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Sample records for north american case-control

  1. An overview of the North American residential radon and lung cancer case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Field, R William; Krewski, Daniel; Lubin, Jay H; Zielinski, Jan M; Alavanja, Michael; Catalan, Vanessa S; Klotz, Judith B; Létourneau, Ernest G; Lynch, Charles F; Lyon, Joseph L; Sandler, Dale P; Schoenberg, Janet B; Steck, Daniel J; Stolwijk, Jan A; Weinberg, Clarice; Wilcox, Homer B

    2006-04-01

    Lung cancer has held the distinction as the most common cancer type worldwide since 1985 (Parkin et al., 1993). Recent estimates suggest that lung cancer accounted for 1.2 million deaths worldwide in 2002, which represents 17.6% of the global cancer deaths (Parkin et al., 2005). During 2002, the highest lung cancer rates for men worldwide reportedly occurred in North America and Eastern Europe, whereas the highest rates in females occurred in North America and Northern Europe (Parkin et al., 2005). While tobacco smoking is the leading risk factor for lung cancer, because of the magnitude of lung cancer mortality, even secondary causes of lung cancer present a major public health concern (Field, 2001). Extrapolations from epidemiologic studies of radon-exposed miners project that approximately 18,600 lung cancer deaths per year (range 3000 to 41,000) in the United States alone are attributable to residential radon progeny exposure (National Research Council, 1999). Because of differences between the mines and the home environment, as well as differences (such as breathing rates) between miners and the general public, there was a need to directly evaluate effects of radon in homes. Seven major residential case-control radon studies have been conducted in North America to directly examine the association between prolonged radon progeny (radon) exposure and lung cancer. Six of the studies were performed in the United States including studies in New Jersey, Missouri (two studies), Iowa, and the combined states study (Connecticut, Utah, and southern Idaho). The seventh study was performed in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. The residential case-control studies performed in the United States were previously reviewed elsewhere (Field, 2001). The goal of this review is to provide additional details regarding the methodologies and findings for the individual studies. Radon concentration units presented in this review adhere to the types (pCi/L or Bq/m3) presented in the

  2. North American Spine Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... an appointment Search Don't miss the Largest Spine Meeting and Exhibition in the world. Check it ... committee Coverage Recommendations SpineLine Renew Membership NORTH AMERICAN SPINE SOCIETY BURR RIDGE, IL 7075 Veterans Blvd. Burr ...

  3. North American patience

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Independent power companies are facing numerous changes in power markets across North America. While changes bring uncertainty, they also hold promise for future competitive power opportunities. Included are new capacity, repowering aging infrastructure and the role of power brokers. It is likely that patience has never been a more valuable attribute for companies working in the North American market.

  4. North American encephalitic arboviruses

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Larry E.; Beckham, J. David; Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Arboviruses continue to be a major cause of encephalitis in North America and West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease is now the dominant cause of encephalitis. Transmission to humans of North American arboviruses occurs by infected mosquitoes or ticks. Most infections are asymptomatic or produce a flu-like illness. Elderly, immunosuppressed individuals and infants for some arboviruses have the highest incidence of severe encephalitis. Rapid serum or CSF IgM antibody capture ELISA assays are now available to diagnosis the acute infection for all North American arboviruses. Unfortunately, no antiviral drugs are approved for the treatment of arbovirus infection and current therapy is supportive. PMID:18657724

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk among African American women and white women in North Carolina: a population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Millikan, Robert C; Bell, Douglas A; Cui, Lisa; Tse, Chiu-Kit J; Newman, Beth; Conway, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiologic studies have not shown a strong relationship between blood levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and breast cancer risk. However, two recent studies showed a stronger association among postmenopausal white women with the inducible M2 polymorphism in the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) gene. Methods In a population-based case-control study, we evaluated breast cancer risk in relation to PCBs and the CYP1A1 polymorphisms M1 (also known as CYP1A1*2A), M2 (CYP1A1*2C), M3 (CYP1A1*3), and M4 (CYP1A1*4). The study population consisted of 612 patients (242 African American, 370 white) and 599 controls (242 African American, 357 white). Results There was no evidence of strong joint effects between CYP1A1 M1-containing genotypes and total PCBs in African American or white women. Statistically significant multiplicative interactions were observed between CYP1A1 M2-containing genotypes and elevated plasma total PCBs among white women (P value for likelihood ratio test = 0.02). Multiplicative interactions were also observed between CYP1A1 M3-containing genotypes and elevated total PCBs among African American women (P value for likelihood ratio test = 0.10). Conclusions Our results confirm previous reports that CYP1A1 M2-containing genotypes modify the association between PCB exposure and risk of breast cancer. We present additional evidence suggesting that CYP1A1 M3-containing genotypes modify the effects of PCB exposure among African American women. Additional studies are warranted, and meta-analyses combining results across studies will be needed to generate more precise estimates of the joint effects of PCBs and CYP1A1 genotypes. PMID:15642161

  6. North American plate dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Randall M.; Reding, Lynn M.

    1991-01-01

    Deformation within the North American plate in response to various tectonic processes is modeled using an elastic finite element analysis. The tectonic processes considered in the modeling include ridge forces associated with the normal thermal evolution of oceanic lithosphere, shear and normal stresses transmitted across transforms, normal stresses transmitted across convergent boundaries, stresses due to horizontal density contrasts within the continent, and shear tractions applied along the base of the plate. Model stresses are calculated with respect to a lithostatic reference stress state. Shear stresses transmitted across transform boundaries along the San Andreas and Caribbean are small, of the order of 5-10 MPa. Also, compressive stresses of the order of 5-10 MPa transmitted across the major transforms improve the fit to the data. Compressive stresses across convergent margins along the Aleutians and the Middle America trench are important.

  7. North American XP-51 Mustang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1944-01-01

    North American XP-51 Mustang: This XP-51 Mustang built by North American Aviation is the oldest P-51 in existence. It flew for two period at Langley with the NACA, shown here during its later stay between January 1944 and July 1945. It worked in developing the Mustang series, and later with 'bump' models on its wing, it helped design later aircraft.

  8. North American Biome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North America biome includes the major ecoregions that make up the land area of Canada, the United States, Mexico, and countries in Central America. The biome is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the s...

  9. North American XP-51 Mustang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1941-01-01

    North American XP-51 Mustang: This is the North American XP-51 Mustang shortly after it arrived for NACA trials in December 1941. Built as the fourth Mustang, it was diverted from RAF production for U. S. Army use. The prewar polished metal finish would soon be covered in camouflage paint. Extensive flight tests were made on this aircraft at Langley. In the past few years, this particular aircraft has been restored to flight status by the Experimental Aircraft Association, and may be seen at their museum at Oshkosh, Wisconsin.

  10. NORTH AMERICAN BIOTIC COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This digital 1:10,000,000 map (Reichenbacher et al. 1998) of coded polygons depicts the major upland biotic communities of North America using an ecological color scheme that illustrates gradients in available plant moisture, heat, and cold. Biotic communities are regional plant...

  11. Current North American Indian Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blew, Carol Van Antwerp Holliday; And Others

    Approximately 150 newsletters, newspapers, and other periodicals are cited in this bibliography of current sources of information about or directed toward North American Indians. One-sentence descriptions of content, ordering information, and frequency of publication are provided. The majority of the periodicals cited emphasize current events of…

  12. Conservation of North American rallids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.; Manley, Brooke; Reid, Frederic A.; Zembal, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The Rallidae are a diverse group in their habitat selection, yet most North American species occur in or near wetlands As a consequence, most species are subject to habitat enhancement or perturbation from waterfowl management programs. The overall effects of these management programs relative to rallid conservation have been assessed for few species, and there is a need for synthesis of such information. In the cases of some species or raves, population status is not known, and suggested directions for conservation and management are needed. Rare, endangered, or status undetermined species or races often occur in areas where related species are classified as game birds, and the effects of such hunting on rarer forms are not known. Their generally secretive nature, the endangered status of several races and populations, and continued loss of habitat and threats to present habitat, warrant an examination of the conservation status of the North American taxa in this group. In 1977, a committee of the International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies summarized available information on management and biology of American Coots (Fulica americana), rails, and gallinules in North America (Holliman 1977). That summary was intended to provide relatively complete information on conservation of these species, and also to provide guidance for research within the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) Accelerated Research Program for Webless Migratory Shore and Upland Game Birds (ARP). Subsequently, a number of rallid studies were funded under this program. The program was eliminated in 1982, following substantial research activities on North American rallids. Since the demise of the ARP, additional research on rallids in North America has focused on an area the International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies report failed to cover in detail--that of endangered rallids in the U.S. and their possessions. Most of these studies have been of threatened and endangered

  13. North American datum report published

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The redefinition of the horizontal geodetic control network in North America is the subject of a recently published book by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geodetic Survey. North American Datum of 1983 (NOAA Professional Paper NOS 2) covers the history of the project from its inception in 1978 to completion of the redefinition in 1988. The 256-page report is intended to serve as a record of what was actually done during the new datum project, which was a cooperative effort supported by the United States, Canada, Denmark, and Central America. The report describes the actual execution, including the inventory of data used, the laborious task of building the data base, the computations themselves, and the datum implementation activities.

  14. North American Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  15. North American Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  16. A case control study on the lung cancer risk factors in north of Iran.

    PubMed

    Karimzadeh, Laleh; Koohdani, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoon; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Moslemi, Dariush; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Safari, Farid

    2011-01-01

    In this case control study, the risk factors of lung cancer was assessed in the north of Iran. Two groups were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years). Data were collected from 40 cases and 40 controls attending to hospitals. A public information questionnaire was used for data collection. Incidence odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals calculated using logistic regression analyses. Results showed that in adjusted odd ratio positive family history of cancer (OR = 0/19, 95% CI: 0/04-0/8) was associated with a reduction, and consumption of baked bread in traditional oven (OR = 22/6, 95% CI: 1/9-270), was associated with increase in lung cancer risk. Based on the results, smoking was not correlated with lung cancer. In conclusion, the data offers consumption of traditional oven-baked bread may enhance the risk of lung cancer but positive family history of cancer may reduce it. PMID:21699022

  17. NORTH AMERICAN REGIONAL ACTION PLAN ON MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North American Regional Action Plan (NARAP) on Mercury is one of a number of action plans that stem from the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation between the governments of Canada, Mexico and the United States. That Agreement established the Commission for En...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: North American Indian childhood cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions North American Indian childhood cirrhosis North American Indian childhood cirrhosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description North American Indian childhood cirrhosis is a rare liver disorder that ...

  19. North American tidal power prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayne, W. W., Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Prospects for North American tidal power electrical generation are reviewed. Studies by the US Army Corps of Engineers of 90 possible generation schemes in Cobscook Bay, ME, indicated that maximum power generation rather than dependable capacity was the most economic method. Construction cost estimates for 15 MW bulb units in a single effect mode from basin to the sea are provided; five projects were considered ranging from 110-160 MW. Additional tidal power installations are examined for: Half-Moon Cove, ME (12 MW, 18 ft tide); Cook Inlet, AK, which is shown to pose severe environmental and engineering problems due to fish migration, earthquake hazards, and 300 ft deep silt deposits; and the Bay of Fundy, Canada. This last has a 17.8 MW plant under construction in a 29 ft maximum tide area. Other tidal projects of the Maritime Provinces are reviewed, and it is noted that previous economic evaluations based on an oil price of $16/barrel are in need of revision.

  20. North American B-45A Tornado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    North American B-45A Tornado: The North American B-45A Tornado was America's first four-jet powered bomber. Powered by General Electric J35 turbojets, the aircraft's performance was not as high as was expected. The B-45A flown at Langley as NACA 121 was lost on August 14, 1952, in an accident which claimed the life of NACA pilot Herbert H. Hoover.

  1. North American Journal of Psychology, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Lynn E., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "North American Journal of Psychology" publishes scientific papers of general interest to psychologists and other social scientists. Articles included in volume 5 issue 1 (March 2003) are: "Mothers' Attributional Style for Events in Their Offsprings' Lives as Predictors of Their Offsprings' Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression"; "American High…

  2. Geometry Embedded in North American Quilt Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wares, A.

    2006-01-01

    Quilts are an integral part of the North American culture. Most households in North America have quilts with intricate geometric patterns. These patterns symbolize different things to different groups of people in this part of the world. It is important for students to see how mathematics comes from what is done in day-to-day life, not from the…

  3. North American amphibians: distribution and diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Green, David M., (Edited By); Weir, Linda A.; Casper, Gary S.; Lannoo, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Some 300 species of amphibians inhabit North America. The past two decades have seen an enormous growth in interest about amphibians and an increased intensity of scientific research into their fascinating biology and continent-wide distribution. This atlas presents the spectacular diversity of North American amphibians in a geographic context. It covers all formally recognized amphibian species found in the United States and Canada, many of which are endangered or threatened with extinction. Illustrated with maps and photos, the species accounts provide current information about distribution, habitat, and conservation. Researchers, professional herpetologists, and anyone intrigued by amphibians will value North American Amphibians as a guide and reference.

  4. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as "key areas." These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering North American herons. Within each area, we identify specific sites that are potentially important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  5. North American LNG Project Sourcebook

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-15

    The report provides a status of the development of LNG Import Terminal projects in North America, and includes 1-2 page profiles of 63 LNG projects in North America which are either in operation, under construction, or under development. For each project, the sourcebook provides information on the following elements: project description, project ownership, project status, projected operation date, storage capacity, sendout capacity, and pipeline interconnection.

  6. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as 'key areas.' These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  7. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    Lithospheric plates are typically identified from earthquake epicenters and evidence such as GPS movements. But no evidence indicates a plate boundary between the North American and South American Plates. Some plate maps show them separated by a transform boundary, but it is only a fracture zone. Other maps show an "undefined plate boundary" or put no boundary between these two plates (check Google images). Early plate maps showed a single large American Plate, quite narrow east of the Caribbean Plate (Le Pichon 1968, Morgan 1968). The North and South American Plates became established by the leading textbook Earth (Press & Siever 1974). On their map, from a Scientific American article by John Dewey (1972), these new plates were separated by an "uncertain plate boundary." The reasons for postulating a North American Plate were probably more psychological than geological. Each of the other continents of the world had its own plate, and North American geologists naturally wanted theirs. Similarly, European geographers used to view Europe as its own continent. A single large plate should again be hypothesized. But the term American Plate would now be ambiguous ("Which plate, North or South?") Perhaps future textbook authors could call it the "Two-American Plate." Textbook authors ultimately decide such global-tectonic matters. I became aware of textbook authors' opinions and influence from my research into the history of Alfred Wegener's continental drift (see Fixists vs. Mobilists by Krill 2011). Leading textbook author Charles Schuchert realized that continental drift would abolish his cherished paleogeographic models of large east-west continents (Eria, Gondwana) and small oceans (Poseiden, Nereis). He and his junior coauthors conspired to keep drift evidence out of their textbooks, from the 1934-editions until the 1969-editions (Physical Geology by Longwell et al. 1969, Historical Geology by Dunbar & Waage 1969). Their textbooks ruled in America. Textbooks

  8. Ideas from Ten North American Curriculum Thinkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Edmund C.

    The views and attitudes of ten North American educational policy-makers concerning curriculum development and design are presented. The theories and research of Herbert M. Kliebard, Fenwick W. English, Walter Werner, John I. Goodlad, Decker F. Walker, William A. Reid, Norman E. Gleadow, Neil Postman, Elliot W. Eisner, and Michael W. Apple are…

  9. North American Journal of Psychology, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Lynn E., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    "North American Journal of Psychology" publishes scientific papers of general interest to psychologists and other social scientists. Articles included in volume 3 issue 1 (March/April 2001) are: "Sense of Humor in Black and White"; "Convergent Validity of the Situational Outlook Questionnaire"; "Alcohol Consumption and Consequences in a Sample of…

  10. NORTH AMERICAN LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION (NALC): RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North American Landscape Characterization (NALC) project is a component of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Landsat Pathfinder program of experiments to study global change issues. he NALC program is funded principally by the U.S. Environmental Protect...

  11. Indigenous Environmental Perspectives: A North American Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuke, Winona

    1992-01-01

    Presents a brief overview of the nature of indigenous sustainable subsistence economies, and the present underdevelopment and dependency of North American indigenous economies resulting from colonialism and marginalization. Describes environmental and personal contamination on indigenous lands from uranium and coal mining, toxic and nuclear waste,…

  12. North American Journal of Psychology, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Lynn E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    "North American Journal of Psychology" publishes scientific papers of general interest to psychologists and other social scientists. Articles included in volume 4 issue 1 (March 2002) are: "An Interview with Kimmo Lehtonen: Music Therapy with Adolescents"; "The Relationship of Verbal-Nonverbal Incongruence to Communication Mismatches in Married…

  13. The North American Indian and the Eskimo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered of particular interest in the study of the North American Indian, the Eskimo, and in the fields of ethnology and anthropology. The…

  14. North American Journal of Psychology, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Lynn E., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    "North American Journal of Psychology" publishes scientific papers of general interest to psychologists and other social scientists. Articles included in volume 1 issue 1 (June 1999) are: "Generalist Looks at His Career in Teaching: Interview with Dr. Phil Zimbardo"; "Affective Information in Videos"; "Infant Communication"; "Defining Projective…

  15. 76 FR 53149 - North American Waterfowl Management Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service North American Waterfowl Management Plan AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... Wildlife Service, announce the availability of the draft North American Waterfowl Management Plan Revision... Plan Revision, which was developed in close consultation with the waterfowl management...

  16. West Nile virus: North American experience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  17. 47 CFR 52.13 - North American Numbering Plan Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false North American Numbering Plan Administrator. 52... SERVICES (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Administration § 52.13 North American Numbering Plan Administrator. (a) The North American Numbering Plan Administrator (NANPA) shall be an independent and impartial...

  18. 47 CFR 52.13 - North American Numbering Plan Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false North American Numbering Plan Administrator. 52... SERVICES (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Administration § 52.13 North American Numbering Plan Administrator. (a) The North American Numbering Plan Administrator (NANPA) shall be an independent and impartial...

  19. 47 CFR 52.13 - North American Numbering Plan Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false North American Numbering Plan Administrator. 52... SERVICES (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Administration § 52.13 North American Numbering Plan Administrator. (a) The North American Numbering Plan Administrator (NANPA) shall be an independent and impartial...

  20. 47 CFR 52.11 - North American Numbering Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false North American Numbering Council. 52.11 Section... (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Administration § 52.11 North American Numbering Council. The duties of the North American Numbering Council (NANC), may include, but are not limited to: (a) Advising the Commission...

  1. 47 CFR 52.11 - North American Numbering Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false North American Numbering Council. 52.11 Section... (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Administration § 52.11 North American Numbering Council. The duties of the North American Numbering Council (NANC), may include, but are not limited to: (a) Advising the Commission...

  2. 47 CFR 52.11 - North American Numbering Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false North American Numbering Council. 52.11 Section... (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Administration § 52.11 North American Numbering Council. The duties of the North American Numbering Council (NANC), may include, but are not limited to: (a) Advising the Commission...

  3. 47 CFR 52.11 - North American Numbering Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false North American Numbering Council. 52.11 Section... (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Administration § 52.11 North American Numbering Council. The duties of the North American Numbering Council (NANC), may include, but are not limited to: (a) Advising the Commission...

  4. 47 CFR 52.11 - North American Numbering Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false North American Numbering Council. 52.11 Section... (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Administration § 52.11 North American Numbering Council. The duties of the North American Numbering Council (NANC), may include, but are not limited to: (a) Advising the Commission...

  5. Hawaiian angiosperm radiations of North American origin

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Bruce G.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Putative phytogeographical links between America (especially North America) and the Hawaiian Islands have figured prominently in disagreement and debate about the origin of Pacific floras and the efficacy of long-distance (oversea) plant dispersal, given the obstacles to explaining such major disjunctions by vicariance. Scope Review of past efforts, and of progress over the last 20 years, toward understanding relationships of Hawaiian angiosperms allows for a historically informed re-evaluation of the American (New World) contribution to Hawaiian diversity and evolutionary activity of American lineages in an insular setting. Conclusions Temperate and boreal North America is a much more important source of Hawaiian flora than suggested by most 20th century authorities on Pacific plant life, such as Fosberg and Skottsberg. Early views of evolution as too slow to account for divergence of highly distinctive endemics within the Hawaiian geological time frame evidently impeded biogeographical understanding, as did lack of appreciation for the importance of rare, often biotically mediated dispersal events and ecological opportunity in island ecosystems. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for North American ancestry of Hawaiian plant radiations, such as the silversword alliance, mints, sanicles, violets, schiedeas and spurges, underlines the potential of long-distance dispersal to shape floras, in accordance with hypotheses championed by Carlquist. Characteristics important to colonization of the islands, such as dispersibility by birds and ancestral hybridization or polyploidy, and ecological opportunities associated with ‘sky islands’ of temperate or boreal climate in the tropical Hawaiian archipelago may have been key to extensive diversification of endemic lineages of North American origin that are among the most species-rich clades of Hawaiian plants. Evident youth of flowering-plant lineages from North America is highly consistent with recent geological

  6. Candidates for GRL North American coeditor sought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geophysical Research Letters (GRL), AGU's all-Union primary research journal, is seeking candidates and nominations for candidates to succeed Rob Van der Voo, whose term as North American Coeditor ends December 31, 1986. The successful candidate will be challenged to seek out interesting papers at the forefront of the geophysical sciences and to attempt to strike a balance in the publication of that science that is of interest to the entire AGU membership. While complementing the interests of Editor in Chief Alex Dessler, the successful candidate will also be challenged to maintain rapid publication time and minimize the publication of research that is routine. The North American Coeditor should be prepared to welcome controversial research papers that challenge conventional wisdom in all fields of interest to AGU. The individual selected for this prestigious position will have a vital role in making GRL an even more important and more exciting journal that readers look forward to receiving each month.

