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  1. THE RESPONSE OF MARINE ECOSYSTEMS TO CLIMATE VARIABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH THE NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A strong association is documented between variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and changes in various trophic levels of the marine ecosystems of the North Atlantic. Examples are presented for phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, fish, marine diseases, whales and s...

  2. Towards a North Atlantic Marine Radiocarbon Calibration Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, William; Reimer, Paula; Blaauw, Maarten; Bryant, Charlotte; Rae, James; Burke, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Service du dejeuner! Twenty years ago, in 1995, I sailed as a post-doctoral researcher based at the University of Edinburgh (UK) on the first scientific mission of the new Marion Dufresne II. In this presentation, I will provide an update on the work that first quantified North Atlantic marine radiocarbon reservoir ages, highlighting how advances in marine tephrochronology over the last twenty years have significantly improved our understanding (and ability to test) land-ice-ocean linkages. The mechanistic link that connects marine radiocarbon reservoir ages to ocean ventilation state will also be discussed with reference to the Younger Dryas climate anomaly, where models and data have been successfully integrated. I will discuss the use of reference chronologies in the North Atlantic region and evaluate the common practice of climate synchronization between the Greenland ice cores and some of the key MD records that are now available. The exceptional quality of the MD giant piston cores and their potential to capture high-resolution last glacial sediment records from the North Atlantic provides an exciting opportunity to build new regional marine radiocarbon calibration curves. I will highlight new efforts by my co-authors and others to build such curves, setting-out a new agenda for the next twenty years of the IMAGES programme.

  3. Cryptotephrochronology in the North Atlantic Region : Linking Greenland Ice and North Atlantic Marine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, P. M.; Davies, S. M.; Bourne, A.; Meara, R.; Cook, E.; Griggs, A.

    2012-12-01

    Tephrochronology is a powerful technique that can be utilised for the correlation and synchronisation of disparate palaeoclimatic records. Thus, this technique has considerable potential for addressing key questions relating to rapid climatic events that characterised the last glacial period. In particular, our search for microscopic tephra layers or cryptotephras within the Greenland ice-cores and marine cores from the North Atlantic Ocean has the potential to test the phase relationships between the atmospheric and oceanic responses to these high-magnitude and abrupt climatic events. Here we report on results of investigations of the MIS 5 to 2 time period drawing on examples from several North Atlantic marine cores from various sites within the North Atlantic including the Rockall Trough, Faroe Islands region, Goban Spur, Gardar Drift and Irminger Basin. These investigations fall within the context of the SMART and TRACE projects. Several cryptotephra horizons have been identified by applying techniques first developed for terrestrial sedimentary material. The two main challenges associated with cryptotephra work in the glacial North Atlantic are i) determining the dominant transportation processes and ii) assessing the influence of secondary reworking processes and the integrity of the isochrons. The potential influence of these processes is investigated by assessing shard size, geochemical (major and trace element) heterogeneity and co-variance of IRD input and sortable silt for some cores. High-resolution investigations of the Greenland ice-cores of NGRIP, GRIP and NEEM over the same time period have identified cryptotephras from numerous previously unrecognised eruptions. The principal source of horizons is Iceland, with some correlated to specific volcanic systems such as Katla, Grimsvötn, Hekla and Veidivötn-Bardabunga. An overarching aspect of this work is the robust geochemical fingerprinting of the small glass shards within these cryptotephras using

  4. Frequency of marine heatwaves in the North Atlantic and North Pacific since 1950

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scannell, Hillary A.; Pershing, Andrew J.; Alexander, Michael A.; Thomas, Andrew C.; Mills, Katherine E.

    2016-03-01

    Extreme and large-scale warming events in the ocean have been dubbed marine heatwaves, and these have been documented in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. This paper examines the intensity, duration, and frequency of positive sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans over the period 1950-2014 using an objective definition for marine heatwaves based on their probability of occurrence. Small-area anomalies occur more frequently than large-area anomalies, and this relationship can be characterized by a power law distribution. The relative frequency of large- versus small-area anomalies, represented by the power law slope parameter, is modulated by basin-scale modes of natural climate variability and anthropogenic warming. Findings suggest that the probability of marine heatwaves is a trade-off between size, intensity, and duration and that region specific variability modulates the frequency of these events.

  5. Nearshore marine benthic invertebrates moving north along the U.S. Atlantic coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous species have shifted their ranges north in response to global warming. We examined 21 years (1990-2010) of marine benthic invertebrate data from the National Coastal Assessment’s monitoring of nearshore waters along the US Atlantic coast. Data came from three bioge...

  6. Pliocene shallow water paleoceanography of the North Atlantic ocean based on marine ostracodes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.

    1991-01-01

    Middle Pliocene marine ostracodes from coastal and shelf deposits of North and Central America and Iceland were studied to reconstruct paleotemperatures of shelf waters bordering portions of the Western Boundary Current System (including the Gulf Loop Current, Florida Current, Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Drift). Factor analytic transfer functions provided Pliocene August and February bottom-water temperatures of eight regions from the tropics to the subfrigid. The results indicate: (1) meridional temperature gradients in the western North Atlantic were less steep during the Pliocene than either today or during Late Pleistocene Isotope Stage 5e; (2) tropical and subtropical shelf waters during the Middle Pliocene were as warm as, or slightly cooler than today; (3) slightly cooler water was on the outer shelf off the southeastern and mid-Atlantic coast of the U.S., possibly due to summer upwelling of Gulf Stream water; (4) the shelf north of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina may have been influenced by warm water incursions from the western edge of the Gulf Stream, especially in summer; (5) the northeast branch of the North Atlantic Drift brought warm water to northern Iceland between 4 and 3 Ma; evidence from the Iceland record indicates that cold East Greenland Current water did not affect coastal Iceland between 4 and 3 Ma; (6) Middle Pliocene North Atlantic circulation may have been intensified, transporting more heat from the tropics to the Arctic than it does today. ?? 1991.

  7. First Annually Resolved Marine Temperature Series For The Last 1000 Years From The North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, D.; Scourse, J. D.; Richardson, C.; Hall, I. R.; Butler, P.; Nederbragt, A.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Becker, J.

    2013-12-01

    There remain very few high-resolution records of marine climate variability covering the last 1000 years; annually-resolved series have hitherto been confined to coral archives from the low latitude oceans and do not cover the full millennium. We have constructed a 1357-year crossdated sclerochronology based on annual growth increments in the long-lived bivalve mollusc Arctica islandica, collected by dredge from the temperate North Atlantic (Grimsey, North Icelandic shelf, 80 m water depth; Butler et al. 2013). We present here annual- to sub-annually-resolved oxygen isotope data from the last 1000 years of this absolute chronology. Radiocarbon analysis of the series demonstrates variability in the marine reservoir effect (ΔR) controlled by Atlantic vs. Arctic water masses (Irminger Current, East Icelandic Current) with enhanced ingress of Irminger Current water during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and since AD 1900; the Little Ice Age is conversely characterized by Arctic water masses (Wanamaker et al. 2012). We use the ΔR variability to correct for the isotopic content of seawater (δ18Ow) and hence convert δ18Oshell to seawater temperature at 80m, a calibration supported by comparison with instrumental series. This reveals the evolution of North Atlantic seawater temperatures over the last 1000 years in unprecedented detail and provides a basis for the comparison of marine with terrestrial series at the same resolution for the first time.

  8. Marine biogenic source of atmospheric organic nitrogen in the subtropical North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Katye E; Fawcett, Sarah E; Peters, Andrew J; Sigman, Daniel M; Hastings, Meredith G

    2016-01-26

    Global models estimate that the anthropogenic component of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to the ocean accounts for up to a third of the ocean's external N supply and 10% of anthropogenic CO2 uptake. However, there are few observational constraints from the marine atmospheric environment to validate these findings. Due to the paucity of atmospheric organic N data, the largest uncertainties related to atmospheric N deposition are the sources and cycling of organic N, which is 20-80% of total N deposition. We studied the concentration and chemical composition of rainwater and aerosol organic N collected on the island of Bermuda in the western North Atlantic Ocean over 18 mo. Here, we show that the water-soluble organic N concentration ([WSON]) in marine aerosol is strongly correlated with surface ocean primary productivity and wind speed, suggesting a marine biogenic source for aerosol WSON. The chemical composition of high-[WSON] aerosols also indicates a primary marine source. We find that the WSON in marine rain is compositionally different from that in concurrently collected aerosols, suggesting that in-cloud scavenging (as opposed to below-cloud "washout") is the main contributor to rain WSON. We conclude that anthropogenic activity is not a significant source of organic N to the marine atmosphere over the North Atlantic, despite downwind transport from large pollution sources in North America. This, in conjunction with previous work on ammonium and nitrate, leads to the conclusion that only 27% of total N deposition to the global ocean is anthropogenic, in contrast to the 80% estimated previously. PMID:26739561

  9. Marine biogenic source of atmospheric organic nitrogen in the subtropical North Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Altieri, Katye E.; Fawcett, Sarah E.; Peters, Andrew J.; Sigman, Daniel M.; Hastings, Meredith G.

    2016-01-01

    Global models estimate that the anthropogenic component of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to the ocean accounts for up to a third of the ocean’s external N supply and 10% of anthropogenic CO2 uptake. However, there are few observational constraints from the marine atmospheric environment to validate these findings. Due to the paucity of atmospheric organic N data, the largest uncertainties related to atmospheric N deposition are the sources and cycling of organic N, which is 20–80% of total N deposition. We studied the concentration and chemical composition of rainwater and aerosol organic N collected on the island of Bermuda in the western North Atlantic Ocean over 18 mo. Here, we show that the water-soluble organic N concentration ([WSON]) in marine aerosol is strongly correlated with surface ocean primary productivity and wind speed, suggesting a marine biogenic source for aerosol WSON. The chemical composition of high-[WSON] aerosols also indicates a primary marine source. We find that the WSON in marine rain is compositionally different from that in concurrently collected aerosols, suggesting that in-cloud scavenging (as opposed to below-cloud “washout”) is the main contributor to rain WSON. We conclude that anthropogenic activity is not a significant source of organic N to the marine atmosphere over the North Atlantic, despite downwind transport from large pollution sources in North America. This, in conjunction with previous work on ammonium and nitrate, leads to the conclusion that only 27% of total N deposition to the global ocean is anthropogenic, in contrast to the 80% estimated previously. PMID:26739561

  10. North Atlantic Holocene climate evolution recorded by high-resolution terrestrial and marine biomarker records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moossen, Heiko; Bendle, James; Seki, Osamu; Quillmann, Ursula; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2015-12-01

    Holocene climatic change is driven by a plethora of forcing mechanisms acting on different time scales, including: insolation, internal ocean (e.g. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation; AMOC) and atmospheric (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation; NAO) variability. However, it is unclear how these driving mechanisms interact with each other. Here we present five, biomarker based, paleoclimate records (air-, sea surface temperature and precipitation), from a fjordic sediment core, revealing North Atlantic terrestrial and marine climate in unprecedented detail. The Early Holocene (10.7-7.8 kyrs BP) is characterised by relatively high air temperatures while SSTs are dampened by melt water events, and relatively low precipitation. The Middle Holocene (7.8-3.2 kyrs BP) is characterised by peak SSTs, declining air temperatures and high precipitation. A pronounced marine thermal maximum occurs between ∼7-5.5 kyrs BP, 3000 years after the terrestrial thermal maximum, driven by melt water cessation and an accelerating AMOC. The neoglacial cooling, between 5.8 and 3.2 kyrs BP leads into the late Holocene. We demonstrate that an observed modern link between Icelandic precipitation variability during different NAO phases, may have existed from ∼7.5 kyrs BP. A simultaneous decoupling of both air, and sea surface temperature records from declining insolation at ∼3.2 kyrs BP may indicate a threshold, after which internal feedback mechanisms, namely the NAO evolved to be the primary drivers of Icelandic climate on centennial time-scales.

  11. Methane and nonmethane hydrocarbon concentrations in the North and South Atlantic marine boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, W. R., III

    1982-01-01

    Methane and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) data were collected in the Atlantic marine boundary layer from 40 N to 32 S latitude during October and November 1980. Average volume mixing ratios for CH4 of 1.69 + or - 0.02 ppmv were obtained north of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and 1.60 + or - 0.02 ppmv south of the ITCZ. The hemispheric CH4 gradient was very sharp, decreasing rapidly between 14 N and 10 N latitude. Gaseous NMHC concentrations (based on response as CH4) were measured simultaneously and found to lie consistently within the standard error for the individual measurements + or - 0.02 ppmv) after correction for water vapor interference. The correction for water vapor response was large, frequently as much as 80% of the raw NMHC signal. Application of the student's t distribution test to the NMHC data set established that the mean northern and southern hemispheric NMHC mixing ratios measured, 0.016 and 0.010 ppmv, respectively, were statistically different at the 95% confidence level. These results indicate volatile NMHC mixing ratios average less than 0.02 ppmv over the Atlantic and represent the first set of semicontinuous NMHC measurements spanning the North and South Atlantic marine boundary layer.

  12. Variability of the northeast Atlantic sea surface Δ 14C and marine reservoir age and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisnérat-Laborde, Nadine; Paterne, Martine; Métivier, Bernard; Arnold, Maurice; Yiou, Pascal; Blamart, Dominique; Raynaud, Stéphane

    2010-09-01

    We compiled new 14C analyses of mollusc shells (bivalves and gastropods) of known age from the collection of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris and previously published data to investigate changes in the sea surface Δ 14C and reservoir age in the northeast Atlantic sector (NEA) between 1823 and 1952 AD. The mollusc shells are mainly located off the Atlantic margin between 45°N and 60°N downstream of the North Atlantic Current (NAC). We show that the temporal variability of the NEA Δ 14C is independent of the mollusc species, depth habitat, diet and latitudinal distribution. The quasi-null difference between mollusc Δ 14C and the marine model indicate that the mollusc Δ 14C reflects the Δ 14C values of open marine conditions. Between 1823 and 1850 AD, the pre-anthropogenic mean of Δ 14C is -45 ± 5‰, corresponding to a reservoir age of 380 ± 60 years and a Δ R value of -7 ± 50 years, in agreement with previous estimates. The Δ 14C values show a significant long-term decrease of ˜12‰ from 1823 to 1952 AD attributed to changes in 14C production between 1823 and 1900 AD and the Suess effect between 1900 and 1952 AD. Between 1885 and 1950 AD, Δ 14C fluctuations of ˜10‰ up to 18‰ occurred in the northeast Atlantic, corresponding to reservoir age variations of ˜90 years up to 170 years. These fluctuations are very similar to changes of Δ 14C in the southern Norwegian Sea. Spectral analyses of the NEA Δ 14C exhibit quasi-periodic cycles of about 7.4 years, almost equivalent to the quasi-periodic cycles of the winter index of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) with a period around 6.5 years. We find that changes of NEA Δ 14C cannot be attributed to changes in river runoff or the precipitation/evaporation budget. The Δ 14C lows (or high reservoir ages) correspond to the more intense phase of the winter NAO, with a time lag of ˜1-3 years. Such a time lag may reflect the eastward transit time of upstream changes originating in the

  13. Measurements of dimethyl sulfide oxidation products in the summertime North Atlantic marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pszenny, A. A. P.; Harvey, G. R.; Brown, C. J.; Lang, Russell F.; Keene, W. C.; Galloway, J. N.; Merrill, J. T.

    1990-12-01

    Chemical data derived from air and precipitation samples collected during the Global Change Expedition/Coordinated Air-Sea Experiment/ Western Atlantic Ocean Experiment (GCE/CASE/WATOX) over the North Atlantic Ocean (NAO) are interpreted using simple box models. Estimated total sulfur (S) deposition fluxes from air masses with tropical oceanic, African, clean North American, and polluted North American origins are 4.4, 16, 33, and 70 μmol m-2 day-1, respectively, with associated uncertainties of at least factors of 2 to 3. Crude estimates of the fractions of deposition attributable to marine biogenic versus anthropogenic S sources suggest that the latter may be enhancing the natural NAO atmospheric S cycle by a factor of 0.5 to 0.8. Combination with similar estimates for the North Pacific region [Savoie and Prospero, 1989] yields an overall, area-weighted enhancement factor of approximately 0.3 for northern hemisphere ocean areas, consistent with estimates by Wigley [1989] based on climate modeling studies.

  14. A quantitative micropaleontologic method for shallow marine peleoclimatology: Application to Pliocene deposits of the western North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Dowsett, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    A transfer function was developed to estimate summer and winter paleotemperatures for arctic to tropical regions of the western North Atlantic Ocean using fossil ostracode assemblages. Q-mode factor analysis was run on ostracode assemblages from 100 modern bottom sediment samples from continental shelves of North America, Greenland and the Caribbean using 59 ostracode taxa. Seven factors accounting for 80% of the variance define assemblages that correspond to frigid, subfrigid, cold temperate, mild temperate, warm temperate, subtropical and tropical climatic zones. Multiple regression of the factor matrix against observed February and August bottom temperatures yielded an astracode transfer function with an accuracy of about ??2??C. The transfer function was used to reconstruct middle Pliocene (3.5-3.0 Ma) shallow marine climates of the western North Atlantic during the marine transgression that deposited the Yorktown Formation (Virginia and North Carolina), the Duplin Formation (South and North Carolina) and the Pinecrest beds (Florida). Middle Pliocene paleowater temperatures in Virginia averaged 19??C in August and 13.5??C in February, about 5??C to 8??C warmer than at comparable depths off Virginia today. August and February water temperatures in North Carolina were 23??C and 13.4??C, in South Carolina about 23??C and 13.5??C and in southern Florida about 24.6??C and 15.4??C. Marine climates north of 35??N were warmer than today; south of 35??N, they were about the same or slightly cooler. Thermal gradients along the coast were generally not as steep as they are today. The North Atlantic transfer function can be applied to other shallow marine Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits of eastern North America. ?? 1990 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.

  15. Marine sulfur cycling and the atmospheric aerosol over the springtime North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Andreae, M O; Andreae, T W; Meyerdierks, D; Thiel, C

    2003-09-01

    We investigated the distribution of phytoplankton species and the associated dimethyl sulfur species, dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) on a cruise into the spring bloom region of the northern North Atlantic (near 47 degrees N, 19 degrees W). The cruise was timed to characterize the relationship between plankton dynamics and sulfur species production during the spring plankton bloom period. At the same time, we measured the DMS concentrations in the atmospheric boundary layer and determined the abundance and composition of the atmospheric aerosol. The water column studies showed that the interplay of wind-driven mixing and stratification due to solar heating controlled the evolution of the plankton population, and consequently the abundance of particulate and dissolved DMSP and DMS. The sea-to-air transfer of DMS was modulated by strong variations in wind speed, and was found to be consistent with currently available transfer parameterizations. The atmospheric concentration of DMS was strongly dependent on the sea surface emission, the depth of the atmospheric boundary layer and the rate of photooxidation as inferred from UV irradiance. Sea-salt and anthropogenic sulfate were the most abundant components of the atmospheric aerosol. On two days, a strong dust episode was observed bringing mineral dust aerosol from the Sahara desert to our northerly study region. The background concentrations of marine biogenic sulfate aerosol were low, near 30-60 ppt. These values were consistent with the rate of sulfate production estimated from the abundance of DMS in the marine boundary layer. PMID:12852983

  16. The Radiative Role of Free Tropospheric Aerosols and Marine Clouds over the Central North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzoleni, Claudio; Kumar, Sumit; Wright, Kendra; Kramer, Louisa; Mazzoleni, Lynn; Owen, Robert; Helmig, Detlev

    2014-12-09

    The scientific scope of the project was to exploit the unique location of the Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO) located in the summit caldera of the Pico Volcano in Pico Island in the Azores, for atmospheric studies. The observatory, located at 2225m a.s.l., typically samples free tropospheric aerosols laying above the marine low-level clouds and long-range transported from North America. The broad purpose of this research was to provide the scientific community with a better understanding of fundamental physical processes governing the effects of aerosols on radiative forcing and climate; with the ultimate goal of improving our abilities to understand past climate and to predict future changes through numerical models. The project was 'exploratory' in nature, with the plan to demonstrate the feasibility of deploying for the first time, an extensive aerosol research package at PMO. One of the primary activities was to test the deployment of these instruments at the site, to collect data during the 2012 summer season, and to further develop the infrastructure and the knowledge for performing novel research at PMO in follow-up longer-term aerosol-cloud studies. In the future, PMO could provide an elevated research outpost to support the renewed DOE effort in the Azores that was intensified in 2013 with the opening of the new sea-level ARM-DOE Eastern North Atlantic permanent facility at Graciosa Island. During the project period, extensive new data sets were collected for the planned 2012 season. Thanks to other synergistic activities and opportunities, data collection was then successfully extended to 2013 and 2014. Highlights of the scientific findings during this project include: a) biomass burning contribute significantly to the aerosol loading in the North Atlantic free troposphere; however, long-range transported black carbon concentrations decreased substantially in the last decade. b) Single black carbon particles – analyzed off-line at the electron

  17. Glacial history of the North Atlantic marine snail, Littorina saxatilis, inferred from distribution of mitochondrial DNA lineages.

    PubMed

    Panova, Marina; Blakeslee, April M H; Miller, A Whitman; Mäkinen, Tuuli; Ruiz, Gregory M; Johannesson, Kerstin; André, Carl

    2011-01-01

    The North Atlantic intertidal gastropod, Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792), exhibits extreme morphological variation between and within geographic regions and has become a model for studies of local adaptation; yet a comprehensive analysis of the species' phylogeography is lacking. Here, we examine phylogeographic patterns of the species' populations in the North Atlantic and one remote Mediterranean population using sequence variation in a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (607 bp). We found that, as opposed to many other rocky intertidal species, L. saxatilis has likely had a long and continuous history in the Northwest Atlantic, including survival during the last glacial maximum (LGM), possibly in two refugia. In the Northeast Atlantic, several areas likely harboured refugial populations that recolonized different parts of this region after glacial retreat, resulting in strong population structure. However, the outlying monomorphic Venetian population is likely a recent anthropogenic introduction from northern Europe and not a remnant of an earlier wider distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. Overall, our detailed phylogeography of L. saxatilis adds an important piece to the understanding of Pleistocene history in North Atlantic marine biota as well as being the first study to describe the species' evolutionary history in its natural range. The latter contribution is noteworthy because the snail has recently become an important model species for understanding evolutionary processes of speciation; thus our work provides integral information for such endeavours. PMID:21412417

  18. The Vorticity Budgets of North Atlantic Winter Marine Extratropical Cyclones Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, R.; Sorteberg, A.

    2012-12-01

    A partitioned form of the Zwack-Okossi (Z-O) tendency equation is employed to examine the composite role of dynamic and thermodynamic forcing mechanisms to the development of North Atlantic winter marine extratropical cyclones. The results provide a further insight into the budgets of near surface cyclonic geostrophic vorticity (CGV) and their evolution during the life cycle of mid-latitude low pressure systems. Of interest are the direct, indirect and net effects of the Z-O forcing mechanisms. The direct effect shows the contribution of each process to the near surface geostrophic vorticity tendency, while the indirect effect implies the contribution from the associated vertical motion and resulting adiabatic cooling or warming. The net effect is the sum of the direct and indirect effects.We found that the vorticity advection term is the largest net contributor to the development of the marine cyclones. The net positive effect of both the temperature advection and latent heating terms is smaller owing to the induced adiabatic cooling which reduces the positive direct contributions. The direct and indirect parts of ageostrophic tendency and friction terms support each other, resulting in significant net contributions at the low center.Comparisons of the composite contributions by the Z-O forcing terms at different pressure levels over the low center indicate that, in agreement with previous studies, the commencement of significant development is accompanied with the upper level cyclonic absolute vorticity advection, upper level warm advection and mid-to low level latent heating. However, during the end of the development, mid-tropospheric net contribution by vorticity advection term and low level warm advection controls the production of CGV. The former is due to both the presence of mid-level cyclonic vorticity advection and induced adiabatic warming over the composite low center.

  19. Getting it right for the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaenaglacialis): a last opportunity for effective marine spatial planning?

    PubMed

    Petruny, Loren M; Wright, Andrew J; Smith, Courtney E

    2014-08-15

    The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) faces increasing pressure from commercial shipping traffic and proposed marine renewable energy developments. Drawing upon the successful Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary model, we propose a multi-stakeholder marine spatial planning process that considers both appropriate positioning of offshore wind farms and redefining commercial shipping lanes relative to whale migration routes: placement of wind turbines within certain right whale habitats may prove beneficial for the species. To that end, it may be advisable to initially relocate the shipping lanes for the benefit of the whales prior to selecting wind energy areas. The optimal end-state is the commercial viability of renewable energy, as well as a safe shipping infrastructure, with minimal risk of collision and exposure to shipping noise for the whales. This opportunity to manage impacts on right whales could serve as a model for other problematic interactions between marine life and commercial activities. PMID:24998798

  20. Persistent marine debris in the North Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the West Coast of Baja California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heneman, B.

    1988-07-01

    Information on persistent marine debris (including plastics, glass, metal, and tar) in four study areas (North Sea, northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the west coast of Baja California) was obtained through literature searches, a mailed survey, correspondence, interviews, and personal observations. All of the study areas except Baja California were found to have severe marine debris problems.

  1. North Atlantic Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Reminiscent of the distinctive swirls in a Van Gogh painting, millions of microscopic plants color the waters of the North Atlantic with strokes of blue, turquoise, green, and brown. Fed by nutrients that have built up during the winter and the long, sunlit days of late spring and early summer, the cool waters of the North Atlantic come alive every year with a vivid display of color. The microscopic plants, called phytoplankton, that give the water this color are the base of the marine food chain. Some species of phytoplankton are coated with scales of calcium (chalk), which turn the water electric blue. Chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments in others give the water a deep green hue. The proliferation of many different species in various stages of growth and decay provides many nuances of color in this concentrated bloom. The bloom stretches across hundreds of kilometers, well beyond the edges of this photo-like image, captured on June 23, 2007, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The upper left edge of the image is bounded by Greenland. Iceland is in the upper right. Plumes of dust are blowing off the island, probably adding nutrients to the surface waters to its south. NASA image courtesy Norman Kuring, Ocean Color Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

  2. TRACEing Last Glacial Period (25-80 ka b2k) tephra horizons within North Atlantic marine cores and exploring links to the Greenland ice-cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, P. M.; Davies, S. M.; Griggs, A. J.; Bourne, A. J.; Cook, E.; Pearce, N. J. G.; Austin, W. E. N.; Chapman, M.; Hall, I. R.; Purcell, C. S.; Scourse, J. D.; Rasmussen, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Tephrochronology is a powerful technique for the correlation and synchronisation of disparate palaeoclimatic records from different depositional environments and has considerable potential for testing climatic phasing. For example, the relative timing of atmospheric and marine changes caused by the abrupt climatic events that punctuated the last glacial period within the North Atlantic region. Here we report on efforts to establish a framework of tephra horizons within North Atlantic marine sequences that can correlate these records and if traced in the Greenland ice-cores can act as isochronous tie-lines. Investigations have been conducted on a network of marine cores from a number of sites across the North Atlantic. Tephra horizons have been identified using cryptotephra extraction techniques more commonly applied to the study of terrestrial sequences. There are two main challenges with assessing cryptotephras in the glacial North Atlantic; i) determining the transportation processes and ii) assessing the influence of secondary reworking processes and the stratigraphic integrity of the isochrons. These processes and their influence are investigated for each cryptotephra using shard size variations, major element heterogeneity and co-variance of IRD input for some cores. Numerous Icelandic cryptophras have been successfully identified in the marine records and we will discuss the integration of a number of these with an isochronous nature into a marine tephra framework and how potential correlations to the Greenland ice-core tephra framework are determined. Spatial patterns in the nature of tephra records that are emerging from the core network will be highlighted to outline some of the key areas that could be explored in the future. In addition, the synchronisation of multiple North Atlantic records to the Greenland ice-cores using the North Atlantic Ash Zone II to test the synchroneity of an abrupt cooling in the North Atlantic will be discussed.

  3. Marine radiocarbon reservoir corrections (∆R) for Chesapeake Bay and the Middle Atlantic Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, Torben C.; Henkes, Gregory A.; Lowery, Darrin L.; Colman, Steven M.; Culleton, Brendan J.

    2012-01-01

    Radiocarbon dates from known age, pre-bomb eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) shells provide local marine reservoir corrections (∆R) for Chesapeake Bay and the Middle Atlantic coastal area of eastern North America. These data suggest subregional variability in ∆R, ranging from 148 ± 46 14C yr on the Potomac River to - 109 ± 38 14C yr at Swan Point, Maryland. The ∆R weighted mean for the Chesapeake's Western Shore (129 ± 22 14C yr) is substantially higher than the Eastern Shore (- 88 ± 23 14C yr), with outer Atlantic Coast samples falling between these values (106 ± 46 and 2 ± 46 14C yr). These differences may result from a combination of factors, including 14C-depleted freshwater that enters the bay from some if its drainages, 14C-depleted seawater that enters the bay at its mouth, and/or biological carbon recycling. We advocate using different subregional ∆R corrections when calibrating 14C dates on aquatic specimens from the Chesapeake Bay and coastal Middle Atlantic region of North America.

  4. North Atlantic Current variability through marine isotope stage M2 (circa 3.3 Ma) during the mid-Pliocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Schepper, Stijn; Head, Martin J.; Groeneveld, Jeroen

    2009-12-01

    The mid-Pliocene was an episode of prolonged global warmth and strong North Atlantic thermohaline circulation, interrupted briefly at circa 3.30 Ma by a global cooling event corresponding to marine isotope stage (MIS) M2. Paleoceanographic changes in the eastern North Atlantic have been reconstructed between circa 3.35 and 3.24 Ma at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 610 and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site 1308. Mg/Ca ratios and δ18O from Globigerina bulloides are used to reconstruct the temperature and relative salinity of surface waters, and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are used to assess variability in the North Atlantic Current (NAC). Our sea surface temperature data indicate warm waters at both sites before and after MIS M2 but a cooling of ˜2-3°C during MIS M2. A dinoflagellate cyst assemblage overturn marked by a decline in Operculodinium centrocarpum reflects a southward shift or slowdown of the NAC between circa 3.330 and 3.283 Ma, reducing northward heat transport 23-35 ka before the global ice volume maximum of MIS M2. This will have established conditions that ultimately allowed the Greenland ice sheet to expand, leading to the global cooling event at MIS M2. Comparison with an ice-rafted debris record excludes fresh water input via icebergs in the northeast Atlantic as a cause of NAC decline. The mechanism causing the temporary disruption of the NAC may be related to a brief reopening of the Panamanian Gateway at about this time.

  5. Are Known Cyanotoxins Involved in the Toxicity of Picoplanktonic and Filamentous North Atlantic Marine Cyanobacteria?

    PubMed Central

    Frazão, Bárbara; Martins, Rosário; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2010-01-01

    Eight marine cyanobacteria strains of the genera Cyanobium, Leptolyngbya, Oscillatoria, Phormidium, and Synechococcus were isolated from rocky beaches along the Atlantic Portuguese central coast and tested for ecotoxicity. Strains were identified by morphological characteristics and by the amplification and sequentiation of the 16S rDNA. Bioactivity of dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extracts was assessed by the Artemia salina bioassay. Peptide toxin production was screened by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Molecular analysis of the genes involved in the production of known cyanotoxins such as microcystins, nodularins and cylindrospermopsin was also performed. Strains were toxic to the brine shrimp A. salina nauplii with aqueous extracts being more toxic than the organic ones. Although mass spectrometry analysis did not reveal the production of microcystins or other known toxic peptides, a positive result for the presence of mcyE gene was found in one Leptolyngbya strain and one Oscillatoria strain. The extensive brine shrimp mortality points to the involvement of other unknown toxins, and the presence of a fragment of genes involved in the cyanotoxin production highlight the potential risk of cyanobacteria occurrence on the Atlantic coast. PMID:20631874

  6. Mid-Cretaceous cooling in the North and South Atlantic: Climate instability and marine biotic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcanena, A.; Wagner, T.; Herrle, J. O.; Talbot, H. M.; Hofmann, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    New evidence from both the North and South Atlantic suggests that during the Late Aptian, significant periods of global cooling associated with short-term climate instability resulted in a severe biotic crisis affecting nannofossils, foraminifera and reef builders. We observe Late Aptian long term cooling at the Mazagan Plateau (DSDP Site 545) over a period of 1.5 million years characterised by decreasing sea surface temperatures from ~32.5 to ~27.5°C (based on TEX86 estimates) and a long term positive isotope excursion (1‰ to 2.5‰). Cooling is concurrent to a dramatic decrease in the abundance of Nannoconus spp. and planktic foraminifera at Site 545 and also a dramatic decline of reef builders in the Caribbean and Western Tethys region. We note a number of short term temperature and carbon excursions including several hyperthermal events superimposed on the long term cooling. We associate the trigger of the observed climate shifts in the western North Atlantic to both increased global carbon burial and fluctuations in the flow of warm Tethyan waters through the Proto-Gibraltar Strait. Preliminary data from DSDP Site 511 (Falkland Plateau) also reveal a Late Aptian decrease in sea surface temperatures of approximately 4°C (ranging ~31 to 27°C) associated with a positive organic carbon isotope excursion (-24 to -22 ‰) and a concurrent extinction of planktic foraminifera. We conclude that Late Aptian cooling was a global phenomenon linked to increased global carbon burial with superimposed regional forcing mechanisms. The new data from Site 545 and 511 support a causal connection between cooling and biotic crises, although the role of short-term climate instability remains to be explored further.

  7. Optimising the use of marine tephrochronology in the North Atlantic: a detailed investigation of the Faroe Marine Ash Zones II, III and IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, Adam J.; Davies, Siwan M.; Abbott, Peter M.; Rasmussen, Tine L.; Palmer, Adrian P.

    2014-12-01

    Tephrochronology is central to the INTIMATE goals for testing the degree of climatic synchroneity during abrupt climatic events that punctuated the last glacial period. Since their identification in North Atlantic marine sequences, the Faroe Marine Ash Zone II (FMAZ II), FMAZ III and FMAZ IV have received considerable attention due to their potential for high-precision synchronisation with the Greenland ice-cores. In order to optimise the use of these horizons as isochronous markers, a detailed re-investigation of their geochemical composition, sedimentology and the processes that deposited each ash zone is presented. Shard concentration profiles, geochemical homogeneity and micro-sedimentological structures are investigated for each ash zone preserved within core JM11-19PC, retrieved from the southeastern Norwegian Sea on the central North Faroe Slope. This approach allows a thorough assessment of primary ash-fall preservation and secondary depositional features and demonstrates its value for assessing depositional integrity in the marine environment. Results indicate that the FMAZ II and IV are well-resolved primary deposits that can be used as isochrons for high-precision correlation studies. We outline key recommendations for future marine tephra studies and provide a protocol for optimising the application of tephrochronology to meet the INTIMATE synchronisation goals.

  8. Cycling of lithogenic marine particles in the US GEOTRACES North Atlantic transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Lam, Phoebe J.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present, describe, and model the first size-fractionated (0.8-51 μm; >51 μm) water-column particulate trace metal results from the US GEOTRACES North Atlantic Zonal Transect in situ pumping survey, with a focus on the lithogenic tracer elements Al, Fe and Ti. This examination of basin-wide, full-depth distributions of particulate elements elucidates many inputs and processes-some for bulk lithogenic material, others element-specific-which are presented via concentration distributions, elemental ratios, size-fractionation dynamics, and steady-state inventories. Key lithogenic inputs from African dust, North American boundary interactions, the Mediterranean outflow, hydrothermal systems, and benthic nepheloid layers are described. Using the refractory lithogenic tracer Ti, we develop a 1-D model for lithogenic particle distributions and test the sensitivities of size-fractionated open-ocean particulate Ti profiles to biotically driven aggregation, disaggregation rates, vertical sinking speeds, and dust input rates. We discuss applications of this lithogenic model to particle cycling in general, and to POC cycling specifically.

  9. Transport and outflow to the North Atlantic in the lower marine troposphere during ICARTT 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. R.; Talbot, R.; Mao, H.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of pollution plumes emitted from sources in the Northeastern US was based on observations from the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) 2004 field campaign. Particular attention was given to the relation of these plumes to coastal transport patterns in lower tropospheric layers throughout the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and their contribution to large-scale pollution outflow from the North American continent. Using measurements obtained during a series of flights of the NOAA WP-3D and the NASA DC-8, a unique quasi-lagrangian case study was conducted for a freshly emitted plume emanating from the New York City source region in late July 2004. The initial development of this plume stemmed from the accumulation of boundary layer pollutants within a coastal residual layer where weak synoptic forcing triggered its advection by mean southwesterly flow. As the plume tracked into the GOM, analysis showed that the plume layer vertical structure evolved into an internal boundary layer form, with signatures of steep vertical gradients in temperature, moisture and wind speed often resulting in periodic turbulence. This structure remained well-defined during the plume study, allowing for the detachment of the plume layer from the surface and thus minimal deposition and plume-sea surface exchange. In contrast, lateral mixing with other low-level plumes was significant during its transit and facilitated in part by persistent shear driven turbulence which further contributed to the high spatial variability in trace gas mixing ratios. The impact of the plume inland was assessed using observations from the AIRMAP air quality network. This impact was noticeably detected as a contribution to poor surface ozone conditions and significant elevations of other major pollutants to levels equaling the highest observed that summer. Further contributions to larger-scale outflow across the North Atlantic was also observed and analyzed.

  10. Late Holocene sea surface temperature seesaw between the subpolar North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea inferred from two marine sediment cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, Arto; Divine, Dmitry; Koç, Nalan; Godtliebsen, Fred; Hall, Ian R.

    2013-04-01

    A 2800-yr-long August sea surface temperature (aSST) record based on fossil diatom assemblages is generated from a marine sediment core Rapid 21-COM recovered in the Iceland Basin (northern subpolar North Atlantic). The record has a resolution of 2-10 years for interval 800-2004 AD representing the best resolved diatom SST reconstruction from the subpolar North Atlantic for this period, and 40 years for interval 800 BC-800 AD. The record is compared with the high-resolution (4-20 years) aSST record from core CR948/2011 from the Vøring Plateau, in the Norwegian Sea, to explore the variability of the aSST gradient between these areas during the late Holocene. The two aSST records show persistent opposite climate trends toward warming in the subpolar North Atlantic and cooling in the Norwegian Sea throughout the late Holocene. The wavelet analysis reveals an apparent tendency to coherent antiphased aSST variations between the sites for the shorter time scales too, implying a possible aSST seesaw between the northern subpolar North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea to operate during the late Holocene. At the multicentennial scale of aSST variability of 600-900 years, the records are nearly in antiphase with warmer (colder) periods in the subpolar North Atlantic corresponding to the colder (warmer) periods in the Norwegian Sea. At the shorter time scale of 200-450 years the records display a nearly phase-locked behaviour with a tendency for the positive aSST anomalies in the Norwegian Sea to lead by ca. 30 years the negative aSST anomalies in the subpolar North Atlantic. This aSST seesaw might have had a strong effect, or be associated, with the two major climate anomalies in the northwest Europe during the past Millennium: Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). During the MWP warming of the sea surface in the Norwegian Sea occurred in parallel with cooling in the northern subpolar North Atlantic, whereas the opposite pattern emerged during the LIA

  11. Tropical North Atlantic subsurface warming events as a fingerprint for AMOC variability during Marine Isotope Stage 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Andrew O.; Schmidt, Matthew W.; Chang, Ping

    2015-11-01

    The role of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) as the driver of Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) variability that characterized Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) has long been hypothesized. Although there is ample proxy evidence suggesting that DO events were robust features of glacial climate, there is little data supporting a link with AMOC. Recently, modeling studies and subsurface temperature reconstructions have suggested that subsurface warming across the tropical North Atlantic can be used to fingerprint a weakened AMOC during the deglacial because a reduction in the strength of the western boundary current allows warm salinity maximum water of the subtropical gyre to enter the deep tropics. To determine if AMOC variability played a role during the DO cycles of MIS 3, we present new, high-resolution Mg/Ca and δ18O records spanning 24-52 kyr from the near-surface dwelling planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber and the lower thermocline dwelling planktonic foraminifera Globorotalia truncatulinoides in Southern Caribbean core VM12-107 (11.33°N, 66.63°W, 1079 m depth). Our subsurface Mg/Ca record reveals abrupt increases in Mg/Ca ratios (the largest equal to a 4°C warming) during the interstadial-stadial transition of most DO events during this period. This change is consistent with reconstructions of subsurface warming events associated with cold events across the deglacial using the same core. Additionally, our data support the conclusion reached by a recently published study from the Florida Straits that AMOC did not undergo significant reductions during Heinrich events 2 and 3. This record presents some of the first high-resolution marine sediment derived evidence for variable AMOC during MIS 3.

  12. Challenges in integrative approaches to modelling the marine ecosystems of the North Atlantic: Physics to fish and coasts to ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Jason; Icarus Allen, J.; Anderson, Thomas R.; Brewin, Robert; Butenschön, Momme; Harle, James; Huse, Geir; Lehodey, Patrick; Lindemann, Christian; Memery, Laurent; Salihoglu, Baris; Senina, Inna; Yool, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    It has long been recognised that there are strong interactions and feedbacks between climate, upper ocean biogeochemistry and marine food webs, and also that food web structure and phytoplankton community distribution are important determinants of variability in carbon production and export from the euphotic zone. Numerical models provide a vital tool to explore these interactions, given their capability to investigate multiple connected components of the system and the sensitivity to multiple drivers, including potential future conditions. A major driver for ecosystem model development is the demand for quantitative tools to support ecosystem-based management initiatives. The purpose of this paper is to review approaches to the modelling of marine ecosystems with a focus on the North Atlantic Ocean and its adjacent shelf seas, and to highlight the challenges they face and suggest ways forward. We consider the state of the art in simulating oceans and shelf sea physics, planktonic and higher trophic level ecosystems, and look towards building an integrative approach with these existing tools. We note how the different approaches have evolved historically and that many of the previous obstacles to harmonisation may no longer be present. We illustrate this with examples from the on-going and planned modelling effort in the Integrative Modelling Work Package of the EURO-BASIN programme.

  13. An Integrated Mercury Monitoring Program for Temperate Estuarine and Marine Ecosystems on the North American Atlantic Coast

    PubMed Central

    Evers, David C.; Mason, Robert P.; Kamman, Neil C.; Chen, Celia Y.; Bogomolni, Andrea L.; Taylor, David L.; Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Jones, Stephen H.; Burgess, Neil M.; Munney, Kenneth; Parsons, Katharine C.

    2008-01-01

    During the past century, anthropogenic activities have altered the distribution of mercury (Hg) on the earth’s surface. The impacts of such alterations to the natural cycle of Hg can be minimized through coordinated management, policy decisions, and legislative regulations. An ability to quantitatively measure environmental Hg loadings and spatiotemporal trends of their fate in the environment is critical for science-based decision making. Here, we outline a Hg monitoring program for temperate estuarine and marine ecosystems on the Atlantic Coast of North America. This framework follows a similar, previously developed plan for freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems in the United States. Methylmercury (MeHg) is the toxicologically relevant form of Hg, and its ability to bioaccumulate in organisms and biomagnify in food webs depends on numerous biological and physicochemical factors that affect its production, transport, and fate. Therefore, multiple indicators are needed to fully characterize potential changes of Hg loadings in the environment and MeHg bioaccumulation through the different marine food webs. In addition to a description of how to monitor environmental Hg loads for air, sediment, and water, we outline a species-specific matrix of biotic indicators that include shellfish and other invertebrates, fish, birds and mammals. Such a Hg monitoring template is applicable to coastal areas across the Northern Hemisphere and is transferable to arctic and tropical marine ecosystems. We believe that a comprehensive approach provides an ability to best detect spatiotemporal Hg trends for both human and ecological health, and concurrently identify food webs and species at greatest risk to MeHg toxicity. PMID:19294469

  14. Remote sensing in the coastal and marine environment. Proceedings of the US North Atlantic Regional Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaitzeff, J. B. (Editor); Cornillon, P. (Editor); Aubrey, D. A. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Presentations were grouped in the following categories: (1) a technical orientation of Earth resources remote sensing including data sources and processing; (2) a review of the present status of remote sensing technology applicable to the coastal and marine environment; (3) a description of data and information needs of selected coastal and marine activities; and (4) an outline of plans for marine monitoring systems for the east coast and a concept for an east coast remote sensing facility. Also discussed were user needs and remote sensing potentials in the areas of coastal processes and management, commercial and recreational fisheries, and marine physical processes.

  15. Contrasted ocean conditions in the northwest North Atlantic during marine isotope stages (MIS) 11, 5e and 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vernal, Anne; Fréchette, Bianca; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2014-05-01

    Cores raised during the IODP Expedition 303 in the north Atlantic were analysed to document paleoceanographical conditions during recent interglacials (cf. Hillaire-Marcel et al., Marine Geol. 2011). Two key sites illustrate conditions in the inner vs outer Labrador Sea, respectively at the southwest Greenland margin (Eirik Ridge Site 1305; 57° N-48° W) and the southern Labrador rise (Orphan Knoll Site 1302/1303; 50° N-45° W). Special attention was paid to marine isotope stages (MIS) 11 (ca. 424-324 ka), 5e (ca. 128-117 ka) and the Holocene (last 11,000 years). The microfossil content of sediments (dinocyst notably) and the isotopic composition of foraminifers indicate significant differences in the conditions that prevailed during these 3 interglacial stages. Optimal conditions with regard to sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) prevailed during MIS 5e (anomalies of about + 5° C) at both sites. However, occurrence of ice rafted debris (IRD) and variations in salinity suggest meltwater discharge along the Greenland and Labrador margins during the last interglacial. On the contrary, during MIS 11, SSTs were similar to modern off Greenland or slightly lower at Orphan Knoll, but salinity was higher at both sites and IRD close to nil, whereas both sites are presently under iceberg routes. Stable oxygen isotope values in the mesopelagic Neogloboquadrina pachyderma left coiled (Npl), are generally not unlike values observed during MIS 9 or 7, i.e., slightly higher than those which characterized MIS 5e and the present interglacial, particularly in the outer Labrador Sea. This points to either a higher salinity and or a lower temperature in the subsurface water layer occupied by Npl. Low IRD, high salinity together with relatively high 18O values in foraminifers suggest limited influence of meltwater from ice cap and sea ice during MIS 11, especially the first part of the interglacial.

  16. Properties of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the trade wind marine boundary layer of the western North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Thomas B.; Müller, Thomas; Kandler, Konrad; Benker, Nathalie; Hartmann, Markus; Prospero, Joseph M.; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stratmann, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Cloud optical properties in the trade winds over the eastern Caribbean Sea have been shown to be sensitive to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. The objective of the current study was to investigate the CCN properties in the marine boundary layer (MBL) in the tropical western North Atlantic, in order to assess the respective roles of inorganic sulfate, organic species, long-range transported mineral dust and sea-salt particles. Measurements were carried out in June-July 2013, on the east coast of Barbados, and included CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and offline analysis of sampled particulate matter (PM) and sampled accumulation mode particles for an investigation of composition and mixing state with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). During most of the campaign, significant mass concentrations of long-range transported mineral dust was present in the PM, and influence from local island sources can be ruled out. The CCN and particle number concentrations were similar to what can be expected in pristine marine environments. The hygroscopicity parameter κ was inferred, and values in the range 0.2-0.5 were found during most of the campaign, with similar values for the Aitken and the accumulation mode. The accumulation mode particles studied with TEM were dominated by non-refractory material, and concentrations of mineral dust, sea salt and soot were too small to influence the CCN properties. It is highly likely that the CCN were dominated by a mixture of sulfate species and organic compounds.

  17. TRACEing Last Glacial Period (25-80 ka b2k) Tephra Horizons between North Atlantic marine-cores and the Greenland ice-cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Peter; Davies, Siwan; Griggs, Adam; Bourne, Anna; Cook, Eliza; Austin, William; Chapman, Mark; Hall, Ian; Purcell, Catriona; Rasmussen, Tine; Scourse, James

    2014-05-01

    Tephrochronological investigations are currently being undertaken on a network of marine cores from a range of locations and depositional settings within the North Atlantic. This work forms a component of the ERC-funded project Tephra constraints on Rapid Climate Events (TRACE). The main aim of this project is to utilise isochronous tephra horizons as direct tie-lines to correlate North Atlantic marine sequences and the Greenland ice-cores to determine the relative timing of oceanic and atmospheric changes associated with the rapid climate events that dominated the last glacial period. Early comparisons of six North Atlantic marine records (MD99-2251, MD04-2820CQ, MD04-2829CQ, MD04-2822, MD01-2461 and JM11-19PC) and the Greenland ice-cores highlight six tephra horizons common to the ice record and one or more marine sequences. These horizons are within GS-3 (26,740 ± 390 a b2k and 29,130 ± 456 a b2k), GS-9 (38,300 ± 703 a b2k), GS-10 (40,220 ± 792 a b2k) and GS-12 (43,680 ± 877 a b2k) and the widespread North Atlantic Ash Zone II (55,380 ± 1184 a b2k). New high-resolution proxy information from MD04-2820CQ allows us to explore the relative timing of climatic changes between the Goban Spur, North Atlantic and Greenland over GI-12 to GI-8 using two tephra correlations that link the records. Tephra horizons have been identified in the marine records through the successful use of cryptotephra extraction techniques more commonly applied to the study of terrestrial sequences. All horizons have an Icelandic source with horizons of both rhyolitic and basaltic composition isolated. The acquisition of high-resolution profiles of shard concentration and comprehensive geochemical characterisations for horizons is vital to this work. This allows us to disentangle the processes that transported material to core sites, which can include primary airfall, sea-ice rafting and iceberg rafting, and the potential impact of secondary reworking processes such as bottom current

  18. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN THE REMOTE NORTH ATLANTIC MARINE ATMOSPHERE (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a sampling strategy that allows us to determine
    femtogram/cubic meter concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
    and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in remote marine atmospheres. Using
    this sampling strategy, a total of 37 a...

  19. A Diatom-based Artificial Neural Network For North Atlantic Marine Quaternary Paleotemperature Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmgren, B. A.; Witon, E.; Schrader, H.; Jiang, H.

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been recently applied for estimating past sum- mer and winter sea-surface water temperatures (SST) from planktonic foraminifer relative-abundance data from the Atlantic and Indian oceans. ANNs are computer systems that have the ability to "learn" the relationship between a set of input vectors (faunal data) and one or several output vectors (SST data). This "learning" is accom- plished through an algorithm that gradually adjusts the structure of the network in or- der to minimize the error between the target vector and network output. An attempt has now been made to apply the ANN technique for paleotemperature predictions from di- atom relative-abundance data of 61 species from the Atlantic Ocean, applicable to the 0-10 m water-depth interval. Two-thirds of the available samples (195 samples) were used for training of the neural networks, and the remaining one-third of the samples was employed for testing their performance (prediction error in terms of root-mean squared errors of prediction, RMSEPs). Six independent runs were made for each of the summer and winter SSTs to assess the stability of the RMSEPs using different training- and test-set partitions. The average RMSEP is 1.29 degrees C for summer SST and 1.60 degrees C for winter SST (the average correlation between actual and predicted SSTs is 0.988 for summer SST and 0.986 for winter SST), suggesting that this technique holds much promise for estimates of past SSTs. of particular signifi- cance is the ability of the diatom-based ANNs to well predict SSTs below 5 and above 25 degrees C.

  20. An annually-resolved marine radiocarbon bomb-pulse compilation from the temperate North Atlantic using long-lived molluscs (Arctica islandica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scourse, J. D.; Wanamaker, A. D., Jr.; Weidman, C.; Heinemeier, J.; Richardson, C. A.

    2009-04-01

    Radiocarbon measurements from increments of annually-banded corals covering the past 60 years from sub-tropical and tropical contexts provide valuable records of the marine expression of the atmospheric excess radiocarbon "bomb-pulse" due to post-war nuclear weapons tests. These records can be used as calibration series for high-resolution post-bomb marine radiocarbon dating and constitute tracers for identifying watermass age and mixing processes. Until now, such applications have been restricted in temperate shelf seas because of the lack of widespread measurements from annually-resolved archives. Here we present a compilation of bomb-pulse data from annual growth increments of the bivalve mollusc Arctica islandica from relatively shallow sites (< 200 m) across the temperate North Atlantic (Georges Bank, north Icelandic shelf, north Norway, North Sea). The temporal response is highly correlated at all sites, but the amplitude of the bomb-pulse varies, with the highest values attained in the North Sea and the most damped response on the north Icelandic shelf. These differences can be attributed to the integrated hydrographic context of these sites (entrainment of deep, old water; rates of air-sea exchange; fluvial runoff; removal of high radiocarbon level surface waters through north Atlantic deep water formation). The north Icelandic data contain a reversal in the rising limb of the bomb-pulse which is not present elsewhere, even in the more sensitive sites. This reversal is coincident with instrumental data characterising the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1960s when cold, relatively fresh, and old (with respect to radiocarbon; Delta R = + 200 years) waters of the East Icelandic Current flooded the north Icelandic shelf as a result of southward migration of the Polar Front. However this reversal may also be a result of the short hiatus in bomb testing in the late 1950s. The evolution of bomb-pulse data will be discussed as well as other potential applications of

  1. Characterization of the Marine Boundary Layer and the Trade-Wind Inversion over the Sub-tropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, J.; Guerra, J. C.; Cuevas, E.; Barrancos, J.

    2016-02-01

    The stability of the lower troposphere along the east side of the sub-tropical North Atlantic is analyzed and characterized using upper air meteorological long-term records at the Canary Islands (Tenerife), Madeira (Madeira) and Azores (Terceira) archipelagos. The most remarkable characteristic is the strong stratification observed in the lower troposphere, with a strengthening of stability centred at levels near 900 and 800 hPa in a significant percentage of soundings (ranging from 17 % in Azores to 33 % in Güimar, Canary Islands). We show that this double structure is associated with the top of the marine boundary layer (MBL) and the trade-wind inversion (TWI) respectively. The top of the MBL coincides with the base of the first temperature inversion (≈ 900 hPa) where a sharp change in water vapour mixing ratio is observed. A second temperature inversion is found near 800 hPa, which is characterized by a large directional wind shear just above the inversion layer, tied to the TWI. We find that seasonal and latitudinal variations of the height and strength of both temperature inversions are driven by large-scale subsiding air from the upper troposphere associated with the descent branch of the Hadley cell. Increased general subsidence in summertime enhances stability in the lower troposphere, more markedly in the southern stations, where the inversion-layer heights are found at lower levels enhancing the main features of these two temperature inversions. A simple conceptual model that explains the lower tropospheric inversion enhancement by subsidence is proposed.

  2. Tephra constraints on Rapid Climate Events (TRACE): precise correlation of marine and ice-core records during the last glacial period in the North Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, S. M.; Griggs, A. J.; Abbott, P. M.; Bourne, A. J.; Purcell, C. S.; Hall, I. R.; Scourse, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Little has challenged our understanding of climate change more so than the abruptness with which large-scale shifts in temperature occurred during the last glacial period. Atmospheric temperature jumps occurring within decades over Greenland were closely matched by rapid changes in North Atlantic sea surface temperatures and major re-organisation of the deep ocean circulation. Although these climatic instabilities are well-documented in various proxy records, the causal mechanisms of such short-lived oscillations remain poorly understood, largely due to the dating uncertainties that prevent the integration of different archives. Synchronisation of palaeoclimate records on a common timescale is inherently problematic, and unravelling the lead/lag responses (hence cause and effect) between the Earth's climate components is currently beyond our reach. TRACE - a 5 year project funded by the European Research Council - exploits the use of microscopic traces of tephra deposits to precisely correlate the Greenland ice-cores with North Atlantic marine records. Here we draw upon examples of how these time-lines can be used to constrain the lead/lag responses between the atmospheric and oceanic systems during the last glacial period. High-resolution proxy data from North Atlantic marine cores MD04-2829CQ from the Rosemary Bank and MD04 2820CQ from the Goban Spur are integrated with the Greenland ice-cores according to the position of common tephra isochrons. These direct tie-lines allow us to focus in detail on the relative timing of rapid warming transitions between Greenland and the North Atlantic ocean during the last glacial period.

  3. Influence of small-scale North Atlantic sea surface temperature patterns on the marine boundary layer and free troposphere: a study using the atmospheric ARPEGE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, Marie; Terray, Laurent; Boé, Julien; Maisonnave, Eric; Sanchez-Gomez, Emilia

    2016-03-01

    A high-resolution global atmospheric model is used to investigate the influence of the representation of small-scale North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) patterns on the atmosphere during boreal winter. Two ensembles of forced simulations are performed and compared. In the first ensemble (HRES), the full spatial resolution of the SST is maintained while small-scale features are smoothed out in the Gulf Stream region for the second ensemble (SMTH). The model shows a reasonable climatology in term of large-scale circulation and air-sea interaction coefficient when compared to reanalyses and satellite observations, respectively. The impact of small-scale SST patterns as depicted by differences between HRES and SMTH shows a strong meso-scale local mean response in terms of surface heat fluxes, convective precipitation, and to a lesser extent cloudiness. The main mechanism behind these statistical differences is that of a simple hydrostatic pressure adjustment related to increased SST and marine atmospheric boundary layer temperature gradient along the North Atlantic SST front. The model response to small-scale SST patterns also includes remote large-scale effects: upper tropospheric winds show a decrease downstream of the eddy-driven jet maxima over the central North Atlantic, while the subtropical jet exhibits a significant northward shift in particular over the eastern Mediterranean region. Significant changes are simulated in regard to the North Atlantic storm track, such as a southward shift of the storm density off the coast of North America towards the maximum SST gradient. A storm density decrease is also depicted over Greenland and the Nordic seas while a significant increase is seen over the northern part of the Mediterranean basin. Changes in Rossby wave breaking frequencies and weather regimes spatial patterns are shown to be associated to the jets and storm track changes.

  4. A North Atlantic tephrostratigraphical framework for 130-60 ka b2k: new tephra discoveries, marine-based correlations, and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Siwan M.; Abbott, Peter M.; Meara, Rhian H.; Pearce, Nicholas J. G.; Austin, William E. N.; Chapman, Mark R.; Svensson, Anders; Bigler, Matthias; Rasmussen, Tine L.; Rasmussen, Sune O.; Farmer, Elizabeth J.

    2014-12-01

    Building chronological frameworks for proxy sequences spanning 130-60 ka b2k is plagued by difficulties and uncertainties. Recent developments in the North Atlantic region, however, affirm the potential offered by tephrochronology and specifically the search for cryptotephra. Here we review the potential offered by tephrostratigraphy for sequences spanning 130-60 ka b2k. We combine newly identified cryptotephra deposits from the NGRIP ice-core and a marine core from the Iceland Basin with previously published data from the ice and marine realms to construct the first tephrostratigraphical framework for this time-interval. Forty-three tephra or cryptotephra deposits are incorporated into this framework; twenty three tephra deposits are found in the Greenland ice-cores, including nine new NGRIP tephras, and twenty separate deposits are preserved in various North Atlantic marine sequences. Major, minor and trace element results are presented for the new NGRIP horizons together with age estimates based on their position within the ice-core record. Basaltic tephras of Icelandic origin dominate the framework with only eight tephras of rhyolitic composition found. New results from marine core MD99-2253 also illustrate some of the complexities and challenges of assessing the depositional integrity of marine cryptotephra deposits. Tephra-based correlations in the marine environment provide independent tie-points for this time-interval and highlight the potential of widening the application of tephrochronology. Further investigations, however, are required, that combine robust geochemical fingerprinting and a rigorous assessment of tephra depositional processes, in order to trace coeval events between the two depositional realms.

  5. North Atlantic Deep Water Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, T. (Editor); Broecker, W. S. (Editor); Hansen, J. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Various studies concerning differing aspects of the North Atlantic are presented. The three major topics under which the works are classified include: (1) oceanography; (2) paleoclimate; and (3) ocean, ice and climate modeling.

  6. North Atlantic Coastal Tidal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter provides college instructors, researchers, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, and environmental consultants interested in wetlands with foundation information on the ecology and conservation concerns of North Atlantic coastal wetlands. The book c...

  7. Heinrich Stadial 4: sequence of events from North to South seen in high resolution Greenland and Antarctic ice cores and suggestion of synchronization to North Atlantic marine records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillevic, Myriam; Bazin, Lucie; Stowasser, Christopher; Landais, Amaelle; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Prié, Frédéric; Blunier, Thomas; Eynaud, Frédérique; Michel, Elisabeth; Vinther, Bo M.

    2013-04-01

    The last glacial period was affected by the occurrence of rapid climatic events at the millennial time scale known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events. In Greenland, these events are composed of a rapid temperature increase of 5-16° in less than a century, a warm phase lasting several centuries (InterStadial, GI) followed by a more gradual temperature decrease, and finally a cold phase (Stadial, GS). An Antarctic counterpart to each GI of the Last Glacial Period has been identified in Antarctic ice cores. In the North Atlantic Ocean, marine cores also record changes in surface temperature as well as the occurrence during cold phases of ice rafted debris horizons, corresponding to massive icebergs discharges, known as Heinrich (H) events. It has never been possible to identify the presence of H events from temperature proxies in Greenland ice cores. It thus remains difficult to compare the durations of H events and GS. Here, we focus on the time period covering DO 9 to 7 (41 to 34 ka b2k according to the GICC05/AICC2012 time scales), with H event 4 occurring during GS 9. We present a compilation of high resolution measurements (about 60 years) of this period based on Greenland and Antarctic ice cores data (ice and gas) synchronized on the new time scale AICC2012. Proxies for local Greenland temperature (δ15N-N2, δ18O-H2O) record GS9 as a uniform period lasting ~1850 years, followed by a sharp transition to GI8. This pattern is also seen in continuous methane concentration data (NEEM ice core, Greenland) showing a large increase by ~100 ppbv at the GS9 - GI8 transition. However, using additional proxies and a detailed inspection of the methane profile, GS9 can be divided into 3 phases. The first 600 years of GS9 (phase 1) are characterized by low CO2 and methane concentration, intermediate δD of CH4 (tracer of methane sources), high NEEM 17O-excess (proxy for vapor source relative humidity) and a progressive increase in EDML δ18O. The transition between phase 1

  8. Compilation of Marine Radiocarbon Bomb-Pulse from the Temperate North Atlantic Using Annually-Resolved Time-Series From Arctica islandica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scourse, J.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Weidman, C.; Heinemeier, J.; Richardson, C.

    2008-12-01

    Radiocarbon measurements from increments of annually-banded corals covering the past 60 years from sub- tropical and tropical contexts provide valuable records of the marine expression of the atmospheric excess radiocarbon "bomb-pulse". These records can be used as calibration series for high-resolution post- bomb radiocarbon dating and constitute tracers for identifying watermass age and mixing processes. Hitherto such applications have been restricted in temperate shelf seas because of the lack of widespread measurements from annually-resolved archives. Here we present a compilation of bomb-pulse data from annual growth increments of the shallow marine bivalve mollusc Arctica islandica from sites across the temperate North Atlantic (Georges Bank, north Icelandic shelf, north Norway, North Sea). The temporal response is highly correlated at all sites, but the amplitude of the bomb-pulse varies, with the highest values attained in the North Sea and the most damped response on the north Icelandic shelf. These differences can be attributed to the integrated hydrographic context of these sites (entrainment of deep, old water; rates of air-sea exchange; fluvial runoff). The north Icelandic data contain a reversal in the rising limb of the bomb- pulse which is not present elsewhere, even in the more sensitive sites. This reversal correlates with instrumental data characterising the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1960s when old (deltaR = + 200 years), cold and relatively fresh East Icelandic Current flooded the north Icelandic shelf as a result of southward migration of the Polar Front. The bomb-pulse radiocarbon proxy is therefore a sensitive proxy for hydrographic variability. Further applications of these data will be discussed.

  9. Millennial changes in North Atlantic oxygen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, B. A. A.; Thornalley, D. J. R.; Barker, S.

    2015-08-01

    Glacial-interglacial changes in bottom water oxygen concentrations [O2] in the deep Northeast Atlantic have been linked to decreased ventilation relating to changes in ocean circulation and the biological pump (Hoogakker et al., 2015). In this paper we discuss seawater [O2] changes in relation to millennial climate oscillations in the North Atlantic ocean over the last glacial cycle, using bottom water [O2] reconstructions from 2 cores: (1) MD95-2042 from the deep northeast Atlantic (Hoogakker et al., 2015), and (2) ODP 1055 from the intermediate northwest Atlantic. Deep northeast Atlantic core MD95-2042 shows decreased bottom water [O2] during millennial scale cool events, with lowest bottom water [O2] of 170, 144, and 166 ± 17 μmol kg-1 during Heinrich ice rafting events H6, H4 and H1. Importantly, at intermediate core ODP 1055 bottom water [O2] was lower during parts of Marine Isotope Stage 4 and millennial cool events, with lowest values of 179 and 194 μmol kg-1 recorded during millennial cool events C21 and a cool event following Dansgaard-Oeschger event 19. Our reconstructions agree with previous model simulations suggesting that glacial cold events may be associated with lower seawater [O2] across the North Atlantic below ~1 km (Schmittner et al., 2007), although in our reconstructions the changes are less dramatic. The decreases in bottom water [O2] during North Atlantic Heinrich events and earlier cold events at the deep site can be linked to water mass changes in relation to ocean circulation changes, and possibly productivity changes. At the intermediate depth site a strong North Atlantic Intermediate Water cell precludes water mass changes as a cause for decreased bottom water [O2]. Instead we propose that the lower bottom [O2] there can be linked to productivity changes through increased export of organic material from the surface ocean.

  10. The distribution of atmospheric black carbon in the marine boundary layer over the North Atlantic and the Russian Arctic Seas in July - October 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, Vladimir P.; Kopeikin, Vladimir M.; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Novigatsky, Alexander N.; Pankratova, Natalia V.; Starodymova, Dina P.; Stohl, Andreas; Thompson, Rona

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon (BC) particles are highly efficient at absorbing visible light, which has a large potential impact on Arctic climate. However, measurement data on the distribution of BC in the atmosphere over the North Atlantic and the Russian Arctic Seas are scarce. We present measurement data on the distribution of atmospheric BC in the marine boundary layer of the North Atlantic and Baltic, North, Norwegian, Barents, White, Kara and Laptev Seas from research cruises during July 23 to October 6, 2015. During the 62nd and 63rd cruises of the RV "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" air was filtered through Hahnemuhle fineart quarz-microfibre filters. The mass of BC on the filter was determined by measurement of the attenuation of a beam of light transmitted through the filter. Source areas were estimated by backwards trajectories of air masses calculated using NOAA's HYSPLIT model (http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready.html) and FLEXPART model (http://www.flexpart.eu). During some parts of the cruises, air masses arrived from background areas of high latitudes, and the measured BC concentrations were low. During other parts of the cruise, air masses arrived from industrially developed areas with strong BC sources, and this led to substantially enhanced measured BC concentrations. Model-supported analyses are currently performed to use the measurement data for constraining the emission strength in these areas.

  11. The North Atlantic Cold Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greatbatch, Richard; Drews, Annika; Ding, Hui; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic cold bias, associated with a too zonal path of the North Atlantic Current and a missing "northwest corner", is a common problem in coupled climate and forecast models. The bias affects the North Atlantic and European climate mean state, variability and predictability. We investigate the use of a flow field correction to adjust the path of the North Atlantic Current as well as additional corrections to the surface heat and freshwater fluxes. Results using the Kiel Climate Model show that the flow field correction allows a northward flow into the northwest corner, largely eliminating the bias below the surface layer. A surface cold bias remains but can be eliminated by additionally correcting the surface freshwater flux, without adjusting the surface heat flux seen by the ocean model. A model version in which only the surface fluxes of heat and freshwater are corrected continues to exhibit the incorrect path of the North Atlantic Current and a strong subsurface bias. Removing the bias impacts the multi-decadal time scale variability in the model and leads to a better representation of the SST pattern associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability than the uncorrected model.

  12. Investigating Population Genetic Structure in a Highly Mobile Marine Organism: The Minke Whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata acutorostrata in the North East Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Quintela, María; Skaug, Hans J.; Øien, Nils; Haug, Tore; Seliussen, Bjørghild B.; Solvang, Hiroko K.; Pampoulie, Christophe; Kanda, Naohisa; Pastene, Luis A.; Glover, Kevin A.

