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Sample records for north atlantic-arctic region

  1. Building International Research Partnerships in the North Atlantic-Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benway, Heather M.; Hofmann, Eileen; St. John, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The North Atlantic-Arctic region, which is critical to the health and socioeconomic well being of North America and Europe, is susceptible to climate-driven changes in circulation, biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems. The need for strong investment in the study of biogeochemical and ecosystem processes and interactions with physical processes over a range of time and space scales in this region was clearly stated in the 2013 Galway Declaration, an intergovernmental statement on Atlantic Ocean cooperation (http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-459_en.htm). Subsequently, a workshop was held to bring together researchers from the United States, Canada, and Europe with expertise across multiple disciplines to discuss an international research initiative focused on key features, processes, and ecosystem services (e.g., Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, spring bloom dynamics, fisheries, etc.) and associated sensitivities to climate changes.

  2. Combining model simulations and paleoceanographic reconstructions for a process-based understanding of climate variability in the North Atlantic/Arctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungclaus, Johann; Lohmann, Katja; Kleiven, Helga

    2013-04-01

    Climate variations on multi-decadal to centennial time scales in the North Atlantic sector are often postulated to result from changes in the ocean's meridional overturning circulation and the associated heat and fresh water transports. Testing this mainly model-based hypothesis for the historically recorded climate change over the last millennium requires at least decadally-resolved constrains on the state of the ocean and its circulation. Such records have become increasingly available in recent years. For example, the European Union FP7 project THOR (Thermohaline Overturning - at Risk?), delivered the first combined assessment of water mass exchange between the Atlantic and the Nordic Seas. Coeval changes in both kinetic and chemical deep water proxies characterize variability in intensity and properties of North Atlantic Deep Water. Other recently published reconstructions provide information on variations of the oceanic heat transfer into the Arctic or the sea-ice extent in the Arcticover the last millennium. Here we show that high-resolution geological archives and model simulations over the last millennium can be combined to achieve a quantified, process-based understanding of ocean circulation variability and its impact on climate. On the one hand, reconstructions are necessary to evaluate the models' representation of hydrography, circulation and variability time-scales. On the other hand, the simulations provide the large-scale context to interpret the observed changes at discrete locations. Specifically, we address the dynamics of variations of the deep overflows across the Greenland Scotland Ridge, the coupling between deep flow and surface properties south of Greenland and the mechanisms leading to heat transport variations into the Arctic. We focus on internally-generated and externally forced variations in the ocean-atmosphere system over the last millennium and address also aspects of model uncertainty.

  3. Threshold in North Atlantic-Arctic circulation controlled by the Oligocene-Miocene subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stärz, Michael; Jokat, Wilfried; Knorr, Gregor; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    Changes in high latitude ocean gateways are thought to be main drivers of Cenozoic climate evolution. However, the link between global climate changes and the early ocean gateway formation between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean (incl. the Greenland and Norwegian Seas) controlled by the subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge is poorly understood. Here, we use a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model for Oligocene-Miocene boundary conditions to address a threshold behaviour for the ventilation of the Arctic Ocean controlled by the subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. Our model simulations reveal that a deepening of the ridge from approx. 100 to 200 metres below sea-level forces major reorganizations in the North Atlantic-Arctic circulation associated with extreme salinity and temperature changes in the Arctic Ocean. These changes are induced by an abrupt regime shift from restricted estuarine conditions to a bi-directional flow regime similar to today. Taking uncertainties in timing into account this suggests that tectonic processes, which started at the late Eocene to Oligocene controlled the climate and circulation regime of the Arctic Ocean.

  4. Coupling Between Deglacial Shifts in the Position of the North Atlantic Arctic Front and Precipitation in Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boessenkool, K. P.; Brinkhuis, H.; Visscher, H.

    2001-12-01

    As a response to a northern position of the Arctic Front, the present-day climate of western Europe is strongly moderated by the presence of the Gulf Stream and its extensions. The ocean currents transport warm and saline water of equatorial-Atlantic origin to the northeastern Atlantic seaboard. Prevailing westerly winds carry the warm and moist maritime air from the North Atlantic to the down-wind regions in Europe. Deglacial changes in North Atlantic sea-surface temperature (SST) associated with southward shifts in the position of the Arctic Front (up to ~30\\deg. mainly along the Northeast Atlantic seaboard) have affected the temperature, wind, and precipitation regimes in the North Atlantic borderlands. Effects are long since known to be most prominent in western Europe, and throughout this area considerable advances have been made to specify a variety of proxy records of fluctuations in terrestrial surface temperature. In marked contrast, patterns of deglacial fluctuations in precipitation in western Europe are still poorly investigated, despite their intimate relation to temperature and wind regime. Deglacial precipitation rates are known to be strongly influenced by changes in the North Atlantic SST. Low SSTs and sea-ice cool the maritime air masses, reducing their moisture-bearing capacity. Distinctive episodes of lowered SST, such as the Younger Dryas (YD) stadial, may have caused considerable aridification in large parts of western Europe. Simulation studies with atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs; Renssen et al., 1996) demonstrate strong surface westerlies and connected cyclonic depressions during YD winters in the North Atlantic region. In order to corroborate the concept of an intensified westerly cyclonic activity during the YD and a concomitant increase in wintertime precipitation in southwestern Europe, we studied a succession of deglacial palynological assemblages of a marine sediment core (SO75-6KL) from the western Iberian margin

  5. Air temperature variations on the Atlantic - Arctic boundary since 1802: the low-frequency pattern and ocean teleconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, K. R.; Overland, J. E.; Jónsson, T.; Smoliak, B. V.

    2010-12-01

    A two-hundred year instrumental record of annual surface air temperature (SAT) in the Atlantic - Arctic boundary region was reconstructed from four station-based composite time series (Fig. 1). Credibility is supported by ice core records, other temperature proxies, and historical evidence. This record (designated TNA) provides new perspective on past climate fluctuations in a region where pivotal climate system processes occur and where unexplained low-frequency variations were observed during the 20th century. TNA shows that the low-frequency pattern of the 20th century does not have a clear analog in the previous century. During the 19th century decadal-scale climate fluctuations occurred in irregular episodes; none were as distinctive as the early 20th century warming event (~1920 to mid-century), which is the most striking historical feature in the record. Evidence of a strong teleconnection between TNA and SST anomalies in the western boundary current - southern recirculation gyre (WBC) region of the North Atlantic Ocean provides an opportunity to reframe the problem of low-frequency variability in the region in terms tractable to theory and empirical investigation. Positive fluctuations in both TNA (and by extension other climate variables associated with it) and SST in the WBC region could be initiated by persistent variations in the large-scale atmospheric circulation that promote the advection of warm maritime air into the Atlantic - Arctic region and simultaneously limit flux-induced cooling in the Nordic Seas and the WBC/recirculation gyre region. This leads to enhanced ocean heat storage in both regions and may consequently reinforce anomalous atmospheric circulation patterns like those observed during the early 20th century warming event. Figure 1. Extended annual mean SAT record for the Atlantic - Arctic boundary region (TNA). The early 20th century warming (ETCW) episode is marked. Regions represented by station-based composite SAT records used in

  6. Pristine Arctic: background mapping of PAHs, PAH metabolites and inorganic trace elements in the North-Atlantic Arctic and sub-Arctic coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn Ólína; Jensen, Sophie; Hylland, Ketil; Holth, Tor Fredrik; Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Olafsdóttir, Ásdís; El-Taliawy, Haitham; Rigét, Frank; Strand, Jakob; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Bignert, Anders; Hoydal, Katrin S; Halldórsson, Halldór Pálmar

    2014-09-15

    As the ice cap of the Arctic diminishes due to global warming, the polar sailing route will be open larger parts of the year. These changes are likely to increase the pollution load on the pristine Arctic due to large vessel traffic from specific contaminant groups, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A well-documented baseline for PAH concentrations in the biota in the remote regions of the Nordic Seas and the sub-Arctic is currently limited, but will be vital in order to assess future changes in PAH contamination in the region. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected from remote sites in Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway and Sweden as well as from urban sites in the same countries for comparison. Cod (Gadus morhua) was caught north of Iceland and along the Norwegian coast. Sixteen priority PAH congeners and the inorganic trace elements arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed in the blue mussel samples as well as PAH metabolites in cod bile. Σ16PAHs ranged from 28 ng/g dry weight (d.w.) (Álftafjörður, NW Iceland) to 480 ng/g d.w. (Ísafjörður, NW Iceland). Mussel samples from Mjóifjörður, East Iceland and Maarmorilik, West Greenland, contained elevated levels of Σ16PAHs, 370 and 280 ng/g d.w., respectively. Levels of inorganic trace elements varied with highest levels of arsenic in mussels from Ísafjörður, Iceland (79 ng/g d.w.), cadmium in mussels from Mjóifjörður, Iceland (4.3 ng/g d.w.), mercury in mussels from Sørenfjorden, Norway (0.23 ng/g d.w.) and lead in mussels from Maarmorilik, Greenland (21 ng/g d.w.). 1-OH-pyrene was only found above limits of quantification (0.5 ng/mL) in samples from the Norwegian coast, ranging between 44 and 140 ng/ml bile. Generally, PAH levels were low in mussels from the remote sites investigated in the study, which indicates limited current effect on the environment. PMID:24995638

  7. NORTH ALBEMARLE REGION HYDROGEOLOGIC FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Albemarle region lies north of the Albemarle Sound and east of the Chowan River, including Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Gates, Pasquotank, and Perquimans Counties. This area is in great need of additional water sources in order to accommodate a growing population spilling...

  8. Amerika und Eurafrika: the origin of the Atlantic-Arctic Ocean . Geol Rundsch 30:138-147

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    du Toit, A. L.

    The Atlantic-Arctic Basin is antipodal to the Pacific. Powerful evidence is cited to indicate its development through continental drift, as suggested by Pickering in 1907. Initiated from the Mesozoic Tethys and progressively enlarged during the Tertiary, its outlines were essentially determined by tensional-rifting oriented mainly NE and NW within a zone extending more than half round the circumference of the Earth, from the Antarctic to Alaska. During the Alpine diastrophism fold linkages, which functioned as land bridges, were pushed up across the ocean between the West Indies and Eurafrica and subsequently destroyed by the continued westerly drift of the Americas. Crustal stretching was accompanied by widespread volcanicity. The Mid-Atlantic Rise is recent and has an isostatic basis. The Atlantic-Arctic stretch-basin is largely bordered by fault-line coasts and by down-warped shores that show the marginal, entrenched, terrestrially-evolved drainage areas known as submarine canyons.

  9. NORTH AMERICAN REGIONAL ACTION PLAN ON MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North American Regional Action Plan (NARAP) on Mercury is one of a number of action plans that stem from the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation between the governments of Canada, Mexico and the United States. That Agreement established the Commission for En...

  10. A regime shift in the subpolar gyre strength due to a sudden transition in the North Atlantic climate during the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo; Zanchettin, Davide; Lohmann, Katja; Jungclaus, Johann

    2015-04-01

    investigate the role of the external forcing and of the background state on this climate shift. Preliminary results from an experiment initialized before the climate transition and excluding the volcanic cluster do not show such a rapid change in the subpolar gyre strength and, more generally, in the climate of the North Atlantic/Arctic region. Relatively small but very close volcanic eruptions can thus exert a cooling influence on the North Atlantic/Arctic climate similar to that found for much stronger but indeed rarer eruptions.

  11. Multiyear Survey of the Distribution and Fate of Biomarkers in the Atlantic Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fietz, S.; Rosell Mele, A.; Rueda, G.; Martinez Garcia, A.; Hambach, B.; Viladrich, N.; Barrera Sansón, A.; Rossi, S.; Ziveri, P.

    2010-12-01

    Biogeochemical signatures derived from organisms thriving in the ocean water column are driven by environmental conditions, with highly complex processes linking primary and export productivity. Organic matter input, in-situ production and fate depend on conditions such as sea surface temperature, ice-cover and freshwater input, mixing/stratification regime, fertilization and acidification etc. for which important changes are predicted in subpolar and polar environments. However, the spatial and interannual variability of organic matter distribution and their driving environmental factors in these vast oceanic regions are not fully determined or understood. To gain some new insights into these issues in the Arctic region we have participated in a multiyear survey, based on four summer cruises from 2005 to 2009 following latitudinal transects from the North Atlantic to the Fram Strait, and longitudinal transects from Greenland to Svalbard and collected particulate matter in the water column as well as twenty surface sediments. We focus on biogeochemical markers for terrestrial matter input (e.g., n-alkanes, branched GDGTs), for in-situ productivity and pelagic community composition (e.g., photosynthetic pigments, alkenones, isoprenoid GDGTs) and food-web structure (e.g., fatty acids, sterols). We also collected samples to determine the distribution of specific algal groups (coccolithophores) in this region. Results from the 2008 and 2009 surveys will be presented. Our aim is to compare the organic matter signatures in the upper water column to those in the exported matter that reaches deep water masses and surface sediments.

  12. North Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the north polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic centered on the north pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The north pole of the moon is absent of the very rugged terrain seen at the south pole.

  13. Chasma Boreale in the North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This images shows a Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) full-resolution 'targeted image' of the edge of Mars' north polar cap. The region in the image, Chasma Boreale, is a valley several kilometers or miles deep that cuts about 400 kilometers (about 250 miles) into the edge of the cap.

    This image was acquired at 0851 UTC (4:51 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 1, 2006, near 84.6 degrees north latitude, 3.6 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image the spatial resolution is as good as 18 meters (60 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering wavelengths of 0.36 to 3.92 micrometers. Two renderings of the data are shown here, both draped over topography without vertical exaggeration, and then viewed from a perspective diagonally above the site. The top view is an approximately true-color representation. The bottom view, constructed from infrared wavelengths, shows strength of the spectral signature of ice. Brighter areas are rich in ice, and dark areas have little ice.

    The polar cap has long been recognized to contain layers composed of dust and ice, and hence has been named the polar layered deposit. This sits atop an underlying 'basal unit.' The upper part of the basal unit is dark at visible wavelengths and steeply sloped, whereas the lower part of the basal unit is brighter, redder, and layered like the polar layered deposits. The chasma floor is cratered, and in the foreground it is covered by dunes that are outliers of a north polar sand sea that surrounds the polar cap. The polar layered deposits and the basal unit form a steeply sloping scarp about 1.1 kilometers (0.7 miles) high.

    CRISM's image of this region shows a number of previously unrecognized characteristics of the polar layered deposits and the basal unit. First, the ice-rich polar layered deposits exhibit coherent banding both at

  14. Hydrated Units in the Martian North Polar Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, B. H. N.; Bell, J. F.; Noe Dobrea, E. Z.; Cloutis, E. A.; Bailey, D. T.; Craig, M. A.; Stewart, L.

    2008-03-01

    We show that the hydration signature detected in Olympia Undae extends to other units in the north polar region, including nearly the entirety of the north polar erg, dunes within reentrants in Planum Boreum, and in the north polar layered deposits.

  15. Summer in Mars' North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Observations by NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft show a summertime view of the north polar region of Mars in intermediate-energy, or epithermal, neutrons. The map is based on data acquired by the high-energy neutron detector, one of the instruments in Odyssey's gamma-ray spectrometer suite. Soil enriched by hydrogen is indicated by the purple and deep blue colors on the map, which show a low intensity of epithermal neutrons. Progressively smaller amounts of hydrogen are shown in the colors light blue, green, yellow and red. The hydrogen is believed to be in the form of water ice. In some areas, the abundance of water ice is estimated to be up to 90 percent by volume. A shaded-relief rendition of topography is superimposed on this map for geographic reference.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson, and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. The gamma-ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona in collaboration with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and Institute for Space Research (IKI), which provided the high-energy neutron detector, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, which provided the neutron spectrometer. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Winter in Mars' North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Observations by NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft show a wintertime view of the north polar region of Mars in intermediate-energy, or epithermal, neutrons. The map is based on data acquired by the high-energy neutron detector, one of the instruments in Odyssey's gamma-ray spectrometer suite. Soil enriched by hydrogen is indicated by the purple and deep blue colors on the map, which show a low intensity of epithermal neutrons. Progressively smaller amounts of hydrogen are shown in the colors light blue, green, yellow and red. The hydrogen is believed to be in the form of water ice. Much of the hydrogen is hidden at this time beneath a layer of carbon dioxide frost (dry ice). A shaded-relief rendition of topography is superimposed on this map for geographic reference.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson, and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. The gamma-ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona in collaboration with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and Institute for Space Research (IKI), which provided the high-energy neutron detector, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, which provided the neutron spectrometer. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Physical properties of the Atlantic - Arctic water exchange formation. Modelling and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshonkin, Sergey; Gusev, Anatoly; Bagno, Alexey; Zalesny, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Physical mechanisms of water exchange between North Atlantic (NA) and Arctic Oceans (AO) in 1958-2009 are analyzed using results of numerical experiments with the eddy-permitting ocean circulation model INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model). Changes of heat and salt transports by West Spitsbergen and East Greenland currents caused by atmospheric forcing produce the baroclinic modes of velocity anomalies in the layer 0-300m, stabilizing ocean response on the atmospheric forcing, which stimulates keeping water exchange between NA and AO at the certain climatological level. We revealed the quick response of dense water outflow by near-bottom current in the deep NA layers through the Denmark Strait at monthly timescale on the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) index change, as well as the response at the scale 39 months. The quick response on NAO is broken in 1969-1978, which is caused by the Great Salinity Anomaly. Transverse oscillations of the Norwegian current front have the great influence on the formation of the intermediate dense waters of Greenland and Norwegian Seas (GNS). Dense water outflow to the NA deep layers through the Faroe Channels with the time lag of 1 year respond to the transverse oscillations of the front. The mass transport of by near-bottom current through Faroe Channels to the NA can be used as the integral index of formation and discharge of new high-density water portions generated due to mixing of salt warm Atlantic waters and freshened cold Arctic waters in GNS. The research was supported by the Council on the Russian Federation President Grants (grant № MK-3241.2015.5)

  18. Population structure and gene flow of the Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in the eastern Atlantic Arctic based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite variation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, L W; Born, E W; Gjertz, I; Wiig, O; Holm, L E; Bendixen, C

    1998-10-01

    The population structure of the Atlantic walrus, Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus, was studied using 11 polymorphic microsatellites and restriction fragment length polymorphism detected in the NADH-dehydrogenase ND1, ND2 and ND3/4 segments in mtDNA. A total of 105 walrus samples were analysed from northwest (NW) Greenland, east (E) Greenland, Svalbard and Franz Joseph Land. Two of the 10 haplotypes detected in the four samples were diagnostic for the NW Greenland sample, which implied that the group of walruses in this area is evolutionary distinct from walruses in the other three areas. One individual sampled in E Greenland exhibited a Pacific haplotype, which proved a connection between the Pacific walrus and walruses in eastern Greenland. The Franz Joseph Land, Svalbard and E Greenland samples shared the most common haplotype, indicating very little differentiation at the mtDNA level. Gene flow (Nm) estimates among the four areas indicated a very restricted exchange of female genes between NW Greenland and the more eastern Atlantic Arctic samples, and a closer relationship between the three samples composing the eastern Atlantic Arctic. The genetic variation at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci grouped individuals into three populations, NW Greenland, E Greenland and a common Franz Joseph Land-Svalbard population, which were connected by moderate gene flow. PMID:9787444

  19. BETR North America: A regionally segmented multimedia contaminant fate model for North America

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, M.; Woodfine, D.G.; Mackay, D.; McKone, T.E.; Bennett, D.H.; Maddalena, R.L.

    2001-03-01

    We present the Berkeley-Trent North American contaminant fate model (BETR North America), a regionally segmented multimedia contaminant fate model based on the fugacity concept. The model is built on a framework that links contaminant fate models of individual regions, and is generally applicable to large, spatially heterogeneous areas. The North American environment is modeled as 24 ecological regions, within each region contaminant fate is described using a 7 compartment multimedia fugacity model including a vertically segmented atmosphere, freshwater, freshwater sediment, soil, coastal water and vegetation compartments. Inter-regional transport of contaminants in the atmosphere, freshwater and coastal water is described using a database of hydrological and meteorological data compiled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) techniques. Steady-state and dynamic solutions to the 168 mass balance equations that make up the linked model for North America are discussed, and an illustrative case study of toxaphene transport from the southern United States to the Great Lakes Basin is presented. Regionally segmented models such as BETR North America can provide a critical link between evaluative models of long-range transport potential and contaminant concentrations observed in remote regions. The continent-scale mass balance calculated by the model provides a sound basis for evaluating long-range transport potential of organic pollutants, and formulation of continent scale management and regulatory strategies for chemicals.

  20. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  1. North polar region of Mars - Imaging results from Viking 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A.; Blasius, K. R.; Briggs, G. A.; Carr, M. H.; Masursky, H.; Greeley, R.

    1976-01-01

    During October 1976, the Viking 2 orbiter acquired approximately 700 high-resolution images of the north polar region of Mars. These images confirm the existence at the north pole of extensive layered deposits largely covered over with deposits of perennial ice. An unconformity within the layered deposits suggests a complex history of climate change during their time of deposition. A pole-girdling accumulation of dunes composed of very dark materials is revealed by the Viking cameras. The entire region is devoid of fresh impact craters. Rapid rates of erosion or deposition are implied. A scenario for polar geological evolution, involving two types of climate change, is proposed.

  2. North Carolina and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details North Carolina's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array…

  3. Regional source properties of the North Korean nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, T.

    2009-12-01

    Seismic analyses based on regional waveforms receive increasing attention for discrimination and source studies of recent moderate-size underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). Two North Korean underground nuclear explosion tests were conducted in 9 October 2006 and 25 May 2009. The Noth Korean UNEs were well observed by dense regional seismic networks with high signal-to-noise ratios. The source properties of the two North Korean UNEs are estimated using source-spectral inversions of regional phases. Ray-path effects including attenuation are corrected in the inversion. The source properties of the UNEs are compared each other. The apparent moments of high-frequency regional phases of the 2009 UNE are estimated to be about 5 times greater than those of the 2006 UNE. The corner frequencies and overshoot parameters are determined to be similar between the UNEs. The North Korean UNEs are well discriminated from natural earthquakes using P/S spectral ratios. The S waves from the North Korean UNEs display fairly weak overshooting feature in the spectra unlike P waves.

  4. Albatross species demonstrate regional differences in North Pacific marine contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelstein, M.; Keitt, B.S.; Croll, D.A.; Tershy, B.; Jarman, Walter M.; Rodriguez-Pastor, S.; Anderson, D.J.; Sievert, P.R.; Smith, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent concern about negative effects on human health from elevated organochlorine and mercury concentrations in marine foods has highlighted the need to understand temporal and spatial patterns of marine pollution. Seabirds, long-lived pelagic predators with wide foraging ranges, can be used as indicators of regional contaminant patterns across large temporal and spatial scales. Here we evaluate contaminant levels, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, and satellite telemetry data from two sympatrically breeding North Pacific albatross species to demonstrate that (1) organochlorine and mercury contaminant levels are significantly higher in the California Current compared to levels in the high-latitude North Pacific and (2) levels of organochlorine contaminants in the North Paci.c are increasing over time. Black-footed Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) had 370-460% higher organochlorine (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes [DDTs]) and mercury body burdens than a closely related species, the Laysan Albatross (P. immutabilis), primarily due to regional segregation of their North Pacific foraging areas. PCBs (the sum of the individual PCB congeners analyzed) and DDE concentrations in both albatross species were 130-360% higher than concentrations measured a decade ago. Our results demonstrate dramatically high and increasing contaminant concentrations in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, a finding relevant to other marine predators, including humans. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Water-ice clouds in the Martian North Polar Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Qu, Z.; Smith, M. D.; Bass, D. S.; Hale, A. S.

    2004-11-01

    There has been uncertainty about the amount of water cycling in and out of the polar region during the northern spring/summer timeframe, as evidenced by visible brightness changes in the residual polar cap from year to year which were originally though to be interannual variations (James and Martin, 1995; Kieffer, 1990). Subsequently, through comparison of Viking and Mariner 9 data sets, these variations were thought to be late season water deposition (Bass et al., 2000: Bass and Paige, 2000), perhaps in the form of direct condensation or snowfall. More recently, examination of multi-year MGS MOC data (Hale et al., 2004) opens this question again. Water cycling can be assessed using data sets by examination of water vapor, polar cap changes, and water-ice clouds. In this presentation, we examine the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) nadir pointed data in the north polar region of Mars during northern spring and summer to find and map water-ice clouds. Water-ice clouds, in the north polar region, have previously been tentatively identified in the Viking data (Tamppari and Bass, 2000), and some water-ice clouds identifications have been made in the north polar region during the MGS era (M. Smith, pers. comm., 2001). We present our results of water-ice clouds for 3 Mars years' spring and summer times, including opacities, spatial and temporal variations.

  6. North polar region of Mars: imaging results from viking 2.

    PubMed

    Cutts, J A; Blasius, K R; Briggs, G A; Carr, M H; Greeley, R; Masursky, H

    1976-12-11

    During October 1976, the Viking 2 orbiter acquired approximately 700 high-resolution images of the north polar region of Mars. These images confirm the existence at the north pole of extensive layered deposits largely covered over with deposits of perennial ice. An unconformity within the layered deposits suggests a complex history of climate change during their time of deposition. A pole-girdling accumulation of dunes composed of very dark materials is revealed for the first time by the Viking cameras. The entire region is devoid of fresh impact craters. Rapid rates of erosion or deposition are implied. A scenario for polar geological evolution, involving two types of climate change, is proposed. PMID:17797095

  7. The Complex North Transition Region of Centaurus A: Radio Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Susan G.; Eilek, Jean A.; Owen, Frazer N.

    2015-04-01

    We present deep radio images of the inner ~50 kpc of Centaurus A, taken with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 90 cm. We focus on the Transition Regions between the inner galaxy—including the active nucleus, inner radio lobes, and star-forming disk—and the outer radio lobes. We detect previously unknown extended emission around the Inner Lobes, including radio emission from the star-forming disk. We find that the radio-loud part of the North Transition Region (NTR), known as the North Middle Lobe, is significantly overpressured relative to the surrounding interstellar medium. We see no evidence for a collimated flow from the active galactic nucleus through this region. Our images show that the structure identified by Morganti et al. as a possible large-scale jet appears to be part of a narrow ridge of emission within the broader, diffuse, radio-loud region. This knotty radio ridge is coincident with other striking phenomena: compact X-ray knots, ionized gas filaments, and streams of young stars. Several short-lived phenomena in the NTR, as well as the frequent re-energization required by the Outer Lobes, suggest that energy must be flowing through both Transition Regions at the present epoch. We suggest that the energy flow is in the form of a galactic wind.

  8. Relief and geology of the north polar region of the planet Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzmin, R. O.; Burba, G. A.; Shashkina, V. P.; Bogomolov, A. F.; Zherikhin, N. V.; Skrypnik, G. I.; Kudrin, L. V.; Bergman, M. Y.; Rzhiga, O. N.; Sidorenko, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    Description of topographic features is given for the North polar region of the planet Venus. Principal geomorphic types of terrain are characterized as well as their geologic relations. Relative ages of geologic units in Venus North polar region are discussed.

  9. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  10. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  11. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  12. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  13. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  14. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  15. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central Coast Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.160 North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial...

  16. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  17. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  18. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  19. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  20. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  1. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  2. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  3. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  4. 40 CFR 81.250 - North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Kansas Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.250 North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  5. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Observed and Simulated Regional North American Vegetation Dynamics: 1982- 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neigh, C. S.; Tucker, C. J.; Townshend, J. R.; Collatz, G. J.

    2006-12-01

    Normalized difference vegetation index data from the NOAA series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) revealed regions in North America that experienced marked increases in annual photosynthetic capacity at various times from 1982 to 2005. Inspection of these anomalous areas with Landsat, Ikonos, aerial photography, and ancillary statistical datasets revealed a range of causes: climatic influences; drought and subsequent recovery; irrigated agriculture expansion; herbivores insect outbreaks followed by logging and subsequent regeneration; and forest fires with subsequent regeneration. We describe an efficient continental monitoring system that simulates biogeochemistry dynamics to quantify changing carbon content of ecosystems.

  7. Extreme storm activity in North Atlantic and European region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyazilova, N.

    2010-09-01

    The extreme storm activity study over North Atlantic and Europe includes the analyses of extreme cyclone (track number, integral cyclonic intensity) and extreme storm (track number) during winter and summer seasons in the regions: 1) 55°N-80N, 50°W-70°E; 2) 30°N-55°N, 50°W-70°E. Extreme cyclones were selected based on cyclone centre pressure (P<=970 mbar). Extreme storms were selected from extreme cyclones based on wind velocity on 925 mbar. The Bofort scala was used for this goal. Integral cyclonic intensity (for region) includes the calculation cyclone centers number and sum of MSLP anomalies in cyclone centers. The analyses based on automated cyclone tracking algorithm, 6-hourly MSLP and wind data (u and v on 925 gPa) from the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses from January 1948 to March 2010. The comparision of mean, calculated for every ten years, had shown, that in polar region extreme cyclone and storm track number, and integral cyclonic intensity gradually increases and have maximum during last years (as for summer, as for winter season). Every ten years means for summer season are more then for winter season, as for polar, as for tropical region. Means (ten years) for tropical region are significance less then for polar region.

  8. Revised draft: North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, water resources, groundwater salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented.

  9. Mars Global Digital Dune Database: Distribution in North Polar Region and Comparison to Equatorial Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, R. K.; Fenton, L. K.; Tanaka, K. L.; Mullins, K. F.; Titus, T. N.; Bourke, M. C.; Hare, T. M.; Christensen, P. R.

    2008-03-01

    The north polar portion of the Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) extends coverage of medium to large-size dark dunes to include the region from 65°N to 90°N, building on the previously released equatorial portion that spans 65°S to 65°N.