  7. A case-control study of menstrual factors in relation to breast cancer risk in African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Beiler, Jessica S. B.; Zhu, Kangmin; Hunter, Sandra; Payne-Wilks, Kathleen; Roland, Chanel L.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.

    2003-01-01

    Menstrual characteristics may serve as surrogate measures of endogenous estrogen and may be related to breast cancer risk. No previous studies have systematically investigated menstrual factors in relation to the disease in African-American women. This case-control study is aimed to assess the relationship between menstrual factors and breast cancer in African-American women. Cases were 304 African-American women, aged 20-64 living in three Tennessee counties, diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 1998. Controls were selected through random-digit dialing and frequency matched to cases (n=305). Phone interviews were conducted on menstrual factors--age at menarche, time to regularity, cycle length, flow length, age at menopause--and other risk factors. Logistic regression showed that compared to women with short cycle length (<28 days), women with average cycle length > or =28 had decreased risk of breast cancer (odds ratio (OR)=0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.38-0.94). Dose-response analyses showed decreasing risk with longer cycle length. Results by menopausal status revealed an inverse relationship was shown only in postmenopausal women. No significant associations were observed for other menstrual factors. Findings suggest that cycle length has an inverse association with breast cancer in African-American women that may primarily exist for post-menopausal tumors. PMID:14620704

  8. Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Sporadic Giardiasis and Parasite Assemblages in North West England.

    PubMed

    Minetti, Corrado; Lamden, Kenneth; Durband, Caroline; Cheesbrough, John; Platt, Katherine; Charlett, Andre; O'Brien, Sarah J; Fox, Andrew; Wastling, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a major cause of infectious gastroenteritis worldwide, and it is diversified into eight genetic assemblages (A to H), which are distinguishable only by molecular typing. There is some evidence that the assemblages infecting humans (assemblages A and B) may have different transmission routes, but systematically acquired data, combining epidemiological and molecular findings, are required. We undertook a case-control study with Giardia genotyping in North West England, to determine general and parasite assemblage-specific risk factors. For people without a history of foreign travel, swimming in swimming pools and changing diapers were the most important risk factors for the disease. People infected with assemblage B reported a greater number of symptoms and higher frequencies of vomiting, abdominal pain, swollen stomach, and loss of appetite, compared with people infected with assemblage A. More importantly, keeping a dog was associated only with assemblage A infections, suggesting the presence of a potential zoonotic reservoir for this assemblage. This is the first case-control study to combine epidemiological data with Giardia genotyping, and it shows the importance of integrating these two levels of information for better understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen. PMID:26157151

  9. Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Sporadic Giardiasis and Parasite Assemblages in North West England

    PubMed Central

    Minetti, Corrado; Durband, Caroline; Cheesbrough, John; Platt, Katherine; Charlett, Andre; O'Brien, Sarah J.; Fox, Andrew; Wastling, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a major cause of infectious gastroenteritis worldwide, and it is diversified into eight genetic assemblages (A to H), which are distinguishable only by molecular typing. There is some evidence that the assemblages infecting humans (assemblages A and B) may have different transmission routes, but systematically acquired data, combining epidemiological and molecular findings, are required. We undertook a case-control study with Giardia genotyping in North West England, to determine general and parasite assemblage-specific risk factors. For people without a history of foreign travel, swimming in swimming pools and changing diapers were the most important risk factors for the disease. People infected with assemblage B reported a greater number of symptoms and higher frequencies of vomiting, abdominal pain, swollen stomach, and loss of appetite, compared with people infected with assemblage A. More importantly, keeping a dog was associated only with assemblage A infections, suggesting the presence of a potential zoonotic reservoir for this assemblage. This is the first case-control study to combine epidemiological data with Giardia genotyping, and it shows the importance of integrating these two levels of information for better understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen. PMID:26157151

  10. North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  11. North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  12. 51st North American Chemical Residue Workshop.

    PubMed

    Yang, Paul; Martos, Perry; Barrett, Brad

    2015-06-01

    Manuscripts collected in this 51st North American Chemical Residue Workshop (NACRW) Symposium issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (JAFC) were originally presented at the 51st NACRW meeting. The 2014 NACRW JAFC symposium collects 14 publications representing the broad range of topics in chemical analyses presented at the 2014 meeting. These include the analysis of chemical residues and contaminants in food, environment, feed, botanical, and bee samples as well as the application of quality control/quality assurance protocols in routine and method development. PMID:25682880

  13. Overview of North American Hydrogen Sensor Standards

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, Kathleen; Lopez, Hugo; Cairns, Julie; Wichert, Richard; Rivkin, Carl; Burgess, Robert; Buttner, William

    2015-08-11

    An overview of the main North American codes and standards associated with hydrogen safety sensors is provided. The distinction between a code and a standard is defined, and the relationship between standards and codes is clarified, especially for those circumstances where a standard or a certification requirement is explicitly referenced within a code. The report identifies three main types of standards commonly applied to hydrogen sensors (interface and controls standards, shock and hazard standards, and performance-based standards). The certification process and a list and description of the main standards and model codes associated with the use of hydrogen safety sensors in hydrogen infrastructure are presented.

  14. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Stanley Schwartz, Photographer 1971 NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Stanley Schwartz, Photographer 1971 NORTH WALL OF PARLOR LOCATED ON NORTH SIDE OF HOUSE. PORTRAIT OF DR. HUBBARD OVER MANTEL. - Governor John Hubbard House, 52 Winthrop Street, Hallowell, Kennebec County, ME

  15. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, 1941 THIRD FLOOR, NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, 1941 THIRD FLOOR, NORTH DORMER, BEFORE RESTORATION - Nicholas Hedges House, 1069 Thomas Jefferson Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. Historical genomics of North American maize.

    PubMed

    van Heerwaarden, Joost; Hufford, Matthew B; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2012-07-31

    Since the advent of modern plant breeding in the 1930s, North American maize has undergone a dramatic adaptation to high-input agriculture. Despite the importance of genetic contributions to historical yield increases, little is known about the underlying genomic changes. Here we use high-density SNP genotyping to characterize a set of North American maize lines spanning the history of modern breeding. We provide a unique analysis of genome-wide developments in genetic diversity, ancestry, and selection. The genomic history of maize is marked by a steady increase in genetic differentiation and linkage disequilibrium, whereas allele frequencies in the total population have remained relatively constant. These changes are associated with increasing genetic separation of breeding pools and decreased diversity in the ancestry of individual lines. We confirm that modern heterotic groups are the product of ongoing divergence from a relatively homogeneous landrace population, but show that differential landrace ancestry remains evident. Using a recent association approach, we characterize signals of directional selection throughout the genome, identifying a number of candidate genes of potential agronomic relevance. However, overall we find that selection has had limited impact on genome-wide patterns of diversity and ancestry, with little evidence for individual lines contributing disproportionately to the accumulation of favorable alleles in today's elite germplasm. Our data suggest breeding progress has mainly involved selection and recombination of relatively common alleles, contributed by a representative but limited set of ancestral lines. PMID:22802642

  17. Wintering ecology of adult North American ospreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Brian E.; Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O., Jr.; Henny, Charles J.; Dorr, Brian S.; Olexa, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) typically migrate long distances to their wintering grounds in the tropics. Beyond the general distribution of their wintering range (i.e., the Caribbean, South America, and Central America), very little is known about the wintering ecology of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to determine the duration of wintering period, to examine the characteristics of wintering areas used by Ospreys, and to quantify space use and activity patterns of wintering Ospreys. Adult Ospreys migrated to wintering sites and exhibited high wintering site fidelity among years. Overall, Ospreys wintered on river systems (50.6%) more than on lakes (19.0%), and use of coastal areas was (30.4%) intermediate. Ospreys remained on their wintering grounds for an average of 154 d for males and 167 d for females. Locations of wintering Ospreys obtained via GPS-capable satellite telemetry suggest these birds move infrequently and their movements are very localized (i.e., 2 and 1.4 km2, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest wintering adult North American Ospreys are very sedentary, demonstrating a pattern of limited daily movements and high fidelity to a few select locations (presumably roosts). We suggest this wintering strategy might be effective for reducing the risk of mortality and maximizing energy conservation.

  18. Categorical representation of North American precipitation projections.

    PubMed

    Greene, Arthur M; Seager, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We explore use of the familiar tercile framework of seasonal forecasting for the characterization of 21st-century precipitation projections over North America. Consistent with direct analyses of modeled precipitation change, in a superensemble of CMIP5 simulations an unambiguous pattern of shifted tercile population statistics develops as the globe warms. Expressed categorically, frequencies for the low (i.e., dry) tercile increase in the southwestern United States and southward into Mexico and decrease across the northern tier of North America, while counts for the high tercile shift in the opposite sense. We show that as the 21st-century proceeds, changes become statistically significant over wide regions in the pointwise sense, and also when considered as projections on model-specific climate change "fingerprints". Background noise in the superensemble, against which significance is established, comprises both structural model uncertainty and natural climate variability. The robustness of these findings makes a compelling case for long-range planning for a dryer future in the American Southwest and southward, and wetter one to the north and especially northeast, while communication is facilitated by widespread user familiarity with the tercile format. PMID:27041506

  19. Categorical representation of North American precipitation projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Arthur M.; Seager, Richard

    2016-04-01

    We explore use of the familiar tercile framework of seasonal forecasting for the characterization of 21st-century precipitation projections over North America. Consistent with direct analyses of modeled precipitation change, in a superensemble of CMIP5 simulations an unambiguous pattern of shifted tercile population statistics develops as the globe warms. Expressed categorically, frequencies for the low (i.e., dry) tercile increase in the southwestern United States and southward into Mexico and decrease across the northern tier of North America, while counts for the high tercile shift in the opposite sense. We show that as the 21st-century proceeds, changes become statistically significant over wide regions in the pointwise sense, and also when considered as projections on model-specific climate change “fingerprints”. Background noise in the superensemble, against which significance is established, comprises both structural model uncertainty and natural climate variability. The robustness of these findings makes a compelling case for long-range planning for a dryer future in the American Southwest and southward, and wetter one to the north and especially northeast, while communication is facilitated by widespread user familiarity with the tercile format.

  20. Categorical representation of North American precipitation projections

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Arthur M.; Seager, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We explore use of the familiar tercile framework of seasonal forecasting for the characterization of 21st-century precipitation projections over North America. Consistent with direct analyses of modeled precipitation change, in a superensemble of CMIP5 simulations an unambiguous pattern of shifted tercile population statistics develops as the globe warms. Expressed categorically, frequencies for the low (i.e., dry) tercile increase in the southwestern United States and southward into Mexico and decrease across the northern tier of North America, while counts for the high tercile shift in the opposite sense. We show that as the 21st-century proceeds, changes become statistically significant over wide regions in the pointwise sense, and also when considered as projections on model-specific climate change “fingerprints”. Background noise in the superensemble, against which significance is established, comprises both structural model uncertainty and natural climate variability. The robustness of these findings makes a compelling case for long-range planning for a dryer future in the American Southwest and southward, and wetter one to the north and especially northeast, while communication is facilitated by widespread user familiarity with the tercile format. PMID:27041506

  1. Population status of North American grassland birds from the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterjohn, B.; Sauer, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    We summarize population trends for grassland birds from 1966 to 1996 using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey. Collectively, grassland birds showed the smallest percentage of species that increased of any Breeding Bird Survey bird group, and population declines prevailed throughout most of North America. Although 3 grassland bird species experienced significant population increases between 1966 and 1996, 13 species declined significantly and 9 exhibited non-significant trend estimates. We summarize the temporal and geographic patterns of the trends for grassland bird species and discuss factors that have contributed to these trends.

  2. Pediatric liver transplantation: a North American perspective.

    PubMed

    Kerkar, Nanda; Lakhole, Arathi

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is an important component in the therapeutic armamentarium of managing end-stage liver disease. In North American children, biliary atresia remains the most common indication for LT compared to hepatitis C in adults, while hepatoblastoma is the most common liver tumor requiring LT, versus Hepatocellular carcinoma in adults. Rejection, lymphoproliferative disease, renal insufficiency, metabolic syndrome, recurrent disease, 'de novo' autoimmune hepatitis and malignancy require careful surveillance and prompt action in adults and children after LT. In children, specific attention to EBV viremia, growth, development, adherence and transition to the adult services is also required. Antibody mediated rejection and screening for donor specific antibodies is becoming important in managing liver graft dysfunction. Biomarkers to identify and predict tolerance are being developed. Machine perfusion and stem cells (iPS) to synthesize organs are generating interest and are a focus for research. PMID:26982346

  3. North American box turtles: A natural history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C. Kenneth, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Once a familiar backyard visitor in many parts of the United States and Mexico, the box turtle is losing the battle against extinction. In North American Box Turtles, C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., has written the first book-length natural history of the twelve species and subspecies of this endangered animal. This volume includes comprehensive information on the species’ evolution, behavior, courtship and reproduction, habitat use, diet, population structure, systematics, and disease. Special features include color photos of all species, subspecies, and their habitats; a simple identification guide to both living and fossil species; and a summary of information on fossil Terrapene and Native uses of box turtles. End-of-chapter sections highlight future research directions, including the need for long-term monitoring and observation of box turtles within their natural habitat and conservation applications. A glossary and a bibliography of literature on box turtles accompany the text.

  4. Meningitis C vaccine (North American vaccine).

    PubMed

    Lattanzi, Maria; Del Giudice, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    North American Vaccine Inc (NAVI) has launched a conjugate polysaccharide vaccinefor the prevention of meningitis caused by group C meningococcal bacteria [433475]. The vaccine is based upon conjugate technology, incorporating the serogroup C polysaccharide (CPS) of all three major serogroups. Antibody-dependent, complement-mediated activity was demonstrated in mice and non-human primates, with no detectable adverse effects [277193]. Approval was filed for in the UK in January 2000 [353305]. In July 2000, Baxter received approval for NeisVac-C in the UK, and by September 2000 the vaccine was expected to be incorporated into the NHS's immunization campaign against meningitis C [381225]. NeisVac-C will initially appear labeled from NAVI; Baxter completed its acquisition of NAVI in June 2000 [375389]. Baxter estimates the worldwide global market for the vaccine at US $600 million per year [376204]. PMID:12054072

  5. Statistical Record of Native North Americans. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Marlita A., Ed.

    This book compiles statistical data on Native North American populations, including Alaska and Canada Natives. Data sources include federal and state agencies, census records, tribal governments, associations, and other organizations. The book includes statistics on Native North Americans as compared with other racial and ethnic groups under…

  6. Native American Students in North Dakota Special Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

    Based on background research and information submitted at a public hearing in Bismarck, North Dakota, on December 13, 1991, this report addresses the extent to which Native American students are treated equally in North Dakota special education programs. It was found that in some schools and special education units, Native American students in…

  7. Knowledge Organisation Systems in North American Digital Library Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiri, Ali; Chase-Kruszewski, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report an investigation into the types of knowledge organisation systems (KOSs) utilised in North American digital library collections. Design/methodology/approach: The paper identifies, analyses and deep scans online North American hosted digital libraries. It reviews the literature related to the…

  8. North American Insecurities, Fears and Anxieties: Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Marianne A.

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary North American insecurities and fears are the focus of this article. In the first section, the inter-related concepts of insecurity, fear and vulnerability are theorised, and the argument put forward that these have come to constitute a dominant discourse in contemporary North American society. In the second section of the paper, the…

  9. 2005 the North American Solar Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Eberle

    2008-12-22

    In July 2005 the North American Solar Challenge (NASC) featured university built solar powered cars ran across the United States into Canada. The competition began in Austin, Texas with stops in Weatherford, Texas; Broken Arrow, Oklahoma; Topeka, Kansas; Omaha, Nebraska; Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Fargo, North Dakota; Winnipeg, Manitoba; Brandon, Manitoba; Regina, Saskatchewan; Medicine Hat, Alberta; mainly following U.S. Highway 75 and Canadian Highway 1 to the finish line in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, for a total distance of 2,500 miles. NASC major sponsors include the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Natural Resources Canada and DOEs National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The event is designed to inspire young people to pursue careers in science and engineering. NASCs predecessors, the American Solar Challenge and Sunrayce, generally have been held every two years since 1990. With each race, the solar cars travel faster and further with greater reliability. The NASC promotes: -Renewable energy technologies (specifically photovoltaic or solar cells) -Educational excellence in science, engineering and mathematics -Creative integration of technical and scientific expertise across a wide-range of disciplines -Hands-on experience for students and engineers to develop and demonstrate their technical and creative abilities. Safety is the first priority for the NASC. Each team put its car through grueling qualifying and technical inspections. Teams that failed to meet the requirements were not allowed participate. During the race, each team was escorted by lead and chase vehicles sporting rooftop hazard flashers. An official observer accompanied each solar car team to keep it alert to any safety issues.

  10. Lithospheric layering in the North American craton.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huaiyu; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2010-08-26

    How cratons-extremely stable continental areas of the Earth's crust-formed and remained largely unchanged for more than 2,500 million years is much debated. Recent studies of seismic-wave receiver function data have detected a structural boundary under continental cratons at depths too shallow to be consistent with the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, as inferred from seismic tomography and other geophysical studies. Here we show that changes in the direction of azimuthal anisotropy with depth reveal the presence of two distinct lithospheric layers throughout the stable part of the North American continent. The top layer is thick ( approximately 150 km) under the Archaean core and tapers out on the surrounding Palaeozoic borders. Its thickness variations follow those of a highly depleted layer inferred from thermo-barometric analysis of xenoliths. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is relatively flat (ranging from 180 to 240 km in depth), in agreement with the presence of a thermal conductive root that subsequently formed around the depleted chemical layer. Our findings tie together seismological, geochemical and geodynamical studies of the cratonic lithosphere in North America. They also suggest that the horizon detected in receiver function studies probably corresponds to the sharp mid-lithospheric boundary rather than to the more gradual lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. PMID:20740006

  11. 75 FR 65624 - Notice of Attendance at North American Electric Reliability Corporation Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Attendance at North American Electric Reliability Corporation... Commission and Commission staff may attend the following North American Electric Reliability Corporation... Reliability Corporation; Docket No. RC08-5, North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Docket No....

  12. 77 FR 59986 - Johnson Controls Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Under IMECO LLC; North American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... IMECO LLC; North American Refrigeration Dixon, IL; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply... Johnson Controls, North American Refrigeration, Dixon, Illinois (subject firm). The workers were engaged... LLC, North American Refrigeration, Dixon, Illinois, who became totally or partially separated...

  13. Dosimetry Support of the Ukrainian-American Case-control Study of Leukemia and Related Disorders Among Chornobyl Cleanup Workers.

    PubMed

    Chumak, Vadim; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Kryuchkov, Victor; Bakhanova, Elena; Babkina, Natalya; Bazyka, Dimitry; Gudzenko, Natalya; Hatch, Maureen; Trotsuk, Natalya; Zablotska, Lydia; Golovanov, Ivan; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Voillequé, Paul; Bouville, André

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes dose reconstruction for a joint Ukrainian-American case-control study of leukemia that was conducted in a cohort of 110,645 male Ukrainian cleanup workers of the Chornobyl (Chernobyl) accident who were exposed to various radiation doses over the 1986-1990 time period. Individual bone-marrow doses due to external irradiation along with respective uncertainty distributions were calculated for 1,000 study subjects using the RADRUE method, which employed personal cleanup history data collected in the course of an interview with the subject himself if he was alive or with two proxies if he was deceased. The central estimates of the bone-marrow dose distributions range from 3.7 × 10(-5) to 3,260 mGy, with an arithmetic mean of 92 mGy. The uncertainties in the individual stochastic dose estimates can be approximated by lognormal distributions; the average geometric standard deviation is 2.0. PMID:26313587

  14. Habitats of North American sea ducks.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding, molting, fall and spring staging, and wintering habitats of the sea duck tribe Mergini are described based on geographic locations and distribution in North America, geomorphology, vegetation and soil types, and fresh water and marine characteristics. The dynamics of habitats are discussed in light of natural and anthropogenic events that shape areas important to sea ducks. Strategies for sea duck habitat management are outlined and recommendations for international collaboration to preserve key terrestrial and aquatic habitats are advanced. We follow the definition of habitat advanced by Odum (1971), which is the place or space where an organism lives. Weller (1999) emphasized that habitats for waterbirds required presence of sufficient resources (i.e., food, water, cover, space) for maintenance during a portion of their annual cycle. Habitats exploited by North American sea ducks are diverse, widespread across the continent and adjacent marine waters and until recently, most were only superficially known. Even following a 15-year-long effort through the Sea Duck Joint Venture and U.S. and Canadian Endangered/Threatened Species programs to fund research focused on sea duck habitats there are still important gaps in our understanding of key elements required by some species during various life stages. Importantly, many significant habitats, especially staging and wintering sites, have been and continue to be destroyed or altered, largely as a result of anthropogenic effects. Our goal here is to develop a comprehensive summary of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats and their characteristics by considering sea duck species with similar needs as groups (e.g., eiders) within the tribe Mergini. Additionally, this chapter will examine threats and changes to sea duck habitats from human-caused and natural events. Finally, we will evaluate conservation and management programs underway or available for maintenance and enhancement of habitats critical for

  15. The temporal evolution of North American kimberlites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaman, Larry M.; Kjarsgaard, Bruce A.; Creaser, Robert A.