    2014-01-01

    Inferring the number of genetically distinct populations and their levels of connectivity is of key importance for the sustainable management and conservation of wildlife. This represents an extra challenge in the marine environment where there are few physical barriers to gene-flow, and populations may overlap in time and space. Several studies have investigated the population genetic structure within the North Atlantic minke whale with contrasting results. In order to address this issue, we analyzed ten microsatellite loci and 331 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop on 2990 whales sampled in the North East Atlantic in the period 2004 and 2007–2011. The primary findings were: (1) No spatial or temporal genetic differentiations were observed for either class of genetic marker. (2) mtDNA identified three distinct mitochondrial lineages without any underlying geographical pattern. (3) Nuclear markers showed evidence of a single panmictic population in the NE Atlantic according STRUCTURE's highest average likelihood found at K = 1. (4) When K = 2 was accepted, based on the Evanno's test, whales were divided into two more or less equally sized groups that showed significant genetic differentiation between them but without any sign of underlying geographic pattern. However, mtDNA for these individuals did not corroborate the differentiation. (5) In order to further evaluate the potential for cryptic structuring, a set of 100 in silico generated panmictic populations was examined using the same procedures as above showing genetic differentiation between two artificially divided groups, similar to the aforementioned observations. This demonstrates that clustering methods may spuriously reveal cryptic genetic structure. Based upon these data, we find no evidence to support the existence of spatial or cryptic population genetic structure of minke whales within the NE Atlantic. However, in order to conclusively evaluate population structure within this highly mobile

  13. South Atlantic OCS area living marine resources study. Volume II: an investigation of live bottom habitats north of Cape Fear, North Carolina. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The major objectives of this study were to (1) characterize benthic and nektonic communities associated with representative live bottom habitats on the continental shelf of the South Atlantic Bight, and (2) evaluate factors which might influence these communities, particularly the potential for impact by offshore oil and gas activities. The report describes three study sites at the edge of the continental shelf in a 55-100m depth zone, near Cape Fear, North Carolina.

  14. Endangered North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) experience repeated, concurrent exposure to multiple environmental neurotoxins produced by marine algae.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Gregory J; Mikulski, Christina M; King, Kristen L; Roth, Patricia B; Wang, Zhihong; Leandro, Luis F; DeGrasse, Stacey L; White, Kevin D; De Biase, Daniela; Gillett, Roxanne M; Rolland, Rosalind M

    2012-01-01

    The western North Atlantic population of right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) is one of the most critically endangered of any whale population in the world. Among the factors considered to have potentially adverse effects on the health and reproduction of E. glacialis are biotoxins produced by certain microalgae responsible for causing harmful algal blooms. The worldwide incidence of these events has continued to increase dramatically over the past several decades and is expected to remain problematic under predicted climate change scenarios. Previous investigations have demonstrated that N. Atlantic right whales are being exposed to at least two classes of algal-produced environmental neurotoxins-paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) and domoic acid (DA). Our primary aims during this six-year study (2001-2006) were to assess whether the whales' exposure to these algal biotoxins occurred annually over multiple years, and to what extent individual whales were exposed repeatedly and/or concurrently to one or both toxin classes. Approximately 140 right whale fecal samples obtained across multiple habitats in the western N. Atlantic were analyzed for PSTs and DA. About 40% of these samples were attributed to individual whales in the North Atlantic Right Whale Catalog, permitting analysis of biotoxin exposure according to sex, age class, and reproductive status/history. Our findings demonstrate clearly that right whales are being exposed to both of these algal biotoxins on virtually an annual basis in multiple habitats for periods of up to six months (April through September), with similar exposure rates for females and males (PSTs: ∼70-80%; DA: ∼25-30%). Notably, only one of 14 lactating females sampled did not contain either PSTs or DA, suggesting the potential for maternal toxin transfer and possible effects on neonatal animals. Moreover, 22% of the fecal samples tested for PSTs and DA showed concurrent exposure to both neurotoxins, leading to questions of interactive

  15. On the North Atlantic circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, W.J. Jr.; McCartney, M.S. )

    1993-02-01

    A summary for North Atlantic circulation is proposed to replace the circulation scheme hypothesized by Worthington in 1976. Divergences from the previous model are in thermohaline circulation, cross-equatorical transport and Florida Current sources, flow in the eastern Atlantic, circulation in the Newfoundland Basin, slope water currents, and flow pattern near the Bahamas. The circulation patterns presented here are consistent with the majority of of published accounts of flow components. 77 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. 3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH WEST OVER CENTRAL ATLANTIC WITH ATLANTIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH WEST OVER CENTRAL ATLANTIC WITH ATLANTIC OCEAN IN THE FOREGROUND. DENNIS HOTEL, BLENHEIM HOTEL, AND MARLBOROUGH HOTEL (LEFT TO RIGHT) ARE LOCATED IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE CLARIDGE HOTEL IS THE HIGHRISE IMMEDIATELY TO THE RIGHT OF THE MARLBOROUGH HOTEL - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  17. Climatic Variability over the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurrell, J.; Hoerling, M. P.; Folland, C. K.

    INTRODUCTION WHAT IS THE NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION AND HOW DOES IT IMPACT REGIONAL - CLIMATE? WHAT ARE THE MECHANISMS THAT GOVERN NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION VARIABILITY? Atmospheric Processes Ocean Forcing of the Atmosphere CONCLUDING COMMENTS ON THE OTHER ASPECTS OF NORTH ATLANTIC CLIMATE - VARIABILITY REFERENCES

  18. Millennial changes in North Atlantic oxygen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, B. A. A.; Thornalley, D. J. R.; Barker, S.

    2016-01-01

    Glacial-interglacial changes in bottom water oxygen concentrations [O2] in the deep northeast Atlantic have been linked to decreased ventilation relating to changes in ocean circulation and the biological pump (Hoogakker et al., 2015). In this paper we discuss seawater [O2] changes in relation to millennial climate oscillations in the North Atlantic over the last glacial cycle, using bottom water [O2] reconstructions from 2 cores: (1) MD95-2042 from the deep northeast Atlantic (Hoogakker et al., 2015) and (2) ODP (Ocean Drilling Program) Site 1055 from the intermediate northwest Atlantic. The deep northeast Atlantic core MD95-2042 shows decreased bottom water [O2] during millennial-scale cool events, with lowest bottom water [O2] of 170, 144, and 166 ± 17 µmol kg-1 during Heinrich ice rafting events H6, H4, and H1. Importantly, at intermediate depth core ODP Site 1055, bottom water [O2] was lower during parts of Marine Isotope Stage 4 and millennial cool events, with the lowest values of 179 and 194 µmol kg-1 recorded during millennial cool event C21 and a cool event following Dansgaard-Oeschger event 19. Our reconstructions agree with previous model simulations suggesting that glacial cold events may be associated with lower seawater [O2] across the North Atlantic below ˜ 1 km (Schmittner et al., 2007), although in our reconstructions the changes are less dramatic. The decreases in bottom water [O2] during North Atlantic Heinrich events and earlier cold events at the two sites can be linked to water mass changes in relation to ocean circulation changes and possibly productivity changes. At the intermediate depth site a possible strong North Atlantic Intermediate Water cell would preclude water mass changes as a cause for decreased bottom water [O2]. Instead, we propose that the lower bottom [O2] there can be linked to productivity changes through increased export of organic material from the surface ocean and its subsequent remineralization in the water column

  19. Millennial-scale versus long-term dynamics in the surface and subsurface of the western North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre during Marine Isotope Stage 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, André; Nürnberg, Dirk; Karas, Cyrus; Grützner, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Subtropical Gyres are an important constituent of the ocean-atmosphere system due to their capacity to store vast amounts of warm and saline waters. Here we decipher the sensitivity of the (sub)surface North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre with respect to orbital and millennial scale climate variability between ~ 140 and 70 ka, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5. Using (isotope) geochemical proxy data from surface and thermocline dwelling foraminifers from Blake Ridge off the west coast of North America (ODP Site 1058) we show that the oceanographic development at subsurface (thermocline) level is substantially different from the surface ocean. Most notably, surface temperatures and salinities peak during the penultimate deglaciation (Termination II) and early MIS 5e, implying that subtropical surface ocean heat and salt accumulation might have resulted from a sluggish northward heat transport. In contrast, maximum thermocline temperatures are reached during late MIS 5e when surface temperatures are already declining. We argue that the subsurface warming originated from intensified Ekman downwelling in the Subtropical Gyre due to enhanced wind stress. During MIS 5a-d a tight interplay of the subtropical upper ocean hydrography to high latitude millennial-scale cold events can be observed. At Blake Ridge, the most pronounced of these high latitude cold events are related to surface warming and salt accumulation in the (sub)surface. Similar to Termination II, heat accumulated in the Subtropical Gyre probably due to a reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Additionally, a southward shift and intensification of the subtropical wind belts lead to a decrease of on-site precipitation and enhanced evaporation, coupled to intensified gyre circulation. Subsequently, the northward advection of this warm and saline water likely contributed to the fast resumption of the overturning circulation at the end of these high latitude cold events.

  20. The North Atlantic Population Project

    PubMed Central

    RUGGLES, STEVEN; ROBERTS, EVAN; SARKAR, SULA; SOBEK, MATTHEW

    2011-01-01

    The North Atlantic Population Project (NAPP) is a massive database of historical census microdata from European and North American countries. The backbone of the project is the unique collection of completely digitized censuses providing information on the entire enumerated populations of each country. In addition, for some countries, the NAPP includes sample data from surrounding census years. In this article, the authors provide a brief history of the project, describe their progress to data and plans for the future, and discuss some potential implications of this unique data resource for social and economic research. PMID:22199411

  1. Characterization of marine boundary layer aerosol from North Atlantic and European sources: Physical and chemical properties and climate forcing parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusek, Ulrike

    This thesis focuses on aerosol properties measured in Southwestern Portugal during the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment. Fundamental aerosol physical properties such as particle size distribution and hygroscopic properties are related to possible sources and aerosol transformation processes. From these fundamental properties we derive aerosol properties that are important for aerosol forcing of climate. First, a new method for calculating CCN spectra is proposed in this work and tested using sensitivity studies and comparisons to direct measurements. The measured and calculated CCN spectra differ on average by 30%, which at small supersaturations is similar to the measurement uncertainties. Second, aerosol number to volume ratios (R) are calculated and the fact that values of R are relatively constrained is explained based on observed correlations between size distribution parameters. Third, a simple parameterization of the humidity dependence of the submicron aerosol scattering coefficient has been derived, depending only on a volume weighted average diameter growth factor and the volume mean diameter of the dry size distribution. One set of empirical parameters can be used to parameterize all aerosol types characterized during the ACE-2 measurement period. Aerosol physical properties and climate forcing parameters in the North-East Atlantic Ocean were clearly affected by pollution outbreaks from Europe. The submicron particle volume increased by a factor of 5 in polluted conditions, the light scattering coefficient of dry particles increased on average by a factor of up to 10, CCN concentrations at supersaturations of 0.2% increased by a factor of 3--5. The aerosol fundamental properties vary often strongly with air mass history, but also show short-term variability that often has a characteristic diurnal scale. The number concentration of fine particles below 50nm and the particle hygroscopic growth factors are mostly dominated by diurnal processes

  2. CCN in the marine environment: Results from two intensive measurement campaigns - The Eastern North Atlantic (Mace Head) and The Southern Ocean (PEGASO cruise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Fossum, Kirsten; Ceburnis, Darius; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Simo, Rafel; O'Dowd, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Marine aerosol occurring in cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) sizes suggest that it may contribute notably to the CCN population [1, 2], but further cloud droplet number concentration would strongly depend on the ambient (cloud) conditions, such as available water content, supersaturation and competition between the CCN of different composition [3]. Since the global importance of marine aerosol particles to the cloud formation was postulated several decades ago [4], it has progressed from the evaluation of the nss-sulphate and sea salt effects to an acknowledgement of the significant role of organic aerosol [5]. It was demonstrated that primary marine organics, despite its hydrophobic nature, can possess the high CCN activation efficiency, resulting in the efficient cloud formation [6]. Results from two intensive measurement campaigns in The Eastern North Atlantic (Mace Head) and The Southern Ocean (PEGASO cruise) is presented here with the main focus on ssCCN dependence on aerosol chemical composition and, especially, origin and sources of marine organic. We investigate the activation of sea spray composed of the sea salt and externally mixed with nss-sulphate as well as the sea spray highly enriched in organics, stressing the importance of the latter to the formation of the cloud droplets. We also explore the suitability of existing theories to explain the marine aerosol activation to CCN. Acknowledgments The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) project BACCHUS under grant agreement n° 603445; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) as part of the PEGASO (Ref.: CTM2012-37615) and BIO-NUC (Ref.: CGL2013-49020-R); HEA-PRTLI4;EC ACTRIS. [1] Meskhidze & Nenes (2006) Science 314, 1419-1423. [2] Sorooshian et al. (2009) Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23, GB4007. [3] O'Dowd et al. (1999) Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 125, 1295-1313. [4] Charlson

  3. Cenozoic climates: evidence from the North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Berggren, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Cenozoic biostratigraphy and climatology of the North Atlantic and adjacent land areas reflects the continuing fragmentation of Eurasia and concomitant changes on ocean-continent geometry. A latitudinal (zonal) Mesozoic circulation pattern evolved into a predominantly longitudinal (meridional) pattern during the Cenozoic in which the development of oceanic gateways and barriers gradually decreased the efficiency of poleward heat transfer resulting in the progressive climatic change which has taken place over the past 50 million years. Cenozoic distributional data from the North Atlantic and adjacent land areas will be reviewed from the following fields: a) terrestrial vertebrates and floras: b) marine calcareous microplankton and benthic foraminifera; c) other marine invertebrates. Available data suggests that the present climate in the northern hemisphere has resulted from a gradual, but inexorable, strengthening of latitudinal and vertical temperature gradients punctuated by several brief intervals of accelerated change. The absence of evidence for northern hemisphere polar glaciation prior to the late Neogene does not preclude seasonal cooling near the freezing point in post-Eocene time. Evidence for early Paleogene cold climates is not reflected in the fossil record.

  4. North Atlantic, ITCZ, and Monsoonal Climate Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, G. H.; Deplazes, G.; Peterson, L. C.; Brauer, A.; Mingram, J.; Dulski, P.; Sigman, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    Major element chemistry and color data from sediment cores in the anoxic Cariaco Basin off Venezuela record with (sub)annual resolution large and abrupt shifts in the hydrologic cycle of the tropical Atlantic during the last 80 ka. These data suggest a direct connection between the position of the ITCZ over northern South America, the strength of trade winds, and the temperature gradient to the high northern latitudes, ENSO, and monsoonal climate in Asia. The mechanisms behind these decadal-scale ITCZ-monsoon swings can be further explored at major climate transitions such as the onset of Younger Dryas cooling at ~12.7 ka, one of the most abrupt climate changes observed in ice core, lake and marine records in the North Atlantic realm and much of the Northern Hemisphere. Annually laminated sediments from ideally record the dynamics of abrupt climate changes since seasonal deposition immediately responds to climate and varve counts accurately estimate the time of change. We compare sub-annual geochemical data from a lake in Western Germany, which provides one of the best-dated records currently available for this climate transition, with the new the Cariaco Basin record and a new and higher resolution record from Lake Huguang Maar in China, and the Greenland ice core record. The Lake Meerfelder Maar record indicates an abrupt increase in storminess, occurring from one year to the next at 12,678 ka BP, coincident with other observed climate changes in the region. We interpret this shift of the wintertime winds to signify an abrupt change in the North Atlantic westerlies to a stronger and more zonal jet. The observed wind shift provides the atmospheric mechanism for the strong temporal link between North Atlantic overturning and European climate during the last deglaciation, tightly coupled to ITCZ migrations observed in the Cariaco Basin sediments, and a stronger east Asian Monsoon winter monsoon as seen in lake Huguang Maar, when cave stalagmite oxygen isotope data

  5. Molecular distributions and isotopic compositions of marine aerosols over the western North Atlantic: Dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal and methylglyoxal), fatty acids, sugars, and SOA tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Ono, K.; Tachibana, E.; Quinn, P.; Bates, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    Marine aerosols were collected over the western North Atlantic from off the coast of Boston to Bermuda during the WACS (Western Atlantic Climate Study) cruise of R/V Ronald H. Brown in August 2012 using a high volume air sampler and pre-combusted quartz fiber filters. Aerosol filter samples (n=5) were analyzed for OC/EC, major inorganic ions, low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids and various secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers using carbon analyzer, ion chromatograph, GC/FID and GC/MS, respectively. Homologous series (C2-C12) of dicarboxylic acids (31-335 ng m-3) were detected with a predominance of oxalic acid. Total carbon and nitrogen and their stable isotope ratios were determined as well as stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual diacids using IRMS. Diacids were found to be the most abundant compound class followed by monoterpene-SOA tracers > isoprene-SOA tracers > sugar compounds > ketoacids > fatty alcohols > fatty acids > α-dicarbonyls > aromatic acids > n-alkanes. The concentrations of these compounds were higher in the coastal site and decreased in the open ocean. However, diacids stayed relatively high even in the remote ocean. Interestingly, contributions of oxalic acid to total aerosol carbon increased from the coast (2.3%) to the remote ocean (5.6%) during long-range atmospheric transport. Stable carbon isotopic composition of oxalic acid increased from the coast (-17.5‰) to open ocean (-12.4‰), suggesting that photochemical aging of organic aerosols occurred during the atmospheric transport over the ocean. Stable carbon isotope ratios of bulk aerosol carbon also increased from the coast near Boston to the open ocean near Bermuda.

  6. Climatic controls on water vapor deuterium excess in the marine boundary layer of the North Atlantic based on 500 days of in situ, continuous measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Sveinbjörnsdottir, Arny E.; Peters, Andrew; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    Continuous, in situ measurements of water vapor isotopic composition have been conducted in the North Atlantic, Bermuda Islands (32.26°N 64.88°W) between November 2011 and June 2013, using a cavity-ringdown-spectrometer water vapor isotope analyzer and an autonomous self-designed calibration system. Meticulous calibration allows us to reach an accuracy and precision on 10 minute average of δ18O, δD, and d-excess of respectively 0.14‰, 0.85‰, and 1.1‰, verified using two parallel instruments with independent calibration. As a result of more than 500 days with 6-hourly data the relationships between deuterium excess, relative humidity (rh), sea surface temperature (SST), wind speed and direction are assessed. From the whole dataset, 84% of d-excess variance is explained by a strong linear relationship with relative humidity. The slope of this relationship (-42.6 ± 0.4 ‰ per % (rh)) is similar to the theoretical prediction of Merlivat and Jouzel (1979) for SST between 20°C and 30°C. However, in contrast with theory, no effect of wind speed could be detected on the relationship between d-excess and relative humidity. Separating the dataset into winter, spring, summer, and autumn seasons reveals different linear relationships between d-excess and humidity. Changes in wind directions are observed to affect the relationships between d-excess and humidity. The observed seasonal variability in the relationship between d-excess and relative humidity underlines the importance of long-term monitoring to accurately separate signals of local evaporation from signals associated with moisture advection. Steen-Larsen, H. C., Sveinbjörnsdottir, A. E., Peters, A. J., Masson-Delmotte, V., Guishard, M. P., Hsiao, G., Jouzel, J., Noone, D., Warren, J. K., and White, J. W. C.: Climatic controls on water vapor deuterium excess in the marine boundary layer of the North Atlantic based on 500 days of in situ, continuous measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7741-7756, doi:10

  7. Climatic Controls on Water Vapor Deuterium Excess in the Marine Boundary Layer of the North Atlantic Based on 500 Days of in Situ, Continuous Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Sveinbjörnsdottir, A. E.; Peters, A.; Masson-Delmotte, V.

    2014-12-01

    Continuous, in situ measurements of water vapor isotopic composition have been conducted in the North Atlantic, Bermuda Islands (32.26°N 64.88°W) between November 2011 and June 2013, using a cavity-ringdown-spectrometer water vapor isotope analyzer and an autonomous self-designed calibration system. Meticulous calibration allows us to reach an accuracy and precision on 10 minute average of d18O, dD, and d-excess of respectively 0.14‰, 0.85‰, and 1.1‰, verified using two parallel instruments with independent calibration. As a result of more than 500 days with 6-hourly data the relationships between deuterium excess, relative humidity (rh), sea surface temperature (SST), wind speed and direction are assessed. From the whole dataset, 84% of d-excess variance is explained by a strong linear relationship with relative humidity. The slope of this relationship (-42.6 ± 0.4 ‰ per % (rh)) is similar to the theoretical prediction of Merlivat and Jouzel (1979) for SST between 20ºC and 30ºC. However, in contrast with theory, no effect of wind speed could be detected on the relationship between d-excess and relative humidity. Separating the dataset into winter, spring, summer, and autumn seasons reveals different linear relationships between d-excess and humidity. Changes in wind directions are observed to affect the relationships between d-excess and humidity. The observed seasonal variability in the relationship between d-excess and relative humidity underlines the importance of long-term monitoring to accurately separate signals of local evaporation from signals associated with moisture advection. Steen-Larsen, H. C., Sveinbjörnsdottir, A. E., Peters, A. J., Masson-Delmotte, V., Guishard, M. P., Hsiao, G., Jouzel, J., Noone, D., Warren, J. K., and White, J. W. C.: Climatic controls on water vapor deuterium excess in the marine boundary layer of the North Atlantic based on 500 days of in situ, continuous measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7741-7756, doi:10

  8. 50 CFR 224.105 - Speed restrictions to protect North Atlantic Right Whales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed restrictions to protect North Atlantic Right Whales. 224.105 Section 224.105 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES § 224.105 Speed restrictions to protect North Atlantic Right Whales. (a)...

  9. 50 CFR 224.105 - Speed restrictions to protect North Atlantic Right Whales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Speed restrictions to protect North Atlantic Right Whales. 224.105 Section 224.105 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES § 224.105 Speed restrictions to protect North Atlantic Right Whales. (a)...

  10. 50 CFR 224.105 - Speed restrictions to protect North Atlantic Right Whales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Speed restrictions to protect North Atlantic Right Whales. 224.105 Section 224.105 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES § 224.105 Speed restrictions to protect North Atlantic Right Whales. (a)...

  11. 50 CFR 224.105 - Speed restrictions to protect North Atlantic Right Whales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Speed restrictions to protect North Atlantic Right Whales. 224.105 Section 224.105 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES § 224.105 Speed restrictions to protect North Atlantic Right Whales. (a)...

  12. 50 CFR 224.105 - Speed restrictions to protect North Atlantic Right Whales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Speed restrictions to protect North Atlantic Right Whales. 224.105 Section 224.105 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES § 224.105 Speed restrictions to protect North Atlantic Right Whales. (a)...

  13. Single-particle detection efficiencies of aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry during the North Atlantic marine boundary layer experiment.

    PubMed

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Harrison, Roy M; Beddows, David C S; Freney, Evelyn J; Heal, Mathew R; Donovan, Robert J

    2006-08-15

    During the North Atlantic marine boundary layer experiment (NAMBLEX) sampling campaign at Mace Head, Ireland, both continental and maritime air masses were sampled. Aerosol was characterized both with a TSI 3800 time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) and a MOUDI microorifice impactor, and particle number counts were measured independently with an aerodynamic particle sizer. The data have been analyzed in order to elucidate factors determining the particle detection efficiencies of the ATOFMS. These are broken down according to the efficiency of the inlet system, the hit efficiency on particles which enter the sensing zone of the instrument and the sensitivity of the measured ion signal to the chemical species. A substantial matrix effect depending on the chemical composition of the aerosol sampled at the time was found, which is reflected in variations in the hit efficiency of particles entering the sensing zone of the instrument with the main desorption-ionization laser. This is in addition to the strong inverse power-law dependence of inlet transmission efficiency on particle diameter. The variation in hit efficiency with particle type is likely attributable to differences in the energetics of laser energy absorption, ablation, and ion formation. However, once variations in both inlet transmission and hit efficiencies are taken into account, no additional matrix dependence of ATOFMS response is required to obtain a linear relationship between the ion signal and the concentration of a particular chemical species. The observations show that a constant mass of material is ionized from each particle, irrespective of size. Consequently the integrated ion signal for a given chemical component and particle size class needs to be increased by a factor related to the cube of particle diameter in order to correlate with the airborne mass of that component. PMID:16955903

  14. Primary Productivity Changes in the subtropical western North Atlantic During Marine Isotope Stages 11-12: Inferences from Benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, M.; Meyers, P. A.; Thunell, R.

    2004-12-01

    The time interval referred to as Marine Isotope Stage 11 (MIS 11, ~423 to 362 ka) is characterized by a configuration of earth's orbit similar to that of the Holocene, and is therefore a good analog for our current interglacial. MIS 11 was probably the warmest and longest interglacial of the last 500 kyrs, characterized by sea level possibly 20m higher than today and a maximum in NADW production. In contrast, during MIS 12, sea level was about 140m below present, and the production of NADW was severely reduced. We have examined benthic foraminiferal assemblages in sediments from ODP Site 1058 (Blake Outer Ridge, 3000m water depth), and Site 1063 (Bermuda Rise, 4584m water depth) spanning the MIS 11-12 time interval at a time resolution of 500 to 3000 years. At both sites the glacial-interglacial transition is accompanied by changes in faunal composition; however, bottom environmental conditions appear to have undergone the most dramatic change at Site 1058. Here, infaunal taxa indicative of organic carbon-rich sediments dominate during glacial MIS 12, and are replaced during MIS 11 by epifaunal species indicative of oligotrophic environments. The beginning of the MIS 12 and MIS 10 glaciation is characterized by large, rapid increases in the relative and absolute abundances of Epistominella exigua both at Site 1058 and Site 1063. In the modern ocean, this species inhabits seasonally deposited aggregates of phytodetritus produced during spring plankton blooms, thus suggesting an increase in surface ocean primary productivity at these times.

  15. Changes in North Atlantic nitrogen fixation controlled by ocean circulation.

    PubMed

    Straub, Marietta; Sigman, Daniel M; Ren, Haojia; Martínez-García, Alfredo; Meckler, A Nele; Hain, Mathis P; Haug, Gerald H

    2013-09-12

    In the ocean, the chemical forms of nitrogen that are readily available for biological use (known collectively as 'fixed' nitrogen) fuel the global phytoplankton productivity that exports carbon to the deep ocean. Accordingly, variation in the oceanic fixed nitrogen reservoir has been proposed as a cause of glacial-interglacial changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Marine nitrogen fixation, which produces most of the ocean's fixed nitrogen, is thought to be affected by multiple factors, including ocean temperature and the availability of iron and phosphorus. Here we reconstruct changes in North Atlantic nitrogen fixation over the past 160,000 years from the shell-bound nitrogen isotope ratio ((15)N/(14)N) of planktonic foraminifera in Caribbean Sea sediments. The observed changes cannot be explained by reconstructed changes in temperature, the supply of (iron-bearing) dust or water column denitrification. We identify a strong, roughly 23,000-year cycle in nitrogen fixation and suggest that it is a response to orbitally driven changes in equatorial Atlantic upwelling, which imports 'excess' phosphorus (phosphorus in stoichiometric excess of fixed nitrogen) into the tropical North Atlantic surface. In addition, we find that nitrogen fixation was reduced during glacial stages 6 and 4, when North Atlantic Deep Water had shoaled to become glacial North Atlantic intermediate water, which isolated the Atlantic thermocline from excess phosphorus-rich mid-depth waters that today enter from the Southern Ocean. Although modern studies have yielded diverse views of the controls on nitrogen fixation, our palaeobiogeochemical data suggest that excess phosphorus is the master variable in the North Atlantic Ocean and indicate that the variations in its supply over the most recent glacial cycle were dominated by the response of regional ocean circulation to the orbital cycles. PMID:23965620

  16. North Atlantic forcing of tropical Indian Ocean climate.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Mahyar; Prange, Matthias; Oppo, Delia W; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Merkel, Ute; Zhang, Xiao; Steinke, Stephan; Lückge, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The response of the tropical climate in the Indian Ocean realm to abrupt climate change events in the North Atlantic Ocean is contentious. Repositioning of the intertropical convergence zone is thought to have been responsible for changes in tropical hydroclimate during North Atlantic cold spells, but the dearth of high-resolution records outside the monsoon realm in the Indian Ocean precludes a full understanding of this remote relationship and its underlying mechanisms. Here we show that slowdowns of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich stadials and the Younger Dryas stadial affected the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate through changes to the Hadley circulation including a southward shift in the rising branch (the intertropical convergence zone) and an overall weakening over the southern Indian Ocean. Our results are based on new, high-resolution sea surface temperature and seawater oxygen isotope records of well-dated sedimentary archives from the tropical eastern Indian Ocean for the past 45,000 years, combined with climate model simulations of Atlantic circulation slowdown under Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 boundary conditions. Similar conditions in the east and west of the basin rule out a zonal dipole structure as the dominant forcing of the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate of millennial-scale events. Results from our simulations and proxy data suggest dry conditions in the northern Indian Ocean realm and wet and warm conditions in the southern realm during North Atlantic cold spells. PMID:24784218

  17. North Atlantic Finite Element Ocean Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veluthedathekuzhiyil, Praveen

    This thesis presents a modified version of the Finite Element Ocean Model (FEOM) developed at Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) for the North Atlantic Ocean. A reasonable North Atlantic Ocean simulation is obtained against the observational data sets in a Control simulation (CS) where the surface boundary conditions are relaxed to a climatology. The vertical mixing in the model was tuned to represent convection in the model, also the horizontal mixing and diffusion coefficients to represent the changes in the resolution of the model’s unstructured grid. In addition, the open boundaries in the model are treated with a sponge layer where tracers are relaxed to climatology. The model is then further modified to accept the atmospheric flux forcing at the surface boundary with an added net heat flux correction and freshwater forcing from major rivers that are flowing into the North Atlantic Ocean. The impact of this boundary condition on the simulation results is then analyzed and shows many improvements albeit the drift in tracer properties around the Gulf Stream region remains as that of the CS case. However a comparison of the vertical sections at Cape Desolation and Cape Farewell with the available observational data sets shows many improvements in this simulation compared to that of the CS case. But the freshwater content in the Labrador Sea interior shows a continued drift as that of the CS case with an improvement towards the 10th model year. A detailed analysis of the boundary currents around the Labrador Sea shows the weak offshore transport of freshwater from the West Greenland Current (WGC) as one of the causes. To further improve the model and reasonably represent the boundary currents and associated sub-grid scale eddies in the model, a modified sub-grid scale parameterization based on Gent and McWilliams, (1990) is adopted. The sensitivity of using various approaches in the thickness diffusion parameter ( Kgm) for this

  18. Variability of the North Atlantic Current over the Common Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffa Sanchez, P.; Hall, I. R.; Born, A.; Thornalley, D. J.; Barker, S.; Richter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last 2000 years, the climate of the North Atlantic region was punctuated by centennial oscillations, which despite their small magnitude had important societal impacts, particularly in NW Europe. The most favoured explanations for this climate variability invoke changes in external forcings (such as solar activity and explosive volcanism) amplified by ocean and atmosphere feedbacks, mainly involving the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and the North Atlantic Oscillation. However, the scarcity of highly resolved archives has hampered our understanding of the involvement of the ocean-atmosphere interactions in these climatic oscillations. We present a subdecadally resolved temperature and salinity record derived from paired Mg/Ca-δ18O measurements on planktonic foraminifera from a marine sediment core located in the pathway of the North Atlantic Current. Our findings show a strong centennial co-variability of the temperature and salinity of the surface limb of the AMOC with solar irradiance (Moffa-Sánchez et al. 2014- NGS). Climate model results from this study show a similar correlation over the last millennium and we infer that the hydrographic changes were linked to the strength of the subpolar gyre associated with changes in atmospheric circulation. Specifically, in the simulation, low solar irradiance promotes the development of frequent and persistent atmospheric blocking events, in which a quasi-stationary high-pressure system in the eastern North Atlantic, also known as blocking event, modifies the flow of the westerly winds. To further explore the response of the upper limb of the AMOC to solar forcing found in Moffa-Sánchez et al. 14, we synthesize new and available proxy-data from the North Atlantic Current in combination with analysis from CMIP5 simulations of the last millennium.

  19. Seasonal predictability of the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellinga, Michael; Scaife, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, long-range forecast systems showed only modest levels of skill in predicting surface winter climate around the Atlantic Basin and associated fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation at seasonal lead times. Here we use a new forecast system to assess seasonal predictability of winter North Atlantic climate. We demonstrate that key aspects of European and North American winter climate and the surface North Atlantic Oscillation are highly predictable months ahead. We demonstrate high levels of prediction skill in retrospective forecasts of the surface North Atlantic Oscillation, winter storminess, near-surface temperature, and wind speed, all of which have high value for planning and adaptation to extreme winter conditions. Analysis of forecast ensembles suggests that while useful levels of seasonal forecast skill have now been achieved, key sources of predictability are still only partially represented and there is further untapped predictability. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.

  20. Distribution of marine birds on the mid- and North-Atlantic US outer continental shelf. Technical progress report, January 1978-July 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, K.D.; Pittman, G.L.; Fitch, S.J.

    1980-09-01

    The species composition, distribution, and abundance of marine birds on continental shelf waters from Cape Hatteras to the Bay of Fundy were examined using ships-of-opportunity. Northern Fulmar, Cory's Shearwater, Greater Shearwater, Sooty Shearwater, Wilson's Storm-Petrel, Gannet, Red Phalarope, Great Black-backed Gull, Herring Gull, and Black-legged Kittiwake were the most abundant and common species. These species were ecologically dominant within the bird community in numbers and biomass. Georges Bank and Gulf of Marine regions generally had greatest estimates of standing stock and biomass; whereas, in the Middle Atlantic region these estimates were consistently lowest. Species diversity throughout the study area was greatest in spring and least in fall. Oceanic fronts at the continental shelf break and at Nantucket Shoals influenced the distribution of Wilson's Storm-Petrels and Red Phalaropes. Fishing activities were particularly important to Larus gull distribution. Fishes, squids, and crustaceans were the most important groups of prey items in diets of nine bird species. An oiled bird or pollution index was developed. According to the index, frequency of oiled birds was greatest in winter and spring, and gulls made up the majority of species with oiled plumages.

  1. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  2. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  3. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  4. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  5. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  6. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization at 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John A.

    1989-01-01

    Surveys the history of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) on the 40th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty. Highlights milestones in the Organization's history of dealing with the Soviet Union, from containment to the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. Discusses needs, tasks, and challenges that NATO faces in the 1990s.…

  7. Origins of the North Atlantic Treaty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotter, Andrew J.

    1983-01-01

    The author is persuaded that the main purpose of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was to raise the confidence of moderate ruling groups in Western Europe. Today NATO is an expression of support between troubled allies with a number of common interests. (RM)

  8. Earthquakes at North Atlantic passive margins

    SciTech Connect

    Gregersen, S. ); Basham, P.W. )

    1989-01-01

    The main focus of this volume is the earthquakes that occur at and near the continental margins on both sides of the North Atlantic. The book, which contains the proceedings of the NATO workshop on Causes and Effects of Earthquakes at Passive Margins and in Areas of Postglacial Rebound on Both Sides of the North Atlantic, draws together the fields of geophysics, geology and geodesy to address the stress and strain in the Earth's crust. The resulting earthquakes produced on ancient geological fault zones and the associated seismic hazards these pose to man are also addressed. Postglacial rebound in North America and Fennoscandia is a minor source of earthquakes today, during the interglacial period, but evidence is presented to suggest that the ice sheets suppressed earthquake strain while they were in place, and released this strain as a pulse of significant earthquakes after the ice melted about 9000 years ago.

  9. Two Distinct Roles of Atlantic SSTs in ENSO Variability: North Tropical Atlantic SST and Atlantic Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct roles of the Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), namely, the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) SST and the Atlantic Nino, on the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability are investigated using the observational data from 1980 to 2010 and coupled model experiments. It appears that the NTA SST and the Atlantic Nino can be used as two independent predictors for predicting the development of ENSO events in the following season. Furthermore, they are likely to be linked to different types of El Nino events. Specifically, the NTA SST cooling during February, March, and April contributes to the central Pacific warming at the subsequent winter season, while the negative Atlantic Nino event during June, July, and August contributes to enhancing the eastern Pacific warming. The coupled model experiments support these results. With the aid of a lagged inverse relationship, the statistical forecast using two Atlantic indices can successfully predict various ENSO indices.

  10. Carbon disulfide in the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Huixiang; Moore, Robert M.

    1999-03-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) was determined in surface waters of the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The mean concentrations (and ranges) of CS2 in open ocean waters were 13.4 (7.8-26.1) pM S (picomol sulfur per liter) for the North Atlantic and 14.6 (7.2-27.5) pM S for the Pacific. The concentrations in the coastal waters of the North Atlantic averaged 26.4 pM S and ranged from 17.9 to 40.4 pM S. Warm waters generally contained higher levels of CS2 than did cold waters. All the study areas were found to be supersaturated in CS2 relative to the atmosphere based on calculations from published CS2 mixing ratios in the marine boundary layer and their Henry's law constants. Sea-to-air fluxes of CS2 were estimated using exchange velocities for spot and climatological wind speeds. The global oceanic flux extrapolated from this study is 0.18 Tg CS2 yr-1 and in the range 0.13-0.24 Tg CS2 yr-1. It is suggested that microbial processes, photochemical reactions, and phytoplankton activity are potential sources for oceanic CS2.

  11. A review of millennial-scale climate variability over the past 1.5-million year from marine sediment cores in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodell, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Our view of millennial-scale climate variability is shaped by the last glacial cycle when frequent, large and abrupt temperature changes occurred over Greenland and the North Atlantic, including "Dansgaard-Oeschger" and "Heinrich events". The leading cause to explain these events is freshwater forcing from ice-sheets that affected sea ice extent, heat transport, and Atlantic Meridional Overturing Circulation. Several long records now exist that extend the history of millennial climate variability back to ~1.5 Ma. These records document how suborbital variability evolved as boundary conditions changed throughout the Pleistocene, including the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT) when the climate system transitioned from smaller ice volume fluctuations dominated by 41-kyr cycles before 1250 ka to larger ice sheets with quasi 100-kyr cycles after 650 ka. Examination of these records lead to the following observations: Millennial-scale variability was a persistent feature of glacial climates for the past 1.5 Ma. Suborbital climate variability was enhanced during glacial periods ("noisy glacials") and suppressed during full interglacial periods ("quiet intergalcials") The occurrence of strong millennial variability appears to be related to an ice-sheet size/volume threshold (McManus et al., 1999), presumably triggered when ice sheets grow large enough to reach the coast and interact with the ocean. No two glacial cycles were alike with respect to either the magnitude or pacing of millennial climate variability. The most significant change in ice rafted detritus (IRD) that occurred across the MPT was the appearance of Heinrich events, whose widespread occurrence was limited to the last ~650 ka (since MIS 16) The growth of very large ice sheets in the latest Pleistocene introduced a new type of dynamic behavior of the Laurentide Ice Sheet marked by Heinrich layers. IRD and benthic δ13C were tightly coupled during glacials periods for the last 1.5 Ma, supporting a

  12. Diagnosing overflow waters in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chuncheng; Ilicak, Mehmet; Bentsen, Mats; Fer, Ilker

    2015-04-01

    Danmark Strait overflow water (DSOW) and Iceland Faroe overflow water (ISOW) are important for the formation and transformation of deep waters in the North Atlantic. In this work the volume transport, variability, and pathways of DSOW and ISOW are diagnosed using the one degree ocean-ice coupled Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) that is forced by CORE2 inter-annual forcing. The oceanic component (MICOM) features an isopycnal coordinate that is referenced to 2000 db. The issues related to the coarse resolution such as the southward transport of ISOW to the western European Basin, the lack of overflow water in the western North Atlantic, and the western boundary detachment of the deep western boundary current are addressed. The effects of diapycnal mixing on the behavior of overflow descent at Denmark Strait and Faroe Bank Channel and its downstream evolution are examined.

  13. Review of North Atlantic Source Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) ventilates the deep World Ocean. It not only carries relatively well-oxygenated waters, but also other substances derived from recent sea-surface exchanges. There are five regional sources for NADW: (1) derivatives of the salty Mediterranean Sea outflow, (2) products of open-ocean convection in the Labrador Sea, (3) Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water from the Norwegian Sea - salty by virtue of mixing with saline water near the sills, (4) Denmark Strait Overflow Water from the Iceland and Greenland Seas - which retains a high-density, relatively low-salinity signal, and (5) remnants of deep water from the Antarctic circumpolar region - freshest of the bottom waters. Despite the differences of characteristics of the source waters, the NADW is relatively uniform. Because the formation of each of the five source waters may be viewed as a response to a complex series of events, it is difficult to examine the sensitivity of NADW to environmental fluctuations. It is known that the deep northern North Atlantic is relatively closely coupled to the sea surface in the Greenland and Iceland seas. The most recent studies indicate a minimum response time of only two years between the introduction of a passive signal north of Iceland and its appearance in the deep northwest Atlantic.

  14. Impact of the Saharan dust outbreaks on the ambient levels of total suspended particles (TSP) in the marine boundary layer (MBL) of the Subtropical Eastern North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Pérez, S.; Cuevas, E.; Querol, X.; Viana, M.; Guerra, J. C.

    Six years (1998-2003) of measurements of ambient air concentrations of total suspended particulate (TSP) measured at a rural background monitoring station in Tenerife (Canary Islands), the El Río station (ER, 28°08'35″N, 16°39'20″W, 500 m a.s.l.) were studied. African dust outbreaks were objectively identified using a new quantitative tool, called the African Index. This index indicates the percentage of time that an air mass remained over an African region at one of three possible height intervals of the lower troposphere. After identifying these episodes, a study of the background TSP levels at the ER station and of direct and indirect (those which cause vertical deposition of dust) African air mass intrusion impacts was performed. Taking into account both direct and indirect episodes, a total of 322 days of African dust intrusion were objectively identified (a mean of 54 episodes per year) in the period 1998-2003, some of them caused by "transition episodes" or "return African air masses". A subjective method confirmed that 256 of these days were caused by direct impacts of African dust on the ER station. A mean TSP value of 21.6 μg m -3 was found at the station during this period. All the episodes occurred when the TSP concentration was >28.5 μg m -3. The TSP background (˜14 μg m -3) can be assumed to be representative of the MBL of the Eastern North Atlantic subtropical region. The highest number of dust gravitational settlement (or indirect) episodes occurs in summer, but the highest contribution of these episodes to the TSP levels is in March with a monthly mean TSP contribution of up to 30.5 μg m -3.

  15. Ocean Modeling of the North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seminar, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    Present modeling of the North Atlantic is inadequate and can be improved in a number of ways. A number of important physical processes are listed in five categories from the viewpoints of how they are treated in isolation, how they are usually represented in present ocean basin models, and how they may be better represented in future models. In the first two categories of vertical boundary processes and internal vertical mixing, parameterizations exist which can easily be incorporated into models and which will have important effects on the simulated structure of the North Atlantic. For the third catagory (mesoscale eddy effects), adequate parameterizations do not exist; but the order of magnitude of the effects is known from observational and process-model studies. A horizontal grid spacing of 100 km or less in required to allow parameterizations with this order of magnitude, as well as to resolve the time-averaged ocean fields. In the fourth category of large scale transports improvements are suggested by way of increased vertical resolution and by the requirement that lateral mixing due to eddies takes place on isopycnal surfaces. Model incorporation of the latter phenomenta is underway. In the fifth category of miscellaneous high-latitude processes, formulations for the treatment of sea ice are available for use. However, the treatment of gravitational instability, which is crucial to deepwater formation in the Atlantic Ocean, will require additional refinements to account for the unresolved physics of chimney formations in the open ocean and buoyant plumes near ocean boundaries.

  16. Decadal variability in the Eastern North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köllner, Manuela; Klein, Birgit; Kieke, Dagmar; Klein, Holger; Rhein, Monika; Roessler, Achim; Denker, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The strong warming and salinification of the Eastern North Atlantic starting in the mid 1990s has been attributed to a westward contraction of the subpolar gyre and stronger inflow of waters from the subtropical gyre. Temporal changes in the shape and strength of the two gyres have been related to the major mode of atmospheric variability in the Atlantic sector, the NAO. Hydrographic conditions along the Northwest European shelf are thus the result of different processes such as variations in transports, varying relative contributions of water masses from the two gyres and property trends in the source water masses. We examine the decadal variability in the eastern North Atlantic based on Argo data from 2000-2015 and have constructed time series for four water masses (Subpolar Mode Water (SPMW), Intermediate Water (IW), upper Labrador Sea Water (uLSW) and deep Labrador Sea Water (dLSW)) at selected locations along the Northwest European shelf. Data from the Rockall Trough and the Iceland Basin are chosen to represent advective pathways in the subpolar gyre at two major branches of the North Atlantic Current towards the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean. Temporal variability of subtropical waters transported northward along the eastern boundary is studied at Goban Spur around 48°N. The Argo data are extended in time with long-term hydrographic observations such as the Extended Ellet Line data and other climatological sources in the region. For the study of transport fluctuations time series from the RACE (Regional circulation and Global change) program (2012-2015) and predecessor programs have been used. These programs have monitored the subpolar gyre in the western basin and provide time series of transports and hydrographic anomalies from moored instruments at the western flank of the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). First results show that the temperatures and salinities remained at high levels for the upper waters (SPMW and IW) until 2010 and have been decreasing since

  17. Phylogeographic analysis reveals a deep lineage split within North Atlantic Littorina saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Doellman, Meredith M; Trussell, Geoffrey C; Grahame, John W; Vollmer, Steve V

    2011-11-01

    Phylogeographic studies provide critical insight into the evolutionary histories of model organisms; yet, to date, range-wide data are lacking for the rough periwinkle Littorina saxatilis, a classic example of marine sympatric speciation. Here, we use mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data to demonstrate that L. saxatilis is not monophyletic for this marker, but is composed of two distinct mtDNA lineages (I and II) that are shared with sister species Littorina arcana and Littorina compressa. Bayesian coalescent dating and phylogeographic patterns indicate that both L. saxatilis lineages originated in the eastern North Atlantic, around the British Isles, at approximately 0.64 Ma. Both lineages are now distributed broadly across the eastern, central and western North Atlantic, and show strong phylogeographic structure among regions. The Iberian Peninsula is genetically distinct, suggesting prolonged isolation from northeastern North Atlantic populations. Western North Atlantic populations of L. saxatilis lineages I and II predate the last glacial maximum and have been isolated from eastern North Atlantic populations since that time. This identification of two distinct, broadly distributed mtDNA lineages further complicates observed patterns of repeated incipient ecological speciation in L. saxatilis, because the sympatric origins of distinct ecotype pairs on eastern North Atlantic shores may be confounded by admixture of divergent lineages. PMID:21429920

  18. Continuous observations of North Atlantic heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-02-01

    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), which transports warm water northward and cold water back southward, is important in transferring heat to the North Atlantic Ocean. Some models predict that AMOC will slow down as Earth's temperatures rise due to anthropogenic warming, which could have serious climate consequences for the Northern Hemisphere. However, the response of AMOC to global warming is uncertain—different models predict different rates of slowdown—and there have been few continuous observations of AMOC heat transport. Hobbs and Willis used temperature, salinity, and displacement data measured from foats in the Argo array, combined with sea surface heights measured by satellites, to estimate a continuous time series of Atlantic meridional heat transport from 2002 to 2010 at 41°N latitude. They found that the mean heat transport was about 0.5 petawatt. The authors note that this estimate is consistent with previous studies in similar latitudes based on atmospheric flux data but is lower than most hydrographic estimates. Heat transport varied on an annual cycle as well as on shorter time scales, with atmospheric variability explaining most of the short-term variance. The researchers note that the period of study was too short to infer any long-term trends, and they emphasize the need for continued monitoring of AMOC. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, doi:10.1029/2011JC007039, 2012)

  19. South Atlantic OCS area living marine resources study. Volume I: an investigation of live bottom habitats south of Cape Fear, North Carolina. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The major objectives of this study were to (1) characterize benthic and nektonic communities associated with representative live bottom habitats on the continental shelf of the South Atlantic Bight, and (2) evaluate factors which might influence these communities, particularly the potential for impact by offshore oil and gas activities. The study areas include nine live bottom areas located off South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

  20. Quantification of dissolved iron sources to the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Conway, Tim M; John, Seth G

    2014-07-10

    Dissolved iron is an essential micronutrient for marine phytoplankton, and its availability controls patterns of primary productivity and carbon cycling throughout the oceans. The relative importance of different sources of iron to the oceans is not well known, however, and flux estimates from atmospheric dust, hydrothermal vents and oceanic sediments vary by orders of magnitude. Here we present a high-resolution transect of dissolved stable iron isotope ratios (δ(56)Fe) and iron concentrations ([Fe]) along a section of the North Atlantic Ocean. The different iron sources can be identified by their unique δ(56)Fe signatures, which persist throughout the water column. This allows us to calculate the relative contribution from dust, hydrothermal venting and reductive and non-reductive sedimentary release to the dissolved phase. We find that Saharan dust aerosol is the dominant source of dissolved iron along the section, contributing 71-87 per cent of dissolved iron. Additional sources of iron are non-reductive release from oxygenated sediments on the North American margin (10-19 per cent), reductive sedimentary dissolution on the African margin (1-4 per cent) and hydrothermal venting at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (2-6 per cent). Our data also indicate that hydrothermal vents in the North Atlantic are a source of isotopically light iron, which travels thousands of kilometres from vent sites, potentially influencing surface productivity. Changes in the relative importance of the different iron sources through time may affect interactions between the carbon cycle and climate. PMID:25008528

  1. Seabirds of the Atlantic Frontier, north and west of Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, James B.; Pollock, Claire M.; Mavor, Roddy

    2001-05-01

    The marine environment of the Atlantic Frontier region north and west of Scotland, the focus of recent oil exploration, hosts internationally important concentrations of seabirds. Twenty-three species breed in colonies on the coasts and islands that rise from these waters and a further 25 species use them for feeding at various times of the year. The importance of these populations are set in an international context and their composition and occurrence in the deep waters of the Atlantic Frontier and adjacent continental shelf waters, as revealed by 20 years of at-sea surveys, is described. Deep waters are especially important for procellariiformes whereas shelf waters are important for all species, and overall seabird diversity is greater in shelf waters. The effects of oil pollution on seabirds can be severe, and although the effect of pollution in deep, oceanic waters might be minimal, prevailing currents and winds might result in greater impacts on more westerly, shelf waters. While the perceived threats from oil exploration in the Atlantic Frontier might be small the important seabird assemblage in the region should be considered in future exploitation of hydrocarbons here.

  2. Plastic Accumulation in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Kara Lavender; Morét-Ferguson, Skye; Maximenko, Nikolai A.; Proskurowski, Giora; Peacock, Emily E.; Hafner, Jan; Reddy, Christopher M.

    2010-09-01

    Plastic marine pollution is a major environmental concern, yet a quantitative description of the scope of this problem in the open ocean is lacking. Here, we present a time series of plastic content at the surface of the western North Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 1986 to 2008. More than 60% of 6136 surface plankton net tows collected buoyant plastic pieces, typically millimeters in size. The highest concentration of plastic debris was observed in subtropical latitudes and associated with the observed large-scale convergence in surface currents predicted by Ekman dynamics. Despite a rapid increase in plastic production and disposal during this time period, no trend in plastic concentration was observed in the region of highest accumulation.

  3. North Atlantic westerlies variability from ships' logbooks: 1685-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriopedro, David; Gallego, David; García-Herrera, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    A monthly index based on the persistence of the westerly wind over the English Chanel is constructed for 1685-2008 using daily data from ships' logbooks and marine meteorological datasets. This Westerly Index (WI) provides the longest instrumental record of atmospheric circulation currently available. Anomalous WI values are associated with climatic signals in temperature and precipitation over large areas of Europe, which are stronger for precipitation than for temperature and in winter and summer than in transitional seasons. Overall, the WI series reveal that the frequency of the westerlies in the eastern Atlantic during the 20th century or the Late Maunder Minimum was not exceptional in the context of the last three centuries. The WI provides additional and complementary information to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indices. Thus, there is a significant year-round signature on precipitation and a seasonal-dependent temperature signal associated with the WI that is partially missed by the NAO indices. Although the WI reveals an overall good temporal agreement with the winter and high-summer NAO, there are several multidecadal periods of weakened correlation during the industrial era. These decoupled periods are interpreted on the basis of several sources of non-stationarity affecting the centres of the variability of the North Atlantic and their teleconnections. Comparisons with long instrumental indices extending back to the 17th century suggest that similar situations have occurred in the past, which call for caution when reconstructing the past atmospheric circulation from climatic proxies. In fact, there is a generally poor correlation of the WI with purely proxy-generated indices of the NAO.

  4. Decadal predictions of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongmei; Ilyina, Tatiana; Müller, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is critical for predicting and projecting climate and ocean acidification. The North Atlantic Ocean plays a crucial role in modulating global carbon cycle as a major CO2 sink region, and the subpolar gyre (SPG) region contributes the most to the variation of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake. Previous studies revealed abrupt warming/cooling events in the SPG region, with sea surface temperature (SST) increasing/decreasing by 1°C in only a few years. The abrupt SPG warming/cooling events can be predicted several years in advance by initialization of the earth system models. The CO2 uptake in the North Atlantic is largely driven by ocean mixing variations and SST anomalies. In this study, we investigate the response of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake to observed SST variations and explore the decadal predictability of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake during the period of 1961-2013 with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). Our results suggest significant inter-annual and decadal variability of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake which is closely related to the evolution of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and corresponding oceanic mixing strength, and this coherence is confined to the western SPG region. We show that the potential predictability of CO2 uptake in the western SPG region is up to 4 years, which is similar to the prediction skill of SPG SST. Direct comparison of initialized simulations with observations implies prediction skill of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake. The predictability of both CO2 uptake and SST in the North Atlantic is assured by initialization of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC).

  5. Atmospheric transmission of North Atlantic Heinrich events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostetler, S.W.; Clark, P.U.; Bartlein, P.J.; Mix, A.C.; Pisias, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    We model the response of the climate system during Heinrich event 2 (H2) by employing an atmospheric general circulation model, using boundary conditions based on the concept of a "canonical" Heinrich event. The canonical event is initialized with a full-height Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) and CLIMAP sea surface temperatures (SSTs), followed by lowering of the LIS, then warming of North Atlantic SSTs. Our modeled temperature and wind fields exhibit spatially variable responses over the Northern Hemisphere at each stage of the H2 event. In some regions the climatic responses are additive, whereas in other regions they cancel or are of opposite sign, suggesting that Heinrich event climatic variations may have left complex signatures in geologic records. We find variations in the tropical water balance and the mass balance of ice sheets, and implications for variations in terrestrial methane production from the contraction of northern permafrost regions and the expansion of tropical wetlands. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Microwave responses of the western North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.; Girard, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Features and objects in the Western North Atlantic Ocean - the Eastern Seaboard of the United States - are observed from Earth orbit by passive microwaves. The intensities of their radiated flux signatures are measured and displayed in color as a microwave flux image. The features of flux emitting objects such as the course of the Gulf Stream and the occurrence of cold eddies near the Gulf Stream are identified by contoured patterns of relative flux intensities. The flux signatures of ships and their wakes are displayed and discussed. Metal data buoys and aircraft are detected. Signal to clutter ratios and probabilities of detection are computed from their measured irradiances. Theoretical models and the range equations that explain passive microwave detection using the irradiances of natural sources are summarized.

  7. Linking North Atlantic Teleconnections to Latitudinal Variability of Wave Climate Along the North American Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provancha, C.; Adams, P. N.; Hegermiller, C.; Storlazzi, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Shoreline change via coastal erosion and accretion is largely influenced by variations in ocean wave climate. Identifying the sources of these variations is challenging because the timing of wave energy delivery varies over multiple timescales within ocean basins. We present the results of an investigation of USACE Wave Information Studies hindcast hourly wave heights, periods, and directions along the North American Atlantic coast from 1980-2012, designed to explore links between wave climate and teleconnection patterns. Trends in median and extreme significant wave heights (SWHs) demonstrate that mean monthly SWHs increased from 1 to 5 cm/yr along the roughly 3000 km reach of study area, with changes in hurricane season waves appearing to be most influential in producing the overall trends. Distributions of SWHs categorized by North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase, show that positive-period NAO SWHs are greater than negative-period NAO SWHs along the entire eastern seaboard (25°N to 45°N). The most prominent wave direction off Cape Cod, MA during positive-period NAO is approximately 105°, as compared to approximately 75° during negative-period NAO. Prominent wave directions between Cape Canaveral, FL, and Savannah, GA exhibit a similar shift but during opposite phases of the NAO. The results of this analysis suggest that the atmosphere-ocean interactions associated with contrasting NAO phases can significantly change the wave climate observed offshore along the North American Atlantic coast, altering alongshore wave energy fluxes and sediment transport patterns along the coast.

  8. Reduced North Atlantic Deep Water flux to the glacial Southern Ocean inferred from neodymium isotope ratios

    PubMed

    Rutberg; Hemming; Goldstein

    2000-06-22

    The global circulation of the oceans and the atmosphere transports heat around the Earth. Broecker and Denton suggested that changes in the global ocean circulation might have triggered or enhanced the glacial-interglacial cycles. But proxy data for past circulation taken from sediment cores in the South Atlantic Ocean have yielded conflicting interpretations of ocean circulation in glacial times--delta13C variations in benthic foraminifera support the idea of a glacial weakening or shutdown of North Atlantic Deep Water production, whereas other proxies, such as Cd/Ca, Ba/Ca and 231Pa/230Th ratios, show little change from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene epoch. Here we report neodymium isotope ratios from the dispersed Fe-Mn oxide component of two southeast Atlantic sediment cores. Both cores show variations that tend towards North Atlantic signatures during the warm marine isotope stages 1 and 3, whereas for the full glacial stages 2 and 4 they are closer to Pacific Ocean signatures. We conclude that the export of North Atlantic Deep Water to the Southern Ocean has resembled present-day conditions during the warm climate intervals, but was reduced during the cold stages. An increase in biological productivity may explain the various proxy data during the times of reduced North Atlantic Deep Water export. PMID:10879531

  9. Pb isotopes in surficial pelagic sediments from the North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Hamelin, B.; Grousset, F. ); Sholkovitz, E.R. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors measured Pb isotopic composition and concentration in sediment samples close to the sea water interface in 6 box-cores from the NE Atlantic, 2 box-cores from the Sargasso Sea, and one from the US continental shelf. The anthropogenic Pb input to marine sediments due to the increase of Pb contamination over the ocean during the last century can be identified in all these cores. In the eastern part of the Atlantic, i.e., in regions under aeolian influence from Europe, Pb pollution can be recognized using its distinctive unradiogenic composition, clearly different from the upper-crustal values commonly found in pre-Holocene sediments. In contrast, Pb pollution in regions influenced by North American sources can be identified only in detailed concentration profiles because the American Pb pollution has an isotopic composition much closer to that of the natural detrital Pb input coming from weathering of the continental crust. Pb excess inventories are in good agreement with fluxes estimated from sediment-trap data and with the time record of Pb-contamination increase given by analyses in coral growth bands. Inventories of Pb contamination to the sediments of the Mud Patch (American shelf) are tenfold higher (84 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}) than those to Hatteras and Bermuda abyssal plains (4.3 and 2.8 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}).

  10. Preformed Nitrate in the Glacial North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.; D'Hondt, S.; Estes, E. R.; Insua, T. L.; McKinley, C. C.; Murray, R. W.; Pockalny, R. A.; Robinson, R. S.; Sauvage, J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 abundances are highly correlated with global temperature variations over the past 800,000 years. Consequently, understanding the feedbacks between climate and CO2 is important for predictions of future climate. Leading hypotheses to explain this feedback invoke changes in ocean biology, circulation, chemistry, and/or gas exchange rates to trap CO2 in the deep ocean, thereby reducing the greenhouse effect of CO2 in the atmosphere. To test these hypotheses, we use sediment pore water profiles of dissolved nitrate and oxygen to reconstruct paleo-preformed nitrate concentrations at two deep-water sites in the western North Atlantic (23°N 57°W, 5557 m water depth; 30°N 58°W, 5367 m water depth). Preformed nitrate increases down-core to 22.7 μM (25.6 m core depth) at the northern site, and to 28.5 μM (27.8 m core depth) at the southern site. The large preformed nitrate gradient between these sites reveals a paleo-boundary between a southern water source high in preformed nitrate and a northern water source with lower concentrations, similar to today's ocean. However, the boundary between these water masses occurs north of where their modern counterparts meet, indicating that Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) extended farther north during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In addition, the southern source had a higher preformed nitrate concentration than today's AABW (25 μM), contradicting hypotheses that nutrient utilization was more efficient in the Southern Ocean deep-water formation regions during the LGM. Comparison to our previous Pacific data reveals that the average preformed nitrate concentration of the deep ocean was slightly higher during the LGM than today. This result implies that the CO2-climate feedback was not principally due to more efficient nitrate utilization.

  11. Revisiting the use of δ15N in meso-scale studies of marine food webs by considering spatio-temporal variations in stable isotopic signatures - The case of an open ecosystem: The Bay of Biscay (North-East Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouvelon, T.; Spitz, J.; Caurant, F.; Mèndez-Fernandez, P.; Chappuis, A.; Laugier, F.; Le Goff, E.; Bustamante, P.

    2012-08-01

    Most of the recent framework directives and environmental policies argue for the development and the use of indicators - notably trophodynamic indicators - that should be able to follow ecosystems' evolution in space and time, particularly under anthropogenic perturbations. In the last decades, the use of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes ratios has increased exponentially, particularly in studies of marine ecosystems' trophic structure and functioning. This method is principally based on the assumption that the isotopic composition of a consumer directly reflects that of its food. Nevertheless, few studies have attempted to define the limits of this tool, before using it and drawing ecological conclusions from isotopic analysis. This study aimed to assess the importance of considering spatio-temporal variations in isotopic signatures of consumers when using δ13C and especially δ15N values in open ecosystems with complex food webs, using the Bay of Biscay (North-East Atlantic) as a case study. To this end, more than 140 species from this marine ecosystem were analysed for the isotopic signatures in their muscle tissue. They were sampled from coastal to oceanic and deep-sea areas and at different latitudes, to evaluate spatial variations of isotopic signatures. Selected species were also sampled over several years and in two seasons to account for inter-annual and seasonal variations. In the Bay of Biscay temperate ecosystem, which is subject to both coastal and oceanic influences - two main river inputs and upwelling areas - , δ13C and δ15N values significantly decreased from inshore to offshore species, and to a lesser extent from benthic to pelagic organisms. River discharges appeared to be the first factor influencing δ13C and δ15N values in consumers. From the important spatial variations detected in δ15N values in particular, we suggest that in such contrasted ecosystem, nitrogen isotopic ratios may also be revisited as an indicator of the feeding

  12. Structure of the North American Atlantic Continental Margin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klitgord, K. K.; Schlee, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Offers explanations on the origin of the North American Atlantic continental margin. Provides an analysis and illustrations of structural and strategraphic elements of cross sections of the Atlantic continental margin. Also explains the operations and applications of seismic-relection profiles in studying ocean areas. (ML)

  13. Satellite Movie Shows Hurricane Cristobal Speeding Through North Atlantic

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery from August 26 through 29 shows Hurricane Cristobal changing into a post-tropical storm in the North Atlantic Ocean. Credit: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

  14. 78 FR 61844 - North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ...The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is requesting peer reviewed information that would be useful in the preparation of the North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (Hurricane Sandy). The USACE is preparing a report that will be submitted to Congress in 2015. The goals of the North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study authorized under the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act, Public Law 113-2......

  15. Reorganization of the North Atlantic Oscillation during early Holocene deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassenburg, Jasper A.; Dietrich, Stephan; Fietzke, Jan; Fohlmeister, Jens; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Scholz, Denis; Richter, Detlev K.; Sabaoui, Abdellah; Spötl, Christoph; Lohmann, Gerrit; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation is the dominant atmospheric pressure mode in the North Atlantic region and affects winter temperature and precipitation in the Mediterranean, northwest Europe, Greenland, and Asia. The index that describes the sea-level pressure difference between Iceland and the Azores is correlated with a dipole precipitation pattern over northwest Europe and northwest Africa. How the North Atlantic Oscillation will develop as the Greenland ice sheet melts is unclear. A potential past analogue is the early Holocene, during which melting ice sheets around the North Atlantic freshened surface waters, affecting the strength of the meridional overturning circulation. Here we present a Holocene rainfall record from northwest Africa based on speleothem δ18O and compare it against a speleothem-based rainfall record from Europe. The two records are positively correlated during the early Holocene, followed by a shift to an anti-correlation, similar to the modern record, during the mid-Holocene. On the basis of our simulations with an Earth system model, we suggest the shift to the anti-correlation reflects a large-scale atmospheric and oceanic reorganization in response to the demise of the Laurentide ice sheet and a strong reduction of meltwater flux to the North Atlantic, pointing to a potential sensitivity of the North Atlantic Oscillation to the melting of ice sheets.

  16. Building International Research Partnerships in the North Atlantic-Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benway, Heather M.; Hofmann, Eileen; St. John, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The North Atlantic-Arctic region, which is critical to the health and socioeconomic well being of North America and Europe, is susceptible to climate-driven changes in circulation, biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems. The need for strong investment in the study of biogeochemical and ecosystem processes and interactions with physical processes over a range of time and space scales in this region was clearly stated in the 2013 Galway Declaration, an intergovernmental statement on Atlantic Ocean cooperation (http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-459_en.htm). Subsequently, a workshop was held to bring together researchers from the United States, Canada, and Europe with expertise across multiple disciplines to discuss an international research initiative focused on key features, processes, and ecosystem services (e.g., Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, spring bloom dynamics, fisheries, etc.) and associated sensitivities to climate changes.

  17. "SPURS" in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Raymond

    2014-05-01

    The North Atlantic Salinity Maximum is the world's saltiest open ocean salinity maximum and was the focus of the recent Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) program. SPURS was a joint venture between US, French, Irish, and Spanish investigators. Three US and two EU cruises were involved from August, 1012 - October, 2013 as well as surface moorings, glider, drifter and float deployments. Shipboard operations included underway meteorological and oceanic data, hydrographic surveys and turbulence profiling. The goal is to improve our understanding of how the salinity maximum is maintained and how it may be changing. It is formed by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the wind-driven convergence of the subtropical gyre. Such salty areas are getting saltier with global warming (a record high SSS was observed in SPURS) and it is imperative to determine the relative roles of surface water fluxes and oceanic processes in such trends. The combination of accurate surface flux estimates with new assessments of vertical and horizontal mixing in the ocean will help elucidate the utility of ocean salinity in quantifying the changing global water cycle.

  18. Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data

    SciTech Connect

    Saracino-Brown, Jocelyn; Smith, Courtney; Gilman, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    The Wind Program hosted a two-day workshop on July 24-25, 2012 with scientists and regulators engaged in marine ecological survey, modeling, and database efforts pertaining to the waters of the Mid-Atlantic region. The workshop was planned by Federal agency, academic, and private partners to promote collaboration between ongoing offshore ecological survey efforts, and to promote the collaborative development of complementary predictive models and compatible databases. The meeting primarily focused on efforts to establish and predict marine mammal, seabird, and sea turtle abundance, density, and distributions extending from the shoreline to the edge of the Exclusive Economic Zone between Nantucket Sound, Massachusetts and Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.

  19. tropical influences on the North Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignot, Juliette; Gastineau, Guillaume; Frankignoul, Claude

    2010-05-01

    Recent coupled ocean-atmosphere control simulations of 1000 years long or more suggest multidecadal variability in the North Atlantic Ocean. Here, we investigate the tropical influences on the North Atlantic Multidecadal Variability in a multi-model ensemble of millenium-scale simulations, involved in the FP7 THOR project. We propose first to characterize the oceanic teleconnections within the Atlantic. The effect of the Intertropical Convergence Zone migration, the low frequency variability of the monsoon systems, the gyre circulation, and the tropical stratification (through thermocline depth) and circulation will be investigated. As a second step, possible remote tropical influence will be studied. For this, the variability of the atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic, and the links with the Equatorial Pacific region will be assessed.

  20. Decadal predictions of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongmei; Ilyina, Tatiana; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Sienz, Frank

    2016-01-01

    As a major CO2 sink, the North Atlantic, especially its subpolar gyre region, is essential for the global carbon cycle. Decadal fluctuations of CO2 uptake in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region are associated with the evolution of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, ocean mixing and sea surface temperature anomalies. While variations in the physical state of the ocean can be predicted several years in advance by initialization of Earth system models, predictability of CO2 uptake has remained unexplored. Here we investigate the predictability of CO2 uptake variations by initialization of the MPI-ESM decadal prediction system. We find large multi-year variability in oceanic CO2 uptake and demonstrate that its potential predictive skill in the western subpolar gyre region is up to 4–7 years. The predictive skill is mainly maintained in winter and is attributed to the improved physical state of the ocean. PMID:27026490

  1. Decadal predictions of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongmei; Ilyina, Tatiana; Müller, Wolfgang A; Sienz, Frank

    2016-01-01

    As a major CO2 sink, the North Atlantic, especially its subpolar gyre region, is essential for the global carbon cycle. Decadal fluctuations of CO2 uptake in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region are associated with the evolution of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, ocean mixing and sea surface temperature anomalies. While variations in the physical state of the ocean can be predicted several years in advance by initialization of Earth system models, predictability of CO2 uptake has remained unexplored. Here we investigate the predictability of CO2 uptake variations by initialization of the MPI-ESM decadal prediction system. We find large multi-year variability in oceanic CO2 uptake and demonstrate that its potential predictive skill in the western subpolar gyre region is up to 4-7 years. The predictive skill is mainly maintained in winter and is attributed to the improved physical state of the ocean. PMID:27026490

  2. Decadal predictions of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongmei; Ilyina, Tatiana; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Sienz, Frank

    2016-03-01

    As a major CO2 sink, the North Atlantic, especially its subpolar gyre region, is essential for the global carbon cycle. Decadal fluctuations of CO2 uptake in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region are associated with the evolution of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, ocean mixing and sea surface temperature anomalies. While variations in the physical state of the ocean can be predicted several years in advance by initialization of Earth system models, predictability of CO2 uptake has remained unexplored. Here we investigate the predictability of CO2 uptake variations by initialization of the MPI-ESM decadal prediction system. We find large multi-year variability in oceanic CO2 uptake and demonstrate that its potential predictive skill in the western subpolar gyre region is up to 4-7 years. The predictive skill is mainly maintained in winter and is attributed to the improved physical state of the ocean.

