technology.The author shares his business perspective, informed by years of experience as a physician and astronaut at NASA, and describes new applications of exciting technologies that deliver effective and efficient health care to diabetes patients, no matter where they may be. PMID:19885357

Harris, Bernard

2008-03-01

348

Genetics and diabetic retinopathy.  

PubMed

There are many reasons to suspect a genetic influence on the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, including substantial variability in disease severity among patients with similar risk factors. Linkage studies have suggested associations with chromosomes 1, 3, 12 and others. The most studied individual genes are those encoding vascular endothelial growth factor, aldose reductase, and the receptor for advanced glycation end products, all of which have shown statistically significant associations in multiple series from various parts of the world. At this time, no definite genetic associations with diabetic retinopathy have been consistently reported. This may be due to small sample sizes, differences in study design, underlying genetic differences between study populations, or other factors. As we continue to collect data, these relationships may become more clear. PMID:22950970

Schwartz, Stephen G; Brantley, Milam A; Flynn, Harry W

2013-01-01

349

LiquichekTM Diabetes Control  

E-print Network

LiquichekTM Diabetes Control Bio-Rad Laboratories D I A B E T E S / H E M O G L O B I N C O N T R O L S #12;LiquichekTM Diabetes Control Hemoglobin A1C Hemoglobin, Total A liquid human whole blood based product designed to monitor the performance of hemoglobin tests associated with diabetes

Rodriguez, Carlos

350

Diabetic nephropathy - complications and treatment.  

PubMed

Diabetic nephropathy is a significant cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal failure globally. Much research has been conducted in both basic science and clinical therapeutics, which has enhanced understanding of the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy and expanded the potential therapies available. This review will examine the current concepts of diabetic nephropathy management in the context of some of the basic science and pathophysiology aspects relevant to the approaches taken in novel, investigative treatment strategies. PMID:25342915

Lim, Andy Kh

2014-01-01

351

Inflammation in diabetic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus entails significant health problems worldwide. The pathogenesis of diabetes is multifactorial, resulting from interactions of both genetic and environmental factors that trigger a complex network of pathophysiological events, with metabolic and hemodynamic alterations. In this context, inflammation has emerged as a key pathophysiology mechanism. New pathogenic pathways will provide targets for prevention or future treatments. This review will focus on the implications of inflammation in diabetes mellitus, with special attention to inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25126391

Garca-Garca, Patricia M; Getino-Melin, Mara A; Domnguez-Pimentel, Virginia; Navarro-Gonzlez, Juan F

2014-01-01

352

Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An association between oxidative stress and the development of diabetes complications has been recognized for over 20 years.\\u000a Increased production of reactive oxygen species has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.\\u000a However, in spite of overwhelming evidence supporting the damaging consequences of oxidative stress and its established role\\u000a in experimental models of diabetes, the results of large-scale

Ruth B. Caldwell; Azza E. B. El-Remessy; Robert W. Caldwell

353

Utility values and diabetic retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE:To ascertain the utility values associated with diabetic retinopathy and varying degrees of visual loss.METHODS:One hundred consecutive patients with diabetic retinopathy and best-corrected visual acuity decreased to 20\\/40 or worse in at least one eye occurring primarily as a result of diabetic retinopathy were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. Utility values were ascertained in five groups using both the time

Melissa M Brown; Gary C Brown; Sanjay Sharma; Gaurav Shah

1999-01-01

354

VEGF localisation in diabetic retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo determine the staining pattern of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at different stages of diabetic retinopathy (including post-laser photocoagulation) and to compare staining in excised fibrovascular and fibrocellular (non-diabetic) preretinal membranes.METHODSImmunohistochemical localisation of VEGF, using antibodies raised against VEGF165 and VEGF121,165,189, was carried out on specimens of normal human retina (n=15), diabetic retinas ((a) with no overt retinopathy (n=19),

Mike Boulton; David Foreman; Gillian Williams; David McLeod

1998-01-01

355

Childhood Diabetes: A Global Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes is an evolving disease, with changing patterns seen in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. A wide (over 400-fold) variation exists in worldwide incidence rates of type 1 diabetes, with the highest occurring in Finland (over 45 per 100,000 under the age of 15 years) and the lowest in parts of China. In many countries (e.g. in Europe,

Martin Silink

2002-01-01

356

Diabetes in Europe: an update.  

PubMed

Diabetes is among the leading causes of death in the IDF Europe Region (EUR), continues to increase in prevalence with diabetic macro- and microvascular complications resulting in increased disability and enormous healthcare costs. In 2013, the number of people with diabetes is estimated to be 56 million in EUR with an overall estimated prevalence of 8.5%. However, estimates of diabetes prevalence in 2013 vary widely in the 56 diverse countries in EUR from 2.4% in Moldova to 14.9% in Turkey. Trends in diabetes prevalence also vary between countries with stable prevalence since 2002 for many countries but a doubling of diabetes prevalence in Turkey. For 2035, a further increase of nearly 10 million people with diabetes is projected for the EUR. Prevalence of type 1 has also increased over the past 20 years in EUR and there was estimated to be 129,350 cases in children aged 0-14 years in 2013. Registries provide valid information on incidence of type 1 diabetes with more complete data available for children than for adults. There are large differences in distribution of risk factors for diabetes at the population level in EUR. Modifiable risk factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, smoking behaviour (including secondhand smoking), environmental pollutants, psychosocial factors and socioeconomic deprivation could be tackled to reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Europe. In addition, diabetes management is a major challenge to health services in the European countries. Improved networking practices of health professionals and other stakeholders in combination with empowerment of people with diabetes and continuous quality monitoring need to be further developed in Europe. PMID:24300019

Tamayo, T; Rosenbauer, J; Wild, S H; Spijkerman, A M W; Baan, C; Forouhi, N G; Herder, C; Rathmann, W

2014-02-01

357

Diabetic nephropathy complications and treatment  

PubMed Central

Diabetic nephropathy is a significant cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal failure globally. Much research has been conducted in both basic science and clinical therapeutics, which has enhanced understanding of the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy and expanded the potential therapies available. This review will examine the current concepts of diabetic nephropathy management in the context of some of the basic science and pathophysiology aspects relevant to the approaches taken in novel, investigative treatment strategies. PMID:25342915

Lim, Andy KH

2014-01-01

358

Hypoglycemia, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in people with diabetes, and the risk of CVD for adults with diabetes is at least two to four times the risk in adults without diabetes. Complications of diabetes, including not only CVD but also microvascular diseases such as retinopathy and nephropathy, are a major health and financial burden. Diabetes is a disease of glucose intolerance, and so much of the research on complications has focused on the role of hyperglycemia. Clinical trials have clearly demonstrated the role of hyperglycemia in microvascular complications of diabetes, but there appears to be less evidence for as strong of a relationship between hyperglycemia and CVD in people with diabetes. Hypoglycemia has become a more pressing health concern as intensive glycemic control has become the standard of care in diabetes. Clinical trials of intensive glucose lowering in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes populations has resulted in significantly increased hypoglycemia, with no decrease in CVD during the trial period, although several studies have shown a reduction in CVD with extended follow-up. There is evidence that hypoglycemia may adversely affect cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes, and this is one potential explanation for the lack of CVD prevention in trials of intensive glycemic control. Hypoglycemia causes a cascade of physiologic effects and may induce oxidative stress and cardiac arrhythmias, contribute to sudden cardiac death, and cause ischemic cerebral damage, presenting several potential mechanisms through which acute and chronic episodes of hypoglycemia may increase CVD risk. In this review, we examine the risk factors and prevalence of hypoglycemia in diabetes, review the evidence for an association of both acute and chronic hypoglycemia with CVD in adults with diabetes, and discuss potential mechanisms through which hypoglycemia may adversely affect cardiovascular risk. PMID:22650225

Wadwa, R. Paul

2012-01-01

359

Diagnosing and Treating Diabetic Foot Infections Diyabetik Ayak ?nfeksiyonlarinin Tani ve Tedavisi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons with diabetes often develop foot wounds, which frequent- ly become infected. Infections typically involve soft tissues at fi rst, but can spread to underlying bone. These infections cause con- siderable morbidity and are often the proximate cause of lower extremity amputation. Many studies in the past few years have improved knowledge of the most appropriate ways to diagnose and

Benjamin A. Lipsky

360

Defining Diabetic Retinopathy Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The fundus abnormalities seen in diabetic retinopathy can conceptually be split into three categories those findings resulting\\u000a from leaking microvasculature (hemorrhages, lipid exudates, retinal edema); those findings resulting from structural damage\\u000a to the microvasculature wall (microaneurysms); and those findings resulting from ischemia with a subsequent overproduction\\u000a of vascular growth factors (cottonwool patches, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities [IRMA], preretinal neovascularization,\\u000a fibrous

Keye Wong

361

Subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrophysiologic, autonomic, and neuropathologic characteristics and the natural history of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy and its response to immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of Mayo Clinic patients with diabetes who had subacute onset and progression of proximal weakness. The responses of treated versus untreated patients were compared statistically. RESULTS: During the designated study period, 44 patients with subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy were encountered. Most patients were middle-aged or elderly, and no sex preponderance was noted. The proximal muscle weakness often was associated with reduced or absent lower extremity reflexes. Associated weight loss was a common finding. Frequently, patients had some evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, but it invariably was accompanied by concomitant axonal degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was usually increased. Diffuse and substantial autonomic failure was generally present. In most cases, a sural nerve biopsy specimen suggested demyelination, although evidence of an inflammatory infiltrate was less common. Of 12 patients who received treatment (with prednisone, intravenous immune globulin, or plasma exchange), 9 had improvement of their conditions, but 17 of 29 untreated patients (59%) with follow-up also eventually had improvement, albeit at a much slower rate. Improvement was usually incomplete. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the entity of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy is an extensive and severe variant of bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, with some features suggestive of an immune-mediated cause. It differs from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in that most cases have a more restricted distribution and seem to be monophasic and self-limiting. The efficacy of immunotherapy is unproved, but such intervention may be considered in the severe and progressive cases or ones associated with severe neuropathic pain.

Pascoe, M. K.; Low, P. A.; Windebank, A. J.; Litchy, W. J.

1997-01-01

362

Treatments for diabetic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of symptomatic diabetic sensory neuropathy presents a therapeutic challenge to the practicing physician. Two\\u000a approaches are outlined in this article. First, symptomatic therapies, which will not influence the natural history of painful\\u000a neuropathy, are discussed. These include, in addition to the stable glycemic control, tricyclic drugs, a number of anticonvulsant\\u000a and antiarrhythmic agents, and opioid-like medications. Topical therapies

Andrew J. M. Boulton

2001-01-01

363

Pirfenidone for diabetic nephropathy.  

PubMed

Pirfenidone is an oral antifibrotic agent that benefits diabetic nephropathy in animal models, but whether it is effective for human diabetic nephropathy is unknown. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 77 subjects with diabetic nephropathy who had elevated albuminuria and reduced estimated GFR (eGFR) (20 to 75 ml/min per 1.73 m). The prespecified primary outcome was a change in eGFR after 1 year of therapy. We randomly assigned 26 subjects to placebo, 26 to pirfenidone at 1200 mg/d, and 25 to pirfenidone at 2400 mg/d. Among the 52 subjects who completed the study, the mean eGFR increased in the pirfenidone 1200-mg/d group (+3.3 8.5 ml/min per 1.73 m) whereas the mean eGFR decreased in the placebo group (-2.2 4.8 ml/min per 1.73 m; P = 0.026 versus pirfenidone at 1200 mg/d). The dropout rate was high (11 of 25) in the pirfenidone 2400-mg/d group, and the change in eGFR was not significantly different from placebo (-1.9 6.7 ml/min per 1.73 m). Of the 77 subjects, 4 initiated hemodialysis in the placebo group, 1 in the pirfenidone 2400-mg/d group, and none in the pirfenidone 1200-mg/d group during the study (P = 0.25). Baseline levels of plasma biomarkers of inflammation and fibrosis significantly correlated with baseline eGFR but did not predict response to therapy. In conclusion, these results suggest that pirfenidone is a promising agent for individuals with overt diabetic nephropathy. PMID:21511828

Sharma, Kumar; Ix, Joachim H; Mathew, Anna V; Cho, Monique; Pflueger, Axel; Dunn, Stephen R; Francos, Barbara; Sharma, Shoba; Falkner, Bonita; McGowan, Tracy A; Donohue, Michael; Ramachandrarao, Satish; Xu, Ronghui; Fervenza, Fernando C; Kopp, Jeffrey B

2011-06-01

364

Diabetic Foot Ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wagner system describes the diabetic foot ulcer as a full thickness wound extending to tendons or deeper subcutaneous\\u000a tissue but without bony involvement or osteomyelitis [1]. The university of Texas system refers to levels of ischemia [2]\\u000a and infection while the SAD system [3] attends to size, area, depth, arteriopathy and any neuropathic involvement. The breadth\\u000a of classification system

Andrew Boulton; Frank Bowling

365

Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes  

E-print Network

Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes Lesson Topics ·WhatisDiabetes? ·Nutrition­FirstSteptoDiabetesManagement ·OneDiabetesDiet­NoLongertheSoleOption ·ManagingYourBloodGlucose ·NutritionalLabels ·DiabetesandExercise ·ForGoodMeasureatHomeandEatingOut ·DiabetesMedicines ·Preventingand