    2004-09-01

    North American kimberlite magmatism spans a period of time in excess of 1 billion years from Mesoproterozoic kimberlites in the Lake Superior and James Bay Lowlands region of Ontario to Eocene kimberlites in the Lac de Gras field, N.W.T. Based on a compilation of more than 150 robust radiometric age determinations, several distinct kimberlite emplacement patterns are recognized. In general, the temporal pattern of kimberlite emplacement in North America can be broadly subdivided into five domains: (1) a Mesoproterozoic kimberlite province in central Ontario, (2) an Eocambrian/Cambrian Labrador Sea Province in northern Québec and Labrador, (3) an eastern Jurassic Province, (4) a central Cretaceous corridor and (5) a western mixed domain that includes two Type-3 kimberlite provinces (i.e. multiple periods of kimberlite emplacement preserved in the Slave and Wyoming cratons). For some provinces the origin of kimberlite magmatism can be linked to known mantle heat sources such as mantle plume hotspots and upwelling asthenosphere attendant with continental rifting. For example, the timing and location of Mesoproterozoic kimberlites in North America coincides with and slightly precedes the timing of 1.1 Ga intracontinental rifting that culminated in the Midcontinent Rift centered in the Lake Superior region. Many of the kimberlites in the Eocambrian/Cambrian Labrador Sea province were emplaced soon after the opening of the Iapetus Ocean at about 615 Ma and may also be linked to mantle upwelling associated with continental rifting. The eastern Jurassic kimberlites record an age progression where magmatism youngs in a southeast direction from the ˜200 Ma Rankin Inlet kimberlites to the 155-126 Ma Timiskaming kimberlites. The location of several kimberlite fields and clusters in Ontario and Québec lie along a continental extension of the Great Meteor hotspot track and represents one of the best examples in the world of kimberlite magmatism triggered by mantle plumes. The

  16. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    PubMed

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. PMID:25236413

  17. Investigators Share Improved Understanding of the North American Carbon Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Birdsey, Richard A.; Cook, Robert B; Denning, Scott; Griffith, Peter; Law, Beverly E.; Masek, Jeffrey; Michalak, Anna; Ogle, Stephen; Ojima, Dennis; Pan, Yude; Sabine, Christopher; Sheffner, Edwin; Sundquist, Eric

    2007-06-01

    U.S. North American Carbon Program Investigators Meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 22-25 January 2007. The U.S. North American Carbon Program (NACP) sponsored an "all-scientist" meeting to review progress in understanding the dynamics of the carbon cycle of North America and adjacent oceans, and to chart a course for improved integration across scientific disciplines, scales, and Earth system boundaries. The meeting participants also addressed the need for better decision support tools for managing the carbon cycle of North America, so that strong science can inform policy as interest in taking action increases across the nation.

  18. North-American Microtektites are More Oxidised than Tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuli, G.; Cicconi, M. R.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Koeberl, C.; Glass, B. P.; Pratesi, G.; Paris, E.

    2012-09-01

    North American (NA) microtektites display Fe3+/Fetot ratios from 0 to 0.75, much higher than microtektites from Ivory Coast and Australasian strewn fields. FTIR determined water content compare well with NA tektites, suggesting lack of alteration.

  19. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1971 VIEW OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1971 VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF CALIFORNIA STREET LOOKING EAST SHOWING LOVE AND BILGER TIN SHOP (FAR LEFT) (HABS NO. ORE-97). - Jacksonville Historic District, Jacksonville, Jackson County, OR

  20. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1971 VIEW OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1971 VIEW OF NORTH SIDE CALIFORNIA STREET BETWEEN OREGON STREET AND THIRD STREET SHOWING REPRODUCTION BUILDING. - Jacksonville Historic District, Jacksonville, Jackson County, OR

  1. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY NORTH (E. MADISON ST.) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY NORTH (E. MADISON ST.) AND WEST (S. STATE ST.) ELEVATIONS - Schlesinger & Mayer Department Store, 1 South State Street (1-19 South State Street 1-15 East Madison Street), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Skip to Navigation 2016 World Congress of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition The event will take place October 5-8, ...

  3. 24. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer NORTH ENTRANCE DETAIL RIGHT JAMB, SHOWING SECTION OF CUT FOR DOOR HEADER - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  4. Wildlife values of North American ricelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eadie, J.M.; Elphick, C.S.; Reinecke, K.J.; Miller, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    derermining threshold food levels required to maintain bird use; (3) quantifying use of ricefields by nonwaterfowl species throughout the year; and (4) determining the amount and distribution of rice habitat needed to meet objectives of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan and the United States Shorebird Conservation Plan.

  5. Investigators Share Improved Understanding of the North American Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsey, Richard A.; Cook, Robert; Denning, Scott; Griffith, Peter; Law, Beverly; Masek, Jeffrey; Michalak, Anna; Ogle, Stephen; Ojima, Dennis; Pan, Yude; Sabine, Christopher; Sheffner, Edwin; Sundquist, Eric

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. North American Carbon Program (NACP) sponsored an "all-scientist" meeting to review progress in understanding the dynamics of the carbon cycle of North America and adjacent oceans, and to chart a course for improved integration across scientific disciplines, scales, and Earth system boundaries. The meeting participants also addressed the need for better decision support tools for managing the carbon cycle of North America, so that strong science can inform policy as interest in taking action increases across the nation. Herein we report on themes to integrate the diversity of NACP science and fill significant gaps for understanding and managing the North American carbon cycle: integration among disciplines involving land, atmosphere, and ocean research; strengthening data management infrastructure to support modeling and analysis; identification of study regions that are critical for reducing uncertainties in the North American carbon balance; and integrating biophysical science with the human dimensions of carbon management and decision support.

  6. The 'individualization' of large North American mammals.

    PubMed

    Ruth, J L; Fain, S R

    1993-01-01

    The enforcement of wildlife laws and the captive breeding of threatened/endangered species requires the ability to identify individual animals. DNA profiles of a variety of large North American mammals, birds, and fish were generated using ten different oligonucleotide probes. The probes tested were four multilocus probes [33.6, 33.15, JE46, and (TGTC)5] and six 'human unilocus' probes [MS1 (D1S7), CMM101 (D14S13), YNH24 (D2S44), EFD52 (D17S26), TBQ7 (D10S28), and MS43 (D12S11). Each of the probes was chemically synthesized, and labeled by the attachment of alkaline phosphatase; after hybridization, the probes were detected by chemiluminescence catalyzed by the enzyme. Initial screening against zoo blots including samples of bear, wolf, large cat, wild sheep, deer, birds, marine mammals, and fish indicated that three multilocus probes [33.15, 33.6, (TGTC)5] gave informative patterns containing 15-40 bands for most or all of the animals tested, as did two of the 'human unilocus' probes (MS1 and CMM101). The other five probes appeared informative only in some species (for example, YNH24 against canids). Subsequent screenings of populations within species were used to determine genetic diversity by analysis of observed bandsharing (S). Large heterologous populations, such as white-tailed deer, exhibited highly diverse band patterns (S < or = 0.2). Geographically isolated and/or genetically constricted animals, such as endangered Mexican wolves, Tule elk, and Columbian white-tailed deer, exhibited much higher frequencies of bandsharing (0.6 < or = S < or = 0.95).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8400711

  7. North American wetlands and mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge R; Walton, William E; Wolfe, Roger J; Connelly, C Roxanne; O'Connell, Sheila M; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E; Laderman, Aimlee D

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  8. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O’Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  9. Risk Factors for Neonatal Sepsis in Public Hospitals of Mekelle City, North Ethiopia, 2015: Unmatched Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gebremedhin, Destaalem

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. Delays in the identification and treatment of neonatal sepsis are among the main contributors to the high mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of neonatal sepsis in public hospitals of Mekelle City, Tigray Region, North Ethiopia, 2015. Methods A hospital based case control study was done in public hospitals of Mekelle City, Tigray region. Cases were neonates who had sepsis with their index mothers and controls were neonates who hadn’t had sepsis with their index mothers. Hematologic findings were used to diagnose sepsis once the neonates were being clinically suspected. Cases and controls were selected using the systematic sampling technique. Data were entered using Epi info version 7 and then analyzed using SPSS window 20. The binary logistic regression model was used to test the association between dependent and independent variables and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the associated risk factors to neonatal sepsis. Findings A total of 78 cases and 156 controls were included in this study. More than three quarters (76.8%) of cases had early onset sepsis. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the possible risk factors of neonatal sepsis in this study were; history of maternal urinary tract infection or sexually transmitted infection [AOR = 5. 23; 95% CI (1.82, 15.04)], prolonged rupture of membrane [AOR = 7. 43; 95% CI (2.04, 27.1)], Place of delivery; health center delivery [AOR = 5. 7; 95% CI (1.71, 19.03)], intrapartum fever [AOR = 6. 1 95% CI (1.29, 28.31)], APGAR score <7 at 5th minute [AOR = 68. 9; 95% CI (3.63, 1308)] and not crying immediately at birth [AOR = 124. 0; 95% CI (6.5, 2379)]. Conclusion Both maternal and neonatal factors had contributed to the risk of neonatal sepsis. Strengthening of the existing risk based prevention strategies as well as

  10. Motivations of North American Indians in Athletic Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    This is a report on the motives of North American Indians in holding their athletic games. Data were researched from "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology" published between 1881 and 1933. Anthropologists, artifact collectors, artist-writers, and historians provided primary evidential sources for athletic game motivation. Included…

  11. Representation of Appalachia in North American Geography College Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martis, Kenneth C.

    2005-01-01

    The geographical analyses and descriptions of Appalachia "not only reflect reality, but they help to constitute this reality." This work first analyzes the status of the North American (United States and Canada) regional courses in the 210 geography degree-granting institutions listed in the Association of American Geographers "Guide to…

  12. Using European Systems from a North American Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Marshall; Grenville, Sally

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates the special considerations of using European search systems from North America: steps in establishing a telephone link with the European Space Agency's system, lack of availability to North Americans of some European databases through this system, user reaction, and costs. Brief descriptions of some European databases and a connect…

  13. THE NORTH AMERICAN MERCURY MODEL INTER-COMPARISON STUDY (NAMMIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the North American Mercury Model Inter-comparison Study (NAMMIS). The NAMMIS is an effort to apply atmospheric Hg models in a tightly constrained testing environment with a focus on North America. With each model using the same input data sets for initial co...

  14. North American Ground Surface Temperature Histories: A Contribution to the PAGES2k North American Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareschal, J. C.; Jaume Santero, F.; Beltrami, H.

    2015-12-01

    Within the framework of the PAGES NorthAmerica2k project, three hundred and seventy three (373) North American temperature-depth profiles from boreholes deeper than 300 meters were analyzed for recent climate. To facilitate comparisons and examine the same time period, the profiles were truncated at 300 m. The ground surface temperature (GST) histories for the last 500 years were inverted from the subsurface temperature anomalies using singular value decomposition for a model of 10 temperature changes along time-intervals of increasing duration. The inversion retains four singular values and accounts for the data acquisition time difference. The reference surface temperature and geothermal gradient were estimated by linear regression to the deepest 100 meters with a 95% confidence interval. Additionally, a Monte-Carlo method was used to find the range of solutions within a maximum subsurface anomaly error determined by the root mean square between the model and the data. The GST history results for North America, given by the mean and 95% confidence interval, reveal in most cases, a warming up to 1°C - 2.5°C during the last 100-150 years.

  15. Lithosphere mapping beneath the North American plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, W. L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Doyle, B. J.; Pearson, N. J.; Coopersmith, H.; Kivi, K.; Malkovets, V.; Pokhilenko, N.

    2004-09-01

    Major- and trace-element analyses of garnets from heavy-mineral concentrates have been used to derive the compositional and thermal structure of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath 16 areas within the core of the ancient Laurentian continent and 11 areas in the craton margin and fringing mobile belts. Results are presented as stratigraphic sections showing variations in the relative proportions of different rock types and metasomatic styles, and the mean Fo content of olivine, with depth. Detailed comparisons with data from mantle xenoliths demonstrate the reliability of the sections. In the Slave Province, the SCLM in most areas shows a two-layer structure with a boundary at 140-160 km depth. The upper layer shows pronounced lateral variations, whereas the lower layer, after accounting for different degrees of melt-related metasomatism, shows marked uniformity. The lower layer is interpreted as a subcreted plume head, added at ca. 3.2 Ga; this boundary between the layers rises to <100 km depth toward the northern and southern edges of the craton. Strongly layered SCLM suggests that plume subcretion may also have played a role in the construction of the lithosphere beneath Michigan and Saskatchewan. Outside the Slave Province, most North American Archon SCLM sections are less depleted than similar sections in southern Africa and Siberia; this may reflect extensive metasomatic modification. In E. Canada, the degree of modification increases toward the craton margin, and the SCLM beneath the Kapuskasing Structural Zone is typical of that beneath Proterozoic to Phanerozoic mobile belts. SCLM sections from several Proterozoic areas around the margin of the Laurentian continental core (W. Greenland, Colorado-Wyoming district, Arkansas) show discontinuities and gaps that are interpreted as the effects of lithosphere stacking during collisional orogeny. Some areas affected by Proterozoic orogenesis (Wyoming Craton, Alberta, W. Greenland) appear to retain

  16. Detection of North American orthopoxviruses by real time-PCR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of North American orthopoxviruses in nature is unknown and may be more difficult to ascertain due to wide spread use of vaccinia virus recombinant vaccines in the wild. A real time PCR assay was developed to allow for highly sensitive and specific detection of North American orthopoxvirus DNA in animal tissues and bodily fluids. This method is based on the amplification of a 156 bp sequence within a myristylated protein, highly conserved within the North American orthopoxviruses but distinct from orthologous genes present in other orthopoxviruses. The analytical sensitivity was 1.1 fg for Volepox virus DNA, 1.99 fg for Skunkpox virus DNA, and 6.4 fg for Raccoonpox virus DNA with a 95% confidence interval. Our assay did not cross-react with other orthopoxviruses or ten diverse representatives of the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily. This new assay showed more sensitivity than tissue culture tests, and was capable of differentiating North American orthopoxviruses from other members of Orthopoxvirus. Thus, our assay is a promising tool for highly sensitive and specific detection of North American orthopoxviruses in the United States and abroad. PMID:21689420

  17. Lithospheric models of the North American continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesauro, Magdala; Kaban, Mikhail; Mooney, Walter; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    We constructed NACr14, a 3D model of the North American (NA) crust, based on the most recent seismic data from the USGS database. In comparison with the global crustal model CRUST 1.0, NACr14 is more heterogeneous, showing a larger spatial variability of the thickness and average velocities of the crustal layers. Velocities of the lower crust vary in a larger range than those of the other layers, while the thickness of all the three layers is on average between 11 and 13 km. The largest velocities of the crystalline crust (>6.6 km/s) reflect the presence of a 7.x layer (>7.0 km/s) in the lowermost part of the crust. Using NACr2014, a regional (NA07) and a global (SL201sv) tomography model, and gravity data, we apply an iterative technique, which jointly interprets seismic tomography and gravity data, to estimate temperature and compositional variations in the NA upper mantle. The results obtained demonstrate that temperature of the cratonic mantle is up to 150°C higher than when using a uniform compositional model. The differences between the two tomography models influence the results more strongly than possible changes of the depth distribution of compositional variations. Strong negative compositional density anomalies, corresponding to Mg # >92, characterize the upper mantle of the northwestern part of the Superior craton and the central part of the Slave and Churchill craton. The Proterozoic upper mantle of the western and more deformed part of the NA cratons, appears weakly depleted (Mg# ~91) when NA07 is used, in agreement with the results based on the interpretation of xenolith data. When we use SL2013sv, the same areas are locally characterized by high density bodies, which might be interpreted as the effect due to fragments of subducted slabs, as those close to the suture of the Appalachians and Grenville province. We used the two thermal models to estimate the integrated strength and the effective elastic thickness (Te) of the lithosphere. In the

  18. Imported Dust in North American Skies

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA and university scientists have made the first measurement-based estimate of the amount and composition of tiny airborne particles that arrive in the air over North America each year. With a 3D...

  19. Fifty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesser, R. Terry; Burns, Kevin J; Cicero, Carla; Dunn, Jon L.; Kratter, Andrew W.; Lovette, Irby J.; Rasmussen, Pamela C.; Remsen, J.V., Jr.; Rising, James D.; Stotz, Douglas F.; Winker, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This is the 16th supplement since publication of the 7th edition of the Check-list of North American Birds (American Ornithologists' Union [AOU] 1998). It summarizes decisions made between April 15, 2015, and April 15, 2016, by the AOU's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature—North and Middle America. The Committee has continued to operate in the manner outlined in the 42nd Supplement (AOU 2000).

  20. Extinction rates in North American freshwater fishes, 1900-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkhead, Noel M.

    2012-01-01

    Widespread evidence shows that the modern rates of extinction in many plants and animals exceed background rates in the fossil record. In the present article, I investigate this issue with regard to North American freshwater fishes. From 1898 to 2006, 57 taxa became extinct, and three distinct populations were extirpated from the continent. Since 1989, the numbers of extinct North American fishes have increased by 25%. From the end of the nineteenth century to the present, modern extinctions varied by decade but significantly increased after 1950 (post-1950s mean = 7.5 extinct taxa per decade). The modern extinction rate for North American freshwater fishes is conservatively estimated to be 877 times greater than the background extinction rate for freshwater fishes (one extinction every 3 million years). Reasonable estimates project that future increases in extinctions will range from 53 to 86 species by 2050.

  1. Extinction rates in North American freshwater fishes, 1900-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkhead, Noel M.

    2012-01-01

    Widespread evidence shows that the modern rates of extinction in many plants and animals exceed background rates in the fossil record. In the present article, I investigate this issue with regard to North American freshwater fishes. From 1898 to 2006, 57 taxa became extinct, and three distinct populations were extirpated from the continent. Since 1989, the numbers of extinct North American fishes have increased by 25%. From the end of the nineteenth century to the present, modern extinctions varied by decade but significantly increased after 1950 (post-1950s mean = 7.5 extinct taxa per decade). In the twentieth century, freshwater fishes had the highest extinction rate worldwide among vertebrates. The modern extinction rate for North American freshwater fishes is conservatively estimated to be 877 times greater than the background extinction rate for freshwater fishes (one extinction every 3 million years). Reasonable estimates project that future increases in extinctions will range from 53 to 86 species by 2050.

  2. Longevity records of North American birds: Coerebinae through Estrildidae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Futcher, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    This is the fourth paper of a 4-part series detailing the longevity records of marked North American birds. The previous three papers can be found in the Journal of Field Ornithology, Volumes 53 and 54. Prio to this series only one definitive paper ( Kennard 1975) had been written on North American taxa. Records for 84 taxa are included in this paper. Thirty are birds older than those listed by Kennard. Thirty-nine are new records and 9 are those listed in Kennard.

  3. Early North American research on lithium.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G; Gershon, S

    1999-12-01

    Research and clinical interest in lithium in the USA lagged behind that in Europe, largely because of the experience of deaths due to lithium in cardiac patients. The first American report on lithium was published in 1960 by Sam Gershon, the Australian psychiatrist who had undertaken lithium studies in Melbourne in conjunction with the physiologist Trautner. Major USA clinical trials originated in the 1960s; and the clinical significance of lithium was recognised in a special section in the American Journal of Psychiatry in 1968. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of lithium for control of manic episodes was finally given in 1970. PMID:10622180

  4. North American drought: Reconstructions, causes, and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Edward R.; Seager, Richard; Cane, Mark A.; Stahle, David W.

    2007-03-01

    Severe drought is the greatest recurring natural disaster to strike North America. A remarkable network of centuries-long annual tree-ring chronologies has now allowed for the reconstruction of past drought over North America covering the past 1000 or more years in most regions. These reconstructions reveal the occurrence of past "megadroughts" of unprecedented severity and duration, ones that have never been experienced by modern societies in North America. There is strong archaeological evidence for the destabilizing influence of these past droughts on advanced agricultural societies, examples that should resonate today given the increasing vulnerability of modern water-based systems to relatively short-term droughts. Understanding how these megadroughts develop and persist is a timely scientific problem. Very recently, climate models have succeeded in simulating all of the major droughts over North America from the Civil War to the severe 1998-2004 drought in the western U.S. These numerical experiments indicate the dominating importance of tropical Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in determining how much precipitation falls over large parts of North America. Of central importance to drought formation is the development of cool "La Niña-like" SSTs in the eastern tropical Pacific region. This development appears to be partially linked to changes in radiative forcing over that region, which affects the Bjerknes feedback mechanism of the ENSO cycle there. Paradoxically, warmer conditions over the tropical Pacific region lead to the development of cool La Niña-like SSTs there, which is drought inducing over North America. Whether or not this process will lead to a greater prevalence of drought in the future as the world warms due to accumulating greenhouse gases is unclear at this time.