  3. Correcting North Atlantic sea surface salinity biases in the Kiel Climate Model: influences on ocean circulation and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, T.; Park, W.; Latif, M.

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing problem in climate models is the large sea surface salinity (SSS) biases in the North Atlantic. In this study, we describe the influences of correcting these SSS biases on the circulation of the North Atlantic as well as on North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal to multidecadal variability. We performed integrations of the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) with and without applying a freshwater flux correction over the North Atlantic. The quality of simulating the mean circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability is greatly enhanced in the freshwater flux-corrected integration which, by definition, depicts relatively small North Atlantic SSS biases. In particular, a large reduction in the North Atlantic cold sea surface temperature bias is observed and a more realistic Atlantic Multidecadal Variability simulated. Improvements relative to the non-flux corrected integration also comprise a more realistic representation of deep convection sites, sea ice, gyre circulation and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The results suggest that simulations of North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability could strongly benefit from alleviating sea surface salinity biases in the North Atlantic, which may enhance the skill of decadal predictions in that region.

  4. Array Analysis of North Atlantic Microseisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, David; Bean, Chris; Möllhoff, Martin; Donne, Sarah; Lokmer, Ivan; Le Pape, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Oceans generate persistent low frequency background seismic signals known as microseisms through a mechanical coupling with the Earth's crust. Microseism energy originates as regions of low barometric pressure (depressions) over the oceans where it is transmitted to the sea-floor and propagates as elastic energy in the Earths crust. Consequently microseisms carry important meteorological information relating to both the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. The significance of microseisms as climate indicators has previously been investigated in several studies (Essen et al., 1999; Aster et al., 2010) and to estimate ocean wave parameters using onshore seismometer data (Bromirski et al., 1999). Also many modern seismological methods make use of microseism signals, for example "noise tomography" (Shapiro et al., 2005); spectral ratio techniques ; and cross-correlation techniques (Wapenaar et al., 2011; Brenguier et al., 2014). The continental shelf near Ireland is a known generation are for microseisms and an important region for European weather forecasting and climate studies. There has also been seismometers in the region since the 1960s. There is a single station in Valentia observatory in south-west Ireland and a small scale seismic array in Scotland which offer potential climate records for the region. To make use of this information it is first necessary to understand how microseisms recorded in Ireland relate to the local ocean wavefield. The WAVEOBS project was set established with three primary goals; to get a better fundamental understanding of microseism sources; to investigate the use of ocean generated microseisms as real time ocean wave height data; and to investigate their use as a climate proxy. Using spectral analysis and array methods the microseism wavefield in the North-East Atlantic near Ireland is described with reference to the ocean wavefield.

  5. Decline of the marine ecosystem caused by a reduction in the Atlantic overturning circulation.

    PubMed

    Schmittner, Andreas

    2005-03-31

    Reorganizations of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation were associated with large and abrupt climatic changes in the North Atlantic region during the last glacial period. Projections with climate models suggest that similar reorganizations may also occur in response to anthropogenic global warming. Here I use ensemble simulations with a coupled climate-ecosystem model of intermediate complexity to investigate the possible consequences of such disturbances to the marine ecosystem. In the simulations, a disruption of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation leads to a collapse of the North Atlantic plankton stocks to less than half of their initial biomass, owing to rapid shoaling of winter mixed layers and their associated separation from the deep ocean nutrient reservoir. Globally integrated export production declines by more than 20 per cent owing to reduced upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water and gradual depletion of upper ocean nutrient concentrations. These model results are consistent with the available high-resolution palaeorecord, and suggest that global ocean productivity is sensitive to changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. PMID:15800620

  6. Latest Quaternary palaeoceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic based upon a dinoflagellate cyst event ecostratigraphy.

    PubMed

    Harland, Rex; Polovodova Asteman, Irina; Morley, Audrey; Morris, Angela; Harris, Anthony; Howe, John A

    2016-05-01

    The analyses of dinoflagellate cyst records, from the latest Quaternary sediments recovered from DSDP Core 610A taken on the Feni Ridge in the southern Rockall Trough, and part of core MD01-2461 on the continental margin of the Porcupine Seabight in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean, has provided evidence for significant oceanographic change encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and part of the Holocene. This together with other published records has led to a regional evaluation of oceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic over the past 68 ka, based upon a distinctive dinoflagellate event ecostratigraphy. These changes reflect changes in the surface waters of the North Atlantic Current (NAC), and perhaps the deeper thermohaline Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), driving fundamental regime changes within the phytoplanktonic communities. Three distinctive dinoflagellate cyst associations based upon both factor and cluster analyses have been recognised. Associations characterised by Bitectatodinium tepikiense (between 61.1 ± 6.2 to 13.4 ± 1.1 ka BP), Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus (between 10.5 ± 0.3 and 11.45 ± 0.8 ka. BP), and the cyst of Protoceratium reticulatum (between 8.5 ± 0.9 and 5.2 ± 1.3 ka. BP) indicate major change within the eastern North Atlantic oceanography. The transitions between these changes occur over a relatively short time span (c.1.5 ka), given our sampling resolution, and have the potential to be incorporated into an event stratigraphy through the latest Quaternary as recommended by the INTIMATE (INTegrating Ice core, MArine and TErrestrial records) group. The inclusion of a dinoflagellate cyst event stratigraphy would highlight changes within the phytoplankton of the North Atlantic Ocean as a fully glacial world changed to our present interglacial. PMID:27441285

  7. Preface to "MeshAtlantic: Mapping Atlantic area seabed habitats for better marine management"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Populus, Jacques; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; McGrath, Fergal; Tempera, Fernando; Galparsoro, Ibon; Gonçalves, Jorge; Alonso, Jose Luis Sanz; Freitas, Rosa; Quintino, Victor

    2015-06-01

    In recent years the pressure exerted by sharply increasing maritime activities has strengthened the need for marine environmental knowledge in support of coastal planning and management. The requirement for implementation of EU Directives (Habitat and Water Framework Directives with the later addition of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive), along with other international drivers such as the OSPAR convention in the Atlantic Area, has prompted more active development of seabed habitat mapping by the scientific community.

  8. Using species-area relationships to inform baseline conservation targets for the deep North East Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Foster, Nicola L; Foggo, Andrew; Howell, Kerry L

    2013-01-01

    Demands on the resources of the deep-sea have increased in recent years. Consequently, the need to create and implement a comprehensive network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to help manage and protect these resources has become a global political priority. Efforts are currently underway to implement MPA networks in the deep North East Atlantic. To ensure these networks are effective, it is essential that baseline information be available to inform the conservation planning process. Using empirical data, we calculated conservation targets for sessile benthic invertebrates in the deep North East Atlantic for consideration during the planning process. We assessed Species-Area Relationships across two depth bands (200-1100 m and 1100-1800 m) and nine substrata. Conservation targets were predicted for each substratum within each depth band using z-values obtained from fitting a power model to the Species-Area Relationships of observed and estimated species richness (Chao1). Results suggest an MPA network incorporating 10% of the North East Atlantic's deep-sea area would protect approximately 58% and 49% of sessile benthic species for the depth bands 200-1100 m and 1100-1800 m, respectively. Species richness was shown to vary with substratum type indicating that, along with depth, substratum information needs to be incorporated into the conservation planning process to ensure the most effective MPA network is implemented in the deep North East Atlantic. PMID:23527053

  9. Dissolved Organic Carbon in the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation.

    PubMed

    Fontela, Marcos; García-Ibáñez, Maribel I; Hansell, Dennis A; Mercier, Herlé; Pérez, Fiz F

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative role of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export is evaluated by combining DOC measurements with observed water mass transports. In the eastern subpolar North Atlantic, both upper and lower limbs of the AMOC transport high-DOC waters. Deep water formation that connects the two limbs of the AMOC results in a high downward export of non-refractory DOC (197 Tg-C·yr(-1)). Subsequent remineralization in the lower limb of the AMOC, between subpolar and subtropical latitudes, consumes 72% of the DOC exported by the whole Atlantic Ocean. The contribution of DOC to the carbon sequestration in the North Atlantic Ocean (62 Tg-C·yr(-1)) is considerable and represents almost a third of the atmospheric CO2 uptake in the region. PMID:27240625

  10. The North Atlantic Oscillation: Past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Visbeck, Martin H.; Hurrell, James W.; Polvani, Lorenzo; Cullen, Heidi M.

    2001-01-01

    The climate of the Atlantic sector exhibits considerable variability on a wide range of time scales. A substantial portion is associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a hemispheric meridional oscillation in atmospheric mass with centers of action near Iceland and over the subtropical Atlantic. NAO-related impacts on winter climate extend from Florida to Greenland and from northwestern Africa over Europe far into northern Asia. Over the last 3 decades, the phase of the NAO has been shifting from mostly negative to mostly positive index values. Much remains to be learned about the mechanisms that produce such low frequency changes in the North Atlantic climate, but it seems increasingly likely that human activities are playing a significant role. PMID:11687629

  11. Dissolved Organic Carbon in the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Fontela, Marcos; García-Ibáñez, Maribel I.; Hansell, Dennis A.; Mercier, Herlé; Pérez, Fiz F.

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative role of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export is evaluated by combining DOC measurements with observed water mass transports. In the eastern subpolar North Atlantic, both upper and lower limbs of the AMOC transport high-DOC waters. Deep water formation that connects the two limbs of the AMOC results in a high downward export of non-refractory DOC (197 Tg-C·yr−1). Subsequent remineralization in the lower limb of the AMOC, between subpolar and subtropical latitudes, consumes 72% of the DOC exported by the whole Atlantic Ocean. The contribution of DOC to the carbon sequestration in the North Atlantic Ocean (62 Tg-C·yr−1) is considerable and represents almost a third of the atmospheric CO2 uptake in the region. PMID:27240625

  12. Dissolved Organic Carbon in the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontela, Marcos; García-Ibáñez, Maribel I.; Hansell, Dennis A.; Mercier, Herlé; Pérez, Fiz F.

    2016-05-01

    The quantitative role of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export is evaluated by combining DOC measurements with observed water mass transports. In the eastern subpolar North Atlantic, both upper and lower limbs of the AMOC transport high-DOC waters. Deep water formation that connects the two limbs of the AMOC results in a high downward export of non-refractory DOC (197 Tg-C·yr‑1). Subsequent remineralization in the lower limb of the AMOC, between subpolar and subtropical latitudes, consumes 72% of the DOC exported by the whole Atlantic Ocean. The contribution of DOC to the carbon sequestration in the North Atlantic Ocean (62 Tg-C·yr‑1) is considerable and represents almost a third of the atmospheric CO2 uptake in the region.

  13. Central North Atlantic Plate Motions over the Last 40 Million Years.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J D; Luyendyk, B P

    1970-11-13

    The relative motion vector for the North American and African plates has been determined from detailed charting of the trend of the Atlantis fracture zone for over 1000 kilometers in the central North Atlantic near 30 degrees N and from identification of marine magnetic anomalies and deep-sea drilling results. The vector (pole) is located at 52.5 degrees N, 34 degrees W and has a magnitude (opening rate) of 5.7 x 10(-7) degree per year. Major changes in either the pole location or the opening rate are not evident for the last 40 million years. PMID:17776338

  14. North Atlantic Deep Water Production during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Jacob N. W.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Noble, Taryn L.; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Bayon, Germain

    2016-06-01

    Changes in deep ocean ventilation are commonly invoked as the primary cause of lower glacial atmospheric CO2. The water mass structure of the glacial deep Atlantic Ocean and the mechanism by which it may have sequestered carbon remain elusive. Here we present neodymium isotope measurements from cores throughout the Atlantic that reveal glacial-interglacial changes in water mass distributions. These results demonstrate the sustained production of North Atlantic Deep Water under glacial conditions, indicating that southern-sourced waters were not as spatially extensive during the Last Glacial Maximum as previously believed. We demonstrate that the depleted glacial δ13C values in the deep Atlantic Ocean cannot be explained solely by water mass source changes. A greater amount of respired carbon, therefore, must have been stored in the abyssal Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum. We infer that this was achieved by a sluggish deep overturning cell, comprised of well-mixed northern- and southern-sourced waters.

  15. North Atlantic Deep Water Production during the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Howe, Jacob N W; Piotrowski, Alexander M; Noble, Taryn L; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M; Bayon, Germain

    2016-01-01

    Changes in deep ocean ventilation are commonly invoked as the primary cause of lower glacial atmospheric CO2. The water mass structure of the glacial deep Atlantic Ocean and the mechanism by which it may have sequestered carbon remain elusive. Here we present neodymium isotope measurements from cores throughout the Atlantic that reveal glacial-interglacial changes in water mass distributions. These results demonstrate the sustained production of North Atlantic Deep Water under glacial conditions, indicating that southern-sourced waters were not as spatially extensive during the Last Glacial Maximum as previously believed. We demonstrate that the depleted glacial δ(13)C values in the deep Atlantic Ocean cannot be explained solely by water mass source changes. A greater amount of respired carbon, therefore, must have been stored in the abyssal Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum. We infer that this was achieved by a sluggish deep overturning cell, comprised of well-mixed northern- and southern-sourced waters. PMID:27256826

  16. North Atlantic Deep Water Production during the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Jacob N. W.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Noble, Taryn L.; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Bayon, Germain

    2016-01-01

    Changes in deep ocean ventilation are commonly invoked as the primary cause of lower glacial atmospheric CO2. The water mass structure of the glacial deep Atlantic Ocean and the mechanism by which it may have sequestered carbon remain elusive. Here we present neodymium isotope measurements from cores throughout the Atlantic that reveal glacial–interglacial changes in water mass distributions. These results demonstrate the sustained production of North Atlantic Deep Water under glacial conditions, indicating that southern-sourced waters were not as spatially extensive during the Last Glacial Maximum as previously believed. We demonstrate that the depleted glacial δ13C values in the deep Atlantic Ocean cannot be explained solely by water mass source changes. A greater amount of respired carbon, therefore, must have been stored in the abyssal Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum. We infer that this was achieved by a sluggish deep overturning cell, comprised of well-mixed northern- and southern-sourced waters. PMID:27256826

  17. Macroecological patterns of phytoplankton in the northwestern North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. K. W.

    2002-09-01

    Many issues in biological oceanography are regional or global in scope; however, there are not many data sets of extensive areal coverage for marine plankton. In microbial ecology, a fruitful approach to large-scale questions is comparative analysis wherein statistical data patterns are sought from different ecosystems, frequently assembled from unrelated studies. A more recent approach termed macroecology characterizes phenomena emerging from large numbers of biological units by emphasizing the shapes and boundaries of statistical distributions, because these reflect the constraints on variation. Here, I use a set of flow cytometric measurements to provide macroecological perspectives on North Atlantic phytoplankton communities. Distinct trends of abundance in picophytoplankton and both small and large nanophytoplankton underlaid two patterns. First, total abundance of the three groups was related to assemblage mean-cell size according to the 3/4 power law of allometric scaling in biology. Second, cytometric diversity (an ataxonomic measure of assemblage entropy) was maximal at intermediate levels of water column stratification. Here, intermediate disturbance shapes diversity through an equitable distribution of cells in size classes, from which arises a high overall biomass. By subsuming local fluctuations, macroecology reveals meaningful patterns of phytoplankton at large scales.

  18. Space Radar Image of North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image showing surface features on the open ocean in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. There is no land mass in this image. The purple line in the lower left of the image is the stern wake of a ship. The ship creating the wake is the bright white spot on the middle, left side of the image. The ship's wake is about 28 kilometers (17 miles) long in this image and investigators believe that is because the ship may be discharging oil. The oil makes the wake last longer and causes it to stand out in this radar image. A fairly sharp boundary or front extends from the lower left to the upper right corner of the image and separates two distinct water masses that have different temperatures. The different water temperature affects the wind patterns on the ocean. In this image, the light green area depicts rougher water with more wind, while the purple area is calmer water with less wind. The dark patches are smooth areas of low wind, probably related to clouds along the front, and the bright green patches are likely due to ice crystals in the clouds that scatter the radar waves. The overall 'fuzzy' look of this image is caused by long ocean waves, also called swells. Ocean radar imagery allows the fine detail of ocean features and interactions to be seen, such as the wake, swell, ocean front and cloud effects, which can then be used to enhance the understanding of ocean dynamics on smaller and smaller scales. The image is centered at 42.8 degrees north latitude, 26.2 degrees west longitude and shows an area approximately 35 kilometers by 65 kilometers (22 by 40 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is C-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  19. A peak and decline in North Atlantic CO2 uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halloran, Paul; Lebehot, Alice; Watson, Andy; McNeall, Doug; Schuster, Ute; Voelker, Christoph; Booth, Ben; Totterdell, Ian; Jones, Chris; Lambert, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    The oceans play a vital role in mitigating climate change by removing anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. Presently, only around half of human-emitted CO2 remains in the atmosphere, with the rest being taken up by the land and ocean carbon sinks in approximately equal proportions. Of the ocean's CO2 uptake, that occurring in that high-latitude North Atlantic is the most intense. We develop a theoretical framework which proposes that Subpolar North Atlantic CO2 uptake is likely to peak and decline within the coming century. Considering the CMIP5 models within this framework, and comparing their behaviour to observations, we find that the CMIP5 models underestimate how close the real world's Subpolar North Atlantic CO2 uptake is to reaching peak uptake.

  20. Trophic ecology and bioindicator potential of the North Atlantic tope shark.

    PubMed

    Torres, Paulo; da Cunha, Regina Tristão; Maia, Rodrigo; Dos Santos Rodrigues, Armindo

    2014-05-15

    Sharks are top marine predators vital in maintaining ecosystem health and food web structure. In order to assess tope shark (Galeorhinus galeus) trophic ecology, stable isotope ratios and trace metal concentrations in muscle tissue were determined, according to size and gender, for 124 individuals caught within the Mid-Atlantic region. Data was complemented and analysed according to previous stomach content information and compared with studies performed in the North East Atlantic. Our results revealed that tope sharks fed at a low trophic level and within a more pelagic-based food web when compared with other North Atlantic regions. MixSIR application reflected its piscivorous diet and study area topography, oligotrophic waters and volcanic nature, suggesting the occurrence of a Mid-Atlantic tope shark population. Considering a non-anthropogenic volcanic source for observed metal contents, the results reflect bioaccumulation and suggest biomagnification processes for As and Hg. These metals exceeded legislated maximum limits for some countries with a maximum of 28.98 ± 1.26 and 0.57 ± 0.01 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively, increasing significantly with size for both males and females. Conversely, Cr, Rb and Zn were relatively stable while Cd and Pb were not detected. Hg and Se were strongly correlated, suggesting a Se toxicity mitigation role. Given the tope shark travel capacity and the results obtained, the species may be used as a Mid-Atlantic bioindicator of environmental quality. PMID:24631620

  1. Temporal patterns of phytoplankton abundance in the North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Janet W.

    1989-01-01

    A time series of CZCS images is being developed to study phytoplankton distribution patterns in the North Atlantic. The goal of this study is to observe temporal variability in phytoplankton pigments and other organic particulates, and to infer from these patterns the potential flux of biogenic materials from the euphotic layer to the deep ocean. Early results of this project are presented in this paper. Specifically, the satellite data used were 13 monthly composited images of CZCS data for the North Atlantic from January 1979 to January 1980. Results are presented for seasonal patterns along the 20 deg W meridian.

  2. Incursions of southern-sourced water into the deep North Atlantic during late Pliocene glacial intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, David C.; Bailey, Ian; Wilson, Paul A.; Chalk, Thomas B.; Foster, Gavin L.; Gutjahr, Marcus

    2016-05-01

    The circulation and internal structure of the oceans exert a strong influence on Earth's climate because they control latitudinal heat transport and the segregation of carbon between the atmosphere and the abyss. Circulation change, particularly in the Atlantic Ocean, is widely suggested to have been instrumental in the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation when large ice sheets first developed on North America and Eurasia during the late Pliocene, approximately 2.7 million years ago. Yet the mechanistic link and cause/effect relationship between ocean circulation and glaciation are debated. Here we present new records of North Atlantic Ocean structure using the carbon and neodymium isotopic composition of marine sediments recording deep water for both the Last Glacial to Holocene (35-5 thousand years ago) and the late Pliocene to earliest Pleistocene (3.3-2.4 million years ago). Our data show no secular change. Instead we document major southern-sourced water incursions into the deep North Atlantic during prominent glacials from 2.7 million years ago. Our results suggest that Atlantic circulation acts as a positive feedback rather than as an underlying cause of late Pliocene Northern Hemisphere glaciation. We propose that, once surface Southern Ocean stratification and/or extensive sea-ice cover was established, cold-stage expansions of southern-sourced water such as those documented here enhanced carbon dioxide storage in the deep ocean, helping to increase the amplitude of glacial cycles.

  3. Organic nutrients and excess nitrogen in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landolfi, A.; Oschlies, A.; Sanders, R.

    2008-02-01

    To enable an accurate estimate of total excess nitrogen (N) in the North Atlantic a new tracer, TNxs, is defined which includes the contribution of organic nutrients to the assessment of N:P stoichiometric anomalies. We estimate the spatial distribution of TNxs within the North Atlantic using data from a trans-Atlantic section across 24.5° N conducted in 2004. We then employ three different approaches to infer rates of total excess nitrogen accumulation using pCFC-12 derived ventilation ages (a TNxs vertical integration, a one end-member and a two-end member mixing model). Despite some variability among the different methods the dissolved organic nutrient fraction always contributes to about half of the TNxs accumulation, which is in the order of 9.38±4.18×1011 mol N y-1. Here we suggest that neglecting organic nutrients in stoichiometric balances of the marine N and P inventories can lead to systematic errors when estimating a nitrogen excess or deficit relative to the Redfield ratio in the oceans. For the North Atlantic the inclusion of the organic fraction leads to an upward revision of the N supply by N2 fixation to 10.2±6.9×1011 mol N y-1. This enhanced estimate of nitrogen fixation reconciles the geochemical estimates of N2 fixation derived from excess nitrate and the direct estimates from N2 fixation measurements.

  4. Recent changes in the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Robert R; Curry, Ruth; Yashayaev, Igor

    2003-09-15

    It has long been recognized that the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is potentially sensitive to greenhouse-gas and other climate forcing, and that changes in the MOC have the potential to cause abrupt climate change. However, the mechanisms remain poorly understood and our ability to detect these changes remains incomplete. Four main (interrelated) types of ocean change in particular are associated in the literature with greenhouse-gas forcing. These are: a slowing of MOC overturning rate; changes in northern seas which might effect a change in Atlantic overturning, including changes in the freshwater flux from the Arctic, and changes in the transport and/or hydrographic character of the northern overflows which ventilate the deep Atlantic; a change in the trans-ocean gradients of steric height (both zonal and meridional) which might accompany a change in the MOC; and an intensification of the global water cycle. Though as yet we have no direct measure of the freshwater flux passing from the Arctic to the Atlantic either via the Canadian Arctic Archipelago or along the East Greenland Shelf, and no direct measure yet of the Atlantic overturning rate, we examine a wide range of time-series from the existing hydrographic record for oceanic evidence of the other anticipated responses. Large amplitude and sustained changes are found (or indicated by proxy) over the past three to four decades in the southward transport of fresh waters along the Labrador shelf and slope, in the hydrography of the deep dense overflows from Nordic seas, in the transport of the eastern overflow through Faroe Bank Channel, and in the global hydrologic cycle. Though the type and scale of changes in ocean salinity are consistent with an amplification of the water cycle, we find no convincing evidence of any significant, concerted slowdown in the Atlantic overturning circulation. PMID:14558901

  5. Avian Influenza Ecology in North Atlantic Sea Ducks: Not All Ducks Are Created Equal

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Eínar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jane; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology. PMID:26677841

  6. Avian influenza ecology in North Atlantic sea ducks: Not all ducks are created equal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Einar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jnae; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology.

  7. Modelling non-analogue elements of Pliocene North Atlantic warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The strong warming seen in records of mid-Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) in the North Atlantic has proved difficult to reproduce in climate model simulations. The results of the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) Experiment 2 fail to produce a single simulation with North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) as high as those indicated by the PRISM3 (Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping) data set. Direct comparisons between the data and models are hampered by differing techniques used in palaeoenvironmental reconstruction and physical climate simulations. However, even if current simulations are not directly comparable to the reconstructions of the North Atlantic, something must have forced these particularly high temperatures for at least parts of the mid-Pliocene warm period. The boundary condition changes defined in the PlioMIP Experiment 2 protocol are limited to CO2, ice sheets, vegetation, land area change due to sea level rise and orography. Apart from small orographic changes imposed outside of the ice sheet regions, the rest of these factors would be expected to change under future anthropogenic climate change. As such the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) has referred to the mid-Pliocene as 'an accessible example of a world that is similar in many respects to ... the late 21st century'. However, there are a number of different palaeogeographic changes documented in published literature that are not incorporated into the PRISM3 palaeoenvironmental reconstruction used as model boundary conditions, particularly in the North Atlantic region. Although some of these would be expected under future climate change, e.g. a reduction in North Atlantic icebergs, many would not. Changes in the intensity of Icelandic mantle plume upwelling have resulted in changes in the sill depth of the Greenland-Scotland ridge over at least the last 40 million years. Pleistocene glacial erosion has created new ocean areas in

  8. Icebergs not the trigger for North Atlantic cold events.

    PubMed

    Barker, Stephen; Chen, James; Gong, Xun; Jonkers, Lukas; Knorr, Gregor; Thornalley, David

    2015-04-16

    Abrupt climate change is a ubiquitous feature of the Late Pleistocene epoch. In particular, the sequence of Dansgaard-Oeschger events (repeated transitions between warm interstadial and cold stadial conditions), as recorded by ice cores in Greenland, are thought to be linked to changes in the mode of overturning circulation in the Atlantic Ocean. Moreover, the observed correspondence between North Atlantic cold events and increased iceberg calving and dispersal from ice sheets surrounding the North Atlantic has inspired many ocean and climate modelling studies that make use of freshwater forcing scenarios to simulate abrupt change across the North Atlantic region and beyond. On the other hand, previous studies identified an apparent lag between North Atlantic cooling events and the appearance of ice-rafted debris over the last glacial cycle, leading to the hypothesis that iceberg discharge may be a consequence of stadial conditions rather than the cause. Here we further establish this relationship and demonstrate a systematic delay between pronounced surface cooling and the arrival of ice-rafted debris at a site southwest of Iceland over the past four glacial cycles, implying that in general icebergs arrived too late to have triggered cooling. Instead we suggest that--on the basis of our comparisons of ice-rafted debris and polar planktonic foraminifera--abrupt transitions to stadial conditions should be considered as a nonlinear response to more gradual cooling across the North Atlantic. Although the freshwater derived from melting icebergs may provide a positive feedback for enhancing and or prolonging stadial conditions, it does not trigger northern stadial events. PMID:25877202

  9. Effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation on sea ice breeding habitats of harp seals ( Pagophilus groenlandicus) across the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlaender, Ari S.; Johnston, David W.; Halpin, Patrick N.

    2010-07-01

    Harp seals ( Pagophilus groenlandicus) are an abundant and commercially exploited species of phocid seal in the North Atlantic. Harp seals are entirely dependent on annual sea ice for breeding purposes and the distribution, abundance, and constitution of sea ice in this region are subject to tremendous interannual variability. As such, harp seal population dynamics are likely intimately tied to climate variability and global change. We used satellite-derived images of sea ice cover to determine trends in available habitat at the four major harp seal breeding areas in the North Atlantic, and assessed linkages amongst sea ice conditions and variability in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during 1978-2006. The White Sea breeding area had the highest annual ice concentrations, while the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Front regions were the most variable over time. We confirmed a consistent positive correlation between the NAO index and the amount of sea ice cover in Western North Atlantic breeding areas off Canada. Furthermore, we found an opposite and consistent negative correlation between the NAO and sea ice cover in the eastern-most breeding areas, leading to an out-of-phase signal between the Western and Eastern (particularly the White Sea) North Atlantic. These results indicate that sea ice dynamics in the breeding regions of harp seals are controlled, to some extent, by the phase of the NAO and its effects on weather across the North Atlantic. Previous studies indicate that poor ice conditions can have negative effects on harp seal survival and the consistent relationships between breeding habitat and NAO conditions that are described here have implications for both the biology and management of harp seal populations.

  10. Projected pH reductions by 2100 might put deep North Atlantic biodiversity at risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehlen, M.; Séférian, R.; Jones, D. O. B.; Roy, T.; Roth, R.; Barry, J.; Bopp, L.; Doney, S. C.; Dunne, J. P.; Heinze, C.; Joos, F.; Orr, J. C.; Resplandy, L.; Segschneider, J.; Tjiputra, J.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the potential for impacts of ocean acidification on North Atlantic deep-sea ecosystems in response to IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Deep-sea biota is likely highly vulnerable to changes in seawater chemistry and sensitive to moderate excursions in pH. Here we show, from seven fully coupled Earth system models, that for three out of four RCPs over 17% of the seafloor area below 500 m depth in the North Atlantic sector will experience pH reductions exceeding -0.2 units by 2100. Increased stratification in response to climate change partially alleviates the impact of ocean acidification on deep benthic environments. We report on major pH reductions over the deep North Atlantic seafloor (depth >500 m) and at important deep-sea features, such as seamounts and canyons. By 2100, and under the high CO2 scenario RCP8.5, pH reductions exceeding -0.2 (-0.3) units are projected in close to 23% (~15%) of North Atlantic deep-sea canyons and ~8% (3%) of seamounts - including seamounts proposed as sites of marine protected areas. The spatial pattern of impacts reflects the depth of the pH perturbation and does not scale linearly with atmospheric CO2 concentration. Impacts may cause negative changes of the same magnitude or exceeding the current target of 10% of preservation of marine biomes set by the convention on biological diversity, implying that ocean acidification may offset benefits from conservation/management strategies relying on the regulation of resource exploitation.

  11. Atmospheric transport of pollutants from North America to the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Browell, E. V.; Sebacher, D. I.; Gregory, G. L.; Hinton, R. R.; Beck, S. M.; Mcdougal, D. S.; Shipley, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    Ground-based measurements strongly support the hypothesis that pollutant materials of anthropogenic origin are being transported over long distances in the midtroposphere and are a significant source of acid rain, acid snow, trace metal deposition, ozone and visibility-reducing aerosols in remote oceanic and polar regions of the Norhern Hemisphere. Atmospheric sulphur budget calculations and studies of acid rain on Bermuda indicate that a large fraction of pollutant materials emitted into the atmosphere in eastern North America are advected eastwards over the North Atlantic Ocean. The first direct airborne measurements of the vertical distribution of tropospheric aerosols over the western North Atlantic is reported here. A newly developed airborne differential adsorption lidar system was used to obtain continuous, remotely sensed aerosol distributions along its flight path. The data document two episodes of long-distance transport of pollutant materials from North America over the North Atlantic Ocean.

  12. Mercury in the North Atlantic - results of the 2014 GEOTRACES GEOVIDE cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbürger, L. E.; Cossa, D.; Sonke, J.; Lacan, F.; Lherminier, P.; Sarthou, G.

    2014-12-01

    We will present results of the recent French-led GEOTRACES GEOVIDE cruise in the North Atlantic Ocean. Research vessel "Pourquoi Pas?" sailed on 15 May from Lisbon, Portugal to Greenland to arrive in Newfoundland, Canada on 30 June 2014. The North Atlantic Current carries the warm subtropical waters northward. They are progressively cooled and eventually reach the formation regions of the North Atlantic Deep Waters in the Labrador and Greenland Seas. This water mass movement drives the Meridional Ocean Circulation and Earth climate. Ongoing climate change makes this a zone of particular interest. Previous OVIDE cruises along the same transect gathered valuable data to investigate temporal changes. This zone also receives atmospheric deposition from Europe and North America where industrial Hg emissions peaked in the 1970s. Here we investigate how climate may impact mercury's marine biogeochemical cycle, how anthropogenic mercury makes its way into the ocean interior and whether the temporal evolution of mercury emissions is traceable in water masses of different ages. Total mercury was sampled using an ultra-trace clean rosette and determined on board in a class100 clean container following the US EPA 1631 method. Along the >4500km-transect we established full-depth total mercury profiles on 31 stations totaling 530 data points. Average total mercury concentrations were 0.58±0.20pM and showed a general decreasing trend westwards and increased with depth.

  13. Using Species-Area Relationships to Inform Baseline Conservation Targets for the Deep North East Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Nicola L.; Foggo, Andrew; Howell, Kerry L.

    2013-01-01

    Demands on the resources of the deep-sea have increased in recent years. Consequently, the need to create and implement a comprehensive network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to help manage and protect these resources has become a global political priority. Efforts are currently underway to implement MPA networks in the deep North East Atlantic. To ensure these networks are effective, it is essential that baseline information be available to inform the conservation planning process. Using empirical data, we calculated conservation targets for sessile benthic invertebrates in the deep North East Atlantic for consideration during the planning process. We assessed Species-Area Relationships across two depth bands (200–1100 m and 1100–1800 m) and nine substrata. Conservation targets were predicted for each substratum within each depth band using z-values obtained from fitting a power model to the Species-Area Relationships of observed and estimated species richness (Chao1). Results suggest an MPA network incorporating 10% of the North East Atlantic’s deep-sea area would protect approximately 58% and 49% of sessile benthic species for the depth bands 200–1100 m and 1100–1800 m, respectively. Species richness was shown to vary with substratum type indicating that, along with depth, substratum information needs to be incorporated into the conservation planning process to ensure the most effective MPA network is implemented in the deep North East Atlantic. PMID:23527053

  14. Barriers to Gene Flow in the Marine Environment: Insights from Two Common Intertidal Limpet Species of the Atlantic and Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Sá-Pinto, Alexandra; Branco, Madalena S.; Alexandrino, Paulo B.; Fontaine, Michaël C.; Baird, Stuart J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the scale of dispersal and the mechanisms governing gene flow in marine environments remains fragmentary despite being essential for understanding evolution of marine biota and to design management plans. We use the limpets Patella ulyssiponensis and Patella rustica as models for identifying factors affecting gene flow in marine organisms across the North-East Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. A set of allozyme loci and a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome C oxidase subunit I were screened for genetic variation through starch gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing, respectively. An approach combining clustering algorithms with clinal analyses was used to test for the existence of barriers to gene flow and estimate their geographic location and abruptness. Sharp breaks in the genetic composition of individuals were observed in the transitions between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and across southern Italian shores. An additional break within the Atlantic cluster separates samples from the Alboran Sea and Atlantic African shores from those of the Iberian Atlantic shores. The geographic congruence of the genetic breaks detected in these two limpet species strongly supports the existence of transpecific barriers to gene flow in the Mediterranean Sea and Northeastern Atlantic. This leads to testable hypotheses regarding factors restricting gene flow across the study area. PMID:23239977

  15. Study of North Atlantic ventilation using transient tracers. Doctoral Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Doney, S.C.

    1991-08-01

    Tritium, (3)He, and chlorofluorocarbon distributions in the North Atlantic provide constraints on the ventilation time-scales for the thermocline and abyssal water. A new model function based on a factor analysis of the WMO/IAEA precipitation data set is developed for predicting the spatial and temporal patterns of bomb-tritium in precipitation. Model atmospheric and advective tritium inputs to the North Atlantic are compared with the observed bomb-tritium inventories calculated from the 1972 GEOSECS and 1981-1983 TTO data sets. The observed growth of bomb-tritium levels in the deep North Atlantic are used, along with the tracer gradients ((3)H and (3)He) in the Deep Western Boundary Current, to estimate abyssal ventilation rates and boundary current recirculation. The surface boundary conditions for different transient tracers are found to profoundly effect thermocline ventilation rates estimates. Tracers that equilibrate rapidly with the atmosphere, such as (3)He and the CFCs, have faster apparent ventilation rates and are more appropriate for estimating oxygen utilization rates than tracers that are reset slowly in the surface ocean (e.g. (3)H and (14)C). The chlorofluorocarbon data for a new section in the eastern North Atlantic are presented and used to illustrate the ventilation time-scales for the major water masses in the region. (Copyright (c) Scott C. Doney, 1991.)

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC RIGHT WHALE SPRING FEEDING HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great South Channel region of the southwestern Gulf of Maine, between George's Bank and Cape Cod, is the primary spring feeding ground for the western North Atlantic population of the I northern right whale, E. glacialis .Since this whale is so endangered, it is critical to i...

  17. Northeast China summer temperature and North Atlantic SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang; Yang, Song; Liu, Shi; Sun, Li; Lian, Yi; Gao, Zongting

    2011-08-01

    A previous study revealed a close relationship between interannual variations of northeast China (NEC) summer temperature and a tripole sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly pattern in the North Atlantic in preceding spring. The present study investigates the change in the above relationship and the plausible causes for the change. A tripole SST index is defined with its positive value corresponding to positive SST anomalies in the tropics and midlatitudes and negative SST anomalies in the subtropics. The tripole SST anomaly pattern has a weak correlation with NEC summer temperature during the 1950s through the mid-1970s, in sharp contrast to the 1980s and 1990s. This change is related to the difference in the persistence of the tripole SST pattern. Before the late 1970s, the tripole SST pattern weakened from spring to summer, and thus, the spring North Atlantic tripole SST pattern had a weak connection with NEC summer temperature. On the contrary, after the late 1970s, the tripole SST pattern displayed a tendency of persistence from spring to summer, contributing to circulation changes that affected NEC summer temperature. There are two factors for the persistence of the tripole SST pattern from spring to summer. One is the North Atlantic air-sea interaction, and the other is the persistence of SST anomalies in the eastern equatorial Pacific during the decay of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). It is shown that the North Atlantic SST anomalies can have an impact on NEC summer temperature independent of ENSO.

  18. Early arrival of Southern Source Water in the deep North Atlantic prior to Heinrich event 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutjahr, Marcus; Lippold, JöRg

    2011-06-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) plays an important role in the Northern Hemisphere climate system. Significant interest went into the question of how excessive freshwater input through melting of continental ice can affect its overturning vigor and, hence, heat supply, to higher northern latitudes. Such forcing can be tested by investigating its behavior during extreme iceberg discharge events into the open North Atlantic during the last glacial period, the so-called Heinrich events (HE). Here we present neodymium (Nd) isotope compositions of past seawater, a sensitive chemical water mass tag, extracted from sediments of Ocean Drilling Program Site 1063 in the western North Atlantic (Bermuda Rise), covering the period surrounding HE 2, the Last Glacial Maximum, and the early deglaciation. These data are compared with a record of the kinematic circulation tracer (231Pa/230Th)xs extracted from the same sediment core. Both tracers indicate significant circulation changes preceding intense ice rafting during HE 2 by almost 2 kyr. Moreover, the Nd isotope record suggests the presence of deeply ventilating North Atlantic Deep Water early during Marine Isotope Stage 2 until it was replaced by Southern Source Water at ˜27 ka. The early switch to high (Pa/Th)xs and radiogenic ɛNd in relation to intensified ice rafting during HE 2 suggests that ice rafting into the open North Atlantic during major HE 2 was preceded by an early change of the AMOC. This opens the possibility that variations in AMOC contributed to or even triggered the ice sheet instability rather than merely responding to it.

  19. Century-scale variability of Coralline Algal Calcification Rates in the North Pacific and North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfar, J.; Chan, P.; Adey, W.; Hetzinger, S.; Williams, B.; Steneck, R.; Lebednik, P.

    2012-04-01

    Ocean acidification may inhibit calcification pathways of marine plants and animals. Recently, it has been suggested that aragonitic tropical corals and other marine calcifiers already exhibit declining calcification rates. Greater oceanic CO2 uptake at mid-to-high latitudes may result in greater inhibition of calcium carbonate secretion in subarctic organisms than in those at lower latitudes. Such inhibition may be particularly evident in the metabolically expensive high Mg-calcite skeletons of the shallow-water, habitat-forming coralline algae. It has been shown that biogenic high Mg-calcites exceed the solubility of aragonite at approximately 12 mol% MgCO3. Here we present the first century-scale records of calcification rates in the coralline alga Clathromorphum sp. from the North Pacific/Bering Sea region and the subarctic NW Atlantic. Clathromorphum forms annual growth increments in its massive skeleton and is known to have a lifespan of up to several centuries. The seasonal MgCO3 range in Clathromorphum from our subarctic collection sites fluctuates between 10-15 mol%. Century-long time series of calcification rates - the product of skeletal density and linear extension - were generated at submonthly resolution using Micro Computer Tomography. Results indicate that coralline algal calcification rates display multidecadal cycles that covary with regional climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Unlike studies of other marine calcifiers, this study has not detected a significant decline in calcification rates during the past decades. This is likely attributable to Clathromorphum calcification being metabolically driven, with the organism maintaining significant physiological control over both placement and dissolution of carbonate. Most carbonate in Clathromorphum cells is deposited along an inner wall embedded in an organic matrix of very small, radially-placed high magnesium calcite crystals.

  20. The Response of the North Atlantic Bloom to NAO Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizoguchi, Ken-Ichi; Worthen, Denise L.; Hakkinen, Sirpa; Gregg, Watson W.

    2004-01-01

    Results from the climatologically forced coupled ice/ocean/biogeochemical model that covers the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans are presented and compared to the chlorophyll fields of satellite-derived ocean color measurements. Biogeochemical processes in the model are determined from the interactions among four phytoplankton functional groups (diatoms, chlorophytes, cyanobacteria and coccolithophores) and four nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, silicate and dissolved iron). The model simulates the general large-scale pattern in April, May and June, when compared to both satellite-derived and in situ observations. The subpolar North Atlantic was cool in the 1980s and warm in the latter 1990s, corresponding to the CZCS and SeaWiFS satellite observing periods, respectively. The oceanographic conditions during these periods resemble the typical subpolar upper ocean response to the NAO+ and NAO-phases, respectively. Thus, we use the atmospheric forcing composites from the two NAO phases to simulate the variability of the mid-ocean bloom during the satellite observing periods. The model results show that when the subpolar North Atlantic is cool, the NAO+ case, more nutrients are available in early spring than when the North Atlantic is warm, the NAO-case. However, the NAO+ simulation produces a later bloom than the NAO-simulation. This difference in the bloom times is also identified in SeaWiFS and CZCS satellite measurements. In the model results, we can trace the difference to the early diatom bloom due to a warmer upper ocean. The higher nutrient abundance in the NAO+ case did not provide larger total production than in the NAO- case, instead the two cases had a comparable area averaged amplitude. This leads us to conclude that in the subpolar North Atlantic, the timing of the spring phytoplankton bloom depends on surface temperature and the magnitude of the bloom is not significantly impacted by the nutrient abundance.

  1. Bathymetric terrain model of the Atlantic margin for marine geological investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Brothers, Daniel S.; Gardner, James V.; Lobecker, Elizabeth A.; Calder, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    A bathymetric terrain model of the Atlantic margin covering almost 725,000 square kilometers of seafloor from the New England Seamounts in the north to the Blake Basin in the south is compiled from existing multibeam bathymetric data for marine geological investigations. Although other terrain models of the same area are extant, they are produced from either satellite-derived bathymetry at coarse resolution (ETOPO1), or use older bathymetric data collected by using a combination of single beam and multibeam sonars (Coastal Relief Model). The new multibeam data used to produce this terrain model have been edited by using hydrographic data processing software to maximize the quality, usability, and cartographic presentation of the combined 100-meter resolution grid. The final grid provides the largest high-resolution, seamless terrain model of the Atlantic margin..

  2. North Atlantic ecosystem sensitivity to Holocene shifts in Meridional Overturning Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douarin, Mélanie; Elliot, Mary; Noble, Stephen R.; Moreton, Steven G.; Long, David; Sinclair, Daniel; Henry, Lea-Anne; Roberts, J. Murray

    2016-01-01

    Rapid changes in North Atlantic climate over the last millennia were driven by coupled sea surface/atmospheric processes and rates of deep water formation. Holocene climate changes, however, remain poorly documented due to a lack of high-resolution paleoclimate records, and their impacts on marine ecosystems remain unknown. We present a 4500 year absolute-dated sea surface radiocarbon record from northeast Atlantic cold-water corals. In contrast to the current view that surface ocean changes occurred on millennial-scale cycles, our record shows more abrupt changes in surface circulation. Changes were centered at 3.4, 2.7, 1.7, and 1.2 kyr B.P. and associated with atmospheric reorganization. Solar irradiance may have influenced these anomalies but changes in North Atlantic deep water convection are likely to have amplified these signals. Critically, we provide the first evidence that these perturbations in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation led to the decline of cold-water coral ecosystems from 1.2 to ~ 0.1 kyr B.P.

  3. North Atlantic Current long-term transport observations at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, Achim; Rhein, Monika; Kieke, Dagmar; Mertens, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The North Atlantic Current (NAC) brings warm and saline water, exported by the Gulf Stream from the tropics/subtropics, from the western in the eastern basin. Four Inverted Echo Sounders were moored between 47°40'N and 52°30'N to study the transport variations of the NAC at the gateway between western and eastern Atlantic. The separation in three segments (northern, central, and southern) allows to resolve the meandering of the NAC between the spreading paths through the different fracture zones. We utilise the correlation between the NAC transport inferred from the 2006 to 2010 moored instruments and the geostrophic surface velocity from altimeter data to construct a time series of NAC transports from 1992 to 2013. By analysing the two time series we compute the transport means and trends, resolve the variations from daily to inter-annual time scales, and calculate transport composites to investigate the relation between the North Atlantic Oscillation and NAC transport variations.

  4. Open ocean dead zones in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Schütte, F.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Fischer, G.; Zantopp, R.; Hahn, J.; Visbeck, M.; Wallace, D.

    2015-04-01

    Here we present first observations, from instrumentation installed on moorings and a float, of unexpectedly low (<2 μmol kg-1) oxygen environments in the open waters of the tropical North Atlantic, a region where oxygen concentration does normally not fall much below 40 μmol kg-1. The low-oxygen zones are created at shallow depth, just below the mixed layer, in the euphotic zone of cyclonic eddies and anticyclonic-modewater eddies. Both types of eddies are prone to high surface productivity. Net respiration rates for the eddies are found to be 3 to 5 times higher when compared with surrounding waters. Oxygen is lowest in the centre of the eddies, in a depth range where the swirl velocity, defining the transition between eddy and surroundings, has its maximum. It is assumed that the strong velocity at the outer rim of the eddies hampers the transport of properties across the eddies boundary and as such isolates their cores. This is supported by a remarkably stable hydrographic structure of the eddies core over periods of several months. The eddies propagate westward, at about 4 to 5 km day-1, from their generation region off the West African coast into the open ocean. High productivity and accompanying respiration, paired with sluggish exchange across the eddy boundary, create the "dead zone" inside the eddies, so far only reported for coastal areas or lakes. We observe a direct impact of the open ocean dead zones on the marine ecosystem as such that the diurnal vertical migration of zooplankton is suppressed inside the eddies.

  5. Comparative ecology of North Atlantic shores: do differences in players matter for process?

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Stuart R; Moore, Pippa; Burrows, Michael T; Garbary, David J; Hawkins, Stephen J; Ingólfsson, Agnar; Sebens, Kenneth P; Snelgrove, Paul V R; Wethey, David S; Woodin, Sarah A

    2008-11-01

    The contrasting histories of the western and eastern shores of the North Atlantic Ocean provide an excellent opportunity to consider the implications of past events for present ecological processes and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Similarities and differences in assemblage composition have been driven by large-scale events, such as the trans-Arctic interchange, which has shaped the species pool, and cycles of glaciation, which have determined phases of local or regional extinction and colonization. More recently, anthropogenically induced invasions and local extinctions have significantly altered biogeographic distributions. Here we consider for both hard and soft substrata how the presence or absence of key taxa influences the outcomes of trophic and other biological interactions, and evaluate the consequences for community structure and ecosystem functioning. On intertidal hard substratum shores, biodiversity of epilithic microphagous grazers differs across latitudinal and longitudinal scales. Diversity is high in southern Europe but declines to the north and across the Atlantic. Lower diversity and the absence of patellid limpets in Iceland and the northwest Atlantic compared to Europe result in differences in consumer pressure, and an apparent contrast in the importance of herbivory vs. competitive interactions and predation pressure as community structuring processes. Interestingly, despite differences in "process," community patterns are remarkably similar between the east and west. On soft sediment shores, there are conspicuous geographic differences in importance of bioturbators and large digging predators. Hemichordates can be abundant and important infaunal bioturbators in the western Atlantic, but they generally play a much reduced role in the eastern Atlantic. In addition, the number and diversity of digging predators on western Atlantic shores is high; the horseshoe crab, swimming portunid crabs, large whelks, excavating waterfowl, and an

  6. From Europe to America: pliocene to recent trans-atlantic expansion of cold-water north atlantic molluscs.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Geerat J

    2005-12-01

    Data on the geographical distribution, phylogeny and fossil record of cool-temperate North Atlantic shell-bearing molluscs that live in waters shallower than 100 m depth belong to two biogeographic provinces, one in eastern North America north of Cape Cod, the other in northern Europe. Amphi-Atlantic species, which are found in both provinces, comprise 30.8% of the 402 species in the northeastern Atlantic and 47.3% of the 262 species in the northwestern Atlantic. Some 54.8% of these amphi-Atlantic species have phylogenetic origins in the North Pacific. Comparisons among fossil Atlantic faunas show that amphi-Atlantic distributions became established in the Middle Pliocene (about 3.5 million years ago), and that all represent westward expansions of European taxa to North America. No American taxa spread eastward to Europe without human assistance. These results are in accord with previous phylogeographic studies among populations within several amphi-Atlantic species. Explanations for the unidirectional expansion of species across the Atlantic remain uncertain, but may include smaller size and greater prior extinction of the North American as compared to the European fauna and biased transport mechanisms. Destruction of the European source fauna may jeopardize faunas on both sides of the Atlantic. PMID:16271981

  7. 76 FR 36892 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2011 North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... 2003 swordfish quotas for the North and South Atlantic fisheries (68 FR 36967; June 20, 2003), NMFS... inadvertently removed in the final rule (69 FR 68090; November 23, 2004) that finalized the swordfish quotas for... Final Rule published on October 5, 2007 (72 FR 56929). While the 2011 baseline quota for South...

  8. Decadal wave power variability in the North-East Atlantic and North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, H.; Taylor, P. H.; Woollings, T.; Poulson, S.

    2015-06-01

    Estimation of the long-term behavior of wave climate is crucial for harnessing wave energy in a cost-effective way. Previous studies have linked wave heights to the north-south atmospheric pressure anomalies in the North Atlantic, suggesting that the wave climate fluctuates as a response to changes in zonal circulation in the atmosphere. We identify changes in wave power in the North-East Atlantic that are strongly correlated to the dominant pressure anomalies, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and other modes. We present a reconstructed wave power climate for 1665-2005, using a combination of known and proxy indices for the NAO and other modes. Our reconstruction shows high interannual and multidecadal variability, which makes wave energy prediction challenging. This variability should be considered in any long-term reliability analysis for wave energy devices and in power scheme economics.

  9. North Atlantic magmatism controlled by temperature, mantle composition and buoyancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Eric L.; Lesher, Charles E.

    2014-11-01

    Large igneous provinces are characterized by anomalously high rates of magma production. Such voluminous magmatism is commonly attributed to partial melting of hot, buoyantly upwelling mantle plume material. However, compositional heterogeneity in the mantle, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust, can also enhance magma production, diminishing the need for elevated temperatures associated with upwelling plumes. A plume origin for the North Atlantic large igneous province has been questioned because lava compositions correlate with crustal thickness, implying a link between magma productivity and mantle source composition. Here we use a numerical model that simulates upwelling and melting of compositionally heterogeneous mantle material to constrain the conditions that gave rise to magmatism in the North Atlantic. Using observations of lava compositions and volumes from the North Atlantic, we show that subducted crustal material represented less than 10% of the mantle source. We further show that mantle temperatures have remained elevated by 85-210 °C and increased mantle upwelling up to 14 times the rate of plate separation has occurred over the past 56 Myr. The enhanced temperatures and upwelling rates extended along more than 1,000 km of the Palaeogene rift, but are substantially more restricted along the modern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These findings reflect the long-term manifestation of a mantle plume.

  10. Interior pathways of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

    PubMed

    Bower, Amy S; Lozier, M Susan; Gary, Stefan F; Böning, Claus W

    2009-05-14

    To understand how our global climate will change in response to natural and anthropogenic forcing, it is essential to determine how quickly and by what pathways climate change signals are transported throughout the global ocean, a vast reservoir for heat and carbon dioxide. Labrador Sea Water (LSW), formed by open ocean convection in the subpolar North Atlantic, is a particularly sensitive indicator of climate change on interannual to decadal timescales. Hydrographic observations made anywhere along the western boundary of the North Atlantic reveal a core of LSW at intermediate depths advected southward within the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC). These observations have led to the widely held view that the DWBC is the dominant pathway for the export of LSW from its formation site in the northern North Atlantic towards the Equator. Here we show that most of the recently ventilated LSW entering the subtropics follows interior, not DWBC, pathways. The interior pathways are revealed by trajectories of subsurface RAFOS floats released during the period 2003-2005 that recorded once-daily temperature, pressure and acoustically determined position for two years, and by model-simulated 'e-floats' released in the subpolar DWBC. The evidence points to a few specific locations around the Grand Banks where LSW is most often injected into the interior. These results have implications for deep ocean ventilation and suggest that the interior subtropical gyre should not be ignored when considering the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. PMID:19444214

  11. Multidecadal Atlantic climate variability and its impact on marine pelagic communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Victoria; Edwards, Martin; Olhede, Sofia C.

    2014-05-01

    compelling evidence for the hypothesis that cold water species are gradually being replaced by more temperate species in the North Atlantic. This may have detrimental effects for the entire marine ecosystem, by affecting on organisms such as fish larva for example. The second group, a phytoplankton subset consisting primarily of diatom species, is primarily influenced by the AMO rather than the average temperature trend. This result highlights the importance of natural oscillations to certain functional groups, in particular those subgroups which are less directly metabolically affected by changes in temperature.

  12. Climate influence on Vibrio and associated human diseases during the past half-century in the coastal North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Grande, Chiara; Reid, Philip C; Hélaouët, Pierre; Edwards, Martin; Höfle, Manfred G; Brettar, Ingrid; Colwell, Rita R; Pruzzo, Carla

    2016-08-23

    Climate change is having a dramatic impact on marine animal and plant communities but little is known of its influence on marine prokaryotes, which represent the largest living biomass in the world oceans and play a fundamental role in maintaining life on our planet. In this study, for the first time to our knowledge, experimental evidence is provided on the link between multidecadal climatic variability in the temperate North Atlantic and the presence and spread of an important group of marine prokaryotes, the vibrios, which are responsible for several infections in both humans and animals. Using archived formalin-preserved plankton samples collected by the Continuous Plankton Recorder survey over the past half-century (1958-2011), we assessed retrospectively the relative abundance of vibrios, including human pathogens, in nine areas of the North Atlantic and North Sea and showed correlation with climate and plankton changes. Generalized additive models revealed that long-term increase in Vibrio abundance is promoted by increasing sea surface temperatures (up to ∼1.5 °C over the past 54 y) and is positively correlated with the Northern Hemisphere Temperature (NHT) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) climatic indices (P < 0.001). Such increases are associated with an unprecedented occurrence of environmentally acquired Vibrio infections in the human population of Northern Europe and the Atlantic coast of the United States in recent years. PMID:27503882

  13. Hydrographic changes in the subpolar North Atlantic at the MCA to LIA transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divine, Dmitry; Miettinen, Arto; Husum, Katrine; Koc, Nalan

    2016-04-01

    A network of four marine sediment cores from the northern North Atlantic is used to study hydrographic changes in surface water masses during the last 2000 years with a special focus on the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) to the Little Ice Age (LIA) transition. Three of the cores are recovered from the sites located on main pathways of warm Atlantic water to the Arctic: M95-2011 (Vøring plateau, Norwegian Sea), Rapid-21 COM and LO-14 (Reykjanes Ridge, south of Iceland). The fourth core MD99-2322 is from the SE Greenland shelf (Denmark Strait), and it is influenced by the cold water outflow from the Arctic. The cores were analyzed continuously for planktonic diatoms with a high decadal to subdecadal temporal resolution. Past changes in the spatial distribution of surface water masses have been studied identifying factors, or typical species compositions, in downcore diatom assemblages. To derive the factors a Q-mode factor analysis has been applied to the extended modern calibration data set of 184 surface sediment samples from the North Atlantic, the Labrador Sea, the Nordic Seas, and Baffin Bay. SSTs have also been reconstructed using transfer functions. Variations of the reconstructed SSTs and loadings of major contributing factors reveal a complex regional pattern of changes in the structure of circulation during the MCA/LIA transition (1200-1400 AD). In the Norwegian Sea, the factors associated with assemblages typical for warmer and saline North Atlantic waters are partly displaced by colder and fresher water dwelling diatoms suggesting an eastward migration of mixed Arctic/Atlantic water masses into the Norwegian Sea. The two cores south of Iceland show a westward propagation of a warm water pulse as evidenced by the dominance of assemblages, which today are typical for the waters ca 5° further south than the current study sites. At the SE Greenland shelf an abrupt shift (ca. 50 years) in factors associated with different sea ice zone dwelling diatoms

  14. Dilution of the northern North Atlantic Ocean in recent decades.

    PubMed

    Curry, Ruth; Mauritzen, Cecilie

    2005-06-17

    Declining salinities signify that large amounts of fresh water have been added to the northern North Atlantic Ocean since the mid-1960s. We estimate that the Nordic Seas and Subpolar Basins were diluted by an extra 19,000 +/- 5000 cubic kilometers of freshwater input between 1965 and 1995. Fully half of that additional fresh water-about 10,000 cubic kilometers-infiltrated the system in the late 1960s at an approximate rate of 2000 cubic kilometers per year. Patterns of freshwater accumulation observed in the Nordic Seas suggest a century time scale to reach freshening thresholds critical to that portion of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. PMID:15961666

  15. Anthropogenic climate change drives shift and shuffle in North Atlantic phytoplankton communities.

    PubMed

    Barton, Andrew D; Irwin, Andrew J; Finkel, Zoe V; Stock, Charles A

    2016-03-15

    Anthropogenic climate change has shifted the biogeography and phenology of many terrestrial and marine species. Marine phytoplankton communities appear sensitive to climate change, yet understanding of how individual species may respond to anthropogenic climate change remains limited. Here, using historical environmental and phytoplankton observations, we characterize the realized ecological niches for 87 North Atlantic diatom and dinoflagellate taxa and project changes in species biogeography between mean historical (1951-2000) and future (2051-2100) ocean conditions. We find that the central positions of the core range of 74% of taxa shift poleward at a median rate of 12.9 km per decade (km⋅dec(-1)), and 90% of taxa shift eastward at a median rate of 42.7 km⋅dec(-1) The poleward shift is faster than previously reported for marine taxa, and the predominance of longitudinal shifts is driven by dynamic changes in multiple environmental drivers, rather than a strictly poleward, temperature-driven redistribution of ocean habitats. A century of climate change significantly shuffles community composition by a basin-wide median value of 16%, compared with seasonal variations of 46%. The North Atlantic phytoplankton community appears poised for marked shift and shuffle, which may have broad effects on food webs and biogeochemical cycles. PMID:26903635

  16. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  17. OBLIQUE VIEW OF FRONT ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF FRONT ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING NORTH. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  18. VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  19. What drives seasonal change in oligotrophic area in the subtropical North Atlantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Apurva C.; Barton, Andrew D.; Lozier, M. Susan; McKinley, Galen A.

    2015-06-01

    The oligotrophic regions of the subtropical gyres cover a significant portion of the global ocean, and exhibit considerable but poorly understood intraseasonal, interannual, and longer-term variations in spatial extent. Here using historical observations of surface ocean nitrate, wind, and currents, we have investigated how horizontal and vertical supplies of nitrate control seasonal changes in the size and shape of oligotrophic regions of the subtropical North Atlantic. In general, the oligotrophic region of the subtropical North Atlantic is associated with the region of weak vertical supply of nitrate. Though the total vertical supply of nitrate here is generally greater than the total horizontal supply, we find that seasonal expansion and contraction of the oligotrophic region is consistent with changes in horizontal supply of nitrate. In this dynamic periphery of the subtropical gyre, the seasonal variations in chlorophyll are linked to variations in horizontal nitrate supply that facilitate changes in intracellular pigment concentrations, and to a lesser extent, phytoplankton biomass. Our results suggest that horizontal transports of nutrient are crucial in setting seasonal cycles of chlorophyll in large expanses of the subtropical North Atlantic, and may play a key and underappreciated role in regulating interannual variations in these globally important marine ecosystems.

  20. Natural versus anthropogenic factors affecting low-level cloud albedo over the North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falkowski, Paul G.; Kim, Yongseung; Kolber, Zbigniew; Wilson, Cara; Wirick, Creighton; Cess, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Cloud albedo plays a key role in regulating earth's climate. Cloud albedo depends on column-integrated liquid water content and the density of cloud condensation nuclei, which consists primarily of submicrometer-sized aerosol sulfate particles. A comparison of two independent satellite data sets suggests that, although anthropogenic sulfate emissions may enhance cloud albedo immediately adjacent to the east coast of the United States, over the central North Atlantic Ocean the variability in albedo can be largely accounted for by natural marine and atmospheric processes that probably have remained relatively constant since the beginning of the industrial revolution.

  1. Natural Versus Anthropogenic Factors Affecting Low-Level Cloud Albedo over the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Falkowski, P G; Kim, Y; Kolber, Z; Wilson, C; Wirick, C; Cess, R

    1992-05-29

    Cloud albedo plays a key role in regulating Earth's climate. Cloud albedo depends on column-integrated liquid water content and the density of cloud condensation nuclei, which consists primarily of submicrometer-sized aerosol sulfate particles. A comparison of two independent satellite data sets suggests that, although anthropogenic sulfate emissions may enhance cloud albedo immediately adjacent to the east coast of the United States, over the central North Atlantic Ocean the variability in albedo can be largely accounted for by natural marine and atmospheric processes that probably have remained relatively constant since the beginning of the industrial revolution. PMID:17736762

  2. Links between viruses and prokaryotes throughout the water column along a North Atlantic latitudinal transect.

    PubMed

    De Corte, Daniele; Sintes, Eva; Yokokawa, Taichi; Reinthaler, Thomas; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2012-08-01

    Viruses are an abundant, diverse and dynamic component of marine ecosystems and have a key role in the biogeochemical processes of the ocean by controlling prokaryotic and phytoplankton abundance and diversity. However, most of the studies on virus-prokaryote interactions in marine environments have been performed in nearshore waters. To assess potential variations in the relation between viruses and prokaryotes in different oceanographic provinces, we determined viral and prokaryotic abundance and production throughout the water column along a latitudinal transect in the North Atlantic. Depth-related trends in prokaryotic and viral abundance (both decreasing by one order of magnitude from epi- to abyssopelagic waters), and prokaryotic production (decreasing by three orders of magnitude) were observed along the latitudinal transect. The virus-to-prokaryote ratio (VPR) increased from ~19 in epipelagic to ~53 in the bathy- and abyssopelagic waters. Although the lytic viral production decreased significantly with depth, the lysogenic viral production did not vary with depth. In bathypelagic waters, pronounced differences in prokaryotic and viral abundance were found among different oceanic provinces with lower leucine incorporation rates and higher VPRs in the North Atlantic Gyre province than in the provinces further north and south. The percentage of lysogeny increased from subpolar regions toward the more oligotrophic lower latitudes. Based on the observed trends over this latitudinal transect, we conclude that the viral-host interactions significantly change among different oceanic provinces in response to changes in the biotic and abiotic variables. PMID:22258100

  3. Summer North Atlantic Oscillation and flood variability in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Juan Carlos; Schulte, Lothar; Badoux, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    The study analyses the possible links between flood frequency in Switzerland and the North Atlantic dynamics over the last two centuries. Given the intricate topography of Switzerland, it will generate a territorial division to retain main physiographic and environmental dissimilarities between different regions. The flood variability in Switzerland over the period 1800-2010 has been determined from a flood damage index for July and August months. The index considers very severe and catastrophic floods from existing flood inventories, summarizing both the severity of these events, their spatial extent and the regional differences. Special attention will be focused on the disparities between flood dynamics at northern and southern slopes of the Alps. The analysis of the possible links between floods and North Atlantic dynamics is focused on the low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Summer climate in the North Atlantic-European sector shows a principal pattern of year-to-year variability, although this pattern is weaker than the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in winter and is confined to northern latitudes. By analogy the climatology community refers to this pattern as the Summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO), which is defined as the main empirical orthogonal function of the standardized anomalies of the European mean sea level pressure during July and August. The flood damage index provides evidences of floods clusters in: 1830-1851, 1881-1927, 1977-1990 and 2005 to present. These clusters coincide with those reported from Switzerland and from some areas of the European continent such as the Czech Republic, Italy and the eastern half of the Iberian Peninsula. This link is not so close when compared with the flood occurrences in Germany. The analysis of the principal mode of low-frequency atmospheric variability shows that the Swiss river catchments situated on the center and southern flank of the Alps are affected by atmospherically unstable areas

  4. Deglacial Subsurface Temperature Change in the Tropical North Atlantic Linked to Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. W.; Chang, P.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.

    2010-12-01

    Coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling experiments indicate that Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability is tightly coupled to abrupt tropical North Atlantic (TNA) climate change through both atmospheric and oceanic processes (Zhang, 2007; Chang et al., 2008; and Chiang et al., 2008). While a slowdown of AMOC in these experiments results in an atmospheric-induced surface cooling in the entire TNA, the subsurface experiences an even larger warming due to rapid reorganizations of ocean circulation patterns (Wan et al., 2009). In addition, observational records of detrended 20th century ocean temperature and salinity variability show a strong anticorrelation between surface cooling and subsurface warming in the TNA over the past several decades, suggesting changing vertical temperature gradients in this region may be a distinct fingerprint of AMOC variability (Zhang 2007). In order to test the hypothesis that subsurface temperature change in the TNA is coupled to AMOC variability across abrupt climate events over the last deglacial, we reconstructed high-resolution Mg/Ca-temperature and δ18O records from both surface (G. ruber) and sub-thermocline dwelling (G. truncatulinoides, 350-500 m depth and G. crassaformis, 450-580 m) planktonic foraminifera in the southern Caribbean Sea sediment core VM12-107 (11.33oN, 66.63oW; 1079 m; 18 cm/kyr sedimentation rate). Sea surface temperatures indicate a gradual warming in the TNA starting at ~19 kyr BP with small cold reversals of ~1.5oC during Heinrich Event 1 (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). In contrast, last glacial maximum subsurface temperatures were as much as 2.5oC warmer than Late Holocene values and H1 and the YD are marked by the warmest subsurface temperatures characterized by abrupt temperature increases as large as 4-5oC. Furthermore, a comparison of our subsurface temperature record with the Bermuda Rise 231Pa/230Th proxy record of AMOC variability (McManus et al., 2004) indicates a strong

  5. Seasonality of mercury in the Atlantic marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soerensen, Anne L.; Sunderland, Elsie; Skov, Henrik; Holmes, Christopher; Jacob, Daniel J.

    2010-05-01

    Around one third of the mercury emissions today are from primary anthropogenic sources, with the remaining two-thirds from secondary reemissions of earlier deposition and natural sources (AMAP/UNEP 2008). Mercury exchange at the air-sea interface is important for the global distribution of atmospheric mercury as parts of deposited mercury will reenter the atmosphere through evasion. The exchange at the air-sea interface also affects the amount of inorganic mercury in the ocean and thereby the conversion to the neuro-toxic methylmercury. Here we combine new cruise measurements in the atmospheric marine boundary layer (MBL) of the Atlantic Ocean (Northern Hemisphere) from the fall of 2006 and the spring of 2007 with existing data from cruises in the Atlantic Ocean since 1978. We observe from these data a seasonal cycle in Hg(0) concentrations in the Atlantic marine boundary later (MBL) that exhibits minimum concentrations during summer and high concentrations during fall to spring. These observations suggest a local, seasonally dependent Hg(0) source in the MBL that causes variability in concentrations above the open ocean. To further investigate controls on Hg(0) concentrations in the MBL, we developed an improved representation of oceanic air-sea exchange processes within the GEOS-Chem global 3-D biogeochemical mercury model. Specifically, we used new data on mercury redox reactions in the surface ocean as a function of biological and photochemical processes, and implemented new algorithms for mercury dynamics associated with suspended particles. Our coupled atmospheric-oceanic modeling results support the premise that oceanic evasion is a main driver controlling Hg(0) concentrations in the MBL. We also use the model to investigate what drivers the evasion across the air-sea interface on shorter timescales. This is done by tracking evasion rates and other model components on an hourly basis for chosen locations in the Atlantic Ocean.