366

Diabetic retinopathy in Downs syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in patients with Downs syndrome and diabetes mellitus.METHODNine patients with Downs syndrome and diabetes mellitus were assessed. Factors recorded included type and duration of diabetes, level of diabetic control, blood pressure, urinalysis, and results of ophthalmological examination.RESULTSThe duration of diabetes ranged from 8 to 41 years (mean 17.6 years). All had satisfactory glycaemic

Tim Fulcher; Margaret Griffin; Seamus Crowley; Richard Firth; Robert Acheson; Niall OMeara

1998-01-01

367

[Diabetes and road safety].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to analyse the driving habits of a group of diabetic individuals, insulin and noninsulin treated, compared with the driving habits of an equivalent group of individuals in good health. Specific attention is given to the evaluation and management of stress related to driving. The analysis relies mainly upon the answers of 307 persons of both sex on a questionnaire regarding their driving habits and concerning twenty more or less risky behaviors. The diabetic subjects were sampled among the patients of an endocrinology clinic, and the pilot group (in good health) was gathered among the patients from the clinic of a general practitioner. The subjects were aged between 25 and 65. All were in possession of a driving licence and had a driving experience of over two years. The results show, on one hand, that the evaluation of stress related to a risky behavior is associated to the taking of risk at the wheel, and on the other hand, that compared with the other subjects in the study the diabetic subjects had a lesser tendency to taking risks in driving. The subjects avoided the behaviors they judged risky. Beside avoiding dangerous road behaviors, the latter brought special attention to food and relaxation needs and they showed a great alertness towards climatic and road conditions. Finally, they are especially careful in preventing and curing hypoglycaemic states. PMID:7843472

Mathieu, F; Bergeron, J; Dupuis, G; Ekoe, J M; Laberge-Nadeau, C

1994-01-01

368

Diabetes services in Yugoslavia.  

PubMed

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia lies in south east Europe between the Soviet block and the free enterprise countries of Western Europe. It was originally established as a confederation of independent Balkan states after the first world war; after the second world war it became an independent federation of the socialist republics of Bosnia, Herzegovnia, Montenegro, Croatia (including Dalmatia), Slovenia, and Serbia, together with the two small autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. In the subsequent 30 years the trend towards decentralised decision making and institutional self management has continued. Nevertheless, the federal authorities retain major control over economic decision making and policies. For example, they forbid anyone from owning more than two houses or 10 hectares of land, and no factory owner may employ more than 10 people. Capitalism in any other than this minor form is not allowed, and any businessman whose business expands must become involved in frustrating negotiations with the local government to set up a state industry. I recently visited Yugoslavia as a guest of the Institute for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolic Diseases and of the medical faculty of the University of Zagreb and visited various health care units which provide services for diabetics in Croatia. As well as Zagreb itself I visited units in Split on the Adriatic coast and at Varazdin, near the Hungarian border. Necessarily my observations are based on the diabetes services in Croatia, but although the other republics may have less developed services they follow similar principles. PMID:6412875

Beaven, D W

1983-09-24

369

Diabetic nephropathy and antioxidants  

PubMed Central

Context Oxidative stress has crucial role in pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Despite satisfactory results from antioxidant therapy in rodent, antioxidant therapy showed conflicting results in combat with DN in diabetic patients. Evidence Acquisitions Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar,Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. Results Treatment of DN in human are insufficient with rennin angiotensin system (RAS) blockers, so additional agent ought to combine with this management. Meanwhile based on DN pathogenesis and evidences in experimental and human researches, the antioxidants are the best candidate. New multi-property antioxidants may be improved human DN that show high power antioxidant capacity, long half-life time, high permeability to mitochondrion, improve body antioxidants enzymes activity and anti-inflammatory effects. Conclusions Based on this review and our studies on diabetic rats, rosmarinic acid a multi-property antioxidant may be useful in DN patients, but of course, needs to be proven in clinical trials studies. PMID:24475422

Tavafi, Majid

2013-01-01

370

Improving outpatient diabetes care.  

PubMed

More than 20% of patients in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) have diabetes; therefore, disseminating "best practices" in outpatient diabetes care is paramount. The authors' goal was to identify such practices and the factors associated with their development. First, a national VHA diabetes registry with 2008 data identified clinical performance based on the percentage of patients with an A1c >9%. Facilities (n = 140) and community-based outpatient clinics (n = 582) were included and stratified into high, mid, and low performers. Semistructured telephone interviews (31) and site visits (5) were conducted. Low performers cited lack of teamwork between physicians and nurses and inadequate time to prepare. Better performing sites reported supportive clinical teams sharing work, time for non-face-to-face care, and innovative practices to address local needs. A knowledge management model informed our process. Notable differences between performance levels exist. "Best practices" will be disseminated across the VHA as the VHA Patient-Centered Medical Home model is implemented. PMID:22031174

Kirsh, Susan; Hein, Michael; Pogach, Leonard; Schectman, Gordon; Stevenson, Lauren; Watts, Sharon; Radhakrishnan, Archana; Chardos, John; Aron, David

2012-01-01

371

Resveratrol and Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Resveratrol is a stilbene compound, and a phytoalexin, synthesized by plants in response to stressful stimuli, usually caused by infection. It is abundantly present in red wine, ports and sherries, red grapes, blueberries, peanuts, itadori tea, as well as hops, pistachios, and in grape and cranberry juices. The anti-hyperglycemic effects of resveratrol seem to be the result of an increased action of the glucose transporter in the cytoplasmic membrane. Studies on rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes have demonstrated that the expression of the insulin-dependent glucose transporter, GLUT4, is increased after resveratrol ingestion. Also, resveratrol enhances adiponectin levels, which could be one of the potential mechanisms by which it improves insulin sensitivity. Another important observation is that resveratrol induces the secretion of the gut incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1. Resveratrol is also reported to activate Sir2 (silent information regulatory 2), a SIRT1 homolog, thus mimicking the benefits of calorie restriction. It produces a wide variety of effects in mammalian cells, including activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which is involved in some of the same metabolic pathways as SIRT1, which may influence other mechanisms via the involvement of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B). In the near future, resveratrol-based therapies with either resveratrol or its analogs that have better bioavailability could be useful in the treatment of diabetes and its complications, either alone or in combination with other anti-diabetic drugs. PMID:24841877

Vallianou, Natalia G.; Evangelopoulos, Angelos; Kazazis, Christos

2013-01-01

372

Pathogenesis of feline diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Cats are one of the few species that develop a form of diabetes mellitus that is clinically and histologically analogous to human type 2 diabetes mellitus. Figure 9 summarizes the etiologic factors thought to be involved in the development of feline and human type 2 diabetes. The main metabolic characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus are impaired insulin secretion and resistance to the action of insulin in its target tissues. Impaired beta cell function occurs before histologic changes become evident. The characteristic histologic finding in cats with type 2 diabetes is deposition of amyloid in pancreatic islets. Amyloid deposition occurs before the onset of clinical signs, but does not seem to be the primary defect. Pancreatic amyloid is derived form the recently discovered pancreatic hormone amylin. Amylin is synthesized in pancreatic beta cells, and is co-stored and co-secreted with insulin. Amylin has been postulated to be involved in the pathogenesis of feline diabetes mellitus both through its metabolic effects, which include inhibition of insulin secretion and induction of insulin resistance, and via progressive amyloid deposition and beta cell degeneration. Increased amylin concentration has been documented intracellularly in cats with impaired glucose tolerance and in the plasma of diabetic cats, and supports the hypothesis that amylin is involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Obesity is a common finding in diabetic felines and is a contributing factor to the insulin resistance present in type 2 diabetes. Clinical signs of diabetes develop once total insulin secretion decreases to 20% to 25% of normal levels. Many diabetic cats have been treated successfully with oral hypoglycemics, but 50% to 70% of diabetic cats are insulin dependent. Based on histologic evidence, this is the result of extensive amyloid deposition and subsequent beta cell degeneration, rather than autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells associated with type 1 diabetes. Alternative ways of treating type 2 diabetes currently are being investigated. Amylin antagonists recently have been proposed as a novel treatment to reverse the deleterious effects of excessive amylin concentrations. The gastrointestinal hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 may also prove useful in treating diabetic cats, because of its stimulatory effect on insulin secretion and synthesis, and the absence of significant hypoglycemic effect. PMID:7660530

Lutz, T A; Rand, J S

1995-05-01

373

Help Prevent Diabetes with Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animated video segment adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, featuring American Indian characters, explains how children can help prevent diabetes through regular physical activity.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2011-07-01

374

The Charcot foot in diabetes.  

PubMed

The diabetic Charcot foot syndrome is a serious and potentially limb-threatening lower-extremity complication of diabetes. First described in 1883, this enigmatic condition continues to challenge even the most experienced practitioners. Now considered an inflammatory syndrome, the diabetic Charcot foot is characterized by varying degrees of bone and joint disorganization secondary to underlying neuropathy, trauma, and perturbations of bone metabolism. An international task force of experts was convened by the American Diabetes Association and the American Podiatric Medical Association in January 2011 to summarize available evidence on the pathophysiology, natural history, presentations, and treatment recommendations for this entity. PMID:21957276

Rogers, Lee C; Frykberg, Robert G; Armstrong, David G; Boulton, Andrew J M; Edmonds, Michael; Van, Georges Ha; Hartemann, Agnes; Game, Frances; Jeffcoate, William; Jirkovska, Alexandra; Jude, Edward; Morbach, Stephan; Morrison, William B; Pinzur, Michael; Pitocco, Dario; Sanders, Lee; Wukich, Dane K; Uccioli, Luigi

2011-01-01

375

The Charcot foot in diabetes.  

PubMed

The diabetic Charcot foot syndrome is a serious and potentially limb-threatening lower-extremity complication of diabetes. First described in 1883, this enigmatic condition continues to challenge even the most experienced practitioners. Now considered an inflammatory syndrome, the diabetic Charcot foot is characterized by varying degrees of bone and joint disorganization secondary to underlying neuropathy, trauma, and perturbations of bone metabolism. An international task force of experts was convened by the American Diabetes Association and the American Podiatric Medical Association in January 2011 to summarize available evidence on the pathophysiology, natural history, presentations, and treatment recommendations for this entity. PMID:21868781

Rogers, Lee C; Frykberg, Robert G; Armstrong, David G; Boulton, Andrew J M; Edmonds, Michael; Van, Georges Ha; Hartemann, Agnes; Game, Frances; Jeffcoate, William; Jirkovska, Alexandra; Jude, Edward; Morbach, Stephan; Morrison, William B; Pinzur, Michael; Pitocco, Dario; Sanders, Lee; Wukich, Dane K; Uccioli, Luigi

2011-09-01

376

Management of diabetes in pregnancy.  

PubMed

The link between diabetes and poor pregnancy outcomes is well established. As in the non-pregnant population, pregnant women with diabetes can experience profound effects on multiple maternal organ systems. In the fetus, morbidities arising from exposure to diabetes in utero include not only increased congenital anomalies, fetal overgrowth, and stillbirth, but metabolic abnormalities that appear to carry on into early life, adolescence, and beyond. This article emphasizes the newest guidelines for diabetes screening in pregnancy while reviewing their potential impact on maternal and neonatal complications that arise in the setting of hyperglycemia in pregnancy. PMID:22139557

Ballas, Jerasimos; Moore, Thomas R; Ramos, Gladys A

2012-02-01

377

Gallbladder function in diabetic patients  

SciTech Connect

Gallbladder emptying and filling was studied in eight diabetic and six normal control patients. None of the patients had gallstones. Cholescintigraphy was performed using (/sup 99m/Tc)disofenin, and gallbladder emptying was studied using a 45-min i.v. infusion of the octapeptide of cholecystokinin (OP-CCK) 20 ng/kg X hr. The peak filling rate was greater in diabetic than in normal subjects; however, emptying of the gallbladder in response to OP-CCK was significantly less in the diabetic subjects (51.6 +/- 10.4% compared with 77.2 +/- 4.9%). When the diabetic group was subdivided into obese and nonobese diabetics, the obese diabetics had a much lower percentage of emptying than the nonobese diabetics (30.0 +/- 10.4% compared with 73.1 +/- 9.3%). These findings suggest that obese diabetics may have impaired emptying of the gallbladder even in the absence of gallstones. The more rapid rate of gallbladder filling in obesity may indicate hypotonicity of the gallbladder. The combination of these abnormalities may predispose the obese diabetic to the development of gallstones.

Shreiner, D.P.; Sarva, R.P.; Van Thiel, D.; Yingvorapant, N.