  5. The Political Economy of North American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John H., Ed.

    This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…

  6. Sports or Athletics: A North American Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, J. Alex, Ed.

    This book reports on the 15th Annual Canadian American Seminar, the purpose of which was to explore the widening gulf between sports and athletics, and to examine and predict trends in the U.S. and Canada. The seminar presentations are divided into six sessions, plus the Frank Boland Memorial Lecture delivered by Jesse Owens. Each session includes…

  7. Overview of North American stored product research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major locations for stored product research in North America are in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, and Manhattan, Kansas, USA. Recent personnel changes and research areas are reviewed. One of the pressing research areas in the U.S. is reducing the need for fumigations in flour mills and evaluating alte...

  8. North American berry industries and research areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The farm gate value of small fruit crops in North America has increased significantly in the last 10 years. Much of this increase is due to increased consumption for health benefits. Small fruits are rich in antioxidants which help prevent adverse effects of aging, cancer, and heart diseases. Acc...

  9. Foreign Travel in North American MBA Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, David M.; Matulich, Serge; Gilbert, James P.

    2004-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, graduate schools of business in North America increasingly have relied on short overseas study trips to give students an international experience. Shorter trips have been shown to be more cost-effective and lead to more student participation than study-abroad programs and internships. This article presents the results of a…

  10. Biofuels and North American agriculture--implications for the health and safety of North American producers.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Paul D

    2008-01-01

    This decade has provided North American agricultural producers with opportunity to not only produce fiber and food, but also fuel and other industrial products. The drivers incenting this development could be sustained well into the future, therefore workforce safety and health implications are likely to persist for some time. Within production agriculture, the 'feedstock growth and harvest cycle' and 'transport' sectors possess the changing exposures experienced by workers. The Conference explored the following exposures: distiller's grains and bio-processing byproducts, spent catalyst, solvent brine, microbial agents, genetically modified organisms, discharge effluent, H2O dilutes, change in cropping patterns and resultant use of different seeding and harvest technologies, pests (whether target or non-target), and rural traffic resulting from concentrated movement of massive quantities of biomass and grain. Other issues of a more general public health nature such as watershed implications, other environmental impacts, emissions, uneven economic development potential, public safety issues associated with transport of both fuel and other industrial products, and rural emergency medical service need were explored. And, agronomic impacts were noted, including tillage change, potassium buildup in soil, nutrient depletion, sedimentation and erosion of tillable soil, and local esthetics. It was concluded that rural venues for formation and exploration of public policy need to be created. PMID:19064413

  11. The decline of North American freshwater fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Jelks, Howard L.; Burkhead, Noel M.

    2009-01-01

    North America has a broad array of freshwater ecosystems because of the continent's complex geography and geological history. Within a multitude of habitats—that include streams, large rivers, natural lakes, springs, and wetlands—rich assemblages of fishes reside, representing diverse taxonomic groups with unique ecological requirements. They face an unprecedented conservation crisis.1 In the last few decades, the proportion of inland fishes of North America, which are considered imperiled or extinct, increased from 20 to 40%.2 Although extinctions have occurred, many species and populations are declining in range size and abundance. The fish biota of the continent as a whole remains diverse; however, we can take action to stem any further declines.

  12. Medicinal history of North American Veratrum

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Veratrum have been used throughout history for their medicinal properties. During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, phytochemical investigations revealed a host of steroidal alkaloids in Veratrum species, some of which are potent bioactives. This review discusses Veratrum species that grow in North America with a focus on the medicinal history of these plants and the steroidal alkaloids they contain. While significant reviews have been devoted to singularly describing the plant species within the genus Veratrum (botany), the staggering breadth of alkaloids isolated from these and related plants (phytochemistry), and the intricacies of how the various alkaloids act on their biological targets (physiology and biochemistry), this review will straddle the margins of the aforementioned disciplines in an attempt to provide a unified, coherent picture of the Veratrum plants of North America and the medicinal uses of their bioactive steroidal alkaloids. PMID:25379034

  13. Building a North American Spatial Data Infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, D.J.; Nebert, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the state of spatial data infrastructures within North America in late 1997. After providing some background underlying the philosophy and development of the SDI concept, the authors discuss effects of technology, institutions, and standardization that confront the cohesive implementation of a common infrastructure today. The paper concludes with a comparative framework and specific examples of elements and initiatives defining respective spatial data infrastructure initiatives in the United States and Canada.

  14. Origins of the 1988 north american drought.

    PubMed

    Trenberth, K E; Branstator, G W; Arkin, P A

    1988-12-23

    The 1988 summer drought in the United States was the most extensive in many years. Because the drought developed in different places at different times, not all regional effects can be traced to the same cause. Along the West Coast and in the northwestern United States drought conditions developed during 1987 in association with the 1986 to 1987 El Niño in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Record low rainfalls from April to June 1988 led to rapid development of drought in the North Central United States. Strong anticyclonic conditions and a northward displaced jet stream in the upper atmosphere over North America throughout this period were only part of pronounced and distinctive wavetrain of anomalies in the atmospheric circulation that appeared to emanate from the tropical Pacific. Below average sea surface temperatures along the equator in the Pacific in the northern spring of 1988, combined with warmer than normal water from 10 degrees to 20 degrees N, led to a northward displaced but still active intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) southeast of Hawaii. Results from a steady-state planetarywave atmospheric model indicate that the atmospheric heating anomalies associated with the displaced ITCZ can force an anomalous wavetrain across North America similar to that observed. Land surface processes probably contributed to the severity and persistence of the drought; however, the large-scale atmospheric circulation perturbations associated with natural variations in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system in the tropical Pacific were most likely the primary cause. PMID:17730574

  15. North-American Microtektites are More Oxidised than Tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuli, G.; Cicconi, M. R.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Koeberl, C.; Glass, B. P.; Pratesi, G.; Paris, E.

    2012-03-01

    Microtektites from the Australasian and Ivory Coast strewn fields (SF) show low values of the Fe^3^+/Fe_t_o_t ratio, comparable to tektites from the same SF. In contrast, microtektites from the North American SF show a wider range (from 0 to 0.75).

  16. A Canadian Lens on Facilitating Factors for North American Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christa Lee

    2013-01-01

    What does it take to develop and maintain effective international education partnerships between institutions in the Canada, Mexico, and United States? This was a driving question for the qualitative study funded by a Fulbright-Enders-Garcia grant examining the relationship between North American partnerships and campus internationalization.…

  17. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey UNDATED EXTERIOR SHOWING NORTH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey UNDATED EXTERIOR SHOWING NORTH AND EAST FACADES (View B) This view shows clapboards on gable end and therefore, predates View A which shows shingles in upper gable From the collection of Mrs. L. T. Hazall, descendent of Rev. Woodward - Reverend John Woodward House, 409 Forbes Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  18. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1971 STREETSCAPE SHOWING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1971 STREETSCAPE SHOWING NORTH (fRONT) ELEVATIONS OF ANDERSON AND GLENN STORE (FAR LEFT), P.J. RYAN'S STORE, SCHUMPF AND MILLER STORE. - Anderson & Glenn Store, 125 West California Street, Jacksonville, Jackson County, OR

  19. The Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA): Lessons from North American Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The employment of graduate students on a part-time basis to help with the teaching of undergraduates is growing in the UK and many higher education institutions are confronted with challenges about how best to do this. UK institutions have much to learn from North American experience of appointing graduate teaching assistants (GTAs), and this…

  20. Implementing the North American Industry Classification System at BLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, James A.; Murphy, John B.

    2001-01-01

    The United States, Canada, and Mexico developed the North American Industry Classification System, which captures new and emerging industries, uses a unified concept to define industries, and is a consistent and comparable tool for measuring the nations' economies. Despite initial conversion difficulties, the new system will be a more accurate way…

  1. Depressed Affect and Historical Loss among North American Indigenous Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Walls, Melissa L.; Johnson, Kurt D.; Morrisseau, Allan D.; McDougall, Cindy M.

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on the prevalence and correlates of perceived historical loss among 459 North American Indigenous adolescents aged 11-13 years from the northern Midwest of the United States and central Canada. The adolescents reported daily or more thoughts of historical loss at rates similar to their female caretakers. Confirmatory factor…

  2. Predicted geographic ranges for North American sylvatic Trichinella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of a lack of comprehensive surveys, the geographic distributions of the North American species of Trichinella (T. nativa and its variant T6, T. murrelli, and T. spiralis) are poorly characterized. These species are potentially zoonotic, and biogeographical information is critical to monitori...

  3. Organochlorines, heavy metals, and the biology of North American accipiters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Snyder, H.A.; Lincer, J.L.; Reynolds, R.T.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses of eggs of three species of North American accipitrine hawks for organochlorines and heavy metals indicate that contamination with DDE may be the primary cause of recent population declines of two of the species, Cooper's hawk and sharp-shinned hawk.

  4. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey April 1959 REAR (NORTH) ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey April 1959 REAR (NORTH) ELEVATION FROM THE N. W. - Southeast Area Survey, 600-602 & 1100 G Street (House), 1002,1006 Eye Street (House), 808-810,812-814, & 1016 K Street (House), 817-819 L Street (House), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. SURVIVAL OF NORTH AMERICAN GENOTYPES OF TRICHINELLA IN FROZEN PORK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    North American genotypes of Trichinella (T. nativa (T-2), T. pseudospiralis (T-4), T. murrelli (T-5), and Trichinella (T-6)) were examined for susceptibility to freezing in pork using established parameters for control of T. spiralis. Pig infections with these Trichinella genotypes were established ...

  6. Cultural Values in Latin and North American Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manaster, Guy J.; Ahumada, Isa

    1971-01-01

    Study was conducted among adolescents in Puerto Rico, and replicated earlier studies in Buenos Aires and Chicago. Implications were drawn from frequencies in San Juan and compared with the Latin passive" pattern in Buenos Aires and the North American active" pattern in Chicago. (DM)

  7. PESTALOTIOPSIS MACULANS IS A PARASYMBIONTIC FUNGUS IN NORTH AMERICAN LICHENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By culturing small thallus portions in nutrient medium, it could be shown that Pestalotiopisis maculans (Corda) Nag Raj is a dominant parasymbiontic fungus in North American lichens. P. maculans was present in all twelve lichen specimens (10 Cladina, 1 Usnea, and 1 Parmetroma) collected in the east...

  8. LEECHES (ANNELIDA: HIRUDINEA) FOUND IN NORTH AMERICAN MOLLUSKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic leeches are important as parasites and predators of many groups of animals. Eleven species are reported living in North American snails and clams, 7 of which are known to behave as parasites, 2 are assumed to be parasitic, and the other 2 are not parasitic. In this paper ...

  9. Folklore of the North American Indians. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullom, Judith C., Comp.

    Intended for compilers or retellers of folktales, for storytellers or librarians serving children, or for children themselves, the annotated bibliography contains references to 152 sources of North American Indian folktales. Sources in the non-comprehensive bibliography were selected on the basis of (1) a statement of sources and faithfulness to…

  10. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy BASEMENT PLAN, NORTH ELEVATION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy BASEMENT PLAN, NORTH ELEVATION, ARCHITECT'S ORIGINAL PLAN Restricted: Not to be reproduced without written permission from Beinecke Rare Books Library, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. - John Pitkin Norton House, 52 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  11. NORTH AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE WITH BIOLOGICAL TOILETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A history of North American and European experience with biological toilets is provided. The early use of these devices in Scandanavia was to solve a specific problem, that of providing a low-cost solution for disposing of human wastes from recreational cabins. Because of their e...

  12. Sex Education Attitudes and Outcomes among North American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Monnica T.; Bonner, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Attitudes and outcomes of sex education received by North American women are examined via an Internet survey (N = 1,400). Mean age was 19.5, with 24% reporting one or more unplanned pregnancies. Women were more satisfied with sex education from informal sources than from parents, schools, and physicians. Those receiving sex education from parents…

  13. 50 CFR 223.210 - North American green sturgeon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false North American green sturgeon. 223.210 Section 223.210 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine...

  14. Nutrition, Growth and Development of North American Indian Children. Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, William M., Ed.; And Others

    Recognizing the special health needs of disadvantaged minority groups, in May 1969 the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development cosponsored a conference on these needs for North American Indian children. The monograph, based on this conference, summarizes previous knowledge, provides new information, and emphasizes the role of…

  15. Thanksgiving Address of the North American Indian Ohenton Kariwatehkwen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Watenriio (Michael), Comp.; And Others

    Translated by the North American Indian Travelling College, this traditional Thanksgiving Address is delivered before and after all meetings and ceremonies of the Iroquois people. Through this address, the Creator is introduced into a ceremony, social dance, or council, and, at the end of the meeting, the address brings the minds of the people…

  16. North American Indians: Smithsonian Institution Teacher's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This teacher's resource guide produced by the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) is a collection of materials about North American Indians covering 3 categories, including an introduction, selected bibliographies, and a listing photographs and portraits. Additionally, there is a collecting of answers to questions that…

  17. The North American Free Trade Agreement. Headline Series No. 299.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, George W.

    This document discusses the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) as a debate over the wisdom of opening the southern United States border to the free flow of goods and services between the United States and Mexico. The book is divided into six chapters. The first is a basic introduction to the development of the idea of a free trade…

  18. Structure of the North American Atlantic Continental Margin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klitgord, K. K.; Schlee, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Offers explanations on the origin of the North American Atlantic continental margin. Provides an analysis and illustrations of structural and strategraphic elements of cross sections of the Atlantic continental margin. Also explains the operations and applications of seismic-relection profiles in studying ocean areas. (ML)

  19. LANDFILL GAS UTILIZATION - DATABASE OF NORTH AMERICAN PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes data in an updated and expanded database for North American landfill-gas (LFG)-to-energy projects. t provides summary statistics, including a list of current projects, trends in conversion technologies, and a list of major developers, energy equipment supplie...

  20. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer NORTH EAST CORNER POST, 2d FLOOR, SHOWING MOULDING OF ORIGINAL SET BACK CUT AWAY. ON THE EAST SIDE THE MOULDING REMAINS - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  1. The 2011 North American strawberry symposium: an introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2011 Symposium was held in conjunction with the 32nd North American Strawberry Growers Association (NASGA) Annual Conference on 8-11 Feb. 2011, at the Doubletree Hotel in Tampa, FL. The scientific program was conducted over two days and featured five sessions of oral and poster presentations sp...

  2. 50 CFR 223.210 - North American green sturgeon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false North American green sturgeon. 223.210 Section 223.210 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine...

  3. Forest Disturbance and North American Carbon Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goward, Samuel N.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Warren; Moisen, Gretchen; Collatz, G. James; Healey, Sean; Houghton, R. A.; Huang, Chengquan; Kennedy, Robert; Law, Beverly; Powell, Scott; Turner, David; Wulder, Michael A.

    2008-03-01

    North America's forests are thought to be a significant sink for atmospheric carbon. Currently, the rate of sequestration by forests on the continent has been estimated at 0.23 petagrams of carbon per year, though the uncertainty about this estimate is nearly 50%. This offsets about 13% of the fossil fuel emissions from the continent [Pacala et al., 2007]. However, the high level of uncertainty in this estimate and the scientific community's limited ability to predict the future direction of the forest carbon flux reflect a lack of detailed knowledge about the effects of forest disturbance and recovery across the continent.

  4. 76 FR 24486 - Next Meeting of the North American Numbering Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... March 9, 2011. 3. Report of the North American Numbering Plan Administrator (NANPA). 4. Report of the... (NOWG). 6. Report of the North American Numbering Plan Billing and Collection (NANP B&C) Agent....

  5. 77 FR 12839 - Next Meeting of the North American Numbering Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    .... Approval of Transcript--Meeting of December 15, 2011. 3. Report of the North American Numbering Plan... Numbering Oversight Working Group (NOWG). 6. Report of the North American Numbering Plan Billing...

  6. 78 FR 57838 - North American Free Trade Agreement Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice... to the Decision and Order of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Binational Panel...

  7. North American vegetation patterns observed with the NOAA-7 advanced very high resolution radiometer. [North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goward, S. N.; Tucker, C. J.; Dye, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Spectral vegetation index measurements derived from remotely sensed observations show great promise as a means to improve knowledge of land vegetation patterns. The daily, global observations acquired by the advanced very high resolution radiometer, a sensor on the current series of U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration meteorological satellites, may be particularly well suited for global studies of vegetation. Preliminary results from analysis of North American observations, extending from April to November 1982, show that the vegetation index patterns observed correspond to the known seasonality of North American natural and cultivated vegetation. Integration of the observations over the growing season produced measurements that are related to net primary productivity patterns of the major North American natural vegetation formations. Regions of intense cultivation were observed as anomalous areas in the integrated growing season measurements. Significant information on seasonality, annual extent and interannual variability of vegetation photosynthetic activity at continental and global scales can be derived from these satellite observations.

  8. 78 FR 18333 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 15, 2013, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) submitted a... Commission) in North American Electric Reliability Corporation, 138 FERC ] 61,193 (2012) (March 15...

  9. 77 FR 32629 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 14, 2012, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) submitted a... North American Electric Reliability Corporation, 138 FERC ] 61,193 (2012) (March 15 Order). Any...

  10. 77 FR 65873 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on October 12, 2012, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) submitted a... North American Electric Reliability Corporation, 140 FERC ] 61,215 (2012) (September 20 Order)....

  11. 78 FR 9687 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 1, 2013, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) submitted a... North American Electric Reliability Corporation, 141 FERC ] 61,086 (2012) (November 2 Order). Any...

  12. 47 CFR 52.12 - North American Numbering Plan Administrator and B&C Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false North American Numbering Plan Administrator and...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Administration § 52.12 North American Numbering Plan Administrator and B&C Agent. The North American Numbering Plan Administrator (“NANPA”) and the associated...

  13. 75 FR 78726 - Agency Information Collection Activities: North American Free Trade Agreement Duty Deferral

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... requirement concerning the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Duty Deferral. This request for comment...: 1651-0071. Abstract: The provisions of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) were adopted by the U.S. with the enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 1993...

  14. A case-control analysis of smoking and breast cancer in African American women: findings from the AMBER Consortium.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Yi; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Haiman, Christopher A; Bandera, Elisa V; Bethea, Traci N; Troester, Melissa A; Viscidi, Emma; Kolonel, Laurence N; Olshan, Andrew F; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2016-06-01

    Recent population studies suggest a role of smoking in the etiology of breast cancer, but few have been conducted among African American women. In a collaborative project of four large studies, we examined associations between smoking measures and breast cancer risk by menopause and hormone receptor status [estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), ER-negative (ER-) and triple-negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-)]. The study included 5791 African American women with breast cancer and 17376 African American controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for study and risk factors. Results differed by menopausal status. Among postmenopausal women, positive associations were observed for long duration and greater pack-years of smoking: relative to never smoking, fully adjusted ORs were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03-1.26) for duration ≥20 years and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.01-1.33) for ≥20 pack-years. By contrast, inverse associations were observed among premenopausal women, with ORs of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68-95) for current smoking and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69-0.96) for former smoking, without trends by duration. Associations among postmenopausal women were somewhat stronger for ER+ breast cancer. The findings suggest that the relation of cigarette smoking to breast cancer risk in African American women may vary by menopausal status and breast cancer subtype. PMID:27207658

  15. Coexistence, North American style: regulation and litigation.

    PubMed

    Redick, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Globally, biotech crops have left a legacy of success and some notable failures due to regulatory and litigious barriers to entry, with a pipeline of potentially beneficial biotech agricultural products lined up and awaiting approval. Compared with traditional agriculture, these crops provide significant health benefits to environmental and human health benefits, including organic systems. While the rest of the world has increased acreage of biotech crops at a steady annual rate of 10%, North America-the birthplace of most biotech crops-has reached a critical turning point in its regulatory evolution. Biotech crops can play a major role in creating a more sustainable agricultural landscape, which is increasingly well-documented, but future commercial use may be hampered by regulation and litigation that place organic and non-GMO agriculture on a pedestal, which could force many biotech crops into containment. If producers of biotech crops are required to prevent their crops from contaminating these other, high premium specialty crops through migration, innovation in agricultural biotechnology will suffer (as the European experience with agricultural biotechnology clearly demonstrates). PMID:22430853

  16. Environmental management in North American mining sector.

    PubMed

    Asif, Zunaira; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the environmental issues and management practices in the mining sector in the North America. The sustainable measures on waste management are recognized as one of the most serious environmental concerns in the mining industry. For mining activities, it will be no surprise that the metal recovery reagents and acid effluents are a threat to the ecosystem as well as hazards to human health. In addition, poor air quality and ventilation in underground mines can lead to occupational illness and death of workers. Electricity usage and fuel consumption are major factors that contribute to greenhouse gases. On the other hand, many sustainability challenges are faced in the management of tailings and disposal of waste rock. This paper aims to highlight the problems that arise due to poor air quality and acid mine drainage. The paper also addresses some of the advantages and limitations of tailing and waste rock management that still have to be studied in context of the mining sector. This paper suggests that implementation of suitable environmental management tools like life cycle assessment (LCA), cleaner production technologies (CPTs), and multicriteria decision analysis (MCD) are important as it ultimately lead to improve environmental performance and enabling a mine to focus on the next stage of sustainability. PMID:26527335

  17. North American approach to smoke management.

    PubMed

    Klote, J H

    1999-03-01

    The term smoke is used to mean the airborne products of combustion and air that is mixed with those products. A smoke control system is used to mean a system intended to manage smoke by pressurisation, and smoke management system is a broader term that includes systems that use any combination of compartmentation, dilution, air flow, pressurization or buoyancy. Smoke control systems include zoned smoke control, pressurized stairwells, and elevator smoke control. Over the past few decades there have been a number of full scale fire tests that demonstrate that pressure differences can prevent smoke migration from the low pressure side to the high pressure side of a barrier. While there are equations that can be used for smoke control design, network computer models can account for the effects of complex building leakage paths. For simplicity the term atrium was used in this paper in a generic sense to mean almost any large space (such as arcades, sports arenas, and exhibition halls). In North America most atria rely on sprinkler protection for spaces connected to the atrium and fan powered exhaust at or near the top of the atrium. Because the ability of sprinklers to suppress fires in spaces with ceilings higher than about 11m is limited, smoke exhaust is especially important for fires that start in the atrium. Equations and computer zone models can be used for the design of atrium exhaust systems. When these approaches are inappropriate, CFD modelling or physical modelling can be used. PMID:10351639

  18. Air quality progress in North American megacities: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, David D.; Singh, Hanwant B.; Molina, Luisa; Madronich, Sasha

    2011-12-01

    Air quality progress in the North American megacities of Los Angeles, New York, and Mexico City is reviewed, compared, and contrasted. Enormous progress made in North America over the last 5 decades provides a template for other megacities of the world, especially in developing countries, attempting to achieve rapid economic growth without compromising air quality. While the progress to date has been impressive, many challenges remain including the need to improve air quality while simultaneously mitigating climate change. The impact of pollutant emissions from megacities is felt long distances away from the local sources but no policy mechanisms currently exist to mitigate air quality impacts resulting from such pollution transport.