  6. Influence of Surface Processes over Africa on the Atlantic Marine ITCZ and South American Precipitation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Cook, Kerry H.

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies show that the climatological precipitation over South America, particularly the Nordeste region, is influenced by the presence of the African continent. Here the influence of African topography and surface wetness on the Atlantic marine ITCZ (AMI) and South American precipitation are investigated.Cross-equatorial flow over the Atlantic Ocean introduced by north south asymmetry in surface conditions over Africa shifts the AMI in the direction of the flow. African topography, for example, introduces an anomalous high over the southern Atlantic Ocean and a low to the north. This results in a northward migration of the AMI and dry conditions over the Nordeste region.The implications of this process on variability are then studied by analyzing the response of the AMI to soil moisture anomalies over tropical Africa. Northerly flow induced by equatorially asymmetric perturbations in soil moisture over northern tropical Africa shifts the AMI southward, increasing the climatological precipitation over northeastern South America. Flow associated with an equatorially symmetric perturbation in soil moisture, however, has a very weak cross-equatorial component and very weak influence on the AMI and South American precipitation. The sensitivity of the AMI to soil moisture perturbations over certain regions of Africa can possibly improve the skill of prediction.

  7. Paleoceanography. Onset of Mediterranean outflow into the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Molina, F Javier; Stow, Dorrik A V; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A; Acton, Gary; Bahr, André; Balestra, Barbara; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Flood, Roger; Flores, José-Abel; Furota, Satoshi; Grunert, Patrick; Hodell, David; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco; Kim, Jin Kyoung; Krissek, Lawrence; Kuroda, Junichiro; Li, Baohua; Llave, Estefania; Lofi, Johanna; Lourens, Lucas; Miller, Madeline; Nanayama, Futoshi; Nishida, Naohisa; Richter, Carl; Roque, Cristina; Pereira, Hélder; Sanchez Goñi, Maria Fernanda; Sierro, Francisco J; Singh, Arun Deo; Sloss, Craig; Takashimizu, Yasuhiro; Tzanova, Alexandrina; Voelker, Antje; Williams, Trevor; Xuan, Chuang

    2014-06-13

    Sediments cored along the southwestern Iberian margin during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 339 provide constraints on Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) circulation patterns from the Pliocene epoch to the present day. After the Strait of Gibraltar opened (5.33 million years ago), a limited volume of MOW entered the Atlantic. Depositional hiatuses indicate erosion by bottom currents related to higher volumes of MOW circulating into the North Atlantic, beginning in the late Pliocene. The hiatuses coincide with regional tectonic events and changes in global thermohaline circulation (THC). This suggests that MOW influenced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), THC, and climatic shifts by contributing a component of warm, saline water to northern latitudes while in turn being influenced by plate tectonics. PMID:24926012

  8. Abstracting the Pacific Ocean's Impact on North Atlantic Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghmous, J.; Le, M.; Liess, S.; Mesquita, M.; Kumar, V.

    2012-12-01

    The warming anomalies of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) along the near- equatorial Pacific Ocean (ENSO) have well documented global long-range weather teleconnections from rainfall in southern India to mudslides in the western United States. In this work, we focus on ENSO's teleconnections with North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity. Traditionally, ENSO's impact on Atlantic TCs has been abstracted by monitoring the warming of static regions along the equatorial Pacific Ocean. We propose that the spatial distribution of Pacific Ocean warming might provide better predictive insights into ENSO-Atlantic TC impact than warming anomalies alone. We present a distance-based ENSO index (S-ENSO for spatial ENSO) that tracks the location of the maximum near-tropical Pacific warming anomaly instead the absolute warming of a static region. Our spatial ENSO index correlates better with seasonal TC activity than standard ENSO indices, especially with increased lead times.

  9. An analysis of the mechanisms of North American pollutant transport to the central North Atlantic lower free troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, R. C.; Cooper, O. R.; Stohl, A.; Honrath, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    We use the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model and observations from the PICO-NARE station to identify and analyze the transport of North American anthropogenic emissions to the central North Atlantic lower free troposphere (FT) during July 2003. FLEXPART adequately captured the occurrence of CO transport events, simulating all but 1 of the 16 observed events while producing only 3 events not observed. Low-level transport (below 3 km) was responsible for most events. Three case studies of this type are presented. Export from the North American boundary layer in these events was the result of eastward advection over the ocean or transport in a weak warm conveyor belt airflow. Once over the ocean, transport was governed by geostrophic winds between the Azores/Bermuda High (ABH) and transient northerly lows. The varying locations of the ABH and northerly lows determine the pathway of this type of event. As a result, other events similar to those analyzed here reach Europe. Transported below 3 km, these events were observed in the lower FT over the Azores and were accompanied by O3 enhancements. Thus the lower marine FT may provide a transport environment significantly different from the marine boundary layer, where O3 destruction is believed to dominate. In the fourth case study, North American emissions were lofted to 6-8 km in a warm conveyor belt, captured for 2 days in the midtropospheric circulation of the associated cyclone, and then entrained in the same cyclone's dry airstream and transported down to the Azores.

  10. A predictive relationship between early season North Atlantic hurricane activity and the upcoming winter North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Jessica; Saunders, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is linked strongly to European winter climate including windstorms. Predicting the winter NAO is key to making successful seasonal predictions of European winter climate. We observe that in recent decades there are many instances of an inverse relationship between the strength of the North Atlantic hurricane season and the strength of the subsequent European winter windstorm season. Stormy European winter seasons often follow quiet Atlantic hurricane seasons and calm European winters follow active hurricane seasons. We explore the strength and temporal stability of this inverse relationship, consider a facilitating physical mechanism, and briefly discuss the implications of our findings for end users, in particular global reinsurers. We find there is a statistically significant link between North Atlantic hurricane activity and the upcoming winter NAO. The relationship is established by the midway point of the hurricane season in early September. The link is strongest when hurricane activity is in the upper or lower tercile and when summer ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) is neutral. The relationship works well going back 40 years to the mid 1970s. The early winter (October-November-December) NAO is predicted best but since the early 1980s the predictive link extends to the main winter (December-January-February) NAO. The inverse link can be facilitated by a persistence and slow evolution of atmospheric circulation patterns and sea surface temperature anomalies over the North Atlantic between the summer and the winter. This persistence is best when hurricane seasons are more extreme and when summer ENSO is neutral. Our findings offer the potential for predicting the early winter and winter NAO from early September. The implied inverse relationship between US hurricane activity and European windstorm activity may enable more effective offsetting of risks between territories.

  11. Diatom phytoplankton response to Holocene climate change in the Subpolar North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Katie R.; Chapman, Mark R.; Andrews, Julian E.; Koç, Nalân

    2011-12-01

    A detailed investigation of marine core MD99-2251 from the Gardar Drift has been undertaken to examine the extent of Holocene climate variability reflected by changes in diatom floral abundances in the subpolar North Atlantic. The results from this study provide both an overview of climate variability for the entire Holocene and a decadal-scale study focussed around the 8.2 kyr event, where ice rafted debris also has been quantified. The changing composition of diatom assemblages indicates a highly unstable early Holocene from 11.5 to 9 kyr with switches in the dominance of cool Subarctic floras and warmer North Atlantic Current floras. The presence of high productivity events in the diatom floras during this interval suggests that the core location was, at times, in close proximity of the Subarctic Front. An expansion in the importance of cold Arctic/Greenland Current floras occurred from 9 to 7 kyr, followed by a switch to a well developed warm North Atlantic Current flora between 7 and 5 kyr and then more stable conditions during the Late Holocene. Changes in sea surface hydrography, especially the relative strength of the warm North Atlantic Current, are considered to have had the greatest influence on the composition of diatom floral assemblages. The 8.2 kyr event is not recognised as a discrete climate perturbation in the diatom assemblage data, but this event occurred within a broad cooling from 9 to 7 kyr, where the presence of sea-ice and cold water species indicate an increased incursion of the Arctic and Subarctic water masses between 8.8 and 7.8 kyr. The 8.2 kyr event also was not marked by any increase in the delivery of ice rafted debris over the Gardar Drift.

  12. Latitudinal variation in virus-induced mortality of phytoplankton across the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Kristina D A; Huisman, Jef; Wilhelm, Steven W; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2016-02-01

    Viral lysis of phytoplankton constrains marine primary production, food web dynamics and biogeochemical cycles in the ocean. Yet, little is known about the biogeographical distribution of viral lysis rates across the global ocean. To address this, we investigated phytoplankton group-specific viral lysis rates along a latitudinal gradient within the North Atlantic Ocean. The data show large-scale distribution patterns of different virus groups across the North Atlantic that are associated with the biogeographical distributions of their potential microbial hosts. Average virus-mediated lysis rates of the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were lower than those of the picoeukaryotic and nanoeukaryotic phytoplankton (that is, 0.14 per day compared with 0.19 and 0.23 per day, respectively). Total phytoplankton mortality (virus plus grazer-mediated) was comparable to the gross growth rate, demonstrating high turnover rates of phytoplankton populations. Virus-induced mortality was an important loss process at low and mid latitudes, whereas phytoplankton mortality was dominated by microzooplankton grazing at higher latitudes (>56°N). This shift from a viral-lysis-dominated to a grazing-dominated phytoplankton community was associated with a decrease in temperature and salinity, and the decrease in viral lysis rates was also associated with increased vertical mixing at higher latitudes. Ocean-climate models predict that surface warming will lead to an expansion of the stratified and oligotrophic regions of the world's oceans. Our findings suggest that these future shifts in the regional climate of the ocean surface layer are likely to increase the contribution of viral lysis to phytoplankton mortality in the higher-latitude waters of the North Atlantic, which may potentially reduce transfer of matter and energy up the food chain and thus affect the capacity of the northern North Atlantic to act as a long-term sink for CO2. PMID:26262815

  13. GLANAM (Glaciated North Atlantic Margins): A Marie Curie Initial Training Network between Norway, the UK & Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petter Sejrup, Hans; Oline Hjelstuen, Berit

    2015-04-01

    GLANAM (Glaciated North Atlantic Margins) is an Initial Training Network (ITN) funded under the EU Marie Curie Programme. It comprises 10 research partners from Norway, UK and Denmark, including 7 University research teams, 1 industrial full partner and 2 industrial associate partners. The GLANAM network will employ and train 15 early career researchers (Fellows). The aim of GLANAM is to improve the career prospects and development of young researchers in both the public and private sector within the field of earth science, focusing on North Atlantic glaciated margins. The young scientists will perform multi-disciplinary research and receive training in geophysics, remote sensing, GIS, sedimentology, geomorphology, stratigraphy, geochemistry and numerical modeling through three interconnected work packages that collectively address knowledge gaps related to the large, glacial age, sedimentary depocentres on the North Atlantic margin. The 15 Fellows will work on projects that geographically extend from Ireland in the south to the High Arctic. Filling these gaps will not only result in major new insights regarding glacial age processes on continental margins in general, but will also provide paleoclimate information essential for understanding the role of marine-based ice sheets in the climate system and for the testing of climate models. GLANAM brings together leading European research groups working on glaciated margins in a coordinated and collaborative research and training project. Focusing on the North Atlantic margins, this coordinated approach will lead to a major advance in the understanding of glaciated margins more widely and will fundamentally strengthen European research and build capacity in this field.

  14. North Atlantic explosive cyclones and large scale atmospheric variability modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.

    2015-04-01

    Extreme windstorms are one of the major natural catastrophes in the extratropics, one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe and are responsible for substantial economic damages and even fatalities. During the last decades Europe witnessed major damage from winter storms such as Lothar (December 1999), Kyrill (January 2007), Klaus (January 2009), Xynthia (February 2010), Gong (January 2013) and Stephanie (February 2014) which exhibited uncommon characteristics. In fact, most of these storms crossed the Atlantic in direction of Europe experiencing an explosive development at unusual lower latitudes along the edge of the dominant North Atlantic storm track and reaching Iberia with an uncommon intensity (Liberato et al., 2011; 2013; Liberato 2014). Results show that the explosive cyclogenesis process of most of these storms at such low latitudes is driven by: (i) the southerly displacement of a very strong polar jet stream; and (ii) the presence of an atmospheric river (AR), that is, by a (sub)tropical moisture export over the western and central (sub)tropical Atlantic which converges into the cyclogenesis region and then moves along with the storm towards Iberia. Previous studies have pointed to a link between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and intense European windstorms. On the other hand, the NAO exerts a decisive control on the average latitudinal location of the jet stream over the North Atlantic basin (Woollings et al. 2010). In this work the link between North Atlantic explosive cyclogenesis, atmospheric rivers and large scale atmospheric variability modes is reviewed and discussed. Liberato MLR (2014) The 19 January 2013 windstorm over the north Atlantic: Large-scale dynamics and impacts on Iberia. Weather and Climate Extremes, 5-6, 16-28. doi: 10.1016/j.wace.2014.06.002 Liberato MRL, Pinto JG, Trigo IF, Trigo RM. (2011) Klaus - an exceptional winter storm over Northern Iberia and Southern France. Weather 66:330-334. doi:10.1002/wea.755 Liberato

  15. Atlantic cooling associated with a marine biotic crisis during the mid-Cretaceous period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAnena, A.; Flögel, S.; Hofmann, P.; Herrle, J. O.; Griesand, A.; Pross, J.; Talbot, H. M.; Rethemeyer, J.; Wallmann, K.; Wagner, T.

    2013-07-01

    Most of the marine biotic crises that occurred during the hot Mesozoic era have been linked to episodes of extreme warmth. Others, however, may have occurred during cooler intervals that interrupted Cretaceous greenhouse warmth. There are some indications of cooling in the late Aptian (116-114Myr ago), but it has not been definitively linked to biotic crisis. Here we assess the timing and magnitude of late Aptian cooling and its association with biotic crises using a suite of geochemical and micropalaeontological assessments from a marine sediment core from the North Atlantic Ocean as well as global biogeochemical modelling. Sea surface temperatures derived from the TEX86 proxy suggest that surface waters cooled by about 5°C during the two million years, coincident with a positive δ13C excursion of approximately 2‰ in carbonates and organic carbon. Surface productivity was enhanced during this period, but the abundance of planktonic foraminifera and nannoconid phytoplankton declined. Our simulations with a biogeochemical model indicate that the δ13C excursion associated with the cooling could be explained by the burial of about 812,000 gigatons of carbon over 2.5 million years. About 50% of the this carbon burial occurred in the Atlantic, Southern and Tethys ocean basins. We conclude that global cooling during greenhouse conditions can cause perturbations to marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles at scales comparable to those associated with global warming.

  16. North Atlantic ocean circulation and abrupt climate change during the last glaciation.

    PubMed

    Henry, L G; McManus, J F; Curry, W B; Roberts, N L; Piotrowski, A M; Keigwin, L D

    2016-07-29

    The most recent ice age was characterized by rapid and hemispherically asynchronous climate oscillations, whose origin remains unresolved. Variations in oceanic meridional heat transport may contribute to these repeated climate changes, which were most pronounced during marine isotope stage 3, the glacial interval 25 thousand to 60 thousand years ago. We examined climate and ocean circulation proxies throughout this interval at high resolution in a deep North Atlantic sediment core, combining the kinematic tracer protactinium/thorium (Pa/Th) with the deep water-mass tracer, epibenthic δ(13)C. These indicators suggest reduced Atlantic overturning circulation during every cool northern stadial, with the greatest reductions during episodic Hudson Strait iceberg discharges, while sharp northern warming followed reinvigorated overturning. These results provide direct evidence for the ocean's persistent, central role in abrupt glacial climate change. PMID:27365315

  17. North Atlantic ocean circulation and abrupt climate change during the last glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, L. G.; McManus, J. F.; Curry, W. B.; Roberts, N. L.; Piotrowski, A. M.; Keigwin, L. D.

    2016-07-01

    The most recent ice age was characterized by rapid and hemispherically asynchronous climate oscillations, whose origin remains unresolved. Variations in oceanic meridional heat transport may contribute to these repeated climate changes, which were most pronounced during marine isotope stage 3, the glacial interval 25 thousand to 60 thousand years ago. We examined climate and ocean circulation proxies throughout this interval at high resolution in a deep North Atlantic sediment core, combining the kinematic tracer protactinium/thorium (Pa/Th) with the deep water-mass tracer, epibenthic δ13C. These indicators suggest reduced Atlantic overturning circulation during every cool northern stadial, with the greatest reductions during episodic Hudson Strait iceberg discharges, while sharp northern warming followed reinvigorated overturning. These results provide direct evidence for the ocean’s persistent, central role in abrupt glacial climate change.

  18. North Atlantic overturning and climate response to meltwater forcing during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muschitiello, Francesco; Dokken, Trond; Väliranta, Minna; Björck, Svante; Davies, Siwan; Luoto, Tomi; Schenk, Frederik; Smittenberg, Rienk; Reimer, Paula; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    The last deglaciation (˜18-11 kyr BP) is an important analog to investigate the response of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) to future ice-sheet melting and its impact on regional climate change. In this study we present synchronised terrestrial and marine proxy records that provide insight into freshwater run-off and climate variability in the eastern North Atlantic during the last deglaciation. The reconstructions show that atmospheric circulation rather than freshwater forcing primarily controls the stability of the AMOC. However, catastrophic meltwater drainage from the Scandinavian continent may have solicited complex feedbacks necessary to account for the rapid large-scale hydro-climate shifts and the major weakening of the overturning circulation system at the onset of the Younger Dryas stadial.

  19. Introgressive hybridization and latitudinal admixture clines in North Atlantic eels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hybridization, the interbreeding of diagnosably divergent species, is a major focus in evolutionary studies. Eels, both from North America and Europe migrate through the Atlantic to mate in a vast, overlapping area in the Sargasso Sea. Due to the lack of direct observation, it is unknown how these species remain reproductively isolated. The detection of inter-species hybrids in Iceland suggests on-going gene flow, but few studies to date have addressed the influence of introgression on genetic differentiation in North Atlantic eels. Results Here, we show that while mitochondrial lineages remain completely distinct on both sides of the Atlantic, limited hybridization is detectable with nuclear DNA markers. The nuclear hybridization signal peaks in the northern areas and decreases towards the southern range limits on both continents according to Bayesian assignment analyses. By simulating increasing proportions of both F1 hybrids and admixed individuals from the southern to the northern-most locations, we were able to generate highly significant isolation-by-distance patterns in both cases, reminiscent of previously published data for the European eel. Finally, fitting an isolation-with-migration model to our data supports the hypothesis of recent asymmetric introgression and refutes the alternative hypothesis of ancient polymorphism. Conclusions Fluctuating degrees of introgressive hybridization between Atlantic eel species are sufficient to explain temporally varying correlations of geographic and genetic distances reported for populations of the European eel. PMID:24674242

  20. Cemented femoral fixation: the North Atlantic divide.

    PubMed

    Murray, David W

    2011-09-01

    In the United Kingdom, more cemented than cementless stems are implanted, whereas in North America, few cemented stems are implanted. This is primarily because cemented stems have not performed well in North America, whereas they have in the United Kingdom, as different designs have been used. The majority of cemented stems used in the United Kingdom are polished, collarless, and tapered. These are forgiving, as they subside within the cement mantle and compress the cement and stabilize the interface. They perform well in both young and active patients and elderly patients. They also do well in osteoporotic bone, with deformity, or with suboptimal cementing techniques. As the position of the stem can be varied, it is simple to achieve appropriate leg length, offset, and version. Cement can be used to deliver antibiotics locally. If revision is necessary, it is relatively straightforward. Cement has numerous advantages that outweigh the main disadvantage of an extended operating time. PMID:21902131

  1. How North Atlantic cooling alters Southern Ocean wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-07-01

    At least seven times during the last ice age, large portions of the polar glaciers crumbled, sending rafts of ice floating into the North Atlantic Ocean. When these icebergs melted, the resultant injection of cold freshwater was enough to drive down ocean temperatures by as much as 12°C. These so-called Heinrich events are associated with rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, but a mechanism to explain the connection convincingly has yet to arise. One proposed explanation sees the melting-iceberg-triggered North Atlantic cooling tied to increases in CO2 venting from the Southern Ocean, which surrounds Antarctica, through increased wind-driven upwelling. To test this hypothesis, which was initially proposed by researchers in 2009 based on paleoclimate evidence, Lee et al. ran ocean-atmosphere coupled climate simulations to determine the physical mechanism that could support this cross-hemisphere connection. (Paleoceanography, doi:10.1029/ 2010PA002004, 2011)

  2. Synchronous climate changes in Antarctica and the North Atlantic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steig, E.J.; Brook, E.J.; White, J.W.C.; Sucher, C.M.; Bender, M.L.; Lehman, S.J.; Morse, D.L.; Waddington, E.D.; Clow, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    Central Greenland ice cores provide evidence of abrupt changes in climate over the past 100,000 years. Many of these changes have also been identified in sedimentary and geochemical signatures in deep-sea sediment cores from the North Atlantic, confirming the link between millennial-scale climate variability and ocean thermohaline circulation. It is shown here that two of the most prominent North Atlantic events - the rapid warming that makes the end of the last glacial period and the Bolling/Allerod-Younger Dryas oscillation - are also recorded in an ice core from Taylor Dome, in the western Ross Sea sector of Antarctica. This result contrasts with evidence from ice cores in other regions of Antarctica, which show an asynchronous response between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

  3. Climate, fishery and society interactions: Observations from the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Lawrence C.

    2007-11-01

    Interdisciplinary studies comparing fisheries-dependent regions across the North Atlantic find a number of broad patterns. Large ecological shifts, disastrous to historical fisheries, have resulted when unfavorable climatic events occur atop overfishing. The "teleconnections" linking fisheries crises across long distances include human technology and markets, as well as climate or migratory fish species. Overfishing and climate-driven changes have led to a shift downwards in trophic levels of fisheries takes in some ecosystems, from dominance by bony fish to crustaceans. Fishing societies adapt to new ecological conditions through social reorganization that have benefited some people and places, while leaving others behind. Characteristic patterns of demographic change are among the symptoms of such reorganization. These general observations emerge from a review of recent case studies of individual fishing communities, such as those conducted for the North Atlantic Arc research project.

  4. Synchronous climate changes in antarctica and the north atlantic

    PubMed

    Steig; Brook; White; Sucher; Bender; Lehman; Morse; Waddington; Clow

    1998-10-01

    Central Greenland ice cores provide evidence of abrupt changes in climate over the past 100,000 years. Many of these changes have also been identified in sedimentary and geochemical signatures in deep-sea sediment cores from the North Atlantic, confirming the link between millennial-scale climate variability and ocean thermohaline circulation. It is shown here that two of the most prominent North Atlantic events-the rapid warming that marks the end of the last glacial period and the Bolling/Allerod-Younger Dryas oscillation-are also recorded in an ice core from Taylor Dome, in the western Ross Sea sector of Antarctica. This result contrasts with evidence from ice cores in other regions of Antarctica, which show an asynchronous response between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. PMID:9756484

  5. The arctic mirage and the early north atlantic.

    PubMed

    Sawatzky, H L; Lehn, W H

    1976-06-25

    The arctic mirage is a phenomenon that is common in higher latitudes. It occurs under conditions of pronounced temperature inversion, which impart to the air a refractive capability that may equal or exceed the curvature of the earth. Manifestations of the arctic mirage, though largely forgotten in modern times, are described in the earliest accounts of North Atlantic discovery. This interdisciplinary investigation, combining historical induction with scientific observation and analysis, has suggested a new interpretation of historical events. We believe that information gleaned from these mirages was vital to Norse navigation and exploration in the North Atlantic. We further contend that the mirage may furnish a logical basis for the pervasive ancient and medieval concept of the flat or saucer-shaped world. PMID:17739820

  6. North Atlantic warming and the retreat of Greenland's outlet glaciers.

    PubMed

    Straneo, Fiammetta; Heimbach, Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet quadrupled over the past two decades, contributing a quarter of the observed global sea-level rise. Increased submarine melting is thought to have triggered the retreat of Greenland's outlet glaciers, which is partly responsible for the ice loss. However, the chain of events and physical processes remain elusive. Recent evidence suggests that an anomalous inflow of subtropical waters driven by atmospheric changes, multidecadal natural ocean variability and a long-term increase in the North Atlantic's upper ocean heat content since the 1950s all contributed to a warming of the subpolar North Atlantic. This led, in conjunction with increased runoff, to enhanced submarine glacier melting. Future climate projections raise the potential for continued increases in warming and ice-mass loss, with implications for sea level and climate. PMID:24305146

  7. Spin-Down of the North Atlantic Subpolar Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, S.; Rhines, P. B.

    2004-01-01

    Dramatic changes have occurred in the mid-to-high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean as evidenced by TOPEX/Poseidon observations of sea surface height (SSH) in the subpolar gyre and the Gulf Stream. Analysis of altimeter data shows that subpolar SSH has increased during the 1990s and the geostrophic velocity derived from altimeter data shows a decline in the gyre circulation. Direct current-meter observations in the boundary current of the Labrador Sea support the trend in the 199Os, and, together with hydrographic data show that in the mid-late 1990s the trend extends deep in the water column. We find that buoyancy forcing over the northern North Atlantic has a dynamic effect consistent with the altimeter data and hydrographic observations: a weak thermohaline forcing and the subsequent decay of the domed structure of the subpolar isopycnals would give rise to the observed anticyclonic circulation trend.

  8. Squid as nutrient vectors linking Southwest Atlantic marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, Alexander I.

    2013-10-01

    Long-term investigations of three abundant nektonic squid species from the Southwest Atlantic, Illex argentinus, Doryteuthis gahi and Onykia ingens, permitted to estimate important population parameters including individual growth rates, duration of ontogenetic phases and mortalities. Using production model, the productivity of squid populations at different phases of their life cycle was assessed and the amount of biomass they convey between marine ecosystems as a result of their ontogenetic migrations was quantified. It was found that squid are major nutrient vectors and play a key role as transient 'biological pumps' linking spatially distinct marine ecosystems. I. argentinus has the largest impact in all three ecosystems it encounters due to its high abundance and productivity. The variable nature of squid populations increases the vulnerability of these biological conveyers to overfishing and environmental change. Failure of these critical biological pathways may induce irreversible long-term consequences for biodiversity, resource abundance and spatial availability in the world ocean.

  9. Subsurface North Atlantic warming as a trigger of rapid cooling events: evidence from the early Pleistocene (MIS 31-19)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Almeida, I.; Sierro, F.-J.; Cacho, I.; Flores, J.-A.

    2015-04-01

    Subsurface water column dynamics in the subpolar North Atlantic were reconstructed in order to improve the understanding of the cause of abrupt ice-rafted detritus (IRD) events during cold periods of the early Pleistocene. We used paired Mg / Ca and δ18O measurements of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral - sin.), deep-dwelling planktonic foraminifera, to estimate the subsurface temperatures and seawater δ18O from a sediment core from Gardar Drift, in the subpolar North Atlantic. Carbon isotopes of benthic and planktonic foraminifera from the same site provide information about the ventilation and water column nutrient gradient. Mg / Ca-based temperatures and seawater δ18O suggest increased subsurface temperatures and salinities during ice-rafting, likely due to northward subsurface transport of subtropical waters during periods of weaker Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Planktonic carbon isotopes support this suggestion, showing coincident increased subsurface ventilation during deposition of IRD. Subsurface accumulation of warm waters would have resulted in basal warming and break-up of ice-shelves, leading to massive iceberg discharges in the North Atlantic. The release of heat stored at the subsurface to the atmosphere would have helped to restart the AMOC. This mechanism is in agreement with modelling and proxy studies that observe a subsurface warming in the North Atlantic in response to AMOC slowdown during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3.

  10. Water mass pathways to the North Atlantic oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Izquierdo, Jesús; van Sebille, Erik; Pelegrí, Josep L.; Sprintall, Janet; Mason, Evan; Llanillo, Pedro J.; Machín, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    The water mass pathways to the North Atlantic Oxygen Minimum Zone (naOMZ) are traditionally sketched within the cyclonic tropical circulation via the poleward branching from the eastward flowing jets that lie south of 10°N. However, our water mass analysis of historic hydrographic observations together with numerical Lagrangian experiments consistently reveal that the potential density level of σθ = 26.8 kg m-3 (σ26.8, approximately 300 m depth) separates two distinct regimes of circulation within the Central Water (CW) stratum of the naOMZ. In the upper CW (above σ26.8), and in agreement with previous studies, the supply of water mainly comes from the south with a predominant contribution of South Atlantic CW. In the lower CW (below σ26.8), where minimal oxygen content is found, the tropical pathway is instead drastically weakened in favor of a subtropical pathway. More than two thirds of the total water supply to this lower layer takes place north of 10°N, mainly via an eastward flow at 14°N and northern recirculations from the northern subtropical gyre. The existence of these northern jets explains the greater contribution of North Atlantic CW observed in the lower CW, making up to 50% of the water mass at the naOMZ core. The equatorward transfer of mass from the well-ventilated northern subtropical gyre emerges as an essential part of the ventilation of the naOMZ.

  11. Estimating the economic loss of recent North Atlantic fisheries management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Gorka; Barange, Manuel; Fernandes, Jose A.; Mullon, Christian; Cheung, William; Trenkel, Verena; Lam, Vicky

    2014-12-01

    It is accepted that world's fisheries are not generally exploited at their biological or their economic optimum. Most fisheries assessments focus on the biological capacity of fish stocks to respond to harvesting and few have attempted to estimate the economic efficiency at which ecosystems are exploited. The latter is important as fisheries contribute considerably to the economic development of many coastal communities. Here we estimate the overall potential economic rent for the fishing industry in the North Atlantic to be B€ 12.85, compared to current estimated profits of B€ 0.63. The difference between the potential and the net profits obtained from North Atlantic fisheries is therefore B€ 12.22. In order to increase the profits of North Atlantic fisheries to a maximum, total fish biomass would have to be rebuilt to 108 Mt (2.4 times more than present) by reducing current total fishing effort by 53%. Stochastic simulations were undertaken to estimate the uncertainty associated with the aggregate bioeconomic model that we use and we estimate the economic loss NA fisheries in a range of 2.5 and 32 billion of euro. We provide economic justification for maintaining or restoring fish stocks to above their MSY biomass levels. Our conclusions are consistent with similar global scale studies.

  12. Estimating mixed layer nitrate in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhoff, T.; Friedrich, T.; Hartman, S. E.; Oschlies, A.; Wallace, D. W. R.; Körtzinger, A.

    2009-09-01

    Here we present an equation for the estimation of nitrate in surface waters of the North Atlantic Ocean (40° N to 52° N, 10° W to 60° W). The equation was derived by multiple linear regression (MLR) from nitrate, sea surface temperature (SST) observational data and model mixed layer depth (MLD) data. The observational data were taken from merchant vessels that have crossed the North Atlantic on a regular basis in 2002/2003 and from 2005 to present. It is important to find a robust and realistic esitmate of MLD because the deepening of the mixed layer is crucial for nitrate supply to the surface. We compared model data from two models (FOAM and Mercator) with MLD derived from float data (using various criteria). The Mercator model gives a MLD estimate that is close to the MLD derived from floats. MLR was established using SST, MLD from Mercator, time and latitude as predictors. Additionally a neural network was trained with the same dataset and the results were validated against both model data as a "ground truth" and an independent observational dataset. This validation produced RMS errors of the same order for MLR and the neural network approach. We conclude that it is possible to estimate nitrate concentrations with an uncertainty of ±1.5 μmol L-1 in the North Atlantic.

  13. Estimating mixed layer nitrate in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhoff, T.; Friedrich, T.; Hartman, S. E.; Oschlies, A.; Wallace, D. W. R.; Körtzinger, A.

    2010-03-01

    Here we present an equation for the estimation of nitrate in surface waters of the North Atlantic Ocean (40° N to 52° N, 10° W to 60° W). The equation was derived by multiple linear regression (MLR) from nitrate, sea surface temperature (SST) observational data and model mixed layer depth (MLD) data. The observational data were taken from merchant vessels that have crossed the North Atlantic on a regular basis in 2002/2003 and from 2005 to the present. It is important to find a robust and realistic estimate of MLD because the deepening of the mixed layer is crucial for nitrate supply to the surface. We compared model data from two models (FOAM and Mercator) with MLD derived from float data (using various criteria). The Mercator model gives a MLD estimate that is close to the MLD derived from floats. MLR was established using SST, MLD from Mercator, time and latitude as predictors. Additionally a neural network was trained with the same dataset and the results were validated against both model data as a "ground truth" and an independent observational dataset. This validation produced RMS errors of the same order for MLR and the neural network approach. We conclude that it is possible to estimate nitrate concentrations with an uncertainty of ±1.4 μmol L-1 in the North Atlantic.

  14. Observed acidification trends in North Atlantic water masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Rodríguez, M.; Pérez, F. F.; Velo, A.; Ríos, A. F.; Mercier, H.

    2012-12-01

    The lack of observational pH data has made it difficult to assess recent rates of ocean acidification, particularly in the high latitudes. Here we present a time series that spans over 27 yr (1981-2008) of high-quality carbon system measurements in the North Atlantic, which comprises fourteen cruises and covers the important water mass formation areas of the Irminger and Iceland Basins. We provide direct quantification of acidification rates in upper and intermediate North Atlantic waters. The highest rates were associated with surface waters and with Labrador Sea Water (LSW). The Subarctic Intermediate and Subpolar Mode Waters (SAIW and SPMW) showed acidification rates of -0.0019 ± 0.0001 and -0.0012 ± 0.0002 yr-1, respectively. The deep convection activity in the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre injects surface waters loaded with anthropogenic CO2 into lower layers, provoking the remarkable acidification rate observed for LSW in the Iceland Basin (-0.0016 ± 0.0002 yr-1). An extrapolation of the observed linear acidification trends suggests that the pH of LSW could drop 0.45 units with respect to pre-industrial levels by the time atmospheric CO2 concentrations reach ~775 ppm. Under circulation conditions and evolution of CO2 emission rates similar to those of the last three decades, by the time atmospheric CO2 reaches 550 ppm, an aragonite undersaturation state could be reached in the cLSW of the Iceland Basin, earlier than surface SPMW.

  15. Clay mineralogy of Lower Cretaceous deep-sea fan sediments, western North Atlantic basin

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, M.A.

    1986-05-01

    The Lower Cretaceous of the eastern North American continent was a time of extensive deltaic progradation. The effects of deltaic deposition on sedimentation in the western North Atlantic were unknown until May 1982, when, at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 603 off Cape Hatteras, over 260 m of micaceous, muddy turbidites were recovered that correlate with deltaic progradation on eastern North America. The results of clay mineral studies from onshore and offshore equivalents indicate that during the Cretaceous, some sorting of clay minerals by transport processes occurred. Kaolinite tends to accumulate in continental environments, illite in transitional to marine environments, and smectite in deep sea sediments as pelagic clay. In the sediments from the western North Atlantic, illite tended to be more abundant in thick bedded sandy muds, whereas kaolinite tended to be more abundant in thin bedded muddy sands. Although the occurrence of illite and kaolinite in pelagic sediments indicates a general increased terrigenous influence, the results of this study indicate that these two clays behave independently in these sediments. The presence of large amounts of kaolinite at certain levels in these sediments corresponds to phases of maximum deep-sea fan development, and so indicates a more direct input of continental material, with less sorting of sediments by continental and shelf processes (pericontinental fractionation) prior to redeposition.

  16. Mapping the Origins of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, N.; Logendran, V.; Evans, D. G.; Peters, A.; Nelson, N. B.

    2010-12-01

    The chromophoric or "light-absorbing" fraction of dissolved organic matter plays a significant role in the regulation of the underwater light field. In the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, it's origins vary, and include contributions from both terrestrial and marine sources. Furthermore, within the fraction of marine-origin CDOM, there are distinctions between that of local origin and that coming from other regions via transport through water masses or through atmospheric deposition. As the optical and chemical properties of CDOM depend largely on its source, an analysis of its origins could lead to a better understanding of processes in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. For this analysis, we have used absorption data from CDOM measurements collected repeatedly for a number of years at the BATS site in the Sargasso Sea. Samples have been collected at the same series of depths ranging from surface waters to 4200 meters. The samples were analyzed using a dual beam spectrophotometer to obtain absorption spectra. The slope parameter, S, provides more in depth information about the source of CDOM than does the absorption spectra alone, and thus we have used it as well as the slope ratio, Sr, for differentiating between different types of CDOM. Slope ratios were obtained by selecting portions of the spectral slope at wavelength ranges, which have been found to be indicative of CDOM originating from a particular source. For example, it can be used to distinguish marine CDOM formed locally in the Sargasso Sea from that which has been formed further north in the Atlantic and then subducted and transported to the Sargasso. There are various other methods for ascertaining the sources of CDOM, and the most comprehensive model for CDOM in the North Atlantic is likely obtained using a combination of all of them. Excitation-emission matrix spectra (EEMS) have been performed on samples from the same site in the Sargasso Sea to corroborate findings from the S and Sr analyses

  17. Developing an acoustic method for reducing North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) ship strike mortality along the United States eastern seaboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, Kaitlyn Allen

    strike mortality within United States waters. I recommend that future work include additional prototype modifications and testing, application for a marine mammal scientific take authorization permit to test the modified prototype on multiple mysticete species, and continued interfacing of the prototype with evolving United States North Atlantic right whale ship strike reduction policies.

  18. Severe dead-zone eddies in the open North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Zantopp, R.; Wallace, D.; Krahmann, G.; Visbeck, M.; Hahn, J.

    2012-04-01

    Ocean volumes with very low dissolved oxygen, so called "dead-zones", have been observed in many coastal areas of the world ocean. Dead-zones are characterized by a dissolved oxygen content below 2 mg/l (approx. 60 µmol/kg) and making them inhabitable for many marine organisms. Here we report on severe dead-zones in the open North Atlantic, several hundreds of kilometres away from the coast, where so far concentrations below about 40 µmol/L have not been reported. The severe dead-zones are contained within mesoscale eddies that originate from the West African upwelling region and propagate slowly (100km per month) westward. Local dynamics isolate the dead-zone eddy from surrounding waters and create, within the rather well oxygenated North Atlantic, a biogeochemical realm comparable to the major oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Pacific and Indian Ocean. Below a well oxygenated upper mixed-layer of some 20 to 50m depth follows a drastic drop in oxygen, which is the actual dead-zone. In one the most dramatic case of a North Atlantic dead-zone eddy, the oxygen content right below the mixed layer (50m depth) was approximately 0 µmol/kg, while the 60µmol/kg dead-zone threshold was reached at about 200m depth, resulting in a dead-zone 150m deep. It was found that mobile marine organisms are unable to follow their diurnal vertical migration and are trapped in the mixed layer, above the dead-zone, instead. Our data suggest that most severe low-oxygen ocean conditions (~0 µmol/L) are created just below the surface mixed layer in anti-cyclonic Mode Water type eddies, but still significant (~15 µmol/L) concentrations were observed in a cyclonic eddy.

  19. Projected pH reductions by 2100 might put deep North Atlantic biodiversity at risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehlen, M.; Séférian, R.; Jones, D. O. B.; Roy, T.; Roth, R.; Barry, J.; Bopp, L.; Doney, S. C.; Dunne, J. P.; Heinze, C.; Joos, F.; Orr, J. C.; Resplandy, L.; Segschneider, J.; Tjiputra, J.

    2014-06-01

    This study aims at evaluating the potential for impacts of ocean acidification on North Atlantic deep-sea ecosystems in response to IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP). Deep-sea biota is likely highly vulnerable to changes in seawater chemistry and sensitive to moderate excursions in pH. Here we show, from seven fully-coupled Earth system models, that for three out of four RCPs over 17% of the seafloor area below 500 m depth in the North Atlantic sector will experience pH reductions exceeding -0.2 units by 2100. Increased stratification in response to climate change partially alleviates the impact of ocean acidification on deep benthic environment. We report major potential consequences of pH reductions for deep-sea biodiversity hotspots, such as seamounts and canyons. By 2100 and under the high CO2 scenario RCP8.5 pH reductions exceeding -0.2, (respectively -0.3) units are projected in close to 23% (~ 15%) of North Atlantic deep-sea canyons and ~ 8% (3%) of seamounts - including seamounts proposed as sites of marine protected areas. The spatial pattern of impacts reflects the depth of the pH perturbation and does not scale linearly with atmospheric CO2 concentration. Impacts may cause negative changes of the same magnitude or exceeding the current target of 10% of preservation of marine biomes set by the convention on biological diversity implying that ocean acidification may offset benefits from conservation/management strategies relying on the regulation of resource exploitation.

  20. Human Activities on the Deep Seafloor in the North East Atlantic: An Assessment of Spatial Extent

    PubMed Central

    Benn, Angela R.; Weaver, Philip P.; Billet, David S. M.; van den Hove, Sybille; Murdock, Andrew P.; Doneghan, Gemma B.; Le Bas, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background Environmental impacts of human activities on the deep seafloor are of increasing concern. While activities within waters shallower than 200 m have been the focus of previous assessments of anthropogenic impacts, no study has quantified the extent of individual activities or determined the relative severity of each type of impact in the deep sea. Methodology The OSPAR maritime area of the North East Atlantic was chosen for the study because it is considered to be one of the most heavily impacted by human activities. In addition, it was assumed data would be accessible and comprehensive. Using the available data we map and estimate the spatial extent of five major human activities in the North East Atlantic that impact the deep seafloor: submarine communication cables, marine scientific research, oil and gas industry, bottom trawling and the historical dumping of radioactive waste, munitions and chemical weapons. It was not possible to map military activities. The extent of each activity has been quantified for a single year, 2005. Principal Findings Human activities on the deep seafloor of the OSPAR area of the North Atlantic are significant but their footprints vary. Some activities have an immediate impact after which seafloor communities could re-establish, while others can continue to make an impact for many years and the impact could extend far beyond the physical disturbance. The spatial extent of waste disposal, telecommunication cables, the hydrocarbon industry and marine research activities is relatively small. The extent of bottom trawling is very significant and, even on the lowest possible estimates, is an order of magnitude greater than the total extent of all the other activities. Conclusions/Significance To meet future ecosystem-based management and governance objectives for the deep sea significant improvements are required in data collection and availability as well as a greater awareness of the relative impact of each human activity

  1. Origin and fate of the North Atlantic Current at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breckenfelder, Tilia; Myers, Paul G.; Rhein, Monika; Pennelly, Clark; Hu, Xianmin

    2016-04-01

    Warm, salty tropical and subtropical water is brought into the subpolar gyre by the North Atlantic Current (NAC). The NAC is the northward extension of the Gulf Stream and is part of the upper branch of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The warm, salty water is further transported into the Nordic Seas via the Rockall Trough, into the Denmark Strait and, finally into the Labrador Sea, where it plays an important role in the deep water formation process. On its way into the Labrador Sea the water mass increases its density by dissipating heat to the atmosphere and thereby influencing the local climate. To further understand the processes behind warm water transport towards higher latitudes, we start our investigation at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Here, the NAC flows from the western to eastern basin of the North Atlantic and crosses the MAR via the Charlie-Gibbs, Faraday and Maxwell Fracture Zones. The role of the subpolar and subtropical gyre on the different water masses, and their properties, originating or reaching the MAR is studied using the lagrangian tool ARIANE with the 3D velocity fields taken from a 1/12° AGRIF nest set in a regional NEMO configuration. One result of this investigation is that the majority of particles released at the MAR, distributed over the entire water column, recirculate. Most of the remaining particles make their way into the East Greenland Current or turn in the eastern basin towards the south. The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is investigated by studying the pathways of the NAC and their properties during different NAO phases.

  2. Polychaete abundance, biomass and diversity patterns at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Mark A.; Blanco-Perez, Raimundo

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) in the North Atlantic Ocean accounts for a large proportion of available bathyal soft-sediment habitat. When comparing the MAR to the continental margins of the North Atlantic, it is apparent that very little is known about the soft-sediment macrofaunal community associated with the MAR. In the present study, as part of the ECOMAR (Ecosystems of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the Sub-Polar Front and Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone) project, the polychaete component of the MAR macrofaunal community was investigated. A total of 751 polychaete specimens and 133 species were identified from megacorer samples collected at four MAR sites (48-54°N, depth: 2500-2800 m) sampled during the RRS James Cook 48 cruise in the summer of 2010. Polychaetes were the most abundant member of the macrofaunal community, and there was no significant difference in polychaete abundance, biomass and diversity between any of the MAR sites. In addition, the MAR did not appear to provide a physical barrier to the distribution of bathyal polychaetes either side of the ridge.

  3. Pb isotopes in surficial pelagic sediments from the North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamelin, B.; Grousset, F.; Sholkovitz, E. R.

    1990-01-01

    The concentration of Pb and its isotopic composition were measured in samples from the surface of sea-water sediments obtained from the northeastern Atlantic, the Sargasso Sea, and the U.S. continental shelf, with the purpose of investigating changes in Pb sources due to the anthropogenic perturbation that took place in modern times. It was found that the anthropogenic Pb input to marine sediments due to the increase of Pb contamination over the ocean during the last century could be identified in all these samples. However, samples from eastern and western Atlantic had very different Pb isotopic profiles, each reflecting the character of anthropogenic Pb emissions from the European and U.S. industries, respectively.

  4. Unstable Air-Sea Interaction in the Extratropical North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of coupled modes in the extratropical North Atlantic has fascinated the climate community since 1960's. A significant aspect of such modes is an unstable air-sea interaction, also called positive feedback, where disturbances between the atmosphere and ocean grow unbound. If a delayed response exists before the negative feedback takes effect, an oscillatory behaviour will develop. Here we explore the relationship between heat flux (positive upward) and sea surface temperature (SST). Positive feedback is characterized by a cross-correlation between the two where correlation maintains a negative sign whether SST or heat flux leads. We use model results and observations to argue that in the North Atlantic there exist regions with positive feedback. The two main locations coincide with the well-known north-south SST dipole where anomalies of opposite sign occupy areas east of Florida and north-east of Newfoundland. We show that oceanic dynamics, wave propagation and advection, give rise to oceanic anomalies in these regions. Subsequently these anomalies are amplified by atmosphere- ocean interaction: thus a positive feedback.

  5. Variability of the directly observed, middepth subpolar North Atlantic circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palter, Jaime B.; Caron, Charles-André; Law, Kara Lavender; Willis, Joshua K.; Trossman, David S.; Yashayaev, Igor M.; Gilbert, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Satellite views of the ocean have suggested a decline of the subpolar North Atlantic surface circulation during the 1990s and 2000s. This was a period of unprecedented observational capacity in the basin, thanks to the presence of many hundreds of profiling floats. We use more than 40,000 subsurface displacements of these floats to characterize the circulation at 1000 m depth, and its evolution from 1997-2013. We show a statistically significant slowdown in the Labrador Sea boundary currents of -0.8 cm s-1 per decade (95% confidence interval of -1.4 to -0.15 cm s—1 per decade, a conservative estimate of the uncertainty). Otherwise, the middepth circulation field was largely stable. Our analysis of the location where the North Atlantic Current crosses the Mid-Atlantic Ridge shows that profiling floats can reveal steering by bathymetric features, but do not reveal of decadal variability in the position where the current crosses the ridge.

  6. Overview of the 1988 GCE/CASE/WATOX Studies of biogeochemical cycles in the North Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pszenny, Alexander A. P.; Galloway, James N.; Artz, Richard S.; Boatman, Joseph F.

    1990-06-01

    The 1988 Global Change Expedition/Coordinated Air-Sea Experiment/Western Atlantic Ocean Experiment (GCE/CASE/WATOX) was a multifaceted research program designed to study atmospheric and oceanic processes affecting the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and trace metals in the North Atlantic Ocean region. Field work included (1) a 49-day research cruise aboard NOAA ship Mt. Mitchell (Global Change Expedition) from Norfolk, Virginia, to Bermuda, Iceland, the Azores, and Barbados, (2) eight flights of the NOAA King Air research aircraft, four off the Virginia Capes and four near Bermuda (CASE/WATOX), and (3) a research cruise aboard the yacht Fleurtie near Bermuda (WATOX). Objectives of GCE/CASE/WATOX were (1) to examine processes controlling the mesoscale distributions of productivity, chlorophyll, and phytoplankton growth rates in Atlantic surface waters, (2) to identify factors controlling the distribution of ozone in the North Atlantic marine boundary layer, and (3) to estimate the contributions of sources on surrounding continents to the biogeochemical cycles of sulfur, nitrogen, and trace metals over the North Atlantic region during the boreal summer season. The individual papers in this and the next two issues of Global Biogeochemical Cycles provide details on the results and analyses of the individual measurement efforts. This paper provides a brief overview of GCE/CASE/WATOX.

  7. European warming linked to Greenland melting during the Last Interglacial North Atlantic climate optimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Goni, M.; Michel, E.; Desprat, S.; Carlson, A. E.; Naughton, F.; Fletcher, W. J.; Rossignol, L.

    2010-12-01

    Recent models and data synthesis suggest that the Last Interglacial North Atlantic warm optimum, ~130 ±2 ka, corresponded with a sea level stand of 4-9 m higher than that of the present-day implying that a substantial part of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) melted at that time. This makes this interglacial a good analogue for understanding the impact of the ongoing global warming and GIS melting on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and adjacent landmasses. Here we provide new insights on the impact of insolation and AMOC changes on western European ecosystems and climate and their regional transmission during an episode of GIS melting that can be considered somehow similar to that predicted for 2100 C.E. from IPCC projections. We have revisited three pollen-rich western European margin sequences distributed from 37 to 45°N, MD04-2845, MD95-2042 and MD99-2331, which span all of MIS 5 and are directly affected by the descending branch of the North Atlantic Drift. The analysis of these sequences allows us to directly correlate marine tracers of AMOC variability and changes in ice volume, sea surface temperature (SST), iceberg discharges and pollen-derived European vegetation and climate. The comparison of these observations with those inferred from other locations in the North Atlantic region directly affected by the AMOC and records from the Eirik Drift off southern Greenland document the response of North Atlantic climate to GIS melting during the Last Interglacial. Large and rapid increase in the Western European forest cover and mid-latitude North Atlantic SST at the beginning of MIS 5e benthic isotopic plateau following the YD-like event coincide with strong GIS melting. Despite continued GIS melting during this interval, AMOC strength gradually increases. The dramatic expansion of western European forest could be the result of both AMOC and insolation increase. Subsequently sustained warm SSTs and strong AMOC do not preclude the long term

  8. Rapid subtropical North Atlantic salinity oscillations across Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Matthew W; Vautravers, Maryline J; Spero, Howard J

    2006-10-01

    Geochemical and sedimentological evidence suggest that the rapid climate warming oscillations of the last ice age, the Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles, were coupled to fluctuations in North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation through its regulation of poleward heat flux. The balance between cold meltwater from the north and warm, salty subtropical gyre waters from the south influenced the strength and location of North Atlantic overturning circulation during this period of highly variable climate. Here we investigate how rapid reorganizations of the ocean-atmosphere system across these cycles are linked to salinity changes in the subtropical North Atlantic gyre. We combine Mg/Ca palaeothermometry and oxygen isotope ratio measurements on planktonic foraminifera across four Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles (spanning 45.9-59.2 kyr ago) to generate a seawater salinity proxy record from a subtropical gyre deep-sea sediment core. We show that North Atlantic gyre surface salinities oscillated rapidly between saltier stadial conditions and fresher interstadials, covarying with inferred shifts in the Tropical Atlantic hydrologic cycle and North Atlantic overturning circulation. These salinity oscillations suggest a reduction in precipitation into the North Atlantic and/or reduced export of deep salty thermohaline waters during stadials. We hypothesize that increased stadial salinities preconditioned the North Atlantic Ocean for a rapid return to deep overturning circulation and high-latitude warming by contributing to increased North Atlantic surface-water density on interstadial transitions. PMID:17024090

  9. Cod Collapse and the Climate in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, K. C.; Oremus, K. L.; Gaines, S.

    2014-12-01

    Effective fisheries management requires forecasting population changes. We find a negative relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and subsequently surveyed biomass and catch of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, off the New England coast. A 1-unit NAO increase is associated with a 17% decrease in surveyed biomass of age-1 cod the following year. This relationship persists as the cod mature, such that observed NAO can be used to forecast future adult biomass. We also document that an NAO event lowers catch for up to 15 years afterward. In contrast to forecasts by existing stock assessment models, our NAO-driven statistical model successfully hindcasts the recent collapse of New England cod fisheries following strong NAO events in 2007 and 2008 (see figure). This finding can serve as a template for forecasting other fisheries affected by climatic conditions.

  10. Parasites as biological tags in marine fisheries research: European Atlantic waters.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, K; Hemmingsen, W

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the use of parasites as biological tags for stock identification and to follow migrations of marine fish, mammals and invertebrates in European Atlantic waters are critically reviewed and evaluated. The region covered includes the North, Baltic, Barents and White Seas plus Icelandic waters, but excludes the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Each fish species or ecological group of species is treated separately. More parasite tag studies have been carried out on Atlantic herring Clupea harengus than on any other species, while cod Gadus morhua have also been the subject of many studies. Other species that have been the subjects of more than one study are: blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, whiting Merlangius merlangus, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Norway pout Trisopterus esmarkii, horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus and mackerel Scomber scombrus. Other species are dealt with under the general headings redfishes, flatfish, tunas, anadromous fish, elasmobranchs, marine mammals and invertebrates. A final section highlights how parasites can be, and have been, misused as biological tags, and how this can be avoided. It also reviews recent developments in methodology and parasite genetics, considers the potential effects of climate change on the distributions of both hosts and parasites, and suggests host-parasite systems that should reward further research. PMID:24722002

  11. Synoptic Scale North American Weather Tracks and the Formation of North Atlantic Windstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, A. J.; Godek, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Each winter, dozens of fatalities occur when intense North Atlantic windstorms impact Western Europe. Forecasting the tracks of these storms in the short term is often problematic, but long term forecasts provide an even greater challenge. Improved prediction necessitates the ability to identify these low pressure areas at formation and understand commonalities that distinguish these storms from other systems crossing the Atlantic, such as where they develop. There is some evidence that indicates the majority of intense windstorms that reach Europe have origins far west, as low pressure systems that develop over the North American continent. This project aims to identify the specific cyclogenesis regions in North America that produce a significantly greater number of dangerous storms. NOAA Ocean Prediction Center surface pressure reanalysis maps are used to examine the tracks of storms. Strong windstorms are characterized by those with a central pressure of less than 965 hPa at any point in their life cycle. Tracks are recorded using a coding system based on source region, storm track and dissipation region. The codes are analyzed to determine which region contains the most statistical significance with respect to strong Atlantic windstorm generation. The resultant set of codes also serves as a climatology of North Atlantic extratropical cyclones. Results indicate that a number of windstorms favor cyclogenesis regions off the east coast of the United States. A large number of strong storms that encounter east coast cyclogenesis zones originate in the central mountain region, around Colorado. These storms follow a path that exits North America around New England and subsequently travel along the Canadian coast. Some of these are then primed to become "bombs" over the open Atlantic Ocean.

  12. Biogeochemical cycling of cadmium isotopes along a high-resolution section through the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Tim M.; John, Seth G.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a bioactive trace element in the oceans, with a nutrient-like distribution that closely matches dissolved phosphate. Seawater-dissolved stable Cd isotope ratios (δ114Cd) are a relatively new parameter, which show much promise for furthering our understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of Cd in the oceans. Here we present a high-resolution paired section of dissolved Cd concentrations and dissolved δ114Cd from 21 open-ocean stations along the US GEOTRACES GA03 transect through the North Atlantic Ocean. Dissolved Cd concentrations along the section are strongly influenced by water-mass distribution and the cycling of Cd. The highest dissolved Cd concentrations (400-540 pmol kg-1) are associated with Antarctic-sourced water masses, whilst biological uptake in the surface ocean results in a strong vertical gradient in dissolved Cd towards the surface, reaching as low as 0.03 pmol kg-1 in western surface waters. Dissolved δ114Cd is also characterized by a vertical gradient from ∼+0.2‰ in the deep ocean to +2‰ to +5‰ in the Cd-depleted surface ocean (relative to NIST SRM 3108). This variability in δ114Cd can be ascribed to mixing of Antarctic and North Atlantic water masses, together with fractionation due to in situ biological uptake of light Cd in the very surface ocean. Subtle deviations from this overall pattern of dissolved Cd concentration and dissolved δ114Cd are observed within low-oxygen waters off North Africa, where a dissolved Cd deficit relative to phosphate is associated with higher dissolved δ114Cd values. Together with elevated particulate Cd and Ba, this suggests that Cd sulfide precipitation is occurring within the water column of the North Atlantic, constituting a potentially important sink for isotopically light Cd. Additionally, the first measurements of dissolved δ114Cd within a hydrothermal plume at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge show that Cd is scavenged from the dissolved phase, leaving the remnant dissolved Cd

  13. North Atlantic Oscillation Dynamics Recorded in Central Norwegian Fjord Sediments During the Past 2800 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, J.; Knies, J.; Fabian, K.; Giraudeau, J.

    2014-12-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the leading mode of atmospheric circulation variability in the North Atlantic region. Long-term NAO reconstructions are crucial to better understand NAO variability in its response to climate forcing factors, and assess predictability and possible shifts associated with ongoing global warming. However, existing records are rare and often inconsistent (Pinto and Raible, 2012). Fjord deposits have a great potential for providing high-resolution sedimentary records that reflect local terrestrial and marine processes and, therefore, offer unique opportunities for the investigation of sedimentological and geochemical climatically induced processes. Recently, Faust et al. (2014) provided a comprehensive overview of the Trondheimsfjord environmental system by applying a geochemical multiproxy analysis on surface sediment samples and compared his findings with available geochemical data from the fjords drainage area. Here we use the gained knowledge to establish the first high resolution NAO proxy record from marine sediments. By comparing geochemical measurements from a short sediment core with instrumental data we show that marine primary productivity proxies are sensitive to NAO changes during the past 50 years. This result is used to link a 2,800 years paleoproductivity record to a 500-year long winter NAO reconstruction based on early instrumental and documentary proxy data. We find that NAO variabilities coincide with climatically associated paleo-demographic trends and persistent positive/negative NAO phases are in accordance with cooler/warmer climate periods, such as Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age. Moreover, negative NAO phases coincide with northern hemisphere glacier advances and rapid phase transitions related to large volcanic eruptions indicate the existence of internal atmospheric thresholds and instabilities in the atmospheric circulation pattern. Faust J.C., Knies J., Slagstad T., Vogt C., Milzer G. and

  14. Massive icebergs & freshening of the subtropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. C.; Condron, A.

    2013-12-01

    New evidence from high-resolution seafloor bathymetry and a state-of-the-art numerical ocean circulation model shows that a significant amount of iceberg-laden meltwater flowed south from northern hemisphere ice sheets in a narrow coastal boundary current along the U.S. Atlantic margin, to the southern tip of Florida, following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). It is commonly assumed that meltwater would freshen the subpolar North Atlantic (50° - 70°N), but have little or no penetration to subtropical latitudes, south of 40°N. Using a combination of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data and a state-of-the-art, high-resolution numerical ocean model, we are able to trace the pathway of icebergs and meltwater released from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) along the southern U.S. Atlantic margin. The bathymetry data show numerous well-defined relict iceberg scours from Cape Hatteras to the southern tip of Florida (~24.5°N) in water depths of 170 - 380 m, and are traceable for more than 30 km along the margin, suggesting that icebergs up to 300m thick reached these subtropical locations. The scour marks are oriented SSW along regional bathymetric contours and decrease in size and abundance moving south along the margin, concordant with increased iceberg melt as the distance from the ice calving margin increased. Our numerical model simulations confirm that iceberg laden meltwater can penetrate into the subtropical North Atlantic by flowing south, inshore of the Gulf Stream, as a narrow coastal boundary current that can significantly freshen this region and reduce the northward heat transport of the Gulf Stream. This evidence suggests a stronger influence of cold meltwater in the southern latitudes than previously recognized and highlights a distinct shift in paleocirculation patterns, including major adjustments in the Gulf Stream, since the LGM. Our findings strongly indicate that the freshening of the subtropical North Atlantic by icebergs and meltwater played an

  15. Mercury in the North Atlantic Ocean: The U.S. GEOTRACES zonal and meridional sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Katlin L.; Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Lamborg, Carl H.; Swarr, Gretchen

    2015-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) in the ocean undergoes many chemical transformations, including in situ production of monomethylmercury (MMHg), the form that biomagnifies in marine food webs. Because the ocean is a primary and dynamic reservoir of Hg cycling at earth's surface and the principal source of human MMHg exposures through seafood, it is important to understand the distribution of Hg and its chemical species in marine environments. We examined total Hg, elemental Hg (Hg0), MMHg, and dimethylmercury (DMHg) with fully resolved high-resolution profiles during the U.S. GEOTRACES zonal and meridional sections of the North Atlantic Ocean (GEOTRACES GA03). Total Hg in filtered water had both scavenged- and nutrient-type vertical distributions, whereas concentrations of DMHg, Hg0, and filtered MMHg were increased in the oxygen deficient zone of the permanent thermocline across the basin, relative to water above and often below. Total Hg and MMHg on suspended particles accounted for less than 10% of total concentrations. The TAG hydrothermal vent on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) was a source of total Hg and MMHg to nearby waters with apparent scavenging and Hg transformation occurring in the buoyant plume. Uniquely, we observed significant horizontal segregation of filtered total Hg and MMHg, DMHg, and Hg0 in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) between younger water on the western and older water on the eastern side of the MAR. Relative to eastern NADW, Hg concentrations in western NADW were greater, on average, by 1.14× for filtered total Hg, 1.6× for Hg0, 2.5× for filtered MMHg, and 2.6× for DMHg. Total Hg enrichment in deep water of the western basin may have resulted from downwelling of anthropogenic Hg during NADW formation. Enrichment of MMHg, DMHg, and Hg0 in western basin NADW may be explained by either greater Hg substrate availability or greater methylation and reduction potentials in younger deep waters.

  16. Coupling Between Deglacial Shifts in the Position of the North Atlantic Arctic Front and Precipitation in Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boessenkool, K. P.; Brinkhuis, H.; Visscher, H.

    2001-12-01

    As a response to a northern position of the Arctic Front, the present-day climate of western Europe is strongly moderated by the presence of the Gulf Stream and its extensions. The ocean currents transport warm and saline water of equatorial-Atlantic origin to the northeastern Atlantic seaboard. Prevailing westerly winds carry the warm and moist maritime air from the North Atlantic to the down-wind regions in Europe. Deglacial changes in North Atlantic sea-surface temperature (SST) associated with southward shifts in the position of the Arctic Front (up to ~30\\deg. mainly along the Northeast Atlantic seaboard) have affected the temperature, wind, and precipitation regimes in the North Atlantic borderlands. Effects are long since known to be most prominent in western Europe, and throughout this area considerable advances have been made to specify a variety of proxy records of fluctuations in terrestrial surface temperature. In marked contrast, patterns of deglacial fluctuations in precipitation in western Europe are still poorly investigated, despite their intimate relation to temperature and wind regime. Deglacial precipitation rates are known to be strongly influenced by changes in the North Atlantic SST. Low SSTs and sea-ice cool the maritime air masses, reducing their moisture-bearing capacity. Distinctive episodes of lowered SST, such as the Younger Dryas (YD) stadial, may have caused considerable aridification in large parts of western Europe. Simulation studies with atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs; Renssen et al., 1996) demonstrate strong surface westerlies and connected cyclonic depressions during YD winters in the North Atlantic region. In order to corroborate the concept of an intensified westerly cyclonic activity during the YD and a concomitant increase in wintertime precipitation in southwestern Europe, we studied a succession of deglacial palynological assemblages of a marine sediment core (SO75-6KL) from the western Iberian margin

  17. The JGOFS North Atlantic Bloom Experiment: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ducklow, Hugh W.

    1992-01-01

    The North Atlantic Bloom Experiment (NABE) of JGOFS presents a unique opportunity and challenge to the data management community because of the diversity and large size of biogeochemical data sets collected. NABE was a pilot study for JGOFS and has also served as a pilot study within the U.S. NODC for management and archiving of the data sets. Here I present an overview to some of the scientific results of NABE, which will be published as an Introduction to a special volume of NABE results in Deep-Sea Research later this year. An overview of NABE data management is given elsewhere in the present report. This is the first collection of papers from the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS). Formed as an international program in 1987, JGOFS has four principal elements: modelling and data management, multidisciplinary regional process studies, a global survey of biogeochemical properties and long-term time series observatories. In 1989-1990 JGOFS conducted a pilot process study of the spring phytoplankton bloom, the North Atlantic Bloom Experiment (NABE). JGOFS decided to conduct a large scale, internationally-coordinated pilot study in the North Atlantic because of its proximity to the founding nations of the project, the size and predictability of the bloom and its fundamental impact on ocean bio-geochemistry (Billett et al., 1983; Watson and Whitfield, 1985; Pfannkuche, 1992). In 1989, six research vessels from Canada, Germany, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the USA and over 200 scientists and students from more than a dozen nations participated in NABE. Some of their initial results are reported in this volume.

  18. Modeling Mesoscale Eddies in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Yi

    1999-01-01

    Ocean modeling plays an important role in understanding the current climatic conditions and predicting the future climate change. Modeling the ocean at eddy-permitting and/or eddy resolving resolutions (1/3 degree or higher) has a two-fold objective. One part is to represent the ocean as realistically as possible, because mesoscale eddies have an impact on the large-scale circulation. The second objective is to learn how to represent effects of mesoscale eddies without explicitly resolving them. This is particularly important for climate models which cannot be run at eddy-resolving resolutions because of the computational constraints. At JPL, a 1/6 degree latitude by 1/6 degree longitude with 37 vertical levels Atlantic Ocean model has been developed. The model is based on the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Using the 256-processor Cray T3D, we have conducted a 40-year integration of this Atlantic eddy-resolving ocean model. A regional analysis demonstrate that many observed features associated with the Caribbean Sea eddies can be realistically simulated by this model. Analysis of this Atlantic eddy-resolving ocean model further suggests that these Caribbean Sea eddies are connected with eddies formed outside the Caribbean Sea at the confluence of the North Brazil Current (NBC) and the North Equatorial Countercurrent. The diagram of the model simulated surface current shows that the Caribbean eddies ultimately originate in the NBC retroflection region, traveling more than a year from the North Brazil coast through the Lesser Antilles into the Caribbean Sea and eventually into the Gulf of Mexico. Additional information is contained in the original.

  19. Reversed North Atlantic gyre dynamics in present and glacial climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, Marisa; Born, Andreas; Levermann, Anders

    2011-03-01

    The dynamics of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG) are assessed under present and glacial boundary conditions by investigating the SPG sensitivity to surface wind-stress changes in a coupled climate model. To this end, the gyre transport is decomposed in Ekman, thermohaline, and bottom transports. Surface wind-stress variations are found to play an important indirect role in SPG dynamics through their effect on water-mass densities. Our results suggest the existence of two dynamically distinct regimes of the SPG, depending on the absence or presence of deep water formation (DWF) in the Nordic Seas and a vigorous Greenland-Scotland ridge (GSR) overflow. In the first regime, the GSR overflow is weak and the SPG strength increases with wind-stress as a result of enhanced outcropping of isopycnals in the centre of the SPG. As soon as a vigorous GSR overflow is established, its associated positive density anomalies on the southern GSR slope reduce the SPG strength. This has implications for past glacial abrupt climate changes, insofar as these can be explained through latitudinal shifts in North Atlantic DWF sites and strengthening of the North Atlantic current. Regardless of the ultimate trigger, an abrupt shift of DWF into the Nordic Seas could result both in a drastic reduction of the SPG strength and a sudden reversal in its sensitivity to wind-stress variations. Our results could provide insight into changes in the horizontal ocean circulation during abrupt glacial climate changes, which have been largely neglected up to now in model studies.

  20. Oxygen trends over five decades in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendardo, I.; Gruber, N.

    2012-11-01

    We investigate long-term trends in dissolved oxygen in the North Atlantic from 1960 to 2009 on the basis of a newly assembled high-quality dataset consisting of oxygen data from three different sources: CARINA, GLODAP and the World Ocean Database. Oxygen trends are determined along isopycnal surfaces for eight regions and five water masses using a general least-squares linear regression method that accounts for temporal auto-correlation. Our results show a significant decrease of oxygen in the Upper (UW), Mode (MW) and Intermediate (IW) waters in almost all regions over the last 5 decades. Over the same period, oxygen increased in the Lower Intermediate Water (LIW) and Labrador Sea Water (LSW) throughout the North Atlantic. The observed oxygen decreases in the MW and IW of the northern and eastern regions are largely driven by changes in circulation and/or ventilation, while changes in solubility are the main driver for the oxygen decrease in the UW and the increases in the LIW and LSW. From 1960 until 2009 the UW, MW, and IW horizons have lost a total of -57 ± 34 Tmol, while the LIW and LSW horizons have gained 46 ± 47 Tmol, integrating to a roughly constant oxygen inventory in the North Atlantic. Comparing our oxygen trends with those of the oceanic heat content, we find an O2 to heat change ratio of -3.6 ± 2.8 nmol J-1 for the UW, MW and IW, and a ratio of -2.8 ± 3.4 nmol J-1 for the LIW and LSW. These ratios are substantially larger than those expected from solubility alone.