  10. Initializing decadal climate predictions over the North Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matei, Daniela Mihaela; Pohlmann, Holger; Jungclaus, Johann; Müller, Wolfgang; Haak, Helmuth; Marotzke, Jochem

    2010-05-01

    Decadal climate prediction aims to predict the internally-generated decadal climate variability in addition to externally-forced climate change signal. In order to achieve this it is necessary to start the predictions from the current climate state. In this study we investigate the forecast skill of the North Atlantic decadal climate predictions using two different ocean initialization strategies. First we apply an assimilation of ocean synthesis data provided by the GECCO project (Köhl and Stammer, 2008) as initial conditions for the coupled model ECHAM5/MPI-OM. Hindcast experiments are then performed over the period 1952-2001. An alternative approach is one in which the subsurface ocean temperature and salinity are diagnosed from an ensemble of ocean model runs forced by the NCEP-NCAR atmospheric reanalyzes for the period 1948-2007, then nudge into the coupled model to produce initial conditions for the hindcast experiments. An anomaly coupling scheme is used in both approaches to avoid the hindcast drift and the associated initial shock. Differences between the two assimilation approaches are discussed by comparing them with the observational data in key regions and processes. We asses the skill of the initialized decadal hindcast experiments against the prediction skill of the non-initialized hindcasts simulation. We obtain an overview of the regions with the highest predictability from the regional distribution of the anomaly correlation coefficients and RMSE for the SAT. For the first year the hindcast skill is increased over almost all ocean regions in the NCEP-forced approach. This increase in the hindcast skill for the 1 year lead time is somewhat reduced in the GECCO approach. At lead time 5yr and 10yr, the skill enhancement is still found over the North Atlantic and North Pacific regions. We also consider the potential predictability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and Nordic Seas Overflow by comparing the predicted values to

  11. Occult Dirofilariosis in Dogs of North Eastern Region in India

    PubMed Central

    Borthakur, Sonjoy Kumar; Deka, Dilip Kumar; Islam, Saidul; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Background: The North Eastern Region in India is endemic for canine heartworm disease but in clinics accurate diagnosis is some times difficult. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of occult infections for heartworm disease in canine in two geographical regions of North Eastern India. Methods: A total of 782 numbers of three categories of dogs namely, working dogs of military and paramilitary forces, pet dogs and stray dogs were screened for the presence of heartworm infection from August 2011 to July, 2012 in Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram). Conventional, immunological and molecular techniques were followed for this epidemiological study. The criteria to determine the occult heartworm cases were based on the differences between heartworm positive cases in PCR test and antigen ELISA test. Results: The findings revealed an overall 22.69 percent occult case. The working dogs had highest prevalence (60%) followed by pet (29.16%) and stray dogs (17.75%). Conclusion: The highest percentage of occult heartworm infection was present in working dogs maintained under military or paramilitary forces. PMID:27047976

  12. Water Cycling in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Smith, M. D.; Bass, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    To date, there has been no comprehensive study to understand the partitioning of water into vapor and ice clouds, and the associated effects of dust and surface temperature in the north polar region. Ascertaining the degree to which water is transported out of the cap region versus within the cap region will give much needed insight into the overall story of water cycling on a seasonal basis. In particular, understanding the mechanism for the polar cap surface albedo changes would go along way in comprehending the sources and sinks of water in the northern polar region. We approach this problem by examining Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) atmospheric and surface data acquired in the northern summer season and comparing it to Viking data when possible. Because the TES instrument spans the absorption bands of water vapor, water ice, dust, and measures surface temperature, all three aerosols and surface temperature can be retrieved simultaneously. This presentation will show our latest results on the water vapor, water-ice clouds seasonal and spatial distributions, as well as surface temperatures and dust distribution which may lend insight into where the water is going.

  13. Regional TEMPEST survey in north-east Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geoffrey; Street, Gregory; Kahimise, Ivor; Hutchins, David

    2015-09-01

    A regional scale TEMPEST208 airborne electromagnetic survey was flown in north-east Namibia in 2011. With broad line spacing (4 km) and a relatively low-powered, fixed-wing system, the approach was intended to provide a regional geo-electric map of the area, rather than direct detection of potential mineral deposits. A key component of the geo-electric profiling was to map the relative thickness of the Kalahari sediments, which is up to 200 m thick and obscures most of the bedrock in the area. Knowledge of the thickness would allow explorers to better predict the costs of exploration under the Kalahari. An additional aim was to determine if bedrock conductors were detectable beneath the Kalahari cover. The system succeeded in measuring the Kalahari thickness where this cover was relatively thin and moderately conductive. Limitations in depth penetration mean that it is not possible to map the thickness in the centre of the survey area, and much of the northern half of the survey area. Additional problems arise due to the variable conductivity of the Kalahari cover. Where the conductivity of the Kalahari sediment is close to that of the basement, there is no discernable contrast to delineate the base of the Kalahari. Basement conductors are visible beneath the more thinly covered areas such as in the north-west and south of the survey area. The remainder of the survey area generally comprises deeper, more conductive cover and for the most part basement conductors cannot be detected. A qualitative comparison with VTEM data shows comparable results in terms of regional mapping, and suggests that even more powerful systems such as the VTEM may not detect discrete conductors beneath the thick conductive parts of the Kalahari cover.

  14. Complex molecules in the W51 North region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Jialei; Qin, Sheng-Li; Zapata, Luis A.; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Tie; Zhang, Chengpeng; Peng, Yaping; Zhang, Li; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) molecular-line observations in two 2-GHz wide bands centred at 217.5 and 227.5 GHz, towards the massive star-forming region W51 North. We identified 84 molecular-line transitions from 17 species and their isotopologues. The molecular gas distribution of these lines mainly peaks in the continuum position of W51 North, and has a small tail extending to the west, probably associated with W51 d2. In addition to the commonly detected nitrogen- and oxygen-bearing species, we detected a large number of transitions of acetone (CH3COCH3) and methyl formate (CH3OCHO), which might suggest that these molecules are present in an early evolutionary stage of massive stars. We have also found that W51 North is an ethanol-rich source. There is no obvious difference in the molecular gas distributions between the oxygen-bearing and nitrogen-bearing molecules. Under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium, with the XCLASS tool, the molecular column densities and rotation temperatures are estimated. We have found that the oxygen-bearing molecules have considerably higher column densities and fractional abundances than the nitrogen-bearing molecules. The rotation temperatures range from 100 to 200 K, suggesting that the molecular emission could originate from a warm environment. Finally, based on the gas distributions, fractional abundances and the rotation temperatures, we conclude that CH3OH, C2H5OH, CH3COCH3 and CH3CH2CN might be synthesized on the grain surface, while gas phase chemistry is responsible for the production of CH3OCH3, CH3OCHO and CH2CHCN.

  15. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, L.

    1984-02-01

    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  16. North American regional climate reconstruction from underground temperatures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaume-Santero, Fernando; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the PAGES NorthAmerica2k project, 514 North American temperature-depth profiles were analyzed to infer recent climate changes. The ground surface temperature (GST) histories for the last 500 years were reconstructed from the subsurface temperature anomalies using a singular value decomposition (SVD) inversion that retains four principal components and takes into account time logging differences. Steady-state surface temperature and thermal gradient were estimated by linear regression for the lower 100 meters of the temperature profile, and climate induced subsurface temperature anomalies were estimated as departures from the steady-state conditions. Additionally, a Monte-Carlo method was used to find the range of solutions within a maximum subsurface anomaly error determined by the minimum distance between the model and the data. A regional analysis was performed for the last 5 centuries yielding mean temperature change every 50 years. The GST history results, presented as the mean and 95% confidence interval, show a warming by 1.0°C to 2.5°C during the post industrial era.

  17. Admixture mapping identifies introgressed genomic regions in North American canids.

    PubMed

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Kays, Roland; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid zones typically contain novel gene combinations that can be tested by natural selection in a unique genetic context. Parental haplotypes that increase fitness can introgress beyond the hybrid zone, into the range of parental species. We used the Affymetrix canine SNP genotyping array to identify genomic regions tagged by multiple ancestry informative markers that are more frequent in an admixed population than expected. We surveyed a hybrid zone formed in the last 100 years as coyotes expanded their range into eastern North America. Concomitant with expansion, coyotes hybridized with wolves and some populations became more wolflike, such that coyotes in the northeast have the largest body size of any coyote population. Using a set of 3102 ancestry informative markers, we identified 60 differentially introgressed regions in 44 canines across this admixture zone. These regions are characterized by an excess of exogenous ancestry and, in northeastern coyotes, are enriched for genes affecting body size and skeletal proportions. Further, introgressed wolf-derived alleles have penetrated into Southern US coyote populations. Because no wolves currently exist in this area, these alleles are unlikely to have originated from recent hybridization. Instead, they probably originated from intraspecific gene flow or ancient admixture. We show that grey wolf and coyote admixture has far-reaching effects and, in addition to phenotypically transforming admixed populations, allows for the differential movement of alleles from different parental species to be tested in new genomic backgrounds. PMID:27106273

  18. Saturnian north polar region: a triangle inside the hexagon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, Gennady G.

    2010-05-01

    The famous and "mysterious" stable hexagon structure around the North Pole of Saturn was earlier interpreted as projections of faces of a structural tetrahedron [1]. This "hidden" simplest Plato's polyhedron is a result of an interference of four fundamental (wave 1) warping waves having in any rotating celestial body four directions: orthogonal and diagonal. Origin of the warping waves in any celestial body is due to their movements in elliptical keplerian orbits with periodically changing accelerations. The structural tetrahedron is an intrinsic geometric feature marking the celestial bodies ubiquitous tectonic dichotomy as in a tetrahedron always there is an opposition of a face (expansion) and a vertex (contraction). In the saturnian case the tetrahedron shows a face at the north and a vertex at the south. Morphologically this is manifested by the hexagon and opposing it in the south a vertex. Blue and pink hues of the northern and southern hemispheres also underline the tectonic dichotomy. These geometric expressions are enforced by a subtle dark equilateral triangle appearing in the image PIA11682 also around the north pole and inside the hexagon (the triangle side is about 15000 km long). One angle of the triangle is clearly visible, another one just shows itself and the third one is barely distinguished. The sides of the triangle are not strait lines but slightly broken amidst lines what makes the triangle appear a bit hexagonal (spherical) and the angle is a bit bigger than 60 degrees of a classical equilateral triangle (~70 degrees). The central part of the triangle is not imaged (a black hole in the PIA11682). This image also confirms that the wide northern polar region is also densely "peppered" with bright cloudy more or less isometric spots on average 400 to 800 km across as in other latitudinal belts of Saturn [2, 3, 4]. Earlier they were observed in IR wavelengths, now they show themselves in visible wavelengths. Their origin and size were

  19. Regional High-resolution Coupled Atmosphere Ocean Modelling in the North Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumenil-Gates, Lydia; Bülow, Katharina; Ganske, Anette; Heinrich, Hartmut; Klein, Birgit; Klein, Holger; Möller, Jens; Rosenhagen, Gudrun; Schade, Nils; Hüttl-Kabus, Sabine; Tinz, Birger

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of climate projections in the North Sea area is one of the research tasks of the research programme KLIWAS of the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. A multi-model ensemble of three coupled regional atmosphere-ocean models was set up comprising very high resolution simulations for the German coastal regions of the North Sea and the Baltic to represent the complex land-sea-atmosphere conditions in the region. The ensemble consists of simulations made in cooperation with the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, the Climate Service Centre and the Max-Planck-Institute for the period of 1950 to 2100. The KLIWAS project thereby adds coupled models to the band-width of possible future climate conditions in the atmosphere as given by the ENSEMBLES project, which were also analyzed. The coupled results are evaluated for present-day climate using a North Sea climatology of maritime conditions at a matching high resolution. In the future climate, while air and water temperatures will rise to the year 2100, the mean wind speed does not show a significant trend, but large decadal variability. The frequency of occurrence of westerly wind directions increases in the majority of simulations and results in an increase of significant wave height in the eastern parts of the North Sea. In an interdisciplinary approach, these results are used to provide regional to local information for the development of adaptation strategies for the estuary, and climate-proofing of infrastructure in the wider context of the project.

  20. A Subtropical North Atlantic Regional Atmospheric Moisture Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, F.; D'Addezio, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The synergistic effects of evaporation (E), precipitation (P), and Ekman transport make the SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study) region in the subtropical North Atlantic (15-30°N, 30-45°W) the ideal location for the world's highest open ocean sea surface salinity. Using the MERRA and ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalyses, we reproduce the mean hydrologic state of the atmosphere over the SPURS region since 1979 and roughly deduce the change in salinity across the meridional domain due solely to interactions between E-P and Ekman transport. Our findings suggest a region that is highly evaporative at a mean rate of 4.87 mm/day with a standard deviation of 1.2 mm/day and little seasonality. Precipitation is much more variable with an annual fall maximum around 3 mm/day but only a mean rate of 1.37 mm/day with a standard deviation of 1.46 mm/day. The resulting E-P variable has a mean rate of 3.50 mm/day with a standard deviation of 1.92 mm/day and matches well with the moisture flux divergence term although the former is typically larger by a small margin. Strong prevailing easterly trade winds generate northward Ekman transports that advect water northward to the salinity maximum around 25°N. A short calculation shows that atmospheric moisture dynamics could potentially account for almost half of the change in salinity between 15°N and 25°N giving an estimate of the role that surface freshwater flux plays in the maintenance of the salinity maximum.

  1. A subtropical North Atlantic regional atmospheric moisture budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addezio, Joseph M.; Bingham, Frederick M.

    2014-12-01

    The synergistic effects of evaporation (E), precipitation (P), and Ekman transport make the Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS-1) region in the subtropical North Atlantic (15-30°N, 30-45°W) the natural location for the world's highest open ocean SSS maximum. Using the MERRA and ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalyses, we reproduce the mean hydrologic state of the atmosphere over the SPURS-1 region since 1979 and roughly deduce the change in salinity across the meridional domain due solely to interactions between E-P and Ekman transport. Our findings suggest a region that is highly evaporative at a mean rate of 4.87 mm/d with a standard deviation of 1.2 mm/d and little seasonality. Precipitation is much more variable with an annual fall maximum around 3 mm/d but only a mean rate of 1.37 mm/d with a standard deviation of 1.46 mm/d. The resulting E-P variable has a mean rate of 3.50 mm/d with a standard deviation of 1.92 mm/d and matches well with the moisture flux divergence term although the former is typically larger by a small margin. Strong prevailing easterly trade winds generate northward Ekman transports that advect water toward the salinity maximum around 25°N. A short calculation shows that atmospheric moisture dynamics could potentially account for about one third of the change in salinity between 15°N and 25°N giving an estimate of the role that surface freshwater flux plays in the maintenance of the salinity maximum.

  2. Hydroclimatic trends in simulations over the CORDEX North America region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arritt, Raymond; Groisman, Pavel; Daniel, Ariele; Schillerberg, Tayler

    2015-04-01

    An increase in the occurrence of heavy precipitation has been one of the most pronounced climate change signals for the central United States. We study this trend by using the RegCM4 regional climate model to dynamically downscale CMIP5 global projections for 1950-2099 over the CORDEX North America domain. We examine the robustness of the results by driving the regional model with two different global models, by performing simulations at both 50 km and 25 km grid spacing, and by using different convective parameterizations in RegCM4. The global models sample the range of climate sensitivity in CMIP5: HadGEM2-ES has the highest equilibrium climate sensitivity of the CMIP5 models, while GFDL-ESM2M has one of the lowest sensitivities. RegCM4 results show increases in heavy precipitation (> 50 mm/day) over the central United States for the period 1951-2005 similar to observed trends. This trend is predicted to accelerate so that by the end of the 21st century incidence of heavy precipitation increases by a factor of 2 to 3. The trend is robust in that it is produced regardless of the driving global model or the configuration of the regional model. Results also show a modest increase in the number of dry days and a marked increase in the number of long runs of dry days (16 or more consecutive dry days). The combination of heavier events and longer runs of dry days has implications for sectors such as agriculture and water quality. This research was sponsored by USDA NIFA under the Earth System Modeling program and as part of a regional collaborative project.

  3. Cryptotephrochronology in the North Atlantic Region : Linking Greenland Ice and North Atlantic Marine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, P. M.; Davies, S. M.; Bourne, A.; Meara, R.; Cook, E.; Griggs, A.

    2012-12-01

    Tephrochronology is a powerful technique that can be utilised for the correlation and synchronisation of disparate palaeoclimatic records. Thus, this technique has considerable potential for addressing key questions relating to rapid climatic events that characterised the last glacial period. In particular, our search for microscopic tephra layers or cryptotephras within the Greenland ice-cores and marine cores from the North Atlantic Ocean has the potential to test the phase relationships between the atmospheric and oceanic responses to these high-magnitude and abrupt climatic events. Here we report on results of investigations of the MIS 5 to 2 time period drawing on examples from several North Atlantic marine cores from various sites within the North Atlantic including the Rockall Trough, Faroe Islands region, Goban Spur, Gardar Drift and Irminger Basin. These investigations fall within the context of the SMART and TRACE projects. Several cryptotephra horizons have been identified by applying techniques first developed for terrestrial sedimentary material. The two main challenges associated with cryptotephra work in the glacial North Atlantic are i) determining the dominant transportation processes and ii) assessing the influence of secondary reworking processes and the integrity of the isochrons. The potential influence of these processes is investigated by assessing shard size, geochemical (major and trace element) heterogeneity and co-variance of IRD input and sortable silt for some cores. High-resolution investigations of the Greenland ice-cores of NGRIP, GRIP and NEEM over the same time period have identified cryptotephras from numerous previously unrecognised eruptions. The principal source of horizons is Iceland, with some correlated to specific volcanic systems such as Katla, Grimsvötn, Hekla and Veidivötn-Bardabunga. An overarching aspect of this work is the robust geochemical fingerprinting of the small glass shards within these cryptotephras using

  4. Regional High Resolution Reanalysis Covered European North East Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdalle-Badie, R.; Benkiran, M.; Chanut, J.; Drillet, Y.; Reffray, G.

    2011-12-01

    Mercator-Ocean has developed a regional forecasting system at 1/12° resolution over the North East Atlantic (IBI: Iberia, Biscay and Irish), taking advantage of the recent developments in NEMO. This regional forecasting system uses boundary conditions from the Mercator-Ocean global reanalysis (GLORYS: Global Ocean ReanalYses and Simulations). The assimilation component of the Mercator Ocean system, is based on a reduced-order Kalman filter (the SEEK or Singular Extended Evolutive Kalman filter). An IAU method (Incremental Analysis Updates) is used to apply the increments in the system. The error statistics are represented in a sub-space spanned by a small number of dominant 3D error directions. The data assimilation system allows to constrain the model in a multivariate way with Sea Surface Temperature (AVHRR + Multi-satellite High resolution), together with all available satellite Sea Level Anomalies, and with in situ observations from the CORA-03 data base, including ARGO floats temperature and salinity measurements. This reanalysis covers the period from January 2002 to December 2009. In this presentation, the results obtained with this reanalysis system (1/12°) are compared to the GLORYS ones. A special focus will be made on the gain thanks to the higher resolution of the model and higher resolution of the SST assimilated in this reanalysis.

  5. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2010-02-01

    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.

  6. Proterozoic history of the midcontinent region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, M. E.; van, W. R.; Zietz, Isidore

    1986-06-01

    Age and petrographic data from the buried basement of the midcontinent region of North America, integrated with information from exposed rocks and magnetic- and gravity-anomaly maps, allow much of the Proterozoic history of the region to be assembled. The Superior craton may be traced into the subsurface on the basis of characteristic magnetic patterns and limited age data. The region between the Superior craton and the Wyoming craton to the west is evidently underlain by southerly extension of the Trans-Hudson orogen of Canada. The Penokean orogen formed on the southern margin of the Superior craton 1890 1830 Ma, but is not inferred west of northwestern Iowa in the subsurface. Between 1780 and 1720 Ma, a major orogen developed along the southern margin of the continent and is exposed in Arizona and Colorado. These rocks are volcanogenic and, for the most part, juvenile additions to the crust; they can be traced beneath the plains as far as eastern Kansas and Nebraska. Another orogen formed farther to the south about 1700 1630 Ma and is exposed in southern Arizona and New Mexico; rocks of this age and type have beer, traced as far east as central Missouri but may extend as far as central Michigan. A major geophysical feature of the midcontinent is a system of northwest-trending magnetic and gravity anomalies in Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska; the origin of these is not currently understood. The tectonic history of the midcontinent between 1480 and 1340 Ma was dominated by extensional formation of two widespread granite-rhyolite terranes that evidently were formed from, and overlie, the orogenic provinces. The older, formed 1450 1480 Ma, underlies the eastern midcontinent, whereas the younger, formed 1340 1400 Ma, underlies the southwestern midcontinent. The latest Proterozoic events were the formation of the midcontinent rift system and the collisional Grenville and Llano provinces about 1100 Ma.

  7. Frictional strength of North Anatolian fault in eastern Marmara region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pınar, Ali; Coşkun, Zeynep; Mert, Aydın; Kalafat, Doğan

    2016-04-01

    Frequency distribution of azimuth and plunges of P- and T-axes of focal mechanisms is compared with the orientation of maximum compressive stress axis for investigating the frictional strength of three fault segments of North Anatolian fault (NAF) in eastern Marmara Sea, namely Princes' Islands, Yalova-Çınarcık and Yalova-Hersek fault segments. In this frame, we retrieved 25 CMT solutions of events in Çınarcık basin and derived a local stress tensor incorporating 30 focal mechanisms determined by other researches. As for the Yalova-Çınarcık and Yalova-Hersek fault segments, we constructed the frequency distribution of P- and T-axes utilizing 111 and 68 events, respectively, to correlate the geometry of the principle stress axes and fault orientations. The analysis yields low frictional strength for the Princes' Island fault segments and high frictional strength for Yalova-Çınarcık, Yalova-Hersek segments. The local stress tensor derived from the inversion of P- and T-axes of the fault plane solutions of Çınarcık basin events portrays nearly horizontal maximum compressive stress axis oriented N154E which is almost parallel to the peak of the frequency distribution of the azimuth of the P-axes. The fitting of the observed and calculated frequency distributions is attained for a low frictional coefficient which is about μ ≈ 0.1. Evidences on the weakness of NAF segments in eastern Marmara Sea region are revealed by other geophysical observations. Our results also show that the local stress field in Çınarcık basin is rotated ≈30° clockwise compared to the regional stress tensor in Marmara region derived from the large earthquakes, whereas the local stress tensor in Yalova-Çınarcık area is found to be rotated ≈30° counterclockwise. The rotation of the two local stress fields is derived in the area where NAF bifurcates into two branches overlaying large electrical conductor.

  8. Can Regional Climate Models Improve Warm Season Forecasts in the North American Monsoon Region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, F.; Castro, C. L.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of this work is to improve warm season forecasts in the North American Monsoon Region. To do this, we are dynamically downscaling warm season CFS (Climate Forecast System) reforecasts from 1982-2005 for the contiguous U.S. using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model. CFS is the global coupled ocean-atmosphere model used by the Climate Prediction Center (CPC), a branch of the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), to provide official U.S. seasonal climate forecasts. Recently, NCEP has produced a comprehensive long-term retrospective ensemble CFS reforecasts for the years 1980-2005. These reforecasts show that CFS model 1) has an ability to forecast tropical Pacific SSTs and large-scale teleconnection patterns, at least as evaluated for the winter season; 2) has greater skill in forecasting winter than summer climate; and 3) demonstrates an increase in skill when a greater number of ensembles members are used. The decrease in CFS skill during the warm season is due to the fact that the physical mechanisms of rainfall at this time are more related to mesoscale processes, such as the diurnal cycle of convection, low-level moisture transport, propagation and organization of convection, and surface moisture recycling. In general, these are poorly represented in global atmospheric models. Preliminary simulations for years with extreme summer climate conditions in the western and central U.S. (specifically 1988 and 1993) show that CFS-WRF simulations can provide a more realistic representation of convective rainfall processes. Thus a RCM can potentially add significant value in climate forecasting of the warm season provided the downscaling methodology incorporates the following: 1) spectral nudging to preserve the variability in the large scale circulation while still permitting the development of smaller-scale variability in the RCM; and 2) use of realistic soil moisture initial condition, in this case provided by the

  9. 77 FR 62535 - Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Employment Group, Aerotek, and Manpower, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Hydro Aluminum North... and former workers of Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan. The subject...

  10. Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This document is a collection of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner the agricultural crop, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes and industrial wastes of North Carolina that are potential biomass energy sources.

  11. Manpower Education in the North Carolina Appalachian Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Green, Siler Associates, Washington, DC.

    The manpower problem in North Carolina Appalachia, an inadequate supply of skilled labor, is essentially a problem in public school education resulting from deficiencies in basic education and work preparation for non-college-bound youth. For the schools to respond effectively, 4 basic things must happen in public education: (1) Public education…

  12. Insect Pollination at North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station – Past and Present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, or NCRPIS, is a joint venture among USDA-ARS, the Agricultural Experimental Stations of the 12 North Central States, and Iowa State University (ISU). As a component of the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), NCRPIS is dedicated to the conse...

  13. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, J. L.; Jeffries, D. S.; Lükewille, A.; Clair, T. A.; Dillon, P. J.; Driscoll, C. T.; Forsius, M.; Johannessen, M.; Kahl, J. S.; Kellogg, J. H.; Kemp, A.; Mannio, J.; Monteith, D. T.; Murdoch, P. S.; Patrick, S.; Rebsdorf, A.; Skjelkvåle, B. L.; Stainton, M. P.; Traaen, T.; van Dam, H.; Webster, K. E.; Wieting, J.; Wilander, A.

    1999-10-01

    Rates of acidic deposition from the atmosphere (`acid rain') have decreased throughout the 1980s and 1990s across large portions of North America and Europe. Many recent studies have attributed observed reversals in surface-water acidification at national and regional scales to the declining deposition. To test whether emissions regulations have led to widespread recovery in surface-water chemistry, we analysed regional trends between 1980 and 1995 in indicators of acidification (sulphate, nitrate and base-cation concentrations, and measured (Gran) alkalinity) for 205 lakes and streams in eight regions of North America and Europe. Dramatic differences in trend direction and strength for the two decades are apparent. In concordance with general temporal trends in acidic deposition, lake and stream sulphate concentrations decreased in all regions with the exception of Great Britain; all but one of these regions exhibited stronger downward trends in the 1990s than in the 1980s. In contrast, regional declines in lake and stream nitrate concentrations were rare and, when detected, were very small. Recovery in alkalinity, expected wherever strong regional declines in sulphate concentrations have occurred, was observed in all regions of Europe, especially in the 1990s, but in only one region (of five) in North America. We attribute the lack of recovery in three regions (south/central Ontario, the Adirondack/Catskill mountains and midwestern North America) to strong regional declines in base-cation concentrations that exceed the decreases in sulphate concentrations.

  14. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoddard, J.L.; Jeffries, D.S.; Lukewille, A.; Clair, T.A.; Dillon, P.J.; Driscoll, C.T.; Forsius, M.; Johannessen, M.; Kahl, J.S.; Kellogg, J.H.; Kemp, A.; Mannlo, J.; Monteith, D.T.; Murdoch, P.S.; Patrick, S.; Rebsdorl, A.; Skjelkvale, B.L.; Stainton, M.P.; Traaen, T.; Van Dam, H.; Webster, K.E.; Wleting, J.; Wllander, A.

    1999-01-01

    Rates of acidic deposition from the atmosphere ('acid rain') have decreased throughout the 1980s and 1990s across large portions of North America and Europe. Many recent studies have attributed observed reversals in surface-water acidification at national and regional scales to the declining deposition. To test whether emissions regulations have led to widespread recovery in surface-water chemistry, we analysed regional trends between 1980 and 1995 in indicators of acidification (sulphate, nitrate and base-cation concentrations, and measured (Gran) alkalinity) for 205 lakes and streams in eight regions of North America and Europe. Dramatic differences in trend direction and strength for the two decades are apparent. In concordance with general temporal trends in acidic deposition, lake and stream sulphate concentrations decreased in all regions with the exception of Great Britain all but one of these regions exhibited stronger downward trends in the 1990s than in the 1980s. In contrast, regional declines in lake and stream nitrate concentrations were rare and, when detected, were very small. Recovery in alkalinity, expected wherever strong regional declines in sulphate concentrations have occurred, was observed in all regions of Europe, especially in the 1990s, but in only one region (of five) in North America. We attribute the lack of recovery in three regions (south/central Ontario, the Adirondack/Catskill mountains and midwestern North America) to strong regional declines in base-cation concentrations that exceed the decreases in sulphate concentrations.

  15. Pliocene planktic foraminifer census data from the North Atlantic region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    PRISM Project Members

    1996-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a long-term study of the climatic and oceanographic conditions of the Pliocene known as PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping). One of the major elements of the study involves the use of quantitative composition of planktic foraminifer assemblages to estimate seasurface temperatures and identify major oceanographic boundaries and water masses (Dowsett, 1991; Dowsett and Poore, 1991; Dowsett et al., 1992; Dowsett et al., 1994). We have analyzed more than 900 samples from 19 core sites in the North Atlantic Basin (Fig. 1) resulting in a large volume of raw census data. These data are presented here together to facilitate comparison of North Atlantic faunal assemblages. Latitude, longitude, water depth, source of faunal data and source of data used to construct age model (or publication from which age model was taken) are provided for each locality in Table 1. All ages refer to the geomagnetic polarity time scale of Berggren et al. (1985). Counts of species tabulated in each sample are given in Tables 2-20. DSDP and ODP sample designations are abbreviated in Tables 2-20 as core-section, depth within section in centimeters (eg. 10-5, 34 = core 10, section 5, 34 cm below top of section 5).

  16. Social Research in North American Moisture-Deficient Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John W., Ed.

    Five papers presented at the 9th symposium held during the 42nd annual meeting of the Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science are: (1) "Do We Need a Sociology of Arid Regions"?; (2) "Deficit Creating Influences for Role Performance and Status Acquisition in Sparsely Populated Regions of…

  17. Regional projections of North Indian climate for adaptation studies.

    PubMed

    Mathison, Camilla; Wiltshire, Andrew; Dimri, A P; Falloon, Pete; Jacob, Daniela; Kumar, Pankaj; Moors, Eddy; Ridley, Jeff; Siderius, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Yasunari, T

    2013-12-01

    Adaptation is increasingly important for regions around the world where large changes in climate could have an impact on populations and industry. The Brahmaputra-Ganges catchments have a large population, a main industry of agriculture and a growing hydro-power industry, making the region susceptible to changes in the Indian Summer Monsoon, annually the main water source. The HighNoon project has completed four regional climate model simulations for India and the Himalaya at high resolution (25km) from 1960 to 2100 to provide an ensemble of simulations for the region. In this paper we have assessed the ensemble for these catchments, comparing the simulations with observations, to give credence that the simulations provide a realistic representation of atmospheric processes and therefore future climate. We have illustrated how these simulations could be used to provide information on potential future climate impacts and therefore aid decision-making using climatology and threshold analysis. The ensemble analysis shows an increase in temperature between the baseline (1970-2000) and the 2050s (2040-2070) of between 2 and 4°C and an increase in the number of days with maximum temperatures above 28°C and 35°C. There is less certainty for precipitation and runoff which show considerable variability, even in this relatively small ensemble, spanning zero. The HighNoon ensemble is the most complete data for the region providing useful information on a wide range of variables for the regional climate of the Brahmaputra-Ganges region, however there are processes not yet included in the models that could have an impact on the simulations of future climate. We have discussed these processes and show that the range from the HighNoon ensemble is similar in magnitude to potential changes in projections where these processes are included. Therefore strategies for adaptation must be robust and flexible allowing for advances in the science and natural environmental changes. PMID

  18. A Study of Library Service in the Lake Agassiz Region of North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Library Commission, Bismarck.