  19. The North American Market For Renewable Energy Certificates, 6. edition

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-15

    The report provides a study of the Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) market and takes a comprehensive look at what RECs are, how they work, the role they can play in spurring renewable energy development, the different models for implementing RECs, current offerings of REC suppliers, and customer purchases of RECs. Topics covered include: an overview of green power; definition of what RECs are and how they work; discussion of the history of RECs and their uses; explanation of the benefits of RECs and the challenges they face; discussion of how RECs interact with Renewable Portfolio Standards; discussion of the REC certification process; overview of the current market for RECs in the U.S.; profiles of major North American REC tracking systems; and, profiles of 40 key North American REC market participants.

  20. North American Breeding Bird Survey annual summary 1990-1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterjohn, B.G.; Sauer, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) was used to estimate continental and regional changes in bird populations during 1989-1990 and 1990-1991, placing these short-term changes within the context of population trends since 1966. For the entire survey area, 51.7% of the species exhibited increases in population size during 1989-1990, reversing the decreasing tendency exhibited by the majority of species during 1988-1989. A similar percentage (51.4%) of species with increasing populations was noted during 1990-1991. These percentages were also analyzed for 12 guilds of North American birds and 3 broad geographical regions. Many regional patterns exist in these population changes, reflecting the variability inherent in short-term population fluctuations. Two-year (1989-1990 and 1990-1991) changes and long-term (1966-1990) continental trends are provided for 255 species.

  1. North American XP-82 (XF-82) Twin Mustang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    North American XP-82 (XF-82) Twin Mustang: In the early 1950s, the NACA used this XP-82 Twin Mustang for its drop-body tests. A test body is shown in the rack underneath the Twin Mustang's center wing section. NACA 114 was the first Twin Mustang built, and was turned over to the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory following introduction of the type into regular Air Force service.

  2. North American XP-82 (XF-82) Twin Mustang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1948-01-01

    North American XP-82 (XF-82) Twin Mustang: In the early 1950s, the NACA used this XP-82 Twin Mustang for its drop-body tests. A test body is shown in the rack underneath the Twin Mustang's center wing section. NACA 114 was the first Twin Mustang built, and was turned over to the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory following introduction of the type into regular Air Force service.

  3. Team Update on North American Proton Facilities for Radiation Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Turflinger, Thomas; Haas, Thurman; George, Jeffrey; Moss, Steven; Davis, Scott; Kostic, Andrew; Wie, Brian; Reed, Robert; Guertin, Steven; Wert, Jerry; Foster, Charles

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the closure of the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF), this presentation provides an overview of the options for North American proton facilities. This includes those in use by the aerospace community as well as new additions from the cancer therapy regime. In addition, proton single event testing background is provided for understanding the criteria needed for these facilities for electronics testing.

  4. NORTH FORK OF THE AMERICAN RIVER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harwood, David S.; Federspiel, Francis E.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys of the North Fork of the American River Wilderness study area, California have identified a zone of substantiated resource potential for gold and silver. Zones of probable gold and silver potential occur in the eastern part of the area between the Wubbena and La Trinidad mines and locally around the Marrs mine. A zone with probable chromium potential occurs in the serpentinite belt along the western border of the area. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  5. Variations in effective elastic thickness of the North American lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, Timothy D.; Forsyth, Donald W.; Sharpton, Virgil L.; Grieve, Richard A. F.

    1990-01-01

    A technique for estimating flexural rigidity that is not limited to sedimentary basins is used here to map variations in the effective elastic thickness of the North American lithosphere. The effective elastic thickness ranges from a minimum of about 4 km in the Basin and Range Province to more than 100 km in the Precambrian core of the continent. This finding supports the idea that flexural rigidity has increased with time since the last thermal event.

  6. Habitat characteristics of North American tortoises: chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nussear, Kenneth E.; Tuberville, Tracey D.

    2014-01-01

    North American tortoises are distributed in semi-arid and temperate deserts and coastal regions of the southern United States and Mexico. The five species currently recognized each have specific habitat requirements, which they fulfill through their selection of, and interaction with unique habitat constituents. In this chapter we discuss the physiographic and geological associations, perennial and annual vegetation components, shelter sites, and climatic conditions associated with the species’ habitats, as well as the potential threats to their habitat.

  7. Closing the North American Carbon Budget: Continental Margin Fluxes Matter!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, R.; Benway, H. M.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Boyer, E. W.; Cai, W. J.; Coble, P. G.; Cross, J. N.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Goni, M. A.; Griffith, P. C.; Herrmann, M.; Lohrenz, S. E.; Mathis, J. T.; McKinley, G. A.; Pilskaln, C. H.; Smith, R. A.; Alin, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Despite their relatively small surface area, continental margins are regions of intense carbon and nutrient processing, export and exchange, and thus have a significant impact on global biogeochemical cycles. In response to recommendations for regional synthesis and carbon budget estimation for North America put forth in the North American Continental Margins workshop report (Hales et al., 2008), the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) Program and North American Carbon Program (NACP) began coordinating a series of collaborative, interdisciplinary Coastal CARbon Synthesis (CCARS) research activities in five coastal regions of North America (Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, Gulf of Mexico, Arctic, Laurentian Great Lakes) to improve quantitative assessments of the North American carbon budget. CCARS workshops and collaborative research activities have resulted in the development of regional coastal carbon budgets based on recent literature- and model-based estimates of major carbon fluxes with estimated uncertainties. Numerous peer-reviewed papers and presentations by involved researchers have highlighted these findings and provided more in-depth analyses of processes underlying key carbon fluxes in continental margin systems. As a culminating outcome of these synthesis efforts, a comprehensive science plan highlights key knowledge gaps identified during this synthesis and provides explicit guidance on future research and observing priorities in continental margin systems to help inform future agency investments in continental margins research. This presentation will provide an overview of regional and flux-based (terrestrial inputs, biological transformations, sedimentary processes, atmospheric exchanges, lateral carbon transport) synthesis findings and key recommendations in the science plan, as well as a set of overarching priorities and recommendations on observations and modeling approaches for continental margin systems.

  8. Phylogeography of a widespread North American migratory songbird (Setophaga ruticilla).

    PubMed

    Colbeck, Gabriel J; Gibbs, H Lisle; Marra, Peter P; Hobson, Keith; Webster, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    Genetic analyses for many widespread North American species have revealed significant east-west differentiation, indicating that many survived through the Pleistocene in 2 glacial refugia-1 in the eastern and 1 in the western part of the continent. It remains unclear, however, whether other areas may have served as important glacial refugia. Moreover, many such species exhibit widespread genetic similarity within eastern and western regions because of recent expansion from small refugial populations, making it difficult to evaluate current-day levels of gene flow. In this study, we used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequence and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers to survey genetic variation in a widespread migratory bird, the American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla). mtDNA analyses revealed a pattern that contrasts with that found for most other widespread species studied to date: most redstart populations across North America appear to have spread out from a single glacial refugium, possibly located in the southeastern United States, whereas populations in far-eastern Canada may have survived in a second glacial refugium located on the now-submerged Atlantic coastal shelf off the coast of Newfoundland. A pattern of isolation by distance in mtDNA suggested some constraints on current-day gene flow among extant redstart populations. This study thus reveals a recent evolutionary history for this species that differs from that of most other widespread North American passerines and provides evidence for limited gene flow in a species with potentially large dispersal distances. PMID:18468988

  9. Incidence and risk factors of aplastic anemia in Latin American countries: the LATIN case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Maluf, Eliane; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Júnior, Álvaro Avezum; Eluf-Neto, José; Falcão, Roberto Passetto; Lorand-Metze, Irene G.; Goldenberg, Daniel; Santana, Cézar Leite; de Oliveira Werneck Rodrigues, Daniela; da Motta Passos, Leny Nascimento; Rosenfeld, Luis Gastão Mange; Pitta, Marimilia; Loggetto, Sandra; Feitosa Ribeiro, Andreza A.; Velloso, Elvira Deolinda; Kondo, Andrea Tiemi; de Miranda Coelho, Erika Oliveira; Pintão, Maria Carolina Tostes; de Souza, Hélio Moraes; Borbolla, José Rafael; Pasquini, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Background Associations between aplastic anemia and numerous drugs, pesticides and chemicals have been reported. However, at least 50% of the etiology of aplastic anemia remains unexplained. Design and Methods This was a case-control, multicenter, multinational study, designed to identify risk factors for agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia. The cases were patients with diagnosis of aplastic anemia confirmed through biopsy or bone marrow aspiration, selected through an active search of clinical laboratories, hematology clinics and medical records. The controls did not have either aplastic anemia or chronic diseases. A total of 224 patients with aplastic anemia were included in the study, each case was paired with four controls, according to sex, age group, and hospital where the case was first seen. Information was collected on demographic data, medical history, laboratory tests, medications, and other potential risk factors prior to diagnosis. Results The incidence of aplastic anemia was 1.6 cases per million per year. Higher rates of benzene exposure (≥30 exposures per year) were associated with a greater risk of aplastic anemia (odds ratio, OR: 4.2; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.82–9.82). Individuals exposed to chloramphenicol in the previous year had an adjusted OR for aplastic anemia of 8.7 (CI: 0.87–87.93) and those exposed to azithromycin had an adjusted OR of 11.02 (CI 1.14–108.02). Conclusions The incidence of aplastic anemia in Latin America countries is low. Although the research study centers had a high coverage of health services, the underreporting of cases of aplastic anemia in selected regions can be discussed. Frequent exposure to benzene-based products increases the risk for aplastic anemia. Few associations with specific drugs were found, and it is likely that some of these were due to chance alone. PMID:19734415

  10. The North American Monsoon Forecast Forum at CPC/NCEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemm, J. E.; Higgins, W.; Long, L.; Shi, W.; Gochis, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    In 2008, CPC introduced a new operational product to provide users a forum to monitor the North American monsoon (NAM). The NAME Forecast Forum (NAME FF) was proposed and endorsed by the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) Project Science Working Group as a natural extension to the NAME modeling activities coordinated under the NAME Climate Process Team project. It provided an opportunity to consolidate and assess, in real-time, the skill of intra-seasonal and seasonal monsoon forecasts. The NAME FF has continued in 2009 and three modeling groups collaborate with CPC to provide model simulated seasonal precipitation forecasts in the monsoon region. The website includes spatial maps and accumulated precipitation area-averaged over eight sub-regions of the NAM domain and is updated daily to include the current observed precipitation. A weekly update of the current conditions of the NAM system has been added to CPC’s American Monsoons monitoring webpage at, http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/Global_Monsoons/American_Monsoons/NAME/index.shtml. A highlight for the 2009 season is the inclusion of the NCEP CFS forecasts in T382 horizontal resolution. These special high-resolution runs were made with initial conditions in mid-April to accommodate the CPC’s hurricane season outlook. Some results based on the T382 CFS runs also will be presented with emphasis on the prediction of precipitation and accompanying atmospheric circulation over the NAM region.

  11. Pre-Columbian origins for North American anthrax.

    PubMed

    Kenefic, Leo J; Pearson, Talima; Okinaka, Richard T; Schupp, James M; Wagner, David M; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Trim, Carla B; Trim, Carla P; Chung, Wai-Kwan; Beaudry, Jodi A; Jiang, Lingxia; Gajer, Pawel; Foster, Jeffrey T; Mead, James I; Ravel, Jacques; Keim, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Disease introduction into the New World during colonial expansion is well documented and had a major impact on indigenous populations; however, few diseases have been associated with early human migrations into North America. During the late Pleistocene epoch, Asia and North America were joined by the Beringian Steppe ecosystem which allowed animals and humans to freely cross what would become a water barrier in the Holocene. Anthrax has clearly been shown to be dispersed by human commerce and trade in animal products contaminated with Bacillus anthracis spores. Humans appear to have brought B. anthracis to this area from Asia and then moved it further south as an ice-free corridor opened in central Canada approximately 13,000 ybp. In this study, we have defined the evolutionary history of Western North American (WNA) anthrax using 2,850 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 285 geographically diverse B. anthracis isolates. Phylogeography of the major WNA B. anthracis clone reveals ancestral populations in northern Canada with progressively derived populations to the south; the most recent ancestor of this clonal lineage is in Eurasia. Our phylogeographic patterns are consistent with B. anthracis arriving with humans via the Bering Land Bridge. This northern-origin hypothesis is highly consistent with our phylogeographic patterns and rates of SNP accumulation observed in current day B. anthracis isolates. Continent-wide dispersal of WNA B. anthracis likely required movement by later European colonizers, but the continent's first inhabitants may have seeded the initial North American populations. PMID:19283072

  12. Pre-Columbian Origins for North American Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Okinaka, Richard T.; Schupp, James M.; Wagner, David M.; Ravel, Jacques; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Trim, Carla P.; Chung, Wai-Kwan; Beaudry, Jodi A.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Mead, James I.; Keim, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Disease introduction into the New World during colonial expansion is well documented and had a major impact on indigenous populations; however, few diseases have been associated with early human migrations into North America. During the late Pleistocene epoch, Asia and North America were joined by the Beringian Steppe ecosystem which allowed animals and humans to freely cross what would become a water barrier in the Holocene. Anthrax has clearly been shown to be dispersed by human commerce and trade in animal products contaminated with Bacillus anthracis spores. Humans appear to have brought B. anthracis to this area from Asia and then moved it further south as an ice-free corridor opened in central Canada ∼13,000 ybp. In this study, we have defined the evolutionary history of Western North American (WNA) anthrax using 2,850 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 285 geographically diverse B. anthracis isolates. Phylogeography of the major WNA B. anthracis clone reveals ancestral populations in northern Canada with progressively derived populations to the south; the most recent ancestor of this clonal lineage is in Eurasia. Our phylogeographic patterns are consistent with B. anthracis arriving with humans via the Bering Land Bridge. This northern-origin hypothesis is highly consistent with our phylogeographic patterns and rates of SNP accumulation observed in current day B. anthracis isolates. Continent-wide dispersal of WNA B. anthracis likely required movement by later European colonizers, but the continent's first inhabitants may have seeded the initial North American populations. PMID:19283072

  13. A snapshot of global health education at North American universities.

    PubMed

    Lencucha, Raphael; Mohindra, Katia

    2014-03-01

    Global health education is becoming increasingly prominent in North America. It is widely agreed upon that global health is an important aspect of an education in the health sciences and increasingly in other disciplines such as law, economics and political science. There is currently a paucity of studies examining the content of global health courses at the post-secondary level. The purpose of our research is to identify the content areas being covered in global health curricula in North American universities, as a first step in mapping global health curricula across North America. We collected 67 course syllabi from 31 universities and analyzed the topics covered in the course. This snapshot of global health education will aid students searching for global health content, as well as educators and university administrators who are developing or expanding global health programs in Canada and the United States. PMID:24458005

  14. Mild clinical behaviour of Crohn disease in elderly patients in a Latin American country: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús K; Sarmiento-Aguilar, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crohn disease is characterized by fluctuating clinical behaviour, which is influenced by various factors. There are no data from Latin America that evaluate the clinical behaviour of Crohn disease in elderly patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical course of elderly onset Crohn disease compared with younger onset in the Mexican population. METHODS: The present analysis was a case-control study that included 132 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of Crohn disease between 1983 and 2013 in an inflammatory bowel disease clinic of a tertiary care centre. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 17 (IBM Corporation, USA) and descriptive statistics, χ2 and Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables and Student’s t test for numerical variables. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify associated risk factors and OR was calculated. RESULTS: A total of 132 patients (73 men and 59 women) were divided into two groups according to age at diagnosis: 27 cases (>60 years of age) and 105 controls (≤60 years of age). Factors influencing the clinical course of Crohn disease in the elderly were: female sex (OR 2.55 [95% CI 1.06 to 6.10]; P=0.02); colonic location (OR 0.22 [95% CI 0.03 to 0.89]; P=0.02); mild clinical behaviour of disease (OR 10.08 [95% CI 3.74 to 27.17]; P=0.0001); response to medical treatment (OR 2.85 [95% CI 1.08 to 7.48]; P=0.02); frequent use of sulfasalazine (OR 4.46 [95% CI 1.22 to 16.28]; P=0.03); less use of azathioprine (OR 0.38 [95% CI 0.13 to 1.03]; P=0.04); and long-term remission (OR 4.96 [95% CI 1.70 to 14.48]; P=0.002). CONCLUSION: Elderly patients with Crohn disease had a mild clinical course characterized by the lack of escalation to immunosuppressive and anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy, as well as long-term remission. PMID:25996614

  15. NorthAm Fest : fostering a North American continent approach to countering terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, Dick; Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Oborotova, Marina

    2004-12-01

    On September 14-16, 2004, the Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories in conjunction with the University of Texas at El Paso and the North American Institute hosted a workshop (fest) designed to explore the concept of a North American continental approach to countering terrorism. The fest began with the basic premise that the successful defense of North America against the threat of terrorism will require close collaboration among the North American allies--Canada, Mexico and the U.S.--as well as a powerful set of information collection and analysis tools and deterrence strategies. The NorthAm Fest recast the notion of ''homeland defense'' as a tri-national effort to protect the North American continent against an evolving threat that respects no borders. This is a report of the event summarizing the ideas explored. The fest examined the uniqueness of dealing with terrorism from a tri-national North American viewpoint, the role and possible features of joint security systems, concepts for ideal continental security systems for North America, and the challenges and opportunities for such systems to become reality. The following issues were identified as most important for the advancement of this concept. (1) The three countries share a set of core values--democracy, prosperity and security--which form the basis for joint interactions and allow for the development of a culture of cooperation without affecting the sovereignty of the members. (2) The creation of a continental defensive strategy will require a set of strategic guidelines and that smart secure borders play a pivotal role. (3) Joint security systems will need to operate from a set of complementary but not identical policies and procedures. (4) There is a value in joint task forces for response and shared information systems for the prevention of attacks. (5) The private sector must play a critical role in cross-border interactions. Finally, participants envisioned a ''Tri-National Security

  16. Gravimetric investigations on the North American Datum (1972 - 1973)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    All the available unclassified gravity data on the North American Datum (NAD) and in the surrounding oceans was assembled late in 1972 for the investigation of the gravity field in North America and its relation to North American Datum 1927 (NAD 27). The gravity data in Canada and the United States was compiled on a common datum compatible with the International Gravity Standardization Network 1971 (IGSN 71). The variation in the error of representation in the region is studied along with the correlation characteristics of gravity anomalies with elevation. A free air geoid (FAG 73) was computed from a combination of surface gravity data and Goddard Earth Model (GEM) 4 and this was used as the basis for the computation of the non-Stokesian contributions to the height anomaly. The geocentric orientation parameters obtained by this astrogravimetric method are compared with those obtained by satellite techniques. The differences are found to be no greater than those between individual satellite solutions. The differences between the astrogravimetric solution and satellite solutions GSFC 73 and GEM 6 are studied in detail with a view to obtaining a better understanding of these discrepancies.