  1. Surface Salinity Variability in the North Atlantic During Recent Decades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haekkinen, Sirpa

    2001-01-01

    The sea surface salinity (SSS) variability in the North Atlantic is investigated using numerical model simulations for the last 50 years based on atmospheric forcing variability from Comprehensive Atmosphere Ocean Data Set (COADS) and National Center for Environmental Prediction / National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) Reanalysis. The largest interannual and longer term variability occurs in two regions: the Labrador Sea and the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) region. In both regions the seasonality of the surface salinity variability is prominent with the maximum standard deviation occurring in the summer/fall period. In the Labrador Sea the summer SSS anomalies far exceed those of wintertime in amplitude. The interannual SSS variability in the subpolar gyre can be attributed to two factors: excess ice melt and heat flux (i.e. deep mixing) variations. On the other hand, heat flux variability can also lead to meridional overturning changes on decadal time scales such that weak overturning is manifested in fresh surface conditions in the subpolar gyre. The overturning changes also influence the NECC region SSS variability. Moreover, the subpolar freshening events are expected to occur during the negative phase of North Atlantic Oscillation which is associated with a weak wintertime surface heat loss in the subpolar gyre. No excess sea ice melt or precipitation is necessary for the formation of the fresh anomalies, because with the lack of wide-spread deep mixing, the fresh water that would be expected based on climatology, would accumulate at the surface. Thus, the fresh water 'conveyor' in the Atlantic operates via the overturning circulation such that deep mixing inserts fresh water while removing heat from the water column.

  2. North Atlantic sea-level variability during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, Roland; Long, Antony; Saher, Margot; Barlow, Natasha; Blaauw, Maarten; Haigh, Ivan; Woodworth, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Climate modelling studies have demonstrated that spatial and temporal sea-level variability observed in North Atlantic tide-gauge records is controlled by a complex array of processes, including ice-ocean mass exchange, freshwater forcing, steric changes, changes in wind fields, and variations in the speed of the Gulf Stream. Longer records of sea-level change, also covering the pre-industrial period, are important as a 'natural' and long-term baseline against which to test model performance and to place recent and future sea-level changes and ice-sheet change into a long-term context. Such records can only be reliably and continuously reconstructed from proxy methods. Salt marshes are capable of recording decimetre-scale sea-level variations with high precision and accuracy. In this paper we present four new high-resolution proxy records of (sub-) decadal sea-level variability reconstructed from salt-marsh sediments in Iceland, Nova Scotia, Maine and Connecticut that span the past 400 to 900 years. Our records, based on more than 100 new radiocarbon analyses, Pb-210 and Cs-137 measurements as well as other biological and geochemical age markers, together with hundreds of new microfossil observations from contemporary and fossil salt marshes, capture not only the rapid 20th century sea-level rise, but also small-scale (decimetre, multi-decadal) sea-level fluctuations during preceding centuries. We show that in Iceland three periods of rapid sea-level rise are synchronous with the three largest positive shifts of the reconstructed North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Along the North American east coast we compare our data with salt-marsh records from New Jersey, North Carolina and Florida and observe a trend of increased pre-industrial sea-level variability from south to north (Florida to Nova Scotia). Mass changes and freshwater forcing cannot explain this pattern. Based on comparisons with instrumental sea-level data and modelling studies we hypothesise that

  3. Bermuda Contribution to a North Atlantic Aerobiology Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The primary aim of this project, a 6-month effort that commenced October 1 2002 (with no-cost extension until September 30 2003) was to collect a weekly time series of marine aerosol samples at Bermuda for the enumeration, culture and characterization of microbes, particularly those associated with soil dust and other aerosol particles originating from North Africa, North America, and Asia. Such airborne microbes may play important roles as pathogens, and also in the large-scale biogeochemical exchange between land, atmosphere and ocean.

  4. Atlantic Ocean forcing of North American and European summer climate.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Rowan T; Hodson, Daniel L R

    2005-07-01

    Recent extreme events such as the devastating 2003 European summer heat wave raise important questions about the possible causes of any underlying trends, or low-frequency variations, in regional climates. Here, we present new evidence that basin-scale changes in the Atlantic Ocean, probably related to the thermohaline circulation, have been an important driver of multidecadal variations in the summertime climate of both North America and western Europe. Our findings advance understanding of past climate changes and also have implications for decadal climate predictions. PMID:15994552

  5. Constraining the North Atlantic circulation with tritium data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Memery, Laurent; Wunsch, Carl

    1990-01-01

    The North Atlantic circulation derived from an inverse calculation by singular-value decomposition is tested against the historical record of tritium. A forward calculation of the tritium transient is performed using the circulation model, published estimates of atmospheric injection rates, and plausible estimates of the tracer history at the open boundaries of the model. The results do not agree with observations of the interior distributions of tritium. Consideration is given to the possibility of improving the agreement by modifying the atmospheric injection rates and the initial estimates of open boundary time histories, treating the boundary conditions as control variables.

  6. The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    A new AGU book, The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact, edited by James W. Hurrell, Yochanan Kushnir, Geir Ottersen, and Martin Visbeck, investigates the current theories, models, and observations of the NAO and assesses future directions for research. The book is the first on this important phenomenon, the most prominent and recurring weather pattern over the Northern Hemisphere. In this issue, Eos talks with lead editor, James Hurrell. Hurrell is deputy section head of the Climate Analysis Section of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, where he has contributed to the International Panel on Climate Change assessments, and works with the international research program on climate variability and predictability.

  7. Extending the North Atlantic Hurricane Record using Seismic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Carl; Stein, Seth

    2010-05-01

    An ongoing debate within the climatological community centers on whether rising North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures attributed to anthropogenic global warming are changing the frequency or energy of hurricanes. A short and incomplete observational record makes it difficult to answer this question. Since North Atlantic hurricane records were based entirely on ship logs and land observations before aircraft reconnaissance began in 1944, it is possible that hurricanes may have gone unobserved before then. Even after the initiation of regular aircraft observation, not all areas were monitored. Hence the potential for sampling problems exists up until the advent of satellite-based observation in the mid-1960's, implying that an undercount in the historical record is likely. To address this issue, we are developing methodology to improve the record of the number of North Atlantic hurricanes through the analysis of their signals recorded on decades of historical seismograms. Ambient seismic noise--signals derived from natural sources not related to earthquakes--is generated by atmospheric energy and so has been used as a proxy for oceanic wave climate and an indication of decadal-scale climate variability. Hence ambient seismic noise should be usable to detect hurricanes that may have gone unobserved. As a first step in developing such a methodology, we are using digital data from the HRV (Harvard, Massachusetts, USA) and SJG (San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA) seismic stations to calibrate seismic noise signals correlated with maximum wind speeds of well-characterized North Atlantic hurricanes, and investigate the development of a hurricane discriminant. Although a hurricane signature is not apparent in raw HRV power data, filtering of data recorded during hurricane Andrew (August 1992) in the 5-7 second passband retrieves a signal correlatable with Andrew's maximum wind speed. An empirical hurricane discriminant based on power amplitudes in this passband demonstrates that

  8. Multi-decadal-scale records of North Atlantic climate variability during the last and present interglacials and preceding glacial terminations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Amat, Patricia; Zahn, Rainer

    2013-04-01

    High-resolution records of natural interglacial climate variability can provide knowledge if the currently ongoing climate change and variability are part of or are already beyond the natural state. Warmer-than-present climatic conditions, a reduced Greenland Ice Sheet and higher sea level are some of the features the Last Interglacial (LIG, MIS5e; 129-115 kyr) climate has in common with numerous model projections of our future climate (Otto-Bliesner et al., 2006; Koop et al., 2009). Establishing multi-decadal resolution records of past North Atlantic climate variability hence contributes to a better understanding of the ocean and climate sensitivity of the wider North Atlantic region. We present palaeoceanographic time series of surface ocean climatology from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 976 in the Alboran Sea, westernmost Mediterranean that span the LIG and Present Interglacial (PIG, Holocene, 11-0 kyr). The site receives North Atlantic climate signals through the atmosphere and with the advection of Atlantic inflow waters which in connection with the high rate of sediment deposition underscores the exceptional quality of the site to monitor North Atlantic climate variability at multi-decadal resolution (60-90 yrs). Sea surface temperature (SST) time series derived from Mg/Ca ratios and stable isotope records (δ18O, δ13C) of the planktonic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides are presented. Mg/Ca data display similar SST for the climatic optima PIG and LIG. The records compare well with speleothem and ice core palaeoclimatic profiles, confirming that Site 976 palaeo-profiles reflect climate of the North Atlantic region. The close link between SSTMg-Caand the LIG δ18O record from the Antro del Corchia speleothem in northern Italy highlights the strong connection between marine and terrestrial climatology during that time indicating a farfield contribution of atmospheric signals. Comparison with SST and benthic δ13C records at North Atlantic sites instructs

  9. North Atlantic Ocean drivers of the 2015 European heat wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchez, Aurélie; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Josey, Simon A.; Hirschi, Joël; Evans, Gwyn

    2016-04-01

    Major European heat waves have occurred on several occasions in the past two decades, including the summer of 2015, with dramatic socioeconomic impacts and in a globally warming world, heat waves are expected to become longer, more frequent and more intense. Nevertheless, our understanding of heat wave causes remains at a basic level, limiting the usefulness of event prediction. We show that 2015 was the most extreme heat wave in central Europe in the past 35 years. We find that the heat wave was preceded by cold mid-latitude North Atlantic Ocean surface temperatures, which contributed to its development. In order to explain the genesis of the cold ocean anomaly, we consider surface heat loss, ocean heat content and wind driven upwelling. The anomaly is primarily due to extreme ocean heat loss in the preceding two winters and re-emergent cold ocean water masses. Further analysis indicates that this ocean anomaly was a driver for the 2015 heat wave as it favoured a stationary position of the Jet Stream, which steered Atlantic cyclones away from central Europe towards northern Europe. The cold Atlantic anomaly was also present during the most devastating European heat waves since the 1980s indicating that it is a common factor in the development of these extreme events.

  10. Cetaceans of the Atlantic Frontier, north and west of Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, C. R.; Pollock, C.; Cronin, C.; Taylor, S.

    2001-05-01

    Surveys carried out to the north and west of Scotland have recorded 15 species of cetacean between 1979 and 1998. These were fin whale ( Balaenoptera physalus) , sei whale ( B. borealis) , minke whale ( B. acutorostrata) , humpback whale ( Megaptera novaeangliae) , sperm whale ( Physeter macrocephalus) , northern bottlenose whale ( Hyperoodon ampullatus) , Sowerby's beaked whale ( Mesoplodon bidens) , killer whale ( Orcinus orca) , long-finned pilot whale ( Globicephala melas) , Atlantic white-sided dolphin ( Lagenorhynchus acutus) , white-beaked dolphin ( L. albirostris) , Risso's dolphin ( Grampus griseus) , bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus) , common dolphin ( Delphinus delphis) and harbour porpoise ( Phocoena phocoena) . Atlantic white-sided dolphin was the most abundant species in the region with a total of 6317 animals recorded. Harbour porpoise was the most frequently sighted cetacean species. The geographical distribution of sightings indicate that cetacean species have varying ecological requirements, with species such as sperm whale, pilot whale and white-sided dolphin favouring deep water off the continental shelf edge, while minke whale, white-beaked dolphin and harbour porpoise were apparently limited to the continental shelf. The diversity of species recorded in the region suggests that the Atlantic Frontier is an important habitat for cetaceans.

  11. Marine debris ingestion by albatrosses in the southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Sebastián; Domingo, Andrés; Brazeiro, Alejandro; Defeo, Omar; Phillips, Richard A

    2015-07-15

    Plastics and other marine debris affect wildlife through entanglement and by ingestion. We assessed the ingestion of marine debris by seven albatross species in the southwest Atlantic by analyzing stomach contents of birds killed in fisheries. Of the 128 specimens examined, including four Diomedea species (n=78) and three Thalassarche species (n=50), 21 (16.4%) contained 1-4 debris items, mainly in the ventriculus. The most common type was plastic fragments. Debris was most frequent in Diomedea species (25.6%) and, particularly, Diomedea sanfordi (38.9%) and very rare in Thalassarche species (2.0%), presumably reflecting differences in foraging behavior or distribution. Frequency of occurrence was significantly higher in male than female Diomedea albatrosses (39.3% vs. 18.0%). Although levels of accumulated debris were relatively low overall, and unlikely to result in gut blockage, associated toxins might nevertheless represent a health risk for Diomedea albatrosses, compounding the negative impact of other human activities on these threatened species. PMID:25986654

  12. Improved Quaternary North Atlantic stratigraphy using relative paleointensity (RPI), oxygen isotopes, and magnetic excursions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channell, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Improving the resolution of Quaternary marine stratigraphy is one of the major challenges in paleoceanography. IODP Expedition 303/306, and ODP Legs 162 and 172, have yielded multiple high-resolution records (mean sedimentation rates in the 7-20 cm/kyr range) of relative paleointensity (RPI) that are accompanied by oxygen isotope data and extend through much of the Quaternary. Tandem fit of RPI and oxygen isotope data to calibrated templates (LR04 and PISO), using the Match protocol, yields largely consistent stratigraphies, implying that both RPI and oxygen isotope data are dominated by regional/global signals. Based on the recent geomagnetic field, RPI can be expected to be a global signal (i.e. dominated by the axial dipole field) when recorded at sedimentation rates less than several decimeters/kyr. Magnetic susceptibility, on the other hand, is a local/regional lithologic signal, and therefore less useful for long-distance correlation. Magnetic excursions are directional phenomena and, when adequately recorded, are manifest as paired reversals in which the virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) reach high latitudes in the opposite hemisphere, and they occupy minima in RPI records. Reversed VGPs imply that excursions are attributable to the main axial dipole, and therefore provide global stratigraphy. The so-called Iceland Basin excursion is recorded at many IODP/ODP sites and lies at the MIS 6/7 boundary at ~188 ka, with a duration of 2-3 kyr. Other excursions in the Brunhes chron are less commonly recorded because their duration (perhaps <~1 kyr) requires sedimentation rates >20 cm/kyr to be adequately recorded. On the other hand, several excursions within the Matuyama Chron are more commonly recorded in North Atlantic drift sediments due to relatively elevated durations. With some notable exceptions (e.g. Iberian Margin), high quality RPI records from North Atlantic sediments, together with magnetic excursions, can be used in tandem with oxygen isotope data to

  13. North Atlantic surface ocean radiocarbon reservoir age variation: links to rapid global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, W. E. N.; Brown, L.; Telford, R. J.; Ninnemann, U. S.; Wilson, L. J.; Bryant, C. L.

    2009-04-01

    High resolution palaeoclimate records show that the overall warming throughout the late glacial period to the present has been punctuated by repeated cooling events on decadal to centennial timescales. Reorganisation of the North Atlantic's deep water thermohaline circulation is often considered an important factor in triggering or controlling these abrupt climate change intervals. During the Younger Dryas (YD), the most significant of these late glacial climatic coolings, a large, positive anomaly in atmospheric radiocarbon concentration (Δ14Catm) is observed, which is not fully accounted for by changes in the production rate of 14C. Another potential source of Δ14Catm variation is the extent of carbon exchange between the atmosphere and other reservoirs, such as the deep ocean, and it has been suggested that the circulation changes which drove the YD cooling were also partially responsible for limiting air-sea CO2 exchange and hence increasing Δ14Catm. Reconstructions of North Atlantic surface ocean radiocarbon reservoir ages (Rt) during the Younger Dryas, based on known-age markers such as tephra horizons, demonstrate an increase in Rt from modern values of 400 y to >800 y, widely believed to be indicative of reduced carbon exchange between the atmosphere and the deep ocean. However, the limited temporal resolution of these measurements has thus far been insufficient to fully explore the connection between changing Rt and rapid, ocean circulation-induced climate change. Here we present a detailed reconstruction of changing Rt in the late glacial period, from a high resolution marine sediment record north of 50° N. Stable isotope records and radiocarbon chronologies from cores collected in the St Kilda Basin, Hebridean shelf, containing highly-expanded late glacial records, will be used to assess the importance and controlling mechanisms of reservoir age variation in the NE Atlantic.

  14. Wave power variability and trends across the North Atlantic influenced by decadal climate patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromirski, Peter D.; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2015-05-01

    Climate variations influence North Atlantic winter storm intensity and resultant variations in wave energy levels. A 60 year hindcast allows investigation of the influence of decadal climate variability on long-term trends of North Atlantic wave power, PW, spanning the 1948-2008 epoch. PW variations over much of the eastern North Atlantic are strongly influenced by the fluctuating North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) atmospheric circulation pattern, consistent with previous studies of significant wave height, Hs. Wave activity in the western Atlantic also responds to fluctuations in Pacific climate modes, including the Pacific North American (PNA) pattern and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. The magnitude of upward long-term trends during winter over the northeast Atlantic is strongly influenced by heightened storm activity under the extreme positive phase of winter NAO in the early 1990s. In contrast, PW along the United States East Coast shows no increasing trend, with wave activity there most closely associated with the PNA. Strong wave power "events" exhibit significant upward trends along the Atlantic coasts of Iceland and Europe during winter months. Importantly, in opposition to the long-term increase of PW, a recent general decrease in PW across the North Atlantic from 2000 to 2008 occurred. The 2000-2008 decrease was associated with a general shift of winter NAO to its negative phase, underscoring the control exerted by fluctuating North Atlantic atmospheric circulation on PW trends.

  15. Initializing decadal climate predictions over the North Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matei, Daniela Mihaela; Pohlmann, Holger; Jungclaus, Johann; Müller, Wolfgang; Haak, Helmuth; Marotzke, Jochem

    2010-05-01

    Decadal climate prediction aims to predict the internally-generated decadal climate variability in addition to externally-forced climate change signal. In order to achieve this it is necessary to start the predictions from the current climate state. In this study we investigate the forecast skill of the North Atlantic decadal climate predictions using two different ocean initialization strategies. First we apply an assimilation of ocean synthesis data provided by the GECCO project (Köhl and Stammer, 2008) as initial conditions for the coupled model ECHAM5/MPI-OM. Hindcast experiments are then performed over the period 1952-2001. An alternative approach is one in which the subsurface ocean temperature and salinity are diagnosed from an ensemble of ocean model runs forced by the NCEP-NCAR atmospheric reanalyzes for the period 1948-2007, then nudge into the coupled model to produce initial conditions for the hindcast experiments. An anomaly coupling scheme is used in both approaches to avoid the hindcast drift and the associated initial shock. Differences between the two assimilation approaches are discussed by comparing them with the observational data in key regions and processes. We asses the skill of the initialized decadal hindcast experiments against the prediction skill of the non-initialized hindcasts simulation. We obtain an overview of the regions with the highest predictability from the regional distribution of the anomaly correlation coefficients and RMSE for the SAT. For the first year the hindcast skill is increased over almost all ocean regions in the NCEP-forced approach. This increase in the hindcast skill for the 1 year lead time is somewhat reduced in the GECCO approach. At lead time 5yr and 10yr, the skill enhancement is still found over the North Atlantic and North Pacific regions. We also consider the potential predictability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and Nordic Seas Overflow by comparing the predicted values to

  16. Sulphur in the western North Atlantic Ocean atmosphere: results from a summer 1988 ship/aircraft experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, James N.; Keene, William C.; Pszenny, Alexander A. P.; Whelpdale, Douglas M.; Sievering, Herman; Merrill, John T.; Boatman, Joe F.

    1990-12-01

    To investigate the relative importance of anthropogenic versus marine sources of sulfur in the North Atlantic Ocean troposphere, sulfur species were measured from aircraft, ship, and island based platforms as part of the Global Change Expedition/Coordinated Air-Sea Experiment/Western Atlantic Ocean Experiment conducted during the summer of 1988. Four synoptic meteorological cases were examined: flow from highly populated North America, lightly populated North America, tropical oceanic regions, and polar oceanic regions. Literature values suggest that 2-10 μmol m-2 day-1 of (CH3)2S are emitted from the ocean to the atmosphere in marine regions associated with the first three synoptic cases. Data from this experiment indicate that 36, 16, and 14 μmol m-2 day-1, for the highly populated North America, lightly populated North America, and tropical oceanic regions synoptic cases, respectively, were deposited to the ocean's surface. Differences between previously estimated natural emissions and calculated deposition suggest that anthropogenic sources of sulfur contribute significantly to sulfur deposition for these cases. The sulfur deposition rate for the polar oceanic regions synoptic case was 20 μmol m-2 day-1 . Given the larger range of literature values for the corresponding (CH3)2S emission rate (1-14 μmol m-2 day-1 ) , however, the relative importance of the nonmarine S source is less certain in this case.

  17. Pliocene planktic foraminifer census data from the North Atlantic region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    PRISM Project Members

    1996-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a long-term study of the climatic and oceanographic conditions of the Pliocene known as PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping). One of the major elements of the study involves the use of quantitative composition of planktic foraminifer assemblages to estimate seasurface temperatures and identify major oceanographic boundaries and water masses (Dowsett, 1991; Dowsett and Poore, 1991; Dowsett et al., 1992; Dowsett et al., 1994). We have analyzed more than 900 samples from 19 core sites in the North Atlantic Basin (Fig. 1) resulting in a large volume of raw census data. These data are presented here together to facilitate comparison of North Atlantic faunal assemblages. Latitude, longitude, water depth, source of faunal data and source of data used to construct age model (or publication from which age model was taken) are provided for each locality in Table 1. All ages refer to the geomagnetic polarity time scale of Berggren et al. (1985). Counts of species tabulated in each sample are given in Tables 2-20. DSDP and ODP sample designations are abbreviated in Tables 2-20 as core-section, depth within section in centimeters (eg. 10-5, 34 = core 10, section 5, 34 cm below top of section 5).

  18. Solar forcing synchronizes decadal North Atlantic climate variability.

    PubMed

    Thiéblemont, Rémi; Matthes, Katja; Omrani, Nour-Eddine; Kodera, Kunihiko; Hansen, Felicitas

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-decadal variability in solar irradiance has been suggested to exert a substantial effect on Earth's regional climate. In the North Atlantic sector, the 11-year solar signal has been proposed to project onto a pattern resembling the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), with a lag of a few years due to ocean-atmosphere interactions. The solar/NAO relationship is, however, highly misrepresented in climate model simulations with realistic observed forcings. In addition, its detection is particularly complicated since NAO quasi-decadal fluctuations can be intrinsically generated by the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. Here we compare two multi-decadal ocean-atmosphere chemistry-climate simulations with and without solar forcing variability. While the experiment including solar variability simulates a 1-2-year lagged solar/NAO relationship, comparison of both experiments suggests that the 11-year solar cycle synchronizes quasi-decadal NAO variability intrinsic to the model. The synchronization is consistent with the downward propagation of the solar signal from the stratosphere to the surface. PMID:26369503

  19. Reevaluation of mid-Pliocene North Atlantic sea surface temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Marci M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dwyer, Gary S.; Lawrence, Kira T.

    2008-01-01

    Multiproxy temperature estimation requires careful attention to biological, chemical, physical, temporal, and calibration differences of each proxy and paleothermometry method. We evaluated mid-Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from multiple proxies at Deep Sea Drilling Project Holes 552A, 609B, 607, and 606, transecting the North Atlantic Drift. SST estimates derived from faunal assemblages, foraminifer Mg/Ca, and alkenone unsaturation indices showed strong agreement at Holes 552A, 607, and 606 once differences in calibration, depth, and seasonality were addressed. Abundant extinct species and/or an unrecognized productivity signal in the faunal assemblage at Hole 609B resulted in exaggerated faunal-based SST estimates but did not affect alkenone-derived or Mg/Ca–derived estimates. Multiproxy mid-Pliocene North Atlantic SST estimates corroborate previous studies documenting high-latitude mid-Pliocene warmth and refine previous faunal-based estimates affected by environmental factors other than temperature. Multiproxy investigations will aid SST estimation in high-latitude areas sensitive to climate change and currently underrepresented in SST reconstructions.

  20. North Atlantic Storm Activity During the Younger Dryas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toomey, M.

    2015-12-01

    The risks posed to cities along the Eastern Seaboard by a potential intensification of tropical cyclone activity over the coming decades remain poorly constrained, in part, due to a lack of available storm proxy records that extend beyond the relatively stable climates of the late Holocene. Previous work in the Bahamas shows that coarse-grained, high-energy event layers in carbonate bank margin sediments: (1) closely track recent historic hurricane events and (2) that the sensitivity of this proxy may be less affected by the deglacial changes in sea level that have limited our ability to reconstruct past hurricane activity using overwash records from back-barrier beach settings. Here we present a record of storm triggered turbidite deposition from a suite of well dated (e.g. Lynch-Stieglitz et al., 2011, Paleoceanography) jumbo piston cores taken offbank (300-500 mbsl) the Dry Tortugas, Florida, that spans abrupt transitions in North Atlantic sea surface temperature and thermohaline circulation during the Younger Dryas (12.9 - 11.5 kyr BP). This record, along with General Circulation Model output (TraCE: NCAR-CGD), indicates strong hurricane activity may have occurred along Southeastern US coasts through this interval despite considerably colder North Atlantic SSTs.

  1. Solar forcing synchronizes decadal North Atlantic climate variability

    PubMed Central

    Thiéblemont, Rémi; Matthes, Katja; Omrani, Nour-Eddine; Kodera, Kunihiko; Hansen, Felicitas

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-decadal variability in solar irradiance has been suggested to exert a substantial effect on Earth's regional climate. In the North Atlantic sector, the 11-year solar signal has been proposed to project onto a pattern resembling the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), with a lag of a few years due to ocean-atmosphere interactions. The solar/NAO relationship is, however, highly misrepresented in climate model simulations with realistic observed forcings. In addition, its detection is particularly complicated since NAO quasi-decadal fluctuations can be intrinsically generated by the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. Here we compare two multi-decadal ocean-atmosphere chemistry-climate simulations with and without solar forcing variability. While the experiment including solar variability simulates a 1–2-year lagged solar/NAO relationship, comparison of both experiments suggests that the 11-year solar cycle synchronizes quasi-decadal NAO variability intrinsic to the model. The synchronization is consistent with the downward propagation of the solar signal from the stratosphere to the surface. PMID:26369503

  2. Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) sounds from the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellinger, David K.; Clark, Christopher W.

    2003-08-01

    Sounds of blue whales were recorded from U.S. Navy hydrophone arrays in the North Atlantic. The most common signals were long, patterned sequences of very-low-frequency sounds in the 15-20 Hz band. Sounds within a sequence were hierarchically organized into phrases consisting of one or two different sound types. Sequences were typically composed of two-part phrases repeated every 73 s: a constant-frequency tonal ``A'' part lasting approximately 8 s, followed 5 s later by a frequency-modulated ``B'' part lasting approximately 11 s. A common sequence variant consisted only of repetitions of part A. Sequences were separated by silent periods averaging just over four minutes. Two other sound types are described: a 2-5 s tone at 9 Hz, and a 5-7s inflected tone that swept up in frequency to ca. 70 Hz and then rapidly down to 25 Hz. The general characteristics of repeated sequences of simple combinations of long-duration, very-low-frequency sound units repeated every 1-2 min are typical of blue whale sounds recorded in other parts of the world. However, the specific frequency, duration, and repetition interval features of these North Atlantic sounds are different than those reported from other regions, lending further support to the notion that geographically separate blue whale populations have distinctive acoustic displays.

  3. North Atlantic Oscillation records in Siberian tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorova, Olga; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    Changes in the Eurasian subarctic like temperature increase, thawing of permafrost, changes in seasonality (shifting of the beginning of the growth period), and changes in the amount of precipitations are linked to a positive phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in recent decades. We report about the response of larch trees to climatic changes in the eastern Taimyr (Central Siberia) and northeastern Yakutia (Eastern Siberia) at high latitudes during the last century using tree ring width, latewood density and stable isotope wood and cellulose (δ13C, δ18O) chronologies. Not only the summer months were related to the carbon and oxygen isotope variations. The positive relationship, which was found between February temperature and δ18O of cellulose for northeastern Yakutia and the negative correlations between the temperature of February and δ13C of wood and cellulose for eastern Taimyr, could be explained by the influence of North Atlantic Oscillation. This work was supported by Swiss National Science Foundation SNF 200021_121838/1 and RFBR_sibir 09-05-98015.

  4. Saharan dust enhances carbon sequestration in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabortsava, Katsiaryna; Lampitt, Richard; Le Moigne, Frederic; Sanders, Richard; Statham, Peter

    2016-04-01

    We present unique time-series data from sediment traps deployed at 3000 m depth in the subtropical North (NOG) and South (SOG) Atlantic oligotrophic gyres during 2007-2010. The sampling sites have similar physical properties and carbon fixation rates but different surface ocean biogeochemistry owing to enhanced input of Saharan dust in the North. NOG and SOG sites are thus ideal to investigate the effects of dust input on carbon sequestration in low-nutrient low-chlorophyll oceans. Analyses of the trap material (chemical, microscopic and stable isotope) revealed significant inter-basin differences in the downward particle flux and its composition, showing that biogeochemical differences at the surface have major effects on deep ocean sequestration scenarios. Particulate organic carbon flux in the dustier Northern gyre was twice that in the dust-poor Southern gyre. We conclude that this is a consequence of tight coupling between fertilization and ballasting due to dust deposition. We suggest that excess of micronutrient Fe from the dust increased phytoplankton biomass by stimulating di-nitrogen fixation, while dust particles caused rapid and more efficient transport to depth via ballasting. These findings present compelling direct evidence of two distinct biogeochemical provinces in the subtropical oligotrophic Atlantic not only with respect to surface nutrient biogeochemistry but also with respect to carbon sequestration.

  5. Hindcasts of Integrated Kinetic Energy in North Atlantic Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozar, Michael; Misra, Vasubandhu

    2015-04-01

    Integrated kinetic energy (IKE) is a recently developed metric that evaluates the destructive potential of a tropical cyclone by assessing the size and strength of its wind field. Despite the potential usefulness of the IKE metric, there are few, if any, operational tools that are specifically designed to forecast IKE in real-time. Therefore, a system of artificial neural networks is created to produce deterministic and probabilistic projections of IKE in North Atlantic tropical cyclones out to 72 hours from a series of relevant environmental and storm specific normalized input parameters. In an effort to assess its real-time skill, this IKE forecasting system is run in a mock-operational mode for the 1990 to 2011 North Atlantic hurricane seasons. Hindcasts of IKE are produced in this manner by running the neural networks with hindcasted input parameters from NOAA's second generation Global Ensemble Forecasting System reforecast dataset. Ultimately, the results of the hindcast exercises indicate that the neural network system is capable of skillfully forecasting IKE in an operational setting at a level significantly higher than climatology and persistence. Ultimately, forecasts of IKE from these neural networks could potentially be an asset for operational meteorologists that would complement existing forecast tools in an effort to better assess the damage potential of landfalling tropical cyclones, particularly with regards to storm surge damage.

  6. North Atlantic salinity as a predictor of Sahel rainfall.

    PubMed

    Li, Laifang; Schmitt, Raymond W; Ummenhofer, Caroline C; Karnauskas, Kristopher B

    2016-05-01

    Water evaporating from the ocean sustains precipitation on land. This ocean-to-land moisture transport leaves an imprint on sea surface salinity (SSS). Thus, the question arises of whether variations in SSS can provide insight into terrestrial precipitation. This study provides evidence that springtime SSS in the subtropical North Atlantic ocean can be used as a predictor of terrestrial precipitation during the subsequent summer monsoon in Africa. Specifically, increased springtime SSS in the central to eastern subtropical North Atlantic tends to be followed by above-normal monsoon-season precipitation in the African Sahel. In the spring, high SSS is associated with enhanced moisture flux divergence from the subtropical oceans, which converges over the African Sahel and helps to elevate local soil moisture content. From spring to the summer monsoon season, the initial water cycling signal is preserved, amplified, and manifested in excessive precipitation. According to our analysis of currently available soil moisture data sets, this 3-month delay is attributable to a positive coupling between soil moisture, moisture flux convergence, and precipitation in the Sahel. Because of the physical connection between salinity, ocean-to-land moisture transport, and local soil moisture feedback, seasonal forecasts of Sahel precipitation can be improved by incorporating SSS into prediction models. Thus, expanded monitoring of ocean salinity should contribute to more skillful predictions of precipitation in vulnerable subtropical regions, such as the Sahel. PMID:27386525

  7. North Atlantic salinity as a predictor of Sahel rainfall

    PubMed Central

    Li, Laifang; Schmitt, Raymond W.; Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; Karnauskas, Kristopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Water evaporating from the ocean sustains precipitation on land. This ocean-to-land moisture transport leaves an imprint on sea surface salinity (SSS). Thus, the question arises of whether variations in SSS can provide insight into terrestrial precipitation. This study provides evidence that springtime SSS in the subtropical North Atlantic ocean can be used as a predictor of terrestrial precipitation during the subsequent summer monsoon in Africa. Specifically, increased springtime SSS in the central to eastern subtropical North Atlantic tends to be followed by above-normal monsoon-season precipitation in the African Sahel. In the spring, high SSS is associated with enhanced moisture flux divergence from the subtropical oceans, which converges over the African Sahel and helps to elevate local soil moisture content. From spring to the summer monsoon season, the initial water cycling signal is preserved, amplified, and manifested in excessive precipitation. According to our analysis of currently available soil moisture data sets, this 3-month delay is attributable to a positive coupling between soil moisture, moisture flux convergence, and precipitation in the Sahel. Because of the physical connection between salinity, ocean-to-land moisture transport, and local soil moisture feedback, seasonal forecasts of Sahel precipitation can be improved by incorporating SSS into prediction models. Thus, expanded monitoring of ocean salinity should contribute to more skillful predictions of precipitation in vulnerable subtropical regions, such as the Sahel. PMID:27386525

  8. Early Oligocene initiation of North Atlantic Deep Water formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Richard; Cartwright, Joseph; Pike, Jennifer; Line, Charles

    2001-04-01

    Dating the onset of deep-water flow between the Arctic and North Atlantic oceans is critical for modelling climate change in the Northern Hemisphere and for explaining changes in global ocean circulation throughout the Cenozoic era (from about 65 million years ago to the present). In the early Cenozoic era, exchange between these two ocean basins was inhibited by the Greenland-Scotland ridge, but a gateway through the Faeroe-Shetland basin has been hypothesized. Previous estimates of the date marking the onset of deep-water circulation through this basin-on the basis of circumstantial evidence from neighbouring basins-have been contradictory, ranging from about 35 to 15 million years ago. Here we describe the newly discovered Southeast Faeroes drift, which extends for 120km parallel to the basin axis. The onset of deposition in this drift has been dated to the early Oligocene epoch (~35 million years ago) from a petroleum exploration borehole. We show that the drift was deposited under a southerly flow regime, and conclude that the initiation of deep-water circulation from the Norwegian Sea into the North Atlantic Ocean took place much earlier than is currently assumed in most numerical models of ancient ocean circulation.

  9. Early Oligocene initiation of North Atlantic Deep Water formation.

    PubMed

    Davies, R; Cartwright, J; Pike, J; Line, C

    2001-04-19

    Dating the onset of deep-water flow between the Arctic and North Atlantic oceans is critical for modelling climate change in the Northern Hemisphere and for explaining changes in global ocean circulation throughout the Cenozoic era (from about 65 million years ago to the present). In the early Cenozoic era, exchange between these two ocean basins was inhibited by the Greenland-Scotland ridge, but a gateway through the Faeroe-Shetland basin has been hypothesized. Previous estimates of the date marking the onset of deep-water circulation through this basin-on the basis of circumstantial evidence from neighbouring basins-have been contradictory, ranging from about 35 to 15 million years ago. Here we describe the newly discovered Southeast Faeroes drift, which extends for 120 km parallel to the basin axis. The onset of deposition in this drift has been dated to the early Oligocene epoch ( approximately 35 million years ago) from a petroleum exploration borehole. We show that the drift was deposited under a southerly flow regime, and conclude that the initiation of deep-water circulation from the Norwegian Sea into the North Atlantic Ocean took place much earlier than is currently assumed in most numerical models of ancient ocean circulation. PMID:11309613

  10. 48 CFR 225.871 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects. 225.871 Section 225.871 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Other International Agreements and Coordination 225.871 North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

  11. 48 CFR 225.871 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects. 225.871 Section 225.871 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Other International Agreements and Coordination 225.871 North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

  12. 48 CFR 225.871 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects. 225.871 Section 225.871 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Other International Agreements and Coordination 225.871 North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

  13. 48 CFR 225.871 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects. 225.871 Section 225.871 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Other International Agreements and Coordination 225.871 North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

  14. 48 CFR 225.871 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects. 225.871 Section 225.871 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Other International Agreements and Coordination 225.871 North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

  15. 78 FR 56151 - Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA... zone on the navigable waters of the North Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach, VA to support the...

  16. Biogeographical Patterns of Marine Benthic Invertebrates Along the Atlantic Coast of the Northeastern USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aim Examine the biogeography of marine benthic invertebrates of the Atlantic coast of the northeastern USA, compare the results to historical biogeographic studies, define physical-chemical factors affecting species distributions, and provide biogeographic information needed to ...

  17. Distinguishing molecular characteristics of aerosol water soluble organic matter from the 2011 trans-North Atlantic US GEOTRACES cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, A. S.; Willoughby, A. S.; Gurganus, S. C.; Hatcher, P. G.

    2014-08-01

    The molecular characteristics of aerosol organic matter (OM) determines to a large extent its impacts on the atmospheric radiative budget and ecosystem function in terrestrial and aquatic environments, yet the OM molecular details of aerosols from different sources are not well established. Aerosol particulate samples with North American-influenced, North African-influenced, and marine (minimal recent continental influence) air mass back trajectories were collected as part of the 2011 trans-North Atlantic US GEOTRACES cruise and analyzed for their water soluble OM (WSOM) molecular characteristics using electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis (PCA) separated the samples into five groups defined by distinct molecular formula characteristics. An abundance of nitrogen containing compounds with molecular formulas consistent with amino acid derivatives defined the two samples comprising the primary marine group (henceforth referred to as Primary Marine), which suggest a primary marine biological source to their WSOM in spite of their North American-influenced air mass trajectories. A second group of samples (aged marine, henceforth referred to as Aged Marine) with marine air mass trajectories was characterized by an abundance of low O / C (0.15-0.45) sulfur containing compounds consistent with organosulfate compounds formed via secondary aging reactions in the atmosphere. Several samples having North American-influenced air mass trajectories formed another group again characterized by organosulfate and nitrooxyorganosulfate type compounds with higher O / C ratios (0.5-1.0) than the Aged Marine samples reflecting the combustion influence from the North American continent. All the samples with North African-influenced air mass trajectories were grouped together in the PCA and were characterized by a lack of heteroatom (N, S, P) containing molecular formulas covering a wide O / C range (0

  18. Latitudinal gradients of species richness in the deep-sea benthos of the North Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Rex, Michael A.; Stuart, Carol T.; Coyne, Gina

    2000-01-01

    Latitudinal species diversity gradients (LSDGs) in the Northern Hemisphere are the most well established biogeographic patterns on Earth. Despite long-standing interest in LSDGs as a central problem in ecology, their explanation remains uncertain. In terrestrial as well as coastal and pelagic marine ecosystems, these poleward declines in diversity typically have been represented and interpreted in terms of species richness, the number of coexisting species. Newly discovered LSDGs in the bathyal (500–4,000 m) benthos of the North Atlantic may help to resolve the underlying causes of these large-scale trends because the deep sea is such a physically distinct environment. However, a major problem in comparing surface and deep-sea LSDGs is that the latter have been measured differently, by using species diversity indices that are affected by both species richness and the evenness of relative abundance. Here, we demonstrate that deep-sea isopods, gastropods, and bivalves in the North Atlantic do exhibit poleward decreases in species richness, just as those found in other environments. A comprehensive systematic revision of the largest deep-sea gastropod family (Turridae) has provided a unique database on geographic distributions that is directly comparable to those used to document LSDGs in surface biotas. This taxon also shows a poleward decline in the number of species. Seasonal organic enrichment from sinking phytodetritus is the most plausible ecological explanation for deep-sea LSDGs and is the environmental factor most consistently associated with depressed diversity in a variety of bathyal habitats. PMID:10759545

  19. Two millennia of North Atlantic seasonality and implications for Norse colonies.

    PubMed

    Patterson, William P; Dietrich, Kristin A; Holmden, Chris; Andrews, John T

    2010-03-23

    delta(18)O values of mollusks recovered from near-shore marine cores in northwest Iceland quantify significant variation in seasonal temperature over the period from approximately 360 B.C. to approximately A.D. 1660. Twenty-six aragonitic bivalve specimens were selected to represent intervals of climatic interest by using core sedimentological characteristics. Carbonate powder was sequentially micromilled from shell surfaces concordant with growth banding and analyzed for stable oxygen (delta(18)O) and carbon (delta(13)C) isotope values. Because delta(18)O values record subseasonal temperature variation over the lifetime of the bivalves, these data provide the first 2,000-year secular record of North Atlantic seasonality from ca. 360 cal yr B.C. to cal yr A.D. 1660. Notable cold periods (360 B.C. to 240 B.C.; A.D. 410; and A.D. 1380 to 1420) and warm periods (230 B.C. to A.D. 140 and A.D. 640 to 760) are resolved in terms of contrast between summer and winter temperatures and seasonal temperature variability. Literature from the Viking Age (ca. 790 to 1070) during the establishment of Norse colonies (and later) in Iceland and Greenland permits comparisons between the delta(18)O temperature record and historical records, thereby demonstrating the impact of seasonal climatic extremes on the establishment, development, and, in some cases, collapse of societies in the North Atlantic. PMID:20212157

  20. Two millennia of North Atlantic seasonality and implications for Norse colonies

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, William P.; Dietrich, Kristin A.; Holmden, Chris; Andrews, John T.

    2010-01-01

    δ18O values of mollusks recovered from near-shore marine cores in northwest Iceland quantify significant variation in seasonal temperature over the period from ∼360 B.C. to ∼A.D. 1660. Twenty-six aragonitic bivalve specimens were selected to represent intervals of climatic interest by using core sedimentological characteristics. Carbonate powder was sequentially micromilled from shell surfaces concordant with growth banding and analyzed for stable oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope values. Because δ18O values record subseasonal temperature variation over the lifetime of the bivalves, these data provide the first 2,000-year secular record of North Atlantic seasonality from ca. 360 cal yr B.C. to cal yr A.D. 1660. Notable cold periods (360 B.C. to 240 B.C.; A.D. 410; and A.D. 1380 to 1420) and warm periods (230 B.C. to A.D. 140 and A.D. 640 to 760) are resolved in terms of contrast between summer and winter temperatures and seasonal temperature variability. Literature from the Viking Age (ca. 790 to 1070) during the establishment of Norse colonies (and later) in Iceland and Greenland permits comparisons between the δ18O temperature record and historical records, thereby demonstrating the impact of seasonal climatic extremes on the establishment, development, and, in some cases, collapse of societies in the North Atlantic. PMID:20212157

  1. Synoptic/planetary-scale interactions and blocking over the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Phillip J.

    1989-01-01

    The focus was on the development of a blocking anticyclone that formed over the North Atlantic in January 1979 and a marine cyclone that deepened explosively prior to the onset of the block. The extended height tendency equation was used as the primary diagnostic tool. Focusing on the domain encompassing the migrating ridge that eventually formed the block, it was found that vorticity advection played the dominant role in the development of the ridge and the formation of the block. Also of interest was an attempt to evaluate the relative importance of synoptic-scale, planetary-scale, and synoptic/planetary-scale interactions as the block developed. To accomplish this, all data fields were partitioned into synoptic and planetary-scale components using a Barnes-type filter. Finally, the cyclone was diagnosed by examining the low level static stability fields associated with the cyclone's development.

  2. Oligocene-Miocene biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and isotopic stratigraphy of the western North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kenneth G.; Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Khan, M. J.; Melillo, A. J.; Kent, D. V.; Berggren, W. A.

    1985-04-01

    Magnetostratigraphic records from western North Atlantic Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Sites 563 and 558 are correlated with the geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS; Berggren et al., 1984a, 1984b) using marine magnetic anomalies and selected biostratigraphic datum levels. The magnetochronology established is used to make direct magnetobiostratigraphic correlations that agree with previous Oligocene early Miocene studies. However, we show that Zones NN8 partim and NN9 and associated Epoch 11 correlate with Magnetic Anomaly 5 (= Chron C5n). This contrasts with previous indirect correlations of Epoch 11 with Anomaly 5A and requires an upward adjustment of 1.5 2.0 m.y. for middle late Miocene calcareous nannofossil zones. We correlate the middle/late Miocene boundary with Zone NN8 and earliest Chron C5n (10.4 Ma). *Present address: Peshawar University, Peshawar, Pakistan

  3. Speciation of Fe in the Eastern North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuróczy, C.-E.; Gerringa, L. J. A.; Klunder, M. B.; Middag, R.; Laan, P.; Timmermans, K. R.; de Baar, H. J. W.

    2010-11-01

    In the Eastern North Atlantic Ocean iron (Fe) speciation was investigated in three size fractions: the dissolvable from unfiltered samples, the dissolved fraction (<0.2 μm) and the fraction smaller than 1000 kDa (<1000 kDa). Fe concentrations were measured by flow injection analysis and the organic Fe complexation by voltammetry. In the research area the water column consisted of North Atlantic Central Water (NACW), below which Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) was found with the core between 800 and 1000 m depth. Below 2000 m depth the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) proper was recognised. Dissolved Fe and Fe in the <1000 kDa fraction showed a nutrient like profile, depleted at the surface, increasing until 500-1000 m depth below which the concentration remained constant. Fe in unfiltered samples clearly showed the MOW with high concentrations (4 nM) compared to the overlying NACW and the underlying NADW, with 0.9 nM and 2 nM Fe, respectively. By using excess ligand (Excess L) concentrations as parameter we show a potential to bind Fe. The surface mixed layer had the highest excess ligand concentrations in all size fractions due to phytoplankton uptake and possible ligand production. The ratio of Excess L over Fe proved to be a complementary tool in revealing the relative saturation state of the ligands with Fe. In the whole water column, the organic ligands in the larger colloidal fraction (between 0.2 μm and 1000 kDa) were saturated with Fe, whereas those in the smallest fraction (<1000 kDa) were not saturated with Fe, confirming that this fraction was the most reactive one and regulates dissolution and colloid aggregation and scavenging processes. This regulation was remarkably stable with depth since the alpha factor (product of Excess L and K'), expressing the reactivity of the ligands, did not vary and was 10 13. Whereas, in the NACW and the MOW, the ligands in the particulate (>0.2 μm) fraction were unsaturated with Fe with respect to the dissolved

  4. Temperature signature of high latitude Atlantic boundary currents revealed by marine mammal-borne sensor and Argo data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grist, Jeremy P.; Josey, Simon A.; Boehme, Lars; Meredith, Michael P.; Davidson, Fraser J. M.; Stenson, Garry B.; Hammill, Mike O.

    2011-08-01

    Results from the development and analysis of a novel temperature dataset for the high latitude North-West Atlantic are presented. The new 1° gridded dataset (“ATLAS”) has been produced from about 13,000 Argo and 48,000 marine mammal (hooded seal, harp seal, grey seal and beluga) profiles spanning 2004-8. These data sources are highly complementary as marine mammals greatly enhance shelf region coverage where Argo floats are absent. ATLAS reveals distinctive boundary current related temperature minima in the Labrador Sea (-1.1°C) and at the east Greenland coast (1.8°C), largely absent in the widely-used Levitus'09 and EN3v2a datasets. The ATLAS 0-500 m average temperature is lower than Levitus'09 and EN3v2a by up to 3°C locally. Differences are strongest from 0-300 m and persist at reduced amplitude from 300-500 m. Our results clearly reveal the value of marine mammal-borne sensors for a reliable description of the North-West Atlantic at a time of rapid change.

  5. Shipwreck rates and tree rings suggest reduced North Atlantic tropical cyclone activity during the Maunder Minimum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harley, G. L.; Trouet, V.; Dominguez Delmas, M.

    2014-12-01

    The observational record of North Atlantic TCs is too short to inform our understanding of decadal-scale climatic controls on TC regimes. We combined two new annual-resolution proxies of Atlantic storm activity to extend the observational TC record back to the 16th Century. A tree-growth suppression chronology (1707-2010 CE) from the Florida Keys, U.S.A. captures 91% of observed North Atlantic TCs (1850-2010 CE) and shares significant peak events with a documentary time series of Spanish shipwrecks in the Caribbean (1495-1820). Decadal-scale shipwreck rates were lowest during the Maunder Minimum (ca. 1645-1715), indicating that cooler Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) during this period reduced Caribbean TC activity. Our results support global-scale climate proxy data and suggest that cooler tropical Atlantic SSTs and a generally negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation during the Little Ice Age reduced TC frequency.

  6. Solar wind: A possible factor driving the interannual sea surface temperature tripolar mode over North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ziniu; Li, Delin

    2016-06-01

    The effect of solar wind (SW) on the North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) in boreal winter is examined through an analysis of observational data during 1964-2013. The North Atlantic SSTs show a pronounced meridional tripolar pattern in response to solar wind speed (SWS) variations. This pattern is broadly similar to the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of interannual variations in the wintertime SSTs over North Atlantic. The time series of this leading EOF mode of SST shows a significant interannual period, which is the same as that of wintertime SWS. This response also appears as a compact north-south seesaw of sea level pressure and a vertical tripolar structure of zonal wind, which simultaneously resembles the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the overlying atmosphere. As compared with the typical low SWS winters, during the typical high SWS winters, the stratospheric polar night jet (PNJ) is evidently enhanced and extends from the stratosphere to the troposphere, even down to the North Atlantic Ocean surface. Notably, the North Atlantic Ocean is an exclusive region in which the SW signal spreads downward from the stratosphere to the troposphere. Thus, it seems that the SW is a possible factor for this North Atlantic SST tripolar mode. The dynamical process of stratosphere-troposphere coupling, together with the global atmospheric electric circuit-cloud microphysical process, probably accounts for the particular downward propagation of the SW signal.

  7. Combined influences of seasonal East Atlantic Pattern and North Atlantic Oscillation to excite Atlantic multidecadal variability in a climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Cassou, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The physical processes underlying the internal component of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) are investigated from a 1,000-yr pre-industrial control simulation of the CNRM-CM5 model. The low-frequency fluctuations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) are shown to be the main precursor for the model AMV. The full life cycle of AMOC/AMV events relies on a complex time-evolving relationship with both North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and East Atlantic Pattern (EAP) that must be considered from a seasonal perspective in order to isolate their action; the ocean is responsible for setting the multidecadal timescale of the fluctuations. AMOC rise leading to a warm phase of AMV is statistically preceded by wintertime NAO+ and EAP+ from ~Lag -40/-20 yrs. Associated wind stress anomalies induce an acceleration of the subpolar gyre (SPG) and enhanced northward transport of warm and saline subtropical water. Concurrent positive salinity anomalies occur in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas in link to local sea-ice decline; those are advected by the Eastern Greenland Current to the Labrador Sea participating to the progressive densification of the SPG and the intensification of ocean deep convection leading to AMOC strengthening. From ~Lag -10 yrs prior an AMOC maximum, opposite relationship is found with the NAO for both summer and winter seasons. Despite negative lags, NAO- at that time is consistent with the atmospheric response through teleconnection to the northward shift/intensification of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone in link to the ongoing warming of tropical north Atlantic basin due to AMOC rise/AMV build-up. NAO- acts as a positive feedback for the full development of the model AMV through surface fluxes but, at the same time, prepares its termination through negative retroaction on AMOC. Relationship between EAP+ and AMOC is also present in summer from ~Lags -30/+10 yrs while winter EAP- is favored around the AMV peak. Based on

  8. Holocene paleoceanography of the NE North Atlantic: evidence from IMAGES giant piston cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husum, Katrine; Miettinen, Arto; Divine, Dmitry; Hald, Morten; Koc, Nalan; Korsun, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    One of the major drivers of the climate of the NE North Atlantic region is the heat and moisture brought into the region by the North Atlantic Current, which brings warm and saline Atlantic water north and into the Arctic Ocean. Modern observations show how the temperatures of these water masses have increased the last decades, and there is a pressing need to establish baselines values for the fluctuations of Atlantic water. During different studies we have studied the Holocene fluctuations of the Atlantic water coming into the NE North Atlantic region. We have based our studies on IMAGES giant piston cores and microfossil based proxy data. The IMAGES cores, MD952011 and MD2305, are located below the axis of the Norwegian Current and the West Spitsbergen Current, which today transport warm Atlantic Water to the Arctic. Additional two IMAGES cores, MD992298 and MD992305, situated in fjords recording inflowing Atlantic water have also been investigated. The temperature records reflecting both surface and bottom water masses show the same overall trend of an early Holocene maximum warming (the co-called Holocene climate optimum) followed by a cooling through mid and late Holocene, however both the timing and duration of the Holocene climate optimum varies showing a later and shorter optimum towards the north. These overall trends are caused both by solar forcing and variations of the inflowing Atlantic water.

  9. Contributions of Tropical Cyclones to the North Atlantic Climatological Rainfall as Observed from Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Edward B.; Adler, Robert F.; Pierce, Harold F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The tropical cyclone rainfall climatology study that was performed for the North Pacific was extended to the North Atlantic. Similar to the North Pacific tropical cyclone study, mean monthly rainfall within 444 km of the center of the North Atlantic tropical cyclones (i.e., that reached storm stage and greater) was estimated from passive microwave satellite observations during, an eleven year period. These satellite-observed rainfall estimates were used to assess the impact of tropical cyclone rainfall in altering the geographical, seasonal, and inter-annual distribution of the North Atlantic total rainfall during, June-November when tropical cyclones were most abundant. The main results from this study indicate: 1) that tropical cyclones contribute, respectively, 4%, 3%, and 4% to the western, eastern, and entire North Atlantic; 2) similar to that observed in the North Pacific, the maximum in North Atlantic tropical cyclone rainfall is approximately 5 - 10 deg poleward (depending on longitude) of the maximum non-tropical cyclone rainfall; 3) tropical cyclones contribute regionally a maximum of 30% of the total rainfall 'northeast of Puerto Rico, within a region near 15 deg N 55 deg W, and off the west coast of Africa; 4) there is no lag between the months with maximum tropical cyclone rainfall and non-tropical cyclone rainfall in the western North Atlantic, while in the eastern North Atlantic, maximum tropical cyclone rainfall precedes maximum non-tropical cyclone rainfall; 5) like the North Pacific, North Atlantic tropical cyclones Of hurricane intensity generate the greatest amount of rainfall in the higher latitudes; and 6) warm ENSO events inhibit tropical cyclone rainfall.

  10. Effects of body condition on buoyancy in endangered North Atlantic right whales.

    PubMed

    Nousek-McGregor, Anna E; Miller, Carolyn A; Moore, Michael J; Nowacek, Douglas P

    2014-01-01

    Buoyancy is an important consideration for diving marine animals, resulting in specific ecologically relevant adaptations. Marine mammals use blubber as an energy reserve, but because this tissue is also positively buoyant, nutritional demands have the potential to cause considerable variation in buoyancy. North Atlantic right whales Eubalaena glacialis are known to be positively buoyant as a result of their blubber, and the thickness of this layer varies considerably, but the effect of this variation on buoyancy has not been explored. This study compared the duration and rate of ascending and descending glides, recorded with an archival tag, with blubber thickness, measured with an ultrasound device, in free-swimming right whales. Ascending whales with thicker blubber had shorter portions of active propulsion and longer passive glides than whales with thinner blubber, suggesting that blubber thickness influences buoyancy because the buoyant force is acting in the same direction as the animal's movement during this phase. Whales with thinner layers also used similar body angles and velocities when traveling to and from depth, while those with thicker layers used shallower ascent angles but achieved higher ascent velocities. Such alterations in body angle may help to reduce the cost of transport when swimming against the force of buoyancy in a state of augmented positive buoyancy, which represents a dynamic response to reduce the energetic consequences of physiological changes. These results have considerable implications for any diving marine animal during periods of nutritional stress, such as during seasonal migrations and annual variations in prey availability. PMID:24457930

  11. The biogeochemical cycling of zinc and zinc isotopes in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Tim M.; John, Seth G.

    2014-10-01

    Zinc (Zn) is a marine micronutrient, with an overall oceanic distribution mirroring the major macronutrients, especially silicate. Seawater Zn isotope ratios (δ66Zn) are a relatively new oceanographic parameter which may offer insights into the biogeochemical cycling of Zn. To date, the handful of published studies of seawater δ66Zn show the global deep ocean to be both remarkably homogeneous (approximately +0.5‰) and isotopically heavier than the marine sources of Zn (+0.1 to +0.3‰). Here we present the first high-resolution oceanic section of δ66Zn, from the U.S. GEOTRACES GA03 North Atlantic Transect, from Lisbon to Woods Hole. Throughout the surface ocean, biological uptake and release of isotopically light Zn, together with scavenging of heavier Zn, leads to large variability in δ66Zn. In the ocean below 1000 m, δ66Zn is generally homogeneous (+0.50 ± 0.14‰; 2 SD), though deviations from +0.5‰ allow us to identify specific sources of Zn. The Mediterranean Outflow is characterized by δ66Zn of +0.1 to +0.3‰, while margin sediments are a source of isotopically light Zn (-0.5 to -0.8‰), which we attribute to release of nonregenerated biogenic Zn. Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vents are also a source of light Zn (close to -0.5‰), though Zn is not transported far from the vents. Understanding the biogeochemical cycling of Zn in the modern ocean begins to address the imbalance between the light δ66Zn signature of marine sources and the globally homogeneous deep oceans (δ66Zn of +0.5‰) on long timescales, with overall patterns pointing to sediments as an important sink for isotopically light Zn throughout the oceans.

  12. Diversity and distribution of single-stranded DNA phages in the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Kimberly P; Parsons, Rachel; Symonds, Erin M; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-05-01

    Knowledge of marine phages is highly biased toward double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) phages; however, recent metagenomic surveys have also identified single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) phages in the oceans. Here, we describe two complete ssDNA phage genomes that were reconstructed from a viral metagenome from 80 m depth at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site in the northwestern Sargasso Sea and examine their spatial and temporal distributions. Both genomes (SARssφ1 and SARssφ2) exhibited similarity to known phages of the Microviridae family in terms of size, GC content, genome organization and protein sequence. PCR amplification of the replication initiation protein (Rep) gene revealed narrow and distinct depth distributions for the newly described ssDNA phages within the upper 200 m of the water column at the BATS site. Comparison of Rep gene sequences obtained from the BATS site over time revealed changes in the diversity of ssDNA phages over monthly time scales, although some nearly identical sequences were recovered from samples collected 4 years apart. Examination of ssDNA phage diversity along transects through the North Atlantic Ocean revealed a positive correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance between sampling sites. Together, the data suggest fundamental differences between the distribution of these ssDNA phages and the distribution of known marine dsDNA phages, possibly because of differences in host range, host distribution, virion stability, or viral evolution mechanisms and rates. Future work needs to elucidate the host ranges for oceanic ssDNA phages and determine their ecological roles in the marine ecosystem. PMID:21124487

  13. Lower-crustal intrusion on the North Atlantic continental margin.

    PubMed

    White, R S; Smith, L K; Roberts, A W; Christie, P A F; Kusznir, N J; Roberts, A M; Healy, D; Spitzer, R; Chappell, A; Eccles, J D; Fletcher, R; Hurst, N; Lunnon, Z; Parkin, C J; Tymms, V J

    2008-03-27

    When continents break apart, the rifting is sometimes accompanied by the production of large volumes of molten rock. The total melt volume, however, is uncertain, because only part of it has erupted at the surface. Furthermore, the cause of the magmatism is still disputed-specifically, whether or not it is due to increased mantle temperatures. We recorded deep-penetration normal-incidence and wide-angle seismic profiles across the Faroe and Hatton Bank volcanic margins in the northeast Atlantic. Here we show that near the Faroe Islands, for every 1 km along strike, 360-400 km(3) of basalt is extruded, while 540-600 km(3) is intruded into the continent-ocean transition. We find that lower-crustal intrusions are focused mainly into a narrow zone approximately 50 km wide on the transition, although extruded basalts flow more than 100 km from the rift. Seismic profiles show that the melt is intruded into the lower crust as sills, which cross-cut the continental fabric, rather than as an 'underplate' of 100 per cent melt, as has often been assumed. Evidence from the measured seismic velocities and from igneous thicknesses are consistent with the dominant control on melt production being increased mantle temperatures, with no requirement for either significant active small-scale mantle convection under the rift or the presence of fertile mantle at the time of continental break-up, as has previously been suggested for the North Atlantic Ocean. PMID:18368115

  14. Monitoring the North Atlantic using ocean colour data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes-Yaco, C.; Caverhill, C.; Maass, H.; Porter, C.; White, GN, III

    2016-04-01

    The Remote Sensing Unit (RSU) at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO) has been monitoring the North Atlantic using ocean colour products for decades. Optical sensors used include CZCS, POLDER, SeaWiFS, MODIS/Aqua and MERIS. The monitoring area is defined by the Atlantic Zone Monitoring Program (AZMP) but certain products extend into Arctic waters, and all-Canadian waters which include the Pacific coast. RSU provides Level 3 images for various products in several formats and a range of temporal and spatial resolutions. Basic statistics for pre-defined areas of interest are compiled for each product. Climatologies and anomaly maps are also routinely produced, and custom products are delivered by request. RSU is involved in the generation of Level 4 products, such as characterizing the phenology of spring and fall phytoplankton blooms, computing primary production, using ocean colour to aid in EBSA (Ecologically and Biologically Significant Area) definition and developing habitat suitability maps. Upcoming operational products include maps of diatom distribution, biogeochemical province boundaries, and products from sensors such as VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite), OLCI (Ocean Land Colour Instrument), and PACE (Pre-Aerosol, Clouds and ocean Ecosystem) hyperspectral microsatellite mission.

  15. An investigation of Ekman upwelling in the North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, Charles R.; Firestone, James

    1993-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of the North Atlantic Ekman upwelling fields on seasonal and interannual time scales is investigated on the basis of surface winds from the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center for 1979-1986. A pronounced minimum in the basin-wide monthly mean vertical Ekman velocities during 1981-1982 is found. It is shown that the primary source of the interannual signal was the region off NW Africa in the vicinity of the Guinea Dome. Other sectors of the basin experienced no significant interannual trends. Hydrographic data and SST data from the NW Africa sector for 1981-1986 indicate a cooling trend beginning in late 1982, consistent with increased upwelling. The fall and winter seasons' mixed layers at the center of the Guinea Dome were deeper in 1984 and 1985 than in previous years. The potential impact of large interannual variations in Ekman upwelling on basin-wide primary productivity is discussed.

  16. Measurements of Ocean Derived Aerosol Over the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P.; Frossard, A. A.; Russell, L. M.; Hakala, J. P.; Kieber, D. J.; Keene, W. C.

    2012-12-01

    Breaking waves on the ocean surface inject sea spray particles into the atmosphere which can act as CCN. Characterization of particles freshly emitted from the ocean surface requires a sampling method that is able to isolate those particles and prevent them from interacting with ambient gases and particles. Here we report measurements of particles directly emitted from the ocean using a newly developed in-situ particle generator (Sea Sweep). The Sea Sweep was deployed alongside RV Ronald H. Brown in the North Atlantic during August of 2012 in two contrasting regions; one in the eutrophic waters on Georges Bank and one in the oligotrophic waters near Bermuda. Bubbles were generated 0.75 m below the ocean surface with stainless steel frits and swept into a hood/vacuum hose to feed a suite of aerosol instrumentation on board the ship. The measured aerosol properties from the two regions will be compared.

  17. Late Miocene biogeography and paleoclimatology of the central North Atlantic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poore, R.Z.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative analyses of planktonic foraminiferal assemblages from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Holes 334 and 410 demonstrate that subpolar and subtropical faunal provinces existed in the North Atlantic during the late Miocene. Climatic oscillations are clearly recorded in Hole 410 by variations in abundance of the Neogloboquadrina subpolar assemblage. These climatic oscillations have a period of about 1 m.y. Higher frequency oscillations with a periodicity of one to several hundred thousand years are evident from about 6.5 to 7.5 m.y. and are probably present throughout the entire late Miocene. A revised age of 7.0 m.y. is proposed for the first occurrence of the calcareous nannofossil Amaurolithus primus (the Amaurolithus datum). ?? 1981.

  18. Sting jets in intense winter North-Atlantic windstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Alvarado, Oscar; Gray, Suzanne L.; Catto, Jennifer L.; Clark, Peter A.

    2012-06-01

    Extratropical cyclones dominate autumn and winter weather over western Europe. The strongest cyclones, often termed windstorms, have a large socio-economic impact due to the strong surface winds and associated storm surges in coastal areas. Here we show that sting jets are a common feature of windstorms; up to a third of the 100 most intense North-Atlantic winter windstorms over the last two decades satisfy conditions for sting jets. The sting jet is a mesoscale descending airstream that can cause strong near-surface winds in the dry slot of the cyclone, a region not usually associated with strong winds. Despite their localized transient nature, these sting jets can cause significant damage, a prominent example being the storm that devastated southeast England on 16 October 1987. We present the first regional climatology of windstorms with sting jets. Previously analysed sting-jet cases appear to have been exceptional in their track over northwest Europe rather than in their strength.

  19. The North Atlantic Oscillation system and plant phenology.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Zdenek

    2016-05-01

    The onset of flowering in 78 wild and domesticated terrestrial plant species recorded in South Moravia (Czech Republic) from 1965 to 2014 was correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the preceding winter. Flowering occurred significantly earlier following positive winter NAO phases (causing spring to be warmer than normal in Central Europe) in nearly all early-flowering (March, April) species; high Pearson correlation values were recorded in, e.g., goat willow, spring snowflake, golden bell, cornelian cherry, sweet violet, cherry plum, grape hyacinth, apricot, blackthorn, common dandelion, cherry, southern magnolia, common apple, cuckoo flower, European bird cherry, and cherry laurel. In contrast, the timing of later-flowering plant species (May to July) did not correlate significantly with the winter NAO index. It was found that local temperature is obviously a proximate factor of plant phenology, while the winter NAO is the ultimate factor, affecting temperature and other meteorological phenomena in Central Europe during spring season. PMID:26431699

  20. Oceanic Situational Awareness over the North Atlantic Corridor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfield, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the oceanic domain. The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the North Atlantic Corridor to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.

  1. The North Atlantic Oscillation system and plant phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubálek, Zdenek

    2016-05-01

    The onset of flowering in 78 wild and domesticated terrestrial plant species recorded in South Moravia (Czech Republic) from 1965 to 2014 was correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the preceding winter. Flowering occurred significantly earlier following positive winter NAO phases (causing spring to be warmer than normal in Central Europe) in nearly all early-flowering (March, April) species; high Pearson correlation values were recorded in, e.g., goat willow, spring snowflake, golden bell, cornelian cherry, sweet violet, cherry plum, grape hyacinth, apricot, blackthorn, common dandelion, cherry, southern magnolia, common apple, cuckoo flower, European bird cherry, and cherry laurel. In contrast, the timing of later-flowering plant species (May to July) did not correlate significantly with the winter NAO index. It was found that local temperature is obviously a proximate factor of plant phenology, while the winter NAO is the ultimate factor, affecting temperature and other meteorological phenomena in Central Europe during spring season.

  2. Comparison data for Seasat altimetry in the western North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheney, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The radar altimeter flown on Seasat in 1978 collected approximately 1,000 orbits of high quality data (5-8 precision). In the western North Atlantic these data were combined with a detailed gravimetric geoid in an attempt to produce profiles of dynamic topography. In order to provide a basis for evaluation of these profiles, available oceanographic observations in the Gulf Stream/Sargasso Sea region have been compiled into a series of biweekly maps. The data include XBT's, satellite infrared imagery, and selected trajectories of surface drifters and sub-surface SOFAR floats. The maps document the known locations of the Gulf Stream, cyclonic and anticyclonic rings, and mid-ocean eddies during the period July to October 1978.