1986-03-01

378

The Charcot Foot in Diabetes  

PubMed Central

The diabetic Charcot foot syndrome is a serious and potentially limb-threatening lower-extremity complication of diabetes. First described in 1883, this enigmatic condition continues to challenge even the most experienced practitioners. Now considered an inflammatory syndrome, the diabetic Charcot foot is characterized by varying degrees of bone and joint disorganization secondary to underlying neuropathy, trauma, and perturbations of bone metabolism. An international task force of experts was convened by the American Diabetes Association and the American Podiatric Medical Association in January 2011 to summarize available evidence on the pathophysiology, natural history, presentations, and treatment recommendations for this entity. PMID:21868781

Rogers, Lee C.; Frykberg, Robert G.; Armstrong, David G.; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Edmonds, Michael; Van, Georges Ha; Hartemann, Agnes; Game, Frances; Jeffcoate, William; Jirkovska, Alexandra; Jude, Edward; Morbach, Stephan; Morrison, William B.; Pinzur, Michael; Pitocco, Dario; Sanders, Lee; Wukich, Dane K.; Uccioli, Luigi

2011-01-01

379

Epidemiology, Mechanisms and Management of Diabetic Gastroparesis  

PubMed Central

Background Recent evidence of the significant impact of gastroparesis on morbidity and mortality mandates optimized management of this condition. Gastroparesis affects nutritional state and, in diabetics, it also has deleterious effects on glycemic control and secondary effects on organs that lead to increased mortality. First-line treatment includes restoration of nutrition and medications (prokinetic and antiemetic). Aim To review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, impact, natural history, time trends and treatment of gastroparesis with particular focus on diabetic gastroparesis. Methods The pros and cons of current treatment options including metoclopramide are discussed. Second-line approaches include surgery, venting gastrostomy or jejunostomy, and gastric electrical stimulation; most of these treatments are based on open-label treatment trials. Results/Conclusions In the future, drugs that target the underlying defects and new prokinetics such as newer 5-HT4 agonists (which appear to be devoid of cardiac or vascular effects), ghrelin agonists, new approaches to pacing the stomach, and stem cell therapies may bring more effective treatments to ameliorate the management of patients with gastroparesis. PMID:20951838

Camilleri, Michael; Bharucha, Adil E.; Farrugia, Gianrico

2010-01-01

380

DIABETES MELLITUS COMO FACTOR DE RIESGO DE DEMENCIA EN LA POBLACIN ADULTA MAYOR MEXICANA  

PubMed Central

Introduccion La diabetes mellitus y las demencias constituyen dos problemas crecientes de salud entre la poblacin adulta mayor del mundo y en particular de los paises en desarrollo. Hacen falta estudios longitudinales sobre el papel de la diabetes como factor de riesgo para demencia. Objetivo Determinar el riesgo de demencia en sujetos Mexicanos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Materiales y Metodos Los sujetos diabticos libres de demencia pertenecientes al Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en Mxico fueron evaluados a los dos aos de la lnea de base. Se estudi el papel de los factores sociodemogrficos, de otras comorbilidades y del tipo de tratamiento en la conversin a demencia. Resultados Durante la lnea de base 749 sujetos (13.8%) tuvieron diabetes. El riesgo de desarrollar demencia en estos individuos fue el doble (RR, 2.08 IC 95%, 1.592.73). Se encontr un riesgo mayor en individuos de 80 aos y ms (RR 2.44 IC 95%, 1.464.08), en los hombres (RR, 2.25 IC 95%, 1.463.49) y en sujetos con nivel educativo menor de 7 aos. El estar bajo tratamiento con insulina increment el riesgo de demencia (RR, 2.83, IC 95%, 1.585.06). Las otras comorbilidades que aumentaron el riesgo de demencia en los pacientes diabticos fueron la hipertensin (RR, 2.75, IC 95%, 1.864.06) y la depresin (RR, 3.78, 95% IC 2.376.04). Conclusin Los sujetos con diabetes mellitus tienen un riesgo mayor de desarrollar demencia, La baja escolaridad y otras comorbilidades altamente prevalentes en la poblacin Mexicana contribuyen a la asociacin diabetes-demencia. PMID:21948010

Silvia, Meja-Arango; Clemente, y Ziga-Gil

2012-01-01

381

Truco Con Agua!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

En esta actividad los aprendices aprendern un truco de magia donde la magia es la presin del aire. Los participantes tomarn un vaso de agua medio lleno y lo taparn con un pedazo de plstico o cartn. Sosteniendo la tarjeta contra el vaso, lo voltearn boca abajo y cuando quiten la mano debajo del vaso, abracadabra! no se caer el agua. En la tira cmica, Mateo explica a los aprendices que la presin que hace el aire en todas las direcciones es la que sostiene la tarjeta.

Lawrence Hall of Science

2009-01-01

382

Entrevista con Enrique Buenaventura  

E-print Network

dramaturgia prctica grupai y su extensa labor docente, han ido resultando en un considerable y ponderado corpus terico sobre la ntima relacin del discurso teatral y la historia, especialmente esa historia truncada, manipu lada y camuflada por poderosos... mucho ms. Esta manera suya de actuar hizo que todo el mundo se metiera en la guerra y de una manera muy decidida. Entonces se empez a producir la desmoralizacin de la Guardia. Como si hubieran ido demasiado lejos con la represin y la matanza. S...

Dí ez, Luys A.

1981-04-01

383

Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Autonomic neuropathy, once considered to be the Cinderella of diabetes complications, has come of age. The autonomic nervous system innervates the entire human body, and is involved in the regulation of every single organ in the body. Thus, perturbations in autonomic function account for everything from abnormalities in pupillary function to gastroparesis, intestinal dysmotility, diabetic diarrhea, genitourinary dysfunction, amongst others. "Know autonomic function and one knows the whole of medicine!" It is now becoming apparent that before the advent of severe pathological damage to the autonomic nervous system there may be an imbalance between the two major arms, namely the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers that innervate the heart and blood vessels, resulting in abnormalities in heart rate control and vascular dynamics. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) has been linked to resting tachycardia, postural hypotension, orthostatic bradycardia and orthostatic tachycardia (POTTS), exercise intolerance, decreased hypoxia-induced respiratory drive, loss of baroreceptor sensitivity, enhanced intraoperative or perioperative cardiovascular lability, increased incidence of asymptomatic ischemia, myocardial infarction, and decreased rate of survival after myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. Autonomic dysfunction can affect daily activities of individuals with diabetes and may invoke potentially life-threatening outcomes. Intensification of glycemic control in the presence of autonomic dysfunction (more so if combined with peripheral neuropathy) increases the likelihood of sudden death and is a caveat for aggressive glycemic control. Advances in technology, built on decades of research and clinical testing, now make it possible to objectively identify early stages of CAN with the use of careful measurement of time and frequency domain analyses of autonomic function. Fifteen studies using different end points report prevalence rates of 1% to 90%. CAN may be present at diagnosis, and prevalence increases with age, duration of diabetes, obesity, smoking, and poor glycemic control. CAN also cosegregates with distal symmetric polyneuropathy, microangiopathy, and macroangiopathy. It now appears that autonomic imbalance may precede the development of the inflammatory cascade in type 2 diabetes and there is a role for central loss of dopaminergic restraint on sympathetic overactivity. Restoration of dopaminergic tone suppresses the sympathetic dominance and reduces cardiovascular events and mortality by close to 50%. Cinderella's slipper can now be worn! PMID:24095132

Vinik, Aaron I; Erbas, Tomris

2013-01-01

384

Influence of menopause on diabetes and diabetes risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many postmenopausal women live with diabetes mellitus; however, little information is available about how the changes that occur around the time of menopause might uniquely affect management of diabetes mellitus in this population. Although the weight gain that commonly occurs during the menopausal transition is largely attributable to aging rather than the transition itself, changes in body composition have been

Emily D. Szmuilowicz; Cynthia A. Stuenkel; Ellen W. Seely

2009-01-01

385

CUTANEOUS DISORDERS IN 500 DIABETIC PATIENTS ATTENDING DIABETIC CLINIC  

PubMed Central

Background: The metabolic complications and pathologic changes that occur in diabetes mellitus (DM) influence the occurrence of various dermatoses. Aim: To study the impact of control of diabetes on the pattern of cutaneous disorders. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of patients attending diabetic clinic in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 500 consecutive patients were studied. Detailed history, clinical examination and relevant investigations were done to diagnose diabetic complications and cutaneous disorders. Dermatoses with or without known pathogenesis were correlated with age, gender, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), duration of diabetes, and complications of DM. Statistical analysis was carried out using Student t test and Chi-square test with 5% confidence interval (P value 0.05). Results: Majority of patients had well-controlled (FPG<130 mg/ml, 60%) type 2 DM (98.8%). No statistically significant difference (P>0.05) between the patients with or without DM specific cutaneous disorders was noticed with reference to age and gender distribution, duration of DM and FPG. Signs of insulin resistance, acrochordon (26.2%), and acanthosis nigricans (5%) were common, followed by fungal (13.8%) and bacterial (6.8%) infections. Eruptive xanthoma (0.6%), diabetic foot (0.2%), diabetic bulla (0.4%), diabetic dermopathy (0.2%), generalized granuloma annulare (0.2%), and insulin reactions (6.2%) and lipodystrophy (14%) were also seen. Conclusion: Well-controlled diabetes decreases the prevalence of DM-specific cutaneous disorders associated with chronic hyperglycemia. It is necessary to have a dermatologist in the diabetic clinic for early detection of potentially grave or predisposing conditions. PMID:21716540

Ragunatha, Shivanna; Anitha, Bhaktavatsalam; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Devarmani, Shashidhar S

2011-01-01

386

Short term supplementation of dietary antioxidants selectively regulates the inflammatory responses during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetic foot ulcers are serious complications for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlines the treatment of these diabetic complications remains unclear. We hypothesized that dietary antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, combined either with vitamin E or with vitamin E and NAC, improves delayed wound healing through modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Mice were divided into 4 groups; CON (non-diabetic control mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet), DM (diabetic mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet), VCE (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C and 0.5% vitamin E supplemented diet), and Comb (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C, 0.5% vitamin E, and 2.5% NAC supplemented diet). After 10 days of dietary antioxidant supplementation, cutaneous full-thickness excisional wounds were performed, and the rate of wound closure was examined. TBARS as lipid peroxidation products and vitamin E levels were measured in the liver. Expression levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory response related proteins were measured in the cutaneous wound site. Results Dietary antioxidant supplementation improved blood glucose levels and wound closure rate and increased liver vitamin E, but not liver TBARS levels in the diabetic mice as compared to those of the CON. In addition, dietary antioxidant supplementation modulated the expression levels of pI?B?, HO-1, CuZnSOD, iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the diabetic mice. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that delayed wound healing is associated with an inflammatory response induced by hyperglycaemia, and suggests that dietary antioxidant supplementation may have beneficial effects on wound healing through selective modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. PMID:22088091

2011-01-01

387

Diabetic Retinopathy and Serum Lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between serum lipid levels and diabetic retinopathy has been investigated in many studies. Some studies show a positive relationship between serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels and retinal hard exudation. Other studies show serum triglyceride levels as being important in the progression of retinopathy. Certain other studies show no relationship between serum lipid levels and diabetic retinopathy. We

K T Yeo

388

Diabetic retinopathy: treatment and prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic eye disease is the major cause of blindness and vision loss among working-age people in developed countries. Microangiopathy and capillary occlusion underlie the pathogenesis of disease. While laser treatment is regarded as the standard therapy, intensive medical management of glycaemia and hypertension is also a priority in order to reduce the risk of diabetic retinopathy. Recent data have prompted

Paul M Dodson

2007-01-01

389

Sexual responsiveness in diabetic women  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummarySexual responsiveness in 82 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic women was compared with that of 47 normal control subjects, using an interview method for rating various aspects of sexual response, and attitude questionnaires. The diabetic women were questioned about symptoms of autonomic neuropathy, and cardiovascular autonomic nerve function tests were performed. There were differences between the two groups in the reports

G. Tyrer; J. M. Steel; D. J. Ewing; J. Bancroft; P. Warner; B. F. Clarke

1983-01-01

390

Spices and type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The paper is a review of current research on phytochemicals and how they may alleviate type 2 diabetes by improving insulin activity in the body. Design\\/methodology\\/approach Literature searches were conducted to find a link between common household spices and type 2 diabetes. Only common household spices were researched so that any link found between spices and type

Abigail Kelble

2005-01-01

391

The skin in diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

ConclusionsThe skin is one of the major organ systems involved in diabetes. Certain changes occur inevitably in this disease, and are undoubtedly the cause of many of the skin disorders seen in patients with diabetes. Other skin disorders are related to common disease processes, and still others are simply unexplained statistical observation.

M. J. D. Goodfield; L. G. Millard

1988-01-01

392

Zinc transport and diabetes risk.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies have previously identified variants in SLC30A8, encoding the zinc transporter ZnT8, associated with diabetes risk. A rare variant association study has now established the direction of effect, surprisingly showing that loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A8 are protective against diabetes. PMID:24675520

Pearson, Ewan

2014-04-01

393

Morgan: A Case of Diabetes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case teaches about the causes and effects of Type 2 diabetes by working through the various options available to a young Native American woman suffering from the disease. The case can be used in a variety of settings, including nutrition classrooms, herbal drug courses, physiology courses, medical schools, nursing schools, pharmacy schools, diabetes workshops, and even weight loss clinics.