    A needs assessment of the library services of the Lake Agassiz region of North Dakota was begun in 1974. A mail survey of the area population and an in-library user survey were conducted. Almost all libraries in the region fell below state standards on holdings primarily because the population base was inadequate to support 11 municipal libraries.…

  19. From the Ground Up: Growing Entrepreneurship in the North Central Region. RRD 191

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Mary

    2008-01-01

    More than 300 people in the North Central region added their voices to a discussion on the importance of entrepreneurship to rural community vitality, often traveling long distances to attend one of 11 listening sessions held throughout the region. Among those attending were local leaders, service providers, entrepreneurs, and educators. The…

  20. A Year of Transition: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development Annual Report 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four centers in the United States that work to improve opportunities and quality of life in rural communities. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in its 12-state region, the NCRCRD engages Extension…

  1. 76 FR 60777 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... visibility in other states. See 76 FR 58570. To accommodate the Governor of North Dakota's request submitted... recordkeeping requirements, Volatile organic compounds. Dated: September 23, 2011. James B. Martin, Regional... Visibility and Regional Haze; Correction of Public Hearing AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  2. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preliminary survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive was performed in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia. Olive is a newly introduced crop in this region, and is cultivated in the agricultural enterprises of some of the biggest Saudi agricultural companies. Seedlings are mostly im...

  3. Alaska North Slope regional gas hydrate production modeling forecasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, S.J.; Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Hancock, S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of gas hydrate development scenarios were created to assess the range of outcomes predicted for the possible development of the "Eileen" gas hydrate accumulation, North Slope, Alaska. Production forecasts for the "reference case" were built using the 2002 Mallik production tests, mechanistic simulation, and geologic studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Three additional scenarios were considered: A "downside-scenario" which fails to identify viable production, an "upside-scenario" describes results that are better than expected. To capture the full range of possible outcomes and balance the downside case, an "extreme upside scenario" assumes each well is exceptionally productive.Starting with a representative type-well simulation forecasts, field development timing is applied and the sum of individual well forecasts creating the field-wide production forecast. This technique is commonly used to schedule large-scale resource plays where drilling schedules are complex and production forecasts must account for many changing parameters. The complementary forecasts of rig count, capital investment, and cash flow can be used in a pre-appraisal assessment of potential commercial viability.Since no significant gas sales are currently possible on the North Slope of Alaska, typical parameters were used to create downside, reference, and upside case forecasts that predict from 0 to 71??BM3 (2.5??tcf) of gas may be produced in 20 years and nearly 283??BM3 (10??tcf) ultimate recovery after 100 years.Outlining a range of possible outcomes enables decision makers to visualize the pace and milestones that will be required to evaluate gas hydrate resource development in the Eileen accumulation. Critical values of peak production rate, time to meaningful production volumes, and investments required to rule out a downside case are provided. Upside cases identify potential if both depressurization and thermal stimulation yield positive results. An "extreme upside

  4. Two centuries of observed atmospheric variability and change over the North Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendel, Martin; van den Besselaar, Else; Hannachi, Abdel; Kent, Elizabeth; Lefebvre, Christiana; Rosenhagen, Gudrun; Schenk, Frederik; van der Schrier, Gerard; Woollings, Tim

    2016-04-01

    In the upcoming North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment (NOSCCA), we present a synthesis of current knowledge about past, present and possible future climate change in the North Sea region. A climate change assessment from published scientific work has been conducted as a kind of regional IPCC report, and a book has been produced that will be published by Springer in 2016. In the framework of the NOSCCA project, we examine past and present studies of variability and changes in atmospheric variables within the North Sea region over the instrumental period, roughly the past 200 years, based on observations and reanalyses. The variables addressed in this presentation are large-scale circulation, pressure and wind, surface air temperature, precipitation and radiative properties (clouds, solar radiation, and sunshine duration). While air temperature over land, not unexpectedly, has increased everywhere in the North Sea region, with strongest trends in spring and in the north of the region, a precipitation increase has been observed in the north and a decrease in the south of the region. This pattern goes along with a north-eastward shift of storm tracks and is in agreement with climate model projections under enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations. For other variables, it is not obvious which part of the observed changes may be due to anthropogenic activities and which is internally forced. It remains also unclear to what extent atmospheric circulation over the North Sea region is influenced by distant factors, in particular Arctic sea-ice decline in recent decades. There are indications of an increase in the number of deep cyclones (but not in the total number of cyclones), while storminess since the late 19th century shows no robust trends. The persistence of circulation types appears to have increased over the last century, and consequently, there is an indication for 'more extreme' extreme events. However, changes in extreme weather events are difficult to assess

  5. Interannual to decadal predictability in the North Atlantic Europe region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouzeau, A.; Terray, L.

    2003-04-01

    A 200-year control experiment is performed with the third version of the ARPEGE-Climat atmospheric model coupled to the ORCALIM2 (ORCA/Louvain Ice Model) sea-ice/ocean model. This study takes place in the framework of the PREDICATE project. The simulation shows low frequency fluctuations (period of 30-50 years) in the Thermohaline Circulation (THC) of about 15% of the mean transport. Two 25-year long ensemble experiments are then conducted, contrasting opposite phases of the THC: the first ensemble starts at a maximum of the intensity of the THC, the second one at a minimum. For each ensemble, the different members (6 members for each ensemble) only differ by infinitesimal perturbations of their initial atmospheric conditions. We use these ensembles to study the potential predictability at interannual to decadal time scales. The preliminary results suggest the existence of predictability up to several years in the THC and SST in the North Atlantic. On the other hand, there seems to be very little predictability (beyond one year) arising from atmospheric variables. These results are obtained using a simple predictability index introduced by Collins and Allen (2001) which measures the rate of spread of the ensembles of simulations against climatology. A cluster analysis will then be performed to investigate the modification of the frequency of occurrence of the main climatic regimes and their links with the THC states.

  6. Postglacial eruptive history of the Askja region, North Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Margaret E.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; de Joux, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Temporal variations in magma discharge rates on Iceland's neovolcanic rift zones have been associated with deglaciation. We have used tephrochronological and stratigraphic dating of 175 separate eruptive units to estimate volumetric output and reconstruct eruption rates in the Askja region over the postglacial period. We have identified 14 tephra layers that can be used as time marker horizons in the near vicinity of Askja, including the Vatnaöldur (871 ± 2 AD) tephra which has not previously been reported in surface cover profiles in this region. Our improved tephrochronological resolution indicates that, over the past c. 1,500 years, Askja has been significantly more active than has previously been recognised. A minimum of 39 km3 of basaltic magma has been erupted at Askja since the area became ice-free at around 10.3 ka. The absence of the 7.2 ka Hekla 5 tephra from the Askja region suggests that all postglacial lavas now exposed at the surface are younger than 7.2 ka. Time-averaged magma discharge rates at Askja were highest between 7.2 and 4.3 ka. However, the available tephrochronological resolution is not sufficient to resolve any peak in volcanic activity following deglaciation.

  7. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  8. Evaporation study in a humid region, Lake Michie, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, J.F., Jr.

    1966-01-01

    The mass-transfer and water-budget techniques of calibrating a reservoir for evaporation were evaluated through a study of Lake Michie, N.C. The techniques appear adequate for estimation of lake evaporation and net seepage in humid regions where lake storage is affected by streamflow and ground-water seepage, under conditions no more adverse than those affecting Lake Michie. The analysis of 25 months of mass-transfer and water-budget data collected at Lake Michie indicates pronounced seasonal variation in both evaporation and seepage.

  9. Simulated cold events in the northern North Atlantic during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo; Zanchettin, Davide; Lohmann, Katja; Jungclaus, Johann

    2014-05-01

    Paleoceanographic data show large inter-decadal cold excursions in sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the western subpolar gyre region and north of Iceland throughout the last millennium. A series of such events could have contributed to demise the Norse settlements over Greenland during the 13th to the 15th century due to associated deteriorating environmental conditions in the region. However, spatial extent, attribution and mechanism(s) of these cold events are not known. In this contribution, we use climate model simulations to clarify the role of the ocean and of coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics in triggering these cold events, and to assess whether they can be explained by internal climate variability alone. Specifically, we investigate the North Atlantic-Arctic climate variability in a 1000-year control run describing an unperturbed pre-industrial climate, and in a 3-member ensemble of full-forcing transient simulations of the last millennium. Simulations are performed with the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model for paleo-applications. In the control and transient simulations, we identified cold events of similar amplitude and duration to the reconstructed data. Spatial patterns and temporal evolutions of simulated cold events are similar in both simulation types. In the transient runs, furthermore, they do not robustly coincide with periods of strong external forcing (e.g. of major volcanic eruptions). We therefore conclude that such events can emerge because of internally-generated regional climate variability alone. Local ocean-atmosphere coupled processes in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region appear as key part of the mechanism of simulated cold events. In particular, they are typically associated with the onset of prolonged positive sea-level pressure anomalies over the North Atlantic and associated weaker and south-eastward displaced subpolar gyre. The salt transport reduction by the Irminger Current together with an intensification of the

  10. Strain in southern California: Measured uniaxial north-south regional contraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Prescott, W.H.; Lisowski, M.; King, N.

    1978-01-01

    The plate tectonics model of the Pacific moving northwest relative to North America implies that the regional strain in California should be simple shear across a vertical plane striking N45??W or equivalently equal parts of north-south contraction and east-west extension. Measurements of the strain accumulation at seven separate sites in southern California in the interval 1972 through 1978 indicate a remarkably consistent uniaxial north-south contraction of about 0.3 part per million per year; the expected east-west extension is absent. It is not clear whether the period from 1972 through 1978 is anomalous or whether the secular strain in southern California is indeed a uniaxial north-south contraction.

  11. Quantifying Regional Vegetation Cover Variability in North China during the Holocene: Implications for Climate Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback. PMID:23977110

  12. Quantifying regional vegetation cover variability in North China during the Holocene: implications for climate feedback.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback. PMID:23977110

  13. Characteristics of regional seismic waves from the 2006 and 2009 North Korean nuclear explosion tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, S.; Hong, T.

    2009-12-01

    Two North Korean nuclear explosion (UNE) tests were conducted in 2006 and 2009. The events are the first UNEs in the 21st century. The UNEs were well recorded by dense regional seismic networks in Korea, Japan and China. The UNEs provide unique regional seismic waveforms with high signal-to-noise ratios. However, the continental crust in the Korean Peninsula changes abruptly into a transitional structure between continental and oceanic crusts across the eastern shore. The complex geological and tectonic structures around the Korean Peninsula cause significant variations in regional waveforms. One outstanding question is whether typical seismic features are still observed in the North Korean UNE records. Another question is whether conventional discrimination techniques can be applicable for the North Korean UNEs. P/S amplitude ratios are widely applied for seismic discrimination. In this study, we describe the features of regional waveforms of the North Korean UNEs. We investigate the composition of regional shear energy by analyzing three-component seismograms for various frequency bands. The shear-energy contents are compared with those of comparable natural earthquakes. We find that Pn/Lg amplitude ratios are 3-4 times larger than those of earthquakes. The UNEs records show that the Pn/Lg amplitude ratios on the vertical components are lower than those on the horizontal components in the frequencies around 1 Hz.

  14. Characteristics of Regional Seismic Waves from the 2006, 2009 and 2013 North Korean Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Eunyoung; Rhee, Seung-gu; Hwang, Eui-Hong; Jeon, Youngsu; Ham, In-Kyoung; Park, Eunhee

    2014-05-01

    The North Korean underground nuclear explosion (UNE) tests were conducted in 2006, 2009 and 2013. The events are the first UNEs in the 21st century. the UNEs were well recorded by dense regional seismic networks in South Korea. The UNEs provide unique regional seismic waveforms with high signal-to-noise ratios. However, the continental crust in the Korean Peninsula changes abruptly into a transitional structure between continental and oceanic crusts across the eastern coast. The complex geological and tectonic structures around the Korean Peninsula cause significant variations in regional waveforms. One outstanding question is whether typical seismic features are still observed in the North Korean UNE records. Another question is whether conventional discrimination techniques can be applicable for the North Korean UNEs. Lateral variations of regional phase amplitudes for the North Korean UNEs agree with both a Pn velocity tomography and a Lg attenuation tomography. P/S amplitude ratios are widely used for seismic discrimination. To understand the regional shear-energy composition, we analyze the frequency contents of waveforms. The shear-energy contents for the UNEs are compared with those for natural earthquakes with comparable magnitudes. We use the average variation of P/S amplitude ratios to minimize the local effects. The result shows that the UNEs are successfully discriminated from earthquakes in the Korean Peninsula.

  15. Tracking regional and global teleconnections recorded by western North American speleothem records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oster, Jessica L.; Kelley, Neil P.

    2016-10-01

    Speleothem proxy records are useful for interrogating past climates in the low and mid-latitudes given their ability to provide continuous, high-resolution, and long-lived records that can be dated with high precision. Several speleothem oxygen isotope records from western North America have recently been developed that highlight the importance of this archive in documenting past changes in atmospheric circulation. Taken individually, these records hint at teleconnections between western North American hydroclimate and climate changes in the high northern latitudes and tropics. However, there has been no systematic investigation of global climate teleconnections to this region that draws upon the body of North American speleothem records as a whole. Here we review the dominant controls on precipitation oxygen isotopes across the region, and conduct statistical comparisons and network visualizations of high-resolution speleothem oxygen isotope records from western North America to investigate the regional response to pronounced climate changes of the last deglaciation and to determine the pattern of global teleconnections to this region. We find that most western North American speleothem oxygen isotope records demonstrate a robust and consistent response to the events of the last deglaciation, despite differing controls on the oxygen isotope ratio of precipitation across the region. One record that receives a strong influence from the Gulf of Mexico exhibits a contrasting pattern in oxygen isotopes relative to most of the other records, which are dominated by westerly storms generated in the Pacific. During the studied interval, major shifts in Western North American speleothem records appear broadly synchronous at least within the uncertainty of age models. We also find strong statistical linkages between western North American speleothem records and speleothem records of Asian monsoon variability and other records from regions directly influenced by movement of

  16. North Karelia regional chain of care: Finnish experiences.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Pentti

    2004-01-01

    Information--and communication technology is one of the most important cornerstones in more and more data and knowledge intensive health care sector. However these factors don't create financial gains and productivity benefits spontaneously. They need organisational and social innovations and new business models. The growth of productivity is connected to the process and organisational innovations and not to the number of computers and the growth of using ICT. One of the problems prohibiting health care profession to move to real e-work environment is the lack of the reliable measures and on these measures based performance measurement and strategic management. Health care can be improved by utilizing ICT and tools like performance measuring are key weapons in the arsenal of new e-work environment and measuring based new strategic management. Neither public sector nor not-for-profit hospitals look for financial rewards as their ultimate proof of success. Instead, they seek to achieve ambitious missions aimed at improving the health standards and wellbeing of the citizens. ICT- based new way of managing in the public sector is just beginning to gain a critical level of digitalization and will most likely come to its own in the coming years. Therefore, it is essential to research on how the health care sector can be moved towards new regional models and clinical workflow using intelligent standard based strategic management and performance measurement. If the breakthrough of the eight-hour working day and shortening of working time are evaluated afterwards, it can be stated that they have made the society more anthropocentric and humane. During one century the annual working time has shortened from 3000 hours to 1700 hours in the European Union countries. These foundations of a more humane society--eight-hour working day and shortening of regular working time--are however disappearing in the post-industrialized information society. There are various grounds for the

  17. Interannual Comparison of Water Vapor in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Smith, M. D.; Hale, A. S.; Bass, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    In order to better understand the current climate of Mars, we seek to understand atmospheric water in the north polar region. Our approach is to examine the water transport and cycling issues within the north polar region and in/out of the region on seasonal and annual timescales. Viking Mars Atmospheric Water Detector (MAWD) data showed that water vapor increased as the northern summer season progressed and temperatures increased, and that vapor appeared to be transported southward . However, there has been uncertainty about the amount of water cycling in and out of the north polar region, as evidenced by residual polar cap visible brightness changes between one Martian year (Mariner 9 data) and a subsequent year (Viking data). These changes were originally thought to be interannual variations in the amount of frost sublimed based on global dust storm activity . However, Viking thermal and imaging data were re-examined and it was found that 14-35 pr m of water -ice appeared to be deposited on the cap later in the summer season, indicating that some water may be retained and redistributed within the polar cap region. This late summer deposition could be due to adsorption directly onto the cap surface or due to snowfall. We seek to understand what happens to the water on seasonal and interannual timescales. We address these issues by examining water vapor in the north polar region of Mars during the north spring and summer period from MGS TES data and by comparing these results to the Viking MAWD results.

  18. Cucurbit germplasm collections at the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa, USA is one of four primary Plant Introduction Stations in the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), and has responsibility for maintenance, regeneration, characterization, and distribution of the NPGS Cucumis and Cucurbi...

  19. Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

  20. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of.... The North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial...

  1. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial...

  2. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  3. "Racing to the Top" to Prepare Turnaround Principals in North Carolina: Homegrown Regional Leadership Academies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    North Carolina's Race to the Top (RttT) grant earmarked approximately $17.5 million to "increase the number of principals qualified to lead transformational change in low-performing schools in both rural and urban areas" (NCDPI, 2010, p.10). To accomplish this, the state established three Regional Leadership Academies (RLAs)…

  4. Groundwater recharge during spring thaw in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snowmelt collects in landscape depressions and appears to replenish groundwater in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America while the soil is frozen. Little is known, however, about the physical state of the soil at the time of recharge. Depth of snow, surface water, water table, and frozen soil ...

  5. Spatio-temporal variations in surface characteristics over the North American Monsoon region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper we summarize the surface characteristics for six locations in western Mexico and southwestern USA (from a subhumid climate in Jalisco, Mexico to the Sonoran Desert climate in Arizona, USA),that lie along a meridional transect within the North American Monsoon (NAM) core region using av...

  6. Genetic discontinuity among regional populations of Lophelia perfusa in the North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the degree to which populations are connected through larval dispersal is imperative to effective management, yet little is known about larval dispersal ability or population connectivity in Lophelia pertusa, the dominant framework-forming coral on the continental slope in the North Atlantic Ocean. Using nine microsatellite DNA markers, we assessed the spatial scale and pattern of genetic connectivity across a large portion of the range of L. pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean. A Bayesian modeling approach found four distinct genetic groupings corresponding to ocean regions: Gulf of Mexico, coastal southeastern U.S., New England Seamounts, and eastern North Atlantic Ocean. An isolation-by-distance pattern was supported across the study area. Estimates of pairwise population differentiation were greatest with the deepest populations, the New England Seamounts (average FST = 0.156). Differentiation was intermediate with the eastern North Atlantic populations (FST = 0.085), and smallest between southeastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico populations (FST = 0.019), with evidence of admixture off the southeastern Florida peninsula. Connectivity across larger geographic distances within regions suggests that some larvae are broadly dispersed. Heterozygote deficiencies were detected within the majority of localities suggesting deviation from random mating. Gene flow between ocean regions appears restricted, thus, the most effective management scheme for L. pertusa involves regional reserve networks

  7. Genetic discontinuity among regional populations of Lophelia pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, C.L.; Ross, S.W.; Nizinski, M.S.; Brooke, S.; Jarnegren, J.; Waller, R.G.; Johnson, R.L.; King, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the degree to which populations are connected through larval dispersal is imperative to effective management, yet little is known about larval dispersal ability or population connectivity in Lophelia pertusa, the dominant framework-forming coral on the continental slope in the North Atlantic Ocean. Using nine microsatellite DNA markers, we assessed the spatial scale and pattern of genetic connectivity across a large portion of the range of L. pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean. A Bayesian modeling approach found four distinct genetic groupings corresponding to ocean regions: Gulf of Mexico, coastal southeastern U. S., New England Seamounts, and eastern North Atlantic Ocean. An isolation-by-distance pattern was supported across the study area. Estimates of pairwise population differentiation were greatest with the deepest populations, the New England Seamounts (average FST = 0.156). Differentiation was intermediate with the eastern North Atlantic populations (FST = 0.085), and smallest between southeastern U. S. and Gulf of Mexico populations (FST = 0.019), with evidence of admixture off the southeastern Florida peninsula. Connectivity across larger geographic distances within regions suggests that some larvae are broadly dispersed. Heterozygote deficiencies were detected within the majority of localities suggesting deviation from random mating. Gene flow between ocean regions appears restricted, thus, the most effective management scheme for L. pertusa involves regional reserve networks. ?? 2011 US Government.

  8. The State of Economic and Social Development in the North Central Region of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Keith D.; And Others

    Emphasizing patterns of rural economic and social activity in the North Central Region (NCR) of the U.S., this report utilizes U.S. census data to survey and analyze: population distribution; business patterns; agricultural activity; local and county government expenditures; and income distribution. Among the major findings reported are: slightly…

  9. Residual Weeds of Processing Sweet Corn in the North Central Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of weed community structure in vegetable crops of the North Central Region (NCR) is poor. To characterize weed composition of species persisting in sweet corn to harvest, hereafter called residual weeds, 175 sweet corn fields were surveyed in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin from 2005 to...

  10. The empirical formula determination of local magnitude for North Moluccas region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, Basri; Suardi, Iman; Heryandoko, Nova; Bunaga, I. Gusti Ketut Satria

    2016-05-01

    The energy of local and regional earthquake is usually expressed by local magnitude. In addition, local magnitude is also useful for seismic hazard assessment. The aims of this study are to determine the empirical formula of local magnitude and the correction distance function, -log A 0, applied for North Moluccas region. This study used waveform data from the MCGA seismic network located around North Moluccas region. We collected 148 maximum amplitude data of 40 earthquake events which are recorded by 6 seismometers with range of time from December 1, 2013 till January 31, 2014, hypocentral distance from 25km till 550 km, and depth below 70 km. The results of this study are the empirical formula of local magnitude, ML = log A + 0.651logR + 0.0037R 1.3568, and the correction distance function, logA0 = 0.651logR + 0.0037R 1.3568, respectively. Also we found that the station correction values of the GLMI, LBMI, MNI, SANI, TMSI, and TNTI seismic stations were -0.057, -0.216, -0.322, 0.088, -0.494, and 0.180, respectively. Low amplification is indicated by the positive value of station correction; meanwhile high amplification is by the negative. The correction distance function of North Moluccas region is similar to the Central California region. It means that the attenuation characteristics of the two regions have similarities.

  11. Aeolian Transport of Ferrous Minerals in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, Briony H.; Bell, J. F., III; Noe Dobrea, E. Z.

    2008-09-01

    The north polar region of Mars contains two areally extensive, dark aeolian deposits: (1) the north polar sand seas that encircle the polar cap, and (2) the north polar veneers that drape over the polar cap itself. Both deposits have been previously identified as containing hydrated minerals, and exhibit spectral features consistent with gypsum, a hydrated calcium sulfate. However, it remains unclear whether or not the deposits have exchanged material in the past, and whether any portion of either deposit is active today. In this study, we are investigating the distribution of ferrous minerals in the north polar region using near-infrared spectral data from the Mars Express OMEGA imaging spectrometer. Ferrous minerals, such as olivine and pyroxene, are most readily identified by the presence of a wide absorption band around 1 micron. Observations of changes in the position, depth, and shape of the 1 micron absorption band may be used to track changes in composition. We have identified the presence of a strong 1 micron band in the veneers, the sand sea, and the surrounding plains. Initial results from study regions in Chasma Boreale and Olympia Planum suggest that the position, depth, and shape of the band do vary within the veneers and sand seas. These spectral differences may reflect: (1) compositional variations between the sources of the deposits, (2) the degree of modern activity of the deposits, or (3) changes in mineralogy due to breakdown of softer minerals during aeolian transport over long distances. By extending our observations of these spectral changes to the entire north polar region, we may be able to help identify sources of aeolian material, transport pathways, and the most active regions of modern aeolian activity.

  12. Sensitivity of northwestern North Atlantic shelf circulation to surface and boundary forcing: A regional model assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Catherine E.; Bianucci, Laura; Fennel, Katja

    2014-05-01

    The northwestern North Atlantic shelf circulation, influenced by both North Atlantic subpolar and subtropical gyres, is one of the hydrographically most variable regions in the North Atlantic Ocean and hosts biologically rich and productive fishing grounds. With the goal of simulating conditions in this productive and complex region, we implemented a nested regional ocean model for the northwest North Atlantic shelves including the Gulf of Maine, the Scotian Shelf, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Grand Banks, and the adjacent deep ocean. Configuring such a model requires choosing external data to supply surface forcing and initial and boundary conditions, as well as the consideration of nesting options. Although these selections can greatly affect model performance and results, often they are not systematically investigated. Here we assessed the sensitivity of our regional model to a suite of atmospheric forcing datasets, to sets of initial and boundary conditions constructed from multiple global ocean models and a larger scale regional ocean model, and to two variants of the model grid - one extending further off-shelf and resolving Flemish Cap topography. We conducted model simulations for a 6-year period and assessed model performance relative to a regional climatological dataset of temperature and salinity, observations collected from multiple monitoring stations and cruise transect lines, satellite sea surface temperature (SST) data, and descriptions of regional currents from literature. Based on this model assessment, we determined the model configuration that best reproduces observations. We find that while all surface forcing datasets are capable of producing model SST close to observed, the different datasets result in significant differences in model sea surface salinity (SSS). We find that initial and boundary conditions based on global ocean models do not necessary produce realistic circulation, and climatological initial and boundary conditions can

  13. Distribution of hydrated minerals in the north polar region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, B. H.; Bell, J. F.; Noe Dobrea, E. Z.; Cloutis, E. A.; Bailey, D. T.; Craig, M. A.; Roach, L. H.; Mustard, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    The previous discovery of extensive deposits of hydrated minerals in Olympia Planum in the north polar region of Mars by the Mars Express OMEGA instrument raises important questions about the origin and subsequent redistribution of these hydrated minerals. Here we present a new map of the distribution of hydrated minerals within the north polar region of Mars by applying both standard and new spectral analysis techniques to near-infrared spectral data from OMEGA. Our results are in agreement with the previous OMEGA observations but also show more extensive detections of hydrated minerals throughout the circumpolar plains, as well as new detections of hydrated minerals on the surface of Planum Boreum and within the polar troughs. We find that while the circumpolar plains hydration signatures appear to be correlated with the dark dunes of the north polar erg, hydration signatures in Planum Boreum instead appear to be correlated with the north polar veneers and their sources within the polar layered deposits. By applying laboratory-derived empirical models of the dependence of gypsum spectra on grain size and abundance, we provide approximate abundance estimates for the hydrated minerals we have identified in Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) and Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) data. We find that the presence of hydrated minerals throughout the north polar region suggests (1) a complex cycle of sediment exchange between the Olympia Planum dunes and the other polar units; (2) an earlier origin for the hydrated minerals than originally postulated; and (3) the occurrence of significant water activity in this region during the Amazonian.

  14. Regional Climate Service in Northern Germany -The North German Climate Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, I.; Von Storch, H.

    2012-12-01

    The North German Climate Office was established in 2006 at the Institute for Coastal Research at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany as consequence of an increased public information need regarding coastal climate change and its impacts in Northern Germany. The service is characterized by an intensive dialogue between regional climate research and stakeholders in Northern Germany. About once a week scientists of the North German climate office are invited to contribute to public dialogue events. Also numerous direct inquiries are answered and expert interviews are conducted. From this dialogue process specific stakeholder information needs are localized and analysed to develop tailored information products. To provide easy and user specific access to research results interactive web tools are developed. One example is the North German climate atlas, an interactive web tool on possible future climate change in Northern Germany. Another interactive web tool is informing on present and future coastal protection needs in Northern Germany. Another aim of our information products is to assess and summarize the existing scientific knowledge on climate, climate change and impacts in Northern Germany. A mini IPCC-like regional assessment report has been published in 2010, which is summarizing, discussing and assessing the scientific knowledge on regional climate, climate change and impacts as well as possible adaptation strategies in the metropolitan region of Hamburg.

  15. Characteristics of Regional Seismic Waves from the 2006 and 2009 North Korean Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, T.; Rhee, S.

    2010-12-01

    Two North Korean nuclear explosion (UNE) tests were conducted in 2006 and 2009. The UNEs were well recorded by dense regional seismic networks in Korea, Japan and China. The continental crust in the Korean Peninsula changes abruptly into a transitional structure between continental and oceanic crusts in the East Sea (Sea of Japan). The complex geological and tectonic structures around the Korean Peninsula cause significant variations in regional waveforms. We examine the regional waveform features observed in the continental margin. We test the conventional methods based on P/S amplitude ratios for seismic discrimination of UNEs from earthquakes. We compare the waveforms and spectral contents between UNEs and earthquakes. The P, S and P/S ratios fluctuate significantly depending on the raypaths. Crustal phases (Pg, Lg) are attenuated along raypaths with undulated Moho depths. On the other hand, mantle-lid phases (Pn, Sn) are strengthened along the raypaths. These observations agree with the Pn velocity structure and Lg attenuation model. The North Korean UNEs are discriminated successfully from 40 regional earthquakes around the Korean peninsula using Pn/Lg, Pg/Lg and Pn/Sn amplitude ratios. We also introduce a stable method to determine the source-spectral parameters of the North Korean UNEs. Strong overshooting feature is observed in P phases. The corner frequencies of P phases from the 2009 UNE are smaller than those from the 2006 UNE. The Pn source-spectral ratio between two North Korean UNEs is ~5, which is close to the scalar isotropic moment ratio. A linear relationship is observed between long-period isotropic moment and apparent moments of regional phases.