  3. Uranium-thorium disequilibrium in north-east Atlantic waters.

    PubMed

    Smith, K J; León Vintró, L; Mitchell, P I; Bally de Bois, P; Boust, D

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report and compare the concentrations of 234Th and 238U measured in surface and subsurface waters collected in the course of a sampling campaign in the north east Atlantic in June-July 1998. Dissolved 234Th concentrations in surface waters ranged from 5 to 20 Bq m(-3), showing a large deficiency relative to 238U concentrations (typically 42 Bq m-3). This disequilibrium is indicative of active 234Th scavenging from surface waters. Observed 234Th/238U activity ratios, together with corresponding 234Th particulate concentrations, were used to calculate mean residence times for 234Th with respect to scavenging onto particles (tau(diss)) and subsequent removal from surface waters (tau(part)). Residence times in the range 5-30 days were determined for tau(diss) and 4-18 days for tau(part) (n=14). In addition, ultrafiltration experiments at six stations in the course of the same expedition revealed that in north-east Atlantic surface waters a significant fraction (46+/-17%; n=6) of the thorium in the (operationally-defined) dissolved phase (<0.45 microm) is in colloidal form. These observations are consistent with the 'colloidal pumping' model in which it is assumed that 234Th is rapidly absorbed by colloidal particles, which then aggregate, albeit at a slower rate, into larger filterable particles. In essence, colloids act as intermediaries in the transition from the fully dissolved to the filter-retained (>0.45 microm) phase. Thus, the time (tau(c)) for fully dissolved 234Th to appear in the filter-retained fraction is dependent on the rate of colloidal aggregation. Here, we determined tau(c) values in the range 3-17 days. PMID:15063548

  4. Distinguishing molecular characteristics of aerosol water soluble organic matter from the 2011 trans-North Atlantic US GEOTRACES cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, A. S.; Willoughby, A. S.; Gurganus, S. C.; Hatcher, P. G.

    2014-03-01

    The molecular characteristics of aerosol organic matter (OM) determines to a large extent its impacts on the atmospheric radiative budget and ecosystem function in terrestrial and aquatic environments, yet the molecular details of aerosol OM from different sources are not well established. Aerosol particulate samples having North American-influenced, North African-influenced, and marine (minimal recent continental influence) air mass back trajectories were collected as part of the 2011 trans-North Atlantic US GEOTRACES cruise and analyzed for their water soluble OM (WSOM) molecular characteristics using electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis (PCA) separated the samples into five groups defined by distinct molecular formula characteristics. An abundance of nitrogen containing compounds with molecular formulas consistent with amino acid derivatives defined the two samples comprising the Primary Marine group suggesting a primary marine biological source to their WSOM in spite of their North American-influenced air mass trajectories. A second group of samples (Aged Marine) having primarily marine air mass trajectories was characterized by an abundance of low O / C (0.15-0.45) sulfur containing compounds consistent with organosulfate compounds formed via secondary aging reactions in the atmosphere. Several samples having North American-influenced air mass trajectories formed another group again characterized by organosulfate and nitrooxyorganosulfate type compounds with higher O / C ratios (0.5-1.0) than the Aged Marine samples reflecting the combustion influence from the North American continent. All the samples having North African-influenced air mass trajectories grouped together in the PCA and were characterized by a lack of heteroatom (N, S, P) containing molecular formulas covering a wide O / C range (0.15-0.90) reflecting the desert source of this WSOM. The two marine groups showed

  5. The alkenone temperature signal in western North Atlantic surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, M. H.; Weber, J. C.; King, L. L.; Wakeham, S. G.

    2001-12-01

    Haptophyte algae-derived long-chain C 37-C 39 alkenones and alkyl alkenoates were analyzed in euphotic zone particulate matter collected over a 7 yr period at the Oceanic Flux Program/Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (OFP/BATS) site in the western Sargasso Sea. Surface water temperatures at the site range annually from 19 to 29°C. Alkenone concentrations ranged from < 0.1 ng L -1 in summer to > 100 ng L -1 following the passage of storms. Highest seasonal concentrations occurred during the late winter and spring. Under stratified conditions, alkenone concentrations in the surface mixed layer (0-20 m) were generally 2 to 4 times higher than in the deep fluorescent maximum (75-110 m), consistent with Emiliania huxleyi concentration profiles (Haidar and Thierstein, 2001) and indicated that alkenone production primarily occurs within the upper euphotic zone in this region. Alkenone compound distributions and the temperature calibrations of C 37 and C 38 methyl and ethyl alkenone unsaturation (U 37K', U 38MeK, and U 38EtK, respectively) were remarkably similar to that observed in an E. huxleyi strain previously isolated from the same area (Conte et al., 1998), providing strong evidence that E. huxleyi is the predominant alkenone synthesizer and that characteristics exhibited by randomly isolated clones in culture are, in many cases, consistent with those of populations in the region of origin. The Bermuda calibration of U 37K' vs. water temperature (U 37K' = -1.9835 + 0.2004T - 0.0034T 2, r 2 = 0.95, n = 91) is nonlinear and falls along the same trendline as euphotic zone particulates from warm (> 15°C) waters of the eastern North Atlantic (Conte and Eglinton, 1993) and Mediterranean (Ternois et al., 1997). The combined North Atlantic temperature calibration (U 37K' = - 1.1365 + 0.1257T - 0.0018T 2, r 2 = 0.963, n = 134) differs significantly from published coretop sediment calibrations (Rosell-Melé et al., 1995; Müller et al., 1998) based on sea surface temperature

  6. Impacts of Sea Surface Salinity Bias Correction on North Atlantic Ocean Circulation and Climate Variability in the Kiel Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Taewook; Park, Wonsun; Latif, Mojib

    2016-04-01

    We investigated impacts of correcting North Atlantic sea surface salinity (SSS) biases on the ocean circulation of the North Atlantic and on North Atlantic sector mean climate and climate variability in the Kiel Climate Model (KCM). Bias reduction was achieved by applying a freshwater flux correction over the North Atlantic to the model. The quality of simulating the mean circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability is greatly enhanced in the freshwater flux-corrected integration which, by definition, depicts relatively small North Atlantic SSS biases. In particular, a large reduction in the North Atlantic cold sea surface temperature (SST) bias is observed and a more realistic Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) simulated. Improvements relative to the non-flux corrected integration also comprise a more realistic representation of deep convection sites, sea ice, gyre circulation and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The results suggest that simulations of North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability could strongly benefit from alleviating sea surface salinity biases in the North Atlantic, which may enhance the skill of decadal predictions in that region.

  7. Sea Surface Temperature Seesaw between the Subpolar North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea during the Late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, A.; Divine, D.; Koc, N.; Godtliebsen, F.; Hall, I. R.

    2012-12-01

    August sea surface temperature (aSST) record based on fossil diatom assemblages is generated from a 2800-year-long marine sediment core Rapid 21-COM from the Iceland Basin, in the northern subpolar North Atlantic. The record has a resolution of 2-10 years for interval 800-2004 AD representing the highest-resolution diatom SST reconstruction from the subpolar North Atlantic for this period, and 40 years for interval 800 BC-800 AD. The record is compared with the high-resolution aSST record from core CR948/2011 from the Vøring Plateau, in the Norwegian Sea, to explore the variability of the aSST gradient between these areas during the late Holocene. The aSST records show persistent opposite climate trends toward warming in the subpolar North Atlantic and cooling in the Norwegian Sea during the late Holocene. An apparent tendency to coherent antiphased aSST variations between the sites is also revealed for the shorter time scales implying an aSST seesaw between the northern subpolar North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea to operate during the late Holocene. At the multicentennial scale of aSST variability of 600-900 years, the records are nearly in antiphase with warmer (colder) periods in the subpolar North Atlantic corresponding to the colder (warmer) periods in the Norwegian Sea. At the shorter time scale of 200-450 years, the records display a phase-locked behaviour with a tendency for the positive aSST anomalies in the Norwegian Sea to lead by ca. 30 years the negative aSST anomalies in the subpolar North Atlantic. This aSST seesaw might have had a strong effect on two major climate anomalies in the northwest Europe during the past Millennium: Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). During the MWP warming of the sea surface in the Norwegian Sea occurred in parallel with cooling in the northern subpolar North Atlantic, whereas the opposite pattern emerged during the LIA. Coupled changes in aSST between the northern subpolar North Atlantic and the

  8. The observational influence of the North Atlantic SST tripole on the early spring atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhe; Luo, Feifei; Wan, Jianghua

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the forcing of the North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) tripole on the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)-like circulation in early spring (February-April) in observations. Corresponding to an SST tripole forcing in early spring, the atmospheric circulation is very weak and insignificant. However, further analyses indicate that the observational effect of the SST anomalies on the NAO-like circulation is disturbed by the concomitant sea ice anomalies. With the linear effects of sea ice anomalies removed, there is an equivalent barotropic NAO-like circulation in early spring related to a North Atlantic SST tripole.

  9. Arctic contribution to upper-ocean variability in the North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, John E.; Chapman, William L.

    1990-01-01

    The potential climatic leverage of salinity and temperature anomalies in the high-latitude North Atlantic is large. Substantial variations of sea ice have accompanied North Atlantic salinity and temperature anomalies. Atmospheric pressure data are used here to show that the local forcing of high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean fluctuations is augmented by antecedent atmospheric circulation anomalies over the central Arctic. These circulation anomalies are consistent with enhanced wind-forcing of thicker older ice into the Transpolar Drift Stream and an enhanced export of sea ice (fresh water) from the Arctic into the Greenland Sea prior to major episodes of ice severity in the Greenland and Iceland seas.

  10. North Atlantic Deep Water and the World Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) by being warmer and more saline than the average abyssal water parcel introduces heat and salt into the abyssal ocean. The source of these properties is upper layer or thermocline water considered to occupy the ocean less dense than sigma-theta of 27.6. That NADW convects even though it's warmer than the abyssal ocean is obviously due to the high salinity. In this way, NADW formation may be viewed as saline convection. The counter force removing heat and salinity (or introducing fresh water) is usually considered to to take place in the Southern Ocean where upwelling deep water is converted to cold fresher Antarctic water masses. The Southern ocean convective process is driven by low temperatures and hence may be considered as thermal convection. A significant fresh water source may also occur in the North Pacific where the northward flowing of abyssal water from the Southern circumpolar belt is saltier and denser than the southward flowing, return abyssal water. The source of the low salinity input may be vertical mixing of the low salinity surface water or the low salinity intermediate water.

  11. Changes in North Atlantic circulation at the end of the Cretaceous greenhouse interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, K. G.; Isaza Londoño, C.; Martin, E. E.; Jiménez Berrocoso, Á.; Basak, C.

    2011-11-01

    The mechanics of ocean circulation during the Late Cretaceous greenhouse interval remain contested, with the role of North Atlantic Deep Water in ocean circulation particularly debated: the relative warming of the North Atlantic during the termination of the greenhouse interval has been attributed to heat piracy from North Atlantic Deep Water formation, but the sources of Cretaceous deep water have been difficult to resolve. Nd isotopes as captured by seafloor sediments and expressed as εNd(t) reflect the region in which the water mass was formed. Here we present εNd(t) measurements from Cretaceous- to Palaeogene-aged sediments from four cores in the tropical North Atlantic. Before 69Myr ago, we find extremely low εNd(t) values of about -16, consistent with the presence of a warm, saline deep water mass formed in the low latitudes. By 62Myr ago, εNd(t) values had risen to -11, similar to values reported from the northern North Atlantic over the past 65 million years, but lower than most contemporaneous values in the South Atlantic and Pacific oceans. We therefore suggest that the εNd(t) shift reflects the increasing influence of a northern-sourced water mass at this site, indicating the onset or intensification of deep- or intermediate-water formation in the North Atlantic 69Myr ago. Our findings support the heat piracy model and imply that circulation patterns during the greenhouse interval were different from those of the subsequent relatively temperate interval.

  12. 77 FR 16538 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the North Atlantic Right Whale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the North Atlantic Right Whale and the North Pacific Right Whale AGENCY... review of North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) and North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena... of any such information on these whales that has become available since the last status review...

  13. Subsurface warming in the subpolar North Atlantic during rapid climate events in the Early and Mid-Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Almeida, Iván; Sierro, Francisco; Cacho, Isabel; Abel Flores, José

    2014-05-01

    A new high-resolution reconstruction of the temperature and salinity of the subsurface waters using paired Mg/Ca-δ18O measurements on the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistrorsa (sin.) was conducted on a deep-sea sediment core in the subpolar North Atlantic (Site U1314). This study aims to reconstruct millennial-scale subsurface hydrography variations during the Early and Mid-Pleistocene (MIS 31-19). These rapid climate events are characterized by abrupt shifts between warm/cold conditions, and ice-sheet oscillations, as evidenced by major ice rafting events recorded in the North Atlantic sediments (Hernández-Almeida et al., 2012), similar to those found during the Last Glacial period (Marcott et al, 2011). The Mg/Ca derived paleotemperature and salinity oscillations prior and during IRD discharges at Site U1314 are related to changes in intermediate circulation. The increases in Mg/Ca paleotemperatures and salinities during the IRD event are preceded by short episodes of cooling and freshening of subsurface waters. The response of the AMOC to this perturbation is an increased of warm and salty water coming from the south, transported to high latitudes in the North Atlantic beneath the thermocline. This process is accompanied by a southward shift in the convection cell from the Nordic Seas to the subpolar North Atlantic and better ventilation of the North Atlantic at mid-depths. Poleward transport of warm and salty subsurface subtropical waters causes intense basal melting and thinning of marine ice-shelves, that culminates in large-scale instability of the ice sheets, retreat of the grounding line and iceberg discharge. The mechanism proposed involves the coupling of the AMOC with ice-sheet dynamics, and would explain the presence of these fluctuations before the establishment of high-amplitude 100-kyr glacial cycles. Hernández-Almeida, I., Sierro, F.J., Cacho, I., Flores, J.A., 2012. Impact of suborbital climate changes in the North

  14. A Model Marine Science Laboratory, North Kitsap Marine Environmental Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Andrew L.; And Others

    The project had two overall goals: (1) to establish and maintain a model marine science facility to be used as a teaching station and a base for research; and (2) to increase student and public awareness about the oceans and the important role they will play in man's future. The project served all the school districts in Kitsap County (Washington)…

  15. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a sentinel species for aquatic animals: Medaka cells exhibit a similar genotoxic response as North Atlantic right whale cells★

    PubMed Central

    Wise, John Pierce; Wise, Sandra S.; Goodale, Britton C.; Shaffiey, Fariba; Kraus, Scott; Walter, Ronald B.

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is emerging as a major concern for aquatic environments, particularly marine environments. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) has been used as a model species for human and aquatic health, including the marine environment, though few studies have directly compared toxicological responses in medaka to humans or other aquatic species. We used a medaka fin cell line to compare the genotoxic response of medaka to Cr(VI) to the response observed in North Atlantic right whale cells to see if responses in medaka were similar to those of other aquatic species, particularly aquatic mammals. We used the production of chromosomal aberrations as a measure of genotoxicity. We found that in medaka cells, concentrations of 1, 5 and 10 μM sodium chromate damaged 17, 32 and 43% of metaphases, respectively and these same concentrations 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 μM sodium chromate damaged 14, 24 and 49% of metaphases, respectively, in North Atlantic right whale lung cells and 11, 32 and 41% of metaphases, respectively, in North Atlantic right whale testes cells. These data show that genotoxic responses in medaka are comparable to those seen in North Atlantic right whale cells, consistent with the hypothesis that medaka are a useful model for other aquatic species. PMID:18930840

  16. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a sentinel species for aquatic animals: Medaka cells exhibit a similar genotoxic response as North Atlantic right whale cells.

    PubMed

    Wise, John Pierce; Wise, Sandra S; Goodale, Britton C; Shaffiey, Fariba; Kraus, Scott; Walter, Ronald B

    2009-03-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is emerging as a major concern for aquatic environments, particularly marine environments. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) has been used as a model species for human and aquatic health, including the marine environment, though few studies have directly compared toxicological responses in medaka to humans or other aquatic species. We used a medaka fin cell line to compare the genotoxic response of medaka to Cr(VI) to the response observed in North Atlantic right whale cells to see if responses in medaka were similar to those of other aquatic species, particularly aquatic mammals. We used the production of chromosomal aberrations as a measure of genotoxicity. We found that in medaka cells, concentrations of 1, 5 and 10 microM sodium chromate damaged 17, 32 and 43% of metaphases, respectively and these same concentrations 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM sodium chromate damaged 14, 24 and 49% of metaphases, respectively, in North Atlantic right whale lung cells and 11, 32 and 41% of metaphases, respectively, in North Atlantic right whale testes cells. These data show that genotoxic responses in medaka are comparable to those seen in North Atlantic right whale cells, consistent with the hypothesis that medaka are a useful model for other aquatic species. PMID:18930840

  17. Short-term Holocene climate variability in coastal mid-Norway - the terrestrial response to the North Atlantic climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, M.; Seidenkrantz, M.-S.; Piotrowski, J. A.; Heinemeier, J.; Rubensdotter, L.; Faust, J.; Knies, J.

    2012-04-01

    decreasing trend towards modern times. High-resolution elemental ratios fluctuate on centennial to decadal time scales and show a comparable pattern as in sea-surface temperature reconstructions from marine records off the Norwegian coast and are comparable with lake bioproductivity records from central Scandinavia. Comparison of selected elemental ratios with precipitation proxies from Greenland ice cores indicates that apart from catchment input also precipitation governed by the North Atlantic climate influenced to some extent the lake and its environment. The results from Lake Blomstertjønna demonstrate the sensitivity of coastal lakes in mid-Norway to climatic variability mediated by the North Atlantic surface water temperature changes and extend the reliable linkage of marine and terrestrial records further inland to the Scandinavian mountains.

  18. Warming of surface waters in the mid-latitude North Atlantic during Heinrich events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naafs, B. D. A.; Hefter, J.; Grützner, J.; Stein, R.

    2013-01-01

    During the six Heinrich events of the last 70 kyr, episodic calving from the circum-Atlantic ice sheets released large numbers of icebergs into the North Atlantic. These icebergs and associated meltwater flux are hypothesized to have led to a shutdown of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and severe cooling in large parts of the Northern Hemisphere. However, due to the limited availability of high-resolution records, the magnitude of sea surface temperature (SST) changes related to the impact of Heinrich events on the midlatitude North Atlantic is poorly constrained. Here we present a record of U37K'-based SSTs derived from sediments of Integrated Ocean Drilling Project Site U1313, located at the southern end of the ice-rafted debris (IRD) belt in the midlatitude North Atlantic (41°N). We demonstrate that all six Heinrich events are associated with a rapid warming of surface waters by 2-4°C in a few thousand years. The presence of IRD leaves no doubt about the simultaneous timing and correlation between rapid surface water warming and Heinrich events. We argue that this warming in the midlatitude North Atlantic is related to a northward expansion of the subtropical gyre during Heinrich events. As a wide range of studies demonstrated that in the central IRD belt Heinrich events are associated with low SSTs, these results thus identify an antiphased (seesaw) pattern in SSTs during Heinrich events between the midlatitude (warm) and northern North Atlantic (cold). This highlights the complex response of surface water characteristics in the North Atlantic to Heinrich events that is poorly reproduced by freshwater hosing experiments and challenges the widely accepted view that, within the IRD belt of the North Atlantic, Heinrich events coincide with periods of low SSTs.

  19. Monitoring and Mitigation Alternatives for Protection of North Atlantic Right Whales during Offshore Wind Farm Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Halvorsen, Michele B.; Matzner, Shari; Copping, Andrea E.; Stavole, Jessica

    2012-09-01

    Progress report on defining and determining monitoring and mitigation measures for protecting North Atlantic Right Whales from the effects of pile driving and other activities associated with installation of offshore wind farms.

  20. Early opening of initially closed Gulf of Mexico and central North Atlantic ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Van Siclen, D.C.

    1984-09-01

    This paper presents ideas on the early opening and evolution of the Gulf of Mexico and the central North Atlantic ocean. It discusses rifting activity, plate tectonics, magnetic anomalies, and the geologic time elements involved.

  1. Recent Changes in Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Motion Associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, R.

    1999-01-01

    Examination of a new ice motion dataset of the Arctic Ocean over a recent eighteen year period (1978-1996) reveals patterns of variability that can be linked directly to the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  2. Investigating the Asymmetry of Northern North Atlantic Volcanic Continental Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. K.; White, R. S.

    2005-12-01

    The Hatton Bank continental margin is a typical example of the volcanic margins present in the northern North Atlantic where voluminous magmatism occurred at the time of continental break-up. The upper crust exhibits characteristically large volumes of extruded lava imaged as seaward-dipping reflectors, which have in the past proved problematic for seismic imaging of the deeper crustal structure. The integrated Seismic Imaging and Modelling of Margins (iSIMM) project recorded profiles in 2002 designed to map specifically the poorly constrained lower crustal structure in this region. 29 four-component ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) were deployed along a strike line over the region of thickest extrusive and intruded igneous material; 53 OBS were deployed through the mid-point of the strike line, along a dip line extending from the stretched continental crust of the Hatton Basin into the fully oceanic crust of the Iceland Basin. We present a new seismic velocity model for the Hatton Bank volcanic continental margin. Joint wide-angle refraction and reflection tomography was used to determine the seismic velocity structure and depth to Moho across the continent-ocean transition (COT) in both the dip and strike directions. The lower crust beneath the margin exhibits elevated crustal velocities in the range of 7.0-7.4 km/s, which represent new igneous material added to the lower crust in this region at the time of continental break-up. The iSIMM survey is located close to the site of a previous survey carried out in 1986. A comparison of the 1986 results and the results from the 1996 SIGMA survey carried out on the conjugate southeast Greenland margin show a marked asymmetry in crustal structure: the Greenland margin appears to have a COT stretched over ~ 150 km compared to the narrower COT of the Hatton Bank margin, which extends for only ~ 50 km. The new iSIMM survey results provide a refined estimate of crustal structure of the Hatton Bank margin and improved

  3. A refined age grid for the Central North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luis, J. M.; Miranda, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present a digital model for the age of the Central North Atlantic as a geographical grid with 1 arc minute resolution. Our seafloor isochrons are identified following the 'grid procedure' described in the work of Luis and Miranda (2008). The grid itself, which was initially a locally improved version of the Verhoef et al. (1996) compilation, was improved in 2011 (Luis and Miranda, 2011) and further refined with the inclusion of Russian data north of Charlie Gibbs FZ (personal communication, S. Mercuriev). The location and geometry of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is now very well constrained by both magnetic anomalies and swath bathymetry data down to ~10 degrees N. We identified an extensive set of chrons 0, 2A, 3, 3A, 4, 4A, 5, 6, 6C, 11-12, 13, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33r, M0, M2, M4, M10, M16, M21 and M25. The ages at each grid node are computed by linear interpolation of adjacent isochrons along the direction of the flow-lines. As a pre-processing step each conjugate pair of isochrones was simplified by rotating one of them about the finite pole of that anomaly and use both, original picks plus rotated ones, to calculate an average segment. Fractures zones are used to constrain the chron's shape. These procedures minimize the uncertainties in locations where on one side of the basin one has good identifications but the other is poorly defined as is typical of many of the old isochrones. Care has also taken to account for locations where significant ridge jumps were found. Ages of the ocean floor between the oldest identified magnetic anomalies and continental crust are interpolated using the oldest ages of the Muller at al. (2008), which were themselves estimated from the ages of passive continental margin segments. This is a contribution to MAREKH project (PTDC/MAR/108142/2008) funded by the Portuguese Science Foundation.

  4. The North Atlantic surface layer and the shallow overturning circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busecke, Julius; Gordon, Arnold L.

    2014-05-01

    The sea surface salinity maximum (SSS-max) is an integral part of the shallow overturning (SOC) circulation in the North Atlantic. The temperature and salinity of the SSS-max set the density of the subducted water thus are important for the transport properties of the SOC, which has been shown to be important for the large-scale climate. The region requires a net influx of freshwater at near surface level to balance net evaporation. The processes that achieve this task likely influence the variability of SSS-max properties on various time scales in addition to the surface forcing. We are testing the hypothesis that changes in the large-scale wind field in the North Atlantic drive variability of freshwater import by ocean processes into the SSS-max, resulting in seasonal and interannual variability as previously documented. To evaluate the role of said processes for the variability of the upper limb of the SOC, AQUARIUS sea surface salinity (SSS), eddy kinetic energy (EKE) derived from altimetry data (AVISO), sea surface temperature (SST, NOAA OI SST V2) and wind fields (NCEP reanalysis) are used. Previous studies point out the importance of mesoscale dynamics for the freshwater flux into the region which seems to be enhanced by an increased density gradient at the southern edge of the SSS-max as seen from 2012 to 2013. The interannual comparison of meridional density gradient and EKE underline the importance of baroclinic instability for the formation of mesoscale turbulence in the SSS-max in accordance with previous studies. Further analysis, using the SST gradient (extending further back in time than the SSS satellite record) reveals significant seasonal cycles of zonal wind, SST gradient and EKE within the SSS-max region. Spatial correlations between aforementioned variables within the SSS-max region are found, with the EKE peaking about 2-4 months after the large-scale temperature gradient and the zonal wind. Ekman induced set up of the meridional density

  5. Correlating Cordilleran Ice Sheet Collapse with North Atlantic Heinrich Events using Global Radiocarbon Plateaus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendy, I. L.; Cosma, T.

    2006-12-01

    The small, ephemeral Cordilleran Ice Sheet, present in Alaska, British Columbia and northern Washington during the last glacial cycle is believed to have behaved differently than the larger Laurentice Ice Sheet to climate forcing. High quality chronology is required to understand the relationship between this ice sheet and global climate change. Presently MD02-2496 (48°58.47N: 127°02.14W; 1190m water depth) is the highest resolution paleoclimate record available for the last 50 Ka in the Pacific northwest and contains intervals of glacial-marine sedimentation. High resolution dating based on 36 radiocarbon dates provide a chronology that includes radiocarbon age plateaus, while planktonic foraminiferal stable isotopes offer a continuous record of climate change. Glacial-marine sediments collected from this site on the continental slope west of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, document three intervals of iceberg discharge during the last ~50 Ka. Gradually increasing quantities of ice rafted detritus (grains >250μm, g-1; IRD) followed by abrupt cessation within ~500 years is strongly suggestive of catastrophic iceberg discharge. The penultimate event is correlated to marine invasion of the Juan de Fuca Strait, and Puget Sound, while the final IRD event with that of Georgia Strait. We posit that these previously unknown IRD events represent repeated rapid iceberg discharge related to Cordilleran Ice Sheet collapse. The events occur near the end of radiocarbon plateaus at 13.35 ±90 and 14.05 ±70 14C Kyr BP (not reservoir corrected). If these plateaus correlate with the 12.2 and 13.3 14C Kyr BP plateaus recorded in Carriaco Basin and elsewhere, local reservoir ages can be calculated and vary between 1,150 and 1,550 years similar to those derived locally from glacial wood-shell pairs. Furthermore, if the plateaus result from reduced North Atlantic Deep Water export and consequently Heinrich Events, the Cordilleran IRD events are related to North Atlantic iceberg

  6. Interdecadal changes in the storm track activity over the North Pacific and North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sun-Seon; Lee, June-Yi; Wang, Bin; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Heo, Ki-Young; Jin, Fei-Fei; Straus, David M.; Shukla, Jagadish

    2012-07-01

    Analysis of NCEP-NCAR I reanalysis data of 1948-2009 and ECMWF ERA-40 reanalysis data of 1958-2001 reveals several significant interdecadal changes in the storm track activity and mean flow-transient eddy interaction in the extratropics of Northern Hemisphere. First, the most remarkable transition in the North Pacific storm track (PST) and the North Atlantic storm track (AST) activities during the boreal cold season (from November to March) occurred around early-to-mid 1970s with the characteristics of global intensification that has been noticed in previous studies. Second, the PST activity in midwinter underwent decadal change from a weak regime in the early 1980s to a strong regime in the late 1980s. Third, during recent decade, the PST intensity has been enhanced in early spring whereas the AST intensity has been weakened in midwinter. Finally, interdecadal change has been also noted in the relationship between the PST and AST activities and between the storm track activity and climate indices. The variability of storm track activity is well correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation prior to the early 1980s, but this relationship has disappeared afterward and a significant linkage between the PST and AST activity has also been decoupled. For a better understanding of the mid-1970s' shift in storm track activity and mean flow-transient eddy interaction, further investigation is made by analyzing local barotropic and baroclinic energetics. The intensification of global storm track activity after the mid-1970s is mainly associated with the enhancement of mean meridional temperature gradient resulting in favorable condition for baroclinic eddy growth. Consistent with the change in storm track activity, the baroclinic energy conversion is significantly increased in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. The intensification of the PST and AST activity, in turn, helps to reinforce the changes in the middle-to-upper tropospheric

  7. Ecosystem Models as Support to Eutrophication Management in the North Atlantic Ocean (EMoSEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Geneviève; Billen, Gilles; Desmit, Xavier; Garnier, Josette; Gypens, Nathalie; Lancelot, Christiane; Lenhart, Hermann; Los, Hans; Mateus, Marcos; Ménesguen, Alain; Neves, Ramiro; Troost, Tineke; van der Molen, Johan

    2013-04-01

    One of the leading challenges in marine science and governance is to improve scientific guidance of management measures to mitigate eutrophication nuisances in the EU seas. Existing approaches do not integrate the eutrophication process in space (continuum river-ocean) and in time (past, present and future status). A strong need remains for (i) knowledge/identification of all the processes that control eutrophication and its consequences, (ii) consistent and harmonized reference levels assigned to each eutrophication-related indicator, (iii) identification of the main rivers directly or indirectly responsible for eutrophication nuisances in specific areas, (iv) an integrated transboundary approach and (v) realistic and scientific-based nutrient reduction scenarios. The SEAS-ERA project EMoSEM aims to develop and combine the state-of-the-art modelling tools describing the river-ocean continuum in the North-East Atlantic (NEA) continental seas. This will allow to link the eutrophication nuisances in specific marine regions to anthropogenic inputs, trace back their sources up to the watersheds, then test nutrient reduction options that might be implemented in these watersheds, and propose consistent indicators and reference levels to assess the Good Environmental Status (GES). At the end, EMoSEM will deliver coupled river-coastal-sea mathematical models and will provide guidance to end-users (policy- and decision makers) for assessing and combating eutrophication problems in the NEA continental waters.

  8. Stratigraphy of Atlantic coastal margin of United States north of Cape Hatteras; brief survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, W.J.; Minard, J.P.; Weed, E.G.A.; Robbins, E.I.; Rhodehamel, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    A synthesis of studies of sea-floor outcrops of the sedimentary wedge beneath the northeastern United States continental shelf and slope and a reassessment of coastal plain Mesozoic stratigraphy, particularly of the coastal margin, provide insight for estimating the oil and gas potential and provide geologic control for marine seismic investigations of the Atlantic continental margin. The oldest strata known to crop out on the continental slope are late Campanian in age. The Cretaceous-Tertiary contact along the slope ranges from a water depth of 0.6 to 1.5 km south of Georges Bank to 1.8 km in Hudson Canyon. Few samples are available from Tertiary and Late Cretaceous outcrops along the slope. Sediments of the Potomac Group, chiefly of Early Cretaceous age, constitute a major deltaic sequence in the emerged coastal plain. This thick sequence lies under coastal Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, southeastern New Jersey, and the adjacent continental shelf. Marine sands associated with this deltaic sequence may be present seaward under the outer continental shelf. South of the Norfolk arch, under coastal North Carolina, carbonate rocks interfinger with Lower Cretaceous clastic strata. From all available data, Mesozoic correlations in coastal wells between coastal Virginia and Long Island have been revised. The Upper-Lower Cretaceous boundary is placed at the transition between Albian and Cenomanian floras. Potential hydrocarbon source beds are present along the coast in the subsurface sediments of Cretaceous age. Potential reservoir sandstones are abundant in this sequence.

  9. Correlation of lacustrine paleoclimate records from Mono Lake with the North Atlantic using paleomagnetic intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, S. R. H.; Hemming, S. R.; Kent, D. V.

    2003-04-01

    The Wilson Creek Formation of Mono Lake, CA is a Late Pleistocene lacustrine sequence that records major shifts in the paleoenvironment of the lake. It has also been shown to be an excellent recorder of the past variations of the Earth’s magnetic field, and is important as the type section of the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE). As with many terrestrial records, however, it has proven to be very challenging to date the Wilson Creek Fm. at high resolution. Radiocarbon dating has been shown to be vulnerable to contamination with modern carbon, while 40Ar/39Ar dating of the rhyolitic ashes is complicated by inclusion of older xenocrysts. Benson et al. (1998; QR, v. 49, 1-10 ) suggested a correlation to North Atlantic records using paleomagnetic inclination and intensity combined with radiocarbon ages. They argued that δ18O of the Wilson Creek sediments represents variations in lake level, with prominent dry periods (high δ18O) correlating to the North Atlantic Heinrich events. We generated a relative paleointensity record for the Wilson Creek section and propose an alternative correlation to the North Atlantic Paleomagnetic Intensity Stack (NAPIS-75; Laj et al. 2000, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., v. 358, 1009-1025) and the GISP2 age model. It was recently demonstrated by Stoner et al. (2002, QSR v. 21, 1141-1151) that variations in the Earth’s paleomagnetic field intensity are correlative both at high-resolution (10^3 yr) and over long distances (10^4 km). Assuming that the MLE is equivalent to the Laschamp Excursion and that the lake expanded early in Marine Isotope Stage 4, a simple correlation of the major features of the NAPIS-75 and Mono records places the Wilson Creek Fm. on the GISP2 age model, and allows correlation of that paleoclimate record to other records also on that time scale. We also interpret the major δ18O excursions as Heinrich correlatives; however, our correlation equates the three older excursions to H4, H5, and H6 (rather than H3, no correl., and H4

  10. Marine Wildlife Entanglement in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Kathryn; And Others

    The public has become increasingly aware that marine wildlife sometimes becomes entangled in fishing gear, such as dolphins in tuna nets. However, little is known about how widespread entanglement is and what its impacts are. If conclusions can be drawn from what few data do exist, the picture is an alarming one. Each year fishing activity causes…

  11. Evolution of North Atlantic Passive Margins Controlled by the Iceland Mantle Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnell-Turner, R. E.; White, N. J.; Henstock, T.; Murton, B. J.; Jones, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Evolution of North Atlantic passive margins has been profoundly influenced by the Iceland mantle plume over the past 60 Ma. Residual depth anomalies of oceanic lithosphere, long wavelength gravity anomalies and seismic tomographic models show that upwelling mantle material extends from Baffin Bay to Western Norway. At fringing passive margins such as Northwest Scotland, there is evidence for present-day dynamic support of the crust. The Iceland plume is bisected by the Reykjanes Ridge ridge, which acts as a tape-recorder of the temporal variability of the plume. We present regional seismic reflection profiles that traverse the oceanic basin between northwest Europe and Greenland. A diachronous pattern of V-shaped ridges and troughs are imaged beneath marine sediments, revealing a complete record of transient periodicity that can be traced continuously back to ~55 Myrs. This periodicity increases from ~3 to ~8 Ma with clear evidence for minor, but systematic, asymmetric crustal accretion. V-shaped ridges grow with time and reflect small (5-30°C) changes in mantle temperature, consistent with episodic generation of hot solitary waves triggered by growth of thermal boundary layer instabilities within the mantle. Our continuous record of convective activity suggests that the otherwise uniform thermal subsidence of sedimentary basins, which fringe the North Atlantic Ocean, has been punctuated by periods of variable dynamic topography. This record can explain a set of diverse observations from the geologic record. Paleogene unconformities in the Faroe-Shetland Basin, the punctuated deposition of contourite drifts and variations in deep-water current strength can all be explained by transient mantle plume behavior. These signals of convective activity should lead to improved insights into the fluid dynamics of the mantle, and into the evolution of volcanic passive margins.

  12. Spatially explicit estimates of stock size, structure and biomass of North Atlantic albacore Tuna (Thunnus alalunga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehodey, P.; Senina, I.; Dragon, A.-C.; Arrizabalaga, H.

    2014-04-01

    The development of the ecosystem approach and models for the management of ocean marine resources requires easy access to standard validated datasets of historical catch data for the main exploited species. They are used to measure the impact of biomass removal by fisheries and to evaluate the models skills, while the use of standard dataset facilitates models inter-comparison. Unlike standard stock assessment models, new state-of-the-art ecosystem models require geo-referenced fishing data with highest possible spatial resolution. This study presents an application to the north Atlantic albacore tuna stock with a careful definition and validation of a spatially explicit fishing dataset prepared from publically available sources (ICCAT) for its use in a spatial ecosystem and population dynamics model (SEAPODYM) to provide the first spatially explicit estimate of albacore density in the North Atlantic by life stage. Density distributions are provided (http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.831499) together with the fishing data used for these estimates http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.830797, http://doi.pangaea.de/10.15 1594/PANGAEA.828168, http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.828170, and http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.828171 (see section Source Data References).

  13. Advancing decadal-scale climate prediction in the North Atlantic sector.

    PubMed

    Keenlyside, N S; Latif, M; Jungclaus, J; Kornblueh, L; Roeckner, E

    2008-05-01

    The climate of the North Atlantic region exhibits fluctuations on decadal timescales that have large societal consequences. Prominent examples include hurricane activity in the Atlantic, and surface-temperature and rainfall variations over North America, Europe and northern Africa. Although these multidecadal variations are potentially predictable if the current state of the ocean is known, the lack of subsurface ocean observations that constrain this state has been a limiting factor for realizing the full skill potential of such predictions. Here we apply a simple approach-that uses only sea surface temperature (SST) observations-to partly overcome this difficulty and perform retrospective decadal predictions with a climate model. Skill is improved significantly relative to predictions made with incomplete knowledge of the ocean state, particularly in the North Atlantic and tropical Pacific oceans. Thus these results point towards the possibility of routine decadal climate predictions. Using this method, and by considering both internal natural climate variations and projected future anthropogenic forcing, we make the following forecast: over the next decade, the current Atlantic meridional overturning circulation will weaken to its long-term mean; moreover, North Atlantic SST and European and North American surface temperatures will cool slightly, whereas tropical Pacific SST will remain almost unchanged. Our results suggest that global surface temperature may not increase over the next decade, as natural climate variations in the North Atlantic and tropical Pacific temporarily offset the projected anthropogenic warming. PMID:18451859

  14. Suborbital timescale variability of North Atlantic Deep Water during the past 200,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppo, Delia W.; Lehman, Scott J.

    1995-10-01

    We generated ˜200-kyr-long proxy records of surface and deepwater variability from a subpolar North Atlantic core (V29-202), enabling us to assess the linkage between surface and deepwater changes on suborbital timescales. In particular, we used a benthic δ13C record to evaluate the deep water response to Dansgaard-Oeschger temperature oscillations and to Heinrich events, times of massive iceberg delivery to the North Atlantic. We found that the reduction of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) production was generally associated with cold or dropping sea surface temperatures (SSTs) as indicated by planktonic foraminiferal assemblages. The NADW contribution to the site did not drop appreciably during Heinrich events H4 through H2, probably because these events followed intervals of prolonged surface cooling already characterized by low rates of NADW production. By contrast NADW reduction appears to have been synchronous with H5. SST rise associated with both Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations and Heinrich events was usually accompanied by increasing NADW strength. In a few cases the NADW recovery appeared to lag the SST rise; however, the apparent delay is most likely an artefact of the sedimentary record (low concentrations of benthic foraminifera). As a result of low benthic foraminiferal abundances during stage 6, the stage 6 benthic foraminiferal δ13C record is of lower resolution than the younger part of the record. The stage 6 proxy records for surface hydrography nevertheless reveal millennial-scale oscillations similar to those seen in stage 3. The available δ13C data suggest that NADW weakened in association with the cold portions of stage 6 SST oscillations. We also sought to confirm a recent study which concluded that there was little NADW variability during the peak of the last interglaciation, marine oxygen isotope substage 5e (Eemian). Isotope stage 5 was marked by a trend of increasing benthic δ13C in V29-202. Rising δ13C through isotope stage 5 is

  15. North Tropical Atlantic influence on western Amazon fire season variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Katia; Baethgen, Walter; Bernardes, Sergio; DeFries, Ruth; DeWitt, David G.; Goddard, Lisa; Lavado, Waldo; Lee, Dong Eun; Padoch, Christine; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miguel; Uriarte, Maria

    2011-06-01

    The prevailing wet climate in the western Amazon is not favorable to the natural occurrence of fires. Nevertheless, the current process of clearing of humid forests for agriculture and cattle ranching has increased the vulnerability of the region to the spread of fires. Using meteorological stations precipitation and the Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Active-Fires (AF) during 2000-2009, we show that fire anomalies vary closely with July-August-September (JAS) precipitation variability as measured by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The precipitation variability is, in turn, greatly determined by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA). We develop a linear regression model to relate local fire activity to an index of the NTA-SST. By using seasonal forecasts of SST from a coupled model, we are able to predict anomalous JAS fire activity as early as April. We applied the method to predict the severe 2010 JAS season, which indicated strongly positive seasonal fire anomalies within the 95% prediction confidence intervals in most western Amazon. The spatial distribution of predicted SPI was also in accordance with observed precipitation anomalies. This three months lead time precipitation and fire prediction product in the western Amazon could help local decision makers to establish an early warning systems or other appropriate course of action before the fire season begins.

  16. Extreme storm activity in North Atlantic and European region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyazilova, N.

    2010-09-01

    The extreme storm activity study over North Atlantic and Europe includes the analyses of extreme cyclone (track number, integral cyclonic intensity) and extreme storm (track number) during winter and summer seasons in the regions: 1) 55°N-80N, 50°W-70°E; 2) 30°N-55°N, 50°W-70°E. Extreme cyclones were selected based on cyclone centre pressure (P<=970 mbar). Extreme storms were selected from extreme cyclones based on wind velocity on 925 mbar. The Bofort scala was used for this goal. Integral cyclonic intensity (for region) includes the calculation cyclone centers number and sum of MSLP anomalies in cyclone centers. The analyses based on automated cyclone tracking algorithm, 6-hourly MSLP and wind data (u and v on 925 gPa) from the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses from January 1948 to March 2010. The comparision of mean, calculated for every ten years, had shown, that in polar region extreme cyclone and storm track number, and integral cyclonic intensity gradually increases and have maximum during last years (as for summer, as for winter season). Every ten years means for summer season are more then for winter season, as for polar, as for tropical region. Means (ten years) for tropical region are significance less then for polar region.

  17. Trophodynamic studies on the Condor seamount (Azores, Portugal, North Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaço, A.; Giacomello, E.; Porteiro, F.; Menezes, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Compared to the surrounding ocean waters, seamounts are commonly considered habitats where biological productivity is higher and consumers proliferate. Despite their high productivity, studies of seamount trophic webs are still scarce and fragmentary, and little is known about the connections between the different compartments. What are the trophic interactions of seamount fauna? How do the pelagic and benthic environment couple? In order to answer these questions, stable isotopes δ15N and δ13C were measured in the organisms collected during the course of numerous campaigns at the Condor seamount in the North Atlantic. The Condor seamount food chain is composed of five trophic levels. Mesopelagic organisms are the link between the epipelagic environment and the benthic and benthopelagic organisms, bridging the gap between primary consumers and the 4th and 5th trophic chain levels. Our results demonstrate, through stable isotope analysis, the important role of mesopelagic organisms in the transfer of energy within the seamount food web, as modeling/theoretical studies have previously suggested.

  18. Contrails developed under frontal influences of the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laken, B. A.; Pallé, E.; Kniveton, D. R.; Williams, C. J. R.; Kilham, D. A.

    2012-06-01

    Satellite imagery reveals a visually striking pattern of persistent line-shaped contrails located to the Northwest of the British Isles on 1 September 2007, just before sunrise. These contrails formed over the heavily trafficked eastbound North Atlantic Track (NAT) flight paths, as they intersected an area of prefrontal mixing. The high relative humidity with respect to ice within the prefrontal mixing zone allowed the contrails to persist, while the strictly regulated flight paths over the region account for their remarkable shapes. The positioning of the NAT flight paths to take advantage of the jet stream likely maximized regional contrail formation. An estimation of the outgoing top of the atmosphere longwave (LW) flux from the CERES instrument shows that the contrails reduced the local instantaneous LW emissivity by 20.96 (±0.26) W/m2. This example demonstrates that for middle latitude regions, prefrontal mixing is an important factor governing the radiative influence of contrails. However, a full estimation of the radiative impact is not possible, as we cannot specify the amount of shortwave forcing caused by the persistence of the contrails into daytime; moreover, several hours after formation the line-shaped contrails spread and overlapped with pre-existing cloud structures.

  19. Interannual to decadal predictability in the North Atlantic Europe region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouzeau, A.; Terray, L.

    2003-04-01

    A 200-year control experiment is performed with the third version of the ARPEGE-Climat atmospheric model coupled to the ORCALIM2 (ORCA/Louvain Ice Model) sea-ice/ocean model. This study takes place in the framework of the PREDICATE project. The simulation shows low frequency fluctuations (period of 30-50 years) in the Thermohaline Circulation (THC) of about 15% of the mean transport. Two 25-year long ensemble experiments are then conducted, contrasting opposite phases of the THC: the first ensemble starts at a maximum of the intensity of the THC, the second one at a minimum. For each ensemble, the different members (6 members for each ensemble) only differ by infinitesimal perturbations of their initial atmospheric conditions. We use these ensembles to study the potential predictability at interannual to decadal time scales. The preliminary results suggest the existence of predictability up to several years in the THC and SST in the North Atlantic. On the other hand, there seems to be very little predictability (beyond one year) arising from atmospheric variables. These results are obtained using a simple predictability index introduced by Collins and Allen (2001) which measures the rate of spread of the ensembles of simulations against climatology. A cluster analysis will then be performed to investigate the modification of the frequency of occurrence of the main climatic regimes and their links with the THC states.

  20. Macroecological study of Centropages typicus in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaugrand, G.; Lindley, J. A.; Helaouet, P.; Bonnet, D.

    2007-02-01

    Centropages typicus is a temperate neritic-coastal species of the North Atlantic Oceans, generally found between the latitudes of the Mediterranean and the Norwegian Sea. Therefore, the species experiences a large number of environments and adjusts its life cycle in response to changes in key abiotic parameters such as temperature. Using data from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey, we review the macroecology of C. typicus and factors that influence its spatial distribution, phenology and year-to-year to decadal variability. The ecological preferences are identified and quantified. Mechanisms that allow the species to occur in such different environments are discussed and hypotheses are proposed as to how the species adapts to its environment. We show that temperature and both quantity and quality of phytoplankton are important factors explaining the space and time variability of C. typicus. These results show that C. typicus will not respond only to temperature increase in the region but also to changes in phytoplankton abundance, structure and composition and timing of occurrence. Methods such as a decision tree can help to forecast expected changes in the distribution of this species with hydro-climatic forcing.

  1. Declining survival probability threatens the North Atlantic right whale.

    PubMed

    Caswell, H; Fujiwara, M; Brault, S

    1999-03-16

    The North Atlantic northern right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) is considered the most endangered large whale species. Its population has recovered only slowly since the cessation of commercial whaling and numbers about 300 individuals. We applied mark-recapture statistics to a catalog of photographically identified individuals to obtain the first statistically rigorous estimates of survival probability for this population. Crude survival decreased from about 0.99 per year in 1980 to about 0.94 in 1994. We combined this survival trend with a reported decrease in reproductive rate into a branching process model to compute population growth rate and extinction probability. Population growth rate declined from about 1. 053 in 1980 to about 0.976 in 1994. Under current conditions the population is doomed to extinction; an upper bound on the expected time to extinction is 191 years. The most effective way to improve the prospects of the population is to reduce mortality. The right whale is at risk from entanglement in fishing gear and from collisions with ships. Reducing this human-caused mortality is essential to the viability of this population. PMID:10077680

  2. Genetic differentiation among North Atlantic killer whale populations.

    PubMed

    Foote, Andrew D; Vilstrup, Julia T; De Stephanis, Renaud; Verborgh, Philippe; Abel Nielsen, Sandra C; Deaville, Robert; Kleivane, Lars; Martín, Vidal; Miller, Patrick J O; Oien, Nils; Pérez-Gil, Monica; Rasmussen, Morten; Reid, Robert J; Robertson, Kelly M; Rogan, Emer; Similä, Tiu; Tejedor, Maria L; Vester, Heike; Víkingsson, Gísli A; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Piertney, Stuart B

    2011-02-01

    Population genetic structure of North Atlantic killer whale samples was resolved from differences in allele frequencies of 17 microsatellite loci, mtDNA control region haplotype frequencies and for a subset of samples, using complete mitogenome sequences. Three significantly differentiated populations were identified. Differentiation based on microsatellite allele frequencies was greater between the two allopatric populations than between the two pairs of partially sympatric populations. Spatial clustering of individuals within each of these populations overlaps with the distribution of particular prey resources: herring, mackerel and tuna, which each population has been seen predating. Phylogenetic analyses using complete mitogenomes suggested two populations could have resulted from single founding events and subsequent matrilineal expansion. The third population, which was sampled at lower latitudes and lower density, consisted of maternal lineages from three highly divergent clades. Pairwise population differentiation was greater for estimates based on mtDNA control region haplotype frequencies than for estimates based on microsatellite allele frequencies, and there were no mitogenome haplotypes shared among populations. This suggests low or no female migration and that gene flow was primarily male mediated when populations spatially and temporally overlap. These results demonstrate that genetic differentiation can arise through resource specialization in the absence of physical barriers to gene flow. PMID:21241391

  3. Decline of subpolar North Atlantic circulation during the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B

    2004-04-23

    Observations of sea surface height reveal that substantial changes have occurred over the past decade in the mid- to high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean. TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data show that subpolar sea surface height increased during the 1990s, and the geostrophic velocity derived from altimeter data exhibits declining subpolar gyre circulation. Combining the data from earlier satellites, we find that subpolar circulation may have been weaker in the late 1990s than in the late 1970s and 1980s. Direct current-meter observations in the boundary current of the Labrador Sea support the weakening circulation trend of the 1990s and, together with hydrographic data, show that the mid- to late 1990s decline extends deep in the water column. Analysis of the local surface forcing suggests that the 1990s buoyancy forcing has a dynamic effect consistent with altimetric and hydrographic observations: A weak thermohaline forcing allows the decay of the domed structure of subpolar isopycnals and weakening of circulation. PMID:15087505

  4. Oceanographic influences on Deep Scattering Layers across the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennell, Sheena; Rose, George

    2015-11-01

    The distribution and density of Deep Scattering Layers (DSLs) were quantified along North Atlantic transits from Ireland to the Grand Banks of Newfoundland in the springs of 2012, 2013 and 2014 employing a calibrated Simrad EK60 echo sounder at 38 kHz. Concurrently, Sippican T5 XBTs (eXpendable Bathy Thermographs) were used to profile temperatures to 1800 m. In each year the scattering layers spanned the deep basin at depths ranging from near surface to approximately 900 m, but annual mean densities differed significantly. Higher DSL densities were recorded during years that exhibited higher sea temperatures at the depths of major DSL concentration (400-600 m), higher sea level anomalies and stronger eastward geostrophic currents. The highest concentration of the DSLs in each year was found in the area east of the Grand Banks that corresponded with areas of anticyclonic eddies. In this region DSL densities in 2014 were among the highest recorded worldwide (>7000 m2 nautical mile-2). Midwater fishing indicated DSLs were dominated by Myctophids and Sternoptychids. Anticyclonic eddy formation is discussed as a possible means of transport and aggregation of the DSLs in that region, where oceanographic influences may play a dominant role in the distribution and density of the DSLs and upper trophic level fishes.

  5. Sting jets in intense winter North-Atlantic windstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Alvarado, O.; Gray, S. L.; Catto, J. L.; Clark, P. A.

    2012-04-01

    Extratropical cyclones dominate autumn and winter weather over western Europe. The strongest cyclones, often termed windstorms, have a large socio-economic impact due to the strong surface winds and associated storm surges in coastal areas. Here we show that sting jets are a common feature of windstorms; up to a third of the 100 most intense North Atlantic windstorms over the last two decades (identified from ERA-Interim data) satisfy conditions for sting jets. The sting jet is a mesoscale descending airstream that can cause strong near-surface winds in the dry slot of the cyclone, a region not usually associated with strong winds. Despite their localised transient nature these sting jets can cause significant damage, a prominent example being the storm that devastated southeast England on 16 October 1987. We present the first regional climatology of windstorms with sting jets. Previously analysed sting jet cases appear to have been exceptional in their track over northwest Europe rather than in their strength.

  6. Estimating the Length of the North Atlantic Basin Hurricane Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    For the interval 1945-2011, the length of the hurricane season in the North Atlantic basin averages about 130 +/- 42 days (the +/-1 standard deviation interval), having a range of 47 to 235 days. Runs-testing reveals that the annual length of season varies nonrandomly at the 5% level of significance. In particular, its trend, as described using 10-yr moving averages, generally has been upward since about 1979, increasing from about 113 to 157 days (in 2003). Based on annual values, one finds a highly statistically important inverse correlation at the 0.1% level of significance between the length of season and the occurrence of the first storm day of the season. For the 2012 hurricane season, based on the reported first storm day of May 19, 2012 (i.e., DOY = 140), the inferred preferential regression predicts that the length of the current season likely will be about 173 +/- 23 days, suggesting that it will end about November 8 +/- 23 days, with only about a 5% chance that it will end either before about September 23, 2012 or after about December 24, 2012.

  7. Depositional patterns of kerogen, Atlantic Margin, North America

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, J.M.

    1985-02-01

    Geochemical and biostratigraphic data from offshore wells along the Atlantic margin of North America define a depositional history dominated by coastal-plain and shallow-shelf facies containing degraded and residual continent-derived kerogen. Exceptions to this generalization are 4 depositional facies containing hydrogen-rich amorphous kerogen assemblages. The rocks containing hydrogen-rich amorphous kerogen assemblages are: (1) Upper Jurassic inner-shelf facies probably deposited in algal-rich lagoonlike environments, (2) Lower Cretaceous nonmarine coaly facies, probably deposited in algal-rich swamplike environments, (3) middle Cretaceous abyssal-plain facies probably deposited by turbidity currents that originated on an algal-rich slope, and (4) Miocene outer-shelf to upper-slope facies probably deposited under algal-rich upwelling systems. Correlations of these facies to seismic packages allows for extrapolation of probable organic facies distribution throughout the continental margin. Such modeling of organic facies distributions in conjunction with plate-tectonic and ocean-circulation models permits refinement of strategies for hydrocarbon exploration.

  8. A complex North Atlantic permanent pycnocline revealed by Argo data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feucher, Charlène; Maze, Guillaume; Mercier, Herlé

    2015-04-01

    In the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, the oceanic vertical structure of density is characterized by a region of rapid increase with depth. This layer is called the permanent pycnocline. The pycnocline is the transition layer between light, low-latitude, surface water masses which are ventilated every winter when penetrated locally by the mixed layer and dense, deeper water masses whose properties are set in the high latitudes. Assessing the structure and variability of the permanent pycnocline is of a major interest in the understanding of the climate system because the pycnocline embeds the warm water sphere and most of the wind-forced horizontal circulation. We characterized the large scale structure of the permanent pycnocline with in-situ data from the Argo array. We developed a new method to objectively characterize its properties (depth, thickness, temperature, salinity, density, potential vorticity). Results reveal a surprisingly complex structure with inhomogeneous properties. In the Gulf Stream recirculation region the pycnocline is deep, thick, the maximum of stratification is found in the middle on the layer and follow an isopycnal surface. But away from this textbook regional description, the pycnocline is characterized by vertical asymmetries and gradients in thermohaline properties. T/S distribution along the permanent pycnocline depth reveals a diversity of water masses. We will present the mean observed structure and properties of the permanent pycnocline and relate them to physical processes that constraint them.

  9. Variations in the strength of the North Atlantic bottom water during Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissel, Catherine; Van Toer, Aurélie; Laj, Carlo; Cortijo, Elsa; Michel, Elisabeth

    2013-05-01

    We report here on a multi-proxy study of the changes in the dynamics and the properties of bottom water mass in the subpolar North Altantic during Holocene. Magnetic properties coupled with sortable silt and benthic carbon isotopes are investigated for Holocene marine sedimentary sequences located in the Charlie-Gibbs fracture zone (53°N) and in central (57°N) and southern Gardar drift (59°N). All the cores are located at water depths bathed by the Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW), mixed at the southernmost locality with southern sourced water masses. The long-term variations in measured proxies are fitted with similar polynomial curves. An early Holocene event characterized by a shutdown/shoaling of the bottom circulation at the deepest sites is most likely related to the main deglacial freshwater inputs. It is followed by a progressive strengthening/deepening of the overflow water which culminates around 6 kyr, in coincidence with the Holocene thermal maximum. After 6 kyr corresponding to a drastic hydrological reorganization in the North Atlantic, a general decline in the bottom flow strength is observed until about 2 kyr B.P. when it reached its present day state. After detrending, several short periods of reduced bottom flow strength and sedimentary transport from the northern detrital sources are observed, with a periodicity of around 600 yr with no clear relationship at this time scale between surface and deep ocean.

  10. N2O and CH4 distribution and fluxes in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, Andy; Brown, Ian; Shutler, Jamie; Ashton, Ian

    2016-04-01

    The world's oceans are a natural source of both N2O and CH4 contributing up to 30% and 10% of the global atmospheric emissions respectively. That said, marine sources are not well constrained owing to a paucity of observations. For both gases there are regional hotspots of production, often associated with upwelling areas and coastal environments, though the distribution of source and sink areas are often spatially and temporarily variable. Here we present data from the greater North Atlantic Ocean to examine factors affecting regional variability in the distribution of both gases and then provide an assessment of seasonal variability for the North East continental shelf region. The flux of gases between the ocean and atmosphere is described by the concentration gradient between the two phases and the gas transfer velocity, the determination of which is directly influenced by wind speed. The measurement of wind speed on ships at sea coincident with analyses of dissolved gases is prone to errors associated with the moving platform and turbulence associated with air masses at the sea surface. To address this problem we provide comparative estimates of the air-sea exchange of both gases determined by ship-based and remotely sensed measurements of wind speed and surface temperature.

  11. Effects of tropical North Atlantic SST on tropical cyclone genesis in the western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinhua; Li, Tim; Tan, Zhemin; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2016-02-01

    The tropical cyclone genesis number (TCGN) in July-October (JASO) over the western North Pacific (WNP) exhibits a robust interannual variation. It shows a longitudinally tri-pole pattern with a high in the eastern WNP and South China Sea (SCS) and a low in the western WNP, which explain 42.2 and 23.4 % of total TCGN variance in the eastern WNP and SCS, respectively. The high-low-high pattern is similar to that derived from a TC genesis potential index (GPI). To understand the cause of the longitudinal distribution of the dominant interannual mode, we examine the contributions of environmental parameters associated with GPI. It is found that relative humidity and relative vorticity are important factors responsible for TC variability in the SCS, while vertical shear and relative vorticity are crucial in determining TC activity in eastern WNP. A simultaneous correlation analysis shows that the WNP TCGN in JASO is significantly negatively correlated (with a correlation coefficient of -0.5) with sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the tropical North Atlantic (TNA). The longitudinal distribution of TC genesis frequency regressed onto TNA SSTA resembles that regressed upon the WNP TCGN series. The spatial patterns of regressed environmental variables onto the SSTA over the TNA also resemble those onto TCGN in the WNP, that is, an increase of relative humidity in the SCS and a weakening of vertical shear in the eastern WNP are all associated with cold SSTA in the TNA. Further analyses show that the cold SSTA in the TNA induce a negative heating in situ. In response to this negative heating, a low (upper)-level anomalous aniti-cyclonic (cyclonic) flows appear over the subtropical North Atlantic and eastern North Pacific, and to east of the cold SSTA, anomalous low-level westerlies appear in the tropical Indian Ocean. Given pronounced mean westerlies in northern Indian Ocean in boreal summer, the anomalous westerly flows increase local surface wind speed and surface

  12. Modeling dust emission variations in Eastern Europe related to North-Atlantic abrupt climate changes of the last glacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, A.; Kageyama, M.; Rousseau, D.; Ramstein, G.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Antoine, P.; Dulac, F.; Hatte, C.; Lagroix, F.; Gerasimenko, N.

    2010-12-01

    The European loess sequences of the last glacial period (~ 100-15 kyr BP) show periods of strong dust accumulation alternating with episodes of reduced (or no) sedimentation, allowing soil development. For the main loess sedimentation period (~ 40 - 15 kyr BP), data indicate a correlation between these variations and the North Atlantic rapid climate changes: the Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) and Heinrich (H) events. We use numerical modeling to investigate the relationship between the North-Atlantic abrupt changes and the sedimentation variations in Europe. A first study (Sima et al, QSR, 2009) focused on western Europe, and addressed the impact on dust emission of North-Atlantic SST changes as those associated to DO and H events. It proposed that vegetation played a key role in modulating dust emission variations in western European source areas. Here we focus on eastern Europe, especially on the areas north and north-east of the Carpathian Mountains, where loess deposits have recorded DO and H events (Rousseau et al. Clim. Past D, 2010). As in the previous study, we use the LMDZ AGCM and the SECHIBA land-surface models to simulate a reference glacial state (“stadial”), a cold (“HE”) and a warm (“DO interstadial”) perturbation, all corresponding to Marine Isotope Stage 3 conditions. We follow the same protocol as for the study on the west-European sector to analyze the impact of the climate factors and surface conditions on dust emission. The simulated most active emission areas are compatible with the loess deposit distribution, and the key role of vegetation in stadial-interstadial dust emission variations is confirmed.

  13. The North Atlantic Oscillation as a driver of rapid climate change in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delworth, Thomas L.; Zeng, Fanrong; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Yang, Xiaosong; Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Rong

    2016-07-01

    Pronounced climate changes have occurred since the 1970s, including rapid loss of Arctic sea ice, large-scale warming and increased tropical storm activity in the Atlantic. Anthropogenic radiative forcing is likely to have played a major role in these changes, but the relative influence of anthropogenic forcing and natural variability is not well established. The above changes have also occurred during a period in which the North Atlantic Oscillation has shown marked multidecadal variations. Here we investigate the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation in these rapid changes through its influence on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and ocean heat transport. We use climate models to show that observed multidecadal variations of the North Atlantic Oscillation can induce multidecadal variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and poleward ocean heat transport in the Atlantic, extending to the Arctic. Our results suggest that these variations have contributed to the rapid loss of Arctic sea ice, Northern Hemisphere warming, and changing Atlantic tropical storm activity, especially in the late 1990s and early 2000s. These multidecadal variations are superimposed on long-term anthropogenic forcing trends that are the dominant factor in long-term Arctic sea ice loss and hemispheric warming.

  14. The isotopic signature and distribution of particulate iron in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revels, Brandi N.; Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Lam, Phoebe J.; Conway, Tim M.; John, Seth G.

    2015-06-01

    Iron (Fe) is a key micronutrient for life in the oceans. Particles play an important role in the marine biogeochemical cycling of Fe as a reservoir of marine Fe that may be directly accessible to phytoplankton, and as sources and sinks for seawater dissolved Fe. Here, we report the stable isotopic composition of Fe (δ56Fe) in suspended (0.8-51 μm) particles from the US GEOTRACES GA03 North Atlantic zonal transect, in order to facilitate a better understanding of the marine biogeochemical cycling of Fe. Data are presented both for a total digestion of the particles, and for 'ligand-leachable' phases of Fe using a newly-developed pH 8 oxalate-EDTA leach. For total particle digests, the mean δ56Fe across the whole GA03 section was 0.08±0.09‰ (1 S.D.) which is equivalent to the isotope composition of known lithogenic Fe sources to the ocean. In contrast, ligand-leachable Fe was generally lighter than continental material with a mean δ56Fe of -0.30±0.17‰ (1 S.D.). Our data also provide valuable insight into Fe biogeochemical cycling in several key regions. In the deep ocean, but above the depths where near-sediment nephloid layers are present, ligand-leachable Fe is isotopically lighter in the deep Western Basin compared to the deep Central and Eastern Basins suggesting differences in particle surface chemistry between resuspended seafloor sediments, which may predominate in the west, and Saharan dust that predominates in the center and in the east. Within a nephloid layer above reduced continental margin sediments in the Eastern Basin, below the Mauritanian upwelling region, we report the lowest particulate δ56Fe values for both total and ligand-leachable Fe, suggesting a transfer of isotopically light dissolved porewater Fe2+ to the particulate phase. In contrast, δ56Fe values within a nephloid layer near Bermuda are similar to values higher in the water column. Within a hydrothermal plume sampled at the TAG hydrothermal field on the mid-Atlantic Ridge

  15. Surface changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Wanamaker, Alan D.; Butler, Paul G.; Scourse, James D.; Heinemeier, Jan; Eiríksson, Jón; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Richardson, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous investigations, the dynamical origins of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age remain uncertain. A major unresolved issue relating to internal climate dynamics is the mode and tempo of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability, and the significance of decadal-to-centennial scale changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation strength in regulating the climate of the last millennium. Here we use the time-constrained high-resolution local radiocarbon reservoir age offset derived from an absolutely dated annually resolved shell chronology spanning the past 1,350 years, to reconstruct changes in surface ocean circulation and climate. The water mass tracer data presented here from the North Icelandic shelf, combined with previously published data from the Arctic and subtropical Atlantic, show that surface Atlantic meridional overturning circulation dynamics likely amplified the relatively warm conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the relatively cool conditions during the Little Ice Age within the North Atlantic sector. PMID:22692542

  16. Surface changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Wanamaker, Alan D; Butler, Paul G; Scourse, James D; Heinemeier, Jan; Eiríksson, Jón; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Richardson, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous investigations, the dynamical origins of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age remain uncertain. A major unresolved issue relating to internal climate dynamics is the mode and tempo of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability, and the significance of decadal-to-centennial scale changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation strength in regulating the climate of the last millennium. Here we use the time-constrained high-resolution local radiocarbon reservoir age offset derived from an absolutely dated annually resolved shell chronology spanning the past 1,350 years, to reconstruct changes in surface ocean circulation and climate. The water mass tracer data presented here from the North Icelandic shelf, combined with previously published data from the Arctic and subtropical Atlantic, show that surface Atlantic meridional overturning circulation dynamics likely amplified the relatively warm conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the relatively cool conditions during the Little Ice Age within the North Atlantic sector. PMID:22692542

  17. Update on geographic spread of invasive lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first nonnative marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic/Caribbean region. The chronology of the invasion was reported last year (Schofield 2009) using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. This article provides an update of lionfish geographic spread (as of October 2010) and predictions of future range.

  18. North Atlantic Aerosol Properties for Radiative Impact Assessments. Derived from Column Closure Analyses in TARFOX and ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip A.; Bergstrom, Robert A.; Schmid, Beat; Livingston, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Aerosol effects on atmospheric radiative fluxes provide a forcing function that can change the climate in potentially significant ways. This aerosol radiative forcing is a major source of uncertainty in understanding the climate change of the past century and predicting future climate. To help reduce this uncertainty, the 1996 Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) and the 1997 Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) measured the properties and radiative effects of aerosols over the Atlantic Ocean. Both experiments used remote and in situ measurements from aircraft and the surface, coordinated with overpasses by a variety of satellite radiometers. TARFOX focused on the urban-industrial haze plume flowing from the United States over the western Atlantic, whereas ACE-2 studied aerosols over the eastern Atlantic from both Europe and Africa. These aerosols often have a marked impact on satellite-measured radiances. However, accurate derivation of flux changes, or radiative forcing, from the satellite measured radiances or retrieved aerosol optical depths (AODs) remains a difficult challenge. Here we summarize key initial results from TARFOX and ACE-2, with a focus on closure analyses that yield aerosol microphysical models for use in improved assessments of flux changes. We show how one such model gives computed radiative flux sensitivities (dF/dAOD) that agree with values measured in TARFOX and preliminary values computed for the polluted marine boundary layer in ACE-2. A companion paper uses the model to compute aerosol-induced flux changes over the North Atlantic from AVHRR-derived AOD fields.