Lisa Marie Rubin

2002-01-01

394

Psychosocial Predictors of Diabetes Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate whether a perception of responsibility for disease onset and self-blame might influence disease management in people with diabetes. Methods: Our survey assessed perceived responsibility for disease onset, self-blame, anger, social support, and disease management in a sample of 46 individuals with diabetes. Results: As

DePalma, Mary T.; Rollison, Julia; Camporese, Matthew

2011-01-01

395

Renal hypertrophy in experimental diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryRenal hypertrophy in rats with streptozotocin diabetes or after unilateral nephrectomy was studied by sterological techniques. After 4 days of diabetes total glomerular volume had increased by 30%, and after 47 days by 43%. Glomerular growth was more pronounced than whole kidney growth during the first 4 days, but subsequently whole kidney growth exceeded glomerular growth. In control rats

K. Seyer-Hansen; Joan Hansen; H. J. G. Gundersen

1980-01-01

396

Gastrointestinal complications of diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus affects virtually every organ system in the body and the degree of organ involvement depends on the duration and severity of the disease, and other co-morbidities. Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement can present with esophageal dysmotility, gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastroparesis, enteropathy, non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and glycogenic hepatopathy. Severity of GERD is inversely related to glycemic control and management is with prokinetics and proton pump inhibitors. Diabetic gastroparesis manifests as early satiety, bloating, vomiting, abdominal pain and erratic glycemic control. Gastric emptying scintigraphy is considered the gold standard test for diagnosis. Management includes dietary modifications, maintaining euglycemia, prokinetics, endoscopic and surgical treatments. Diabetic enteropathy is also common and management involves glycemic control and symptomatic measures. NAFLD is considered a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and treatment is mainly lifestyle measures, with diabetes and dyslipidemia management when coexistent. Glycogenic hepatopathy is a manifestation of poorly controlled type 1 diabetes and is managed by prompt insulin treatment. Though GI complications of diabetes are relatively common, awareness about its manifestations and treatment options are low among physicians. Optimal management of GI complications is important for appropriate metabolic control of diabetes and improvement in quality of life of the patient. This review is an update on the GI complications of diabetes, their pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation and management. PMID:23772273

Krishnan, Babu; Babu, Shithu; Walker, Jessica; Walker, Adrian B; Pappachan, Joseph M

2013-01-01

397

Chronic pancreatitis in African diabetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steatorrhea due to chronic pancreatitis was found in 23% of a consecutive series of 107 new African diabetics; 3 had pancreatic calcification. Of 16, 14 had definitely abnormal exocrine secretion on pancreatic function testing using secretin-pancreozymin stimulation. The morphology and function of the small intestine were normal by local standards. When compared with diabetics without steatorrhea they weighed less, their

A. C. B. Wicks; D. J. Clain

1975-01-01

398

COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTIONS IN DIABETIC POLYNEUROPATHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Introduction: The objective of our study was to examine cognitive status, short - term memory, delayed recall and the retention of visual information in diabetics with polyneuropathy and to establish the impacts of some risk factors on cognitive performance. Contingent and methods: We assessed 47 diabetic patients with polyneuropathy, using the Mini Mental State Examination, 10 words test, the

Mirena Valkova; Boyko Stamenov; D. Peychinska

2011-01-01

399

Diabetes risk: antioxidants or lifestyle?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The global prevalence of type-2 diabetes and its associated cardiovascular disease is increasing, possibly due to the present pandemic of obesity and overweight. It is projected that by the year 2025, more than 300 million people worldwide will have diabetes. In the United States, between the two NH...

400

Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Although physical activity (PA) is a key element in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, many with this chronic disease do not become or remain regularly active. High-quality studies establishing the importance of exercise and fitness in diabetes were lacking until recently, but it is now well established that participation in regular PA improves blood glucose control and can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes, along with positively affecting lipids, blood pressure, cardiovascular events, mortality, and quality of life. Structured interventions combining PA and modest weight loss have been shown to lower type 2 diabetes risk by up to 58% in high-risk populations. Most benefits of PA on diabetes management are realized through acute and chronic improvements in insulin action, accomplished with both aerobic and resistance training. The benefits of physical training are discussed, along with recommendations for varying activities, PA-associated blood glucose management, diabetes prevention, gestational diabetes mellitus, and safe and effective practices for PA with diabetes-related complications. PMID:21115758

Colberg, Sheri R.; Sigal, Ronald J.; Fernhall, Bo; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Blissmer, Bryan J.; Rubin, Richard R.; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Albright, Ann L.; Braun, Barry

2010-01-01

401

Diabetes as Experienced by Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored adolescents' perspective of their diabetic management by interviewing 12 adolescent counselors-in-training at a diabetic youth camp. Interviews were analyzed using the constant comparative method; themes were further grouped into three categories: psychosocial, developmental, and clinical. A striking finding throughout the data was the

Meldman, Linda S.

1987-01-01

402

[Prevention of diabetic foot].  

PubMed

Diabetic foot (DF) is the most common chronic complication, which depends mostly on the duration and successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. Based on epidemiological studies, it is estimated that 25% of persons with diabetes mellitus (PwDM) will develop the problems with DF during lifetime, while 5% do 15% will be treated for foot or leg amputation. The treatment is prolonged and expensive, while the results are uncertain. The changes in DF are influenced by different factors usually connected with the duration and regulation of diabetes mellitus. The first problems with DF are the result of misbalance between nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms on the one hand and the intensity of damaging factors against DF on the other hand. Diabetes mellitus is a state of chronic hyperglycemia, consisting of changes in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. As a consequence of the long duration of diabetes mellitus, late complications can develop. Foot is in its structure very complex, combined with many large and small bones connected with ligaments, directed by many small and large muscles, interconnected with many small and large blood vessels and nerves. Every of these structures can be changed by nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms with consequential DE Primary prevention of DF includes all measures involved in appropriate maintenance of nutrition, defense and reparatory mechanisms.First, it is necessary to identify the high-risk population for DF, in particular for macrovascular, microvascular and neural complications. The high-risk population of PwDM should be identified during regular examination and appropriate education should be performed. In this group, it is necessary to include more frequent and intensified empowerment for lifestyle changes, appropriate diet, regular exercise (including frequent breaks for short exercise during sedentary work), regular self control of body weight, quit smoking, and appropriate treatment of glycemia, lipid disorders (treatment with fenofibrate reduces the incidence of DF amputations (EBM-Ib/A), hypertension, hyperuricemia, neuropathy, and angiopathy (surgical reconstructive bypass) or endovascular (percutaneous transluminar angioplasty). In the low-risk group of PwDM, no particular results can be achieved, in contrast to the high-risk groups of PwDM where patient and professional education has shown significant achievement (EBM-IV/C). In secondary prevention of DF, it is necessary to perform patient and professional education how to avoid most of external influences for DE Patient education should include all topics from primary prevention, danger of neural analgesia (no cooling or warming the foot), careful selection of shoes, daily observation of foot, early detection all foot changes or small wounds, daily hygiene of foot skin, which has to be clean and moist, regular self measurements of skin temperature between the two feet (EBM-Ib/A), prevention of self treatment of foot deformities, changing wrong habits (walking footless), medical consultation for even small foot changes (EBM-Ib/A) and consultation by multidisciplinary team (EBM-IIb/B). Tertiary DF prevention includes ulcer treatment, prevention of amputation and level of amputation. In spite of the primary and secondary prevention measures, DF ulcers develop very often. Because of different etiologic reasons as well as different principles of treatment which are at the same time prevention of the level of amputation, the approach to PwDF has to be multidisciplinary. A high place in the treatment of DF ulcers, especially neuropathic ulcers, have the off-loading principles (EBM-Ib/A), even instead of surgical treatment (EBM-Ib/A). Necrectomy, taking samples for analysis from the deep of ulcer, together with x-ray diagnostics (in particular NMR), the size of the changes can be detected, together with appropriate antibiotic use and indication for major surgical treatment. The patient has to be instructed to the involved DF with off-loading (EBM-IIb/A). Negative pressure wound therapy can accelerate th

Metelko, Zeljko; Brkljaci? Crkvenci?, Neva

2013-10-01

403

The diabetic patient in Ramadan  

PubMed Central

During the month of Ramadan, all healthy, adult Muslims are required to fast from dawn to sunset. Fasting during Ramadan involves abstaining from food, water, beverages, smoking, oral drugs, and sexual intercourse. Although the Quran exempts chronically ill from fasting, many Muslims with diabetes still fast during Ramadan. Patients with diabetes who fast during the month of Ramadan can have acute complications. The risk of complications in fasting individuals with diabetes increases with longer periods of fasting. All patients with diabetes who wish to fast during Ramadan should be prepared by undergoing a medical assessment and engaging in a structured education program to undertake the fast as safely as possible. Although some guidelines do exist, there is an overwhelming need for better designed clinical trials which could provide us with evidence-based information and guidance in the management of patients with diabetes fasting Ramadan. PMID:24761380

Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan; Aljabri, Khalid S.

2014-01-01

404

Pathogenesis of Painful Diabetic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of diabetes is rising globally and, as a result, its associated complications are also rising. Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a well-known complication of diabetes and the most common cause of all neuropathic pain. About one-third of all diabetes patients suffer from PDN. It has a huge effect on a person's daily life, both physically and mentally. Despite huge advances in diabetes and neurology, the exact mechanism of pain causation in PDN is still not clear. The origin of pain could be in the peripheral nerves of the central nervous system. In this review, we discuss various possible mechanisms of the pathogenesis of pain in PDN. We discuss the role of hyperglycaemia in altering the physiology of peripheral nerves. We also describe central mechanisms of pain. PMID:24891949

Rajbhandari, Satyan

2014-01-01

405

Diabetes mellitus and electrolyte disorders  

PubMed Central

Diabetic patients frequently develop a constellation of electrolyte disorders. These disturbances are particularly common in decompensated diabetics, especially in the context of diabetic ketoacidosis or nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. These patients are markedly potassium-, magnesium- and phosphate-depleted. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is linked to both hypo- and hyper-natremia reflecting the coexistence of hyperglycemia-related mechanisms, which tend to change serum sodium to opposite directions. The most important causal factor of chronic hyperkalemia in diabetic individuals is the syndrome of hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism. Impaired renal function, potassium-sparing drugs, hypertonicity and insulin deficiency are also involved in the development of hyperkalemia. This article provides an overview of the electrolyte disturbances occurring in DM and describes the underlying mechanisms. This insight should pave the way for pathophysiology-directed therapy, thus contributing to the avoidance of the several deleterious effects associated with electrolyte disorders and their treatment. PMID:25325058

Liamis, George; Liberopoulos, Evangelos; Barkas, Fotios; Elisaf, Moses

2014-01-01

406

Diabetes mellitus and electrolyte disorders.  

PubMed

Diabetic patients frequently develop a constellation of electrolyte disorders. These disturbances are particularly common in decompensated diabetics, especially in the context of diabetic ketoacidosis or nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. These patients are markedly potassium-, magnesium- and phosphate-depleted. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is linked to both hypo- and hyper-natremia reflecting the coexistence of hyperglycemia-related mechanisms, which tend to change serum sodium to opposite directions. The most important causal factor of chronic hyperkalemia in diabetic individuals is the syndrome of hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism. Impaired renal function, potassium-sparing drugs, hypertonicity and insulin deficiency are also involved in the development of hyperkalemia. This article provides an overview of the electrolyte disturbances occurring in DM and describes the underlying mechanisms. This insight should pave the way for pathophysiology-directed therapy, thus contributing to the avoidance of the several deleterious effects associated with electrolyte disorders and their treatment. PMID:25325058

Liamis, George; Liberopoulos, Evangelos; Barkas, Fotios; Elisaf, Moses

2014-10-16

407

Epidemiology of diabetes  

E-print Network

- lence in developing countries show even more marked increases, particularly in areas where populations are rapidly adopting Western lifestyles (Table 1).9 The increase in the prevalence of obesity in childhood has led to the appearance of type 2 diabetes... and processed meat13 and sugar-sweetened beverages,14 and reduced by intake of fruit and vegetables,15 some types of dairy products,16 and some overall dietary pat- terns.17 Novel strategies to use quantifiable nutritional bio- markers are paving the way...

Forouhi, Nita Gandhi; Wareham, Nicholas J.

2014-10-22

408

The Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes Support Group  

E-print Network

The Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes Support Group Our support group is dedicated to adults of all ages (16 years and older) with type 1 diabetes. Each month most our time will be for sharing and a professional from our diabetes center will present a short diabetes-related topic

Chapman, Michael S.

409

Learn about Diabetes You can learn how to take care of your diabetes and  

E-print Network

1 Learn about Diabetes You can learn how to take care of your diabetes and prevent some of the serious problems diabetes can cause. The more you know, the better you can manage your diabetes. Share this booklet with your family and friends so they will understand more about diabetes. Also make sure to ask

Rau, Don C.

410

What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that causes you to have high blood sugar.  

E-print Network

What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that causes you to have high blood sugar. DIABETES IS HIGH BLOOD SUGAR We all have sugar in our blood. When you have diabetes you have too much sugar in your blood muscles can then use sugar for fuel. Insulin keeps blood sugar in balance. #12; If you have diabetes

411

Tips for Teens with Diabetes: Dealing with the Ups and Downs of Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... and Downs of Diabetes Tips for Teens with Diabetes: Dealing With the Ups and Downs of Diabetes Download This Publication (NDEP-81) Want this item now? Download it here: Tips for Teens with Diabetes: Dealing With the Ups and Downs of Diabetes - ...