  16. Environmental characteristics of regional groundwater in relation to fluoride poisoning in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wan Hua

    1991-07-01

    More and more data indicated that high- or low-fluoride-bearing drinking water led to endemic diseases in which fluoride poisoning was caused by high levels of fluoride (fluoride ion content >1.0 mg/I) in drinking water. Fluoride poisoning in North China is characterized by pathological changes of bones and teeth. Much attention has been devoted to the study of fluoride-bearing groundwater in North China because regionally groundwater has been the main source of water supply, and fluoride poisoning has developed to the extent that it affects human health seriously. Results from the studies in North China summarized in this article indicate that regional high-fluoride-bearing groundwater has a regular distribution corresponding with the development of endemic fluoride poisoning and has something to do with paleogeographic and paleoclimatic conditions, geology, and hydrogeology, especially with types of hydrogeochemistry, pH value of groundwater, degree of mineralization, and so forth. High-fluoride-bearing groundwater in relation to fluorosis occurs mainly in North China, and many effective measures have been taken to reduce the fluoride content in drinking water and to cure the disease after analyzing the distribution and environmental characteristics of high-fluoride-bearing groundwater.

  17. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Malick, Michael J.; Cox, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time. PMID:26760510

  18. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America.

    PubMed

    Malick, Michael J; Cox, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time. PMID:26760510

  19. North American Carbon Project (NACP) Regional Interim Synthesis: Terrestrial Biospheric Model Intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Huntzinger, Deborah; Post, W. M.; Wei, Yaxing; Michalak, A. M.; West, Tristram O.; Jacobson, Andy; Baker, Ian; Chen, Jing Ming; Davis, K. J.; Hayes, D. J.; Hoffman, F. M.; Jain, Atul K.; Liu, S.; McGuire, A. David; Neilson, R. P.; Potter, Christopher; Poulter, Benjamin; Price, David; Raczka, B. M.; Tian, Hanqin; Thornton, P.; Tomelleri, E.; Viovy, N.; Xiao, J.; Yuan, Wenping; Zeng, Ning; Zhao, M.; Cook, R. B.

    2012-05-10

    Understanding of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere can be improved through direct observations and experiments, as well as through modeling activities. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding to much larger terrestrial regions. Although models vary in their specific goals and approaches, their central role within carbon cycle science is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms currently controlling carbon exchange. Recently, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) organized several interim-synthesis activities to evaluate and inter-compare models and observations at local to continental scales for the years 2000 to 2005. Here, we compare the results from the TBMs collected as part of the regional and continental interim-synthesis (RCIS) activities. The primary objective of this work is to synthesize and compare the 19 participating TBMs to assess current understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle in North America.

  20. The first high-precision gravity survey in the North Pole region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, A. V.; Krasnov, A. A.; Koneshov, V. N.; Glazko, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The experience with conducting a marine gravity survey onboard a surface vessel under complicated ice conditions at high latitude is described. In 2014, a high-precision marine gravity survey with two modifications of the Chekan-AM gravimeter was carried out in the North Pole region. The measurements were conducted during two months from aboard the Akademik Fedorov research vessel on a given grid with a total length of 10000 km of the routes. As a result, 70000 gravity points at Arctic latitudes including the region of the geographical North Pole itself are acquired. In this paper, we discuss the methodical aspects of conducting the survey and present the accuracy estimates of the gravity measurements. The comparison of the obtained results with the Earth's gravity models demonstrates the absence of systematic errors and the higher spatial resolution of the measurements with the Chekan-AM gravimeters.

  1. Regional patterns in proportion of bird species detected in the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Boulinier, T.; Flather, C.H.; Kendall, W.L.

    2001-01-01

    Counts from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) underestimate species richness. We use capture-recapture methods to estimate species richness from BBS count data collected in 1996 and show that detection probabilities demonstrate clear regional patterns. Capture-recapture methods should be used to estimate species richness from count data, and failure to use estimation procedures for species richness could result in biased estimates of spatial change in species richness.

  2. Characteristics of regional new particle formation in urban and regional background environments in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M.; Sun, J. Y.; Wu, Z. J.; Yue, D. L.; Shen, X. J.; Zhang, Y. M.; Pei, X. Y.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2013-08-01

    Long-term measurements of particle number size distributions were carried out in the North China Plain both at an urban background site (Peking University, PKU) and a regional Global Atmospheric Watch station (Shangdianzi, SDZ) from March to November in 2008. In total, 52 new particle formation events were observed simultaneously at both sites, indicating that this is a regional phenomenon in the North China Plain. On average, the mean condensation sink value before the nucleation event start was 0.025 s-1 in the urban environment, which was 1.6 times higher than that at regional site. However, higher particle formation and growth rates were observed at PKU (10.8 cm-3 s-1 an 5.2 nm h-1) compared with those at SDZ (4.9 cm-3 s-1 and 4.0 nm h-1). These results implied that more precursors are needed to participate in the nucleation process to observe the occurrence of new particle formation event in a more polluted urban environment. Different from the observations in clean environments, the background condition of the observed nucleation events in the North China Plain could be characterized as the co-existing of the higher source and sink. The condensational growth of newly formed particles results in an increase in the particle mass concentration, particle light scattering coefficient, and CCN number concentration, with consequences on climate effects and air quality. In 34 investigated new particle formation cases at both sites, a significant particle nucleation and subsequent growth over a sufficient long time period were observed and investigated in terms of the particle light scattering and the number concentration of "potential" CCN. The results revealed that the new particle formation increases the particle light scattering coefficient and CCN number concentration in the North China Plain by factors in the range of 6.3-7.6 and 5.6-8.7, respectively. Moreover, the potential contribution of anthropogenic emissions to the CCN number concentration is more than 50

  3. Seasonal Storminess in the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Alaskan Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shippee, N. J.; Atkinson, D. E.; Walsh, J. E.; Partain, J.; Gottschalck, J.; Marra, J.

    2012-12-01

    Annually, extra-tropical cyclones present a high impact natural hazard to the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Alaskan regions. In these regions, extensive subsistence and commercial fishing, new oil and gas field development, tourism, growing interest in and exploitation of new commercial shipping potential, and increasing military and Coast Guard activity, all represent potential parties impacted by storms in these waters. It is of interest to many parties to begin developing capacity to provide some indication of storm activity at a monthly- to seasonal-outlook (30 to 90 days) timeframe. Using storm track data from NOAA's Climate Prediction Center for the North Pacific and Alaskan region, an experimental seasonal storminess outlook product, using eigen-based methods similar to the operational seasonal temperature and precipitation products currently produced at NOAA CPC, has been created and tested in hindcast mode using predicted states of ENSO, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the Pacific-North American Pattern (PNA), and the Arctic Oscillation (AO). A sample of the seasonal storminess outlook product will be shown along with a discussion of the utility of individual teleconnection patterns in the generation of the product.

  4. Magnetotelluric Evidence of Regional Lithospheric Modification in Ordos Block, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H.; Wei, W.; Ye, G.; Jin, S.; Jones, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Ordos Block (OB), which is located in the western part of the North China Craton (NCC), is one of the oldest and most stable cratonic blocks in Asia. To study the electrical structure of Ordos block, long period magnetotelluric (MT) array data from project SINOPROBE were acquired and modeled using three-dimensional (3D) MT inversion method. For the first time a high resolution 3D resistivity model of the lithosphere is acquired in the region. The lithosphere beneath the northern part of the OB and Hetao Graben is revealed to be geo-electrically distinct from that beneath the middle and southern Ordos. Contrary to what would be expected for a stable cratonic block, compelling evidence is presented of a large scale conductive complex in the lower crust and upper mantle beneath north Ordos and Hetao Graben. The abnormally conductive structure indicates the presence of aqueous fluids and/or inter-connected sulphides, possibly resulting from an upwelling of mantle material beneath the region. Correlating well with results of seismic studies, the evidence from independent magnetotelluric data supports a regional modification and thinning of the lithosphere, which might contribute to the extension of Hetao Graben started in late Miocene to Pliocene, as well as the uplifting of the north the Ordos Block since Neogene.

  5. Prevalence survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Dos Santos, Priscilla Nunes; de Santana Castro, Gustavo Nunes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2014-01-01

    Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease. PMID:24563780

  6. Prevalence Survey of Selected Bovine Pathogens in Water Buffaloes in the North Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; dos Santos, Priscilla Nunes; de Santana Castro, Gustavo Nunes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2014-01-01

    Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease. PMID:24563780

  7. Storm activity in North Atlantic and precipitation anomalies in European region during winter seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyazilova, N. A.; Vyazilova, A. E.

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the storm activity influence on the formation of wet and dry zone in North Atlantic and European region during winter seasons 1994/95, 2006/07 and 2007/08 years with positive mode of NAO, 1995/96, 2000/01 and 2005/06 years with negative mode of NAO. The study of storm activity includes the analyses of cyclonic intensity and cyclone track number. Analyses of cyclonic intensity based on calculation cyclone centers number (CCN) and sum of cyclone centers MSLP anomalies (CCMA). This analyses based on automated cyclone tracking algorithm and the 6-hourly MSLP from the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses 2 from 1979 to 2009. Precipitation anomalies were calculated from CMAP archive. Analyses had included the calculation of cyclone track number in all region [30°N-80°N, 50°W-70°E]and selected latitude zone for long cyclones (with lifetime more 2 day) and short cyclones (with lifetime less 2 day). The study had shown the special features of CCN and CCMA patterns in region for long and short cyclones. The study shows, that every winter season short cyclone track number twice as much long cyclone track number. However, the contribution of long cyclones in main determines the CCMA in region. Study had shown that winter seasons with positive NAO mode Nord Europe were outstanding by strong positive precipitation anomalies and strong cyclonic intensity, and during winter seasons with negative NAO mode in this region were observed negative precipitation anomalies and weak cyclonic activity. Standartizide anomalies of integral CCMA for selected latitude zone [55°N-80°N, 50°W-70°E] had shown the intensification of cyclonic activity over North Atlantic and North European region in last years.

  8. Comparison Between North and South Near Polar Regions of Mars from HEND/Odyssey Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V.; Boynton, W. V.; Hamara, D. K.; Shinohara, C.; Saunders, R. S.; Drake, D.

    2003-01-01

    It is known that North and South near polar regions are affected by global redistribution of atmospheric CO2. The maximal thickness of CO2 snow depth may be as high as 1 m at latitudes close to martian poles. It explains why neutron flux above martian poles significantly varies from summer to winter seasons. It occurs because CO2 frost hides upper surface layer from the orbit observations. This fact was used to estimate thickness of CO2 deposit at different latitudes. Here we suggest to make comparison between martian near polar regions in both ways as in terms of subsurface regolith structure as in terms of distribution of CO2 deposits.

  9. Moving from a regional to a continental perspective of Phragmites australis invasion in North America

    PubMed Central

    Kettenring, Karin M.; de Blois, Sylvie; Hauber, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Aims We use a regional comparison of Phragmites australis (common reed) subsp. americanus, P. australis subsp. berlandieri and introduced P. australis (possibly five sublineages) in the Chesapeake Bay, the St Lawrence River, Utah and the Gulf Coast to inform a North American perspective on P. australis invasion patterns, drivers, impacts and research needs. Findings and research needs Our regional assessments reveal substantial diversity within and between the three main lineages of P. australis in terms of mode of reproduction and the types of environment occupied. For introduced P. australis, the timing of introduction also differed between the regions. Nevertheless, a common finding in these regions reinforces the notion that introduced P. australis is opportunistic and thrives in disturbed habitats. Thus, we expect to see substantial expansion of introduced P. australis with increasing anthropogenic disturbances in each of these regions. Although there have been some studies documenting the negative impacts of introduced P. australis, it also plays a beneficial role in some regions, and in some cases, the purported negative impacts are unproven. There is also a broader need to clarify the genetic and ecological relationships between the different introduced sublineages observed in North America, and their relative competitive ability and potential for admixture. This may be done through regional studies that use similar methodologies and share results to uncover common patterns and processes. To our knowledge, such studies have not been performed on P. australis in spite of the broad attention given to this species. Such research could advance theoretical knowledge on biological invasion by helping to determine the extent to which the patterns observed can be generalized or are sublineage specific or region specific. Synthesis Given what appears to be sometimes idiosyncratic invasion patterns when interpreted in isolation in the regions that we analysed, it may

  10. Size Scaling in Western North Atlantic Loggerhead Turtles Permits Extrapolation between Regions, but Not Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    Marn, Nina; Klanjscek, Tin; Stokes, Lesley; Jusup, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sea turtles face threats globally and are protected by national and international laws. Allometry and scaling models greatly aid sea turtle conservation and research, and help to better understand the biology of sea turtles. Scaling, however, may differ between regions and/or life stages. We analyze differences between (i) two different regional subsets and (ii) three different life stage subsets of the western North Atlantic loggerhead turtles by comparing the relative growth of body width and depth in relation to body length, and discuss the implications. Results and Discussion Results suggest that the differences between scaling relationships of different regional subsets are negligible, and models fitted on data from one region of the western North Atlantic can safely be used on data for the same life stage from another North Atlantic region. On the other hand, using models fitted on data for one life stage to describe other life stages is not recommended if accuracy is of paramount importance. In particular, young loggerhead turtles that have not recruited to neritic habitats should be studied and modeled separately whenever practical, while neritic juveniles and adults can be modeled together as one group. Even though morphometric scaling varies among life stages, a common model for all life stages can be used as a general description of scaling, and assuming isometric growth as a simplification is justified. In addition to linear models traditionally used for scaling on log-log axes, we test the performance of a saturating (curvilinear) model. The saturating model is statistically preferred in some cases, but the accuracy gained by the saturating model is marginal. PMID:26629702

  11. Regional Observations of the 2006 and 2009 Declared North Korea Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, W. R.; Ford, S. R.; Pasyanos, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    The October 2006 and May 2009 declared North Korean nuclear tests produced regional seismic phases, Pn, Pg, Sn and Lg that were observed at publically available seismic stations such as MDJ and TJN. In comparison with nearby earthquakes, the relatively low amplitudes of the S-wave phases at high frequencies can be used to identify these events as explosion-like, particularly when contrasted with P-waves, as in P/S ratios. However regional phase amplitudes can vary greatly over small distances, particularly as the crust and lithosphere thicknesses and velocity structures change due to tectonic activity. These variations can complicate simple methods to use P/S ratios to discriminate explosions from earthquakes over broad regions, particularly when there are not nearby events for comparison. In addition, when S-waves do not propagate effectively due to strong attenuation or structural variability, all events below a certain magnitude threshold from a source region to a station may have S-wave amplitudes below the P-wave coda level, leading to the large P/S amplitude ratios characteristic of explosions. Here we make use of earthquake spectral source models, and regional propagation models to compare events over the broad region around the Korean Peninsula. In particular we investigate the ability of the multi-phase regional attenuation tomography technique of Pasyanos et al. (2009) to reduce the geographic variability of earthquake P/S values in this region and enhance the ability to identify explosions by their regional phase characteristics.

  12. Characteristics of regional new particle formation in urban and regional background environments in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M.; Sun, J. Y.; Wu, Z. J.; Yue, D. L.; Shen, X. J.; Zhang, Y. M.; Pei, X. Y.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2013-12-01

    Long-term measurements of particle number size distributions were carried out both at an urban background site (Peking University, PKU) and a regional Global Atmospheric Watch station (Shangdianzi, SDZ) from March to November in 2008. In total, 52 new particle formation (NPF) events were observed simultaneously at both sites, indicating that this is a regional phenomenon in the North China Plain. On average, the mean condensation sink value before the nucleation events started was 0.025 s-1 in the urban environment, which was 1.6 times higher than that at regional site. However, higher particle formation and growth rates were observed at PKU (10.8 cm-3 s-1 and 5.2 nm h-1) compared with those at SDZ (4.9 cm-3 s-1 and 4.0 nm h-1). These results implied that precursors were much more abundant in the polluted urban environment. Different from the observations in cleaner environments, the background conditions of the observed particle homogeneous nucleation events in the North China Plain could be characterized as the co-existing of a stronger source of precursor gases and a higher condensational sink of pre-existing aerosol particles. Secondary aerosol formation following nucleation events results in an increase of particle mass concentration, particle light scattering coefficient, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration, with consequences on visibility, radiative effects, and air quality. Typical regional NPF events with significant particle nucleation rates and subsequent particle growth over a sufficiently long time period at both sites were chosen to investigate the influence of NPF on the number concentration of "potential" CCN. As a result, the NPF and the subsequent condensable growth increased the CCN number concentration in the North China Plain by factors in the range from 5.6 to 8.7. Moreover, the potential contribution of anthropogenic emissions to the CCN number concentration was more than 50%, to which more attention should be drawn in

  13. Thermal and albedo mapping of the polar regions of Mars using Viking thermal mapper observations: 1. North polar region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, David A.; Bachman, Jennifer E.; Keegan, Kenneth D.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first maps of the apparent thermal inertia and albedo of the north polar region of Mars. The observations used to create these maps were acquired by the infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) instruments on the two Viking orbiters over a 50-day period in 1978 during the Martian early northern summer season. The maps cover the region from 60 deg N to the north pole at a spatial resolution of 1/2 deg of latitude. The analysis and interpretation of these maps is aided by the results of a one-dimensional radiative convective model, which is used to calculate diurnal variations in surface and atmospheric temperatures, and brightness temperatures at the top of the atmospphere for a wide range of assumptions concerning aerosol optical properties and aerosol optical depths. The results of these calculations show that the effects of the Martian atmosphere on remote determinations of surface thermal inertia are more significant than have been indicated in previous studies. The maps of apparent thermal inertia and albedo show a great deal of spatial structure that is well correlated with surface features.

  14. Regional Stratigraphy and Petroleum Systems of the Michigan Basin, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Although more than 100 years of research have gone into deciphering the stratigraphy of the Michigan basin of North America, it remains a challenge to visualize the basin stratigraphy on a regional scale and to describe stratigraphic relations within the basin. Similar difficulties exist for visualizing and describing the regional distribution of petroleum source rocks and reservoir rocks. This publication addresses these difficulties by combining data on Paleozoic and Mesozoic stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the Michigan basin. The areal extent of this structural basin is presented along with data in eight schematic chronostratigraphic sections arranged from north to south, with time denoted in equal increments along the sections. The stratigraphic data are modified from American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) (1984), Johnson and others (1992), Sanford (1993), and Cross (1998), and the time scale is taken from Harland and others (1990). Informal North American chronostratigraphic terms from AAPG (1984) are shown in parentheses. Stratigraphic sequences as defined by Sloss (1963, 1988) and Wheeler (1963) also are included, as well as the locations of major petroleum source rocks and major petroleum plays. The stratigraphic units are colored according to predominant lithology, in order to emphasize general lithologic patterns and to provide a broad overview of the Michigan basin. For purposes of comparison, schematic depictions of stratigraphy and interpreted events in the Michigan basin and adjacent Appalachian basin are shown. The paper version of this map is available for purchase from the USGS Store.

  15. US regional tornado outbreaks and their links to spring ENSO phases and North Atlantic SST variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Ki; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Enfield, David B.; Weaver, Scott J.; Wang, Chunzai; Atlas, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Recent violent and widespread tornado outbreaks in the US, such as occurred in the spring of 2011, have caused devastating societal impact with significant loss of life and property. At present, our capacity to predict US tornado and other severe weather risk does not extend beyond seven days. In an effort to advance our capability for developing a skillful long-range outlook for US tornado outbreaks, here we investigate the spring probability patterns of US regional tornado outbreaks during 1950–2014. We show that the four dominant springtime El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases (persistent versus early-terminating El Niño and resurgent versus transitioning La Niña) and the North Atlantic sea surface temperature tripole variability are linked to distinct and significant US regional patterns of outbreak probability. These changes in the probability of outbreaks are shown to be largely consistent with remotely forced regional changes in the large-scale atmospheric processes conducive to tornado outbreaks. An implication of these findings is that the springtime ENSO phases and the North Atlantic SST tripole variability may provide seasonal predictability of US regional tornado outbreaks.

  16. Galileo multispectral imaging of the north polar and eastern limb regions of the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belton, M.J.S.; Greeley, R.; Greenberg, R.; McEwen, A.; Klaasen, K.P.; Head, J. W., III; Pieters, C.; Neukum, G.; Chapman, C.R.; Geissler, P.; Heffernan, C.; Breneman, H.; Anger, C.; Carr, M.H.; Davies, M.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Gierasch, P.J.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Pilcher, C.B.; Thompson, W.R.; Veverka, J.; Sagan, C.

    1994-01-01

    Multispectral images obtained during the Galileo probe's second encounter with the moon reveal the compositional nature of the north polar regions and the northeastern limb. Mare deposits in these regions are found to be primarily low to medium titanium lavas and, as on the western limb, show only slight spectral heterogeneity. The northern light plains are found to have the spectral characteristics of highlands materials, show little evidence for the presence of cryptomaria, and were most likely emplaced by impact processes regardless of their age.Multispectral images obtained during the Galileo probe's second encounter with the moon reveal the compositional nature of the north polar regions and the northeastern limb. Mare deposits in these regions are found to be primarily low to medium titanium lavas and, as on the western limb, show only slight spectral heterogeneity. The northern light plains are found to have the spectral characteristics of highlands materials, show little evidence for the presence of cryptomaria, and were most likely emplaced by impact processes regardless of their age.

  17. Recent Population Trends in North Carolina and the Southern Region: 1970-1975. Progress Report Soc. 64, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, William B.

    Estimates of population change and the components of change for North Carolina and its counties were made for the 1970-75 period. Attention was given to the growth patterns in the metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas of North Carolina and the southern region. Data showed that the state's population grew at a faster rate during this period than…

  18. Meter-scale morphology of the north polar region of Mars.

    PubMed

    Herkenhoff, K E; Byrne, S; Russell, P S; Fishbaugh, K E; McEwen, A S

    2007-09-21

    Mars' north pole is covered by a dome of layered ice deposits. Detailed ( approximately 30 centimeters per pixel) images of this region were obtained with the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Planum Boreum basal unit scarps reveal cross-bedding and show evidence for recent mass wasting, flow, and debris accumulation. The north polar layers themselves are as thin as 10 centimeters but appear to be covered by a dusty veneer in places, which may obscure thinner layers. Repetition of particular layer types implies that quasi-periodic climate changes influenced the stratigraphic sequence in the polar layered deposits, informing models for recent climate variations on Mars. PMID:17885127

  19. Seventeen years of annual distribution of ivermectin has not interrupted onchocerciasis transmission in North Region, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Katabarwa, Moses N; Eyamba, Albert; Nwane, Philippe; Enyong, Peter; Yaya, Souleymanou; Baldiagaï, Jean; Madi, Théodore Kambaba; Yougouda, Abdoulaye; Andze, Gervais Ondobo; Richards, Frank O

    2011-12-01

    We studied onchocerciasis transmission and impact on ocular morbidity in three health districts in North Region, Cameroon, where annual mass ivermectin treatment has been provided for 12-17 years. The studies, which took place from 2008 to 2010, consisted of skin snips for microfilariae (mf), palpation examinations for nodules, slit lamp examinations for mf in the eye, and Simulium vector dissections for larval infection rates. Adults had mf and nodule rates of 4.8% and 13.5%, respectively, and 5.5% had mf in the anterior chamber of the eye. Strong evidence of ongoing transmission was found in one health district, where despite 17 years of annual treatments, the annual transmission potential was 543 L3/person per year; additionally, children under 10 years of age had a 2.6% mf prevalence. Halting ivermectin treatments in North Cameroon now might risk recrudescence of transmission and ocular disease. PMID:22144441

  20. Meter-scale morphology of the north polar region of mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Byrne, S.; Russell, P.S.; Fishbaugh, K.E.; McEwen, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Mars' north pole is covered by a dome of layered ice deposits. Detailed (???30 centimeters per pixel) images of this region were obtained with the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Planum Boreum basal unit scarps reveal cross-bedding and show evidence for recent mass wasting, flow, and debris accumulation. The north polar layers themselves are as thin as 10 centimeters but appear to be covered by a dusty veneer in places, which may obscure thinner layers. Repetition of particular layer types implies that quasi-periodic climate changes influenced the stratigraphic sequence in the polar layered deposits, informing models for recent climate variations on Mars.

  1. Regional analysis of population trajectories from the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) was started in 1966, and provides information on population change and distribution for most of the birds in North America. The geographic extent of the survey, and the logistical compromises needed to survey such a large area, present many challenges for estimation from BBS data. In this paper, we describe the survey and discuss some of the limitations of the survey design and implementation. Analysis of the survey has evolved over time as new statistical methods and insights into the analysis of count data are developed. Survey results and analysis tools for the BBS are now available over intemet; we present new methods that use generalized linear models for estimation of population change and empirical Bayes procedures for regional summaries.

  2. Flood events across the North Atlantic region - past development and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matti, Bettina; Dieppois, Bastien; Lawler, Damian; Dahlke, Helen E.; Lyon, Steve W.

    2016-04-01

    Flood events have a large impact on humans, both socially and economically. An increase in winter and spring flooding across much of northern Europe in recent years opened up the question of changing underlying hydro-climatic drivers of flood events. Predicting the manifestation of such changes is difficult due to the natural variability and fluctuations in northern hydrological systems caused by large-scale atmospheric circulations, especially under altered climate conditions. Improving knowledge on the complexity of these hydrological systems and their interactions with climate is essential to be able to determine drivers of flood events and to predict changes in these drivers under altered climate conditions. This is particularly true for the North Atlantic region where both physical catchment properties and large-scale atmospheric circulations have a profound influence on floods. This study explores changes in streamflow across North Atlantic region catchments. An emphasis is placed on high-flow events, namely the timing and magnitude of past flood events, and selected flood percentiles were tested for stationarity by applying a flood frequency analysis. The issue of non-stationarity of flood return periods is important when linking streamflow to large-scale atmospheric circulations. Natural fluctuations in these circulations are found to have a strong influence on the outcome causing natural variability in streamflow records. Long time series and a multi-temporal approach allows for determining drivers of floods and linking streamflow to large-scale atmospheric circulations. Exploring changes in selected hydrological signatures consistency was found across much of the North Atlantic region suggesting a shift in flow regime. The lack of an overall regional pattern suggests that how catchments respond to changes in climatic drivers is strongly influenced by their physical characteristics. A better understanding of hydrological response to climate drivers is

  3. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

    2005-02-12

    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region

  4. MENA 1.1 - An Updated Geophysical Regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, B.; Pasyanos, M.E.; Bhattacharyya, J.; O'Boyle, J.

    2000-03-01

    This short report provides an update to the earlier LLNL paper entitled ''Preliminary Definition of Geophysical Regions for the Middle East and North Africa'' (Sweeney and Walter, 1998). This report is designed to be used in combination with that earlier paper. The reader is referred to Sweeney and Walter (1998) for all details, including definitions, references, uses, shortcomings, etc., of the regionalization process. In this report we will discuss only those regions in which we have changed the boundaries or velocity structure from that given by the original paper. The paper by Sweeney and Walter (1998) drew on a variety of sources to estimate a preliminary, first-order regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), providing regional boundaries and velocity models within each region. The model attempts to properly account for major structural discontinuities and significant crustal thickness and velocity variations on a gross scale. The model can be used to extrapolate sparse calibration data within a distinct geophysical region. This model can also serve as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps using intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging, extending the calibration into aseismic areas. Such station maps can greatly improve the ability to locate and identify seismic events, which in turn improves the ability to seismically monitor for underground nuclear testing. The original model from Sweeney and Walter (1998) was digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution, for simplicity we will hereafter refer to this model as MENA 1.0. The new model described here has also been digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution and will be referred to as MENA1.1 throughout this report.

  5. Assessing health care in Canada's North: what can we learn from national and regional surveys?

    PubMed Central

    Young, T. Kue; Ng, Carmina; Chatwood, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Health surveys are a rich source of information on a variety of health issues, including health care. Objectives This article compares various national and regional surveys in terms of their geographical coverage with respect to the Canadian North, especially their Aboriginal population, and the comparability of the survey contents relating to health care. Methods Three surveys were selected as providing some information on health care, with separate estimates for the North and its Aboriginal populations. They are the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) and the First Nations Regional Health Survey (RHS). Results Different surveys focus on different categories of Aboriginal people, and no single survey has covered all categories of Aboriginal people in the North consistently. RHS is targeted at the on-reserve First Nations population only. APS and CCHS sample the off-reserve First Nations population as well as Métis and Inuit. To achieve adequate sample size for North–South comparisons and comparisons among Aboriginal groups within the North, several cycles of the biennial/annual CCHS can be merged, producing a large data set with consistent coverage of topics using comparable questions. The content areas of the 3 surveys can be broadly categorized as health status, health determinants and health care. Substantial variation exists across surveys in the domains covered. There are also changes over time in terms of definitions, questions and even basic concepts. The available health care content of the 3 surveys focus on access to different types of health services, contact with different categories of health professionals, unmet health needs and the use of preventive services. Many important dimensions of health care are not covered. Not all these basic indicators are available for the North or its Aboriginal populations. Conclusions A comprehensive survey of health care in the North with sufficient sample size to

  6. North Dakota Kids Count! Fact Book, 1995: State, Regional and County Profiles of Child Well-Being in North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks. North Dakota Kids Count.

    While many children across North Dakota enjoy positive life circumstances which support their healthy growth and development, many others do not. This Kids Count fact book presents a statistical portrait of the condition of North Dakota children from prenatal through adolescent stages of development, based on key indicators. These indicators…

  7. North Dakota Kids Count! Fact Book, 1994: Regional and County Profiles of Child Well-Being in North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks. North Dakota Kids Count.

    While many children across North Dakota enjoy positive life circumstances which support their healthy growth and development, many other children do not. This Kids Count factbook contains data on indicators intended to highlight the condition of North Dakota children from prenatal through adolescent stages of development; these indicators include…

  8. Study of Regional Volcanic Impact on the Middle East and North Africa using high-resolution global and regional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Sergey; Dogar, Mohammad; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-04-01

    High-latitude winter warming after strong equatorial volcanic eruptions caused by circulation changes associated with the anomalously positive phase of Arctic Oscillation is a subject of active research during recent decade. But severe winter cooling in the Middle East observed after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption of 1991, although recognized, was not thoroughly investigated. These severe regional climate perturbations in the Middle East cannot be explained by solely radiative volcanic cooling, which suggests that a contribution of forced circulation changes could be important and significant. To better understand the mechanisms of the Middle East climate response and evaluate the contributions of dynamic and radiative effects we conducted a comparative study using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) with the effectively "regional-model-resolution" of 25-km and the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model focusing on the eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 15, 1991 followed by a pronounced positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. The WRF model has been configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The WRF code has been modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. Both HiRAM and WRF capture the main features of the MENA climate response and show that in winter the dynamic effects in the Middle East prevail the direct radiative cooling from volcanic aerosols.