  17. Comparison of North and South American biomes from AVHRR observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goward, Samuel N.; Dye, Dennis; Kerber, Arlene; Kalb, Virginia

    1987-01-01

    Previous analysis of the North American continent with AVHRR-derived vegetation index measurements showed a strong relation between known patterns of vegetation seasonality, productivity and the spectral vegetation index measurements. This study extends that analysis to South America to evaluate the degree to which these findings extend to tropical regions. The results show that the spectral vegetation index measurements provide a general indicator of vegetation activity across the major biomes of the Western Hemisphere of the earth, including tropical regions. The satellite-observed patterns are strongly related to the known climatology of the continents and may offer a means to improve understanding of global bioclimatology. For example, South America is shown to have a longer growing season with much earlier spring green-up than North America. The time integral of the measurements, computed from 12 composited monthly values, produces a value that is related to published net primary productivity data. However, limited net primary production data does not allow complete evaluation of satellite-observed contrasts between North and South American biomes. These results suggest that satellite-derived spectral vegetation index measurements are of great potential value in improving knowledge of the earth's biosphere.

  18. Genetic evidence suggests a widespread distribution of native North American populations of reed canarygrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reed canarygrass is an important agricultural crop thought to be native to Europe, Asia, and North America. However, it is one of the worst wetland invaders in North American wetlands. The native North American status has been supported by the circumstantial evidence of early botanical records and t...

  19. Host-specificity of myxoma virus: Pathogenesis of South American and North American strains of myxoma virus in two North American lagomorph species.

    PubMed

    Silvers, L; Barnard, D; Knowlton, F; Inglis, B; Labudovic, A; Holland, M K; Janssens, P A; van Leeuwen, B H; Kerr, P J

    2010-03-24

    The pathogenesis of South American and North American myxoma viruses was examined in two species of North American lagomorphs, Sylvilagus nuttallii (mountain cottontail) and Sylvilagus audubonii (desert cottontail) both of which have been shown to have the potential to transmit the South American type of myxoma virus. Following infection with the South American strain (Lausanne, Lu), S. nuttallii developed both a local lesion and secondary lesions on the skin. They did not develop the classical myxomatosis seen in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The infection at the inoculation site did not resolve during the 20-day time course of the trial and contained transmissible virus titres at all times. In contrast, S. audubonii infected with Lu had very few signs of disseminated infection and partially controlled virus replication at the inoculation site. The prototype Californian strain of myxoma virus (MSW) was able to replicate at the inoculation site of both species but did not induce clinical signs of a disseminated infection. In S. audubonii, there was a rapid response to MSW characterised by a massive T lymphocyte infiltration of the inoculation site by day 5. MSW did not reach transmissible titres at the inoculation site in either species. This might explain why the Californian myxoma virus has not expanded its host-range in North America. PMID:19836172

  20. Socioeconomic Status in Relation to the Risk of Ovarian Cancer in African-American Women: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Alberg, Anthony J; Moorman, Patricia G; Crankshaw, Sydnee; Wang, Frances; Bandera, Elisa V; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cartmell, Kathleen B; Cote, Michelle L; Ford, Marvella E; Funkhouser, Ellen; Kelemen, Linda E; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Sterba, Katherine Regan; Terry, Paul; Wallace, Kristin; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2016-08-15

    We investigated the association between socioeconomic status and ovarian cancer in African-American women. We used a population-based case-control study design that included case patients with incident ovarian cancer (n = 513) and age- and area-matched control participants (n = 721) from 10 states who were recruited into the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study from December 2010 through December 2014. Questionnaires were administered via telephone, and study participants responded to questions about several characteristics, including years of education, family annual income, and risk factors for ovarian cancer. After adjustment for established ovarian cancer risk factors, women with a college degree or more education had an odds ratio of 0.71 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51, 0.99) when compared with those with a high school diploma or less (P for trend = 0.02); women with family annual incomes of $75,000 or more had an odds ratio of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.47, 1.16) when compared with those with incomes less than $10,000 (P for trend = 0.055). When these variables were dichotomized, compared with women with a high school diploma or less, women with more education had an adjusted odds ratio of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.93), and compared with women with an income less than $25,000, women with higher incomes had an adjusted odds ratio of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.12). These findings suggest that ovarian cancer risk may be inversely associated with socioeconomic status among African-American women and highlight the need for additional evidence to more thoroughly characterize the association between socioeconomic status and ovarian cancer. PMID:27492896

  1. Soil moisture and the persistence of North American drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglesby, Robert J.; Erickson, David J., III

    1989-01-01

    Numerical sensitivity experiments on the effects of soil moisture on North American summertime climate are performed using a 12-layer global atmospheric general circulation model. Consideration is given to the hypothesis that reduced soil moisture may induce and amplify warm, dry summers of midlatitude continental interiors. The simulations resemble the conditions of the summer of 1988, including an extensive drought over much of North America. It is found that a reduction in soil moisture leads to an increase in surface temperature, lower surface pressure, increased ridging aloft, and a northward shift of the jet stream. It is shown that low-level moisture advection from the Gulf of Mexico is important in the maintenance of persistent soil moisture deficits.

  2. NLDAS Views of North American 2011 Extreme Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Teng, William; Vollmer, Bruce; Mocko, David; Lei, Guang-Dih

    2012-01-01

    2011 was marked as one of the most extreme years in recent history. Over the course of the year, weather-related extreme events, such as floods, heat waves, blizzards, tornadoes, and wildfires, caused tremendous loss of human life and property. The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS, http://ldas.gsfc.nasa.gov/nldas/) data set, with high spatial and temporal resolutions (0.125? x 0.125?, hourly) and various water- and energy-related variables, is an excellent data source for case studies of extreme events. This presentation illustrates some extreme events from 2011 in North America, including the Groundhog Day Blizzard, the July heat wave, Hurricane Irene, and Tropical Storm Lee, all utilizing NLDAS Phase 2 (NLDAS-2) data.

  3. '1-Antitrypsin polymorphism and systematics of eastern North American wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Federoff, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    We used data on the polymorphic status of '1-antitrypsin ('1AT) to study the relationship of Minnesota wolves to the gray wolf (Canis lupus), which was thought to have evolved in Eurasia, and to red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans), which putatively evolved in North America. Recent evidence had indicated that Minnesota wolves might be more closely related to red wolves and coyotes. Samples from wild-caught Minnesota wolves and from captive wolves, at least some of which originated in Alaska and western Canada, were similarly polymorphic for '1AT, whereas coyote and red wolf samples were all monomorphic. Our findings, in conjunction with earlier results, are consistent with the Minnesota wolf being a gray wolf of Eurasian origin or possibly a hybrid between the gray wolf of Eurasian origin and the proposed North American wolf.

  4. NLDAS Views of North American 2011 Extreme Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Teng, William L.; Vollmer, Bruce; Mocko, David; Lei, Guang-Dih

    2014-01-01

    2011 was marked as one of the most extreme years in recent history. Over the course of the year, weather-related extreme events, such as floods, heat waves, blizzards, tornadoes, and wildfires, caused tremendous loss of human life and property. The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS, http:ldas.gsfc.nasa.govnldas) data set, with high spatial and temporal resolutions (0.125 x 0.125, hourly) and various water- and energy-related variables, is an excellent data source for case studies of extreme events. This presentation illustrates some extreme events from 2011 in North America, including the Groundhog Day Blizzard, the July heat wave, Hurricane Irene, and Tropical Storm Lee, all utilizing NLDAS Phase 2 (NLDAS-2) data.

  5. Prediction and predictability of North American seasonal climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infanti, Johnna M.

    Climate prediction on short time-scales such as months to seasons is of broad and current interest in the scientific research community. Monthly and seasonal climate prediction of variables such as precipitation, temperature, and sea surface temperature (SST) has implications for users in the agricultural and water management domains, among others. It is thus important to further understand the complexities of prediction of these variables using the most recent practices in climate prediction. The overarching goal of this dissertation is to determine the important contributions to seasonal prediction skill, predictability, and variability over North America using current climate prediction models and approaches. This dissertation aims to study a variety of approaches to seasonal climate prediction of variables over North America, including both climate prediction systems and methods of analysis. We utilize the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) System for Intra-Seasonal to Inter-Annual Prediction (ISI) to study seasonal climate prediction skill of North American and in particular for southeast US precipitation. We find that NMME results are often equal to or better than individual model results in terms of skill, as expected, making it a reasonable choice for southeast US seasonal climate predictions. However, climate models, including those involved in NMME, typically overestimate eastern Pacific warming during central Pacific El Nino events, which can affect regions that are influenced by teleconnections, such as the southeast US. Community Climate System Model version 4.0 (CCSM4) hindacasts and forecasts are included in NMME, and we preform a series of experiments that examine contributions to skill from certain drivers of North American climate prediction. The drivers we focus on are sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and their accuracy, land and atmosphere initialization, and ocean-atmosphere coupling. We compare measures of prediction skill of

  6. Progress and Future Directions in North American Carbon Cycle Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalak, Anna; Huntzinger, Deborah; Shrestha, Gyami

    2013-05-01

    The North American Carbon Program (NACP) convened its fourth biennial "All Investigators" meeting (AIM4, http://www.nacarbon.org/meeting_2013) to review progress in understanding the dynamics of the carbon cycle of North America and adjacent oceans and to chart a course for a more integrative and holistic approach to future research. The meeting was structured around the six decadal goals outlined in the new "A U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan" (Michalak et al., University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, 2011, available at http://www.carboncyclescience.gov) and focused on (1) diagnosis of the atmospheric carbon cycle, (2) drivers of anthropogenic emissions, (3) vulnerability of carbon stocks to change, (4) ecosystem impacts of change, (5) carbon management, and (6) decision support.

  7. Book review: Ecology of North American freshwater fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    This book will be important in courses for upper undergraduates studying fish ecology or for graduate students. However, it will also be an excellent reference for the fishery manager who asks ‘Why does this fish do that?’. With the wealth of great information contained in Ross’ book, chances are an answer will be found. Review info: Ecology of North American freshwater fishes. Edited by Stephen T. Ross, 2013. ISBN: 978-0520249455, 408 pp.

  8. Cretinism in a North American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Duncan, Robert B; Jones, Jeryl C; Moll, H David; Moon, Martha M; Blodgett, Dennis J; Vaughan, Michael R

    2002-01-01

    Congenital hyperplastic goiter and cretinism were documented in a 16 month-old male North American black bear (Ursus americanus). The cub was captured at approximately 8 months of age and maintained for an additional 8 months in captivity. Clinical signs included growth retardation, clumsiness, and facial dysmorphism. Hypothyroidism was documented by determining serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels. Lysosomal storage disease was ruled out by measuring various lysosomal enzyme activities. Serologic, radiographic, computed tomographic, necropsy, and histopathologic findings were consistent with congenital hypothyroidism and cretinism. PMID:11866041

  9. Highlights from the 2015 North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference.

    PubMed

    Zemanick, Edith T; Ong, Thida; Daines, Cori L; Dellon, Elisabeth P; Muhlebach, Marianne S; Esther, Charles R

    2016-06-01

    The 29th Annual North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference was held in Phoenix, Arizona on October 8-10, 2015. Abstracts were published in a supplement to Pediatric Pulmonology.(1) In this review, we summarize presentations in several of the topic areas addressed at the conference. Our goal is to provide an overview of presentations with relevance to emerging or changing concepts in several areas rather than a comprehensive review. Citations from the conference are by first author and abstract number or symposium number, as designated in the supplement. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:650-657. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27074261

  10. Correction to ``Forest disturbance and North American carbon flux''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goward, Samuel N.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Warren; Moisen, Gretchen; Collatz, G. James; Healey, Sean; Houghton, R. A.; Huang, Chengquan; Kennedy, Robert; Law, Beverly; Powell, Scott; Turner, David; Wulder, Michael A.

    2008-07-01

    In the article ``Forest disturbance and North American carbon flux,'' published in the 11 March 2008 issue of Eos (89(11)), several author affiliations were incorrect. The corrected affiliations are as follows: Sean Healey, Rocky Mountain Research Station, U.S. Forest Service, Ogden, Utah; R. A. Houghton, Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, Mass; and David Turner, Department of Forest Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis. The authors would also like to acknowledge the NASA Terrestrial Ecosystems and Applied Sciences Programs for providing support for the NAFD and LEDAPS projects discussed in the article.

  11. North American Thrombosis Forum, AF Action Initiative Consensus Document.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Christian T; Ansell, Jack E; Becker, Richard C; Benjamin, Emelia J; Deicicchi, David J; Mark Estes, N A; Ezekowitz, Michael D; Fanikos, John; Fareed, Jawed; Garcia, David; Giugliano, Robert P; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Granger, Christopher; Healey, Jeff S; Hull, Russell; Hylek, Elaine M; Libby, Peter; Lopes, Renato D; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Mega, Jessica; Piazza, Gregory; Sasahara, Arthur A; Sorond, Farzaneh A; Spyropoulos, Alex C; Walenga, Jeanine M; Weitz, Jeffrey I

    2016-05-01

    The North American Thrombosis Forum Atrial Fibrillation Action Initiative consensus document is a comprehensive yet practical briefing document focusing on stroke and bleeding risk assessment in patients with atrial fibrillation, as well as recommendations regarding anticoagulation options and management. Despite the breadth of clinical trial data and guideline recommendation updates, many clinicians continue to struggle to synthesize the disparate information available. This problem slows the uptake and utilization of updated risk prediction tools and adoption of new oral anticoagulants. This document serves as a practical and educational reference for the entire medical community involved in the care of patients with atrial fibrillation. PMID:27126598

  12. Standard methods for sampling North American freshwater fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Hubert, Wayne A.; Willis, David W.

    2009-01-01

    This important reference book provides standard sampling methods recommended by the American Fisheries Society for assessing and monitoring freshwater fish populations in North America. Methods apply to ponds, reservoirs, natural lakes, and streams and rivers containing cold and warmwater fishes. Range-wide and eco-regional averages for indices of abundance, population structure, and condition for individual species are supplied to facilitate comparisons of standard data among populations. Provides information on converting nonstandard to standard data, statistical and database procedures for analyzing and storing standard data, and methods to prevent transfer of invasive species while sampling.

  13. Description of AMSC's North American Private Voice Network (PVN) service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigler, C. E.; Magliato, N. H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides both a technical description of the American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC) Point-to-Multipoint Voice service and initial service offering descriptions. AMSC has selected the term Private Voice Network (PVN) for this service. The PVN service has been designed to take advantage of AMSC's continent-wide coverage. Thus PVN provides a service not currently found in the mobile communications marketplace, seamless 2-way point-multipoint voice communications across North America. This paper describes the PVN system within terms of physical components and configurations overall PVN system capabilities and initial PVN product offerings.

  14. Examining a Half Century of Northwestern North American Glacier Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnia, B. F.; Fahey, M. J.; Friesen, B.; Josberger, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    In 1957, as part of the United States' contribution to the International Geophysical Year (IGY), the American Geographical Society (AGS) initiated a multi-institutional mapping project to produce 1:10,000-scale topographic maps of nine northwestern North American glaciers. The project's goal was to prepare precise maps at large scales of selected small glaciers to form a permanent record of the condition of these glaciers so that at a future date they could be resurveyed and compared. Continued surveys would give the history of wastage and accumulation, and more accurate interpretation of the response of these glaciers to meteorological and other factors. The resulting maps and a descriptive summary brochure were published in 1960 by the American Geographical Society. The USGS Global Fiducials Program (GFP) began to systematically image the same nine glaciers approximately half-century after its IGY mapping. The results of the GFP analyses would permit the types of comparisons that were envisioned by the IGY project. Imagery of each of these nine glaciers has been collected from multiple sources, including Next View licensed commercial imagery, vertical and oblique aerial photography, Landsat, and US National Imagery Systems. Exploitation of the imagery has resulted in the production of new 21st century maps that can be compared and contrasted with the vintage AGS map set. Comparison will permit the calculation of a number of parameters which will provide a direct insight into the changes that northwestern North American glaciers have been experiencing during the past half century. Specifically, these comparisons will permit the calculation of changes in glacier length, area, thickness, and volume; computation of rates of glacier advance and/or retreat, rates of glacier thickening and/or thinning, and rates of volume change; production of digital elevation models (DEMs); and generation of velocity fields from crevasse migration. The subsequent re-mapping and

  15. Antioxidant capacities of ten edible North American plants.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Ulyana Muñoz; Atha, Daniel E; Ma, Jun; Nee, Michael H; Kennelly, Edward J

    2002-02-01

    The EtOAc extract obtained from ten edible North American plants, Acorus calamus, Clintonia borealis, Gaultheria shallon, Juniperus osteosperma, Opuntia polyacantha, Prunus americana, Prunus virginiana, Sambucus cerulea, Sorbus americana and Vaccinium parvifolium, were tested in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay. High antioxidant activity was obtained from the extracts of three fruits, Gaultheria shallon, Sambucus cerulea and Prunus americana and one extracted rhizome, Acorus calamus. Catechin and epicatechin, potent polyphenolic antioxidants, were identified in the EtOAc extracts of Gaultheria shallon and Sambucus cerulea by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). PMID:11807968

  16. Evaluating North American net primary productivity with satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goward, Samuel N.; Dye, Dennis G.

    1987-01-01

    An ecological model is developed to estimate annual net primary productivity (NPP) in 12 North American biomes. The model combines existing models which address canopy photosynthesis in response to light, temperature, and moisture availability, and account for respiration. Climate data, solar radiation data, and spectral vegetation index data are utilized. Estimates of NPP from the model compare well with data in the literature, but a systematic error is suspected. Difficulties encountered in specifying certain model parameters are discussed as possible sources of this error. The results of this study suggest the promise of remotely sensed measurements for macroscale evaluation and modeling of NPP.

  17. NASA's Role in the North American Carbon Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's participation in the North American Carbon Program will include a significant effort for quantifying terrestrial and adjacent ocean sources and sinks of carbon using a variety of land, ocean, and atmospheric measurements. This effort will require improved remote sensing algorithms, new measurement technologies, refined model parameterizations of carbon cycle processes, advanced satellite data assimilation methodologies, and a data management strategy. NASA's plan for pursuing these activities will be presented. Examples of NASA data management capabilities such as the SeaWiFS on-line field data system will be discussed.

  18. Drought displaced movement of North American pintails into Siberia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.

    1973-01-01

    During the years 1954-70, 230 pintails (Anas acuta) banded in North America were reported from eastern Asia, primarily Siberia. Most of the birds were shot on the breeding grounds in May. The movement into eastern Asia of pintails banded in the interior of North America was directly correlated with the overflight of the southern portion of the breeding range in North America (r = +0.73**); this overflight resulted from drought conditions (Smith 1970). Thus, the magnitude of the pintail movement into eastern Asia is believed to be dependent upon water conditions some 3,000 miles away. A higher percentage of the pintails banded in the west was reported from eastern Asia, although the recovery rate index was not significantly correlated with the percentage of pintails found in northern Canada and Alaska (r = +0.46 NS). Apparently, a portion of the pintails which winter in the western United States annually nest in Siberia, regardless of water conditions on the North American breeding grounds.

  19. Cenozoic migration of topography in the North American Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, H. T.; Mulch, A.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2010-12-01

    Continental topography is the result of complex interactions among mantle convection, continental dynamics, as well as climatic and erosional processes. Therefore, topographic evolution of mountain belts and continental interiors reflects directly upon the coupling between mantle and surface processes. It has recently been proposed that the modern topography of western North America is partly controlled by the removal of the subducting Farallon Plate and replacement of lithospheric mantle by hot asthenosphere, creating surface uplift of the Colorado Plateau, the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, while concomitant subsidence characterizes the central United States. How the topography of the Cenozoic North American Cordillera evolved in the past is largely unknown, yet currently debated tectonic models each have a predictable topographic response. We examined Cenozoic surface uplift patterns of western North America based on a record of ~3000 stable isotope proxy data. This data set is consistent with Eocene north to south surface uplift in the Cordillera, culminating in the assembly of an Eocene-Oligocene highland 3-4 km in elevation. The diachronous record of surface uplift and associated magmatism further supports tectonic models calling for the convective removal of mantle lithosphere or removal of the Farallon slab by buckling along an east-west axis. The Eocene-Oligocene development of similar-to-present day rainout patterns along the flanks of the Cordilleran orogen is therefore unlikely to be the result of late Mesozoic crustal thickening and associated development of an Andean-style Altiplano.

  20. The Southern Cone: A critical element in North American geology

    SciTech Connect

    Dalziel, I.W.D. . Inst. for Geophysics)

    1993-02-01

    The Pacific and Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico continental margins converge towards southern Mexico, delimiting the Southern Cone of North American. The margins are controlled by late Precambrian to early Paleozoic rift systems. The Neoproterozoic rifts along the Pacific margin truncate the 1.3--1.0 Ga Grenville-Llano front and still older structural boundaries within the craton, such as the Snowbird line. The Atlantic margin originated by separation from another continent within the Grenville orogen near the time of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. The Gulf of Mexico margin was initiated with rifting at that time, but appears to truncate the Ordovician Taconian orogen in Georgia. The continental margins of the Southern Cone may prove critical in understanding the origin of North America as a discrete continent. A possible continuation of the Grenville-Llano front has now been identified along the Pacific margin of the East Antarctic craton; the opposite side of the Grenville orogen may be present in South America and East Antarctic; a southern continuation of the Taconic Appalachians may have been identified in southern South American and Antarctica (L. Dalla Salda et al., Geology, 1992 a;b: I. Dalziel, Geology, 1991, and GSA Today, 1992; P. Hoffman, Science, 1991; E. Moores, Geology, 1991). Thus the geology of the Southern Cone of North America provides opportunities for critical testing of these globally important hypotheses, notably through geochronometry, isotope geochemistry, stratigraphy, and paleobiogeography. Conversely, East Antarctica, southern Africa, and the proto-Andean margin of South America may offer exciting opportunities to further understanding of pre-Pangea geology across southern North America.