412

Association of the VEGF gene polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Diabetic microvascular complications are the major causes of morbidity and early mortality in diabetes. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent multifunctional cytokine which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular complications. We examined the possible association of the VEGF gene polymorphisms with diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods. Genotyping of

Monika Buraczynska; Piotr Ksiazek; Iwona Baranowicz-Gaszczyk; Lucyna Jozwiak

2007-01-01

413

Dietary Changes for Persons with Diabetes  

E-print Network

D. Dietary Changes for Persons with Diabetes #12;Reference Guide HANDOUT Working with Persons Who Have Diabetes Follow these guidelines to work with consumers who request nutrition information on preventing or treating diabetes. Without Written Prescriptions If a client with diabetes seeks assistance

414

with Diabetes Dining A Program For  

E-print Network

with Diabetes Dining A Program For People With Diabetes And Their Families Pre to anyone with diabetes, and their family members or caregivers. Classes will include demonstrations on how. There will be an opportunity to taste a variety of main dishes, side dishes, and desserts. The class seeks to improve diabetes

415

February 2014AZ1617 What is diabetes?  

E-print Network

February 2014AZ1617 What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that your blood glucose, also called get into the cells of your body for energy. People with diabetes don't make enough insulin or the body cells do not respond to insulin, causing glucose to build up in the blood. (See Figure: Diabetes

Sanderson, Mike

416

If I Had - Pre-Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... dl, you have diabetes. Another way of diagnosing diabetes is to have whats called a glucose tolerance test, in which you are given a volume of glucose to drink and a measurement is taken after 2 hours, and if the ... to be diabetes. Essentially diabetes is a metabolic condition which also ...

417

Protocol for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year, 82,000 limb amputations are performed in patients with diabetes mellitus. The majority of these amputations could be avoided by following strict protocols. The collective experience treating patients with neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers of 4 major diabetic foot programs in the United States and Europe were analyzed. The following protocol has been developed for patients with diabetic foot ulcers:

Harold Brem; Peter Sheehan; Andrew J. M Boulton

2004-01-01

418

Taking Care of Type 2 Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... eAG: below 154 mg/dL Taking Care of?Type 2 Diabetes American Diabetes Association? ? 1800DIABETES (3422383)? ? ... Inc. 10/13 Toolkit No. 16 What is type 2 diabetes? Everyones blood has some glucose (sugar) in it. ...

419

Molecular Mechanisms of Curcumin on Diabetes-Induced Endothelial Dysfunctions: Txnip, ICAM-1, and NOX2 Expressions  

PubMed Central

We aim to investigate the effects of curcumin on preventing diabetes-induced vascular inflammation in association with its actions on Txnip, ICAM-1, and NOX2 enzyme expressions. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (CON), diabetic (DM; streptozotocin (STZ), i.v. 55?mg/kg BW), control-treated with curcumin (CONCUR; 300?mg/kg BW), and diabetes treated with curcumin (DMCUR; 300?mg/kg BW). 12th week after STZ injection, iris blood perfusion, leukocyte adhesion, Txnip, p47phox, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined by using laser Doppler, intravital fluorescent confocal microscopy, Western Blot analysis, and TBAR assay, respectively. The iris blood perfusion of DM and DMCUR was decreased significantly compared to CON and CONCUR (P < 0.001). Plasma glucose and HbA1c of DM and DMCUR were increased significantly compared to CON and CONCUR (P < 0.001). Leukocyte adhesion, ICAM-1, p47phox expression, and MDA levels in DM were increased significantly compared to CON, CONCUR, and DMCUR (P < 0.05). Txnip expression in DM and DMCUR was significantly higher than CON and CONCUR (P < 0.05). From Pearson's analysis, the correlation between the plasma MDA level and the endothelial functions was significant. It suggested that curcumin could ameliorate diabetic vascular inflammation by decreasing ROS overproduction, reducing leukocyte-endothelium interaction, and inhibiting ICAM-1 and NOX2 expression. PMID:25054130

Wongeakin, Natchaya; Bhattarakosol, Parvapan; Patumraj, Suthiluk

2014-01-01

420

Diabetes and abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic evidence suggests that patients with diabetes may have a lower incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA); however, the link between diabetes and AAA development and expansion is unclear. The aim of this review is to analyze updated evidence to better understand the impact of diabetes on prevalence, incidence, clinical outcome, and expansion rate of AAA. A systematic review of literature published in the last 20 years using the PubMed and Cochrane databases was undertaken. Studies reporting appropriate data were identified and a meta-analysis performed using the generic inverse variance method. Sixty-four studies were identified. Methodological quality was "fair" in 16 and "good" in 44 studies according to a formal assessment checklist (Newcastle-Ottawa). In 17 large population prevalence studies there was a significant inverse association between diabetes and AAA: pooled odds ratio (OR) 0.80; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70-0.90 (p = .0009). An inverse association was also confirmed by pooled analysis of data from smaller prevalence studies on selected populations (OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.35-0.99; p = .05), while no significant results were provided by case-control studies. A significant lower pooled incidence of new AAA in diabetics was found over six prospective studies: OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.31-0.91; p = .03. Diabetic patients showed increased operative (30-day/in-hospital) mortality after AAA repair: pooled OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.10-1.44; p = .0008. The increased operative risk was more evident in studies with 30-day assessment. In the long-term, diabetics showed lower survival rates at 2-5 years, while there was general evidence of lower growth rates of small AAA in patients with diabetes compared to non-diabetics. There is currently evidence to support an inverse relationship between diabetes and AAA development and enlargement, even though fair methodological quality or unclear risk of bias in many available studies decreases the strength of the finding. At the same time, operative and long-term survival is lower in diabetic patients, suggesting increased cardiovascular burden. The higher mortality in diabetics raises the question as to whether AAA repair should be individualized in selected diabetic populations at higher AAA rupture risk. PMID:24447529

De Rango, P; Farchioni, L; Fiorucci, B; Lenti, M

2014-03-01

421

Diabetic Eye Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... diabtica del ojo Ojo con su Visin! Glosario Recursos adicionales de informacin El glaucoma El glaucoma Cunto sabe sobre el glaucoma? Lo que usted debe saber Protegiendo su visin del glaucoma Corre la voz! Glosario Recursos Baja Visin Baja Visin Cmo s si tengo ...

422

Diabetes Risk Factors, Diabetes Risk Algorithms, and the Prediction of Future Frailty: the Whitehall II Prospective Cohort Study  

E-print Network

1 Diabetes Risk Factors, Diabetes Risk Algorithms, and the Prediction of Future Frailty.ac.uk Running head Diabetes risk scores and frailty Key Words Ageing, frailty, diabetes risk scores, diabetes;2 Abstract Objective: To examine whether established diabetes risk factors and diabetes risk algorithms

Boyer, Edmond

423

Metabolic Dysfunction in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is defined as cardiac disease independent of vascular complications during diabetes. The number of new cases of DCM is rising at epidemic rates in proportion to newly diagnosed cases of diabetes mellitus (DM) throughout the world. DCM is a heart failure syndrome found in diabetic patients that is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced diastolic function, with or without concurrent systolic dysfunction, occurring in the absence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. DCM and other diabetic complications are caused in part by elevations in blood glucose and lipids, characteristic of DM. Although there are pathological consequences to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, the combination of the two metabolic abnormalities potentiates the severity of diabetic complications. A natural competition exists between glucose and fatty acid metabolism in the heart that is regulated by allosteric and feedback control and transcriptional modulation of key limiting enzymes. Inhibition of these glycolytic enzymes not only controls flux of substrate through the glycolytic pathway, but also leads to the diversion of glycolytic intermediate substrate through pathological pathways, which mediate the onset of diabetic complications. The present review describes the limiting steps involved in the development of these pathological pathways and the factors involved in the regulation of these limiting steps. Additionally, therapeutic options with demonstrated or postulated effects on DCM are described. PMID:23443849

Isfort, Michael; Stevens, Sarah C.W.; Schaffer, Stephen; Jong, Chian Ju; Wold, Loren E.

2013-01-01

424

Pomegranate and type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, various studies have linked pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn), a fruit native to the Middle East, with type 2 diabetes prevention and treatment. This review focuses on current laboratory and clinical research related to the effects of pomegranate fractions (peels, flowers, and seeds) and some of their active components on biochemical and metabolic variables associated with the pathologic markers of type 2 diabetes. This review systematically presents findings from cell culture and animal studies as well as clinical human research. One key mechanism by which pomegranate fractions affect the type 2 diabetic condition is by reducing oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. This reduction may occur by directly neutralizing the generated reactive oxygen species, increasing certain antioxidant enzyme activities, inducing metal chelation activity, reducing resistin formation, and inhibiting or activating certain transcriptional factors, such as nuclear factor ?B and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?. Fasting blood glucose levels were decreased significantly by punicic acid, methanolic seed extract, and pomegranate peel extract. Known compounds in pomegranate, such as punicalagin and ellagic, gallic, oleanolic, ursolic, and uallic acids, have been identified as having anti-diabetic actions. Furthermore, the juice sugar fraction was found to have unique antioxidant polyphenols (tannins and anthocyanins), which could be beneficial to control conditions in type 2 diabetes. These findings provide evidence for the anti-diabetic activity of pomegranate fruit; however, before pomegranate or any of its extracts can be medically recommended for the management of type 2 diabetes, controlled, clinical studies, are needed. PMID:23684435

Banihani, Saleem; Swedan, Samer; Alguraan, Ziyad

2013-05-01

425

Management of ischemic diabetic foot.  

PubMed

Diabetic foot pathology represent the more disabling complication of diabetes. More the 1 million of diabetes patients undergo a lower limb amputation per year; 85% of these amputation are preceded by un ulcer that can be avoided by a prevention program. Critical limb ischemia (CLI), the only independent cause of major amputation in diabetic population, can be correctly treated when an early diagnosis is made. Both endoluminal and surgical revascularization procedures can be applied in diabetes with high rate of success when performed by skilled operator. Infection of diabetic foot, in particular in patients suffering from peripheral artery disease (PVD), may rapidly evolves in severe local or systemic infection putting the patient at high risk of major amputation or death. Together with an early diagnosis of infection and ischemia it is mandatory to apply a correct medical and surgical treatment protocol with the aim to control infection and to improve blood perfusion to the foot. In case of infection surgical procedure should be applied first while revascularization procedure will follow soonest. Antibiotic therapy should be chosen considering different local biological pattern and different type of infection. Reconstructive surgery, the last step in treatment of any diabetic foot lesion, must obtain a functional residual foot or a stump that will allow the patient to go back walking soonest with residual good walking capacity. PMID:24126511

Caravaggi, C; Ferraresi, R; Bassetti, M; Sganzaroli, A B; Galenda, P; Fattori, S; De Prisco, R; Simonetti, D; Bona, F

2013-12-01

426

Diabetic education, special consideration of oriental patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The important of patient education program in the management of diabetes has been widely recognized. We studied to find out\\u000a in general what the patients and their parents know about diabetes and their self-care by using a questionnaire. Then, the\\u000a diabetic education was given by one-to-one basis to every patient. Thirty four insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus attended\\u000a the diabetic the clinic

Chanika Tuchinda; Nirun Vanaprapa; Suthida Nirapik; Ranoo Wongarn; Sathit Vannasaeng

1989-01-01

427

Births Rate of Maternal Diabetes 1  

E-print Network

System (APORS) with one or more birth defects are significantly more likely to have diabetic mothers than other Illinois newborns (p diabetes.] The birth certificate also contains a field that indicates whether the mother had diabetes during pregnancy, but does not distinguish between gestational vs. pre-existing diabetes. Table 1. The rate (per 10,000 live births) of maternal diabetes among different populations of Illinois children, 1994-1998

unknown authors

428

Preconditioning the diabetic human myocardium  

PubMed Central

Abstract Our objective was to determine whether human diabetic myocardium is amenable to the cardioprotective actions of ischaemic preconditioning. Human right atrial appendages were harvested from diabetic and non-diabetic patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The atrial trabeculae were isolated and subjected to 90 min. of hypoxia followed by 120 min. of reoxygenation, following which the percentage recovery of baseline contractile function was determined. The atrial trabeculae were randomized to: (i) controls (groups 1 and 3); (ii) standard hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) protocol consisting of 4 min. of hypoxia/16 min. of reoxygenation before the 90 min. index hypoxic period (groups 2 and 4); (iii) Prolonged HPC protocol consisting of: 7 min. of hypoxia /16 min. of reoxygenation before the index hypoxic period (group 5). In addition, basal levels of Akt phosphorylation were determined in right atrial appendages harvested from non-diabetic patients and diabetic patients to determine whether PI3K-Akt signalling is down-regulated in the diabetic heart. Standard HPC improved baseline contractile function in human atrial trabeculae harvested from non-diabetic patients (52.4 3.8% with HPC versus 30.0 3.2% in control: P= 0.001; N= 6/group), but not in atrial trabeculae isolated from diabetic patients (22.6 3.3% with HPC versus 28.5 1.9% in control: P > 0.05; N= 6/group). However, the prolonged HPC protocol did improve baseline contractile function in atrial trabeculae harvested from diabetic patients (42.0 2.4% with HPC versus 28.5 1.9% in control: P= 0.001; N? 6/group). Western blot analysis demonstrated lower levels of phosphorylated Akt in diabetic myocardium compared to non-diabetic myocardium (0.13 0.03 arbitrary units versus 0.39 0.11 arbitrary units: P= 0.047; N? 4/group). From the data obtained it appears that the threshold for preconditioning the diabetic myocardium is elevated which may be related to the down-regulation of the PI3K-Akt pathway. PMID:19508386

Sivaraman, Vivek; Hausenloy, Derek J; Wynne, Abigail M; Yellon, Derek M

2010-01-01

429

Diabetes Education in Tribal Schools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations are in the midst of a Type 2 diabetes epidemic. To address this crisis, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) began funding a national initiative titled "Diabetes Education in Tribal Schools (DETS) K-12 Curriculum Project." The lesson plans are structured in the 5E learning cycle and instructional model--Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate because it supports a constructivist teaching strategy and is based on how student learning occurs.