  9. A regional high-resolution carbon flux inversion of North America for 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, A. E.; Denning, A. S.; Corbin, K. D.; Baker, I. T.; Uliasz, M.; Parazoo, N.; Andrews, A. E.; Worthy, D. E. J.

    2010-05-01

    Resolving the discrepancies between NEE estimates based upon (1) ground studies and (2) atmospheric inversion results, demands increasingly sophisticated techniques. In this paper we present a high-resolution inversion based upon a regional meteorology model (RAMS) and an underlying biosphere (SiB3) model, both running on an identical 40 km grid over most of North America. Current operational systems like CarbonTracker as well as many previous global inversions including the Transcom suite of inversions have utilized inversion regions formed by collapsing biome-similar grid cells into larger aggregated regions. An extreme example of this might be where corrections to NEE imposed on forested regions on the east coast of the United States might be the same as that imposed on forests on the west coast of the United States while, in reality, there likely exist subtle differences in the two areas, both natural and anthropogenic. Our current inversion framework utilizes a combination of previously employed inversion techniques while allowing carbon flux corrections to be biome independent. Temporally and spatially high-resolution results utilizing biome-independent corrections provide insight into carbon dynamics in North America. In particular, we analyze hourly CO2 mixing ratio data from a sparse network of eight towers in North America for 2004. A prior estimate of carbon fluxes due to Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER) is constructed from the SiB3 biosphere model on a 40 km grid. A combination of transport from the RAMS and the Parameterized Chemical Transport Model (PCTM) models is used to forge a connection between upwind biosphere fluxes and downwind observed CO2 mixing ratio data. A Kalman filter procedure is used to estimate weekly corrections to biosphere fluxes based upon observed CO2. RMSE-weighted annual NEE estimates, over an ensemble of potential inversion parameter sets, show a mean estimate 0.57 Pg/yr sink in North America

  10. North American Carbon Program (NACP) Regional Interim Synthesis: Terrestrial Biospheric Model Intercomparision

    SciTech Connect

    Huntzinger, Deborah; Post, Wilfred M; Michalak, Anna; West, Tristram O.; Jacobson, Andrew; Baker, Ian; Chen, Jing M.; Davis, Kenneth; Hayes, Daniel J; Hoffman, Forrest M; Jain, Atul; Liu, Shuguang; Mcguire, David; Neilson, Ronald; Poulter, Ben; Tian, Hanqin; Thornton, Peter E; Tomelleri, Enrico; Viovy, Nicolas; Xiao, Jingfeng; Cook, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere can be improved through direct observations and experiments, as well as through modeling activities. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding to much larger terrestrial regions. Although models vary in their specific goals and approaches, their central role within carbon cycle science is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms currently controlling carbon exchange. Recently, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) organized several interim-synthesis activities to evaluate and inter-compare models and observations at local to continental scales for the years 2000-2005. Here, we compare the results from the TBMs collected as part of the regional and continental interim-synthesis (RCIS) activities. The primary objective of this work is to synthesize and compare the 19 participating TBMs to assess current understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle in North America. Thus, the RCIS focuses on model simulations available from analyses that have been completed by ongoing NACP projects and other recently published studies. The TBM flux estimates are compared and evaluated over different spatial (1{sup o} x 1{sup o} and spatially aggregated to different regions) and temporal (monthly and annually) scales. The range in model estimates of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) for North America is much narrower than estimates of productivity or respiration, with estimates of NEP varying between -0.7 and 2.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, while gross primary productivity and heterotrophic respiration vary between 12.2 and 32.9 PgC yr{sup -1} and 5.6 and 13.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, respectively. The range in estimates from the models appears to be driven by a combination of factors, including the representation of photosynthesis, the source and of environmental driver data and the temporal variability of those data, as well as

  11. Silent Epidemic of Depression in Women in the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Eloul, Liyam; Ambusaidi, Aamal; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2009-01-01

    Background: As the world is being gripped by economic depression, international psychological epidemiologists have amassed evidence to suggest that psychological depression and its variants are becoming leading contributors to the global burden of disease with the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region being no exception. Aim: The main aim of the present discourse, based on a review of the available literature, is to discuss critically whether women in the MENA region have a higher rate of psychological depression than those in other parts of the globe. Result: From the present synthesis, it emerges that the rate of depression may not be necessarily unique to the region. Conclusion: Although no society has totally overcome the marginalisation and lack of empowerment of women, in order to come to grips to this complex issue more vigorously designed epidemiological studies, using taxonomies that are standardised for cross-cultural populations, are needed to quantify the psychological functioning of women. PMID:21509269

  12. Interactions of tectonic, igneous, and hydraulic processes in the North Tharsis Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, P. A.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Golombek, M. P.; Plescia, J. B.

    1991-01-01

    Recent work on the north Tharsis of Mars has revealed a complex geologic history involving volcanism, tectonism, flooding, and mass wasting. Our detailed photogeologic analysis of this region found many previously unreported volcanic vents, volcaniclastic flows, irregular cracks, and minor pit chains; additional evidence that volcanic tectonic processes dominated this region throughout Martian geologic time; and the local involvement of these processes with surface and near surface water. Also, photoclinometric profiles were obtained within the region of troughs, simple grabens, and pit chains, as well as average spacings of pits along pit chains. These data were used together with techniques to estimate depths of crustal mechanical discontinuities that may have controlled the development of these features. In turn, such discontinuities may be controlled by stratigraphy, presence of water or ice, or chemical cementation.

  13. Density heterogeneity of the North American upper mantle from satellite gravity and a regional crustal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herceg, Matija; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2014-05-01

    We present a regional model for the density structure of the North American upper mantle. The residual mantle gravity anomalies are based on gravity data derived from the GOCE geopotential models with crustal correction to the gravity field being calculated from a regional crustal model. We analyze how uncertainties and errors in the crustal model propagate from crustal densities to mantle residual gravity anomalies and the density model of the upper mantle. Uncertainties in the residual upper (lithospheric) mantle gravity anomalies result from several sources: (i) uncertainties in the velocity-density conversion and (ii) uncertainties in knowledge of the crustal structure (thickness and average Vp velocities of individual crustal layers, including the sedimentary cover). In this study, we address both sources of possible uncertainties by applying different conversions from velocity to density and by introducing variations into the crustal structure which corresponds to the uncertainty of its resolution by high-quality and low-quality seismic models. We examine the propagation of these uncertainties into determinations of lithospheric mantle density. Given a relatively small range of expected density variations in the lithospheric mantle, knowledge on the uncertainties associated with incomplete knowledge of density structure of the crust is of utmost importance for further progress in such studies. The new regional density model for the North American upper mantle complements an on-going study of the regional upper mantle velocity and density structure by other methods. Our new regional density model is compared to regional and world-wide petrological data on upper mantle densities constrained by mantle-derived xenoliths.

  14. Working Together to Make a Difference in Rural America: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2010 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD…

  15. Climate Change Projections of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Mearns, L. O.; Sain, Steve; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Bukovsky, M. S.; McGinnis, Seth; Biner, S.; Caya, Daniel; Arritt, R.; Gutowski, William; Takle, Eugene S.; Snyder, Mark A.; Jones, Richard; Nunes, A M B.; Tucker, S.; Herzmann, D.; McDaniel, Larry; Sloan, Lisa

    2013-10-01

    We investigate major results of the NARCCAP multiple regional climate model (RCM) experiments driven by multiple global climate models (GCMs) regarding climate change for seasonal temperature and precipitation over North America. We focus on two major questions: How do the RCM simulated climate changes differ from those of the parent GCMs and thus affect our perception of climate change over North America, and how important are the relative contributions of RCMs and GCMs to the uncertainty (variance explained) for different seasons and variables? The RCMs tend to produce stronger climate changes for precipitation: larger increases in the northern part of the domain in winter and greater decreases across a swath of the central part in summer, compared to the four GCMs driving the regional models as well as to the full set of CMIP3 GCM results. We pose some possible process-level mechanisms for the difference in intensity of change, particularly for summer. Detailed process-level studies will be necessary to establish mechanisms and credibility of these results. The GCMs explain more variance for winter temperature and the RCMs for summer temperature. The same is true for precipitation patterns. Thus, we recommend that future RCM-GCM experiments over this region include a balanced number of GCMs and RCMs.

  16. Impact of Historical Deforestation and Urbanization on Regional Climate in North Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Sasaki, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Hokkaido Island located in North Japan has been experienced historical land use change since 150 years ago when Japanese began to develop. The original boreal forest in Hokkaido Island has been replaced by cropland, paddy field, and urban areas. This study aims to evaluate the impact of the historical land use/ land cover change on regional climate in Hokkaido area. Although the impact of deforestation on regional climate has been studied in many previous works, our knowledge on high-latitude areas with snow cover is still limited. Motivated with this fact, we conducted a dynamical downscaling experiment using regional climate model with two different vegetation map, namely original land cover and current land cover. Results in numerical experiments with different land cover maps indicate that difference in annual mean temperature is very small when it is averaged over whole island area. However, the prominent temperature differences are found over urban areas. The difference in annual mean temperature for urban area is 1.1 K due to the deforestation and urbanization effect which is very similar to those estimated using the observed trend. Therefore, we conclude that the recent urbanization in North Japan is a primary factor as well as large-scale climate change to cause rapid warming in big cities in Hokkaido Island.

  17. Structure of North Atlantic upper mantle based on gravity modelling, regional geochemistry and tectonic history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barantseva, Olga; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2016-04-01

    We study the link between deep geodynamic processes and their surface expression in the North Atlantic region which has an anomalous, complex structure compared to other oceans. We calculate a model of residual mantle gravity between the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone and Svalbard. The calculations are based on GOCE satellite data the regional crustal model EUNAseis (Artemieva and Thybo, 2013) ; for the crustal and topography effects, and the global totpgraphy and bathymetry model ETOPO1 from NOAA (Amante and Eakis, 2009). Results are complemented by sensitivity analysis of the various parameters' effects on the models. Our results identify strong heterogeneity in the upper mantle residual gravity, expressed as a sharp contrasts at the continent-ocean transition, positive mantle gravity below the continental blocks and negative - below oceanic blocks; the MOR has low-gravity anomaly. By introducing regional geochemical data and analysis of the tectonical history, we identify a strong correlation between residual mantle gravity anomalies and geochemical anomalies in ɛNd and Mg#. This analysis identifies three zones of North Atlantic mantle based on the correlation between upper mantle gravity and ocean floor age. In the area around Iceland, the residual mantle gravity is systematically lower than predicted from the half-space cooling model, and we estimate the thermal anomaly that could cause this shift.

  18. Response of the North American monsoon to regional changes in ocean surface temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, John A.; Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Addison, Jason A.

    2012-01-01

    The North American monsoon (NAM), an onshore wind shift occurring between July and September, has evolved in character during the Holocene largely due to changes in Northern Hemisphere insolation. Published paleoproxy and modeling studies suggest that prior to ∼8000 cal years BP, the NAM affected a broader region than today, extending westward into the Mojave Desert of California. Holocene proxy SST records from the Gulf of California (GoC) and the adjacent Pacific provide constraints for this changing NAM climatology. Prior to ∼8000 cal years BP, lower GoC SSTs would not have fueled northward surges of tropical moisture up the GoC, which presently contribute most of the monsoon precipitation to the western NAM region. During the early Holocene, the North Pacific High was further north and SSTs in the California Current off Baja California were warmer, allowing monsoonal moisture flow from the subtropical Pacific to take a more direct, northwesterly trajectory into an expanded area of the southwestern U.S. west of 114°W. A new upwelling record off southwest Baja California reveals that enhanced upwelling in the California Current beginning at ∼7500 cal year BP may have triggered a change in NAM climatology, focusing the geographic expression of NAM in the southwest USA into its modern core region east of ∼114°W, in Arizona and New Mexico. Holocene proxy precipitation records from the southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico, including lakes, vegetation/pollen, and caves are reviewed and found to be largely supportive of this hypothesis of changing Holocene NAM climatology.

  19. Regional distribution models with lack of proximate predictors: Africanized honeybees expanding north

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Esaias, Wayne E.; Ma, Peter L.A.; Morisette, Jeffery T.; Nickeson, Jaime E.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Nightingale, Joanne M.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tan, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Species distribution models have often been hampered by poor local species data, reliance on coarse-scale climate predictors and the assumption that species–environment relationships, even with non-proximate predictors, are consistent across geographical space. Yet locally accurate maps of invasive species, such as the Africanized honeybee (AHB) in North America, are needed to support conservation efforts. Current AHB range maps are relatively coarse and are inconsistent with observed data. Our aim was to improve distribution maps using more proximate predictors (phenology) and using regional models rather than one across the entire range of interest to explore potential differences in drivers.

  20. A regional high-resolution carbon flux inversion of North America for 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, A. E.; Denning, A. S.; Corbin, K. D.; Baker, I. T.; Uliasz, M.; Parazoo, N.; Andrews, A. E.; Worthy, D. E. J.

    2009-11-01

    Resolving the discrepancies between NEE estimates based upon (1) ground studies and (2) atmospheric inversion results, demands increasingly sophisticated techniques. In this paper we present a high-resolution inversion based upon a regional meteorology model (RAMS) and an underlying biosphere (SiB3) model, both running on an identical 40 km grid over most of North America. Previous papers have utilized inversion regions formed by collapsing biome-similar grid cells into large aggregated regions. The effect of this is that the NEE correction imposed on forested regions on the east coast of the United States might be the same as that imposed on forests on the west coast of the United States while, in reality, there likely exist subtle differences in the two areas, both natural and anthropogenic. Our current inversion framework utilizes a combination of previously employed inversion techniques while allowing carbon flux corrections to be biome independent. Temporally and spatially high-resolution results utilizing biome-independent corrections provide insight into carbon dynamics in North America. In particular, we analyze hourly CO2 mixing ratio data from a sparse network of eight towers in North America for 2004. A prior estimate of carbon fluxes due to gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) is constructed from the SiB3 biosphere model on a 40 km grid. A combination of transport from the RAMS and the parameterized chemical transport model (PCTM) models is used to forge a connection between upwind biosphere fluxes and downwind observed CO2 mixing ratio data. A Kalman filter procedure is used to estimate weekly corrections to biosphere fluxes based upon observed CO2. RMSE-weighted annual NEE estimates, over an ensemble of potential inversion parameter sets, show a mean estimate 0.57 Pg/yr sink in North America. We perform the inversion with two independently derived boundary inflow conditions and calculate jackknife-based statistics to test

  1. Regional Distribution Models with Lack of Proximate Predictors: Africanized Honeybees Expanding North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Esaias, Wayne E.; Ma, Peter L. A.; Morisette, Jeffery T.; Nickeson, Jaime E.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Nightingale, Joanne M.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tan, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Species distribution models have often been hampered by poor local species data, reliance on coarse-scale climate predictors and the assumption that species-environment relationships, even with non-proximate predictors, are consistent across geographical space. Yet locally accurate maps of invasive species, such as the Africanized honeybee (AHB) in North America, are needed to support conservation efforts. Current AHB range maps are relatively coarse and are inconsistent with observed data. Our aim was to improve distribution maps using more proximate predictors (phenology) and using regional models rather than one across the entire range of interest to explore potential differences in drivers.

  2. Abrupt climate variability in the North Atlantic region: Did the icebergs do it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, S.; Chen, J.; Gong, X.; Jonkers, L.; Knorr, G.; Thornalley, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    We present high resolution records of temperature and ice rafted debris over the last ~440Kyr from a sediment core retrieved from the NE Atlantic. Our records reveal that episodes of ice rafting typically occurred after abrupt cooling at the site. Because the site is sensitive to the earliest phases of ice rafting as recorded by other sites across the wider Atlantic, this suggests that icebergs were not the trigger for North Atlantic cold events. Moreover we find a different relationship between cooling and the arrival of rafted ice at a site ~750km to the SE of ours. We suggest that asynchronous cooling between these locations can be explained by the more gradual southward migration of the North Atlantic polar front. We describe a mechanism that can explain the occurrence of abrupt stadial events over Greenland as a non-linear response as regional cooling continues beyond the threshold necessary for sustaining ocean circulation in its 'warm' mode with active convection north of Iceland. Thus while the freshwater derived from melting icebergs may provide a positive feedback for enhancing and prolonging stadial conditions, it is probably not the trigger for northern stadial events.

  3. North African petroleum geology: regional structure and stratigraphic overview of a hydrocarbon-rich cratonic area

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, T.E.; Kanes, W.H.

    1985-02-01

    North Africa, including Sinai, contains some of the most important hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world. The North African Symposium is devoted to examining the exploration potential of the North African margin in light of the most recent and promising exploration discoveries. The geologic variety of the region is extraordinary and can challenge any exploration philosophy. Of primary interest are the Sirte basin of Libya, which has produced several billion barrels of oil, and the Gulf of Suez, a narrow, evaporite-capped trough with five fields that will produce more than 5 billion bbl. Both are extensional basins with minimal lateral movement and with good source rocks in direct proximity to reservoirs. Structural models of these basins give firm leads for future exploration. More difficult to evaluate are the Tethyan realm basins of the northern Sinai, and the Western Desert of Egypt, the Cyrenaican Platform of Libya, and the Tunisia-Sicily shelf area, where there are only limited subsurface data. These basins are extensional in origin also, but have been influenced by lateral tectonics. Favorable reservoirs exist, but source rocks have been a problem locally. Structural models with strong stratigraphic response offer several favorable play concepts. The Paleozoic Ghadames basin in Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria has the least complex structural history, and production appears to be limited to small structures. A series of stratigraphic models indicates additional areas with exploration potential. The Paleozoic megabasin of Morocco, with its downfaulted Triassic grabens, remains an untested but attractive area.

  4. Low-frequency storminess signal at Bermuda linked to cooling events in the North Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengstum, Peter J.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Kingston, Andrew W.; Williams, Bruce E.; Scott, David B.; Reinhardt, Eduard G.; Little, Shawna N.; Patterson, William P.

    2015-02-01

    North Atlantic climate archives provide evidence for increased storm activity during the Little Ice Age (150 to 600 calibrated years (cal years) B.P.) and centered at 1700 and 3000 cal years B.P., typically in centennial-scale sedimentary records. Meteorological (tropical versus extratropical storms) and climate forcings of this signal remain poorly understood, although variability in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) or Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) are frequently hypothesized to be involved. Here we present records of late Holocene storminess and coastal temperature change from a Bermudian submarine cave that is hydrographically circulated with the coastal ocean. Thermal variability in the cave is documented by stable oxygen isotope values of cave benthic foraminifera, which document a close linkage between regional temperature change and NAO phasing during the late Holocene. However, erosion of terrestrial sediment into the submarine cave provides a "storminess signal" that correlates with higher-latitude storminess archives and broader North Atlantic cooling events. Understanding the driver of this storminess signal will require higher-resolution storm records to disentangle the contribution of tropical versus extratropical cyclones and a better understanding of cyclone activity during hemispheric cooling periods. Most importantly, however, the signal in Bermuda appears more closely correlated with proxy-based evidence for subtle AMOC reductions than NAO phasing.

  5. Erosion of the Laurentide region of North America by glacial and glaciofluvial processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, M.; Laine, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Collection of seismic reflection data from continental margins and ocean basins surrounding North America makes it possible to estimate the amount of material eroded from the area formerly covered by Laurentide ice sheets since major glaciation began in North America. A minimum estimate is made of 1.62 ?? 106 km3, or an average 120 m of rock physically eroded from the Laurentide region. This figure is an order of magnitude higher than earlier estimates based on the volume of glacial drift, Cenozoic marine sediments, and modern sediment loads of rivers. Most of the sediment produced during Laurentide glaciation has already been transported to the oceans. The importance of continental glaciation as a geomorphic agency in North America may have to be reevaluated. Evidence from sedimentation rates in ocean basins surrounding Greenland and Antarctica suggests that sediment production, sediment transport, and possibly denudation by permanent ice caps may be substantially lower than by periodic ice caps, such as the Laurentide. Low rates of sediment survival from the time of the Permo-Carboniferous and Precambrian glaciations suggest that predominance of marine deposition during some glacial epochs results in shorter lived sediment because of preferential tectonism and cycling of oceanic crust versus continental crust. ?? 1985.

  6. Regional seismic variations in the inner core under the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irving, J. C. E.; Deuss, A.

    2015-12-01

    An asymmetry between a nearly isotropic, faster `eastern' hemisphere and an anisotropic, slower `western' hemisphere in Earth's inner core has been revealed by previous seismic studies. However, it remains unclear if division of the inner core into just two hemispheres is too simplistic. Here, we carry out regional-scale tomography using a new body wave data set to study the hemisphere boundary region beneath the northern and central Pacific Ocean and North America. If anisotropy is not considered, then a hemispherical pattern seems to be present in the study region, though the hemisphere boundary appears to be irregular. However, once the presence of anisotropy is permitted we find that this region cannot be simply separated into an anisotropic western hemisphere and an isotropic eastern hemisphere; instead the strength of the anisotropy varies regionally. The global hemispherical pattern is not observed here, instead the strongest anisotropy is observed in the centre and south west of the study region. Some of the strongest anisotropy appears to be in the `eastern' inner core, while part of the inner core assumed to be in the western hemisphere shows weaker anisotropy. Thus, this part of the inner core displays complex variations in anisotropy which differ from a simple hemispherical division. We suggest that a long-lived global heterogeneity, such as uneven heat flow through the core-mantle boundary over a period of hundreds of millions of years, may be responsible for the observed pattern of inner core anisotropy.

  7. Process-based characterization of evapotranspiration sources over the North American monsoon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Theodore J.; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2016-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a poorly constrained flux in the North American monsoon (NAM) region, leading to potential errors in land-atmosphere feedbacks. We quantified the spatiotemporal variations of ET using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, modified to account for soil evaporation (Esoil), irrigated agriculture, and the variability of land surface properties derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer during 2000-2012. Simulated ET patterns were compared to field observations at 59 eddy covariance towers, water balance estimates in nine basins, and six available gridded ET products. The modified VIC model performed well at eddy covariance towers representing the natural and agricultural land covers in the region. Simulations revealed that major sources of ET were forested mountain areas during the summer season and irrigated croplands at peak times of growth in the winter and summer, accounting for 22% and 9% of the annual ET, respectively. Over the NAM region, Esoil was the largest component (60%) of annual ET, followed by plant transpiration (T, 32%) and evaporation of canopy interception (8%). Esoil and T displayed different relationships with P in natural land covers, with Esoil tending to peak earlier than T by up to 1 month, while only a weak correlation between ET and P was found in irrigated croplands. Based on the model performance, the VIC-based estimates are the most realistic to date for this region. Furthermore, spatiotemporal patterns reveal new information on the magnitudes, locations, and timing of ET in the North American monsoon region with implications on land-atmosphere feedbacks.

  8. Ecosystem Rain-Use Efficiency in the North American Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forzieri, G.; Catani, F.; Castelli, F.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2010-12-01

    The study of the climate change impacts on vegetation and its spatiotemporal patterns can improve our understanding of the interactions between ecologic, hydrologic and atmospheric dynamics. Due to its marked plant phenology driven by precipitation, the North American Monsoon System (NAMS) can serve to reveal ecological responses to climate change in water-controlled ecosystems. Oceanographic anomalies, related to interannual variability in the Pacific, affect the seasonal evolution of the NAMS via remote forcing of the synoptic-scale circulation, which in turn controls warm season climate over much of southwestern North America. To elucidate the effects of climate on vegetation dynamics during the NAMS, we analyze long-term rain-use efficiency (RUE) in the region. RUE is defined in this study as the ratio between satellite-derived net primary production (from AVHRR NDVI composites at 16-day, 8-km resolution) and precipitation (from CPC NOAA daily 1° gridded dataset) occurring during the summer greenness periods, from 1981 to 2006. We identify the following for a set of six diverse ecosystems in the region: (1) the long-term RUE and its interannual variability, (2) its variations with geographic position and topographic attributes, and (3) the correlation structure between RUE and Sea Surface Temperature anomalies in the Pacific. Results reveal ecosystem-specific variations with location and terrain characteristics, corroborating that topography strongly influences plant rain-use strategies in response to hydrologic variations. Linear trends in RUE, compared with vegetation phenology and precipitation dynamics, suggest a long-term signal imposed on the interannual variability. Rain-use efficiency shows modest but statistically significant influences of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in the region. Spatiotemporal correlation patterns appear to be prevalently modulated by ecosystem-based biophysical memory and by regional climatic effects. Improved

  9. Comparison of 3 coupled models in the North Sea region under todays and future climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Birgit; Bülow, Katharina; Dieterich, Christian; Heinrich, Hartmut; Hüttl-Kabus, Sabine; Mayer, Bernhard; Meier, Markus; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Narayan, Nikesh; Pohlmann, Thomas; Rosenhagen, Gudrun; Sein, Dmitry; Su, Jian

    2014-05-01

    Most of the common global climate models (coupled ocean/atmosphere ocean models) have too large spatial scales to be suitable in the North Sea area. Therefore either high-resolution global models have to be run or dynamical downscaling of the model-output has to be employed using regional models. Regionalized climate change simulations for the North and Baltic Sea are carried out with coupled ocean atmosphere models in the framework of the research program KLIWAS. The numerical simulations are performed by the Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI), the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) and the Institute of Oceanography (IfM Hamburg). Output from the models is analyzed jointly with the Federal Maritime service (BSH) and the German weather service (DWD/SWA). Temperature and sea level evolution in all three models is much more similar than the predicted salinity changes. The spatial patterns of the salinity fields in the North Sea are the result of a complex balance of fresh water input from the rivers, discharge of low salinity waters from the Baltic, inflow of high salinity waters from the Atlantic and input from the atmosphere. The hindcast simulations for this parameter are similar at the basin scale in all three models but are showing different patterns at smaller scales. All models are predicting a salinity decrease towards the end of the 21 century (2070-2099) to (1970-1999), independent of these differences, but it is much more pronounced in the runs of MPIOM/REMO and NEMO/RCA compared to HAMSOM/REMO. All models agree on the fact of a major freshening of the Baltic Outflow, while the magnitude of the freshening and the affected area in the North Sea are represented differently. The models are showing a temperature increase in the order of 2 °C at the end of the 21 century. The areas affected by Atlantic inflow are showing smaller temperature increases due to the lesser warming in the Atlantic. The annual cycle is slightly perturbed

  10. Use of North American Breeding Bird Survey data to estimate population change for bird conservation regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Fallon, J.E.; Johnson, R.

    2003-01-01

    Conservation planning requires information at a variety of geographic scales, and it is often unclear whether surveys designed for other purposes will provide appropriate information for management at various scales. We evaluated the use of the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) to meet information needs for conservation planning in Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs). The BBS originally was developed to provide regional estimates for states, provinces, physiographic regions, and larger areas. Many analyses have used physiographic regions within states/provinces as strata. We evaluated potential consequences of using BCRs instead of the BBS physiographic regions, testing for spatial differences in sample intensity within states and provinces. We reclassified the BBS survey routes to BCRs and conducted route regression trend (interval-specific population change) analyses for a variety of regions and time intervals. Our results were similar to those based on traditional BBS regions and suggest minimal consequences of the reclassification for the BBS sample. We summarized population change within BCRs and assessed the efficiency of the BBS in estimating population change for 421 species surveyed. As would be expected from an omnibus survey, many species appeared to be poorly monitored by the BBS, with 42% of species encountered at <1 bird per route from the survey, and 28% of trend estimates too imprecise to detect a 3% per year change over 35 years. Our results indicated that the quality of the survey for estimation of population change varied among BCRs. Population trends of species were heterogeneous over space and time, varying among BCRs for 76% of species and over time for 39% of species. Regional heterogeneity also existed in trends of species groups from the BBS. While 49% of all species in the survey had increasing populations, grassland breeding birds showed consistent declines, with only 18% of species having positive trend estimates. Bird Conservation

  11. Effect of the overflows on the circulation in the subpolar North Atlantic: A regional model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redler, René; BöNing, Claus W.

    1997-08-01

    An ocean circulation model for process studies of the Subpolar North Atlantic is developed based on the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) Modular Ocean Model (MOM) code. The basic model configuration is identical with that of the high-resolution model (with a grid size of 1/3° × 2/5°) of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Community Modeling Effort (CME), except that the domain of integration is confined to the area from 43° to 65°N. Open boundary conditions are used for the inflows and outflows across the northern and southern boundaries. A comparison with the CME model covering the whole North Atlantic (from 15°S to 65°N) shows that the regional model, with inflow conditions at 43°N from a CME solution, is able to reproduce the CME results for the subpolar area. Thus the potential of a regional model lies in its use as an efficient tool for numerical experiments aiming at an identification of the key physical processes that determine the circulation and water mass transformations in the subpolar gyre. This study deals primarily with the representation and role of the overflow waters that enter the domain at the northern boundary. Sensitivity experiments show the effect of closed versus open boundaries, of different hydrographic conditions at inflow points, and of the representation of the narrow Faeroe Bank Channel. The representation of overflow processes in the Denmark Strait is the main controlling mechanism for the net transport of the deep boundary current along the Greenland continental slope and further downstream. Changes in the Faeroe Bank Channel throughflow conditions have a comparatively smaller effect on the deep transport in the western basin but strongly affect the water mass characteristics in the eastern North Atlantic. The deep water transport at Cape Farewell and further downstream is enhanced compared to the combined Denmark Strait and Iceland-Scotland overflows. This enhancement can be attributed to a barotropic

  12. Regional carbon and CO2 budgets of North Sea tidal estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volta, C.; Laruelle, G. G.; Regnier, P.