  19. Warmer, deeper, and greener mixed layers in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre over the last 50 years.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Elodie; Raitsos, Dionysios E; Antoine, David

    2016-02-01

    Shifts in global climate resonate in plankton dynamics, biogeochemical cycles, and marine food webs. We studied these linkages in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (NASG), which hosts extensive phytoplankton blooms. We show that phytoplankton abundance increased since the 1960s in parallel to a deepening of the mixed layer and a strengthening of winds and heat losses from the ocean, as driven by the low frequency of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). In parallel to these bottom-up processes, the top-down control of phytoplankton by copepods decreased over the same time period in the western NASG, following sea surface temperature changes typical of the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). While previous studies have hypothesized that climate-driven warming would facilitate seasonal stratification of surface waters and long-term phytoplankton increase in subpolar regions, here we show that deeper mixed layers in the NASG can be warmer and host a higher phytoplankton biomass. These results emphasize that different modes of climate variability regulate bottom-up (NAO control) and top-down (AMO control) forcing on phytoplankton at decadal timescales. As a consequence, different relationships between phytoplankton, zooplankton, and their physical environment appear subject to the disparate temporal scale of the observations (seasonal, interannual, or decadal). The prediction of phytoplankton response to climate change should be built upon what is learnt from observations at the longest timescales. PMID:26386263

  20. Influence of the Iceland mantle plume on North Atlantic continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. S.; Isimm Team

    2003-04-01

    Early Tertiary breakup of the North Atlantic was accompanied by widespread magmatism. The histories of the Iceland mantle plume, of rifting and of magmatism are intimately related. The magmatism provides a challenge both to imaging structure, and to modelling the subsidence and development of the continental margins. We report new work which integrates state-of-the-art seismic imaging and new acquisition on the Atlantic volcanic margins with new techniques for modelling their evolution. We discuss the distribution of igneous rocks along the North Atlantic margins and discuss the temporal and spatial variations in the Iceland mantle plume in the early Tertiary, which have largely controlled this pattern of magmatism. Igneous rocks are added to the crust on rifted margins as extrusive lavas, as sills intruded into the sub-surface and as lower crustal intrusions or underplate. Each provide different, but tractable problems to seismic imaging. We show that many of these difficulties can be surmounted by using very long offsets (long streamers or two-ship methods) with a broad-band, low-frequency source, and by using fixed ocean bottom receivers. We report results from surveys on the North Atlantic continental margins using these methods. Imaging results are shown from the recent FLARE project and from the iSIMM project, which recorded new seismic data recorded in summer 2002. The iSIMM project acquired two seismic surveys, using 85 4-component ocean bottom seismometers with long streamers for wide-angle data, and vertical arrays for far-field source signature recording. One survey crosses the Faroes Shelf and adjacent continental margin, and a second the Hatton-Rockall Basin, Hatton Bank and adjacent oceanic crust. The Faroes wide-angle profiles were overshot by WesternGeco's Topaz using three single-sensor, Q-Marine streamers, 12km plus two 4km. We designed deep-towed, broad-band low-frequency sources tuned to enhance the bubble pulses, with peak frequencies at 8

  1. Hydrography and through-flow in the north-eastern North Atlantic Ocean: the NANSEN project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aken, H. M.; Becker, G.

    The circulation and hydrography of the north-eastern North Atlantic has been studied with an emphasis on the upper layers and the deep water types which take part in the thermohaline overturning of the Oceanic Conveyor Belt. Over 900 hydrographic stations were used for this study, mainly from the 1987-1991 period. The hydrographic properties of Subpolar Mode Water in the upper layer, which is transported towards the Norwegian Sea, showed large regional variation. The deep water mass was dominated by the cold inflow of deep water from the Norwegian Sea and by a cyclonic recirculation of Lower Deep Water with a high Antarctic Bottom Water content. At intermediate levels the dominating water type was Labrador Sea Water with only minor influence of Mediterranean Sea Water. In the permanent pycnocline traces of Antarctic Intermediate Water were found. Geostrophic transports have been estimated, and these agreed in order of magnitude with the local heat budget, with current measurements, with data from surface drifters, and with the observed water mass modification. A total of 23 Sv of surface water entered the region, of which 20 Sv originated from the North Atlantic Current, while 3 Sv entered via an eastern boundary current. Of this total, 13 Sv of surface water left the area across the Reykjanes Ridge, and 7 Sv entered the Norwegian Sea, while 3 Sv was entrained by the cold overflow across the Iceland-Scotland Ridge. Approximately 1.4 Sv of Norwegian Sea Deep Water was involved in the overflow into the Iceland Basin, which, with about 1.1 Sv of entrained water and 1.1 Sv recirculating Lower Deep Water, formed a deep northern boundary current in the Iceland Basin. At intermediate depths, where Labrador Sea Water formed the dominant water type, about 2 Sv of entrained surface water contributed to a saline water mass which was transported westwards along the south Icelandic slope.

  2. Aerosol and CCN Concentrations under Extremely High DMS Levels over the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, C.; Brooks, S. D.; Thornton, D. C.; Bell, T. G.; Saltzman, E. S.; De Bruyn, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Despite numerous studies since the CLAW hypothesis was first suggested in 1987, the extent to which marine phytoplankton derived dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3, DMS) contributes to marine atmospheric aerosol populations and the ability of those aerosols to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) remains unclear, especially over oceanic areas obviously influenced by continental sources. Here, we present data from a cruise aboard the R/V Knorr over the North Atlantic during June-July 2011which passed through areas of both high and low phytoplankton biomasses, as well as intermediate primary production bloom regions where extremely high DMS concentrations (over 1800 pptv) were observed. Continuous ambient measurements of aerosol concentration, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration, aerosol particle size distributions, and surface seawater and atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentrations were performed simultaneously during the three-week-cruise. Throughout the cruise, CCN concentrations were measured at a series of five supersaturation levels and used to derive the critical supersaturation required for aerosols to activate as CCN. Air masses have been classified into three different categories based on the 48-hr back trajectories, i.e., air mass influenced by continents, coasts and the open ocean. Aerosol concentrations have noticeably different patterns depending on the air mass paths. Continually high CCN and aerosol concentrations had been found to coincide with high DMS concentration over the open ocean, which may be explained by the nucleation and condensational growth in marine boundary layer (MBL) resulting from the oxidation products of DMS or primary aerosols from the sea surface. Calculation of DMS oxidation rates based on the variation of DMS in the lower atmosphere and sea-to-air flux measurement during the whole cruise verified that the influence of continental sources on marine atmosphere is significant during the majority of sample times

  3. Orbital and suborbital variability in North Atlantic bottom water temperature obtained from deep-sea ostracod Mg/Ca ratios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Baker, P.A.; Rodriguez-Lazaro, J.; DeMartino, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Magnesium/calcium (Mg/Ca) ratios were measured in the deep-sea ostracod (Crustacea) genus Krithe from Chain core 82-24-4PC from the western mid-Atlantic Ridge (3427 m) in order to estimate ocean circulation and bottom water temperature (BWT) variability over the past 200,000 years. Mg/Ca ratios have been used as a paleothermometer because the ratios are controlled primarily by ambient water temperatures at the time the organism secretes its adult carapace. Over the past two glacial-interglacial cycles, Mg/Ca values oscillated between about 7 mmol/mol and 12 mmol/mol, equivalent to a BWT range of 0 to > 3.5??C. The lowest values were obtained on specimens from glacial marine isotope stages (MISs) 2, 4 and 6; the highest values were obtained from specimens from the early part of the Holocene interglacial (MIS 1), and also from MISs 5 and 7. These trends suggest that BWTs in the North Atlantic Ocean fluctuate over orbital time scales. Suborbital variability in Mg/Ca ratios and BWT was also observed for the past 100,000 years. Ratios rose from ~8 mmol/mol to ~10 mmol/mol (implying a BWT increase of ~1 to 3??C) during 14 Mg/Ca excursions. The highest ratios were found in Krithe dated at approximately 32, 36-38, 43, 48, 73, 85 and 93 ka. Although the age model for the Chain 82-24-4PC and temporal resolution do not allow precise correlation, some of these deep-sea bottom temperature excursions appear to correspond to Heinrich events recorded in other regions of the North Atlantic and perhaps Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadial events recorded in Greenland ice cores. If confirmed, this would support the hypothesis that millennial-scale oscillations of climate in the North Atlantic are capable of affecting global climate via thermohaline circulation changes. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Aerosol size-resolved trace metal composition in remote northern tropical Atlantic marine environment: case study Cape Verde islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomba, K. W.; Müller, K.; van Pinxteren, D.; Herrmann, H.

    2013-05-01

    Size-resolved trace metal concentrations of 15 elements in aerosol particles at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) under remote background conditions were investigated through analysis of aerosol samples collected during intensive field studies from January 2007 to November 2011 using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The identification of the main air mass origin that influence remote marine aerosol in the northern tropical Atlantic has been investigated. In total, 317 samples were collected. The dataset was analyzed according to the main air mass inflow at the station. We found that remote conditions make up about 45% of the meteorological conditions in a year at CVAO and thus the northern tropical Atlantic. Surprisingly, air masses from North America are often responsible for higher trace metal concentrations in this region. Elements such as Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, and V were mostly found in the submicron size fractions, while elements with dominant crustal or oceanic origin such as Fe, Ti, Mn, Sr, and Rb were found in the coarse fractions (>1 μm). The highest metal concentrations, especially for Zn (3.23 ng m-3), Cu (0.81 ng m-3), Sr (2.63 ng m-3), and Cr (0.53 ng m-3), were observed in air masses originating from North America and the concentrations were within the same concentration range to those reported previously in the literature for remote marine aerosols. Fe (12.26 ng m-3), Ti (0.91 ng m-3), and Mn (0.35 ng m-3) showed higher concentrations when air mass came from Europe and the Canary Islands. Pb concentration was low (<0.20 ng m-3) and did not vary significantly with air mass direction. The low Pb concentration is indicative of the complete phase-out of leaded gasoline even in African countries. Crustal enrichment factor values decreased from fine to coarse-mode particles with low values (<4) observed for Fe, Mn, and Rb, and high values (>20) for Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Se. The observed enrichment of the elements was attributed to

  5. Aerosol size-resolved trace metal composition in remote northern tropical Atlantic marine environment: case study Cape Verde Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomba, K. W.; Müller, K.; van Pinxteren, D.; Herrmann, H.

    2012-11-01

    Size-resolved trace metal concentrations of 15 elements in aerosol particles at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) under remote background conditions were investigated through analysis of aerosol samples collected during intensive field studies from January 2007 to November 2011 using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The identification of the main air mass origin that influence remote marine aerosol in the northern tropical Atlantic has been investigated. In total 317 samples were collected. The dataset was analyzed according to the main air mass inflow at the station. We found that remote conditions make up about 45% of the meteorological conditions in a year at CVAO and thus the northern tropical Atlantic. Surprisingly, air masses from North America are often responsible for higher trace metal concentrations in this region. Elements such as Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, and V were mostly found in the submicron size fractions while elements with dominant crustal or oceanic origin such as Fe, Ti, Mn, Sr, and Rb, were found in the coarse fractions (>1 μm). The highest metal concentrations especially for Zn (3.23 ng m-3), Cu (0.81 ng m-3), Sr (2.63 ng m-3), and Cr (0.53 ng mm-3), were observed in air masses originating from North America and the concentrations were within the same concentration range to those reported previously in the literature for remote marine aerosols. Fe (12.26 ng m-3), Ti (0.91 ng m-3) and Mn (0.35 ng m-3) showed higher concentrations when air mass came from Europe and the Canary Islands. Pb concentration was low (< 0.20 ng m-3) and did not vary significantly with air mass direction. The low Pb concentration is indicative of the complete phased out of leaded gasoline even in African countries. Crustal enrichment factor values decreased from fine to coarse mode particles with low values (< 4) observed for Fe, Mn, and Rb and high values (> 20) for Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Se. The observed enrichment of the elements was attributed to

  6. Links between salinity variation in the Caribbean and North Atlantic thermohaline circulation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Matthew W; Spero, Howard J; Lea, David W

    2004-03-11

    Variations in the strength of the North Atlantic Ocean thermohaline circulation have been linked to rapid climate changes during the last glacial cycle through oscillations in North Atlantic Deep Water formation and northward oceanic heat flux. The strength of the thermohaline circulation depends on the supply of warm, salty water to the North Atlantic, which, after losing heat to the atmosphere, produces the dense water masses that sink to great depths and circulate back south. Here we analyse two Caribbean Sea sediment cores, combining Mg/Ca palaeothermometry with measurements of oxygen isotopes in foraminiferal calcite in order to reconstruct tropical Atlantic surface salinity during the last glacial cycle. We find that Caribbean salinity oscillated between saltier conditions during the cold oxygen isotope stages 2, 4 and 6, and lower salinities during the warm stages 3 and 5, covarying with the strength of North Atlantic Deep Water formation. At the initiation of the Bølling/Allerød warm interval, Caribbean surface salinity decreased abruptly, suggesting that the advection of salty tropical waters into the North Atlantic amplified thermohaline circulation and contributed to high-latitude warming. PMID:15014495

  7. Albatross species demonstrate regional differences in North Pacific marine contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelstein, M.; Keitt, B.S.; Croll, D.A.; Tershy, B.; Jarman, Walter M.; Rodriguez-Pastor, S.; Anderson, D.J.; Sievert, P.R.; Smith, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent concern about negative effects on human health from elevated organochlorine and mercury concentrations in marine foods has highlighted the need to understand temporal and spatial patterns of marine pollution. Seabirds, long-lived pelagic predators with wide foraging ranges, can be used as indicators of regional contaminant patterns across large temporal and spatial scales. Here we evaluate contaminant levels, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, and satellite telemetry data from two sympatrically breeding North Pacific albatross species to demonstrate that (1) organochlorine and mercury contaminant levels are significantly higher in the California Current compared to levels in the high-latitude North Pacific and (2) levels of organochlorine contaminants in the North Paci.c are increasing over time. Black-footed Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) had 370-460% higher organochlorine (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes [DDTs]) and mercury body burdens than a closely related species, the Laysan Albatross (P. immutabilis), primarily due to regional segregation of their North Pacific foraging areas. PCBs (the sum of the individual PCB congeners analyzed) and DDE concentrations in both albatross species were 130-360% higher than concentrations measured a decade ago. Our results demonstrate dramatically high and increasing contaminant concentrations in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, a finding relevant to other marine predators, including humans. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Decadal changes in climate and ecosystems in the North Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaugrand, Grégory

    2009-04-01

    Climate change is unambiguous and its effects are clearly detected in all functional units of the Earth system. This study presents new analyses of sea-surface temperature changes and show that climate change is affecting ecosystems of the North Atlantic. Changes are seen from phytoplankton to zooplankton to fish and are modifying the dominance of species and the structure, the diversity and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Changes also range from phenological to biogeographical shifts and have involved in some regions of the Atlantic abrupt ecosystem shifts. These alterations reflect a response of pelagic ecosystems to a warmer temperature regime. Mechanisms are complex because they are nonlinear exhibiting tipping points and varying in space and time. Sensitivity of organisms to temperature changes is high, implicating that a small temperature modification can have sustained ecosystem effects. Implications of these changes for biogeochemical cycles are discussed. Two observed changes detected in the North Sea that could have opposite effects on carbon cycle are discussed. Increase in phytoplankton, as inferred from the phytoplankton colour index derived from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey, has been detected in the North Sea. This pattern has been accompanied by a reduction in the abundance of the herbivorous species Calanus finmarchicus. This might have reduced the grazing pressure and increase diatomaceous 'fluff', therefore carbon export in the North Sea. Therefore, it could be argued that the biological carbon pump might increase in this region with sea warming. In the meantime, however, the mean size of organisms (calanoid copepods) has dropped. Such changes have implications for the turnover time of biogenic carbon in plankton organisms and the mean residence time of particulate carbon they produce. The system characterising the warmer period is more based on recycling and less on export. The increase in the minimum turnover time

  9. 78 FR 34879 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Atlantic City Offshore Race, Atlantic Ocean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... amend the Table to Sec. 100.501, as revised May 21, 2013 (78 FR 29632), as follows: 0 a. Under ``(a... City Offshore Race, Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic City, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...

  10. Carbon disulfide measurements in the atmosphere of the western North Atlantic and the northwestern South Atlantic Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandy, Alan R.; Thornton, Donald C.; Johnson, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) measurements were made over the western and equatorial North Atlantic Ocean and the northwestern and equatorial South Atlantic Ocean. Carbon disulfide was in the range 0.4-50 pptrv in the atmosphere of the western North Atlantic Ocean. Emissions from anthropogenic sources and wet lands were found to be important although anthropogenic sources were 4-6 times larger than biogenic sources. The flux of CS2 from eastern North America between 30 and 39 deg latitude was estimated to be 2 x 10(exp 8)g/yr or sulfur. The anthropogenic contribution was 1.8 x 10(exp 8)g/yr of sulfur whereas the contribution of marshes was 0.2 x 10(exp 8)g/yr of sulfur. Sources of CS2 at high latitudes in the northern hemisphere were comparatively weak. Carbon disulfide levels in the western South Atlantic Ocean between -5 and 1 deg latitude were in the range 0.2-6 pptrv. Most of the CS2 appeared to come from biomass burning in Africa. Carbon disulfide was much higher close to shore suggesting that the South American continent was a significant source although too few data were available to quantify it. On ferry lights from Wallops, Virginia to Natal, Brazil, CS2 levels at the ferry altitude of about 6 km averaged 1.2 pptrv. This background CS2 was adequate to account for all the carbonyl sulfide (OCS) in the atmosphere.

  11. On the evolution of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Fingerprint and implications for decadal predictability in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinting; Zhang, Rong

    2015-07-01

    It has been suggested previously that the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) anomaly associated with changes in the North Atlantic Deep Water formation propagates southward with an advection speed north of 34°N. In this study, using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Coupled Model version 2.1 (GFDL CM2.1), we show that this slow southward propagation of the AMOC anomaly is crucial for the evolution and the enhanced decadal predictability of the AMOC fingerprint—the leading mode of upper ocean heat content (UOHC) in the extratropical North Atlantic. A positive AMOC anomaly in northern high latitudes leads to a convergence/divergence of the Atlantic meridional heat transport (MHT) anomaly in the subpolar/Gulf Stream region, thus warming in the subpolar gyre (SPG) and cooling in the Gulf Stream region after several years. Recent decadal prediction studies successfully predicted the observed warm shift in the SPG in the mid-1990s. Our results here provide the physical mechanism for the enhanced decadal prediction skills in the SPG UOHC.

  12. Coherent decadal sea level variations across gyre boundaries in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, P. R.; Mitchum, G. T.

    2010-12-01

    Tide gauge sea level variability in the western Atlantic at periods greater than about 18 months is in phase and highly coherent from Texas to Nova Scotia. A simple mean over the gauges analyzed in this region explained more than 50% of the total variance in the gauges and has a primary time-scale of variation in the decadal band. Decadal sea level variability in the western Atlantic is most often attributed to open ocean wind forcing and long Rossby waves, which act to spin up or spin down the subtropical gyre. However, this explanation is not sufficient to explain why sea levels along the coastal edge of the Gulf Stream are in phase and highly correlated with sea levels in the Gulf of Mexico and subpolar gyre. Furthermore, there is evidence that decadal variations in North American sea levels are coherent and of opposite phase with respect to gauges along the European coast of the subtropical gyre, which is not expected from a mechanism requiring westward propagation. A linear regression of North Atlantic sea surface temperature onto the composite low-passed sea level signal from around the North Atlantic showed a basin-wide pattern of sea surface temperature similar to the North Atlantic Tripole (NAT) identified in various studies of decadal climate variability in the North Atlantic. The emergence of the NAT pattern from tide gauge sea levels suggested the low-frequency coherence of sea level is indicative of a basin-scale decadal climate mode and that the steric contribution to decadal sea level variability in the Gulf Stream region is as important as the dynamic contribution from open ocean wind forcing. We explored the relative roles of dynamic and steric sea level change in the coherent nature of decadal sea level signals around the North Atlantic basin, and we propose basin-scale mechanisms to link decadal sea level change between the gyres and zonally across the Atlantic.

  13. Why different gas flux velocity parameterizations result in so similar flux results in the North Atlantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskozub, Jacek; Wróbel, Iwona

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic is a crucial region for both ocean circulation and the carbon cycle. Most of ocean deep waters are produced in the basin making it a large CO2 sink. The region, close to the major oceanographic centres has been well covered with cruises. This is why we have performed a study of net CO2 flux dependence upon the choice of gas transfer velocity k parameterization for this very region: the North Atlantic including European Arctic Seas. The study has been a part of a ESA funded OceanFlux GHG Evolution project and, at the same time, a PhD thesis (of I.W) funded by Centre of Polar Studies "POLAR-KNOW" (a project of the Polish Ministry of Science). Early results have been presented last year at EGU 2015 as a PICO presentation EGU2015-11206-1. We have used FluxEngine, a tool created within an earlier ESA funded project (OceanFlux Greenhouse Gases) to calculate the North Atlantic and global fluxes with different gas transfer velocity formulas. During the processing of the data, we have noticed that the North Atlantic results for different k formulas are more similar (in the sense of relative error) that global ones. This was true both for parameterizations using the same power of wind speed and when comparing wind squared and wind cubed parameterizations. This result was interesting because North Atlantic winds are stronger than the global average ones. Was the flux result similarity caused by the fact that the parameterizations were tuned to the North Atlantic area where many of the early cruises measuring CO2 fugacities were performed? A closer look at the parameterizations and their history showed that not all of them were based on North Atlantic data. Some of them were tuned to the South Ocean with even stronger winds while some were based on global budgets of 14C. However we have found two reasons, not reported before in the literature, for North Atlantic fluxes being more similar than global ones for different gas transfer velocity parametrizations

  14. Imaging the lithosphere of rifted passive margins using waveform tomography: North Atlantic, South Atlantic and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Sergei; Schaeffer, Andrew; Celli, Nicolas Luca

    2016-04-01

    Lateral variations in seismic velocities in the upper mantle reflect variations in the temperature of the rocks at depth. Seismic tomography thus provides a proxy for lateral changes in the temperature and thickness of the lithosphere. It can map the deep boundaries between tectonic blocks with different properties and age of the lithosphere. Our 3D tomographic models of the upper mantle and the crust at the Atlantic and global scales are constrained by an unprecedentedly large global dataset of broadband waveform fits (over one million seismograms) and provide improved resolution of the lithosphere, compared to other available models. The most prominent high-velocity anomalies, seen down to 150-200 km depths, indicate the cold, thick, stable mantle lithosphere beneath Precambrian cratons, including those in North America, Greenland, northern and eastern Europe, Africa and South America. The dominant, large-scale, low-velocity feature is the global system of mid-ocean ridges, with broader low-velocity regions near hotspots, including Iceland. Currently active continental rifts show highly variable expression in the upper mantle, from pronounced low velocities to weak anomalies; this correlates with the amount of magmatism within the rift zone. Rifted passive margins have typically undergone cooling since the rifting and show more subtle variations in their seismic-velocity structure. Their thermal structure and evolution, however, are also shaped by 3D geodynamic processes since their formation, including cooling by the adjacent cratonic blocks inland and heating by warm oceanic asthenosphere.

  15. Freshwater fluxes into the subpolar North Atlantic from secular trends in Arctic land ice mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamber, J. L.; Enderlin, E. M.; Howat, I. M.; Wouters, B.; van den Broeke, M.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater fluxes (FWF) from river runoff and precipitation minus evaporation for the pan Arctic seas are relatively well documented and prescribed in ocean GCMs. Fluxes from Greenland and Arctic glaciers and ice caps on the other hand are generally ignored, despite their potential impacts on ocean circulation and marine biology and growing evidence for changes to the hydrography of parts of the subpolar North Atlantic. In a previous study we determined the FWF from Greenland for the period 1958-2010 using a combination of observations and regional climate modeling. Here, we update the analysis with data from new satellite observations to extend the record both in space and time. The new FWF estimates cover the period 1958-2014 and include the Canadian, Russian and Norwegian Arctic (Svalbard) in addition to the contributions from Greenland. We combine satellite altimetry (including CryoSat 2) with grounding line flux data, regional climate modeling of surface mass balance and gravimetry to produce consistent estimates of solid ice and liquid FWF into the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. The total cumulative FWF anomaly from land ice mass loss started to increase significantly in the mid 1990s and now exceeds 5000 km^3, a value that is about half of the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s. The majority of the anomaly is entering two key areas of deep water overturning in the Labrador and Irminger Seas, at a rate that has been increasing steadily over the last ~20 years. Since the mid 2000s, however, the Canadian Arctic archipelago has been making a significant contribution to the FW anomaly entering Baffin Bay. Tracer experiments with eddy-permitting ocean GCMs suggest that the FW input from southern Greenland and the Canadian Arctic should accumulate in Baffin Bay with the potential to affect geostrophic circulation, stratification in the region and possibly the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. We also examine the trajectory of

  16. Modeling the drift of massive icebergs to the subtropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condron, A.; Hill, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    New evidence from high-resolution seafloor bathymetry data indicates that massive (>300m thick) icebergs from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) drifted south to the tip of Florida during the last deglaciation. This finding is particularly exciting as it contradicts evidence from marine sediments that icebergs were mainly confined to the subpolar North Atlantic (50 - 70N) at this time. Indeed, the freshwater released from icebergs melting in the subpolar gyre is repeatedly cited as a main trigger for a slow-down of the Atlantic MOC in the past, and the possible cause of any climate cooling related to the melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet in the future. Using a sophisticated iceberg model (MITberg), coupled to a high (18-km; 1/6 deg.) resolution ocean model (MITgcm), we investigate the ocean circulation dynamics required to allow icebergs to drift to the southern tip of Florida. We find that icebergs only reach this location if they turn right at the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, and stay inshore of the Gulf Stream all the way to Florida. Modern-day circulation dynamics do not readily allow this to happen as cold, southward flowing, Labrador Current Water (important for iceberg survival) has little penetration south of Cape Hatteras. However, when a liquid meltwater flood is released from Hudson Bay at the same time, icebergs are rapidly transported (inshore of the Gulf Stream) in a narrow, buoyant, coastal current all the way to southern Florida. The meltwater and icebergs result in a significant freshening of the subtropical North Atlantic and weaken the strength of the Gulf Stream, suggesting such an event would have a large cooling effect on climate. We are only able to simulate the flow of meltwater and icebergs to the subtropics by modeling ocean circulation at a resolution that is 5 - 10 times higher than the majority of existing paleoclimate models; at lower resolutions the narrow, coastal boundary currents important for iceberg transport to the subtropics are

  17. Prediction skill of monthly SST in the North Atlantic Ocean in NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Huang, Bohua; Wang, Wanqiu; Zhu, Jieshun; Wen, Caihong

    2013-06-01

    This work evaluates the skill of retrospective predictions of the second version of the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) for the North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) and investigates the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the prediction skill over this region. It is shown that the CFSv2 prediction skill with 0-8 month lead displays a "tripole"-like pattern with areas of higher skills in the high latitude and tropical North Atlantic, surrounding the area of lower skills in the mid-latitude western North Atlantic. This "tripole"-like prediction skill pattern is mainly due to the persistency of SST anomalies (SSTAs), which is related to the influence of ENSO and NAO over the North Atlantic. The influences of ENSO and NAO, and their seasonality, result in the prediction skill in the tropical North Atlantic the highest in spring and the lowest in summer. In CFSv2, the ENSO influence over the North Atlantic is overestimated but the impact of NAO over the North Atlantic is not well simulated. However, compared with CFSv1, the overall skills of CFSv2 are slightly higher over the whole North Atlantic, particularly in the high latitudes and the northwest North Atlantic. The model prediction skill beyond the persistency initially presents in the mid-latitudes of the North Atlantic and extends to the low latitudes with time. That might suggest that the model captures the associated air-sea interaction in the North Atlantic. The CFSv2 prediction is less skillful than that of SSTA persistency in the high latitudes, implying that over this region the persistency is even better than CFSv2 predictions. Also, both persistent and CFSv2 predictions have relatively low skills along the Gulf Stream.

  18. Genomic signatures of local directional selection in a high gene flow marine organism; the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Marine fishes have been shown to display low levels of genetic structuring and associated high levels of gene flow, suggesting shallow evolutionary trajectories and, possibly, limited or lacking adaptive divergence among local populations. We investigated variation in 98 gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for evidence of selection in local populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) across the species distribution. Results Our global genome scan analysis identified eight outlier gene loci with very high statistical support, likely to be subject to directional selection in local demes, or closely linked to loci under selection. Likewise, on a regional south/north transect of central and eastern Atlantic populations, seven loci displayed strongly elevated levels of genetic differentiation. Selection patterns among populations appeared to be relatively widespread and complex, i.e. outlier loci were generally not only associated with one of a few divergent local populations. Even on a limited geographical scale between the proximate North Sea and Baltic Sea populations four loci displayed evidence of adaptive evolution. Temporal genome scan analysis applied to DNA from archived otoliths from a Faeroese population demonstrated stability of the intra-population variation over 24 years. An exploratory landscape genetic analysis was used to elucidate potential effects of the most likely environmental factors responsible for the signatures of local adaptation. We found that genetic variation at several of the outlier loci was better correlated with temperature and/or salinity conditions at spawning grounds at spawning time than with geographic distance per se. Conclusion These findings illustrate that adaptive population divergence may indeed be prevalent despite seemingly high levels of gene flow, as found in most marine fishes. Thus, results have important implications for our understanding of the interplay of evolutionary forces in

  19. A Subtropical North Atlantic Regional Atmospheric Moisture Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, F.; D'Addezio, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The synergistic effects of evaporation (E), precipitation (P), and Ekman transport make the SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study) region in the subtropical North Atlantic (15-30°N, 30-45°W) the ideal location for the world's highest open ocean sea surface salinity. Using the MERRA and ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalyses, we reproduce the mean hydrologic state of the atmosphere over the SPURS region since 1979 and roughly deduce the change in salinity across the meridional domain due solely to interactions between E-P and Ekman transport. Our findings suggest a region that is highly evaporative at a mean rate of 4.87 mm/day with a standard deviation of 1.2 mm/day and little seasonality. Precipitation is much more variable with an annual fall maximum around 3 mm/day but only a mean rate of 1.37 mm/day with a standard deviation of 1.46 mm/day. The resulting E-P variable has a mean rate of 3.50 mm/day with a standard deviation of 1.92 mm/day and matches well with the moisture flux divergence term although the former is typically larger by a small margin. Strong prevailing easterly trade winds generate northward Ekman transports that advect water northward to the salinity maximum around 25°N. A short calculation shows that atmospheric moisture dynamics could potentially account for almost half of the change in salinity between 15°N and 25°N giving an estimate of the role that surface freshwater flux plays in the maintenance of the salinity maximum.

  20. A subtropical North Atlantic regional atmospheric moisture budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addezio, Joseph M.; Bingham, Frederick M.

    2014-12-01

    The synergistic effects of evaporation (E), precipitation (P), and Ekman transport make the Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS-1) region in the subtropical North Atlantic (15-30°N, 30-45°W) the natural location for the world's highest open ocean SSS maximum. Using the MERRA and ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalyses, we reproduce the mean hydrologic state of the atmosphere over the SPURS-1 region since 1979 and roughly deduce the change in salinity across the meridional domain due solely to interactions between E-P and Ekman transport. Our findings suggest a region that is highly evaporative at a mean rate of 4.87 mm/d with a standard deviation of 1.2 mm/d and little seasonality. Precipitation is much more variable with an annual fall maximum around 3 mm/d but only a mean rate of 1.37 mm/d with a standard deviation of 1.46 mm/d. The resulting E-P variable has a mean rate of 3.50 mm/d with a standard deviation of 1.92 mm/d and matches well with the moisture flux divergence term although the former is typically larger by a small margin. Strong prevailing easterly trade winds generate northward Ekman transports that advect water toward the salinity maximum around 25°N. A short calculation shows that atmospheric moisture dynamics could potentially account for about one third of the change in salinity between 15°N and 25°N giving an estimate of the role that surface freshwater flux plays in the maintenance of the salinity maximum.

  1. Model investigations of the North Atlantic spring bloom initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Angela M.; Fennel, Katja; Mattern, Jann Paul

    2015-11-01

    The spring bloom - a massive growth of phytoplankton that occurs annually during the spring season in mid and high latitudes - plays an important role in carbon export to the deep ocean. The onset of this event has been explained from bottom-up and top-down perspectives, exemplified by the "critical-depth" and the "dilution-recoupling" hypotheses, respectively. Both approaches differ in their key expectations about how seasonal fluctuations of the mixed layer affect the plankton community. Here we assess whether the assumptions inherent to these hypotheses are met inside a typical onedimensional Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD) model, optimized to best represent climatological annual cycles of satellite-based phytoplankton biomass in the Subpolar North Atlantic. The optimized model is used in idealized experiments that isolate the effects of mixed layer fluctuations and zooplankton grazing, in order to elucidate their significance. We analyzed the model sensitivity qualitatively and using a second-order Taylor series decomposition of the model equations. Our results show that the conceptual bases of both bottom-up and top-down approaches are required to explain the process of blooming; however, neither of their bloom initiation mechanisms fully applies in the experiments. We find that a spring bloom can develop in the absence of mixed layer fluctuations, and both its magnitude and timing seem to strongly depend on nutrient and light availability. Furthermore, although zooplankton populations modulate the phytoplankton concentrations throughout the year, directly prescribed and physically driven changes in zooplankton grazing do not produce significant time shifts in bloom initiation, as hypothesized. While recognizing its limitations, our study emphasizes the processes that require further testing in order to discern among competing hypotheses.

  2. Knowledge of marine fish trematodes of Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A; Diaz, Pablo E; Cribb, Thomas H

    2016-03-01

    A brief summary of the early history of the study of Atlantic Ocean marine fish digeneans is followed by a discussion of the occurrence and distribution of these worms in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent Eastern Pacific Ocean, using the Provinces of the 'Marine Ecoregions' delimited by Spalding et al. (Bioscience 57:573-583, 2007). The discussion is based on a database of 9,880 records of 1,274 species in 430 genera and 45 families. 8,633 of these records are from the Atlantic Ocean, including 1,125 species in 384 genera and 45 families. About 1,000 species are endemic to the Atlantic Ocean Basin. The most species-rich families in the Atlantic Ocean are the Opecoelidae Ozaki, 1925, Hemiuridae Looss, 1899 and Bucephalidae Poche, 1907, and the most wide-spread the Opecoelidae, Hemiuridae, Acanthocolpidae Lühe, 1906, Lepocreadiidae Odhner, 1905 and Lecithasteridae Odhner, 1905. A total of 109 species are shared by the Atlantic Ocean and the Eastern Pacific, made up of cosmopolitan, circum-boreal, trans-Panama Isthmus and Magellanic species. The lack of genetic evaluation of identifications is emphasised and the scope for much more work is stressed. PMID:26898586

  3. Local stratification control of marine productivity in the subtropical North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Apurva C.; Lozier, M. Susan

    2010-12-01

    Strengthened stratification of the upper ocean due to global warming is generally expected to inhibit marine primary productivity in the subtropics, based on the supposition that increased water column stability will decrease vertical mixing and consequently the entrainment of deep nutrients into the euphotic zone. A recent analysis of observational data from the subtropical North Atlantic, however, demonstrates that productivity in this region is not correlated with stratification on interannual time scales over the modern observational record, but is instead impacted by other dynamics that affect vertical mixing and nutrient supply. Herein, we examine data from the Hawaiian Ocean Time series program's Station ALOHA (A Long-Term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment) in the subtropical North Pacific. We find that stratification and productivity are not strongly correlated at this location over the observational record. In contrast to the North Atlantic, the weakness of correlation observed at ALOHA may reflect the strongly stratified ecosystem of the eastern subtropical North Pacific and a lack of sufficiently strong interannual forcing in this region. Although basin-wide climate processes (namely El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadel Oscillation) have previously been suggested to impact local stratification and vertical nutrient supply at ALOHA, we find no evidence of a strong or consistent linkage. Comparing local ecosystem variability to the recently identified North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, however, we observe a correlation with local subsurface productivity and salinity. The correlations have similar structure in both space (i.e., depth) and time and are possibly linked to dynamics associated with the formation and advection of water masses in the central gyre.

  4. Tropical North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere interactions synchronize forest carbon losses from hurricanes and Amazon fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Randerson, James T.; Morton, Douglas C.

    2015-08-01

    We describe a climate mode synchronizing forest carbon losses from North and South America by analyzing time series of tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), landfall hurricanes and tropical storms, and Amazon fires during 1995-2013. Years with anomalously high tropical North Atlantic SSTs during March-June were often followed by a more active hurricane season and a larger number of satellite-detected fires in the southern Amazon during June-November. The relationship between North Atlantic tropical cyclones and southern Amazon fires (r = 0.61, p < 0.003) was stronger than links between SSTs and either cyclones or fires alone, suggesting that fires and tropical cyclones were directly coupled to the same underlying atmospheric dynamics governing tropical moisture redistribution. These relationships help explain why seasonal outlook forecasts for hurricanes and Amazon fires both failed in 2013 and may enable the design of improved early warning systems for drought and fire in Amazon forests.

  5. Mid-Pliocene planktic foraminifer assemblage of the North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, H.J.; Robinson, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    The US Geological Survey Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) North Atlantic faunal data set provides a unique, temporally constrained perspective to document and evaluate the quantitative geographic distribution of key mid-Pliocene taxa. Planktic foraminifer census data from within the PRISM time slab (3.29 to 2.97 Ma) at thirteen sites in the North Atlantic Ocean have been analyzed. We have compiled Scanning Electron Micrographs for an atlas of mid-Pliocene assemblages from the North Atlantic with descriptions of each taxon to document the taxonomic concepts that accompany the PRISM data. In mid-Pliocene assemblages, the geographic distributions of extant taxa are similar to their present day distributions, although some are extended to the north. We use the distribution of extinct taxa to assess previous assumptions regarding environmental preferences.

  6. Carcass analog provides marine subsidies for macroinvertebrates and juvenile Atlantic 8 salmon in temperate oligotrophic streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guyette, Margaret Q.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Zydlewski, Joseph; Cunjak, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Assimilation of nutrients from carcass analogues was both direct and indirect, and a nutrient legacy was evident in the second year of sampling. Incorporation of nutrients from the pellets at a range of heights in the food web demonstrated the potential for marine-derived subsidies to contribute to freshwater ecosystem processes in Atlantic salmon nursery streams.

  7. New observational capabilities on atmospheric sciences of the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) Graciosa island ARM facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitschke, Kim; Ortega, Paul; Azevedo, Eduardo; Miller, Mark

    2016-04-01

    One source of uncertainty that thwarts accurate and comprehensive representation of the present and future climate in models is the response of shallow cloud systems to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases and aerosols. Low clouds systems that prevail over subtropical oceans, in particular, play a critical role in boundary layer dynamics and in the global climate, despite being poorly represented in climate models. The Azores have been identified as an optimal site to conduct research aimed at better understanding the physical processes and life cycle of marine stratocumulus and other marine boundary layer clouds. The United States Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Program has been providing data to advance research from atmospheric observations at diverse climatic regimes around the world (http://www.arm.gov/) for over 20 years. Since 2009, the Azores has been included in this global program. The campaign of the ARM Mobile Facility at Graciosa Island, Azores, in the context of the Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) project, added the most extensive and comprehensive dataset of marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds to date. Solid preliminary findings from this valuable data set have been used to understand interactions between the cloud microphysical and macrophysical processes in marine boundary layer clouds that play a fundamental role in the cloud dynamics and precipitation, which in turn determine cloud radiative properties that impact on the energy balance of the Earth. Based upon the design and siting from the previous ARM Mobile Facility in support of CAP-MBL, the new Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) fixed site joined the global network of ARM Climate Research Facilities in October 2013. Since then, this user facility has augmented its baseline measurement capability to include a Ka-/W-Band scanning cloud radar, an X-Band precipitation radar and Raman and Doppler lidars. Coupled

  8. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine contaminants in winter flounder, harp and hooded seals, and North Atlantic right whales from the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Montie, Eric W; Letcher, Robert J; Reddy, Christopher M; Moore, Michael J; Rubinstein, Belinda; Hahn, Mark E

    2010-08-01

    Various brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and current-use, non-PBDE BFRs, as well as organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were measured in winter flounder, harp and hooded seals, and North Atlantic right whales from the Eastern United States and Canada. The concentrations of PBDEs in winter flounder and right whales were similar in magnitude to the levels of PCBs, which was unlike the pattern observed in seals. In these marine mammals, the levels of PBDEs were orders of magnitude lower than the levels of OCs and PCBs detected. Evidence existed for the accumulation of methoxylated (MeO)-PBDEs of natural origin in seals and right whales. Current-use, non-PBDE BFRs (including hexabromocyclododecane, pentabromoethylbenzene, hexabromobenzene, and pentabromotoluene) were detected in winter flounder and marine mammals. Future research should focus on monitoring PBDEs, current-use, non-PBDE BFRs, and MeO-BDEs of natural origin in marine organisms from Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays. PMID:20434733

  9. Dansgaard-Oeschger forcing of sea surface temperature variability in the midlatitude North Atlantic between 500 and 400 ka (MIS 12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naafs, B. D. A.; Hefter, J.; Stein, R.

    2014-11-01

    Using a high-resolution record of alkenone-based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the midlatitude North Atlantic covering the period between 500 and 400 ka here we show that during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 12, SSTs in this region were characterized by numerous abrupt jumps in the order of 3-6°C, spaced every 3-4 ka. We argue that these abrupt warming events in the midlatitude North Atlantic reflect Dansgaard-Oeschger (D/O) events, which are corroborated by the correlation to the synthetic record of Greenland climate for this time period. These results demonstrate that during MIS 12 the direct influence of high-latitude climate was far larger than during the last glacial and reached all the way into the midlatitude North Atlantic. In addition the consistent temporal lag between surface water cooling and appearance of ice-rafted debris demonstrates that icebergs were not the cause for cooling in the North Atlantic at this time. We hypothesize that the extreme impact of D/O events during MIS 12 as recorded in our record must have had an imprint on global climate and will therefore be important to evaluate future high-resolution climate records or model efforts that cover this time period.

  10. Large fluctuations of dissolved oxygen in the Indian and Pacific oceans during Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations caused by variations of North Atlantic Deep Water subduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmittner, A.; Galbraith, E.D.; Hostetler, S.W.; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Zhang, R.

    2007-01-01

    Paleoclimate records from glacial Indian and Pacific oceans sediments document millennial-scale fluctuations of subsurface dissolved oxygen levels and denitrification coherent with North Atlantic temperature oscillations. Yet the mechanism of this teleconnection between the remote ocean basins remains elusive. Here we present model simulations of the oxygen and nitrogen cycles that explain how changes in deepwater subduction in the North Atlantic can cause large and synchronous variations of oxygen minimum zones, throughout the Northern Hemisphere of the Indian and Pacific oceans, consistent with the paleoclimate records. Cold periods in the North Atlantic are associated with reduced nutrient delivery to the upper Indo-Pacific oceans, thereby decreasing productivity. Reduced export production diminishes subsurface respiration of organic matter leading to higher oxygen concentrations and less denitrification. This effect of reduced oxygen consumption dominates at low latitudes. At high latitudes in the Southern Ocean and North Pacific, increased mixed layer depths and steepening of isopycnals improve ocean ventilation and oxygen supply to the subsurface. Atmospheric teleconnections through changes in wind-driven ocean circulation modify this basin-scale pattern regionally. These results suggest that changes in the Atlantic Ocean circulation, similar to those projected by climate models to possibly occur in the centuries to come because of anthropogenic climate warming, can have large effects on marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles even in remote areas. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Prediction of interannual North Atlantic sea surface temperature and its remote influence over land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienert, Fabian; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.

    2016-07-01

    The quality of a multimodel of six coupled climate forecast systems initialized with observations—relative to the accompanying uninitialized system—to re-forecast the future annual-mean North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) departures is described. The study concludes that, measured by the anomaly correlation (AC) skill, the evolution of the leading two empirical orthogonal function modes of North Atlantic SSTs are skillfully forecast throughout the 9-year forecast range. This skill results in part from the predictions of the trend. The skill of the detrended modes, i.e., in absence of SST variability generated by the trend, is reduced, but still statistically distinguishable from zero throughout the 9-year forecast for the first mode and exclusively in the first two forecast years for the second mode. The initialization effect on the AC skill in the initialized system is statistically distinguishable from the one without initialization for the detrended first mode during the first three forecast years and the first forecast year only when the trend in North Atlantic SSTs is included. All six initialized systems of the multimodel are capable to skillfully forecast the shift of the full first mode of North Atlantic SST anomalies in the mid 1990s at all leads with HadCM 3 and EC-Earth 2.3 outperforming other systems. All systems share an intrinsic bias in simulating annual-mean SST variability in the North Atlantic. The study finds that the area-average AC skill (i.e., of a forecast containing regional information) of the North Atlantic influence on anomalous European temperature in the initialized multimodel is positive and statistically distinguishable from zero throughout the 9-year forecast for the full field case. On the other hand, a continent-wide forecast (i.e., without any regional information) of future European precipitation departures associated with North Atlantic SST variability is skillful throughout the 9-year forecast for the full field

  12. On the role of heat fluxes in the uptake of anthropogenic carbon in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VöLker, Christoph; Wallace, Douglas W. R.; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.

    2002-12-01

    The influence of the overturning circulation on the anthropogenic carbon sink in the North Atlantic is investigated with a simple box model. The net air-sea flux of anthropogenic carbon in the North Atlantic is the result of two opposing fluxes: The first is the uptake caused by the disequilibrium between the rapidly rising atmospheric pCO2 and the dissolved carbon content in the ocean, depending mainly on the water exchange rate between mixed layer and interior North Atlantic ocean. Superimposed is a second flux, related to the northward transport of heat within the Atlantic basin, that is directed out of the ocean, contrary to conventional wisdom. It is caused by a latitudinal gradient in the ratio of seawater alkalinity to total dissolved inorganic carbon that in turn is related to the cooling and freshening of surface water on its way north. This flux depends strongly on the vertical structure of the upper branch of the overturning circulation and on the distribution of undersaturation and supersaturation of CO2 in Atlantic surface waters. A data-based estimate of anthropogenic carbon inventory in the North Atlantic is consistent with a dominance of the disequilibrium flux over the heat-flux-related outgassing at the present time, but, in our model, does not place a strong constraint on the net anthropogenic air-sea flux. Stabilization of the atmospheric pCO2 on a higher level will change the relative role of the two opposing fluxes, making the North Atlantic a source of anthropogenic carbon to the atmosphere. We discuss implications for the interpretation of numerical carbon cycle models.

  13. The Variation of Tropical Cyclone Rainfall within the North Atlantic and Pacific as Observed from Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Edward; Pierce, Harold; Adler, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Tropical cyclone monthly rainfall amounts are estimated from passive microwave satellite observations in the North Atlantic and in three equal geographical regions of the North Pacific (i.e., Western, Central, and Eastern North Pacific). These satellite-derived rainfall amounts are used to assess the impact of tropical cyclone rainfall in altering the geographical, seasonal, and inter-annual distribution of the 1987-1989, 1991-1998 North Atlantic and Pacific rainfall during June-November when tropical cyclones are most abundant. To estimate these tropical cyclone rainfall amounts, mean monthly rain rates are derived from the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/ Radiometer (SSM/I) observations within 444 km radius of the center of those North Atlantic and Pacific tropical cyclones that reached storm stage and greater. These rain rate observations are then multiplied by the number of hours in a given month. Mean monthly rainfall amounts are also constructed for all the other North Atlantic and Pacific raining systems during this eleven year period for the purpose of estimating the geographical distribution and intensity of rainfall contributed by non-tropical cyclone systems. Further, the combination of the non-tropical cyclone and tropical cyclone (i.e., total) rainfall is constructed to delineate the fractional amount that tropical cyclones contributed to the total North Pacific rainfall.

  14. Does the Fukushima NPP disaster affect the caesium activity of North Atlantic Ocean fish?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanisch, G.; Aust, M.-O.

    2013-08-01

    Fillet samples of marine fish collected from the East/West Greenland currents (GC) and from the Baltic Sea (BS) have been investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry within the regular German monitoring programme. In samples of the second half of 2011, 134Cs traces have been detected that are suggested to originate from the Fukushima fallout that was deposited in March/April 2011 over the northern North Atlantic and accumulated by fish. The radionuclide 134Cs (half-life 2 yr) was indeed detected with quite small activities at about 0.0036 Bq kg-1 w.w. Existing box models describing the transport of Cs within seawater boxes of the northeast Atlantic allowed for estimation of 134Cs contributions from other sources, i.e. from the Chernobyl fallout and from discharges by the two major European nuclear reprocessing plants; both were negligible around Greenland, while for the Chernobyl fallout a small 134Cs background contribution to BS fish was estimated. Model results confirmed the level of 134C measured in BS fish and showed its maximum to have occurred in winter 2011/2012 followed by a continuous decrease. It was also determined that 134Cs activity, but not that of 134Cs, showed a significant negative correlation with sampling depth (150-400 m) of GC fish; this strengthens our Fukushima fallout assumption. As a result, the Fukushima fallout in these sea areas only marginally enhanced (GC: 4%; BS: 0.1%) pre-Fukushima levels of individual dose rates received by human fish consumers; the addition was around 0.001 μSv following the consumption of 10 kg of fish per year, which is not expected to cause concern according to present guidelines for radiation protection.

  15. Does the Fukushima NPP disaster affect the caesium activity of North Atlantic Ocean fish?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanisch, G.; Aust, M.-O.

    2013-03-01

    Fillet samples of marine fish collected from the East/West Greenland current (GC) and from the Baltic Sea (BS), have been investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry within the regular German monitoring program. In samples of the second half of 2011 134Cs traces have been detected, suggested to originate from the Fukushima fallout being deposited in March/April 2011 over the northern North Atlantic and accumulated by fish. The radionuclide 134Cs (half-live 2 yr) was indeed detected with quite small activities at about 0.0036 Bq kg-1 w.w. Existing box-models describing the transport of Cs within seawater boxes of the NE Atlantic allowed estimating that 134Cs contributions from other sources, i.e. from the Chernobyl fallout and from discharges by the two major European nuclear reprocessing plants, both were negligible around Greenland, while for the Chernobyl fallout a small 134Cs background contribution to BS fish was estimated. Model results confirmed the level of 134Cs measured in BS fish and showed its maximum to have occurred in winter 2011/2012 followed by a continuous decrease. It was also determined that 134Cs activity, but not that of 134Cs, showed a significant negative correlation with sampling depth (150-400 m) of GC fish; this strengthens our Fukushima fallout assumption. As a result, the Fukushima fallout in these sea areas only marginally enhanced (GC: 4%; BS: 0.1%) pre-Fukushima levels of individual dose rates received by human fish consumers; the addition was around 0.001 μSv following the consumption of 10 kg fish per year, which is not expected to cause concern according to present guidelines for radiation protection.

  16. Atmospheric Electric Field measurements at Eastern North Atlantic ARM Climate Research Facility: Global Electric Circuit Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Francisco; Silva, Hugo; Nitschke, Kim; Azevedo, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility of the ARM programme (established an supported by the U.S. Department of Energy with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores), is located at Graciosa Island of the Azores Archipelago (39° N; 28° W). It constitutes a strategic observatory for Atmospheric Electricity since it is located in the Atlantic Ocean basin exposed to clean marine aerosol conditions which reduces the well known spectral signature of atmospheric pollution and enables the study of the so called Global Electrical Circuit (GEC). First evidences of the existence of a GEC affecting the Earth's Electric Environment has retrieved by the Carnegie cruise expedition, in what became known as the Carnegie Curve. Those measurements were made in the Ocean in several campaigns and the present studies aims at reconsidering measurements in similar conditions but in a long-term basis, at least 5 years. This will contribute to the understanding of the long-term evolution of the Ionospheric Potential (IP). In literature there is theoretical evidence that it is decreasing IP in strength, but that conjecture is still lacking valid experimental evidence. Moreover, to clearly identify the GEC signal two effects must be taken into account: the effect of surface radon gas variation, because the Azores Archipelago is a seismic active region the possible influence of Earthquakes cannot be discarded easily; the effect of short-term solar activity on the Atmospheric Electricity modulation, solar flares emitting solar particles (e.g., solar energetic protons) need to be considered in this study.

  17. The Influence of North Atlantic Valves and Gateways on Neogene Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Our current proxies for pCO2 suggest Neogene levels were relatively constant (~300 ± 100 ppm) except for the middle Miocene Climatic Optimum with estimates approaching 400 ± 100 ppm. Yet, the East Antarctic Ice Sheet became a polar ice sheet and permanent feature on Earth while large-scale Northern Hemisphere ice sheets waxed and waned with scant differences in pCO2. Three possibilities to explain these observations are: 1) our pCO2 proxies are incorrect; 2) Earth's climate is far more sensitive than our current model simulations suggest; or 3) tectonic differences overprinted accepted climate sensitivity to pCO2. Two marine gateways that influenced Neogene deep-water circulation are the Greenland-Scotland Ridge and the Central American Isthmus (CAI). Driven by mantle plume variations under Iceland, the GSR acted as a regulator of Northern Component Water (NCW, analogous to NADW) by controlling access to the dense polar waters to the north. During the latest Miocene and early Pliocene, mean depths along the GSR and NCW production were at their greatest. By the late Pliocene (~3 Ma), mantle plume activity increased and NCW production waned. Most researchers have focused on surface water changes (e.g., salinity) in relating closure of the CAI to Pliocene climate change. However, I propose that its primary influence came with the elimination of low-latitude, deep-water connection between the Atlantic and Pacific. Combined with vigorous NCW production, closure of the CAI re-distributed nutrients between the oceans. Carbon isotope and Cd/Ca profiles indicate that "modern" basin-to-basin differences started during the latest Miocene and were fully developed in the Pliocene. The South Atlantic path for NCW also delivered heat to the Southern Ocean, facilitating sea ice changes, as indicated by biosiliceous patterns. These tectonic boundary changes and their affects on surface and deep water circulation contributed to the Pliocene pause in global cooling that began in

  18. The East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection in the North Atlantic: Climate Impact and Relation to Rossby Wave Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale winter teleconnection of the East Atlantic - West Russia (EA-WR) over the Atlantic and surrounding regions is examined in order to quantify its impacts on temperature and precipitation and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for its existence. A rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis of the upper-tropospheric monthly height field captures successfully the EA-WR pattern and its interannual variation, with the North Atlantic Oscillation as the first mode. EA-WRs climate impact extends from eastern North America to Eurasia. The positive (negative) EA-WR produces positive (negative) temperature anomalies over the eastern US, western Europe and Russia east of Caspian Sea, with negative (positive) anomalies over eastern Canada, eastern Europe including Ural Mountains and the Middle East. These anomalies are largely explained by lower-tropospheric temperature advections. Positive (negative) precipitation anomalies are found over the mid-latitude Atlantic and central Russia around 60E, where lower-level cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation anomaly is dominant. The eastern Canada and the western Europe are characterized by negative (positive) precipitation anomalies.The EA-WR is found to be closely associated with Rossby wave propagation. Wave activity fluxes show that it is strongly tied to large-scale stationary waves. Furthermore, a stationary wave model (SWM) forced with vorticity transients in the mid-latitude Atlantic (approximately 40N) or diabatic heat source over the subtropical Atlantic near the Caribbean Sea produces well-organized EA-WR-like wave patterns, respectively. Sensitivity tests with the SWM indicate improvement in the simulation of the EA-WR when the mean state is modified to have a positive NAO component that enhances upper-level westerlies between 40-60N.

  19. The interplay between particulate and dissolved neodymium in the Western North Atlantic: First insights and interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stichel, T.; Kretschmer, S.; Lambelet, M.; van de Flierdt, T.; Rutgers van der Loeff, M.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; Gerringa, L. J.; De Baar, H. J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved neodymium (Nd) isotopes (expressed as ɛNd) have been widely used as a water mass tracer to reconstruct paleo ocean circulation. However, the marine geochemical cycle of Nd is not well understood. Unclear input mechanisms, scarcity of available data, and observed decoupling between dissolved ɛNd and Nd concentration patterns ([Nd]) are only a few of the unresolved issues. The latter is often referred to as the Nd paradox(e.g. Goldstein and Hemming 2003). Here we revisit this paradox with an unprecedented data set on particulate Nd isotope and concentration data from five stations along the Dutch GEOTRACES transect GA02 in the western North and equatorial Atlantic Ocean (cruises 64PE319 and 64PE321 from April to July 2010). Particulates were collected with in-situ pumps on 0.8 µm Supor filters and subjected to a total digestion procedure in the home laboratory. The particulates collected farthest north (Irminger Sea and Labrador Sea) show a strong affinity to the nearby land masses in their Nd isotope composition: Very negative values (ɛNd ≈-20) are observed in the Labrador Sea, which is surrounded by old continental rocks. More positive values of up to ɛNd ≈-4 are found east of Greenland probably derived from the Nansen Fjord Formation's basaltic rocks. In these two areas the particulate ɛNd is offset from dissolved Nd isotopes by up to 7.7 ɛ-units, but reveals a similar vertical distribution. Further downstream of the flow path of the North Atlantic Deep Water, dissolved and particulate Nd isotopic compositions in the water column seem to merge and become indistinguishable from one another south of Bermuda (BATS station). This seems to indicate that particulate and dissolved fractions exchange with increasing distance from source regions and age of water masses. Neodymium concentrations in particulates [pNd] are low (KD<5%) and invariant. However, most stations show a significant increase in [pNd] close to the seafloor, where [pNd] nearly

  20. Impact of the North Atlantic sea surface temperature tripole on the East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Jinqing; Li, Weijing; Sun, Chenghu; Xu, Li; Ren, Hong-Li

    2013-07-01

    A strong (weak) East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is usually concurrent with the tripole pattern of North Atlantic SST anomalies on the interannual timescale during summer, which has positive (negative) SST anomalies in the northwestern North Atlantic and negative (positive) SST anomalies in the subpolar and tropical ocean. The mechanisms responsible for this linkage are diagnosed in the present study. It is shown that a barotropic wave-train pattern occurring over the Atlantic-Eurasia region likely acts as a link between the EASM and the SST tripole during summer. This wave-train pattern is concurrent with geopotential height anomalies over the Ural Mountains, which has a substantial effect on the EASM. Diagnosis based on observations and linear dynamical model results reveals that the mechanism for maintaining the wave-train pattern involves both the anomalous diabatic heating and synoptic eddy-vorticity forcing. Since the North Atlantic SST tripole is closely coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the relationships between these two factors and the EASM are also examined. It is found that the connection of the EASM with the summer SST tripole is sensitive to the meridional location of the tripole, which is characterized by large seasonal variations due to the north-south movement of the activity centers of the NAO. The SST tripole that has a strong relationship with the EASM appears to be closely coupled with the NAO in the previous spring rather than in the simultaneous summer.

  1. 2 - 4 million years of sedimentary processes in the Labrador Sea: implication for North Atlantic stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, D. C.; Saint-Ange, F.; Campbell, C.; Piper, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Marine sedimentary records from the western North Atlantic show that a significant portion of sediment deposited since the Pliocene originated from the Canadian Shield. In the Labrador Sea, previous studies have shown that bottom currents .strongly influenced sedimentation during the Pliocene, while during the Quaternary, intensification of turbidity current flows related to meltwater events were a dominant factor in supplying sediment to the basin and in the development of the North Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC). Despite understanding this general pattern of sediment flux, details regarding the transfer of sediment from the Labrador Shelf to deep water and from the Labrador Sea to the North Atlantic remain poorly understood. Our study focuses on sedimentary processes occurring along the Labrador margin since the Pliocene and their consequences on the margin architecture, connection to the NAMOC, and role in sediment flux from the Labrador basin to the Sohm Abyssal Plain. Piston core and high resolution seismic data reveal that during the Pliocene to mid Pleistocene, widespread slope failures led to mass transport deposition along the entire Labrador continental slope. After the mid Pleistocene, sedimentation along the margin was dominated by the combined effects of glaciation and active bottom currents. On the shelf, prograded sedimentary wedges filled troughs and agraded till sheets form intervening banks. On the slope, stacked glaciogenic fans developed seaward of transverse troughs between 400 and 2800 mbsl. On the lower slope, seismic data show thick sediment drifts capped by glacio-marine mud. This unit is draped by well stratified sediment and marks a switch from a contourite dominated regime to a turbidite dominated regime. This shift occurred around 0.5 - 0.8 ka and correlates to the intensification of glaciations. Late Pleistocene sediments on the upper slope consist of stratified sediments related to proglacial plume fall-out. Coarse grained

  2. Relation between the wind stress curl in the North Atlantic and the Atlantic inflow to the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandø, A. B.; Furevik, T.

    2008-06-01

    In this study an isopycnic coordinate ocean model has been used to investigate the relationships between the North Atlantic wind stress curl (WSC) and the inflow of Atlantic water to the Nordic Seas. For the period 1995-2001, there is a maximum in the correlation between the zonally averaged WSC at 55°N and the inflow with a 15-month time lag, capturing a relation already found in observational data. In the model this relation is linked to the mixing along the western flank of the Rockall Bank (56°N, 15°W). For the period 1995-2001 the atmospheric forcing in the northeastern North Atlantic is relatively weak, and the depth of the mixed layer is shallower than the sill depths of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR). Slowly moving, baroclinic disturbances caused by anomalies in the wind forcing will then be transmitted into the Nordic Seas where they are recorded as anomalous volume transports in the Norwegian Atlantic Current. In contrast, for the pentad prior to this period the atmospheric forcing is much more intense, and generates mixing well below sill depths of the GSR for all winters. Baroclinic disturbances forced by variations in the atmospheric forcing will then tend to follow f/H contours that do not enter the Nordic Seas, and the 15-month lagged relations between the wind and the volume transports will vanish. Recent observational data support this view.

  3. Projected climate change impacts to the North Sea marine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrum, Corinna

    2015-04-01

    Future climate change impacts to the North Sea marine system are driven by a combination of changes induced by the globally forced oceanic boundary conditions and the regional atmospheric and terrestrial changes. We reviewed the recent progress and the projected future change of the North Sea marine system as part of the North Sea Climate Change Assessment (NOSCCA) and focussed on three major aspects, namely the change of (i) sea level, the (ii) hydrographic and circulation changes of the North Sea and the (iii) changes in lower trophic level dynamics, biogeochemistry and ocean acidification. In recent years more and more regional climate change assessments became available for the North Sea and new developments contributed important understanding on regional processes mediating climate change impacts in the North Sea. Important new knowledge on regional future sea level change was gained by improved understanding of processes contributing to global sea level rise during the last decade. Assessment of climate change impacts to hydrography, circulation and biogeochemistry has benefited from new and advanced downscaling methods. The large number of regional studies enables now a critical review of the current knowledge on climate change impacts on the North Sea and allows the identification of challenges, robust changes, uncertainties and specific recommendations for future research. The long term trends in the climate conditions are superposed on the natural modes of variability and separating these to give a clear anthropogenic climate change signal is one of the 'grand challenges' of climate change impact studies in marine regions and of particular relevance for North Sea. The impact of natural variability on future annual average steric sea level, sea surface temperature and ocean acidification is less dominant compared to the climate change signal and their projected changes for the North Sea, namely rising future sea level, increasing surface temperature and

  4. Statistical Aspects of Tropical Cyclone Activity in the North Atlantic Basin, 1945-2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Examined are statistical aspects of the 715 tropical cyclones that formed in the North Atlantic basin during the interval 1945-2010. These 715 tropical cyclones include 306 storms that attained only tropical storm strength, 409 hurricanes, 179 major or intense hurricanes, and 108 storms that struck the US coastline as hurricanes. Comparisons made using 10-year moving average (10-yma) values between tropical cyclone parametric values and surface air and ENSO-related parametric values indicate strong correlations to exist, in particular, against the Armagh Observatory (Northern Ireland) surface air temperature, the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) index, the Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM) index, and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, in addition to the Oceanic Ni o index (ONI) and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) indices. Also examined are the decadal variations of the tropical cyclone parametric values and a look ahead towards the 2012 hurricane season and beyond.

  5. Reduced North Atlantic deep water coeval with the glacial Lake Agassiz freshwater outburst.

    PubMed

    Kleiven, Helga Kikki Flesche; Kissel, Catherine; Laj, Carlo; Ninnemann, Ulysses S; Richter, Thomas O; Cortijo, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    An outstanding climate anomaly 8200 years before the present (B.P.) in the North Atlantic is commonly postulated to be the result of weakened overturning circulation triggered by a freshwater outburst. New stable isotopic and sedimentological records from a northwest Atlantic sediment core reveal that the most prominent Holocene anomaly in bottom-water chemistry and flow speed in the deep limb of the Atlantic overturning circulation begins at approximately 8.38 thousand years B.P., coeval with the catastrophic drainage of Lake Agassiz. The influence of Lower North Atlantic Deep Water was strongly reduced at our site for approximately 100 years after the outburst, confirming the ocean's sensitivity to freshwater forcing. The similarities between the timing and duration of the pronounced deep circulation changes and regional climate anomalies support a causal link. PMID:18063758

  6. Mantle Redox Conditions in the North Atlantic Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heister, L. E.; Gras, M. A.; Lesher, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    The North Atlantic igneous province (NAIP) has long been viewed as a region of anomalous mantle upwelling related to plume activity, continental rifting, and a heterogeneous mantle source. Prior to continental rifting in the Tertiary, the northern portion of the region was the site of closure of the Iapetus ocean basin. This tectonic event may have contributed to heterogeneities within the upper mantle and altered its oxidation state relative to the ambient mantle. Vanadium has been shown to be a useful indicator of redox conditions due to its multiple valence states (e.g. [1-2]). In mantle minerals, vanadium becomes increasingly incompatible under more oxidizing conditions [3]. Because both scandium and vanadium are moderately incompatible during melting, the Sc/V ratio of primitive basalts can be used to investigate the oxidation state of the mantle [1-3]. We have examined the Sc/V ratios of primitive lavas from the mid-Atlantic ridge (MAR), Iceland, and the East Greenland margin to determine if there are spatial or temporal variations in the oxidation state of the NAIP mantle. The Sc/V ratios for MAR basalts are 0.13-0.20 (GEOROC chemical database); while Icelandic basalts range from 0.10-0.25 with an average of 0.16 (1 σ =0.05). The entire range of Sc/V ratios of the Paleogene East Greenland basalts is 0.07-0.17 with an average of 0.10 (1 σ = 0.05). The Sc/V ratios of Icelandic basalts are similar to MAR basalts, but the East Greenland lavas are distinctly lower than both the MAR and Iceland. The Sc/V ratio also can vary as a function of mean pressure of melting (i.e. spinel versus garnet lherzolite). To test the relative importance of melting systematics, source composition, and oxygen fugacity on the Sc/V systematics for NAIP basalts, we incorporated the oxygen-fugacity-dependent V mineral-melt partitioning data of [3] into the polybaric decompression melting model REEBOX [4]. The best-fit model parameters for the majority of the Iceland and MAR basalts

  7. Constraints on values of biological parameters by observed turbulence in a quasi-2D phytoplankton model of the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn-Woernle, Lisa; Dijkstra, Henk A.; van der Woerd, Hans J.

    2013-04-01

    Constraints on values of biological parameters by observed turbulence in a quasi-2D phytoplankton model of the North Atlantic Session and Session Number: Scaling and complex Physical and Biogeophysical Processes in the Atmosphere, Ocean and climate (NP3.1) Preferred Mode of Presentation: Oral Lisa Hahn-Woernle¹, Henk A. Dijkstra¹ & Hans J. van der Woerd² 1. Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht, The Netherlands. 2. Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. During the STRATIPHYT cruises in Summer 2009 and Spring 2011 in-situ plankton and nutrient concentrations as well as upper-ocean turbulence characteristics were measured from Las Palmas to Reykjavik [1,2]. The measurements agree with previous findings that the incoming light intensity and the stratification of the upper ocean set important conditions for the initiation of the phytoplankton bloom close to the surface and also for a possible shift to a deep chlorophyll maximum below the mixed layer. These strong characteristic spatial patterns and temporal cycles of phytoplankton surface concentration are also observed in satellite images of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Northern Atlantic. To understand the meridional depth (upper 200 m) variation of the phytoplankton distributions, a quasi-2D phytoplankton model was used. The results indicate that with the given profiles of the turbulent vertical mixing coefficient, only a very limited interval for the biological model parameters leads to the observed depth of the phytoplankton maximum. [1] E. Jurado, H. van der Woerd and H. A. Dijkstra, Microstructure measurements along a quasi-meridional transect in the North Atlantic, J. Geophysical Res. Oceans, 117, C04016, doi:10.1029/2011JC007137, (2012). [2] E. Jurado, H. A. Dijkstra and H. van der Woerd, Microstructure observations during the spring 2011 STRATIPHYT-II cruise in the

  8. Fungi Sailing the Arctic Ocean: Speciose Communities in North Atlantic Driftwood as Revealed by High-Throughput Amplicon Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Rämä, Teppo; Davey, Marie L; Nordén, Jenni; Halvorsen, Rune; Blaalid, Rakel; Mathiassen, Geir H; Alsos, Inger G; Kauserud, Håvard

    2016-08-01

    High amounts of driftwood sail across the oceans and provide habitat for organisms tolerating the rough and saline environment. Fungi have adapted to the extremely cold and saline conditions which driftwood faces in the high north. For the first time, we applied high-throughput sequencing to fungi residing in driftwood to reveal their taxonomic richness, community composition, and ecology in the North Atlantic. Using pyrosequencing of ITS2 amplicons obtained from 49 marine logs, we found 807 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on clustering at 97 % sequence similarity cut-off level. The phylum Ascomycota comprised 74 % of the OTUs and 20 % belonged to Basidiomycota. The richness of basidiomycetes decreased with prolonged submersion in the sea, supporting the general view of ascomycetes being more extremotolerant. However, more than one fourth of the fungal OTUs remained unassigned to any fungal class, emphasising the need for better DNA reference data from the marine habitat. Different fungal communities were detected in coniferous and deciduous logs. Our results highlight that driftwood hosts a considerably higher fungal diversity than currently known. The driftwood fungal community is not a terrestrial relic but a speciose assemblage of fungi adapted to the stressful marine environment and different kinds of wooden substrates found in it. PMID:27147245

  9. 75 FR 35432 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... fishing for swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by... 5, 2007 (72 FR 56929). The proposed adjusted quota for the South Atlantic swordfish, after... certification reads: NMFS published a final rule on October 5, 2007 (72 FR 56929) that established the...