Carolee Dodge Francis

2006-03-01

430

Bladder Dysfunction in Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Diabetic cystopathy is a well-recognized complication of diabetes mellitus, which usually develops in middle-aged or elderly patients with long-standing and poorly controlled disease. It may have broad spectrum clinical presentations. Patients may be asymptomatic, or have a wide variety of voiding complaints from overactive bladder and urge incontinence to decreased bladder sensation and overflow incontinence. This review focuses on pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for urologic complications of diabetes and emphasizing on recent developments in our understanding of this condition. We also tried to shed some light on therapeutic modalities like behavioral, pharmacological, and surgical approaches. PMID:21833175

Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

2010-01-01

431

[A diabetes care team--role of diabetes specialists and certified diabetes educator].  

PubMed

In recent decades, diabetes care has undergone fundamental changes that have influenced the manner in which any type of diabetic patients are managed: (i) acceptance of tight metabolic control; (ii) recognition of primary care management; (iii) focus on quality improvement: and (iv) emphasis on cost containment. Then, the role of a diabetes care team has been recognized and acted upon to a far greater extent than before. Treatment of diabetes consists of two principal components: metabolic control and intervention to prevent complications. The former is a part of the primary health care scheme in which the indication for education, as well as care and treatment, frequently depend of the data produced by patients; the latter pertaining to hospital-based care. In 2001 in Japan, the number of the diabetes specialists is about 2500, and the certified diabetes educators certified are about 4300. However, the accessibility of the patients to the specialists still remains poor. Nurses, dietitians, medical technologists, pharmacists and physical therapists are eligible to take the examination of certified diabetes educator. They must be skilled at identifying the background of patients to improve care and health through life-style modification. Education for care and treatment consists of medical and educational models. In both of these, here are specific processes of diagnosis and therapy: along with medical diagnosis and treatment, through physical and laboratory examinations, assessment of the patient for indication of a curriculum by test of knowledge, skill and attitude for adequate educational therapy is necessary. PMID:11797390

Matsuoka, K

2001-12-01

432

Galaxias australes con ncleo doble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se estudia una muestra de galaxias australes con ncleo doble a partir de una bsqueda extensiva en la literatura. Se analizan las caractersticas morfolgicas, fotomtricas y espectroscpicas de la muestra. Para algunas galaxias se han realizado observaciones con el espectrgrafo multifuncin (EMF) de la Estacin Astrofsica de Bosque Alegre a partir de las cuales se determinaron parmetros cinemticos.

Gimeno, G.; Daz, R.; Carranza, G.

433

Protein O-GlcNAcylation in diabetes and diabetic complications  

PubMed Central

The post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues of proteins by O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is highly ubiquitous, dynamic and inducible. Protein O-GlcNAcylation serves as a key regulator of critical biological processes including transcription, translation, proteasomal degradation, signal transduction and apoptosis. Increased O-GlcNAcylation is directly linked to insulin resistance and to hyperglycemia-induced glucose toxicity, two hallmarks of diabetes and diabetic complications. In this review, we briefly summarize what is known about protein O-GlcNAcylation and nutrient metabolism, as well as discuss the commonly used tools to probe changes of O-GlcNAcylation in cultured cells and in animal models. We then focus on some key proteins modified by O-GlcNAc, which play crucial roles in the etiology and progression of diabetes and diabetic complications. Proteomic approaches are also highlighted to provide a system view of protein O-GlcNAcylation. Finally, we discuss how aberrant O-GlcNAcylation on certain proteins may be exploited to develop methods for the early diagnosis of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. PMID:23992419

Ma, Junfeng; Hart, Gerald W

2014-01-01

434

Diabetes education improves depressive state in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The prevalence of depression is relatively high in individuals with diabetes. However, screening and monitoring of depressive state in patients with diabetes is still neglected in developing countries and the treatment of diabetes-related depression is rarely performed in these countries. In this study, our aim was to study the role of diabetes education in the improvement of depressive state in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The Dutch version of the center for epidemiological studies depression scale (CES-D scale) and the problem areas in diabetes (PAID) questionnaire were used to assess depression and diabetes-specific emotional distress in 1200 newly diagnosed male adult patients with type 2 diabetes before and after a two-week diabetes education by professionally trained nurses. Pearson correlation and regression analysis were used to analyze the factors related to depression in patients with type 2 diabetes. Results: The incidence of depression in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes was 28%, and the rate of diabetes-specific emotional distress was 65.5%. High education levels, low income were correlated to depression in individuals with diabetes. After two weeks of diabetes education, the incidence of depression and diabetes-specific emotional distress decreased significantly to 20.5% (P < 0.05) and 11% (P < 0.001), respectively. Conclusions: The incidence of depression, especially diabetes-specific emotional distress, was relatively high in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes. The depression state could be improved by diabetes education. PMID:24353709

Chen, Bin; Zhang, Xiyao; Xu, Xiuping; Lv, Xiaofeng; Yao, Lu; Huang, Xu; Guo, Xueying; Liu, Baozhu; Li, Qiang; Cui, Can

2013-01-01

435

Genetics of diabetic retinopathy.  

PubMed

Multiple studies have shown that genetic factors may play an important role in determining an individual's risk for the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and progression to proliferative DR. However, consistent and definitive genetic associations with DR across broad populations have been not been established. Numerous genes have been studied for their association with DR and the results of these investigations have most specifically pointed to three specific genes that are likely involved in DR development and progression. The gene coding for vascular endothelial growth factor, aldose reductase, and the receptor for advanced glycation end products have been extensively evaluated, and specific polymorphisms of these genes have been suggested to potentially increase the risk of DR development. In this paper, we have reviewed the published literature on the genetics of DR and the potential implications for DR development and progression. PMID:24138043

Omar, Ahmed F; Silva, Paolo S; Sun, Jennifer K

2013-01-01

436

Gestational diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common medical complication of pregnancy. It is associated with maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. Maintaining adequate blood glucose levels in GDM reduces morbidity for both mother and baby. There is a lack of uniform strategies for screening and diagnosing GDM globally. This review covers the latest update in the diagnosis and management of GDM. The initial treatment of GDM consists of diet and exercise. If these measures fail to achieve glycemic goals, insulin should be initiated. Insulin analogs are more physiological than human insulin, and are associated with less risk of hypoglycemia, and may provide better glycemic control. Insulin lispro, aspart, and detemir are approved to be used in pregnancy. Insulin glargine is not approved in pregnancy, but the existing studies did not show any contraindications. The use of oral hypoglycemic agents; glyburide and metformin seems to be safe and effective in pregnancy. PMID:25828275

Alfadhli, Eman M

2015-04-01

437

La salud en personas con discapacidad intelectual en Espaa: estudio europeo POMONA-II  

PubMed Central

Introduccin Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patrn diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atencin sanitaria entre personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) y poblacin general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas con DI y compararlos con datos de poblacin general. Pacientes y mtodos Se utiliz el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos con DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon segn el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utiliz la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos con los de la poblacin general. Resultados La muestra con DI present 25 veces ms casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% present dolor bucal, y existi una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patologas como la diabetes, la hipertensin, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. Tambin presentaron una menor participacin en programas de prevencin y promocin de la salud, un mayor nmero de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patrn de salud de las personas con DI difiere del de la poblacin general, y stas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promocin de salud y de formacin profesional especficamente diseados para la atencin de personas con DI, as como la implementacin de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta poblacin. PMID:21948011

Martnez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Gutirrez-Colosa, Menca Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ramn; Martorell, Almudena; Gonzlez-Gordn, Rodrigo G.; Mrida-Gutirrez, M. Reyes; ngel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodrguez, Alicia; Garca-Gutirrez, Juan C.; Prez-Vicente, Amado; Garca-Ibez, Jos; Aguilera-Ins, Francisco

2011-01-01

438

Planificacin Neuroquirrgica con Software Osirix  

PubMed Central

Introduccin: La individualidad anatmica es clave para reducir el trauma quirrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimgenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatmica, permitiendo planificar la intervencin quirrgica. Con este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia con el software Osirix. Descripcin de la tcnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente con meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en rea premotora; Caso 2: Paciente con macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por va transeptoesfenoidal en otra institucin con una reseccin parcial; Caso 3: Paciente con lesiones en pednculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realiz la planificacin prequirrgica con el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imgenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatmicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusin: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusin y reconstruccin en 3D de imgenes, analizar la anatoma individual del paciente y planificar de forma rpida, simple, segura y econmica cirugas de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor con las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permiti comprender la anatoma post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscpico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposicin, logrando la reseccin tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permiti obtener las coordenadas estereotxicas y trayectoria de una lesin sin representacin tomogrfica. Conclusin: En casos de no contar con costosos sistemas de neuronavegacin o estereotxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la ciruga, con el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617

Jaimovich, Sebastin Gastn; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis

2014-01-01

439

Peptides and methods against diabetes  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to methods of preventing or reducing the severity of diabetes. In one embodiment, the method involves administering to the individual a peptide having substantially the sequence of a on-conserved region sequence of a T cell receptor present on the surface of T cells mediating diabetes or a fragment thereof, wherein the peptide or fragment is capable of causing an effect on the immune system to regulate the T cells. In particular, the T cell receptor has the V.beta. regional V.beta.6 or V.beta.14. In another embodiment, the method involves gene therapy. The invention also relates to methods of diagnosing diabetes by determining the presence of diabetes predominant T cell receptors.

Albertini, Richard J. (Underhill Center, VT); Falta, Michael T. (Hinesburg, VT)

2000-01-01

440

Chromatin modifications associated with diabetes.  

PubMed

Accelerated rates of vascular complications are associated with diabetes mellitus. Environmental factors including hyperglycaemia contribute to the progression of diabetic complications. Epidemiological and experimental animal studies identified poor glycaemic control as a major contributor to the development of complications. These studies suggest that early exposure to hyperglycaemia can instigate the development of complications that present later in the progression of the disease, despite improved glycaemic control. Recent experiments reveal a striking commonality associated with gene-activating hyperglycaemic events and chromatin modification. The best characterised to date are associated with the chemical changes of amino-terminal tails of histone H3. Enzymes that write specified histone tail modifications are not well understood in models of hyperglycaemia and metabolic memory as well as human diabetes. The best-characterised enzyme is the lysine specific Set7 methyltransferase. The contribution of Set7 to the aetiology of diabetic complications may extend to other transcriptional events through methylation of non-histone substrates. PMID:22639343

Keating, Samuel T; El-Osta, Assam

2012-08-01

441

Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test  

MedlinePLUS

... A A Listen En Espaol Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Download a paper version of the Risk ... Here - 2015-march-mha.html Are You at Risk? Getting Healthy Starts Here Receive your personalized action ...

442

Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Incontinence Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults ... their disease or condition in conjunction with other health issues. As older adults live longer, they may ...

443

New treatments for diabetic retinopathy.  

PubMed

Diabetic retinopathy is the major cause of vision loss in middle-aged adults. Alteration of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) is the hallmark of diabetic retinopathy and, subsequently, hypoxia may result in retinal neovascularization. Tight control of systemic factors such as blood glucose, blood pressure and blood lipids is essential in the management of this disease. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important factors responsible for alteration of the BRB. The introduction of anti-VEGF agents has revolutionized the therapeutic strategies used in people with diabetic retinopathy, and the use of laser therapy has been modified. In the present article, we examine the clinical features and pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy and review the current status of new treatment recommendations for this disease, and also explore some possible future therapies. PMID:25160598

Das, A; Stroud, S; Mehta, A; Rangasamy, S

2015-03-01

444

Emergency Meal Planning for Diabetics  

MedlinePLUS

... low blood sugars. Avoid high potassium fruit juices (orange juice). THREE-DAY DIABETIC GROCERY LIST FOR EMERGENCIES ... sealed plastic container: applesauce, pears, peaches, pineapple, mandarin oranges, fruit cocktail 12 single-serve containers Apple or ...