    2016-07-01

    This study presents the first regional application of the generic estuarine reactive-transport model C-GEM (Carbon-Generic Estuary Model) that is here combined with high-resolution databases to produce a carbon and CO2 budget for all tidal estuaries discharging into the North Sea. Steady-state simulations are performed for yearly-averaged conditions to quantify the carbon processing in the six main tidal estuaries Elbe, Ems, Humber, Scheldt, Thames, and Weser, which show contrasted physical and biogeochemical dynamics and contribute the most to the regional filter. The processing rates derived from these simulations are then extrapolated to the riverine carbon loads of all the other North Sea catchments intercepted by smaller tidal estuarine systems. The Rhine-Meuse estuarine system is also included in the carbon budget and overall, we calculate that the export of organic and inorganic carbon from tidal estuaries to the North sea amounts to 44 and 409 Gmol C yr-1, respectively, while 41 Gmol C are lost annually through CO2 outgassing. The carbon is mostly exported from the estuaries in its inorganic form (>90%), a result that reflects the low organic/inorganic carbon ratio of the riverine waters, as well as the very intense decomposition of organic carbon within the estuarine systems. Our calculations also reveal that with a filtering capacity of 15% for total carbon, the contribution of estuaries to the CO2 outgassing is relatively small. Organic carbon dynamics is dominated by heterotrophic degradation, which also represents the most important contribution to the estuarine CO2 evasion. Nitrification only plays a marginal role in the CO2 dynamics, while the contribution of riverine oversaturated waters to the CO2 outgassing is generally significant and strongly varies across systems.

  13. An Overview of Observations of Mars' North Polar Region From the Mars Global Surveyor Laser Altimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    1998-01-01

    Since its arrival at Mars on September l5, 1997, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) has been in a near-polar elliptical orbit, with the orbital eccentricity decreasing during orbital periapse passes where the spacecraft aerobrakes through the martian atmosphere. The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), an instrument on the MGS, has the ability to range to the martian surface during nonaerobraking passes. MOLA can operate whenever the range from the spacecraft to the surface is less than 786 km, with the limit determined by the number of bits encoded for the range measurement During the capture orbit, aerobraking hiatus, and science phasing orbit (SPO) mission phases, MOLA acquired approximately 200 profiles across the northern hemisphere of Mars and provided more than 2,000,000 measurements of the radius of the planet. These observations cover the region from the north pole to about 10 degrees S latitude with a precision of a few tens of centimeters and an accuracy (at present) of about 30 in. Absolute accuracy of the elevations is limited by the knowledge of the MGS orbits; these should improve later in the mission due to a more optimal tracking geometry, an improved gravitational field, and the use of the high-gain antenna once the spacecraft achieves its approximately 400-km-altitude circular mapping orbit. MOLA measurements so far show a planet with a low, flat high-latitude region in the north and a higher, topographically rougher terrain nearer the equator. The north polar cap stands approximately 2-3 km above the surrounding terrain and displays deep chasms and complex structure. MOLA measurements of elevation, 1064-nm reflectivity, and backscattered pulse width indicate that the layered terrains are composed mainly of ice.

  14. Regional trends in mercury distribution across the Great Lakes states, north central USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nater, Edward A.; Grigal, David F.

    1992-07-01

    CONCENTRATIONS of mercury in the environment are increasing as a result of human activities, notably fossil-fuel burning and incineration of municipal wastes. Increasing levels of mercury in aquatic environments and consequently in fish populations are recognized as a public-health problem1,2. Enhanced mercury concentrations in lake sediments relative to pre-industrial values have also been attributed to anthropogenic pollution. It is generally assumed that atmospheric mercury deposition is dominated by global-scale processes, consequently being regionally uniform. Here, to the contrary, we report a significant gradient in concentrations and total amounts of mercury in organic litter and surface mineral soil along a transect of forested sites across the north central United States from northwestern Minnesota to eastern Michigan. This gradient is accompanied by parallel changes in wet sulphate deposition and human activity along the transect, suggesting that the regional variation in mercury content is due to deposition of anthropogenic mercury, most probably in particulate form.

  15. Source characterization of selected North Caspian events from the relative excitation of regional phases. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Niazi, M.

    1981-11-01

    Seismograms of seven recent events (presumed underground nuclear explosions) which occurred during 1976-1979 in the North Caspian Sea region of the western Soviet Kazakh are compared at regional distances for their relative source excitation characteristics. The body wave magnitude estimates of these events range from 5.1 to 6.0. The data consist of analog and digital records collected at stations ranging in instrumental sophistication from temporary sites with single component smoke drum capability to those of SRO, ASRO and array (ILPA) configurations with digitally recorded down-hole observations. The amplitude and frequency measurements of the analog seismograms for the first arrival and the peak amplitude of P coda as well as for the clear S wave signals recorded for different events at the same station are compared.

  16. Sheep grazing in the North Atlantic region: A long-term perspective on environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Ross, Louise C; Austrheim, Gunnar; Asheim, Leif-Jarle; Bjarnason, Gunnar; Feilberg, Jon; Fosaa, Anna Maria; Hester, Alison J; Holand, Øystein; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Mortensen, Lis E; Mysterud, Atle; Olsen, Erla; Skonhoft, Anders; Speed, James D M; Steinheim, Geir; Thompson, Des B A; Thórhallsdóttir, Anna Gudrún

    2016-09-01

    Sheep grazing is an important part of agriculture in the North Atlantic region, defined here as the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Scotland. This process has played a key role in shaping the landscape and biodiversity of the region, sometimes with major environmental consequences, and has also been instrumental in the development of its rural economy and culture. In this review, we present results of the first interdisciplinary study taking a long-term perspective on sheep management, resource economy and the ecological impacts of sheep grazing, showing that sustainability boundaries are most likely to be exceeded in fragile environments where financial support is linked to the number of sheep produced. The sustainability of sheep grazing can be enhanced by a management regime that promotes grazing densities appropriate to the site and supported by area-based subsidy systems, thus minimizing environmental degradation, encouraging biodiversity and preserving the integrity of ecosystem processes. PMID:26932602

  17. A quantification of methane emissions from the Bakken shale play region of North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Karion, A.; Aikin, K. C.; Kort, E. A.; Newberger, T.; Smith, M. L.; Sweeney, C.; Trainer, M.; Wolter, S.

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas extracted from shale formations accounts for 40% of the domestic U.S. natural gas supply. Although natural gas combustion emits less carbon dioxide per energy produced than other fossil fuels, this climate benefit may be offset by the methane emitted to the atmosphere through leaks in the natural gas production and distribution infrastructure. To better understand the climate impacts of the oil and natural gas extracted from the Bakken shale play in North Dakota, we present airborne measurements of methane taken over this region aboard a NOAA Twin Otter aircraft during Spring 2014. Using the mass balance technique, we estimate methane emissions from the region with four flights intended for this purpose in May 2014. We further attribute these methane emissions to the oil and gas industry using measurements of ethane and other hydrocarbons aboard the Twin Otter.

  18. Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Alan; Wert, Bryan P.; Henry, Bruce E.; Drummond, James R.; Frost, Gregory J.; Lee, Yin-Nan

    1999-10-01

    Accurate measurements of formaldehyde (CH2O), a trace gas found throughout the atmosphere, are important for furthering our understanding of hydrocarbon oxidation processes in the atmosphere. During the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment numerous trace gases, including CH2O, were measured onboard a WP3 aircraft operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to study continental transport and photochemistry over remote regions of the North Atlantic Ocean. A highly sensitive tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer was employed in acquiring ambient CH2O measurements on 10 different flights during this campaign. A second instrument, based on chemical derivatization of ambient CH2O with DNPH, was also operated on the WP3 aircraft. This paper will briefly summarize the aircraft TDLAS system employed and discuss the level of agreement obtained between both instruments. This will be followed by a brief discussion of the results, and concludes with a preliminary comparison of the measurements with a 0-dimensional box model constrained by the measurements of other species during the campaign.

  19. The Benefits of Current Regional Hydroclimate Projects to the North American Water Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oevelen, P. J.; Evans, J. P.; Polcher, J.; Benedict, S.

    2013-12-01

    With the current increasing emphasis on research of the Earth System in a transdisciplinary sense it is surprising that large terrestrial based scientific research programs with a strong integrated observation component are nowadays lacking in particular in the United States. The current economic climate might be in part the cause of that but that is in no way a sound scientific justification. Past large continental scale experiments such as the North American based GCIP, GAPP programs and others such as BALTEX, MAGS have brought a wealth of knowledge on our current earth climate system through observations and modelling and as will be shown these make a good case for continuation of such experiments. Currently there are globally several large scale Regional Hydroclimate Projects (RHPs) in existence and several more in their development stage. In this presentation an overview is given of these programs with an emphasis on where they can and should benefit the proposed North American Water Program (NAWP). A very brief description is given of the World Climate Research Programme Grand Challenges is given along with the Global Energy and Water EXchanges projects Science Questions and how they relate to the Regional Hydroclimate Projects and in particular NAWP.

  20. Forecast Verification for North American Mesoscale (NAM) Operational Model over Karst/Non-Karst regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Z.; Fan, X.

    2014-12-01

    Karst is defined as a landscape that contains especially soluble rocks such as limestone, gypsum, and marble in which caves, underground water systems, over-time sinkholes, vertical shafts, and subterranean river systems form. The cavities and voids within a karst system affect the hydrology of the region and, consequently, can affect the moisture and energy budget at surface, the planetary boundary layer development, convection, and precipitation. Carbonate karst landscapes comprise about 40% of land areas over the continental U.S east of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Currently, due to the lack of knowledge of the effects karst has on the atmosphere, no existing weather model has the capability to represent karst landscapes and to simulate its impact. One way to check the impact of a karst region on the atmosphere is to check the performance of existing weather models over karst and non-karst regions. The North American Mesoscale (NAM) operational forecast is the best example, of which historical forecasts were archived. Variables such as precipitation, maximum/minimum temperature, dew point, evapotranspiration, and surface winds were taken into account when checking the model performance over karst versus non-karst regions. The forecast verification focused on a five-year period from 2007-2011. Surface station observations, gridded observational dataset, and North American Regional Reanalysis (for certain variables with insufficient observations) were used. Thirteen regions of differing climate, size, and landscape compositions were chosen across the Contiguous United States (CONUS) for the investigation. Equitable threat score (ETS), frequency bias (fBias), and root-mean-square error (RMSE) scores were calculated and analyzed for precipitation. RMSE and mean bias (Bias) were analyzed for other variables. ETS, fBias, and RMSE scores show generally a pattern of lower forecast skills, a greater magnitude of error, and a greater under prediction of precipitation over karst than

  1. Effects of double cropping on summer climate of the North China Plain and neighbouring regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the most important agricultural regions in Asia and produces up to 50% of the cereal consumed in China each year. To meet increasing food demands without expanding croplands, annual agricultural practice in much of the NCP has changed from single to double cropping. The impact of double cropping on the regional climate, through biophysical feedbacks caused by changes in land surface conditions, remains largely unknown. Here we show that observed surface air temperatures during the inter-cropping season (June and July) are 0.40 °C higher over double cropping regions (DCRs) than over single cropping regions (SCRs), with increases in the daily maximum temperature as large as 1.02 °C. Using regional climate modelling, we attribute the higher temperatures in DCRs to reduced evapotranspiration during the inter-cropping period. The higher surface temperatures in June and July affect low-level circulation and, in turn, rainfall associated with the East Asian monsoon over the NCP and neighbouring countries. These findings suggest that double cropping in the NCP can amplify the magnitude of summertime climate changes over East Asia.

  2. Satellite observation of regional haze pollution over the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Minghui; Chen, Liangfu; Su, Lin; Tao, Jinhua

    2012-06-01

    Haze clouds often form over the North China Plain (NCP) of eastern China, where large amounts of aerosol particles and their precursors are emitted. To obtain general insights into regional pollution, a large-scale, long-term study was conducted using A-Train satellite observations, ground measurements, and meteorological data. Contrary to previous analyses, most of the haze clouds appeared to form abruptly (within 2-3 h). Case studies show that natural sources contribute significantly to the formation of regional haze. Dust plumes can mix with local pollutants, causing smog clouds to form abruptly, while moist airflows can cause widespread haze-fog pollution. The combined observations revealed highly inhomogeneous haze clouds, in terms of both vertical and horizontal distribution, leading to clear discrepancies between site measurements near the surface and satellite observations at the top of the atmosphere. Surprisingly, prevailing dust plumes, which are closely connected with the haze clouds, were observed in winter. Airborne dust and water vapor transported from outside the region are the main drivers of regional haze over the NCP. Accumulation of local pollutants also leads to common occurrences of urban smog; however, the occurrence of most haze clouds shows no obvious correlation with local pollution. Local- and regional-scale haze pollution are common over the NCP, but they have differing formation mechanisms, and contrasting chemical and physical properties. The present findings improve our understanding of heavy pollution over eastern China and its links to climate.

  3. Regional yields simulation for winter wheat in North China based on assimilating remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuping; Zhang, Li; Wang, Shili

    2006-08-01

    Accurate crop growth monitoring and yield forecasting are significant to food security and sustainable development of agriculture. However, regional crop growth simulation faces the difficulties in determining the spatial distribution of some model parameters and initial conditions. In this study, regional biomasses at turn-green stage of winter wheat were re-estimated by linking WOFOST model and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) synthesized from remote sensing data. Moreover, we proposed a way of combining evapotranspiration derived from satellite remote sensing data to crop grow simulation model. Thus, the regional initial available soil water and irrigation at earring stage were re-initialized and re-estimated by using remote sensing data. Those methods were well applied to simulate the growth and development for winter wheat at local site. After regionalizing of weather data, crop model parameters and initial conditions, those methods were used to estimate winter wheat yields in North China during the growing season from 2001 to 2002 at the scale of 0.25 degrees. The results showed that both soil water and final winter wheat yields estimation were improved and the relative root mean square error (RRMSE) decreased from 0.63 without remote sensing data to 0.20 with remote sensing data for 32 sites. The relative errors of the aggregated yields for three provinces were -4.9%, 4.3% and 8.6%, respectively. These results illustrated that remote sensing data can be used to improve winter wheat yields simulation at regional scale.

  4. Understanding Dominant Tracks of Moisture for the North American Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, S.; Rajagopalan, B.; Ray, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Summer monsoon rains contribute more than half of the total annual rainfall in the semi-arid region of Southwest United States, also providing important input to river systems like the Colorado River. The North American Monsoon region or Southwest United States experiences great climatic variability on a range of spatial and temporal scales. This region has also been experiencing significant climate and hydroclimate changes over the last few years. Understanding the interannual variability of moisture delivery in this region will help in natural resources management such as water resources, ecology, etc.. In this study, we investigate the major sources of moisture and their interannual variability during the monsoon season. To this end we selected eight locations in the region from the states of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Utah to cover the monsoon region of U.S and generated backward moisture trajectories for each wet day during the monsoon season (Jun-Sep) over the historical period 1964-2013, using the HYSPLIT model developed by NOAA. The tracks show clear source preferences. Gulf of Mexico is the dominant source for south eastern part of the domain, Gulf of California is dominant for the south western domain, a combination of these for regions in between and the Pacific provides the source for northern part of the domain. Decreasing trends in the frequency of the dominant moisture source events corresponds well with the decreasing trends in the rainfall over the domain. The frequencies when correlated with large scale climate variables indicate coherent patterns in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic. Furthermore, the population means for each source during El Nino and La Nina years were found to be significantly different. Since the moisture from the dominant sources is also responsible for causing extreme rainfall in this region, these trajectories will provide potential predictability of monsoon rainfall and extremes.

  5. HiRISE Monitoring of Ongoing Activity in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Russell, P. S.; Byrne, S.; Banks, M. E.; Hansen, C. J.; HiRISE Team

    2010-12-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) [1] on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has observed the north polar region during 3 summer seasons on Mars. Here we summarize analyses of the north polar data, focusing on active and recent processes including evolution of frost streaks, the north polar residual cap (NPRC), frost avalanches, and scarp erosion. Bright and dark streaks have been observed at the periphery of the NPRC by previous Mars orbiters and were the target of several HiRISE observations. Some of these HiRISE images indicate that formation of the streaks involves processes more complex than the emplacement of dark veneers proposed by Rodriguez et al. [2]. Bright and dark streaks are seen to evolve during the northern summer, evidence for active eolian redistribution of frost and perhaps darker (non-volatile) dust or sand. Based on MRO Context imager observations of craters on the NPRC, accumulation rates are estimated to be 4-5 mm/yr within these craters, with lower rates likely on the intracrater NPRC surface [3]. The observed crater population probably accumulated during the last 20 ka or less. It is likely that NPRC resurfacing is episodic rather than continuous, and that annual changes may be detectable at HiRISE image resolutions. Therefore, a campaign of HiRISE observations of four NPRC targets near 87°N latitude (the maximum latitude of the MRO ground track) was initiated during the Martian northern summer of 2008 and continued during the summer of 2010. The images acquired during this campaign, with nearly nadir viewing geometry and similar solar azimuth, are being searched for evidence for current redistribution of NPRC material. Analyses are ongoing; no changes have been detected to date. We also conducted an early- to mid-spring 2010 survey of circumpolar scarps to monitor for falls and avalanches of CO2 frost and dust, of the type discovered on a scarp in northern spring 2008 [4]. The results confirm the restriction of

  6. Sediment Thickness and Regional Variations of Basement Depth in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louden, K. E.; Oakey, G.; Tucholke, B. E.

    2001-12-01

    We present a compilation of sediment thicknesses in the North Atlantic within the region of 35-65 N and 0-65 W. A digital grid with resolution similar to ETOPO5 bathymetry was produced by digitization and careful combination of previous hand-contoured maps. This grid details a wide variety of sediment deposits from thick terrigenous margin basins to regions of localized sediment accumulation within the deep ocean. We combined this with a digital grid of seafloor depth and calculated depth-to-basement including local isostatic adjustment of the sediment load. Finally, basement depth anomalies were calculated relative to predictions from lithospheric thermal models, using ages constrained by magnetic anomaly identifications. Comparison of depth-anomaly patterns were made in reconstructions at selected magnetic isochrons. Important features of these maps are: (1) The northern area is dominated by elevated basement caused by excess heat and volcanism from the Iceland plume. The volcanic margins of East Greenland and Hatton-Rockall are well defined. Elevated regions reach to Charlie-Gibbs FZ, including an extended zone of high basement south of Greenland. South of the FZ, conjugate basement rises (E.&W. Thulean Rises) occur between chrons 21-25 and appear to be linked to the same activity. Systematic variations occur with time, with highest basement on the margins and along the Reykjanes Ridge separating zones of deeper basement between chrons 13-21. (2) More normal basement depth in the central Labrador Sea is bounded by highs to the north (Davis Strait) and to the south. Thus volcanic effects of the Iceland plume seem to be linked to the shift of sea-floor spreading away from the Labrador Sea towards the North Atlantic between Greenland and Europe. (3) In the southern region, basement depths are generally normal to slightly elevated, except for the Azores hot spot and a localized set of conjugate highs that extend across ~44 N from the Newfoundland through Milne

  7. Use of a Regionally-Refined Model for Simulations of North American Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, S. A.; Berg, L. K.; Boyle, J. S.; Giangrande, S. E.; Lin, W.; Neale, R. B.; Qian, Y.; Riihimaki, L.; Tang, Q.; Taylor, M.

    2014-12-01

    While global climate models with horizontal resolutions approaching 10 kilometers are becoming more common, their computational expense is too great to permit routine testing with long simulations. Lower resolution global models with regional refinement are a more affordable modeling framework that is potentially useful for understanding the behavior of a high-resolution global model in the region with refinement. In this work, we test this notion by comparing simulations of the Community Atmosphere Model using the Spectral-Element dynamical core with 1/8° latitude-longitude regional refinement over North America to simulations of globally uniform 1/8° resolution model. The focus is on characteristics of warm season precipitation. Comparison to observations collected at the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program site in Oklahoma is facilitated by simulations of the regionally-refined model that are nudged to analysis data over the coarse-resolution portion of the grid. This work is performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Preliminary maps of crustal thickness and regional seismic phases for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1995-09-06

    As part of the development of regional seismic discrimination methods for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) the author is building a database of information related to seismic propagation and crustal structure as well as associated geologic-tectonic and geophysical data. He hopes to use these data to construct and test models of regional seismic propagation and evaluate various detection/discrimination scenarios. To date, the database has been developed by building on a list of references for MENA provided by the Institute for the Study of the Continents (INSTOC) at Cornell University. To this list the author has added an equal number of references resulting from his own literature search which has emphasized papers dealing with seismicity and regional and teleseismic phase data. This paper represents an initial attempt to consolidate some of the information from the database into a form useful to researchers modeling regional seismic waveforms. The information compiled in this report is supplemental to the INSTOC database and has not been compiled anywhere else. What follows is a series of maps which illustrate the spatial variation of seismic phase velocities and crustal thickness. The text identifies the sources of information used in the map preparation. Data for the compilation of these maps has come from an initial search of the database as it presently exists and is not intended to be exhaustive. The author hopes that this initial exercise will help to identify areas and types of data that are deficient and help to focus future data gathering activities.

  9. Preliminary definition of geophysical regions for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J J; Walter, B

    1998-12-01

    The ability to calibrate seismic stations to improve the monitoring of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is partially limited by the availability of seismic events with known locations and source properties. To confidently extrapolate from these events to aseismic regions, and to properly account for discontinuities in seismic properties requires accurate geophysical models. This paper lays out a preliminary, first-order, regionalization of the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. The model specifies boundaries and velocity structures based on the geology and tectonics of the region, previously published studies, and empirical data observations by the LLNL group. This model is a starting point and is expected to be improved and refined by comparisons with ongoing tomography efforts and the collection of new data. We anticipate that this model and its successors will prove useful as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps based on intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging. We also hope the model, as it improves and demonstrates some predictive power, will provide a reference model for broader CTBT research efforts in detection, location and discrimination as well as other aspects of earth science.

  10. Seismic discrimination of the 2009 North Korean nuclear explosion based on regional source spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Tae-Kyung

    2013-04-01

    Seismic discrimination of an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) based on regional waveforms in continental margins is challenging due to large variations among waveforms. The 2009 North Korean UNE test was conducted in the far eastern Eurasian plate. The UNE was recorded by densely-located regional seismic stations, and regional waveforms exhibit highly path-dependent amplitude and arrival time features due to complex crustal structures. Regional source spectra are calculated by correcting for the path effects on the waveforms. A two-step approach is proposed for stable inversion of source-spectral parameters and path parameters. Characteristic overshoot features are observed in the source spectra, particularly strong in Pn. The path parameter, Q, is determined uniquely regardless of the source-spectral model implemented, which suggests stable separation of path effects from waveform records. The estimated source spectra fit well to a theoretical UNE source-spectral model. The fitness between the estimated and theoretical source-spectral models allows us to discriminate UNEs from natural earthquakes. Also, the P/S source-spectral ratio is observed to be an effective discriminant of UNE.

  11. Evolving the linkages between North American Monsoon Experiment research and services in the binational monsoon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A. J.

    2007-05-01

    Multi-year drought, high interannual precipitation variability, and rapid population growth present major challenges to water resources and land managers in the U.S. Southwest and binational monsoon region. The NAME strategy to improve warm season precipitation forecasts is paying off in the understanding of the system and its potential predictability, illustrated by a special issue of the Journal of Climate with about 25 articles and numerous other published papers (e.g. Higgins and Gochis et al. 2006; Gutzler et al. 2004, Higgins et al. 2003). NOAA now has set a goal to NAME and other initiatives also have the potential to provide key insights, such as historic information regarding onset and overall strength of the monsoon as it affects stakeholder interests in flooding, soil moisture, vegetation health, and summer water demand. However, the usual avenues for scientific output, such as peer-reviewed publications and web sites designed for use by climate and weather experts, do not adequately support the flow of knowledge to operational decisionmakers. A recent workshop on Monsoon Region climate Applications in Guaymas, Sonora identified several areas in which monsoon science might contribute to reducing societal vulnerability, as well as some research findings that are suited to transition into model development and operations at service providers including NOAA and SMN. They recommended that products are needed that interpret climate forecasts for water resource management applications, and developing new regionally-tailored climate information products. This presentation will discuss how to enhance the flow of monsoon information and predictions to stakeholders by linking user-oriented perspectives with research results from NAME and other programs, including a new effort for a North American Monsoon Forecast Forum which plans to develop periodic consolidated North American Monsoon outlooks.

  12. Meteorological operational services for civil protection in Veneto region (North-eastern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbi, A.; Monai, M.; Zardini, F.

    2009-09-01

    The Meteorological Centre of Teolo (CMT), part of the Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of the North-eastern Italian region Veneto (ARPAV), is the operational regional meteorological service. Since April 2009 the Centre is linked to and supplies meteorological monitoring and forecasting to the recently constituted Functional Centre of the regional civil protection (CFD Veneto), which operates in the framework of National Civil Protection. The CFD Veneto supplies a multi-disciplinary, technical-scientific support to civil protection activities, to early warnings of natural hazards, in particular related to hydrogeological, hydraulic, and avalanches risks. The north-eastern part of Italy is known to be one of the rainiest regions in Europe. The region Veneto, due to its topographic configuration which includes Alpine reliefs, plans and a coast exposed to the Adriatic Sea, is conducive to heavy and long-lasting precipitation events. Also, strong thunderstorm activity with high precipitation rates, hail, wind gusts, and even tornadoes are relatively frequent occurrences. In this contribution two recent examples of different types of extreme events are briefly analysed by means of the ARPAV multi-sensor observing system which includes weather radar and a dense surface network. We show some of the impacts of such weather events on the territory, the services provided by CFD Veneto, in terms of meteorological forecasting and nowcasting products, and hydrogeologic/hydraulic hazard bullettins. The analysis highlights the difficulty of an efficient wheather forecast for civil defence purposes in a complex situation as ours, where many types of different events are possible. Especially cases of rapid convective events with their intense and very localized phenomena are a significant challenge. It is well-known that such events can bring remarkable material damages and serious danger for the people. For this reason an effective warning system which

  13. Origin and evolution of mountainous regions north of Tibet, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, D.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The huge deformation field associated with the Indo-Eurasia collision provides an unrivalled opportunity to investigate the origin and evolution of anomalously high topography in an intraplate, continental interior setting. Mountainous regions north of Tibet and south of the Hangay Dome are hyper-arid with internally drained basins and very low erosion rates. Consequently, the tectonic signal is very strongly expressed in the landscape. Directly north of Tibet, the Beishan is an anomalous plateau region whose first-order topography cannot be explained by Tertiary-Quaternary faulting, although second-order topographic culminations within the plateau are due to Quaternary-Recent transpressional fault displacements. The Beishan appears to be a peripheral bulge due to significant underthrusting of the Tarim-Dunhuang Block beneath the northern margin of Tibet. North of the Beishan region, the Eastern Tien Shan and Gobi Altai are essentially a transpressional basin and range province whose origin is due to thrust and oblique-slip thrust reactivation of older basement structures and diffuse sinistral strike-slip faulting. The angular relationship between SHmax and older structural trends is the first-order control on the kinematics of Quaternary faulting in the region and the style of mountain building. Restraining bends, thrust blocks and diverse transpressional fault arrays generate a complex 3D orogenic architecture that differs significantly from a contractional fold and thrust belt. Late Cenozoic uplift of the Gobi Altai, eastern Tien Shan and Altai orogens is due to diffuse transpressional reactivation of a mechanically weak Paleozoic terrane collage sandwiched between more rigid Precambrian basement blocks, representing the ';soft' core of Central Asia. Southeast of Mongolia and northeast of Tibet, the Lang Shan, Yabrai Shan and Helan Shan mountainous regions comprise footwall block uplifts associated with Ordos Basin extension and the left-lateral strike

  14. Comparisons of Box Model Calculations and Measurements of Formaldehyde from the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, G. J.; Fried, Alan; Lee, Y.- N.; Wert, B.; Henry, B.; Drummond, J. R.; Evans, M. J.; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.; Goldan, P. D.; Holloway, J. S.; Hubler, Gerhard F.; Jakoubek, R.; Jobson, B Tom T.; Knapp, K.; Kuster, W. C.; Roberts, J.; Rudolph, Jochen; Ryerson, T. B.; Stohl, A.; Stroud, C.; Sueper, D. T.; Trainer, Michael; Williams, J.

    2002-04-18

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) measurements from two independent instruments are compared with photochemical box model calculations. The measurements were made on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration P-3 aircraft as part of the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE 97). The data set considered here consists of air masses sampled between 0 and 8 km over the North Atlantic Ocean which do not show recent influence from emissions or transport. These air masses therefore should be in photochemical steady state with respect to CH2O when constrained by the other P-3 measurements, and methane oxidation was expected to be the predominant source of CH2O in these air masses. For this data set both instruments measured identical CH2O concentrations to within 40 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) on average over the 0–800 pptv range, although differences larger than the combined 2s total uncertainty estimates were observed between the two instruments in 11% of the data. Both instruments produced higher CH2O concentrations than the model in more than 90% of this data set, with a median measured-modeled [CH2O] difference of 0.13 or 0.18 ppbv (depending on the instrument), or about a factor of 2. Such large differences cannot be accounted for by varying model input parameters within their respective uncertainty ranges. After examining the possible reasons for the model-measurement discrepancy, we conclude that there are probably one or more additional unknown sources of CH2O in the North Atlantic troposphere.

  15. Comparisons of box model calculations and measurements of formaldehyde from the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, G. J.; Fried, A.; Lee, Y.-N.; Wert, B.; Henry, B.; Drummond, J. R.; Evans, M. J.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Holloway, J. S.; Hübler, G.; Jakoubek, R.; Jobson, B. T.; Knapp, K.; Kuster, W. C.; Roberts, J.; Rudolph, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Stohl, A.; Stroud, C.; Sueper, D. T.; Trainer, M.; Williams, J.

    2002-04-01

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) measurements from two independent instruments are compared with photochemical box model calculations. The measurements were made on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration P-3 aircraft as part of the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE 97). The data set considered here consists of air masses sampled between 0 and 8 km over the North Atlantic Ocean which do not show recent influence from emissions or transport. These air masses therefore should be in photochemical steady state with respect to CH2O when constrained by the other P-3 measurements, and methane oxidation was expected to be the predominant source of CH2O in these air masses. For this data set both instruments measured identical CH2O concentrations to within 40 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) on average over the 0-800 pptv range, although differences larger than the combined 2σ total uncertainty estimates were observed between the two instruments in 11% of the data. Both instruments produced higher CH2O concentrations than the model in more than 90% of this data set, with a median measured-modeled [CH2O] difference of 0.13 or 0.18 ppbv (depending on the instrument), or about a factor of 2. Such large differences cannot be accounted for by varying model input parameters within their respective uncertainty ranges. After examining the possible reasons for the model-measurement discrepancy, we conclude that there are probably one or more additional unknown sources of CH2O in the North Atlantic troposphere.