  10. Cooling of the North Atlantic by Saharan Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K. M.; Kim, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    Using aerosol optical depth, sea surface temperature, top-of-the-atmosphere solar radiation flux, and oceanic mixed-layer depth from diverse data sources that include NASA satellites, NCEP reanalysis, in situ observations, as well as long-term dust records from Barbados, we examine the possible relationships between Saharan dust and Atlantic sea surface temperature. Results show that the estimated anomalous cooling pattern of the Atlantic during June 2006 relative to June 2005 due to attenuation of surface solar radiation by Saharan dust remarkably resemble observations, accounting for approximately 30-40% of the observed change in sea surface temperature. Historical data analysis show that there is a robust negative correlation between atmospheric dust loading and Atlantic SST consistent with the notion that increased (decreased) Saharan dust is associated with cooling (warming) of the Atlantic during the early hurricane season (July- August-September).

  11. Aircraft operating efficiency on the North Atlantic, a challenge for the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, R.

    1981-01-01

    A number of changes are expected to occur in the near future which could have important consequences for Atlantic flight operations for the next decade. These changes are identified and their impact on aircraft operating efficiency is discussed. Possible alternatives for North Atlantic air carriers are reviewed and strategies and actions are suggested which may give a considerable impact on fuel savings for years to come.

  12. Seasonal forecasting of intense tropical cyclones over the North Atlantic and the western North Pacific basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woosuk; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Jin, Chun-Sil; Kim, Jinwon; Feng, Song; Park, Doo-Sun R.; Schemm, Jae-Kyung E.

    2016-02-01

    Intense tropical cyclones (TCs) accompanying torrential rain and powerful wind gusts often cause substantial socio-economic losses in the regions around their landfall. This study analyzes intense TCs in the North Atlantic (NA) and the western North Pacific (WNP) basins during the period 1982-2013. Different intensity criteria are used to define intense TCs for these two basins, category 1 and above for NA and category 3 and above for WNP, because the number of TCs in the NA basin is much smaller than that in the WNP basin. Using a fuzzy clustering method, intense TC tracks in the NA and the WNP basins are classified into two and three representative patterns, respectively. On the basis of the clustering results, a track-pattern-based model is then developed for forecasting the seasonal activities of intense TCs in the two basins. Cross-validation of the model skill for 1982-2013 as well as verification of a forecast for the 2014 TC season suggest that our intense TC model is applicable to operational uses.

  13. Age Dependent 3-D Magnetic Modeling of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceanic Crust at Intermediate Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanez, Gonzalo A.; LaBrecque, John L.

    1996-01-01

    Three-dimensional magnetic modeling of the North Atlantic and Northeast pacific is performed at intermediate wavelengths using three models for the acquisition of a natural remanent magnetization. It is shown that a remanent magnetization which is dependent on the rustal age is the dominant source for the intermediate wavelength pattern in both basins.

  14. Impact of abrupt climate change in the tropical southeast Atlantic during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessler, Ines; Steinke, Stephan; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Dupont, Lydie; Wefer, Gerold

    2011-12-01

    High resolution planktonic foraminifera Mg/Ca paleotemperatures and oxygen isotopes of seawater of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1078 (off Angola) have been reconstructed and reveal insights into the seasonal thermal evolution of the Angola Current (AC), the Angola-Benguela Front (ABF), and the Benguela Current (BC) during the last glacial (50-23.5 ka BP). Special emphasis is put on time intervals possibly associated with the North Atlantic Heinrich Stadials (HS), which are thought to lead to an accumulation of heat in the South Atlantic due to a reduction of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Within dating uncertainties, Globigerinoides ruber (pink) Mg/Ca-based sea surface temperature (SST) estimates that represent southern hemisphere summer surface conditions show several warming episodes that coincide with North Atlantic HS, thus supporting the concept of the bipolar thermal seesaw. In contrast, the Mg/Ca-based temperatures of Globigerina bulloides, representing the SST of the ABF/BC system during southern hemisphere winter, show no obvious response to the North Atlantic HS in the study area. We suggest that surface water cooling during the winter season is due to enhanced upwelling or upwelling of colder water masses which has most likely mitigated a warming of the ABF/BC system during HS. We further speculate that the seasonal asymmetry in our SST record results from seasonal differences in the dominance of atmospheric and oceanic teleconnections during periods of northern high latitude cooling.

  15. Oceanographic dynamics and the end of the last interglacial in the subpolar North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Mokeddem, Zohra; McManus, Jerry F; Oppo, Delia W

    2014-08-01

    The last interglacial interval was terminated by the inception of a long, progressive glaciation that is attributed to astronomically influenced changes in the seasonal distribution of sunlight over the earth. However, the feedbacks, internal dynamics, and global teleconnections associated with declining northern summer insolation remain incompletely understood. Here we show that a crucial early step in glacial inception involves the weakening of the subpolar gyre (SPG) circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean. Detailed new records of microfossil foraminifera abundance and stable isotope ratios in deep sea sediments from Ocean Drilling Program site 984 south of Iceland reveal repeated, progressive cold water-mass expansions into subpolar latitudes during the last peak interglacial interval, marine isotope substage 5e. These movements are expressed as a sequence of progressively extensive southward advances and subsequent retreats of a hydrographic boundary that may have been analogous to the modern Arctic front, and associated with rapid changes in the strength of the SPG. This persistent millennial-scale oceanographic oscillation accompanied a long-term cooling trend at a time of slowly declining northern summer insolation, providing an early link in the propagation of those insolation changes globally, and resulting in a rapid transition from extensive regional warmth to the dramatic instability of the subsequent ∼ 100 ka. PMID:25049405

  16. Open ocean dead-zone in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Schütte, F.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Fischer, G.; Zantopp, R.; Hahn, J.; Visbeck, M.; Wallace, D.

    2014-12-01

    The intermittent appearances of low oxygen environments are a particular thread for marine ecosystems. Here we present first observations of unexpected low (<2 μmol kg-1) oxygen environments in the open waters of the eastern tropical North Atlantic, a region where typically oxygen concentration does not fall below 40 μmol kg-1. The low oxygen zones are created just below the mixed-layer, in the euphotic zone of high productive cyclonic and anticyclonic-modewater eddies. A dynamic boundary is created from the large swirl-velocity against the weak background flow. Hydrographic properties within the eddies are kept constant over periods of several months, while net respiration is elevated by a factor of 3 to 5 reducing the oxygen content. We repeatedly observed low oxygen eddies in the region. The direct impact on the ecosystem is evident from anomalous backscatter behaviour. Satellite derived global eddy statistics do not allow to estimate the large-scale impact of the eddies because their vertical structure (mixed-layer depth, euphotic depth) play a key role in creating the low oxygen environment.

  17. Oceanographic dynamics and the end of the last interglacial in the subpolar North Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Mokeddem, Zohra; McManus, Jerry F.; Oppo, Delia W.

    2014-01-01

    The last interglacial interval was terminated by the inception of a long, progressive glaciation that is attributed to astronomically influenced changes in the seasonal distribution of sunlight over the earth. However, the feedbacks, internal dynamics, and global teleconnections associated with declining northern summer insolation remain incompletely understood. Here we show that a crucial early step in glacial inception involves the weakening of the subpolar gyre (SPG) circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean. Detailed new records of microfossil foraminifera abundance and stable isotope ratios in deep sea sediments from Ocean Drilling Program site 984 south of Iceland reveal repeated, progressive cold water-mass expansions into subpolar latitudes during the last peak interglacial interval, marine isotope substage 5e. These movements are expressed as a sequence of progressively extensive southward advances and subsequent retreats of a hydrographic boundary that may have been analogous to the modern Arctic front, and associated with rapid changes in the strength of the SPG. This persistent millennial-scale oceanographic oscillation accompanied a long-term cooling trend at a time of slowly declining northern summer insolation, providing an early link in the propagation of those insolation changes globally, and resulting in a rapid transition from extensive regional warmth to the dramatic instability of the subsequent ∼100 ka. PMID:25049405

  18. New Invertebrate Vectors for PST, Spirolides and Okadaic Acid in the North Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marisa; Barreiro, Aldo; Rodriguez, Paula; Otero, Paz; Azevedo, Joana; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M.; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of poisoning events due to harmful algal blooms (HABs) has declined during the last two decades through monitoring programs and legislation, implemented mainly for bivalves. However, new toxin vectors and emergent toxins pose a challenge to public health. Several locations on the Portuguese coast were surveyed between 2009 and 2010 for three distinct biotoxin groups [saxitoxin (PST), spirolide (SPX) and okadaic acid (OA)], in 14 benthic species of mollusks and echinoderms. Our main goals were to detect new vectors and unravel the seasonal and geographical patterns of these toxins. PSTs were analyzed by the Lawrence method, SPXs by LC-MS/MS, and OA by LC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS. We report 16 new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic. There were differences in toxin contents among species, but no significant geographical or seasonal patterns were found. Our results suggest that legislation should be adjusted to extend the monitoring of marine toxins to a wider range of species besides edible bivalves. PMID:23739043

  19. Lagged influence of North Atlantic Oscillation on population dynamics of a Mediterranean terrestrial salamander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvidio, Sebastiano; Oneto, Fabrizio; Ottonello, Dario; Pastorino, Mauro V.

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is a large-scale climatic pattern that strongly influences the atmospheric circulation in the northern Hemisphere and by consequence the long-term variability of marine and terrestrial ecosystem over great part of northern Europe and western Mediterranean. In the Mediterranean, the effects of the NAO on vertebrates has been studied mainly on bird populations but was rarely analysed in ectothermic animals, and in particular in amphibians. In this study, we investigated the relationships between winter, spring and summer NAO indexes and the long-term population dynamics of the plethodontid salamander Speleomantes strinatii. This terrestrial salamander was monitored inside an artificial cave in NW Italy for 24 consecutive years. The relationships between seasonal NAO indexes and the salamander dynamics were assessed by cross-correlation function (CCF) analysis, after prewhitening the time series by autoregressive moving average statistical modelling. Results of CCF analyses indicated that the salamander abundance varied in relation to the one-year ahead winter NAO ( P = 0.018), while no relationships were found with spring and summer indexes. These results strengthen some previous findings that suggested a high sensitivity of temperate terrestrial amphibians to wintertime climatic conditions.

  20. Lagged influence of North Atlantic Oscillation on population dynamics of a Mediterranean terrestrial salamander.

    PubMed

    Salvidio, Sebastiano; Oneto, Fabrizio; Ottonello, Dario; Pastorino, Mauro V

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is a large-scale climatic pattern that strongly influences the atmospheric circulation in the northern Hemisphere and by consequence the long-term variability of marine and terrestrial ecosystem over great part of northern Europe and western Mediterranean. In the Mediterranean, the effects of the NAO on vertebrates has been studied mainly on bird populations but was rarely analysed in ectothermic animals, and in particular in amphibians. In this study, we investigated the relationships between winter, spring and summer NAO indexes and the long-term population dynamics of the plethodontid salamander Speleomantes strinatii. This terrestrial salamander was monitored inside an artificial cave in NW Italy for 24 consecutive years. The relationships between seasonal NAO indexes and the salamander dynamics were assessed by cross-correlation function (CCF) analysis, after prewhitening the time series by autoregressive moving average statistical modelling. Results of CCF analyses indicated that the salamander abundance varied in relation to the one-year ahead winter NAO (P = 0.018), while no relationships were found with spring and summer indexes. These results strengthen some previous findings that suggested a high sensitivity of temperate terrestrial amphibians to wintertime climatic conditions. PMID:26160231

  1. Intensified impact of tropical Atlantic SST on the western North Pacific summer climate under a weakened Atlantic thermohaline circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Lee, June-Yi; Lu, Riyu; Dong, Buwen; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2015-10-01

    The tropical North Atlantic (TNA) sea surface temperature (SST) has been identified as one of regulators on the boreal summer climate over the western North Pacific (WNP), in addition to SSTs in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. The major physical process proposed is that the TNA warming induces a pair of cyclonic circulation anomaly over the eastern Pacific and negative precipitation anomalies over the eastern to central tropical Pacific, which in turn lead to an anticyclonic circulation anomaly over the western to central North Pacific. This study further demonstrates that the modulation of the TNA warming to the WNP summer climate anomaly tends to be intensified under background of the weakened Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) by using a water-hosing experiment. The results suggest that the weakened THC induces a decrease in thermocline depth over the TNA region, resulting in the enhanced sensitivity of SST variability to wind anomalies and thus intensification of the interannual variation of TNA SST. Under the weakened THC, the atmospheric responses to the TNA warming are westward shifted, enhancing the anticyclonic circulation and negative precipitation anomaly over the WNP. This study supports the recent finding that the negative phase of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation after the late 1960s has been favourable for the strengthening of the connection between TNA SST variability and WNP summer climate and has important implications for seasonal prediction and future projection of the WNP summer climate.

  2. Use of stable lead isotopes to characterize the sources of anthropogenic lead in North Atlantic surface waters

    SciTech Connect

    Veron, A.J. Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE ); Church, T.M. ); Patterson, C.C. ); Flegal, A.R. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA )

    1994-08-01

    Stable lead isotopes are used to illustrate the impact of surface water circulation on dissolved lead distribution in North Atlantic surface waters during oligotrophic conditions. Using stable lead isotopic signatures from (1) the Sargasso Sea and (2) direct tropospheric deposition to the North Atlantic, the authors estimate that 10-40% of the lead accumulated in surface waters of the European Basin is transported from the western North Atlantic by the North Atlantic Current. South of 50[degrees]N, lead appears to be primarily distributed by the Subtropical North Atlantic Gyre that extends well beyond the western basins to 30[degrees]W in the North African Basin (at 30-40[degrees]N). There are different lead isotopic signatures between the subtropical gyre of the Guiana and western Guinea Basins, which suggests that the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone acts as an efficient barrier limiting chemical exchanges between the gyre and the equatorial currents.

  3. Variability of Fram Strait Ice Flux and North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Ron

    1999-01-01

    An important term in the mass balance of the Arctic Ocean sea ice is the ice export. We estimated the winter sea ice export through the Fram Strait using ice motion from satellite passive microwave data and ice thickness data from moored upward looking sonars. The average winter area flux over the 18-year record (1978-1996) is 670,000 square km, approximately 7% of the area of the Arctic Ocean. The winter area flux ranges from a minimum of 450,000 sq. km in 1984 to a maximum of 906,000 sq km in 1995. The daily, monthly and interannual variabilities of the ice area flux are high. There is an upward trend in the ice area flux over the 18-year record. The average winter volume flux over the winters of October 1990 through May 1995 is 1745 cubic km ranging from a low of 1375 cubic km in 1990 to a high of 2791 cubic km in 1994. The sea-level pressure gradient across the Fram Strait explains more than 80% of the variance in the ice flux over the 18-year record. We use the coefficients from the regression of the time-series of area flux versus pressure gradient across the Fram Strait and ice thickness data to estimate the summer area and volume flux. The average 12-month area flux and volume flux are 919,000 sq km and 2366 cubic km. We find a significant correlation (R =0.86) between the area flux and positive phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index over the months of December through March. Correlation between our six years of volume flux estimates and the NAO index gives R =0.56. During the high NAO years, a more intense Icelandic low increases the gradient in the sea-level pressure by almost 1 mbar across the Fram Strait thus increasing the atmospheric forcing on ice transport. Correlation is reduced during the negative NAO years because of decreased dominance of this large-scale atmospheric pattern on the sea-level pressure gradient across the Fram Strait. Additional information is contained in the original.

  4. Glacier response to North Atlantic climate variability during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balascio, N. L.; D'Andrea, W. J.; Bradley, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    Small glaciers and ice caps respond rapidly to climate variations, and records of their past extent provide information on the natural envelope of past climate variability. Millennial-scale trends in Holocene glacier size are well documented and correspond with changes in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation. However, there is only sparse and fragmentary evidence for higher-frequency variations in glacier size because in many Northern Hemisphere regions glacier advances of the past few hundred years were the most extensive and destroyed the geomorphic evidence of ice growth and retreat during the past several thousand years. Thus, most glacier records have been of limited use for investigating centennial-scale climate forcing and feedback mechanisms. Here we report a continuous record of glacier activity for the last 9.5 ka from southeast Greenland derived from high-resolution measurements on a proglacial lake sediment sequence. Physical and geochemical parameters show that the glaciers responded to previously documented Northern Hemisphere climatic excursions, including the "8.2 ka" cooling event, the Holocene Thermal Maximum, Neoglacial cooling, and 20th century warming. In addition, the sediments indicate centennial-scale oscillations in glacier size during the late Holocene. Beginning at 4.1 ka, a series of abrupt glacier advances occurred, each lasting ~100 years and followed by a period of retreat, that were superimposed on a gradual trend toward larger glacier size. Thus, while declining summer insolation caused long-term cooling and glacier expansion during the late Holocene, climate system dynamics resulted in repeated episodes of glacier expansion and retreat on multi-decadal to centennial timescales. These episodes coincided with ice rafting events in the North Atlantic Ocean and periods of regional ice cap expansion, which confirms their regional significance and indicates that considerable glacier activity on these timescales is a normal feature of

  5. Alkalinity distribution in the western North Atlantic Ocean margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wei-Jun; Hu, Xinping; Huang, Wei-Jen; Jiang, Li-Qing; Wang, Yongchen; Peng, Tsung-Hung; Zhang, Xin

    2010-08-01

    Total alkalinity (TA) distribution and its relationship with salinity (S) along the western North Atlantic Ocean (wNAO) margins from the Labrador Sea to tropical areas are examined in this study. Based on the observed TA-S patterns, the mixing processes that control alkalinity distribution in these areas can be categorized into a spectrum of patterns that are bracketed by two extreme mixing types, i.e., alongshore current-dominated and river-dominated. Alongshore current-dominated mixing processes exhibit a segmented mixing line with a shared mid-salinity end-member. In such cases (i.e., Labrador Sea, Gulf of Maine, etc.), the y-intercept of the high salinity segment of the mixing line is generally higher than the local river alkalinity values, and it reflects the mixing history of the alongshore current. In contrast, in river-dominated mixing (Amazon River, Caribbean Sea, etc.), good linear relationships between alkalinity and salinity are generally observed, and the zero salinity intercepts of the TA-S regressions roughly match those of the regional river alkalinity values. TA-S mixing lines can be complicated by rapid changes in the river end-member value and by another river nearby with a different TA value (e.g., Mississippi-Atchafalaya/Gulf of Mexico). In the wNAO margins, regression intercepts and river end-members have a clear latitudinal distribution pattern, increasing from a low of ˜300 μmol kg-1 in the Amazon River plume to a high value between ˜500-1100 μmol kg-1 in the middle and high latitude margins. The highest value of ˜2400 μmol kg-1 is observed in the Mississippi River influenced areas. In addition to mixing control, biological processes such as calcification and benthic alkalinity production may also affect ocean margin alkalinity distribution. Therefore, deriving inorganic carbon system information in coastal oceans using alkalinity-salinity relationships, in particular, those of generic nature, may lead to significant errors.

  6. Abrupt transitions in the NAO control of explosive North Atlantic cyclone development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómara, Iñigo; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén; Zurita-Gotor, Pablo; Ulbrich, Sven; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-02-01

    Explosive cyclones are intense extra-tropical low pressure systems featuring large deepening rates. In the Euro-Atlantic sector, they are a major source of life-threatening weather impacts due to their associated strong wind gusts, heavy precipitation and storm surges. The wintertime variability of the North Atlantic cyclonic activity is primarily modulated by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). In this study, we investigate the interannual and multi-decadal variability of explosive North Atlantic cyclones using track density data from two reanalysis datasets (NCEP and ERA-40) and a control simulation of an atmosphere/ocean coupled General Circulation Model (GCM—ECHAM5/MPIOM1). The leading interannual and multi-decadal modes of variability of explosive cyclone track density are characterized by a strengthening/weakening pattern between Newfoundland and Iceland, which is mainly modulated by the NAO at both timescales. However, the NAO control of interannual cyclone variability is not stationary in time and abruptly fluctuates during periods of 20-25 years long both in NCEP and ECHAM5/MPIOM1. These transitions are accompanied by structural changes in the leading mode of explosive cyclone variability, and by decreased/enhanced baroclinicity over the sub-polar/sub-tropical North Atlantic. The influence of the ocean is apparently important for both the occurrence and persistence of such anomalous periods. In the GCM, the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation appears to influence the large-scale baroclinicity and explosive cyclone development over the North Atlantic. These results permit a better understanding of explosive cyclogenesis variability at different climatic timescales and might help to improve predictions of these hazardous events.

  7. The effect of the Mediterranean Overflow Water on the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldama Campino, Aitor; Döös, Kristofer

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean Overflow Water is created due to an excess of evaporation over precipitation and river runoffs in the Mediterranean Sea. As a result, the incoming surface waters from the Atlantic become denser and saltier. These waters return to the Atlantic through Gibraltar Strait and start mixing with the surrounding waters in the vicinity of the Gulf of Cadiz forming a warm and saline tongue of water, which spreads westward. In this exchange of waters between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, other magnitudes such as heat and salt are transported. In the last case, the salt transport between the two basins shows a variability with a period of few decades. These oscillations produce two different states, one where the Mediterranean exports salt to the Atlantic and another where the Mediterranean imports salt from it. The Mediterranean-Atlantic system alternates these two states. The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of these multidecadal oscillations on the North Atlantic. This study is performed using data from the climate model EC-EARTH run under pre-industrial conditions, where the greenhouse gas forcing is constant. Different magnitudes such as the total salt and volume transport through Gibraltar Strait, salinity profiles in the vicinity of the Gulf of Cadiz, the net freshwater fluxes in the Mediterranean basin are studied. The analysis of the total salt transport through Gibraltar show periods where salt is imported from the Atlantic and vice versa. Our guess is that the Mediterranean Sea acts as a reservoir which alternates between exporting and importing salt from the North Atlantic through the strait. The impact of this salt transport in Gibraltar on the total salt transport of the Atlantic is studied. The results show a larger impact of the outgoing salt transport on the total Atlantic salt transport north of Gibraltar strait (in a region between 40°N-50°N). These results oppose the ones obtained when the impact of the outgoing salt

  8. Impact of the winter North-Atlantic weather regimes on subtropical sea-surface height variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrier, Nicolas; Treguier, Anne-Marie; Cassou, Christophe; Deshayes, Julie

    2013-09-01

    Interannual variability of subtropical sea-surface-height (SSH) anomalies, estimated by satellite and tide-gauge data, is investigated in relation to wintertime daily North-Atlantic weather regimes. Sea-level anomalies can be viewed as proxies for the subtropical gyre intensity because of the intrinsic baroclinic structure of the circulation. Our results show that the strongest correlation between SSH and weather regimes is found with the so-called Atlantic-Ridge (AR) while no significant values are obtained for the other regimes, including those related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), known as the primary actor of the Atlantic dynamics. Wintertime AR events are characterized by anticyclonic wind anomalies off Europe leading to a northward shift of the climatological wind-stress curl. The latter affects subtropical SSH annual variability by altered Sverdrup balance and ocean Rossby wave dynamics propagating westward from the African coast towards the Caribbean. The use of a simple linear planetary geostrophic model allows to quantify those effects and confirms the primary importance of the winter season to explain the largest part of SSH interannual variability in the Atlantic subtropical gyre. Our results open new perspectives in the comprehension of North-Atlantic Ocean variability emphasizing the role of AR as a driver of interannual variability at least of comparable importance to NAO.

  9. Depth Profiles of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the North and Tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caoxin; Soltwedel, Thomas; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Adelman, Dave A; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-06-21

    Little is known of the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the deep ocean. Polyethylene passive samplers were used to detect the vertical distribution of truly dissolved POPs at two sites in the Atlantic Ocean. Samplers were deployed at five depths covering 26-2535 m in the northern Atlantic and Tropical Atlantic, in approximately one year deployments. Samplers of different thickness were used to determine the state of equilibrium POPs reached in the passive samplers. Concentrations of POPs detected in the North Atlantic near the surface (e.g., sum of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs: 0.84 pg L(-1)) were similar to previous measurements. At both sites, PCB concentrations showed subsurface maxima (tropical Atlantic Ocean -800 m, North Atlantic -500 m). Currents seemed more important in moving POPs to deeper water masses than the biological pump. The ratio of PCB concentrations in near surface waters (excluding PCB-28) between the two sites was inversely correlated with congeners' subcooled liquid vapor pressure, in support of the latitudinal fractionation. The results presented here implied a significant amount of HCB is stored in the Atlantic Ocean (4.8-26% of the global HCB environmental burdens), contrasting traditional beliefs that POPs do not reach the deep ocean. PMID:27174500

  10. Meridional fluxes of dissolved organic matter in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, John J.; Carder, Kendall L.; Mueller-Karger, Frank E.

    1992-01-01

    Biooptical estimates of gelbstoff and a few platinum measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOCpt) are used to construct a budget of the meridional flux of DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) across 36 deg 25 min N in the North Atlantic from previous inverse models of water and element transport. Distinct southward subsurface fluxes of dissolved organic matter within subducted shelf water, cabelled slope water, and overturned basin water are inferred. Within two cases of a positive gradient of DOCpt between terrestrial/shelf and offshore stocks, the net equatorward exports of O2 and DOCpt from the northern North Atlantic yield molar ratios of 2.1 to 9.1, compared to the expected Redfield O2/C ratio of 1.3. It is concluded that some shelf export of DOC, with a positive gradient between coastal and oceanic stocks, as well as falling particles, are required to balance carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen budgets of the North Atlantic.

  11. Statistical Aspects of the North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclones: Trends, Natural Variability, and Global Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Statistical aspects of the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclones for the interval 1945- 2005 are examined, including the variation of the yearly frequency of occurrence for various subgroups of storms (all tropical cyclones, hurricanes, major hurricanes, U.S. landfalling hurricanes, and category 4/5 hurricanes); the yearly variation of the mean latitude and longitude (genesis location) of all tropical cyclones and hurricanes; and the yearly variation of the mean peak wind speeds, lowest pressures, and durations for all tropical cyclones, hurricanes, and major hurricanes. Also examined is the relationship between inferred trends found in the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclonic activity and natural variability and global warming, the latter described using surface air temperatures from the Armagh Observatory Armagh, Northern Ireland. Lastly, a simple statistical technique is employed to ascertain the expected level of North Atlantic basin tropical cyclonic activity for the upcoming 2007 season.

  12. Radon daughter disequilibria and lead systematics in the western North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, N.; Church, T. M.; VéRon, Alain J.; Larson, R. E.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of 222Rn and 210Pb were measured in the North Atlantic troposphere in 1989 between April 12 and 28, during the Sulfide Experiment (SEX) Cruise I, and those of 222Rn, 210Pb and 210Po, between October 24 and November 9, during the SEX Cruise II. Concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po were also measured in the rain water, surface seawater, and marine microlayer collected during the SEX Cruise II Other data used and published previously include stable lead and its isotopes [Vèron et al., 1992, 1993] on parallel samples. Low 222Rn contents, of the order of 0.1 and 0.3 Bq m-3, were found in the marine air, while continental air showed nearly 10 times higher concentrations of 222Rn. These results corroborate with the air mass trajectory analyses and continental signatures of stable lead isotopes. Significant correlation is found between 222Rn and 210Pb on the aerosol, indicative of excess continental 222Rn supporting the ingrowth of 210Pb from the atmosphere, in spite of its first-order removal by precipitation. Correlation between 210Pb and stable Pb on the aerosol and in the precipitation document the source of pollutant lead from the continental surface. Mean residence times of marine aerosol based on 210Pb is estimated to be 5.4±1.8 days during the April cruise and 19.7±1.9 days during the October cause. Corresponding deposition velocity for 210Pb is estimated to be 1.9±1.9 cm s-1, a value that suggests the dominant role of precipitation scavenging, or aerosol scavenging by larger host phases such as dust or sea salt. Excess 210Po activities are found on the aerosol relative to what would be expected based on 210Pb and the aerosol residence times. In surface seawaters, deficiencies of 210Po are observed. Mechanisms of 210Po enrichment in atmospheric aerosol may include enrichments from the organic components of marine microlayer, sea-salt aerosol, dust, or air-sea exchange of volatile organo-polonium species.

  13. Imprint of North-Atlantic abrupt climate changes on western European loess deposits as viewed in a dust emission model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, Adriana; Rousseau, Denis-Didier; Kageyama, Masa; Ramstein, Gilles; Schulz, Michael; Balkanski, Yves; Antoine, Pierre; Dulac, François; Hatté, Christine

    2009-12-01

    Western European loess sequences of the last glaciation (˜100,000-15,000 years BP) exhibit strong, cyclic variations of the sedimentation rate, which are coeval to the Greenland stadial/interstadial cycles and the Heinrich events. These North-Atlantic rapid climate changes appear, thus, as a potential cause for the sedimentation variations, via changes in dust intensity cycle. Here we make a first step in testing this hypothesis, by modelling the impact of the North-Atlantic abrupt climate variations on dust emission. Our dust emission calculations use meteorological fields generated by the LMDZ atmospheric general circulation model at a resolution down to 60 km over Western Europe. Three numerical experiments are run, representing a Greenland stadial, an interstadial and a Heinrich event. Orbital parameters and ice-sheet configuration correspond to conditions from Marine Isotope Stage 3 (˜60,000-25,000 years BP), a period characterized by strong millennial-scale climate variability. The only differences we impose in the boundary conditions regard the North-Atlantic surface temperature and sea-ice cover in the latitudinal band 30°-63°N. The changes in wind, precipitation, soil moisture and snow cover from one simulated state to another result in small differences in dust emission intensity. In contrast, when the inhibition of the aeolian erosion by vegetation is taken into account, the dust fluxes for the cold climate states (Greenland stadial and Heinrich event) become generally more than twice higher than those for the relatively warmer Greenland interstadial, in agreement with the loess data. These results support the hypothesis that the North-Atlantic millennial-scale variability is imprinted in Western European loess profiles, and point to vegetation changes as the main factor responsible for millennial-scale sedimentation variations. An analysis for the English Channel and southern North Sea areas, major potential dust sources, shows that the seasonality

  14. North Atlantic warming during Dansgaard-Oeschger events synchronous with Antarctic warming and out-of-phase with Greenland climate

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Tine L.; Thomsen, Erik; Moros, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The precise reason for the differences and out-of-phase relationship between the abrupt Dansgaard-Oeschger warmings in the Nordic seas and Greenland ice cores and the gradual warmings in the south-central Atlantic and Antarctic ice cores is poorly understood. Termed the bipolar seesaw, the differences are apparently linked to perturbations in the ocean circulation pattern. Here we show that surface and intermediate-depth water south of Iceland warmed gradually synchronously with the Antarctic warming and out of phase with the abrupt warming of the Nordic seas and over Greenland. The hinge line between areas showing abrupt and gradual warming was close to the Greenland-Scotland Ridge and the marine system appears to be a ‘push-and-pull’ system rather than a seesaw system. ‘Pull’ during the warm interstadials, when convection in the Nordic seas was active; ‘push’ during the cold stadials, when convection stopped and warm water from the south-central Atlantic pushed northward gradually warming the North Atlantic and Nordic seas. PMID:26847384

  15. North Atlantic warming during Dansgaard-Oeschger events synchronous with Antarctic warming and out-of-phase with Greenland climate.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Tine L; Thomsen, Erik; Moros, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The precise reason for the differences and out-of-phase relationship between the abrupt Dansgaard-Oeschger warmings in the Nordic seas and Greenland ice cores and the gradual warmings in the south-central Atlantic and Antarctic ice cores is poorly understood. Termed the bipolar seesaw, the differences are apparently linked to perturbations in the ocean circulation pattern. Here we show that surface and intermediate-depth water south of Iceland warmed gradually synchronously with the Antarctic warming and out of phase with the abrupt warming of the Nordic seas and over Greenland. The hinge line between areas showing abrupt and gradual warming was close to the Greenland-Scotland Ridge and the marine system appears to be a 'push-and-pull' system rather than a seesaw system. 'Pull' during the warm interstadials, when convection in the Nordic seas was active; 'push' during the cold stadials, when convection stopped and warm water from the south-central Atlantic pushed northward gradually warming the North Atlantic and Nordic seas. PMID:26847384

  16. North Atlantic warming during Dansgaard-Oeschger events synchronous with Antarctic warming and out-of-phase with Greenland climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Tine L.; Thomsen, Erik; Moros, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    The precise reason for the differences and out-of-phase relationship between the abrupt Dansgaard-Oeschger warmings in the Nordic seas and Greenland ice cores and the gradual warmings in the south-central Atlantic and Antarctic ice cores is poorly understood. Termed the bipolar seesaw, the differences are apparently linked to perturbations in the ocean circulation pattern. Here we show that surface and intermediate-depth water south of Iceland warmed gradually synchronously with the Antarctic warming and out of phase with the abrupt warming of the Nordic seas and over Greenland. The hinge line between areas showing abrupt and gradual warming was close to the Greenland-Scotland Ridge and the marine system appears to be a ‘push-and-pull’ system rather than a seesaw system. ‘Pull’ during the warm interstadials, when convection in the Nordic seas was active; ‘push’ during the cold stadials, when convection stopped and warm water from the south-central Atlantic pushed northward gradually warming the North Atlantic and Nordic seas.

  17. Effect of abyssal circulation changes on Oligocene to Miocene benthic foraminifera in the North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, M.E.; Miller, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal ranges at western North Atlantic Sites 563 and 558 show: 1) gradual Oligocene last occurrences in response to subsidence from the upper to lower abyssal zones; 2) a preponderance of extinctions in the early middle Miocene (about 15.5-13.5 Ma). Comparison of relative and absolute abundance changes at Site 563 sows that percentages of some taxa (e.g. Nuttallides umbonifera) reliably reflect their accumulations while percentages of others vary independently. Regional abundance changes include: 1) maxima N. umbonifera in the middle Oligocene of the deepest sites (10 and 119); 2) increased Planulina wuellerstorfi in the early middle Miocene; 3) increased N. umbonifera in the late middle Miocene. Seismic stratigraphic and delta/sup 13/C evidence indicates a northern bottom-water source for the North Atlantic throughout much of the Oligocene and Miocene. Benthic foraminifera apparently responded to bottom-water changes inferred from carbon isotopic comparisons. The extinction of relict Paleogene taxa and the ascendancy of P. wuellerstorfi in the middle Miocene apparently correlate with increased advection into the eastern Atlantic, subsidence of the Iceland-Faeroe Ridge and increased North Atlantic carbonate sedimentation. The authors speculate that this faunal reorganization was in response to global ocean chemistry changes resulting from increased ventilation of the North Atlantic.

  18. Links between tropical rainfall and North Atlantic climate during the last glacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deplazes, Gaudenz; Lückge, Andreas; Peterson, Larry C.; Timmermann, Axel; Hamann, Yvonne; Hughen, Konrad A.; Röhl, Ursula; Laj, Carlo; Cane, Mark A.; Sigman, Daniel M.; Haug, Gerald H.

    2013-03-01

    During the last glacial period, the North Atlantic regionexperienced pronounced, millennial-scale alternations between cold, stadial conditions and milder interstadial conditions--commonly referred to as Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations--as well as periods of massive iceberg discharge known as Heinrich events. Changes in Northern Hemisphere temperature, as recorded in Greenland, are thought to have affected the location of the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone and the strength of the Indian summer monsoon. Here we use high-resolution records of sediment colour--a measure of terrigenous versus biogenic content--from the Cariaco Basin off the coast of Venezuela and the Arabian Sea to assess teleconnections with the North Atlantic climate system during the last glacial period. The Cariaco record indicates that the intertropical convergence zone migrated seasonally over the site during mild stadial conditions, but was permanently displaced south of the basin during peak stadials and Heinrich events. In the Arabian Sea, we find evidence of a weak Indian summer monsoon during the stadial events. The tropical records show a more variable response to North Atlantic cooling than the Greenland temperature records. We therefore suggest that Greenland climate is especially sensitive to variations in the North Atlantic system--in particular sea-ice extent--whereas the intertropical convergence zone and Indian monsoon system respond primarily to variations in mean Northern Hemisphere temperature.

  19. Higher Laurentide and Greenland ice sheets strengthen the North Atlantic ocean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xun; Zhang, Xiangdong; Lohmann, Gerrit; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Pfeiffer, Madlene

    2015-07-01

    During the last glacial-interglacial cycle, changes in the large-scale North Atlantic ocean circulation occurred, and at the same time topography of the Laurentide and Greenland ice sheets also varied. In this study, we focus on detecting the changes of the North Atlantic gyres, western boundary current, and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) corresponding to different Laurentide and Greenland ice sheet topographies. Using an Earth System Model, we conducted simulations for five climate states with different ice sheet topographies: Pre-industrial, Mid Holocene, Last Glacial Maximum, 32 kilo years before present and Eemian interglacial. Our simulation results indicate that higher topographies of the Laurentide and Greenland ice sheets strengthen surface wind stress curl over the North Atlantic ocean, intensifying the subtropical and subpolar gyres and the western boundary currents. The corresponding decrease in sea surface height from subtropical to subpolar favors a stronger AMOC. An offshore shift of the Gulf Stream is also identified during the glacial periods relative to that during the Pre-industrial due to lower sea levels, explaining a weaker glacial Gulf Stream detected in proxy data. Meanwhile, the North Atlantic gyres and AMOC demonstrate a positively correlated relation under each of the climate conditions with higher ice sheets.

  20. Climate drift of AMOC, North Atlantic salinity and arctic sea ice in CFSv2 decadal predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bohua; Zhu, Jieshun; Marx, Lawrence; Wu, Xingren; Kumar, Arun; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Balmaseda, Magdalena A.; Zhang, Shaoqing; Lu, Jian; Schneider, Edwin K.; Kinter, James L., III

    2015-01-01

    There are potential advantages to extending operational seasonal forecast models to predict decadal variability but major efforts are required to assess the model fidelity for this task. In this study, we examine the North Atlantic climate simulated by the NCEP Climate Forecast System, version 2 (CFSv2), using a set of ensemble decadal hindcasts and several 30-year simulations initialized from realistic ocean-atmosphere states. It is found that a substantial climate drift occurs in the first few years of the CFSv2 hindcasts, which represents a major systematic bias and may seriously affect the model's fidelity for decadal prediction. In particular, it is noted that a major reduction of the upper ocean salinity in the northern North Atlantic weakens the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) significantly. This freshening is likely caused by the excessive freshwater transport from the Arctic Ocean and weakened subtropical water transport by the North Atlantic Current. A potential source of the excessive freshwater is the quick melting of sea ice, which also causes unrealistically thin ice cover in the Arctic Ocean. Our sensitivity experiments with adjusted sea ice albedo parameters produce a sustainable ice cover with realistic thickness distribution. It also leads to a moderate increase of the AMOC strength. This study suggests that a realistic freshwater balance, including a proper sea ice feedback, is crucial for simulating the North Atlantic climate and its variability.

  1. Sub-decadal North Atlantic Oscillation variability in observations and the Kiel Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reintges, Annika; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2016-07-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the dominant mode of winter climate variability in the North Atlantic sector. The corresponding index varies on a wide range of timescales, from days and months to decades and beyond. Sub-decadal NAO variability has been well documented, but the underlying mechanism is still under discussion. Other indices of North Atlantic sector climate variability such as indices of sea surface and surface air temperature or Arctic sea ice extent also exhibit pronounced sub-decadal variability. Here, we use sea surface temperature and sea level pressure observations, and the Kiel Climate Model to investigate the dynamics of the sub-decadal NAO variability. The sub-decadal NAO variability is suggested to originate from dynamical large-scale air-sea interactions. The adjustment of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to previous surface heat flux variability provides the memory of the coupled mode. The results stress the role of coupled feedbacks in generating sub-decadal North Atlantic sector climate variability, which is important to multiyear climate predictability in that region.

  2. Pliocene pre-glacial North Atlantic: A coupled sea surface-deep ocean circulation climate response

    SciTech Connect

    Ishman, S.E.; Dowsett, H.J. . National Center)

    1992-01-01

    A latitudinal transect of North Atlantic Deep Sea Drilling Project Holes from the equatorial region to 56 N in the 2,300- to 3,000-meter depth range was designed for a high-resolution study of coupled sea surface and deep ocean response to climate change. Precise age control was provided using magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data from the cores to identify the 4.0 to 2.2 Ma interval, a period of warm-to-cool climatic transitions in the North Atlantic. The objective is to evaluate incremental (10 kyr) changes in sea surface temperatures (SST) and deep North Atlantic circulation patterns between 4.0 and 2.2 Ma to develop a coupled sea surface-deep ocean circulation response model. Sea surface temperature (SST) estimates are based on planktic foraminifer-based factor-analytic transfer functions. Oxygen isotopic data from paired samples provide tests of the estimated temperature gradients between localities. Benthic foraminifer assemblage data and [partial derivative]O-18 and [partial derivative]C-13 Isotopic data are used to quantitatively determine changes in deep North Atlantic circulation. These data are used to determine changes in source area (North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) or Antarctic Bottom Water) and (or) in the components of NADW that were present (Upper or Lower NADW). These paired paleoceanographic sea surface and deep circulation interpretations over a 1.8 my interval form the basis for a coupled sea surface-deep circulation response model for the Pliocene North Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Enhanced North Atlantic deep convection preceding Heinrich 1 glacial ice sheet destabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Kuijpers, Antoon; Lindgreen, Holger

    2015-04-01

    The Labrador Sea is a crucial center of action for North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. This region is characterized in winter by strong cold and dry winds from land or ice surfaces inducing large heat and moisture fluxes at the ocean-atmosphere interface. Particularly in late winter these conditions favor deep-convection processes leading to the formation of a relatively homogeneous and oxygen-rich intermediate water mass (Labrador Sea Water, LSW) spreading to other parts of the North Atlantic at water depths between about 1,000 and 2,000 m. Sedimentary records from the Labrador Sea have previously indicated here the presence of North Atlantic Deep Water during periods in between glacial ('Heinrich') ice-rafting events. The present sediment core investigation based on clay mineralogical analysis and study of the benthic foraminiferal fauna shows a significant oxygenation event at 18000 cal.yrs BP recorded both in the Labrador Sea and at the northern margin of Rockall Trough at 2381 m and 1286 m water depth, respectively. We conclude this ventilation pulse to be related to a period of enhanced deep convection and formation of glacial North Atlantic Intermediate Water occupying those parts of the water column presently affected under conditions of strong LSW formation. This ventilation event implies an early, significant re-activation of North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation after the Last Glacial Maximum immediately prior to Heinrich 1 large-scale ice-sheet destabilization. This scenario points to an oceanic trigger mechanism for large-scale glacial iceberg surges around the northern North Atlantic, which involves enhanced northward ocean (sub)surface heat transport and subsequent enhanced bottom melting of floating outlet glaciers and ice shelves.

  4. Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) modulates dynamics of small pelagic fishes and ecosystem regime shifts in the eastern North and Central Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alheit, Jürgen; Licandro, Priscilla; Coombs, Steve; Garcia, Alberto; Giráldez, Ana; Santamaría, Maria Teresa Garcia; Slotte, Aril; Tsikliras, Athanassios C.

    2014-03-01

    Dynamics of abundance and migrations of populations of small pelagic clupeoid fish such as anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), sardinella (Sardinella aurita), sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) in the eastern North and Central Atlantic between Senegal and Norway vary in synchrony with the warm and cool phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). This is shown by compiling retrospective data on fish catches and anecdotal observations, which in some cases date back to the mid-19th century. The AMO is defined as the de-trended mean of North Atlantic (0-60°N) sea surface temperature anomalies. However, it is not primarily the temperature which drives the dynamics of the small pelagic fish populations. Instead, the AMO seems to be a proxy for complex processes in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system of the North Atlantic. This is manifested in large-scale changes in strength and direction of the current system that move water masses around the North Atlantic and likely involves the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), the Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) and the subpolar gyre (SPG). The contractions and expansions of the SPG apparently play a key role. This was particularly obvious in the mid-1990s, when the SPG abruptly contracted with the result that warm subtropical water masses moved to the north and east. Small pelagic fish populations in the eastern North and Central Atlantic, including those in the Mediterranean responded quickly by changing abundances and migrating northwards. It seems that the complex ocean-atmosphere changes in the mid-1990s, which are described in the text in detail, caused a regime shift in the ecosystems of the eastern North and Central Atlantic and the small pelagic clupeoid fish populations are the sentinels of this shift.

  5. Regime shifts in the Arctic North Atlantic during the Neoglacial revealed by seabirds and precipitation isotopes on Bjørnøya, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, William J.; Hormes, Anne; Bakke, Jostein; Nicolaisen, Line

    2016-04-01

    The northeastern North Atlantic Ocean, and the Norwegian and Greenland Seas are subject to large hydrographic changes. These variations can influence oceanic heat transport to the Arctic, meridional overturning circulation, and atmospheric circulation patterns and thereby impact global climate patterns. Marine records suggest that numerous large-scale changes in the hydrography of the northern North Atlantic took place during the middle to late Holocene. We report a record of nitrogen and hydrogen isotope measurements from a lake sediment core from Bjørnøya, Svalbard (74.38°N, 19.02°E) that documents major regime shifts in the climate of the northern North Atlantic during the past 6,000 years. Bjørnøya is the nesting ground for one of the largest seabird populations in the North Atlantic. As top predators in the marine ecosystem, seabirds (and their guano) are enriched in 15N; during spring and summer months they deliver isotopically enriched nitrogen to nesting areas. We developed a record of seabird population changes on Bjørnøya based on the nitrogen isotope composition of sediments in a core collected from lake Ellasjøen. The record reveals multiple multicentennial scale changes in δ15N values (varying between ~8-12‰) that track past changes in the size of seabird populations. From the same sediment core, we also developed a record of δD of precipitation, using δD values of sedimentary n-alkanes. Past intervals with the largest inferred bird populations correspond with the most enriched δD of precipitation, which we interpret to represent a more Atlantic climate. Periods with reduced seabird populations correspond with intervals with more negative δD of precipitation and representing a more Arctic climate. Together, the nitrogen and hydrogen isotope records signify regime shifts in the oceanography, marine ecosystem, and atmospheric circulation of the northern North Atlantic that are related to variations in the strength of the subpolar gyre.

  6. Recruitment Variability in North Atlantic Cod and Match-Mismatch Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansen, Trond; Drinkwater, Kenneth F.; Lough, R. Gregory; Sundby, Svein

    2011-01-01

    Background Fisheries exploitation, habitat destruction, and climate are important drivers of variability in recruitment success. Understanding variability in recruitment can reveal mechanisms behind widespread decline in the abundance of key species in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. For fish populations, the match-mismatch theory hypothesizes that successful recruitment is a function of the timing and duration of larval fish abundance and prey availability. However, the underlying mechanisms of match-mismatch dynamics and the factors driving spatial differences between high and low recruitment remain poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We used empirical observations of larval fish abundance, a mechanistic individual-based model, and a reanalysis of ocean temperature data from 1960 to 2002 to estimate the survival of larval cod (Gadus morhua). From the model, we quantified how survival rates changed during the warmest and coldest years at four important cod spawning sites in the North Atlantic. The modeled difference in survival probability was not large for any given month between cold or warm years. However, the cumulative effect of higher growth rates and survival through the entire spawning season in warm years was substantial with 308%, 385%, 154%, and 175% increases in survival for Georges Bank, Iceland, North Sea, and Lofoten cod stocks, respectively. We also found that the importance of match-mismatch dynamics generally increased with latitude. Conclusions/Significance Our analyses indicate that a key factor for enhancing survival is the duration of the overlap between larval and prey abundance and not the actual timing of the peak abundance. During warm years, the duration of the overlap between larval fish and their prey is prolonged due to an early onset of the spring bloom. This prolonged season enhances cumulative growth and survival, leading to a greater number of large individuals with enhanced potential for survival to recruitment

  7. Vegetation/oceanographic changes in the mid-latitudes of southwestern North Atlantic during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, Filipa; Keigwin, Lloyd; Oliveira, Dulce; Desprat, Stephanie; Abrantes, Fatima

    2013-04-01

    The direct correlation between terrestrial (pollen) and marine (planktonic δ18O) proxies from a slope core (KNR 178-2 JPC 32), retrieved in the Cape Hatteras (35°58.58'N, 74°42.77'W, 1006 m), provide substantial information on the Eastern North American vegetation response to the Holocene climate and oceanographic changes of the western North Atlantic. The end of the last glacial-interglacial transition is marked by the gradual replacement of the Boreal forest and herbs by temperate trees reflecting a general warming. Within this overall gradual warming, several abrupt vegetation shifts reveal episodes of relative cool and warm events. The most notorious continental warming of this transition, occurred at around 9650 cal yr BP and is synchronous with the increase of sea surface temperature as revealed by the planktonic foraminifera δ18O. The first maxima of temperate trees expansion, reflecting one of the most warmest events within the Holocene, occurred between 8700 and 7200 cal yr BP. Within this period 4 abrupt vegetation and hydrological changes suggest centennial scale returning cool conditions, being the most extreme detected at around 8400 cal yr BP. Between 7200 and 5300 cal yr BP temperate trees were partially replaced by hemlock suggesting a relative cool episode. The re-expansion of temperate trees marking a climatic warming is detected between 5300 and 2500 cal yr BP. Within this interval it is detected an important change in both vegetation and hydrology, marking a relative long lasting cooling between 4100 and 3550 cal yr BP. Finally the last 2500 cal yr BP is marked by important vegetation and hydrological shifts reflecting important climatic changes.

  8. Reddish Egret extends its breeding range along the North American Atlantic coast into South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, L.M.; Jodice, P.G.R.; Post, W.; Sanders, F.I.

    2005-01-01

    We report the northernmost breeding record of the Reddish Egret (Egretta rufescens) along the North American Atlantic Coast. Nesting activity was first seen in late May 2004, and on 6 July 2004 a nest was discovered with two young chicks on Marsh Island, a barrier island located within Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, USA. Reddish Egret nestlings were last observed within 1 m of the nest on 30 July 2004. This represents a northward extension of ca. 450 km in the breeding range of this species and, for the U.S. Atlantic Coast, the only recorded instance of nesting north of Florida.

  9. Interannual variability of temperature at a depth of 125 meters in the north atlantic ocean.

    PubMed

    Levitus, S; Antonov, J I; Boyer, T P

    1994-10-01

    Analyses of historical ocean temperature data at a depth of 125 meters in the North Atlantic Ocean indicate that from 1950 to 1990 the subtropical and subarctic gyres exhibited linear trends that were opposite in phase. In addition, multivariate analyses of yearly mean temperature anomaly fields between 20 degrees N and 70 degrees N in the North Atlantic show a characteristic space-time temperature oscillation from 1947 to 1990. A quasidecadal oscillation, first identified at Ocean Weather Station C, is part of a basin-wide feature. Gyre and basin-scale variations such as these provide the observational basis for climate diagnostic and modeling studies. PMID:17814003

  10. North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Activity in Relation to Temperature and Decadal- Length Oscillation Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Yearly frequencies of North Atlantic basin tropical cyclones, their locations of origin, peak wind speeds, average peak wind speeds, lowest pressures, and average lowest pressures for the interval 1950-2008 are examined. The effects of El Nino and La Nina on the tropical cyclone parametric values are investigated. Yearly and 10-year moving average (10-yma) values of tropical cyclone parameters are compared against those of temperature and decadal-length oscillation, employing both linear and bi-variate analysis, and first differences in the 10-yma are determined. Discussion of the 2009 North Atlantic basin hurricane season, updating earlier results, is given.

  11. Physical and biological processes in the North Atlantic during the First GARP Global Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, Charles R.; Esaias, Wayne E.; Feldman, Gene C.; Elrod, Jane; Endres, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The seasonal cycle of the phytoplankton productivity in the North Atlantic is investigated using monthly mean pigment composites generated by the Nimbus 7 CZCS for the period of December 1978 through December 1979. Data on the temporal and spatial distributions of surface pigments are compared with quantities derived from the First GARP Global Experiment wind data set, Climate Analysis Center SST fields, concurrent hydrogarphic station data, and climatological mixed-layer depths and heat fluxes. Time series at 11 selected sites throughout the North Atlantic basin are used to illustrate the relation of phytoplankton biomass to local physical forcing.

  12. Deglacial Subsurface Temperature Change in the Tropical North Atlantic Linked to Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. W.; Hertzberg, J. E.; Them, T. R.; Parker, A. O.; Chang, P.

    2011-12-01

    Coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling experiments conducted under both the present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) conditions indicate that Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability is tightly coupled to abrupt tropical North Atlantic (TNA) climate change through both atmospheric and oceanic processes (Zhang, 2007; Chang et al., 2008; Chiang et al., 2008; Otto-Bliesner and Brady, 2009). While a slowdown of AMOC in these experiments results in an atmospheric-induced surface cooling in the entire TNA, the subsurface experiences an even larger warming due to rapid reorganizations of ocean circulation patterns (Wan et al., 2009). To test the hypothesis that subsurface temperature change in the TNA is coupled to AMOC variability across abrupt climate events over the last deglacial, we reconstruct Mg/Ca-temperature and δ18O records from both surface (Globigerinoides ruber, upper mixed layer) and sub-thermocline dwelling (Globorotalia truncatulinoides, 350-500 m depth) planktonic foraminifera, as well as from the benthic species Cibicidoides pachyderma in the southern Caribbean Sea sediment core VM12-107 (11.33 °N, 66.63 °W; 1079 m; 18 cm/kyr sedimentation rate). Reconstructed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) indicate a gradual warming in the TNA starting at ~19 kyr BP with small cold reversals of ~1.5 °C during Heinrich Event 1 (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). In contrast, LGM subsurface temperatures were as much as 2.5 °C warmer than Late Holocene values and H1 and the YD are marked by the warmest subsurface temperatures characterized by abrupt temperature increases as large as 4-5 °C. In addition, benthic Mg/Ca ratios during the YD and H1 increase by 50% relative to Holocene intervals, suggesting significant warming extending to 1079 m water depth across these events. Comparison of our subsurface temperature records with the Bermuda Rise 231Pa/230Th proxy record of AMOC variability (McManus et al., 2004) indicates a strong correlation between

  13. Invasion by a Japanese marine microorganism in western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGann, M.; Sloan, D.; Cohen, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The earliest record in western North America of Trochammina hadai Uchio, a benthic foraminifer common in Japanese estuaries, is from sediment collected in Puget Sound in 1971. It was first found in San Francisco Bay in sediment samples taken in 1983, and since 1986 has been collected at 91% of the sampled sites in the Bay, constituting up to 93% of the foraminiferal assemblage at individual sites. The species is also present in recent sediment samples from 12 other sites along the west coast of North America. The evidence indicates that T. hadai is a recent introduction to San Francisco Bay, and is probably also not native to the other North American sites. Trochammina hadai was probably transported from Japan in ships' ballast tanks, in mud associated with anchors, or in sediments associated with oysters imported for mariculture. Its remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay suggests the potential for massive, rapid invasions by other marine microorganisms.

  14. Initial core descriptions: Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 94, North Atlantic Ocean, June 17-August 17, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-31

    The report contains lithologic descriptions of drill cores obtained during Leg 94 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) in the North Atlantic. The objective of the project was to determine the Neogene history of paleoceanographic change in the North Atlantic as a response to global climate. (ACR)

  15. 75 FR 57407 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... fishing for swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by... specific measures laid out in the proposed rule can be found in 75 FR 35432 (June 22, 2010) and are...

  16. Evidence for cooler European summers during periods of changing meltwater flux to the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Heiri, Oliver; Tinner, Willy; Lotter, André F

    2004-10-26

    We analyzed fossil chironomids (nonbiting midges) and pollen in two lake-sediment records to reconstruct and quantify Holocene summer-temperature fluctuations in the European Alps. Chironomid and pollen records indicate five centennial-scale cooling episodes during the early- and mid-Holocene. The strongest temperature declines of approximately 1 degrees C are inferred at approximately 10,700-10,500 and 8,200-7,600 calibrated 14C years B.P., whereas other temperature fluctuations are of smaller amplitude. Two forcing mechanisms have been presented recently to explain centennial-scale climate variability in Europe during the early- and mid-Holocene, both involving changes in Atlantic thermohaline circulation. In the first mechanism, changes in meltwater flux from the North American continent to the North Atlantic are responsible for changes in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation, thereby affecting circum-Atlantic climate. In the second mechanism, solar variability is the cause of Holocene climatic fluctuations, possibly triggering changes in Atlantic thermohaline overturning. Within their dating uncertainty, the two major cooling periods in the European Alps are coeval with substantial changes in the routing of North American freshwater runoff to the North Atlantic, whereas quantitatively, our climatic reconstructions show a poor agreement with available records of past solar activity. Thus, our results suggest that, during the early- and mid-Holocene, freshwater-induced Atlantic circulation changes had stronger influence on Alpine summer temperatures than solar variability and that Holocene thermohaline circulation reductions have led to summer-temperature declines of up to 1 degrees C in central Europe. PMID:15492214

  17. Holocene cooling and Neoglacial sea ice fluctuations in the subpolar North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, J.; Werner, K.; Stein, R. H.; Moros, M.

    2011-12-01

    influenced or even controlled by the North Atlantic/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO). At the continental shelf of East Greenland, the general Holocene cooling, however, seems to be less pronounced and a notable increase in sea ice coverage did not occur before 1,000 years BP. Phytoplankton-IP25 indices ("PIP25-Index") are used for more explicit sea ice estimates and display a Mid Holocene shift from a minor sea ice coverage to stable ice margin conditions in Fram Strait. References Belt, S.T. et al., 2007. Organic Geochemistry, 38(1): 16-27. Müller, J. et al. 2009. Nature Geoscience, 2(11): 772-776. Müller, J. et al., 2011. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 306 (3-4), 137-148. Nesje, A. et al., 2001. The Holocene, 11(3): 267-280. Rudels, B. et al., 2005. Journal of Marine Systems, 55(1-2): 1-30. Stein, R. et al., 2004. Quaternary Science Reviews, 23(11-13): 1485-1511. Svendsen, J.I. and Mangerud, J., 1997. The Holocene, 7: 45-57. Volkman, J.K., 2006. In: J.K. Volkman (Editor), Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 27-70.

  18. Volcanic forcing of the North Atlantic Oscillation over the last 2,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Ridley, Harriet E.; Lechleitner, Franziska A.; Asmerom, Yemane; Rehfeld, Kira; Prufer, Keith M.; Kennett, Douglas J.; Aquino, Valorie V.; Polyak, Victor; Goswami, Bedartha; Marwan, Norbert; Haug, Gerald H.; Baldini, James U. L.

    2015-04-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is a principal mode of atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic realm (Hurrell et al. 2003) and influences rainfall distribution over Europe, North Africa and North America. Although observational data inform us on multi-annual variability of the NAO, long and detailed paleoclimate datasets are required to understand the mechanisms and full range of its variability and the spatial extent of its influence. Chronologies of available proxy-based NAO reconstructions are often interdependent and cover only the last ~1,100 years, while longer records are characterized by low sampling resolution and chronological constraints. This complicates the reconstruction of regional responses to NAO changes. We present data from a 2,000 year long sub-annual carbon isotope record from speleothem YOK-I from Yok Balum Cave, Belize, Central America. YOK-I has been extensively dated using U-series (Kennett et al. 2012). Monitoring shows that stalagmite δ13C in Yok Balum cave is governed by infiltration changes associated with tropical wet season rainfall. Higher (lower) δ13C values reflect drier (wetter) conditions related to Intertropical Convergence Zone position and trade winds intensity. Comparison with NAO reconstructions (Proctor et al. 2000, Trouet et al. 2009, Wassenburg et al. 2013) reveals that YOK-I δ13C sensitively records NAO-related rainfall dynamics over Belize. The Median Absolute Deviation (MAD) of δ13C extends NAO reconstructions to the last 2,000 years and indicates that high latitude volcanic aerosols force negative NAO phases. We infer that volcanic aerosols modify inter-hemispheric temperature contrasts at multi-annual scale, resulting in meridional relocation of the ITCZ and the Bermuda-Azores High, altering NAO and tropical rainfall patterns. Decade-long dry periods in the 11th and the late 18th century relate to major high northern latitude eruptions and exemplify the climatic response to volcanic forcing by

  19. Modeling ozone plumes observed downwind of New York City over the North Atlantic Ocean during the ICARTT field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.-H.; Kim, S.-W.; Trainer, M.; Frost, G. J.; McKeen, S. A.; Cooper, O. R.; Flocke, F.; Holloway, J. S.; Neuman, J. A.; Ryerson, T.; Senff, C. J.; Swanson, A. L.; Thompson, A. M.

    2011-07-01

    Transport and chemical transformation of well-defined New York City (NYC) urban plumes over the North Atlantic Ocean were studied using aircraft measurements collected on 20-21 July 2004 during the ICARTT (International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) field campaign and WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry) model simulations. The strong NYC urban plumes were characterized by carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios of 350-400 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) and ozone (O3) levels of about 100 ppbv near New York City on 20 July in the WP-3D in-situ and DC-3 lidar aircraft measurements. On 21 July, the two aircraft captured strong urban plumes with about 350 ppbv CO and over 150 ppbv O3 (~160 ppbv maximum) about 600 km downwind of NYC over the North Atlantic Ocean. The measured urban plumes extended vertically up to about 2 km near New York City, but shrank to 1-1.5 km over the stable marine boundary layer (MBL) over the North Atlantic Ocean. The WRF-Chem model reproduced ozone formation processes, chemical characteristics, and meteorology of the measured urban plumes near New York City (20 July) and in the far downwind region over the North Atlantic Ocean (21 July). The quasi-Lagrangian analysis of transport and chemical transformation of the simulated NYC urban plumes using WRF-Chem results showed that the pollutants can be efficiently transported in (isentropic) layers in the lower atmosphere (<2-3 km) over the North Atlantic Ocean while maintaining a dynamic vertical decoupling by cessation of turbulence in the stable MBL. The O3 mixing ratio in the NYC urban plumes remained at 80-90 ppbv during nocturnal transport over the stable MBL, then grew to over 100 ppbv by daytime oxidation of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) with mixing ratios on the order of 1 ppbv. Efficient transport of reactive nitrogen species (NOy), specifically nitric acid (HNO3), was confirmed through the comparison of the CO/NOy ratio in

  20. Modeling ozone plumes observed downwind of New York City over the North Atlantic Ocean during the ICARTT field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.-H.; Kim, S.-W.; Trainer, M.; Frost, G. J.; McKeen, S. A.; Cooper, O. R.; Flocke, F.; Holloway, J. S.; Neuman, J. A.; Ryerson, T.; Senff, C. J.; Swanson, A. L.; Thompson, A. M.

    2011-05-01

    Transport and chemical transformation of well-defined New York City (NYC) urban plumes over the North Atlantic Ocean were studied using aircraft measurements collected on 20-21 July 2004 during the ICARTT (International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) field campaign and WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry) model simulations. The strong NYC urban plumes were characterized by carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios of 350-400 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) and ozone (O3) levels of about 100 ppbv near New York City on 20 July in the WP-3D in-situ and DC-3 lidar aircraft measurements. On 21 July, the two aircraft captured strong urban plumes with about 350 ppbv CO and over 150 ppbv O3 (~160 ppbv maximum) about 600 km downwind of NYC over the North Atlantic Ocean. The measured urban plumes extended vertically up to about 2 km near New York City, but shrank to 1-1.5 km over the stable marine boundary layer (MBL) over the North Atlantic Ocean. The WRF-Chem model reproduced ozone formation processes, chemical characteristics, and meteorology of the measured urban plumes near New York City (20 July) and in the far downwind region over the North Atlantic Ocean (21 July). The quasi-Lagrangian analysis of transport and chemical transformation of the simulated NYC urban plumes using WRF-Chem results showed that the pollutants can be efficiently transported in (isentropic) layers in the lower atmosphere (<2-3 km) over the North Atlantic Ocean while maintaining a dynamic vertical decoupling by cessation of turbulence in the stable MBL. The O3 mixing ratio in the NYC urban plumes remained at 80-90 ppbv during nocturnal transport over the stable MBL, then grew to over 100 ppbv by daytime oxidation of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) with mixing ratios on the order of 1 ppbv. Efficient transport of reactive nitrogen species (NOy), specifically nitric acid (HNO3), was confirmed through the comparison of the CO/NOy ratio in

  1. Measurements of dimethyl sulfide and H2S over the western North Atlantic and the tropical Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreae, T. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Bingemer, H. G.; Leck, C.

    1993-01-01

    Airborne measurements of DMS and H2S were made off the east coast of the United States and over the tropical Atlantic off Brazil. Samples were collected through a fluorinated ethylene propylene Teflon inlet manifold. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was preconcentrated onto gold wool and analyzed by gas chromatography/flame photometric detection. H2S was collected on AgNO3-impregnated filters and determined by fluorescence quenching. Use of a new scrubber material (cotton) to remove negative interference on DMS measurements was investigated. Comparison with a Na2CO3/Anakrom scrubber gave good overall agreement. Only under extreme conditions, e.g., on flight 9 (continental air mass, low humidity, high O3, and low DMS values) did Na2CO3 show noticeable loss of DMS compared to cotton. On most flights, especially in marine air masses with high humidity and relatively low O3, the results from both scrubbers agreed well with each other and with other instruments used during the intercalibration. Off the U.S. East Coast, DMS levels showed strong dependence on air mass origin with high values (up to 83 ppt) in marine tropical air masses and low values (10-20 ppt) in continental and polar air. Over the tropical Atlantic, DMS ranged over 20-100 ppt in the mixed layer. Nighttime values were a factor of 1.6-2.3 higher than daytime levels. DMS decreased with altitude to less than 1 ppt at 4000 m. H2S in the mixed layer off the U.S. East Coast ranged from 10 to 200 ppt. Significant influence from terrestrial and pollution sources was evident. H2S in air masses originating over the eastern seaboard was much higher than in continental polar air or over the remote tropical continents. In contrast, over the tropical Atlantic, concentrations were very low (5-10 ppt), typical of truly marine air. Night/day ratios were about 1.4. No significant geographical variability was seen in H2S levels over the tropical Atlantic. The correlation of atmospheric Rn-222 and H2S was significant, with both

  2. Introduced marine species of the North Sea coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reise, K.; Gollasch, S.; Wolff, W. J.

    1998-09-01

    About 80 non-indigenous species are assumed to have been introduced into the North Sea by transoceanic shipping and aquaculture. The number is certainly underestimated as most small organisms received insufficient attention at the species level. Also, the seafaring tradition of the North Sea countries is much longer than our biological surveys are. Most exotic invertebrates originate from the western Atlantic and were introduced by shipping, while most algae stem from the Pacific and came with the introduced oysters. A peak of newcomers was observed in the 1970s. Most of the arrivals became established in brackish environments, at harbor sites and in the vicinity of oyster farms, fouling on hard substrates or living as epibionts. A few live in sediments, are holoplanktonic or are parasites. At the open coast, approximately 6% of the macrobenthic species are exotics, while in estuaries their share is up to 20%. Most exotics have been encountered in the southern North Sea first, and many did not spread further north. About 25% of the established non-natives are widespread and attain locally high abundances. As a consequence, some inshore habitats are entirely dominated by exotics. The overall effect on the ecosystem seems to be more additive than one of displacement. This suggests that the coastal biota of the North Sea are quite capable of accommodating newcomers. However, this is no guarantee that the next introduced species may not cause severe ecological change or economic harm. There is a need to minimize the risk of unintentional introductions by ballast water treatment and by adhering to quarantine procedures in aquaculture. Current research on exotics in the North Sea is regarded as inadequate for proper evaluation and management requirements.

  3. 76 FR 34654 - Marine Mammals; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... groundline requirement for all fisheries throughout the entire East coast (72 FR 57104, October 5, 2007). At... Environmental Impact Statement for the Atlantic Large Whale Take Reduction Plan AGENCY: National Marine...; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS announces its intention to amend the Atlantic Large Whale...

  4. Black carbon concentrations and sources in the marine boundary layer of the tropical Atlantic Ocean using four methodologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combustion-derived aerosols in the marine boundary layer have been poorly studied, especially in remote environments such as the open Atlantic Ocean. The tropical Atlantic has the potential to contain a high concentration of aerosols, such as black carbon, due to the African emis...

  5. The Biggest Tuya or Table Mountain in the North Atlantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgadottir, G.; Reynisson, P.

    2012-12-01

    Multibeam mapping in cruise A201206 of the Marine Research Institute in June 2012 revealed a huge submarine mountain with a striking look of a tuya. Tuya is by defenition a subrectangular or circular, constructional, flat-topped mountain, made up of hyaloclastites and/or pillow lava, usually with cap lava (Mathews 1947). The mountain lies at 950-1.400 waterdepth some 120 nautical miles west of the Snaefellsnes peninsula and the mapped part of it is around 300 km2. For comparison, the largest tuya in Iceland is Eiriksjokull with a basal area of 77 km2 (Jakobsson and Gudmundsson 2008). Above the mountains edge at 1.100 m waterdepth the hight increases gradually towards the top of the mountain were some craters are exposed. The mountain has a a youthful apperance. Analysing of rock samples are needed to find out if that is the case or if it is connected with an old rifting zone. The goal of the survey was to map fishing areas (f. ex. of the Greenland halibut); to explore the environment of the strong oce