445

Diabetes in Hispanics/Latinos  

MedlinePLUS

... puede usar para animar a las personas o grupos para que hagan ejercicio. Prevent Type 2 Diabetes. ... pacientes a que den pasos para controlar no slo sus niveles de glucosa (azcar) en la sangre, ...

446

Diabetic Complications and Amputation Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Diabetes-related Foot and Leg Problems Infections and ulcers (sores) that dont heal. An ulcer is ... may cause tissue death. What Your Foot and Ankle Surgeon Can Do Your foot and ankle surgeon ...

447

Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

448

Hoe ontstaat diabetes type 2?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bij het ontstaan van diabetes type 2 spelen twee factoren een belangrijke rol: de insulineproductie is niet voldoende n het\\u000a lichaam is ongevoelig voor de kleine hoeveelheid insuline die nog wel geproduceerd wordt.

P. G. H. Janssen; M. J. P. Avendonk

449

Metabolic Control and Diabetic Retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) identified important risk factors for progression to high risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) including retinopathy severity, decreased visual acuity, and high levels of hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c). Additional risk factors for progression to PDR are decreased hematocrit and increased se- rum lipids. The long-term benefit of improving glycemic control was evaluated by three large

Monica Rodriguez-Fontal; John B. Kerrison; D. Virgil Alfaro; Eric P. Jablon

2009-01-01

450

Bone scintigraphy in diabetic osteoarthropathy  

SciTech Connect

Bone scans of patients with diabetic osteoarthropathy of the ankle and foot were characterized by a combination of diffuse and focal increased uptake, similar to that seen with hyperemia and reactive new bone formation. Scintigraphy showed more extensive abnormalities than radiography, with the scan abnormalities sometimes preceding the radiographic changes. The clinical and scintigraphic appearance of osteoarthropathy may improve following strict diabetic control and non-weight-bearing.

Eymontt, M.J.; Alavi, A.; Dalinka, M.K.; Kyle, G.C.

1981-08-01

451

Weight Management in Diabetes Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are associated with a greater health risk for a number of conditions, including\\u000a insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coagulation abnormalities, inflammatory markers, and coronary\\u000a heart disease. Lifestyle changes can delay or prevent the development of type 2 diabetes in patients with obesity and IGT.\\u000a The risks improve with weight loss and increased physical

F. Xavier Pi-Sunyer

452

Angiopoietin concentrations in diabetic retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/aim: Angiopoietin 1 and 2 interact with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to promote angiogenesis in animal and in vitro models. Although VEGF concentrations are elevated, there is little information regarding angiopoietin concentration in the vitreous of patients with diabetic retinopathy.Methods: Angiopoietin concentrations were measured by luminescence immunoassay in vitreous samples from 17 patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and

J I Patel; P G Hykin; Z J Gregor; M Boulton; I A Cree

2005-01-01

453

Oxidative Stress in Diabetes Mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Diabetes mellitus of either human, or domestic animals is commonly associated to oxidative stress which is mainly involved\\u000a in the onset of many complications such as cataract, neuropathy, vasculopathies, nephropathy and ketoacidosis. The pathogenesis\\u000a of diabetic oxidative stress is a multifactorial process involving glucose auto-oxidation, formation of advanced glycation\\u000a endproducts and activation of polyol, and protein-kinase pathways. Although the presence

Stefano Comazzi

454

Immunotherapy of type 1 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which the insulin-producing ? cells are destroyed. Diabetic patients manage\\u000a their hyperglycemia by daily insulin injections. However, insulin therapy is by no means a cure. Accordingly, a significant\\u000a effort has been ongoing to develop immunotherapies that effectively prevent and\\/or treat T1D in the clinic. This review focuses\\u000a on antigen- and antibody-based

Li Li; Zuoan Yi; Roland Tisch; Bo Wang

2008-01-01

455

More Kids with Type 1 Diabetes Facing Dangerous Complication  

MedlinePLUS

... Related MedlinePlus Pages Diabetes Complications Diabetes Type 1 Health Disparities TUESDAY, April 21, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A growing ... Health News on: Diabetes Complications Diabetes Type 1 Health Disparities Recent Health News Page last updated on 22 ...

456

Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... needed to control type 2 diabetes. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease in which levels of ... controlled with diet, exercise, and medicines. How does diabetes develop? Glucose is carried in the blood to ...

457

What I Need to Know about Diabetes Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Espaol National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and Resources E-News ... Diabetes Medicines What I need to know about Diabetes Medicines On this page: What do diabetes medicines ...

458

Matters of the Heart: Support a Loved One with Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

Matters of the Heart: Support a Loved One with Diabetes By the National Diabetes Education Program Diabetes is a hard disease to handle ... Program (NDEP). Help your sweetheart avoid a broken heart . People with diabetes are at an increased risk ...

459

Ten Ways African Americans Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

Ten Ways African Americans Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes by the National Diabetes Education Program The National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) is ... to have a heart attack or stroke. Although African Americans are at high risk for type 2 diabetes, ...

460

T1D in College (Type 1 Diabetes)  

MedlinePLUS

... About T1D Alcohol and Type 1 Diabetes College Scholarships Available for Students with Type 1 Diabetes The Diabetes Scholars Foundation is offering college scholarships to students with type 1 diabetes. There are ...

461

Diabetes: Models, Signals and control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diabetes and its complications impose significant economic consequences on individuals, families, health systems, and countries. The control of diabetes is an interdisciplinary endeavor, which includes significant components of modeling, signal processing and control. Models: first, I will discuss the minimal (coarse) models which describe the key components of the system functionality and are capable of measuring crucial processes of glucose metabolism and insulin control in health and diabetes; then, the maximal (fine-grain) models which include comprehensively all available knowledge about system functionality and are capable to simulate the glucose-insulin system in diabetes, thus making it possible to create simulation scenarios whereby cost effective experiments can be conducted in silico to assess the efficacy of various treatment strategies - in particular I will focus on the first in silico simulation model accepted by FDA as a substitute to animal trials in the quest for optimal diabetes control. Signals: I will review metabolic monitoring, with a particular emphasis on the new continuous glucose sensors, on the crucial role of models to enhance the interpretation of their time-series signals, and on the opportunities that they present for automation of diabetes control. Control: I will review control strategies that have been successfully employed in vivo or in silico, presenting a promise for the development of a future artificial pancreas and, in particular, I will discuss a modular architecture for building closed-loop control systems, including insulin delivery and patient safety supervision layers.

Cobelli, C.

2010-07-01

462

Epigenetic Modifications and Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Diabetic retinopathy remains one of the most debilitating chronic complications, but despite extensive research in the field, the exact mechanism(s) responsible for how retina is damaged in diabetes remains ambiguous. Many metabolic pathways have been implicated in its development, and genes associated with these pathways are altered. Diabetic environment also facilitates epigenetics modifications, which can alter the gene expression without permanent changes in DNA sequence. The role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy is now an emerging area, and recent work has shown that genes encoding mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are epigenetically modified, activates of epigenetic modification enzymes, histone lysine demethylase 1 (LSD1), and DNA methyltransferase are increased, and the micro RNAs responsible for regulating nuclear transcriptional factor and VEGF are upregulated. With the growing evidence of epigenetic modifications in diabetic retinopathy, better understanding of these modifications has potential to identify novel targets to inhibit this devastating disease. Fortunately, the inhibitors and mimics targeted towards histone modification, DNA methylation, and miRNAs are now being tried for cancer and other chronic diseases, and better understanding of the role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy will open the door for their possible use in combating this blinding disease. PMID:24286082

Kowluru, Renu A.; Santos, Julia M.; Mishra, Manish

2013-01-01

463

Fibrinolytic activity in Nigerian diabetics  

PubMed Central

Fibrinolytic activity, using euglobulin lysis time (ELT), was assessed in 46 Nigerians with type 2 diabetes mellitus to study the effect of the disease on fibrinolytic component of haemostasis. There were 20 females and 26 males. Fifty age matched non-diabetics and apparently healthy Nigerians were similarly studied as controls; there were 24 females and 26 males. In the patients, the mean (SD) age of the females was 56.7 (12.0) years and mean (SD) ELT was 276.4 (62.2) min; the mean age of the males was 55.7 (8.5) years and mean ELT was 303.5 (51.5) min. The mean age for female controls was 54.3 (12.6) years and their mean ELT was 198.3 (37.5) min; the mean age of the male controls was 53.4 (11.0) years and mean ELT was 181.6 (39.4) min. There was reduced fibrinolytic activity in diabetic Nigerians as revealed by significantly prolonged ELT in diabetic patients compared with healthy controls. There was good correlation between the blood glucose level and ELT. The observed changes in fibrinolytic activity in this study were not affected by duration of illness. The prolonged ELT in the diabetic population is an additional risk factor for thromboembolic disorders. Fibrinolytic agents may therefore be useful in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:15466998

Adediran, I; Ikem, R; Borisade, M

2004-01-01

464

Diabetic ketoacidosis in toddler with a diaper rash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term diabetes does not denote a single disease entity but rather a clinical syndrome. Fundamental to all types of diabetes is impairment of insulin secretion by the pancreatic beta cells. Diabetes is divided into (1) diabetes associated with certain syndromes or conditions, (2) gestational diabetes, (3) noninsulin-dependent diabetes or type 2 diabetes, and (4) insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) or type

Mark D. Williams; Don Sallee; Matthew Robinson

2008-01-01

465

Gender Differences in Living with Diabetes  

E-print Network

The aim of this review is to discuss the gender difference among diabetic population. Metabolic control, age and gender significantly affect their psychosocial responses to disease. Psychosocial problems may also occur secondary to negative diabetes related experiences including diagnosis, increased stress and onset of complications. Although significant problems do not occur in all diabetic population, they occur in few patients. More work is needed in the area of identifying those patients having adjustment difficulties to diabetic related challenges. This review indicates that male diabetics are observed to be living more effectively with diabetes, lesser depression and anxiety but more energy and better positive wellbeing

Muhammad A Siddiqui; Mannan F Khan; Thomas E Carline

2012-01-01

466

The changing face of diabetes in America.  

PubMed

So much has changed in the field of diabetes diagnosis and management in the United States. Unhealthy lifestyle choices have hastened an epidemic of childhood obesity, causing a paradigm shift in how childhood diabetes is conceptualized. Once thought a consequence of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and genetics, diabetes with onset in adults has been found to have a variant with autoimmunity. As the lines among adult-onset, child-onset, and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus become more blurred, best practices in management and prevention become more complicated. This article highlights key points regarding 2 variants, juvenile-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus and latent autoimmune diabetes of adults. PMID:24766935

Adebayo, Omoyemi; Willis, George C

2014-05-01

467

Jugando con geometra: Crear secuencias con formas y palabras  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

En esta actividad, los chicos crean secuencias con palabras y formas. Los chicos usan colecciones de tringulos, cuadrados, y rectngulos con palabras adentro. Los chicos organizan las forman en secuencias geomtricas que se repiten o que cambian de manera sistemtica en cada lnea. Los chicos ms jvenes pueden crear secuencias simples; los mayores pueden explorar secuencias que crecen de diferentes maneras. Esta actividad tiene colecciones de palabras en tres niveles de dificultad diferente. Disponible en formato Web y PDF. Tambin disponible en Ingls.

TERC

2012-06-26

468

Outcomes of polytrauma patients with diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of diabetes mellitus in patients with multiple system injuries remains obscure. This study was designed to increase knowledge of outcomes of polytrauma in patients who have diabetes mellitus. Methods Data from the Trauma Audit and Research Network was used to identify patients who had suffered polytrauma during 2003 to 2011. These patients were filtered to those with known outcomes, then separated into those with diabetes, those known to have other co-morbidities but not diabetes and those known not to have any co-morbidities or diabetes. The data were analyzed to establish if patients with diabetes had differing outcomes associated with their diabetes versus the other groups. Results In total, 222 patients had diabetes, 2,558 had no past medical co-morbidities (PMC), 2,709 had PMC but no diabetes. The diabetic group of patients was found to be older than the other groups (P <0.05). A higher mortality rate was found in the diabetic group compared to the non-PMC group (32.4% versus 12.9%), P <0.05). Rates of many complications including renal failure, myocardial infarction, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis were all found to be higher in the diabetic group. Conclusions Close monitoring of diabetic patients may result in improved outcomes. Tighter glycemic control and earlier intervention for complications may reduce mortality and morbidity. PMID:25026864

2014-01-01

469

Amadori albumin in diabetic nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Nonenzymatic glycation of macromolecules in diabetes mellitus (DM) is accelerated due to persistent hyperglycemia. Reducing sugar such as glucose reacts non enzymatically with free -amino groups of proteins through series of reactions forming Schiff bases. These bases are converted into Amadori product and further into AGEs. Non enzymatic glycation has the potential to alter the biological, structural and functional properties of macromolecules both in vitro and in vivo. Studies have suggested that amadori as well as AGEs are involved in the micro-macro vascular complications in DM, but most studies have focused on the role of AGEs in vascular complications of diabetes. Recently putative AGE-induced patho-physiology has shifted attention from the possible role of amadori-modified proteins, the predominant form of the glycated proteins in the development of the diabetic complications. Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in circulation contains 59 lysine and 23 arginine residues that could, in theory be involved in glycation. Albumin has dual nature, first as a marker of intermediate glycation and second as a causative agent of the damage of tissues. Among the blood proteins, hemoglobin and albumin are the most common proteins that are glycated. HSA with a shorter half life than RBC, appears to be an alternative marker of glycemic control as it can indicate blood glucose status over a short period (2-3 weeks) and being unaffected by RBCs life span and variant haemoglobin, anemia etc which however, affect HbA1c. On the other hand, Amadori albumin may accumulate in the body tissues of the diabetic patients and participate in secondary complications. Amadori-albumin has potential role in diabetic glomerulosclerosis due to long term hyperglycaemia and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. This review is an approach to compile both the nature of glycated albumin as a damaging agent of tissues and as an intermediate diagnostic marker and its potential role in diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25593824

Neelofar, Km.; Ahmad, Jamal

2015-01-01

470

The diabetic foot: a review.  