  1. 77 FR 61593 - North American Natural Resources, Inc. Complainant v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C, American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ....L.C, American Electric Power Service Corporation, Indiana Michigan Power Company, Respondents... Federal Power Act (FPA), 16 U.S.C. 824(e), North American Natural Resource, Inc. (NSANR) filed a formal complaint against PJM Interconnection, L.L.C, (PJM), American Electric Power Service Corporation (AEP),...

  2. NRAO Welcomes Taiwan as a New North American ALMA Partner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) has announced a formal agreement enabling Taiwanese astronomers to participate in the North American component of the international ALMA partnership, alongside American and Canadian astronomers. Taiwan's efforts will be led by the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA). ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, is the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in history. Currently under construction in Chile’s Atacama Desert at an altitude of 16,500 feet, it promises to revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planets, stars, and galaxies when it begins full science operations early in the next decade. The agreement, signed by the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office and the American Institute in Taiwan, provides for approximately $20 million in ALMA construction funding through the National Science Council (NSC), Taiwan’s equivalent to the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Canada's National Research Council (NRC), which have jointly funded North America's existing contribution to the international ALMA project. Activities under the agreement will include joint research projects, development projects, collaboration on construction, support of observatory operations and other forms of cooperation. Access to ALMA observing time will be shared, as will membership on advisory committees. “Taiwan is a world-class center for submillimeter-wavelength astronomical research, and we’re delighted that the ALMA project and all its future users will benefit from the resources and expertise that Taiwan’s deepening participation brings to this great, global endeavor,” said Dr. Fred Lo, NRAO's director. This new agreement increases and diversifies Taiwan’s Academia Sinica investment in ALMA beyond the levels achieved through its participation in the East Asian component of the ALMA partnership, which is led by the National Astronomical

  3. Structure, seismicity, and instrumentation of stable North American lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolin, Emily Lynne Gregonis

    The work in this thesis covers a number of different fields in seismology. These can be divided into three parts. In the first, I discuss earthquakes that occur along the North American passive margin. In the second, I investigate the noise characteristics of Superior Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) seismic stations. In the third, I evaluate the predictions of pre-existing tomographic models, expand raypath coverage in eastern North America by fitting waveforms, and produce an updated tomographic model focusing on the structure of stable North American lithosphere. First, I explore the rare, but moderate-to-large earthquakes that occur along the passive margin of North America, such as the August 2011 Mineral, Virginia earthquake. I discuss the tectonic setting, possible causes, and challenges of studying such earthquakes and propose directions for their future study. Examining the seismicity of the regions surrounding the 1929 Grand Banks and 1933 Baffin Bay earthquakes, I conclude that the aftershocks of these events continue today due to low strain rates along the margin. Second, I characterize the long-period noise characteristics of SPREE stations. At periods greater than 20 seconds, horizontal noise levels at SPREE stations vary seasonally and diurnally. I find that SPREE stations in sandy soil have the most consistent noise levels. Stations in fine-grained soil become extremely noisy during summer days, but very quiet when the surrounding soil freezes solid in winter. Finally, I evaluate previous generations of tomographic models and develop my own. I calculate synthetic seismograms for three tomographic models and compare them to new observed seismograms from earthquakes in stable North America. I find that adding data to a tomographic model does not necessarily improve predictions of regional S and Rayleigh waveforms. With this in mind, I apply the method of partitioned waveform inversion to derive constraints on S-velocity structure. I add these

  4. Comparison of arch forms between Turkish and North American

    PubMed Central

    Celebi, Ahmet A.; Keklik, Hakan; Tan, Enes; Ucar, Faruk I.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the morphological differences in the mandibular arches of Turkish and North American white subjects. Methods: The sample included 132 Turkish (34 Class I, 58 Class II, and 40 Class III) and 160 North American (60 Class I, 50 Class II, and 50 Class III) subjects. The most facial portion of 13 proximal contact areas was digitized from photocopied images of patients' mandibular dental arches. Clinical bracket points were calculated for each tooth based on mandibular tooth thickness data. Four linear and two proportional measurements were taken. The subjects were grouped according to arch form types (tapered, ovoid and square) in order to have frequency distribution compared between ethnic groups in each Angle classification. Results: The Turkish group showed significantly lower molar depth and more significant molar width-depth (W/D) ratio in all three Angle classifications. On the other hand, the Turkish group also showed a significantly larger intercanine width in Class III malocclusion and intermolar width in Class II malocclusion. The most frequent arch forms seen were the ovoid arch form in the Turkish group and the tapered form in the white group. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that when treating Turkish patients, one should expect to use preformed ovoid arch form orthodontic wires in a significant percentage of patients. PMID:27275615

  5. Reconnecting fragmented sturgeon populations in North American rivers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jager, Yetta; Forsythe, Patrick S.; McLaughlin, Robert L.; Joseph J. Cech, Jr.; Parsley, Michael; Elliott, Robert F.; Pracheil, Brenda M.

    2016-02-24

    The majority of large North American rivers are fragmented by dams that interrupt migrations of wide-ranging fishes like sturgeons. Reconnecting habitat is viewed as an important means of protecting sturgeon species in U.S. rivers because these species have lost between 5% and 60% of their historical ranges. Unfortunately, facilities designed to pass other fishes have rarely worked well for sturgeons. The most successful passage facilities were sized appropriately for sturgeons and accommodated bottom-oriented species. For upstream passage, facilities with large entrances, full-depth guidance systems, large lifts, or wide fishways without obstructions or tight turns worked well. However, facilitating upstream migrationmore » is only half the battle. Broader recovery for linked sturgeon populations requires safe round-trip passage involving multiple dams. The most successful downstream passage facilities included nature-like fishways, large canal bypasses, and bottom-draw sluice gates. We outline an adaptive approach to implementing passage that begins with temporary programs and structures and monitors success both at the scale of individual fish at individual dams and the scale of metapopulations in a river basin. The challenge will be to learn from past efforts and reconnect North American sturgeon populations in a way that promotes range expansion and facilitates population recovery.« less

  6. Phylogeography and pleistocene evolution in the North American black bear.

    PubMed

    Wooding, S; Ward, R

    1997-11-01

    To determine the extent of phylogeographic structuring in North American black bear (Ursus americanus) populations, we examined mitochondrial DNA sequences (n = 118) and restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles (n = 258) in individuals from 16 localities. Among the bears examined, 19 lineages falling into two highly divergent clades were identified. The clades differ at 5.0% of nucleotide positions, a distance consistent with an origin 1.8 MYA, and have different but overlapping geographical distributions. Areas of clade cooccurrence show that eastern and western populations are currently mixing, but regional differences in lineage distribution suggest that mixing has begun only recently. The long-term population history of black bears appears to be characterized predominantly by long-term regional isolation followed by recent contact and hybridization. Congruence between the pattern of diversity observed in black bears and patterns of forest refuge formation during the Pleistocene supports earlier speculation that Pleistocene forest fragmentations underlie a common pattern in the phylogeography of North American forest taxa. PMID:9364767

  7. Krypton and xenon fractionation in North American tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, R. L.; Rao, M. N.; Rowe, M. W.; Koeberl, C.

    1997-01-01

    Elemental and isotopic compositions of the noble gases have been determined in six North American tektites (4 bediasites and 2 georgiaites) and one Ivory Coast tektite. Radiogenically produced 4He may explain the large 4He/36Ar ratios measured relative to air, despite significant diffusive losses. The neon isotopic composition is enriched in 20Ne consistent with a single stage mass fractionation process. The enormous 20Ne/36Ar enrichments observed in all tektite samples, similar to those reported from other tektites and impact glasses, are attributed to atmospheric diffusion into the samples following solidification. The North American tektites show a systematic increase in 84Kr/36Ar and 132Xe/36Ar relative to air, with enrichments greater than those determined for any other tektite group or terrestrial samples other than shales. These enrichments are inconsistent with existing models of dissolving Kr and Xe in tektite glass without elemental fractionation at atmospheric pressures equivalent to ~40 km altitude. The Kr and Xe isotopic compositions are indistinguishable from atmospheric within experimental uncertainty.

  8. The spring migration of adult North American Ospreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O., Jr.; Washburn, Brian E.; Elliott, John E.; Henny, Charles J.; Kennedy, Robert S.; MacLeod, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Most North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) are migratory, breeding in northern latitudes and migrating long distances to and from their wintering grounds in the tropics. Although fall migration patterns of North American Ospreys have been described and studied, very little has been published about the spring migration of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to: (1) determine the characteristics (timing, duration, migratory routes) of spring migrations of Ospreys; (2) determine if differences in spring migration patterns existed between sexes and among three breeding populations (east coast, midwestern, and western); and (3) compare consecutive fall and spring migrations of individual Ospreys. The median dates for departure from the wintering grounds and arrival on the breeding grounds did not differ significantly between adult male and female Ospreys. Compared to their fall migrations, all male and all east coast Ospreys spent fewer days on migration, fewer days in stopover periods along the migration route, traveled shorter distances overall, and traveled farther (on average) each day during spring. In contrast, fall and spring migration characteristics of all female and western Ospreys were similar. Our findings suggest that, although sex and breeding location might influence the spring migration strategy used by individual Ospreys, both males and females minimize the time spent on migration to ensure a timely arrival on the breeding grounds to establish or defend a nesting territory.

  9. North American Breeding Bird Survey Annual Summary, 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Droege, S.; Sauer, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is run by approximately 2,000 skilled amateur ornithologists and is coordinated cooperatively by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Canadian Wildlife Service. Since 1966, BBS cooperators have been collecting standardized information on North American bird populations. The BBS is a roadside survey, comprised of permanent routes that are surveyed yearly. Each route is 39.4 km (24.5 miles) long and consists of 50 stops spaced 0.8 km (0.5 mile) apart. All birds heard or seen during a 3-min observation period at each stop are recorded, and, for each species, the sum of the counts on individual stops is used as an index of species density on the route. Survey routes occur throughout the continental United States and most of Canada. Here, we present the population changes of the 251 bird species reported on the 50 or more BBS routes in the survey region during 1988 and 1989. Population trends for 1966-89 are presented for comparison. The direction and significance of population changes between the years for the 306 species occurring on 10 or more routes within States and Provinces are summarized in Appendix B. The pattern of population changes for selected species is graphically summarized on maps by physiographic stratum.

  10. North American Breeding Bird Survey Annual Summary, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Droege, S.; Sauer, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction: The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is run by approximately 2,000 skilled amateur ornithologists, and is coordinated cooperatively by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Canadian Wildlife Service. Beginning in 1966, BBS cooperators have been collecting standardized information on North American bird populations. The BBS is a roadside survey, comprised of permanent routes that are surveyed yearly. Each route is 39.4 km (24.5 miles) long and consists of 50 stops spaced 0.8 km (0.5 mile) apart. All birds heard or seen during a 3-min observation period at each stop are recorded, and the sum of the individual stops for each species is used as an index of species density on the route. In this report, we present the population changes of the 222 bird species reported on > 50 BBS routes during 1987 and 1988. Population trends for 1966-87 are presented for comparison. Owing to space constraints, trends are not reported for States, Provinces, or physiographic regions. Instead, we present maps illustrating patterns of population change for selected species, and summarize State and physiographic strata patterns of population change as the proportion of species that increased in each region. Detailed State, Provincial, and physiographic strata changes arc available to interested readers.

  11. Evaluating causes of population change in North American insectivorous songbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.

    1962-01-01

    Although the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is a principal source of information regarding populations of most North American bird species, many features of the survey complicate analysis of population change. Correlation studies based on BBS data cannot be used to unambiguously define cause and effect relationships. Recently, B?hning-Gaese et al. (1993) presented an analysis of population trends in insectivorous songbirds using data from the BBS. They concluded that predation has played an important role in influencing population trends. We review aspects of the analysis methods for estimating population trends (e.g., observer effects, data subset) and for associating mean trends with species attributes (e.g., confounding of attributes). Using alternative analyses of the same BBS data, we demonstrate that the evidence that predation is associated with population declines is weaker than they suggested. Based on our analyses the only factor among those tested that is consistently associated with population trends is migration status (i.e., short-distance migrant/resident vs. long-distance migrant) during the period 1978-1987. Also, we present evidence that the harsh winters of the mid-1970's severely depressed populations of short-distance migrant species, and may be responsible for the observed associations between migration status and population trends.

  12. Evaluating causes of population change in North American insectivorous songbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Pendleton, G.W.; Peterjohn, B.G.

    1996-01-01

    Although the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is a principal source of information regarding populations of most North American bird species, many features of the survey complicate analysis of population change. Correlation studies based on BBS data cannot be used to unambiguously define cause and effect relationships. Recently, Bohning-Gaese et al. (1993) presented an analysis of population trends in insectivorous songbirds using data from the BBS. They concluded that predation has played an important role in influencing population trends. We review aspects of the analysis methods for estimating population trends (e.g., observer effects, data subset) and for associating mean trends with species attributes (e.g., confounding of attributes). Using alternative analyses of the same BBS data, we demonstrate that the evidence that predation is associated with population declines is weaker than they suggested. Based on our analyses the only factor among those tested that is consistently associated with population trends is migration status (i.e., short-distance migrant/resident vs. long-distance migrant) during the period 1978-1987. Also, we present evidence that the harsh winters of the mid-1970's severely depressed populations of short-distance migrant species, and may be responsible for the observed associations between migration status and population trends.

  13. Reconnecting fragmented sturgeon populations in North American rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jager, Henriette; Parsley, Michael J.; Cech, Joseph J. Jr.; McLaughlin, R.L.; Forsythe, Patrick S.; Elliott, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of large North American rivers are fragmented by dams that interrupt migrations of wide-ranging fishes like sturgeons. Reconnecting habitat is viewed as an important means of protecting sturgeon species in U.S. rivers because these species have lost between 5% and 60% of their historical ranges. Unfortunately, facilities designed to pass other fishes have rarely worked well for sturgeons. The most successful passage facilities were sized appropriately for sturgeons and accommodated bottom-oriented species. For upstream passage, facilities with large entrances, full-depth guidance systems, large lifts, or wide fishways without obstructions or tight turns worked well. However, facilitating upstream migration is only half the battle. Broader recovery for linked sturgeon populations requires safe “round-trip” passage involving multiple dams. The most successful downstream passage facilities included nature-like fishways, large canal bypasses, and bottom-draw sluice gates. We outline an adaptive approach to implementing passage that begins with temporary programs and structures and monitors success both at the scale of individual fish at individual dams and the scale of metapopulations in a river basin. The challenge will be to learn from past efforts and reconnect North American sturgeon populations in a way that promotes range expansion and facilitates population recovery.

  14. Relationship between Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and blood levels of Epstein-Barr Virus in children in north-western Tanzania: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas (NHL) are common in African children, with endemic Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) being the most common subtype. While the role of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in endemic BL is known, no data are available about clinical presentations of NHL subtypes and their relationship to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) load in peripheral blood of children in north-western, Tanzania. Methods A matched case control study of NHL subtypes was performed in children under 15 years of age and their respective controls admitted to Bugando Medical Centre, Sengerema and Shirati district designated hospitals in north-western, Tanzania, between September 2010 and April 2011. Peripheral blood samples were collected on Whatman 903 filter papers and EBV DNA levels were estimated by multiplex real-time PCR. Clinical and laboratory data were collected using a structured data collection tool and analysed using chi-square, Fisher and Wilcoxon rank sum tests where appropriate. The association between NHL and detection of EBV in peripheral blood was assessed using conditional logistic regression model and presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results A total of 35 NHL cases and 70 controls matched for age and sex were enrolled. Of NHLs, 32 had BL with equal distribution between jaw and abdominal tumour, 2 had large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 1 had NHL-not otherwise specified (NHL-NOS). Central nervous system (CNS) presentation occurred only in 1 BL patient; 19 NHLs had stage I and II of disease. Only 1 NHL was found to be HIV-seropositive. Twenty-one of 35 (60%) NHL and 21 of 70 (30%) controls had detectable EBV in peripheral blood (OR = 4.77, 95% CI 1.71 – 13.33, p = 0.003). In addition, levels of EBV in blood were significantly higher in NHL cases than in controls (p = 0.024). Conclusions BL is the most common childhood NHL subtype in north-western Tanzania. NHLs are not associated

  15. North American weather-type frequency and teleconnection indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Scott C.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of teleconnections upon the surface climate has largely been examined via a response in monthly mean temperature or total precipitation. In this paper, a different approach is undertaken, by examining the response of synoptic weather-type frequencies to different teleconnection phases.For over 330 stations in the USA and Canada, the Spatial Synoptic Classification scheme has classified each day in each station's period of record into one of seven weather-type categories, based on thermal, moisture, and other characteristics. The differences in how frequently these different weather types occur in different phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Pacific-North American (PNA) teleconnection patterns is assessed, for Canadian stations from 1953 to 1993, and for US stations from 1950 to 1999.For PNA, a significant shift in the transitional frequency is observed, suggesting changes in storm track. Concomitantly, a large shift in Dry Polar and Moist Tropical frequencies is observed across the continent. Across the West, in +PNA wintertime months far fewer Dry Polar days are observed. Across the eastern USA, these polar intrusions are more common, and Moist Tropical is diminished significantly.The frequency of the transitional situation is also correlated with NAO phase, with differences as large as a factor of two across much of Canada and the northern USA. In northeastern Canada, there is a large replacement of Moist Polar conditions with Dry Polar conditions during +NAO. Farther south, however, across the eastern USA, both polar weather types occur much less often with +NAO. Although previous research has discovered eastern North American connections to the NAO, this research has shown that the connections often extend into the interior West during much of the year. Particularly strong in the spring, Dry Tropical conditions are much more common with +NAO throughout much of the continent, as far west as the Great Basin.

  16. Preliminary results of an updated North American GPS velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craymer, M. R.; Henton, J. A.; Piraszewski, M.; Lapelle, E.

    2010-12-01

    In an effort to improve previous continental-scale GPS velocity fields for North America, we and other collaborators in the North American Reference Frame (NAREF) Working Group have reprocessed, or are in the process of reprocessing, data from nearly all continuous GPS sites in North America (as well as a selection of global sites used to define the reference frame). Previous velocity fields were derived from coordinate time series of somewhat inhomogeneous GPS results due to: (1) the use of relative antenna calibrations that did not include satellite antennas or account for the presence of antenna radomes, (2) the use of difference reference frames, (3) the use of IGS precise orbits based on these calibrations and reference frames, and (4) the use of different (evolving) versions of GPS processing software and procedures. This reprocessing effort of all previous data is based on more consistent and accurate absolute antenna calibrations of both station and satellite antennas, the ITRF2005 reference frame and the latest versions of GPS processing software and procedures. Also, more than three additional years of data have been included in the velocity field estimation. The new time series and velocity results from the different NAREF collaborators are compared with each other and with previous reported results. We also compare these results to new precise point positioning (PPP) solutions that are much more efficient for processing large networks and to recent model predictions of glacial isostatic adjustment.

  17. Linking North Atlantic Teleconnections to Latitudinal Variability of Wave Climate Along the North American Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provancha, C.; Adams, P. N.; Hegermiller, C.; Storlazzi, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Shoreline change via coastal erosion and accretion is largely influenced by variations in ocean wave climate. Identifying the sources of these variations is challenging because the timing of wave energy delivery varies over multiple timescales within ocean basins. We present the results of an investigation of USACE Wave Information Studies hindcast hourly wave heights, periods, and directions along the North American Atlantic coast from 1980-2012, designed to explore links between wave climate and teleconnection patterns. Trends in median and extreme significant wave heights (SWHs) demonstrate that mean monthly SWHs increased from 1 to 5 cm/yr along the roughly 3000 km reach of study area, with changes in hurricane season waves appearing to be most influential in producing the overall trends. Distributions of SWHs categorized by North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase, show that positive-period NAO SWHs are greater than negative-period NAO SWHs along the entire eastern seaboard (25°N to 45°N). The most prominent wave direction off Cape Cod, MA during positive-period NAO is approximately 105°, as compared to approximately 75° during negative-period NAO. Prominent wave directions between Cape Canaveral, FL, and Savannah, GA exhibit a similar shift but during opposite phases of the NAO. The results of this analysis suggest that the atmosphere-ocean interactions associated with contrasting NAO phases can significantly change the wave climate observed offshore along the North American Atlantic coast, altering alongshore wave energy fluxes and sediment transport patterns along the coast.