  16. Distribution of sequence variation in the mtDNA control region of Native North Americans.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, J G; Smith, D G

    1997-12-01

    The distributions of mtDNA diversity within and/or among North American haplogroups, language groups, and tribes were used to characterize the process of tribalization that followed the colonization of the New World. Approximately 400 bp from the mtDNA control region of 1 Na-Dene and 33 Amerind individuals representing a wide variety of languages and geographic origins were sequenced. With the inclusion of data from previous studies, 225 native North American (284 bp) sequences representing 85 distinct mtDNA lineages were analyzed. Mean pairwise sequence differences between (and within) tribes and language groups were primarily due to differences in the distribution of three of the four major haplogroups that evolved before settlement of the New World. Pairwise sequence differences within each of these three haplogroups were more similar than previous studies based on restriction enzyme analysis have indicated. The mean of pairwise sequence differences between Amerind members of haplogroup A, the most common of the four haplogroups in North America, was only slightly higher than that for the Eskimo, providing no evidence of separate ancestry, but was about two-thirds higher than that for the Na-Dene. However, analysis of pairwise sequence divergence between only tribal-specific lineages, unweighted for sample size, suggests that random evolutionary processes have reduced sequence diversity within the Na-Dene and that members of all three language groups possess approximately equally diverse mtDNA lineages. Comparisons of diversity within and between specific ethnic groups with the largest sample size were also consistent with this outcome. These data are not consistent with the hypothesis that the New World was settled by more than a single migration. Because lineages tended not to cluster by tribe and because lineage sharing among linguistically unrelated groups was restricted to geographically proximate groups, the tribalization process probably did not occur

  17. North Dakota Kids Count! Fact Book, 1996: State, Regional and County Profiles of Child Well-Being in North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks. North Dakota Kids Count.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of North Dakota's children. The statistical report is based on indicators of child well-being in six areas: (1) family composition, including foster care placement; (2) economic conditions, including children in near or extreme poverty; (3) child health, including low birthweight,…

  18. Aerosol characteristics in the UTLS region: A satellite-based study over north India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Misra, A.; Kanawade, Vijay P.; Devara, P. C. S.

    2016-01-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol backscatter coefficient and depolarization ratio, obtained from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, were studied in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region over North India (21-30° N and 72-90° E), covering the highly polluted Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) for one-year period from December 2011 to November 2012. An enhanced aerosol layer was observed between 15 and 18 km altitude, in the vicinity of tropopause, with a broad layer depth of about 2 km. The aerosol layer showed strong seasonal, monthly as well as day and night time variability, with a peak value of backscatter coefficient during monsoon season (˜5.54 × 10-3 sr-1 in September). The corresponding depolarization ratio indicates anisotropic (non-spherical) nature of particles. The aerosol layer was found to be highly linked with the variability in tropopause height, showing a positive correlation between tropopause height and the height of maximum backscatter coefficient (correlation coefficient of 0.8). However, it was found to be negatively correlated with the integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC), with a correlation coefficient of 0.3. We further analyzed outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) data during the study period to investigate the link between the observed enhanced aerosol layer in the UTLS region and prevailing deep convective activities over the study region. Low values of OLR during monsoon (about 214 W m-2) indicate the occurrence of deep convection over this region, which may cause a large-scale circulation-driven vertical transport of boundary-layer pollution into the atmosphere of UTLS region. Results may have potential implications for better understanding and assessing the chemical and radiative impacts of these aerosols in the tropical UTLS region.

  19. Regional frequency analysis for mapping drought events in north-central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, J. H.; Verbist, K.; Wallis, J. R.; Schaefer, M. G.; Morales, L.; Cornelis, W. M.

    2011-08-01

    SummaryDroughts are among the most important natural disasters, particularly in the arid and semiarid regions of the world. Proper management of droughts requires knowledge of the expected frequency of specific low magnitude precipitation totals for a variety of durations. Probabilistic approaches have often been used to estimate the average recurrence period of a given drought event. However, probabilistic model fitting by conventional methods, such as product moment or maximum likelihood in areas with low availability of long records often produces highly unreliable estimates. Recognizing the need for adequate estimates of return periods of severe droughts in the arid and semiarid region of Chile, a regional frequency analysis method based on L-moments (RFA-LM) was used for estimating and mapping drought frequency. Some adaptations to the existing procedures for forming homogeneous regions were found necessary. In addition, a new 3-parameter distribution, the Gaucho, which is a special case of the 4-parameter Kappa distribution, was introduced, and the analysis procedure was improved by the developments of two new software tools named L-RAP, to perform the RFA-LM analysis, and L-MAP, to map the resulting drought maps. Eight homogeneous sub-regions were delineated using the Gaucho distribution and used to construct return period maps for drought events with 80% and 40% precipitation of the normal. The study confirms the importance of a sub-regional homogeneity test, and the usefulness of the Gaucho distribution. The RFA-LM showed that droughts with a 40% precipitation of the normal have return periods that range from 4 years at the northern arid boundary of the study area to 22 years at the southern sub-humid boundary. The results demonstrate the need for different thresholds for declaring a drought than those currently in use for drought characterization in north-central Chile.

  20. Estimating regional landbird populations from enhanced North American Breeding Bird Surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the size of bird populations is central to effective conservation planning and prudent management. I updated estimated regional bird populations for the East Gulf Coastal Plain of Mississippi using data from 275 North American Breeding Bird Surveys from 2009 to 2013. However, regional bird populations estimated from count surveys of breeding birds may be biased due to lack of empirical knowledge of the distance at which a species is effectively detected and the probability of detecting a species if it is present. I used data recorded within two distance classes (0–50 m and >50–400 m) and three 1-min time intervals on 130 Breeding Bird Surveys to estimate detection probability and effective detection distance for 77 species. Incorporating these empirical estimates of detection probability and detection distance resulted in estimated regional populations for these species that were markedly greater than regional populations estimated without species-specific estimates of detection parameters. Using the same Breeding Bird Survey data, I also estimated probability of site occupancy for 66 species and extrapolated this to the proportion of area occupied in the East Gulf Coastal Plain of Mississippi. I combined the area occupied with the reported range of breeding territory size for 54 species to obtain independent estimates of regional bird populations. Although the true population of these species is unknown, estimated populations that incorporated empirical estimates of detection probability and detection distance were more likely to be within the range of independently estimated, occupancy-based, regional population estimates than were population estimates that lacked empirical detection and distance information.

  1. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vita, P.; Allocca, V.; Manna, F.; Fabbrocino, S.

    2012-05-01

    Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation. In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy), coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period. Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis. The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index. Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of different European countries and Mediterranean areas, the results

  2. Dunes in the north polar region of Mars - Their possible formation from low-density sedimentary aggregates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.; Blewett, D. T.

    1987-01-01

    Low-density aggregates composed of submicron clay aerosols were formed experimentally as the sublimation residues of masses of dust-nucleated ice. These ice-dust mixtures are considered to be possible analogs of materials of Martian north polar deposits. Low-density (0.002 g/cu cm) spheroidal pellets formed from these materials in wind tunnel experiments are studied as possible candidates for the formation of dunes in the north polar region of Mars. It is shown that these particles move like sand grains under conditions of saltation and, taken in sufficient quantities, can form the dunes observed in the north circumpolar erg.

  3. Wet phases in the Sahara/Sahel region and human migration patterns in North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda, Isla S.; Mulitza, Stefan; Schefuß, Enno; Lopes dos Santos, Raquel A.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of individual plant leaf waxes (a proxy for C3 vs. C4 vegetation) in a marine sediment core collected from beneath the plume of Sahara-derived dust in northwest Africa reveals three periods during the past 192,000 years when the central Sahara/Sahel contained C3 plants (likely trees), indicating substantially wetter conditions than at present. Our data suggest that variability in the strength of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a main control on vegetation distribution in central North Africa, and we note expansions of C3 vegetation during the African Humid Period (early Holocene) and within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 (≈50–45 ka) and MIS 5 (≈120–110 ka). The wet periods within MIS 3 and 5 coincide with major human migration events out of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results thus suggest that changes in AMOC influenced North African climate and, at times, contributed to amenable conditions in the central Sahara/Sahel, allowing humans to cross this otherwise inhospitable region. PMID:19910531

  4. On the origin of gypsum in the Mars north polar region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishbaugh, Kathryn E.; Poulet, François; Chevrier, Vincent; Langevin, Yves; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2007-07-01

    We describe the distribution and concentration of the largest Martian gypsum deposit discovered to date by the Mars Express OMEGA (Observatoire pour le Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité) imaging spectrometer, its relationship to the late Amazonian-aged north polar dunes in which it is found, and its likely origin. Gypsum has not been discovered anywhere within the north polar region outside of the Olympia Undae dune sea. In the areas of highest gypsum a concentration, 35% pure gypsum grains of a few tens of micrometers in size, mixed with 65% millimeter-sized gypsum grains containing, dark, spectrally featureless inclusions best fit the OMEGA observations. The gypsum-rich dunes contain no significant average albedo, temperature, or morphological anomalies. We propose that water emanating from nearby channels, carved during melting of the polar layered deposits, infiltrated the eastern end of the polar dune sea, percolating through the dunes. Deposits of gypsum resulted from a combination of direct, in situ alteration of sulfide- and high-calcium-pyroxene-bearing dunes and from formation of evaporitic gypsum crystals in the pore spaces of these dunes. This gypsum deposit formed in a unique local environment and is disconnected from sulfate-forming events elsewhere on Mars which are thought to have occurred much earlier, during the late Noachian and Hesperian, by various means. Sulfates have not been discovered in any other collection of dunes on Mars.

  5. FAST TRACK PAPER: Regional observations of the second North Korean nuclear test on 2009 May 25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jin Soo; Sheen, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Geunyoung

    2010-01-01

    The suspicious seismic event that occurred in the northern Korean Peninsula on 2009 May 25 was declared to be the second underground nuclear test (NK2ND) by North Korea. We investigated the characteristics of NK2ND using seismic signals recorded at regional-distance stations in South Korea and China. The Pn/Lg ratios of NK2ND definitely discriminate this event from two nearby natural earthquakes at frequencies above 4 Hz. Full moment tensor inversion of full waveform data shows that NK2ND had a very large isotropic component. Pure isotropic moment tensor inversion also resulted in good recovery of observed waveforms, with clear indication that NK2ND was explosive in origin. The moment magnitude (Mw) from the full moment tensor inversion was estimated to be 4.5 and network-averaged values of 4.6 and 3.6 were calculated for rms mb(Lg) and Ms(VMAX), respectively. Although mb - Ms signature has been considered one of the most reliable discriminants for separating explosions and earthquakes, this signature showed poor discrimination in the case of NK2ND. The Pn/Lg ratios and moment tensor inversion give more reliable evidence than does the mb - Ms for classifying the suspicious event in the northern Korean Peninsula as a possible explosion. The characteristics of NK2ND are also quite similar to those of the first North Korean nuclear test on 2006 October 9.

  6. Impacts of Wind Farms on the Regional Climate on the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Fabien; Allaerts, Dries; van Lipzig, Nicole; Meyers, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Offshore wind deployment is foreseen to expand dramatically in the coming years. The strong expansion of offshore wind parks is likely to affect the regional climatology of the coastal areas surrounding the Atlantic, North Sea and Baltic Sea. A wind farm parameterisation based on Blahak et al. 2010 and Fitch et al. 2010 has been implemented in an idealised version of COSMO-CLM, where an Ekman spiral in neutral conditions is simulated, and has been validated against LES data. A mean bias of 8.5% is observed for the wind speed below the rotor top tip. In a second step, the wind farm parameterisation is implemented in a non idealised version of COSMO-CLM over the North Sea at a kilometer scale resolution. The wind farms enhance the turbulent kinetic energy above and within the rotor. This has an impact on the evaporation at the surface, and low level cloud cover. Futhermore, wind farms change the shape of the Ekman spiral. This has consequences on the height of the planetary boundary layer, which may affect power production.

  7. Wet phases in the Sahara/Sahel region and human migration patterns in North Africa.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Isla S; Mulitza, Stefan; Schefuss, Enno; Lopes dos Santos, Raquel A; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Schouten, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of individual plant leaf waxes (a proxy for C(3) vs. C(4) vegetation) in a marine sediment core collected from beneath the plume of Sahara-derived dust in northwest Africa reveals three periods during the past 192,000 years when the central Sahara/Sahel contained C(3) plants (likely trees), indicating substantially wetter conditions than at present. Our data suggest that variability in the strength of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a main control on vegetation distribution in central North Africa, and we note expansions of C(3) vegetation during the African Humid Period (early Holocene) and within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 ( approximately 50-45 ka) and MIS 5 ( approximately 120-110 ka). The wet periods within MIS 3 and 5 coincide with major human migration events out of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results thus suggest that changes in AMOC influenced North African climate and, at times, contributed to amenable conditions in the central Sahara/Sahel, allowing humans to cross this otherwise inhospitable region. PMID:19910531

  8. A regional appraisal of source rocks north and west of Britain and Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Scotchman, I.C.; Dore, A.G.

    1995-08-01

    Potential source rocks in the string of basins on the Atlantic Margin north and west of Britain and Ireland range in age from Devonian to Tertiary, although the Jurassic appears to have been effective. In the Palaeozoic, thick developments of lacustrine Type I kerogen rich shales occur in the Lower and Middle Devonian of the Orcadian Basin in northeast Scotland while Carboniferous coals and coaly shales are known from well and outcrop in basins flanking the Rockall Trough. The Jurassic contains major source rock developments, the Lias Portree and Pabba and the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation shales which have been correlated to oil shows in the Slyne Trough, and oil discoveries in the West of Shetlands respectively. Anoxic black shales are also tentatively developed in the early Cretaceous. In the younger section, developments of gas-prone, organic poor basinal shales are known in the Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene while coals provide a minor gas source in the topmost Palaeocene and Eocene. Regionally, effective source rocks appear to be concentrated in the Jurassic rift basins extending known trends from the Jeanne D`Arc basin through East Greenland to the North Sea/Mid-Norway through the largely unexplored Atlantic Margin area NW of Britain and Ireland.

  9. Coastal erosion impacts under climate change scenarios at the regional scale in the North Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critto, A.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Rizzi, J.; Zabeo, A.; Carniel, S.; Sclavo, M.; Marcomini, A.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate change is likely to pose additional pressures on coastal ecosystems by accelerating sea level rise, storms, flooding and erosion. Specifically, coastal erosion is an issue of major concern for estuarine and deltaic coastal areas and ecosystems and it is expected to increase in size and magnitude due to climate change forcing. Accordingly, the use of climate change scenarios in the assessment of coastal erosion risks could improve the development of sustainable adaptation strategies. In order to analyze the potential consequences of climate change on coastal erosion processes and evaluate the related impacts on coastal receptors (i.e. beaches, river mouths, wetlands and protected areas), a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed and applied to the North Adriatic coast (Italy). Climate induced hazards were analyzed by means of regional hydrodynamic models that provide information about the main coastal erosion stressors (i.e. increases in mean sea-level, changes in wave height and variations in the extent of sediments deposition at the sea bottom) under climate change scenarios (i.e. regional climate projections). Site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators (e.g. vegetation cover, geomorphology, sediment budget, protection level, population density and wetland extension) and hazard metrics were aggregated in the RRA methodology in order to develop exposure, susceptibility, risk and damage maps that identify and prioritize hot-spot areas and vulnerable targets at the regional scale. Future seasonal exposure maps of coastal erosion at the regional scale depict a worse situation in winter and autumn for the future period 2070-2100 and highlight hot-spot exposure areas surrounding the Po River Delta. Moreover, risk maps highlighted that the receptors (i.e. exposure units) at higher risk to coastal erosion are beaches, wetlands and river mouths with relevant percentages of the territory characterized by higher risk scores

  10. The stratigraphic sequence of volcanic and sedimentary units in the north polar region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botts, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Based on photogeologic mapping of Viking orbiter images of Mars, four distinct informal stratigraphic units are defined for the region north of 70 degrees N latitude. They are: (a) bulbous plains, (b) mantled plains, (c) dune deposits, and (d) layered deposits/perennial ice. Background information on the Martian polar caps is provided from telescopic observation, Mariner mission results, and Viking mission results (August 1976-November 1978). A description, and an interpretation and distribution of the stratigraphic units are presented. Surface winds, which were determined from dune orientations, and discussed and implications for the source of circumpolar dune materials are delineated. A list of the Viking Orbiter imagery used in the research, the computer programs for crater size frequency distributions, and the crater size frequency data are presented.

  11. Source-to-sink cycling of aeolian sediment in the north polar region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, R. C.; Kocurek, G.

    2012-12-01

    Aeolian sand dunes are prominent features on the landscapes of Earth, Mars, Venus and Titan and sedimentary deposits interpreted as aeolian in origin are found in the rock records of Earth and Mars. The widespread occurrence of aeolian dunes on the surface of these worlds and within their deep-time depositional records suggests that aeolian systems are and likely have been a default depositional environment for the Solar System. Within an aeolian source-to-sink context, we hypothesize that planet-specific boundary conditions strongly impact production, transport, accumulation and preservation of aeolian sediment, whereas dunes and dune-field patterns remain largely similar. This hypothesis is explored within the north polar region of Mars, which hosts the most extensive aeolian dune fields and aeolian sedimentary deposits yet recognized on Mars and appears to be a region of dynamic source-to-sink cycling of aeolian sediments. The Planum Boreum Cavi Unit rests beneath north polar ice cap of Mars and is composed of several hundred meters of niveo-aeolian dune cross-stratification. The overall architecture of the unit consists of sets of preserved dune topography with an upward increase in the abundance of ice. Dune sets are defined by stabilized, polygonally fractured bounding surfaces, erosional bounding surfaces and typical internal lee foresets made of sediment and ice. The accumulation of the Cavi Unit is interpreted as occurring through freezing and serves as an example of a cold temperature boundary condition on aeolian sediment accumulation. Preservation of the Cavi Unit arises because of deposition of the overlying ice cap and contrasts with preservation of aeolian sediment on Earth, which is largely driven by eustasy and tectonics. The Cavi Unit is thought to be one source of sediment for the north polar Olympia Undae Dune Field. The region of Olympia Undae near the Cavi Unit shows a reticulate dune field pattern composed of two sets of nearly orthogonal

  12. Geologic map of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park region, Tennessee and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, Scott; Schultz, Art; Denenny, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    The geology of the Great Smoky Mountain National Park (GSMNP) region of Tennessee and North Carolina was studied from 1993 to 2003 as part of a cooperative investigation with the National Park Service (NPS). This work has been compiled as a 1:100,000-scale map derived from mapping done at 1:24,000 and 1:62,500 scale. The geologic data are intended to support cooperative investigations with NPS, the development of a new soil map by the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (http://www.discoverlifeinamerica.org/). At the request of NPS, we mapped areas previously not visited, revised the geology where stratigraphic and structural problems existed, and developed a map database for use in interdisciplinary research, land management, and interpretive programs for park visitors.

  13. Geologic map of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park region, Tennessee and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, Scott; Schultz, Art; Aleinikoff, John N.; Merschat, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    The geology of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park region of Tennessee and North Carolina was studied from 1993 to 2003 as part of a cooperative investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey with the National Park Service (NPS). This work resulted in a 1:100,000-scale geologic map derived from mapping that was conducted at scales of 1:24,000 and 1:62,500. The geologic data are intended to support cooperative investigations with the NPS, the development of a new soil map by the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory. In response to a request by the NPS, we mapped previously unstudied areas, revised the geology where problems existed, and developed a map database for use in interdisciplinary research, land management, and interpretive programs for park visitors.

  14. Continental scale waveform tomography using both global and regional data: Application to the north american craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Yder; Romanowicz, Barbara; Clouzet, Pierre; Cupillard, Paul; French, Scott

    2015-04-01

    Yuan et al. (2014), obtained a 3D radially anisotropic shear wave model of North America (NA) through waveform tomography. To build this model, both teleseismic and regional data sampling NA were used. Synthetic seismograms associated with regional data were computed exactly using the spectral element method (RegSEM, Cupillard et al., 2012), while synthetic seismograms corresponding to teleseismic data were computed approximately using normal mode asymptotic coupling theory (Li and Romanowicz, 1995). A Gauss-Newton scheme using approximate kernels (based on the same normal mode theory) was used for the inversion. We present a preliminary update of this model that benefits from our latest methodological developments. First, synthetics seismograms for teleseismic events are now computed using the spectral element method. However, we use a hybrid modeling approach (Masson et al., 2013), which allows us to perform a single teleseismic SEM computation in the background global3D model followed in the subsequent iterations by exclusively regional scale, less costly, spectral element simulations. Second, the gradient in the aforementioned Gauss-Newton scheme is now computed using an adjoint method. This more accurate gradient is used along with an approximate Hessian (that is efficiently computed using normal mode theory). This leads to a hybrid Gauss-Newton scheme that we are testing against both a steepest descent approach (i.e. using the adjoint gradient only) and against the approximate Gauss Newton scheme (i.e. where both the gradient and the Hessian are approximated using normal mode asymptotic coupling theory).

  15. Remote sensing of regional pyroclastic deposits on the north central portion of the lunar nearside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Campbell, B. A.; Lucey, P. G.; Peterson, C. A.; Coombs, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution 3.0-cm radar data for the Rima Bode regional pyroclastic deposit and a number of UV-visible reflectance spectra for regional pyroclastic deposits on the north-central portion of the lunar nearside are analyzed and compared to existing data. The data obtained indicate that small craters in this deposit excavated loose unwelded pyroclastic particles, suggesting that welded layers or lenses do not exist at depths within the deposit's core area. The 70-cm radar data indicate that the Roma Bode deposit is thinner than the pyroclastic unit on the Aristarchus Plateau. The surfaces of all these regional pyroclastic deposits are dominated by ilmenite-rich black spheres, and contamination by low-Ti, nonpyroclastic debris appears to be minimal. The fine-grained block-free uncontaminated Rima Bode would be ideal for lunar mining operations and for rapidly covering lunar base modules with an adequate thickness of shielding material for protection from meteorite impact and space radiation.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA control region polymorphism in the population of Alagoas state, north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Adriana B G; da Silva, Luiz Antonio F; Azevedo, Dalmo A; Balbino, Valdir Q; Mauricio-da-Silva, Luiz

    2008-01-01

    The sequences of the two hypervariable (HV) segments of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region were determined in 167 randomly selected, unrelated individuals living in the state of Alagoas, north-eastern Brazil. One hundred and forty-five different haplotypes, associated with 139 variable positions, were determined. More than 95% of the mtDNA sequences could be allocated to specific mtDNA haplogroups according to the mutational motifs. Length heteroplasmy in the C-stretch HV1 and HV2 regions was observed in 22 and 11%, respectively, of the population sample. The genetic diversity was estimated to be 0.9975 and the probability of two random individuals presenting identical mtDNA haplotypes was 0.0084. The most frequent haplotype was shared by six individuals. All sequences showed high-quality values and phantom mutations were not detected. The diversity revealed in the mitochondrial control region indicates the importance of this locus for forensic casework and population studies within Alagoas, Brazil. PMID:18279250

  17. Crustal and upper mantle structure of stable continental regions in North America and northern Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masse, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    From an analysis of many seismic profiles across the stable continental regions of North America and northern Europe, the crustal and upper mantle velocity structure is determined. Analysis procedures include ray theory calculations and synthetic seismograms computed using reflectivity techniques. The P wave velocity structure beneath the Canadian Shield is virtually identical to that beneath the Baltic Shield to a depth of at least 800 km. Two major layers with a total thickness of about 42 km characterize the crust of these shield regions. Features of the upper mantle of these region include velocity discontinuities at depths of about 74 km, 330 km, 430 km and 700 km. A 13 km thick P wave low velocity channel beginning at a depth of about 94 km is also present. A number of problems associated with record section interpretation are identified and a generalized approach to seismic profile analysis using many record sections is described. The S wave velocity structure beneath the Canadian Shield is derived from constrained surface wave data. The thickness of the lithosphere beneath the Canadian and Baltic Shields is determined to be 95-100 km. The continental plate thickness may be the same as the lithospheric thickness, although available data do not exclude the possibility of the continental plate being thicker than the lithosphere. ?? 1987 Birkha??user Verlag.

  18. Ordovician-Carboniferous tectono-sedimentary evolution of the North Nuratau region, Uzbekistan (Westernmost Tien Shan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, T.; Nurtaev, B.; Kharin, V.; Valdivia-Manchego, M.

    2013-04-01

    The Tien Shan is a c. 2500 km long orogenic belt of which the Nuratau region of eastern Uzbekistan forms the western part. Petrographical and field analysis of the Ordovician-Carboniferous succession in the North Nuratau region provided the basis for a reconstruction of the depositional settings along part of the northern margin of the Alai continent and their evolution during the period of closure of the Turkestan Ocean, which separated the Alai and the Kazakh-Kyrgyz continents. Initial sedimentation (Ordovician) was broadly carbonate dominated, although by Mid-Late Ordovician times siliciclastic input predominated in some areas. These variations, between clastic- and carbonate-dominated regions may have been related to tectonic activity within the Alai continent. Carbonate sedimentation was reestablished in the ?Wenlock, with broad shelf systems forming along the continental margin. Volcanic activity in the Early Devonian records a period of tectonic instability, and this was followed by the reestablishment of the carbonate mosaic, albeit with a greater degree of instability (as indicated by stratigraphic gaps) than in the Silurian. This pattern extended up into the Carboniferous culminating in backarc-related magmatic activity. Final closure of the Turkestan Ocean involved significant folding and thrusting, as well as a major change from compressional to strike-slip movement.

  19. Mapping landslide processes in the North Tanganyika - Lake Kivu rift zones: towards a regional hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitte, Olivier; Monsieurs, Elise; Jacobs, Liesbet; Basimike, Joseph; Delvaux, Damien; Draida, Salah; Hamenyimana, Jean-Baptiste; Havenith, Hans-Balder; Kubwimana, Désiré; Maki Mateso, Jean-Claude; Michellier, Caroline; Nahimana, Louis; Ndayisenga, Aloys; Ngenzebuhoro, Pierre-Claver; Nkurunziza, Pascal; Nshokano, Jean-Robert; Sindayihebura, Bernard; Philippe, Trefois; Turimumahoro, Denis; Kervyn, François

    2015-04-01

    The mountainous environments of the North Tanganyika - Lake Kivu rift zones are part of the West branch of the East African Rift. In this area, natural triggering and environmental factors such as heavy rainfalls, earthquake occurrences and steep topographies favour the concentration of mass movement processes. In addition anthropogenic factors such as rapid land use changes and urban expansion increase the sensibility to slope instability. Until very recently few landslide data was available for the area. Now, through the initiation of several research projects and the setting-up of a methodology for data collection adapted to this data-poor environment, it becomes possible to draw a first regional picture of the landslide hazard. Landslides include a wide range of ground movements such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows. Landslides are possibly the most important geohazard in the region in terms of recurring impact on the populations, causing fatalities every year. Many landslides are observed each year in the whole region, and their occurrence is clearly linked to complex topographic, lithological and vegetation signatures coupled with heavy rainfall events, which is the main triggering factor. Here we present the current knowledge of the various slope processes present in these equatorial environments. A particular attention is given to urban areas such as Bukavu and Bujumbura where landslide threat is particularly acute. Results and research perspectives on landslide inventorying, monitoring, and susceptibility and hazard assessment are presented.

  20. Synoptic meteorology and transport during the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) intensive: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, John T.; Moody, Jennie L.

    1996-12-01

    Analyses of meteorological conditions during the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) intensive period, defined here as August 1 through September 13, 1993, indicate that transport in the study region in Nova Scotia was influenced by several well-defined synoptic disturbances (weak frontal passages or troughs) and by intervening periods of slowly varying transport conditions. Using trajectory analysis, synoptic charts, and other meteorological products, we have characterized these conditions and indicated the transitions in transport in relation to the synoptic scale meteorological situation. The ideal meteorological scenario for delivering pollution plumes from the U.S. East Coast urban areas over the Gulf of Maine to the Maritime Provinces of Canada is shown to be warm sector flow ahead of an advancing cold front. In addition, for two of these frontal passages we have discussed some of the smaller-scale effects which appear to have influenced the transport and or the composition of air masses reaching the NARE intensive region. Finally, we compare the conditions actually encountered during the field campaign with our idealized conceptual model of warm sector transport.

  1. Simulation of the Diurnal Cycle of Integrated Precipitable Water in the North American Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, C. A.; Quintanar, A.; Adams, D. K.; Martinez-lopez, B.

    2015-12-01

    Organized deep convection over the North American monsoon region (NAM) is a salient climatic feature that has been the subject of several experimental campaigns and modeling efforts. Recently, however, in Mexico and the Caribbean, there has been mounting interest towards implementing low-cost, low-maintenance GPS-meteorological networks (TLALOCNet and COCOnet) that provide near real-time Integrated Precipitable Water data (IPW) into the assimilation cycle of regional models. A wealth of interesting new observational results concerning the link between the diurnal cycle of deep convection and the processes that could alter it at the surface and aloft has open up opportunities of model verification and improvements to the physics that are specific to subtropical deep convection. In this work, the diurnal cycle of IPW is studied using observational data collected during the North American Monsoon GPS Transect Experiment 2013 experiment and numerical simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). WRF was run in climate mode to generate a simulation for the entire experiment using ECMWF ERA-Interim analysis data for initial and boundary conditions and spectral nudging. We classified the days during the experiment, according to type of mesoscale phenomena present each day and averaged days with same weather types in both data sets (observed and simulated). Preliminary results show that the simulated diurnal cycle of IPW is very sensitive to Land Use/Land Cover data and to initial and the boundary conditions. Preliminary results show that the simulated amplitude and phase of the diurnal cycle of IPW is well represented only when a more up-to-date LULC is used (MODIS v.s. 99 USGS LULC) and the Thompson mycrophysics scheme is used. In agreement with the previous results, modeled precipitation time series agree better with observed GPS-meterological station reports during the NAM 2013 experiment.