PubMed

Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) is among the most frequent complications of diabetes. Neuropathy and ischaemia are the initiating factors and infection is mostly a consequence. We have shown in this review that any DFU should be considered to have vascular impairment. DFU will generally heal if the toe pressure is >55 mmHg and a transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2) <30 mmHg has been considered to predict that a diabetic ulcer may not heal. The decision to intervene is complex and made according to the symptoms and clinical ?ndings. If both an endovascular and a bypass procedure are possible with an equal outcome to be expected, endovascular treatments should be preferred. Primary and secondary mid-term patency rates are better after bypass, but there is no difference in limb salvage. Bedridden patients with poor life expectancy and a non-revascularisable leg are indications for performing a major amputation. A deep infection is the immediate cause of amputation in 25% to 50% of diabetic patients. Patients with uncontrolled abscess, bone or joint involvement, gangrene, or necrotising fasciitis have a "foot-at risk" and need prompt surgical intervention with debridement and revascularisation. As demonstrated in this review, foot ulcer in diabetic is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Early referral, non-invasive vascular testing, imaging and intervention are crucial to improve DFU healing and to prevent amputation. Diabetics are eight to twenty-four times more likely than non-diabetics to have a lower limb amputation and it has been suggested that a large part of those amputations could be avoided by an early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:24126512

Ricco, J B; Thanh Phong, L; Schneider, F; Illuminati, G; Belmonte, R; Valagier, A; Rgnault De La Mothe, G

2013-12-01

471

Circulating Lipid Levels and Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type I Diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma lipid levels have been proposed as probable risk factors of diabetic retinopathy. To clarify this question, we evaluated the apolipoprotein levels in 68 type I diabetic patients (39 SD 14 years; duration of diabetes 13 SD 8.4 years). By the analysis of fluorescein angiography we have classified diabetic retinopathy as follows: absent retinopathy (AR, n = 23),

Roberto Miccoli; Giorgio Odello; Ottavio Giampietro; Piero Marchetti; Renza Cristofani; Giuseppe Penno; Guido Meucci; Renzo Navalesi

1987-01-01

472

Parenting children with diabetes: Exploring parental influence in children living with type 1 diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of parenting styles on the diabetes control of children living with type 1 diabetes, and on child and parent quality of life. Over 200 000 Canadians have type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, usually diagnosed in children and adolescents, occurs when the pancreas is unable to produce insulin. Insulin is

Diana Sherifali

2006-01-01

473

DIABETES/METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS RESEARCH ARTICLE Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2003; 19: 288298.  

E-print Network

DIABETES/METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS RESEARCH ARTICLE Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2003; 19: 288 Nerve collagens from diabetic and nondiabetic Sprague­Dawley and biobreeding rats: an atomic force Accepted: 14 January 2003 Abstract Background Alterations in rat's nerve collagens due to diabetes may

Sastry, Ann Marie

474

DIABETES/METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS REVIEW ARTICLE Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2008; 24: 604610.  

E-print Network

DIABETES/METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS REVIEW ARTICLE Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2008; 24: 604 Nanomedicine and its potential in diabetes research and practice John C. Pickup1* Zheng-Liang Zhi1 Faaizah Khan­100 nm. Although the science is still in its infancy, it has major potential applications in diabetes

Strathclyde, University of

475

Diabetes Metab . Author manuscript Epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy: expected vs reported prevalence of  

E-print Network

Diabetes Metab . Author manuscript Page /1 10 Epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy: expected vs due to retinopathy are amongst the most feared complications in diabetic patients. As the number of diabetic patients is predicted to increase, a corresponding increase in the number of patients affected

Boyer, Edmond

476

DIABETES/METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS RESEARCH ARTICLE Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2005; 21: 264270.  

E-print Network

DIABETES/METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS RESEARCH ARTICLE Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2005; 21: 264 Design and development of a scale measuring fear of complications in type 1 diabetes Emily P. Taylor1 John R. Crawford2 Ann E. Gold3* 1 Department of Diabetes, Grampian University Hospitals Trust, Aberdeen

Crawford, John R.

477

Diabetes Care . Author manuscript Antidepressant use before and after the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a  

E-print Network

Diabetes Care . Author manuscript Page /1 9 Antidepressant use before and after the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal modeling study Mika Kivim kiä 1 2 3 * , Adam G. Tab ká 4 , Debbie A University of Helsinki , FI Steno Diabetes Center10 Steno Diabetes Center , Gentofte,DK * Correspondence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

478

New safety concerns over diabetes drugs Two drugs commonly prescribed to treat diabetes  

E-print Network

New safety concerns over diabetes drugs Two drugs commonly prescribed to treat diabetes double of Type II Diabetes. Prescriptions for the drugs, known as thiazolidinediones, have doubled over the last. The results are published in the August edition of the journal Diabetes Care. Congregation 2007 page 5­9 Race

Feigon, Brooke

479

Complications and concurrent disease associated with diabetic ketoacidosis and other severe forms of diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

The more serious forms of diabetes mellitus such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HNKS) are precipitated commonly by other underlying disease processes. In addition, the treatment of these severe forms of diabetes mellitus are often complicated by therapy. This article discusses common concurrent disorders and therapeutic complications seen in both canine and feline diabetes mellitus. PMID:7660536

Nichols, R; Crenshaw, K L

1995-05-01

480

Overview of Diabetes in Children and Adolescents. A Fact Sheet from the National Diabetes Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Type 1 diabetes in U.S. children and adolescents may be increasing and many more new cases of type 2 diabetes are being reported in young people. Standards of care for managing children with diabetes issued by the American Diabetes Association in January 2005 provide more guidance than previously given. To update primary care providers and their

National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), 2006

2006-01-01

481

Benefit Finding, Affective Reactions to Diabetes Stress, and Diabetes Management Among Early Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine whether benefit finding was associated with better adjustment among adolescents with diabetes by buffering negative affective reactions to diabetes stress and by promoting positive affective reactions. Design: Early adolescents aged 1014 with Type 1 diabetes (n = 252) described recent diabetes stressors, affective reactions, and perceived coping effectiveness. They also completed measures of benefit finding, depressive symptoms,

Vincent Tran; Deborah J. Wiebe; Katherine T. Fortenberry; Jorie M. Butler; Cynthia A. Berg

2011-01-01

482

DIABETES/METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS RESEARCH ARTICLE Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2004; 20: 322329.  

E-print Network

John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Keywords type 1 diabetes mellitus; genetic susceptibility; HLA DQ; geneticDIABETES/METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS RESEARCH ARTICLE Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2004; 20: 322 Genetic screening for individuals at high risk for type 1 diabetes in the general population using HLA

Paschou, Peristera

483

Association between diabetic thick skin syndrome and neurological disorders in diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin thickness on the extremities of patients with diabetes mellitus has been described controversially. Using high resolution ultrasonography, we were able to show a significant increase in skin thickness at the forearm (PPP1. A close association was found between diabetic neuropathy and increasing skin thickness. Diabetic patients with neurological disorders had a significant increase in skin thickness versus diabetic patients

T. Forst; P. Kann; A. Pfiitzner; R. Lobmann; H. Schfer; J. Beyer

1994-01-01

484

SMART DIABETIC SOCKS: Embedded Device for Diabetic Foot Prevention Antoine Perrier1,2,3  

E-print Network

SMART DIABETIC SOCKS: Embedded Device for Diabetic Foot Prevention Antoine Perrier1,2,3 , Nicolas (repetitive high stress, ill-fitting footwear, or an object inside the shoe) associated to diabetes of the Smart Diabetic Socks that has been developed in the context of the French ANR TecSan project

Boyer, Edmond

485

Diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and optic atrophy. An autosomal recessive syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one families were selected from the published reports in which the propositus had the triad of juvenile diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and optic atrophy. The data were consistent with the hypothesis of an autosomal gene which, in the homozygote, causes juvenile diabetes mellitus and one or more of diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, and nerve deafness. Heterozygotes appear to have an

F C Fraser; T Gunn

1977-01-01

486

76 FR 20358 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Diabetes Mellitus Interagency...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Digestive and Kidney Diseases Diabetes Mellitus Interagency...Notice of Workshop The Diabetes Mellitus Interagency...DMICC) will hold a 2-day workshop on May...and collaboration on diabetes among government entities...emerging opportunities for type 1 diabetes research...

2011-04-12

487

Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator  

MedlinePLUS

... News Consumer Alerts Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator Tweet How does non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy affect ... to form deposits. How do I use this simulator? Drag the slider from left to right to ...

488

Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life  

MedlinePLUS

... Download PDF Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF Click here ...

489

Biometry of eyes in type 1 diabetes  

PubMed Central

This is a comprehensive study of a large range of biometric and optical parameters in people with type 1 diabetes. The parameters of 74 people with type 1 diabetes and an age matched control group were assessed. Most of the people with diabetes had low levels of neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy. Marginal or no significant differences were found between groups for corneal shape, corneal thickness, pupil size, and pupil decentrations. Relative to the control group, the diabetes group demonstrated smaller anterior chamber depths, more curved lenses, greater lens thickness and lower lens equivalent refractive index. While the optics of diabetic eyes make them appear as older eyes than those of people of the same age without diabetes, the differences did not increase significantly with age. Age-related changes in the optics of the eyes of people with diabetes need not be accelerated if the diabetes is well controlled. PMID:25798297

Adnan, X.; Suheimat, Marwan; Efron, Nathan; Edwards, Katie; Pritchard, Nicola; Mathur, Ankit; Mallen, Edward A. H.; Atchison, David A.

2015-01-01

490

JAMA Patient Page: Weight and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... blood sugar levels. The bodies of individuals with type 1 diabetes , which usually starts by the early teen years, ... the May 15, 2002, issue; and one on type 1 diabetes was published in the October 22/29, 2003, ...

491

Gestational Diabetes: A Guide for Pregnant Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Sumaria de los Consumidores Aug. 25, 2010 Gestational Diabetes Related Products Future Research Needs: Prioritizing Research Needs ... Women" /> Consumer Summary Aug. 5, 2009 Gestational Diabetes: A Guide for Pregnant Women Formats Consumer Guide ( ...

492

Am I at Risk for Gestational Diabetes?  

MedlinePLUS

... high blood sugar or diabetes. Am I at risk for gestational diabetes? Answer the questions below to ... and your risk level. Total YES answers: Your risk level is: Your health care provider: 2 or ...

493

Medicaid Expansion Spotted Many Undiagnosed Diabetes Cases  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Medicaid Expansion Spotted Many Undiagnosed Diabetes Cases Study finds ... 23, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Diabetes Health Disparities Medicaid MONDAY, March 23, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The number ...

494

Complications to Avoid with Pre-Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... and spreads upwards. Damage to nerves that control digestion can cause vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation. In men, ... Pre-diabetes What's the Problem? Intro Pre-diabetes & Digestion Complications to Avoid Understand Your Risks for Pre- ...

495

Diabetes in American Indians and Alaska Natives  

MedlinePLUS

... Includes a form for recording food intake and physical activity. PDF Version (2,419 KB) * Indian Health Service -Division of Diabetes Treatment and Prevention A list of grants, meetings, diabetes education publications, standards of care, reports, and other resources. ...

496

Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (???????) Chinese - Simplified ( ... ??????? Multimedia Patient Education Institute Chinese - Simplified (????) Diabetic Foot Care English ??????? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) PDF Chinese ...

497

Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... diabetes medicine Not eating enough during meals or snacks after you have taken insulin or diabetes medicine ... your blood sugar levels. Make sure you have snacks with you. Talk to your doctor about reducing ...

498

Diabetes in American Indians and Alaska Natives  

MedlinePLUS

... June 2012 Page 1 of 2 Diabetes in American Indians and Alaska Natives Facts At-a-Glance In response to the diabetes epidemic in American Indian and Alaska Native people, Congress established the Special ...

499

Depression Plus Diabetes May Boost Dementia Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Depression Plus Diabetes May Boost Dementia Risk Each threatens ... Wednesday, April 15, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dementia Depression Diabetes WEDNESDAY, April 15, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Depression ...

500

TIME AND BIOGRAPHY IN DIABETIC EXPERIENCE  

E-print Network

This paper offers a preliminary analysis of temporality in the lives of diabetics. It is argued that time unites the various aspects of diabetic experience, including the disease itself, and the social, emotional, institutional, and technological...

Maines, David R.

1983-04-01