  18. Nephrolithiasis in free-ranging North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) in North Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Niemuth, Jennifer N; Sanders, Charles W; Mooney, Charles B; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; DePerno, Christopher S; Stoskopf, Michael K

    2014-03-01

    The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) serves as an indicator species for environmental monitoring, is prized as a valuable furbearer, and is a popular display animal in zoologic collections. Nephrolithiasis has been reported as a frequent problem in other free-ranging and captive otter species but is rarely reported in North American river otters. In this study, we compared the prevalence of nephrolithiasis diagnosed using routine gross pathologic examination techniques with the use of computed tomography (CT) of excised kidneys. We also evaluated whether otter nephroliths could be accurately classified by their CT densities, and we examined the renal tissue uric acid concentrations in free-ranging otters in North Carolina, USA. Kidneys were collected from carcasses of legally trapped, free-ranging animals. Nephroliths were observed in 16.2% of the individuals (n = 229). Associations were found between age and nephrolith status and between capture location and nephrolith status (P = 0.026 and < 0.001, respectively). Computed tomography Hounsfield unit density measurements were not useful in determining nephrolith chemical composition in this study. Renal tissue uric acid concentrations were similar across genders, age groups, and stone status. The chemical composition of the nephroliths was determined by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to be calcium phosphate in the carbonate form. PMID:24712169

  19. Subseasonal variability of North American wintertime surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hai

    2015-09-01

    Using observational pentad data of the recent 34 Northern Hemisphere extended winters, subseasonal variability of surface air temperature (SAT) over North America is analyzed. The four leading modes of subseasonal SAT variability, that are identified with an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, account for about 60% of the total variance. The first (EOF1) and second (EOF2) modes are independent of other modes, and thus are likely controlled by distinct processes. The third (EOF3) and fourth (EOF4) modes, however, tend to have a phase shift to each other in space and time, indicating that part of their variability is related to a common process and represent a propagating pattern over North America. Lagged regression analysis is conducted to identify the precursors of large-scale atmospheric circulation for each mode a few pentads in advance, and to understand the processes that influence the subseasonal SAT variability and the predictability signal sources. EOF1 is found to be closely related to the Pacific-North American (PNA) circulation pattern and at least part of its variability is preceded by the East Asian cold surge. The cold surge leads to low-level convergence and enhanced convection in the tropical central Pacific which in turn induces the PNA. EOF2 tends to oscillate at a period of about 70 days, and is influenced by the low-frequency component of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). On the other hand, EOF3 and EOF4 are connected to the high-frequency part of the MJO which has a period range of 30-50 days. These findings would help understanding the mechanisms of subseasonal surface air temperature variability in North America and improving weather predictions on a subseasonal time scale.

  20. The Influence of Climate on Sustainable North American Bioenergy Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagley, J. E.; Cuadra, S.; Drewry, D.; VanLoocke, A. D.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Bioenergy agroecosystems are increasingly being investigated and implemented as an important source of sustainable and secure liquid fuel. In the U.S. the current bioenergy market is dominated by ethanol derived from maize, which has limited carbon benefits and multiple environmental concerns. In 2012, a record ~40% of the maize crop went to ethanol production despite persistent drought conditions reducing yields across much of the growing region. This has led to questions of the future value of devoting such a large fraction of the most valuable arable land to ethanol production with the frequency of these extreme conditions expected to increase with climate change. A proposed solution is the development of 2nd-generation bioenergy crops including miscanthus, switchgrass, and energy cane on marginal or abandoned croplands that have limited value for food production. However, the future potential for these lands to provide sufficient bioenergy production has uncertainty associated with changing climate. In this study, we use a newly available suite of dynamically downscaled climate data sets, estimates of marginal and abandoned cropland derived in part from satellite observations, and an extended version of the Agro-IBIS LSM to estimate the impact of climate change on North American bioenergy potential. In particular, we assess how temperature and precipitation are likely to change over marginal and abandoned croplands, and how these changes may impact the range and yields of maize, miscanthus, switchgrass, and energy cane. We extend the Agro-IBIS model with mechanistic multilayer vegetation, and validate the model using published yield, leaf area, and surface flux observations. The extended Agro-IBIS model is driven with weather conditions from the near-past (1971-2000) and future (2041-2070) using 30-year dynamically downscaled climate estimates from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), and CO2 concentrations specified from

  1. Tectonics of the North American Cordillera near the Fortieth Parallel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, P.B.

    1978-01-01

    The North American Cordillera near the Fortieth Parallel consists of the following tectonic units: 1. (A) To the east is a reactivated cratonic area, in the Southern Rocky Mountains and Colorado Plateau, in which the supracrustal rocks (Cambrian to Cretaceous) were broadly deformed during the late Cretaceous-Paleocene Laramide orogeny, and the Precambrian basement was raised in folds of wide amplitude. 2. (B) West of it is a miogeosynclinal belt, in the eastern Great Basin, in which a thick sequence of Paleozoic carbonates and related deposits was thrust eastward along low-angle faults during the middle to late Cretaceous Sevier orogeny. The miogeosyncline is the downwarped western margin of the original North American continent, and its rocks accumulated on Precambrian basement. 3. (C) Beyond is a eugeosynclinal belt, in the western Great Basin, in which Paleozoic graywackes, cherts, and volcanics were thrust easteastward along low-angle faults during several Paleozoic orogenies - the mid-Paleozoic Antler orogeny which produced the Roberts thrust on the east, and the end-Paleozoic Sonoma orogeny which produced the Golconda thrust farther west. The Paleozoic eugeosynclinal rocks accumulated on oceanic basement. They are overlapped from the west by Triassic and Jurassic shelf deposits, which pass westward into eugeosynclinal deposits. 4. (D) A volcanic island-arc belt existed on the sites of the Sierra Nevada in Paleozoic and early Mesozoic time, which produced thick bodies of sediments and volcanics. During the mid-Mesozoic Nevadan orogeny these were steeply deformed and thrust westward over subduction zones, and were intruded by granitic rocks that rose from the upper mantle to form great batholiths. 5. (E) West of the Sierra Nevada, in the Great Valley, is a great sedimentary embankment of later Mesozoic flysch or turbidite, largely younger than the supracrustal rocks of the Sierra Nevada and the Nevadan orogeny. It was formed of the erosional products of the

  2. LGMD2I in a North American population

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Peter B; Feener, Chris A; Estrella, Elicia; Thorne, Marielle; White, Alexander J; Darras, Basil T; Amato, Anthony A; Kunkel, Louis M

    2007-01-01

    Background There is a marked variation in clinical phenotypes that have been associated with mutations in FKRP, ranging from severe congenital muscular dystrophies to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I (LGMD2I). Methods We screened the FKRP gene in two cohorts totaling 87 patients with the LGMD phenotype. Results The c.826C>A, p.L276I mutation was present in six patients and a compound heterozygote mutation in a seventh patient. Six patients had a mild LGMD2I phenotype, which resembles that of Becker muscular dystrophy. The other patient had onset before the age of 3 years, and thus may follow a more severe course. Conclusion These findings suggest that LGMD2I may be common in certain North American populations. This diagnosis should be considered early in the evaluation of LGMD. PMID:18036232

  3. A Sustainable Biomass Industry for the North American Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Norman J.; Smith, Steven J.

    2009-12-01

    The North American Great Plains (hereafter NAGP) region is economically distressed and prone to severe ecological disruptions such as soil erosion. Its water resources are over-used and subject to pollution from agricultural fertilizers and chemicals, issues common to agricultural lands globally. On the other hand, the region is well suited to the production of herbaceous biomass that can be combusted directly for power or converted to liquid transportation fuels. This paper reviews the geography, history and current condition of the NAGP and offers suggestions about how the agriculture, economy and environment of this and similar regions around the world can be made more sustainable and able to contribute to a reduction in CO2 emissions and consequent global warming.

  4. Sequelae of radiation facial epilation (North American Hiroshima maiden syndrome)

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, I.B.; Walfish, P.G. )

    1989-12-01

    Radiation for benign problems of the head and neck area has been uniformly recognized as unacceptable practice. This includes epilation for facial hirsutism. Twelve such patients, recently encountered, have characteristic radiodermatitis facies and have demonstrated multisite neoplastic involvement--including skin, thyroid, parathyroid, salivary gland, oral cavity, facial skeleton, and breast--and have also undergone extensive dermatologic treatment of complications of radiodermatitis. There was one cancer death, and three patients are alive with cancer. Such patients have a superficial resemblance to the Hiroshima maiden group of young women who survived atomic bombing and experienced severe facial burns, necessitating extensive plastic surgery. As atomic survivors they are at increased risk for cancer of thyroid, salivary gland, lung, breast, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract. The North American Hiroshima maiden should warrant easy clinical recognition and require lifetime scrutiny for multisite neoplastic disease.

  5. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. North American Fuzzy Logic Processing Society (NAFIPS 1992), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the NAFIPS '92 North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society Conference. More than 75 papers were presented at this Conference, which was sponsored by NAFIPS in cooperation with NASA, the Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, the Indian Society for Fuzzy Mathematics and Information Processing (ISFUMIP), the Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM), the International Fuzzy Systems Association (IFSA), the Japan Society for Fuzzy Theory and Systems, and the Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC). The fuzzy set theory has led to a large number of diverse applications. Recently, interesting applications have been developed which involve the integration of fuzzy systems with adaptive processes such a neural networks and genetic algorithms. NAFIPS '92 was directed toward the advancement, commercialization, and engineering development of these technologies.

  8. North American Fuzzy Logic Processing Society (NAFIPS 1992), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the NAFIPS '92 North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society Conference. More than 75 papers were presented at this Conference, which was sponsored by NAFIPS in cooperation with NASA, the Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, the Indian Society for Fuzzy Mathematics and Information Processing (ISFUMIP), the Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM), the International Fuzzy Systems Association (IFSA), the Japan Society for Fuzzy Theory and Systems, and the Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC). The fuzzy set theory has led to a large number of diverse applications. Recently, interesting applications have been developed which involve the integration of fuzzy systems with adaptive processes such as neural networks and genetic algorithms. NAFIPS '92 was directed toward the advancement, commercialization, and engineering development of these technologies.

  9. Lithospheric structure and deformation of the North American continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesauro, Magdala; Kaban, Mikhail; Cloetingh, Sierd; Mooney, Walter

    2013-04-01

    We estimate the integrated strength and elastic thickness (Te) of the North American lithosphere based on thermal, density and structural (seismic) models of the crust and upper mantle. The temperature distribution in the lithosphere is estimated considering for the first time the effect of composition as a result of the integrative approach based on a joint analysis of seismic and gravity data. We do this via an iterative adjustment of the model. The upper mantle temperatures are initially estimated from the NA07 tomography model of Bedle and Van der Lee (2009) using mineral physics equations. This thermal model, obtained for a uniform composition, is used to estimate the gravity effect and to remove it from the total mantle gravity anomalies, which are controlled by both temperature and compositional variations. Therefore, we can predict compositional variations from the residual gravity anomalies and use them to correct the initial thermal model. The corrected thermal model is employed again in the gravity calculations. The loop is repeated until convergence is reached. The results demonstrate that the lithospheric mantle is characterized by strong compositional heterogeneity, which is consistent with xenolith data. Seismic data from the USGS database allow to define P-wave velocity and thickness of each crustal layer of the North American geological provinces. The use of these seismic data and of the new compositional and thermal models gives us the chance to estimate lateral variation of rheology of the main lithospheric layers and to evaluate coupling-decoupling conditions at the layers' boundaries. In the North American Cordillera the strength is mainly localized in the crust, which is decoupled from the mantle lithosphere. In the cratons the strength is chiefly controlled by the mantle lithosphere and all the layers are generally coupled. These results contribute to the long debates on applicability of the "crème brulée" or "jelly-sandwich" models for the

  10. Evaluating North American net primary productivity with satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goward, Samuel N.; Dye, Dennis G.

    An ecological model is developed to estimate annual net primary productivity in twelve North American biomes. Existing models were combined which together address canopy photosynthesis in response to light, temperature, and moisture availability, and account for respiration. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the NOAA-7 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor provided estimates of canopy-intercepted photosynthetically active radiation for the twelve-month study period. Estimates of NPP generated from the model compare favorably with figures reported in the literature. However the model estimates are, in general, less than reported figures, suggesting the possibility of systematic error in the model. Difficulties confronted in specifying certain model parameters are discussed as possible sources of error. The results of this study suggest the promise of remotely sensed measurements for macroscale evaluation and modeling of primary productivity.

  11. A plan for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loeb, Susan C.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ellison, Laura E.; Lausen, Cori L.; Reichard, Jonathan D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Ingersoll, Thomas E.; Coleman, Jeremy; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Sauer, John R.; Francis, Charles M.; Bayless, Mylea L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) is to create a continent-wide program to monitor bats at local to rangewide scales that will provide reliable data to promote effective conservation decisionmaking and the long-term viability of bat populations across the continent. This is an international, multiagency program. Four approaches will be used to gather monitoring data to assess changes in bat distributions and abundances: winter hibernaculum counts, maternity colony counts, mobile acoustic surveys along road transects, and acoustic surveys at stationary points. These monitoring approaches are described along with methods for identifying species recorded by acoustic detectors. Other chapters describe the sampling design, the database management system (Bat Population Database), and statistical approaches that can be used to analyze data collected through this program.

  12. Late Holocene climate reorganisation and the North American Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Matthew D.; Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Davies, Sarah J.; Noren, Anders

    2015-09-01

    The North American Monsoon (NAM) provides the majority of rainfall for central and northern Mexico as well as parts of the south west USA. The controls over the strength of the NAM in a given year are complex, and include both Pacific and Atlantic systems. We present here an annually resolved proxy reconstruction of NAM rainfall variability over the last ˜6 ka, from an inwash record from the Laguna de Juanacatlán, Mexico. This high resolution, exceptionally well dated record allows changes in the NAM through the latter half of the Holocene to be investigated in both time and space domains, improving our understanding of the controls on the system. Our analysis shows a shift in conditions between c. 4 and 3 ka BP, after which clear ENSO/PDO type forcing patterns are evident.

  13. Health of North American forests: Stress and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The 1980s will be remembered by forest professionals as a decade of intense and widespread societal concern for the vitality and integrity of forest systems. Daily reports of tropical deforestation and temperate forest decline have heightened social consciousness of forest health. It is therefore appropriate, as we enter the 1990s, to assess the health of our forests and propose new initiatives in this critically important area. Making generalizations about the health of North American forests is difficult because of the extraordinary diversity of forests, management regimes, and stress factors. This overview article summarizes forest health fundamentals, significant health risks, and priorities in future forest health management for temperate forests of the United States.

  14. HYDROCEPHALUS IN THREE JUVENILE NORTH AMERICAN BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sylvia H; Novak, Janelle; Hecht, Silke; Craig, Linden E

    2016-06-01

    Hydrocephalus has been reported in a variety of species, including the North American black bear ( Ursus americanus ). This report describes three cases of hydrocephalus in this species from wild bears aged 3-4 mo considered retrospectively from necropsy records of one institution. Clinical signs included cortical blindness and ataxia. Primary gross findings were doming of the skull, gyri compression and flattening, and lateral ventricle dilation. Two cases had severe bilateral ventricular dilation with loss of the septum pellucidum; atrophy of the surrounding corpus callosum; and bilateral periventricular tears involving the caudate nuclei, internal capsule, and adjacent cerebrum. Histologically, the cases with periventricular tearing had severe axonal loss and degeneration, malacia, hemorrhage, and variable periventricular astrocytosis. All cases were likely congenital, given the bears' age and lack of an apparent acquired obstruction. PMID:27468040

  15. Oospore dimensions and morphology in North American Tolypella (Charophyceae, Charophyta).

    PubMed

    Pérez, William; Hall, John D; McCourt, Richard M; Karol, Kenneth G

    2015-04-01

    Characteristics of the oospores have been used to delimit sections and, in some cases, species in the genus Tolypella A. Braun. To test the utility of oospore characters for identifying North American species of Tolypella, we investigated oospores from field-collected and herbarium specimens. Oospore dimensions (length, width, and length to width ratio) and morphology (color, ridge number and shape, wall ornamentation, and basal impression number) were measured. Oospore dimensions were statistically analyzed and oospore morphology was studied with light and scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in length, width, and length to width ratios among most Tolypella species and populations but there was considerable overlap, which suggested that species identification based on oospore measurements alone is not wholly reliable. In addition, oospore morphology was not unique for every species. PMID:26986526

  16. North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS 2): The Prodromal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Addington, Jean; Liu, Lu; Buchy, Lisa; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Perkins, Diana O.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Walker, Elaine F.; Woods, Scott W.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Mathalon, Daniel H.; McGlashan, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    In studies describing the long-term follow-up up of youth at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis, little attention has been given to details of specific prodromal symptoms. In this paper we describe the prodromal symptoms of 764 CHR participants recruited in the multi-site North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS). Symptoms were rated on the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS) at baseline and 6, 12, 18 and 24 month follow-ups. Clinical outcome at the 2-year assessment was categorized as psychotic, prodromal progression, symptomatic or in remission. The majority of the CHR sample (93%) met criteria for the attenuated positive symptoms syndrome (APSS). Significant improvements in SOPS symptoms were observed overtime. Unusual thought content, disorganized communication and overall ratings on disorganized symptoms differentiated those who transitioned to psychosis from the other clinical outcome groups. Suspiciousness and total positive symptoms differentiated those in remission from the other clinical outcome groups. PMID:25919383

  17. A Comparative Review of North American Tundra Delineations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Kirk C.; Carroll, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Recent profound changes have been observed in the Arctic environment, including record low sea ice extents and high latitude greening. Studying the Arctic and how it is changing is an important element of climate change science. The Tundra, an ecoregion of the Arctic, is directly related to climate change due to its effects on the snow ice feedback mechanism and greenhouse gas cycling. Like all ecoregions, the Tundra border is shifting, yet studies and policies require clear delineation of boundaries. There are many options for ecoregion classification systems, as well as resources for creating custom maps. To help decision makers identify the best classification system possible, we present a review of North American Tundra ecoregion delineations and further explore the methodologies, purposes, limitations, and physical properties of five common ecoregion classification systems. We quantitatively compare the corresponding maps by area using a geographic information system.

  18. Observer differences in the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Peterjohn, B.G.; Link, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Because count data collected in many bird surveys are only an index to population size, factors that can influence the counts must be identified and incorporated into analyses. Observer quality is often ignored in analyses of population changes from survey data, but observers differ in methods and capabilities and, hence, tend to count different numbers of birds. We assess the consequences of between-observer differences in counts for estimation of population trends in the North American Breeding Bird Survey. Observer differences in numbers of birds counted were found in 50% of the 369 species we examined. For many species, observers in later years tended to count more birds than observers in earlier years, suggesting an increase in observer quality over time. Analysis of population trends from 1966 through 1991 indicates that failure to include observers as covariables in the analysis results in an overly optimistic view of population trends.

  19. DEPRESSED AFFECT AND HISTORICAL LOSS AMONG NORTH AMERICAN INDIGENOUS ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Walls, Melissa L.; Johnson, Kurt D.; Morrisseau, Allan D.; McDougall, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the prevalence and correlates of perceived historical loss among 459 North American Indigenous adolescents aged 11–13 years from the northern Midwest of the United States and central Canada. The adolescents reported daily or more thoughts of historical loss at rates similar to their female caretakers. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that our measure of perceived historical loss and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale were separate but related constructs. Regression analysis indicated that, even when controlling for family factors, perceived discrimination, and proximal negative life events, perceived historical loss had independent effects on adolescent’s depressive symptoms. The construct of historical loss is discussed in terms of Indigenous ethnic cleansing and life course theory. PMID:20052631

  20. The Luneburg Sustainable University Project in International Comparison: An Assessment against North American Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beringer, Almut

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the Luneburg Sustainable University Project (the Project) in a non-European international context; to relate the project scholarly approach to selected scholarly and practice-oriented North American sustainability in higher education (SHE) methods; to analyze project innovations against North American initiatives.…

  1. 77 FR 44610 - Notice of Filing; North American Electric Reliability Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Filing; North American Electric Reliability Corporation Take notice that on July 18, 2012, North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) submitted a filing... Valley Electric Corporation (OVEC) should not be registered as a load-serving entity, if NERC did...

  2. 75 FR 81601 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing December 20, 2010. Take notice that on December 1, 2010, North American Electric Reliability Corporation... free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment Date: 5 p.m. Eastern Time on January 10, 2011. Kimberly...

  3. 75 FR 67960 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing October 28, 2010. Take notice that on October 25, 2010, the North American Electric Reliability... FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov , or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment...

  4. 77 FR 45598 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 16, 2012, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) submitted a... FERC Online service, please email FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov , or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free)....

  5. 78 FR 18333 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 11, 2013, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation and SERC Reliability..., please email FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov , or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202)...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 30, 2011, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) filed a..., please e-mail FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov , or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202)...

  7. 75 FR 29336 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing

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    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing May 18, 2010. Take notice that on May 17, 2010, North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC... FERC Online service, please e-mail FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov , or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free)....

  8. 75 FR 4374 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing January 20, 2010. Take notice that on January 19, 2010, North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC... , or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment Date: 5 p.m. Eastern...

  9. 77 FR 42715 - North American Hydro Holdings, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Hydro Holdings, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for... 29, 2012. d. Applicant: North American Hydro Holdings, LLC. e. Name of Project: Manawa Dam Project. f.... g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791(a)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact:...

  10. 22 CFR 41.59 - Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 41.59 Section 41.59 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.59 Professionals under the North American...