  2. IBIRYS: a Regional High Resolution Reanalysis (physical and biogeochemical) over the European North East Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levier, Bruno; Benkiran, Mounir; Reffray, Guillaume; García Sottilo, Marcos

    2014-05-01

    Mercator-Ocean has developed a regional forecasting system at 1/12° resolution over the North East Atlantic (IBI: Iberia, Biscay and Irish), taking advantage of the recent developments in NEMO. A reanalysis, called IBIRYS, was performed with the IBI system on the 2002-2012 period. The physical model was coupled on-line with the biogeochemical component of NEMO based on the PISCES model. The model was forced by ERA-interim products (every 3 hours) including the atmospheric pressure. In addition to atmospheric forcing, the model included astronomical tidal forcing. This regional forecasting system used boundary conditions from the Mercator-Ocean global reanalysis (GLORYS: GLobal Ocean ReanalYses and Simulations).The assimilation component SAM2 (Mercator Ocean assimilation system), was based on a reduced-order Kalman filter (the SEEK or Singular Extended Evolutive Kalman filter). An IAU method (Incremental Analysis Updates) was used to apply the increments in the system. The error statistics were represented in a sub-space spanned by a small number of dominant 3D error directions. A 3D-Var scheme corrected for the slowly evolving large-scale biases in temperature and salinity. The data assimilation system allowed to constrain the model in a multivariate way with Sea Surface Temperature (AVHRR + Multi-satellite High resolution), together with all available satellite Sea Level Anomalies, and with in situ observations from the CORA-03 data base, including ARGO floats temperature and salinity measurements. In this presentation, the results obtained with IBIRYS are compared to GLORYS results. The consistency of the IBIRYS and GLORYS results at large scales is demonstrated. The capacity of IBIRYS to provide useful information at high frequencies in the North East Atlantic is shown. The biogeochemical results of IBIRYS are evaluated.

  3. Uncertainties in freshwater and MOC predictions in the North Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, T.; Latif, M.; Reintges, A.

    2012-04-01

    Future changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) will result from processes both internal and external to the climate system. Global warming leads to an amplified hydrological cycle, which affects the vertical salinity and temperature profiles. The meridional changes in the ocean-atmosphere interaction diminish the meridional oceanic density contrast. In the North Atlantic sinking regions, these changes are strongly related to salinity anomalies at the surface. Most climate models predict a weakening of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) during the twenty-first century when forced by increasing levels of greenhouse gas concentrations. However, large uncertainty exists in comparing different climate model predictions, even under identical forcing. Individual studies suggest that multidecadal changes in the MOC are strongly related to large-scale salinity anomalies and therefore probably to changes in the surface freshwater fluxes and freshwater transport. We derived the general relationship between the MOC and freshwater budget of the Northern Hemisphere analyzing the CMIP3 20th century simulations and the A1B scenario prediction. A quantification of the different sources of uncertainty (external, internal and model uncertainties) indicates the model error as the largest component. The internal variability is significant during the first decades, while scenario uncertainty is almost negligible. The different contributions to model uncertainty like surface wind and density, salinity versus temperature has been analyzed additionally. Overall, the strongest MOC changes have been predicted in the models around 40°N, whereas the strongest signal-to-noise ratio is located south of 40°N. Uncertainties in meridional ocean density profiles are dominated by model uncertainties in the salinity distribution. The local signal-to-noise ratio of the ocean freshwater flux is low in the arctic and subpolar region. First analyses of

  4. A Variable-resolution Surface Wave Dispersion Study of Eurasia, North Africa, and Surrounding Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E

    2005-03-21

    This paper presents the results of a large-scale study of surface wave dispersion performed across Eurasia and North Africa. Improvements were made to previous surface wave work by enlarging the study region, increasing path density, improving spatial resolution, and expanding the period range. This study expands the coverage area northwards and eastwards relative to a previous dispersion analysis, which covered only North Africa and the Middle East. We have significantly increased the number of seismograms examined and group velocity measurements made. We have now made good quality dispersion measurements for about 30,000 Rayleigh wave and 20,000 Love wave paths, and have incorporated measurements from several other researchers into the study. A conjugate gradient method was employed for the group velocity tomography, which improved the inversion from the previous study by adopting a variable smoothness. This technique allows us to go to higher resolution where the data allow without producing artifacts. The current results include both Love and Rayleigh wave inversions across the region for periods from 7 to 100 seconds at 1{sup o} resolution. Short period group velocities are sensitive to slow velocities associated with large sedimentary features such as the Caspian Sea, West Siberian Platform, Mediterranean Sea, Bay of Bengal, Tarim Basin, and Persian Gulf. Intermediate periods are sensitive to differences in crustal thickness, such as those between oceanic and continental crust or along orogenic zones and continental plateaus. At longer periods, fast velocities are consistently found beneath cratons while slow upper mantle velocities occur along rift systems, subduction zones, and collision zones such as the Tethys Belt. We have compared the group velocities at various periods with features such as sediment thickness, topographic height, crustal thickness, proximity to plate boundaries, lithospheric age and lithospheric thickness, and find significant

  5. Impact of Land Use Change over North America as simulated by the Canadian Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon, A.; Sushama, L.; Beltrami, H.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the biogeophysical impacts of human-induced land cover change, particularly crops, on the regional climate of North America, using the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). To this effect, two simulations are performed with CRCM5 with different land cover datasets - one corresponding to the potential vegetation (i.e. without land use change) and the other corresponding to current land use. Most of the land use changes are concentrated over the US mid-west and south-central Canada, where forests and grasses have been replaced by crops. This transformation changes the surface parameters, particularly vegetation fractional area, leaf area index, albedo, roughness length and rooting depth among other variables, in the regions where land cover change takes place in these simulations. Both simulations span the 1988-2012 period and are driven by ERA-Interim at the lateral boundaries. The sea surface temperature and sea ice cover that vary inter-annually are also taken from ERA-Interim. Results suggest that regions where forests/grasses were replaced by crops generally show increases in albedo, particularly during the spring, fall and winter seasons, with the increase in albedo being largest for winter. This higher increase in albedo during winter is due to a snow-mediated positive feedback. The increased albedo values during winter, spring and fall are reflected in the cooler 2 meter temperature obtained in the simulation with land use change, compared to that with potential vegetation. Some cooling is observed in the summer for the simulation with land use change, mostly due to the increased latent heat fluxes. Increases in precipitation are noted for these regions, but are not statistically significant.

  6. Investigation of Northeastern North America Coastal Circulation Using a Nested Regional Circulation Hindcast Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.; He, R.

    2008-12-01

    A regional coastal circulation model was used to hindcast circulation over the middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) and Gulf of Maine (GOM) shelf from November 2003 to June 2008. Realistic atmospheric forcing, tidal harmonics and real-time river runoff data were used to drive the hindcast. In addition, this regional model was nested inside the data assimilative global HYCOM, which provides dynamically consistent and numerically accurate its initial and open boundary conditions. Model hindcast solutions were gauged against in situ observations, including coastal sea levels, satellite altimeter sea surface height, mooring observed temperature and salinity time series, glider hydrographic transects, and long term means of depth-averaged current analysis. Such data/model comparisons show the nested regional model is skillful in capturing major regional shelf circulation variability, lending confidence for using 4-year of time and space continuous hindcast fields (January 2004-December 2007) to depict shelf- wide circulation dynamics, along- and cross-shelf transport and the associated momentum balances. Model hindcast solutions confirm the existence of the equatorward shelf circulation with gradually decreased alongshore transport from north to south. Mean alongshelf current is characterized by a strong shelf-break jet, whereas the cross-shelf current is characterized by complex convergence and divergence on the shelf. Mean cross-shelf transports were estimated along 200-m isobath. Momentum balance analyses further nonlinear advection, stress and diffusion term all contribute to the ageostrophic circulation in the along- isobath directions, whereas in the across-isobath direction, the nonlinear advection is predominate. Our nested regional circulation model was also coupled with a 11-component ecosystem model. Some preliminary bio-physical modeling result will also be presented.

  7. Lithofacies variability in the Lower Khvalynian sediments of the North Caspian Sea region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makshaev, Radik; Svitoch, Aleksandr

    2016-04-01

    The Early Khvalynian period (~15 500-12 500 cal years B.P.) is characterized by continuous dynamic changes in North Caspian Sea region environment, which has been confirmed by numerous data obtained during the lithofacies analysis of its key sections. Lithofacies complex of the North Caspian Sea region contains four subfacies - clayey, laminated, sandy-clayey and aleurite-clayey. Clayey facie is characterized by absolutely clayey structure with massive nonlamellated or subfissile dark-brown clays and rarely contains thin aleurite layers. This subfacie is one of the most widespread in the North Caspian Sea region. Clayey facies are typical for the most of the key sections in the Middle Volga (Bykovo, Torgun, Rovnoe, Novoprivolnoe, Chapaevka), Lower Volga (Svetly Yar) and on the left side of the Volga River valley (Verkhny Baskunchak, Krivaya Loshchina, Bolshoy Liman). Deep paleodepressions of the Lower Volga and the left side of the Volga River valley are also characterized by the maximum of the average clays thickness, which can reach up to 10 m. Sandy-clayey subfacie is characterized by stratified structure with horizontal and lenticular lamination of clays with sandy-aleuritic interlayers. The average thickness of sand layers is 2-5 cm. At most of the key sections thickness of clay layers is up to twice larger than the sands layers and only on depressions' periphery can be exceeded by some terrigenous interlayers. Sandy-aleuritic parts of clays have different mineral structure. Light suite is dominated by quartz and feldspar with some debris of heavy minerals, glauconite and calcite. Fraction of the heavy minerals contains titano ferrite, epidote, granite, zircon, amphibole, rutile, disthene, tourmaline, sillimanite. Layered subfacie is the most abundant among the chocolate clays and is widespread in the Lower Volga River region and the Ural River valley, but sporadic in Kalmykia and the Volga Delta. Sandy-clayey and aleurit-clayey subfacies have rare

  8. Regional variability of farmer decision making and irrigation water use: insights from a data-scarce region of North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, Jimmy; Buytaert, Wouter; Brozović, Nick; Mijic, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Over the last fifty years, changes in agriculture brought about by the Green Revolution have transformed India from a famine-prone, drought-susceptible country into the worlds' third largest grain producer and one of the most intensively irrigated parts of the globe. Regionally, cheap energy, subsidised seeds and fertilisers, and in some areas Government purchase guarantees for grain promote the intensification of farming. While this allows farmers to survive, it also aggravates the drain agriculture is having on resources, particularly energy and water. Analysis at a regional scale, however, masks the considerable spatial variability that exists on a more localised level and must be taken into consideration to understand correctly aggregate system response to policy, hydrologic, and climatic change. In this study we present and analyse the results from over 100 farmer interviews conducted in the data-scarce districts of Jalaun and Sitapur on the Gangetic Plains of Uttar Pradesh during the post monsoon period of 2013. Variables such as the volumes and timing of irrigation water applied, sources of water, methods of abstraction and irrigation, and costs incurred are mapped, using qualitative data analysis and GIS. Large differences between the districts emerge, for instance in the region of Jalaun where cheaper canal water is available in addition to groundwater. This has enabled farmers to afford more water efficient technologies such as sprinklers, a practice not found in Sitapur which depends almost exclusively on more expensive diesel pumps. Results are used to delineate the spatial variability in water use practices, along with farmer behaviour and decision making. The primary data are compared with socio-economic information taken from regionally produced statistical abstracts. The combined data are used to identify the main drivers that influence farmer decision-making, which is in turn leading to groundwater overdraught in many parts of North India. Finally

  9. Climatology of Extreme Winds in the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas/Alaska Region Using the North American Regional Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegall, S. T.; Zhang, J.

    2009-12-01

    The high-resolution (32km, 3-hourly) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) surface winds were used to examine the detailed structures of the distribution and evolution of the surface wind across the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas/Alaska region. First the NARR surface winds were verified against the station observations over the study area and the comparisons indicate that NARR essentially captures the distribution of the observed winds in summer. However, an obvious bias exists in winter, when the easterly component of the bimodal pattern is overestimated, while the westerly component is underestimated, particularly in January. Then we used the NARR surface wind data to examine the wind field climatological features, interannual variability and long-term change over the study area by analyzing the monthly maximums, 99th, 95th, 90th, and 50th percentile wind speeds (m/s) for each month of the year from 1979-2006. Decadal differences (i.e. the difference from 2000-2006 and 1990-1999 and 1990-1999 and 1980-1989) were also investigated to understand the long-term change in the area's surface winds. The results indicated that the maximum wind speeds in the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas have lower values from January through May. Then there is a progression northward of the higher wind speeds beginning in the Bering Strait in June and continuing into the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas during July-October; in November and December the maximum winds in the area start to decrease with a southward migration into the Chukchi Sea and eventually back through the Bering Strait into the Bering Sea, which is coincident with the sea ice retreat and advance in the area. The yearly variance of the wind speeds follow a similar northward and southward migration while the highest variance happened in October. The decadal differences mainly show a large increase in the maximum winds speeds in September and October in the Chukchi Sea.

  10. Evaluation of the regional climate model ALADIN to simulate the climate over North America in the CORDEX framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas-Picher, Philippe; Somot, Samuel; Déqué, Michel; Decharme, Bertrand; Alias, Antoinette

    2013-09-01

    In this study, an ensemble of four multi-year climate simulations is performed with the regional climate model ALADIN to evaluate its ability to simulate the climate over North America in the CORDEX framework. The simulations differ in their driving fields (ERA-40 or ERA-Interim) and the nudging technique (with or without large-scale nudging). The validation of the simulated 2-m temperature and precipitation with observationally-based gridded data sets shows that ALADIN performs similarly to other regional climate models that are commonly used over North America. Large-scale nudging improves the temporal correlation of the atmospheric circulation between ALADIN and its driving field, and also reduces the warm and dry summer biases in central North America. The differences between the simulations driven with different reanalyses are small and are likely related to the regional climate model’s induced internal variability. In general, the impact of different driving fields on ALADIN is smaller than that of large-scale nudging. The analysis of the multi-year simulations over the prairie and the east taiga indicates that the ALADIN 2-m temperature and precipitation interannual variability is similar or larger than that observed. Finally, a comparison of the simulations with observations for the summer 1993 shows that ALADIN underestimates the flood in central North America mainly due to its systematic dry bias in this region. Overall, the results indicate that ALADIN can produce a valuable contribution to CORDEX over North America.

  11. Analysis of Genomic Regions Associated With Coronary Artery Disease Reveals Continent-Specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in North African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, Daniela; Via, Marc; Carreras-Torres, Robert; Esteban, Esther; Chaabani, Hassen; Anaibar, Fatima; Harich, Nourdin; Habbal, Rachida; Ghalim, Noreddine; Moral, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, several genomic regions have been robustly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in different genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted mainly in people of European descent. These kinds of data are lacking in African populations, even though heart diseases are a major cause of premature death and disability. Methods Here, 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the top four CAD risk regions (1p13, 1q41, 9p21, and 10q11) were genotyped in 274 case-control samples from Morocco and Tunisia, with the aim of analyzing for the first time if the associations found in European populations were transferable to North Africans. Results The results indicate that, as in Europe, these four genetic regions are also important for CAD risk in North Africa. However, the individual SNPs associated with CAD in Africa are different from those identified in Europe in most cases (1p13, 1q41, and 9p21). Moreover, the seven risk variants identified in North Africans are efficient in discriminating between cases and controls in North African populations, but not in European populations. Conclusions This study indicates a disparity in markers associated to CAD susceptibility between North Africans and Europeans that may be related to population differences in the chromosomal architecture of these risk regions. PMID:26780859

  12. North polar region of Mars: Advances in stratigraphy, structure, and erosional modification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Skinner, J.A., Jr.; Bourke, M.C.; Fortezzo, C.M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Kolb, E.J.; Okubo, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    We have remapped the geology of the north polar plateau on Mars, Planum Boreum, and the surrounding plains of Vastitas Borealis using altimetry and image data along with thematic maps resulting from observations made by the Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. New and revised geographic and geologic terminologies assist with effectively discussing the various features of this region. We identify 7 geologic units making up Planum Boreum and at least 3 for the circumpolar plains, which collectively span the entire Amazonian Period. The Planum Boreum units resolve at least 6 distinct depositional and 5 erosional episodes. The first major stage of activity includes the Early Amazonian (???3 to 1 Ga) deposition (and subsequent erosion) of the thick (locally exceeding 1000 m) and evenly-layered Rupes Tenuis unit (Abrt), which ultimately formed approximately half of the base of Planum Boreum. As previously suggested, this unit may be sourced by materials derived from the nearby Scandia region, and we interpret that it may correlate with the deposits that regionally underlie pedestal craters in the surrounding lowland plains. The second major episode of activity during the Middle to Late Amazonian (??? <1 Ga) began with a section of dark, sand-rich and light-toned ice-rich irregularly-bedded sequences (Planum Boreum cavi unit, Abbc) along with deposition of evenly-bedded light-toned ice- and moderate-toned dust-rich layers (Planum Boreum 1 unit, Abb1). These units have transgressive and gradational stratigraphic relationships. Materials in Olympia Planum underlying the dunes of Olympia Undae are interpreted to consist mostly of the Planum Boreum cavi unit (Abbc). Planum Boreum materials were then deeply eroded to form spiral troughs, Chasma Boreale, and marginal scarps that define the major aspects of the polar plateau's current regional topography. Locally- to regionally-extensive (though vertically minor) episodes

  13. North polar region of Mars: Advances in stratigraphy, structure, and erosional modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Skinner, James A.; Bourke, Mary C.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Eric J.; Okubo, Chris H.

    2008-08-01

    We have remapped the geology of the north polar plateau on Mars, Planum Boreum, and the surrounding plains of Vastitas Borealis using altimetry and image data along with thematic maps resulting from observations made by the Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. New and revised geographic and geologic terminologies assist with effectively discussing the various features of this region. We identify 7 geologic units making up Planum Boreum and at least 3 for the circumpolar plains, which collectively span the entire Amazonian Period. The Planum Boreum units resolve at least 6 distinct depositional and 5 erosional episodes. The first major stage of activity includes the Early Amazonian (˜3 to 1 Ga) deposition (and subsequent erosion) of the thick (locally exceeding 1000 m) and evenly-layered Rupes Tenuis unit (A Brt), which ultimately formed approximately half of the base of Planum Boreum. As previously suggested, this unit may be sourced by materials derived from the nearby Scandia region, and we interpret that it may correlate with the deposits that regionally underlie pedestal craters in the surrounding lowland plains. The second major episode of activity during the Middle to Late Amazonian ( ˜<1 Ga) began with a section of dark, sand-rich and light-toned ice-rich irregularly-bedded sequences (Planum Boreum cavi unit, A Bb c) along with deposition of evenly-bedded light-toned ice- and moderate-toned dust-rich layers (Planum Boreum 1 unit, A Bb 1). These units have transgressive and gradational stratigraphic relationships. Materials in Olympia Planum underlying the dunes of Olympia Undae are interpreted to consist mostly of the Planum Boreum cavi unit (A Bb c). Planum Boreum materials were then deeply eroded to form spiral troughs, Chasma Boreale, and marginal scarps that define the major aspects of the polar plateau's current regional topography. Locally- to regionally-extensive (though vertically minor

  14. Lineament Domain of Regional Strike-Slip Corridor: Insight from the Neogene Transtensional De Geer Transform Fault in NW Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.

    2015-05-01

    Lineaments on regional scale images represent controversial features in tectonic studies. Published models explain the presence of the lineament domains in most geodynamic environments as resulting from the enhanced erosion along strikes normal to the upper crustal regional extension. Despite their success in many tectonic frameworks, these models fail to explain the existing lineament domains in the regional strike-slip corridors that separate regional blocks, including the transform faults. The present paper investigates the lineament distribution in such environments, and specifically presents the results from a study along the shear corridor of the De Geer Transform Fault in the North Atlantic, responsible for the separation and drifting away between Northern Greenland and the Svalbard Archipelago since Oligocene times. The study spans from satellite image analysis and outcrop scale investigations to a more regional analysis on a digital bathymetric model of the North Atlantic-Arctic Ocean. Lineaments were automatically detected in the spectral band 8 (0.52-0.9 μm) of a Landsat 7 image (15 m/pixel resolution). A total of 320 image lineaments were extracted from both the regional and the local scale investigations and statistically analyzed. Results from the multi-scalar lineament analyses revealed the existence of a main N-S lineament domain regionally persistent from the De Geer corridor to the western margin of northern Spitsbergen where it relates to the youngest, post-Oligocene, tectonics observed onshore. This is confirmed by field observations showing that the N-S faults represent the youngest brittle deformation system and systematically cut the deformations associated with the building of the Tertiary West Spitsbergen fold and thrust belt. The N-S lineament domain is the result of the activity of a larger, regional scale tectonic feature, NW-SE oriented and responsible for the localized extension within its deformation corridor, the De Geer Transform

  15. Surface-Wind Anomalies in North-Atlantic and North Pacific from SSM/I Observations: Influence on Temperature of Adjoining Land Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, Joseph; Atlas, R.; Ingraham, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Starr, D.; Terry, J.

    1998-01-01

    Surface winds over the oceans are derived from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) measurements, assigning direction by Variational Analysis Method (VAM). Validations by comparison with other measurements indicate highly-satisfactory data quality. Providing global coverage from 1988, the dataset is a convenient source for surface-wind climatology. In this study, the interannual variability of zonal winds is analyzed concentrating on the westerlies in North Atlantic and North Pacific, above 30 N. Interannual differences in the westerlies exceeding 10 m sec (exp -1) are observed over large regions, often accompanied by changes of the same magnitude in the easterlies below 30 N. We concentrate on February/March, since elevated temperatures, by advancing snow-melt, can produce early spring. The extremely strong westerlies in 1997 observed in these months over North Atlantic (and also North Pacific) apparently contributed to large surface-temperature anomalies in western Europe, on the order of +3 C above the climatic monthly average for England and France. At these latitudes strong positive anomalies extended in a ring around the globe. We formulated an Index of South westerlies for the North Atlantic, which can serve as an indicator for day-by-day advection effects into Europe. In comparing 1997 and 1998 with the previous years, we establish significant correlations with the temperature anomalies (one to five days later, depending on the region, and on the season). This variability of the ocean-surface winds and of the temperature anomalies on land may be related to the El Nino/La Nina oscillations. Such large temperature fluctuations over large areas, whatever the cause, can be regarded as noise in attempts to assess long-term trends in global temperature.

  16. Regional economic impacts of water management alternatives: the case of Devils Lake, North Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Leistritz, F Larry; Leitch, Jay A; Bangsund, Dean A

    2002-12-01

    Devils Lake, located in a closed basin in northeastern North Dakota has over a century-long history of highly fluctuating water levels. The lake has risen nearly 25 feet (7.7 m) since 1993, more than doubling its surface area. Rising water levels have affected rural lands, transportation routes, and communities near the lake. In response to rising lake levels, Federal, state and local agencies have adopted a three-part approach to flood damage reduction, consisting of (1) upper basin water management to reduce the amount of water reaching the lake, (2) protection for structures and infrastructure if the lake continues to rise, and (3) developing an emergency outlet to release some lake water. The purpose of this study was to provide information about the net regional economic effects of a proposed emergency outlet for Devils Lake. An input-output model was used to estimate the regional economic effects of the outlet, under two scenarios: (1) the most likely future situation (MLS) and (2) a best case situation (BCS) (i.e., where the benefits from the outlet would be greatest), albeit an unlikely one. Regional economic effects of the outlet include effects on transportation (road and railroad construction), agriculture (land kept in production, returned to production sooner, or kept in production longer), residential relocations, and outlet construction expenditures. Effects are measured as changes in gross business volume (gross receipts) for various sectors, secondary employment, and local tax collections. The net regional economic effects of the proposed outlet would be relatively small, and consideration of these economic impacts would not strengthen the case for an outlet. PMID:12503500

  17. Evaluation of the RAQMS Regional Model During the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Pierce, R.; Crawford, J. H.; Considine, D. B.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Kittaka, C.; Hitchman, M.; Tripoli, G. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America (INTEX-A) field campaign took place over North America (NA) and the Atlantic during July-August 2004. Among the goals of INTEX-A were to characterize the composition of the troposphere over NA and the outflow of pollution from NA, and to validate satellite observations of tropospheric composition. We test and improve the regional component of the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMSN) using the comprehensive dataset, including surface, ozonesonde, aircraft, and satellite measurements of ozone and its precursors obtained during INTEX-A. We show that RAQMSN is able to reproduce the major characteristics of tropospheric ozone-CO-NOx-hydrocarbon chemistry over NA during INTEX-A. RAQMSN CO and tropospheric NO2 columns are highly correlated with those of MOPITT and SCIAMACHY, respectively. The model high NO2 bias in the Ohio River Valley reflects the fact that the emission inventory used did not take into account the reduced power plant NOx emissions from this region in 2004 as a result of pollution control programs. The model simulates well the strong day-to-day variability of O3 in the tropopause region as seen in the IONS (INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study) ozonesonde data, but shows more stratospherically influenced air in the upper troposphere (UT). The model is also able to simulate the westerly outflow of O3 to the Atlantic as revealed by the tropospheric ozone residual (TOR, July-August 2005-2008 climatology) data from OMI/MLS. We compare RAQMSN simulations with NASA DC-8 in-situ CO, NO2, O3, and total PAN observations during INTEX-A. The simulated CO is within 10 ppbv of the observations except below 900 hPa where the model is about 40 ppbv too high, consistent with a recent report that the national anthropogenic emission inventory from the US EPA is too high by 60% in summer. While overestimated in the boundary layer, NO2 and PAN are underestimated in the UT. Model lightning NOx emissions are

  18. Clinical and Microbiological Assessment of Trachoma in the Kolofata Health District, Far North Region, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Pablo; Benallaoua, Djida; Amza, Abdou; Einterz, Ellen; Huguet, Pierre; Poisson, Francois; Bilinkai, Aminou Bouba; Ismaila, Moustafa; Bensaid, Philippe; Bella, Lucienne; Chaumeil, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims: Trachoma is a sight-threatening process triggered by the infection of the conjunctiva with Chlamydiae. Blindness associated with trachoma was reported in Sahelian areas of Cameroon. However, data on the prevalence of this neglected infection in the Far North Region are not available. The aim of this study was a) to assess clinical trachoma and b) to detect Chlamydia in the conjunctiva of trachomatous populations living in the Far North Regions of Cameroon. Methods: A total of 2,423 randomly selected children (1–10 years) and 1,590 women over 14 from randomly selected villages from the Kolofata Health District (115,000 inhabitants) were included in a cross-sectional study in February 2009. Trained staff examined and obtained conjunctival swabs from trachomatous subjects. DNA was extracted and amplified to detect Chlamydia DNA by real-time PCR. The quality of sampling was assessed by quantifying the number of epithelial cells. Results: Children (2,397 or 98.9% of the predicted number) and women (1,543; 97.0%) were examined. The prevalence of follicular trachoma (TF) in children was 21% (95% CI 17.8–24.5) and of intense inflammatory trachoma (TI) 5.2% (95% CI 3.6–7.3). Among the women, trichiasis (TT) was observed in 3.4% (95% CI 2.4–4.7), corneal opacities (CO) in 1.4% (95% CI 0.8–2.3) and trachoma-related blindness in 0.9% (95% CI 0.4–1.8). Conditions related to income, illiteracy, latrines, water supply and animals wandering close to dwellings were similar in all the villages. PCR was positive in 35% of children with active trachoma and in 6% of adult females presenting TT and/or related corneal opacities. Conclusion: The prevalence of trachoma and the severe trachoma sequelae found during this survey underline the urgent need to implement efficient blindness prevention interventions to improve the visual future of the people in the Sahelian region. PMID:22949801

  19. Regional Feedbacks Between the Ocean and the Atmosphere in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L.; Garcia, M.; Kelly, K. A.; Booth, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    The ocean acts to buffer changes in the climate system with the upper 800m of the ocean taking up more than 90% of the excess heat in the climate system. On interannual time scales, surface heat fluxes damp the low-frequency heat content anomalies in some areas of the ocean where heat anomalies can be released back to the atmosphere. Analysis of satellite altimetry observations of SSH (sea surface height) as a proxy for upper ocean heat content and net suface heat flux from OAFlux (Objectively Analyzed air-sea fluxes) 993-2009 allows the identification of the times of the year and the locations in the North Atlantic where heat content anomalies are driving surface fluxes. Heat content has six month persistence while surface flux has at most one month persistence. Times series for each month of the year at each location are created to examine the lagged correlation between upper ocean heat content and the net surface heat fluxes. The heat content anomalies south of the Gulf Stream in June through November are negatively correlated with surface fluxes in November with a warmer ocean leading to surface fluxes out of the ocean. In this region, the mixed-layer by November reaches 100 m and the previous summer's stored heat is accessible to the atmosphere. The high correlations continue into December and January. By February, the correlation is no longer significant. In the region between 15N and 40N off the coast of Africa, January through May heat content are anti-correlated with surface fluxes in May. In May at this location, the climatological sensible heat flux is into the ocean, the planetary boundary layer is stable and stratocumulus clouds are common. Significant correlations in the summer are also found in the central subpolar North Atlantic. This analysis suggests that locally ocean heat content anomalies can feedback to the atmosphere, but only during certain times of the year. The impact on the atmosphere in late fall and early winter can influence of the

  20. Thermal Stability of Frozen Volatiles in the North Polar Region of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, David A.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Harmon, John K.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    Earth-based radar observations have revealed the presence on Mercury of anomalously bright, depolarizing features that appear to be localized in the permanently shadowed regions of high-latitude impact craters [1]. Observations of similar radar signatures over a range of radar wavelengths implies that they correspond to deposits that are highly transparent at radar wavelengths and extend to depths of several meters below the surface [1]. Thermal models using idealized crater topographic profiles have predicted the thermal stability of surface and subsurface water ice at these same latitudes [2]. One of the major goals of the MESSENGER mission is to characterize the nature of radar-bright craters and presumed associated frozen volatile deposits at the poles of Mercury through complementary orbital observations by a suite of instruments [3]. Here we report on an examination of the thermal stability of water ice and other frozen volatiles in the north polar region of Mercury using topographic profiles obtained by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument [4] in conjunction with a three-dimensional ray-tracing thermal model previously used to study the thermal environment of polar craters on the Moon [5].

  1. Goldschmidt crater and the Moon's north polar region: Results from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheek, L.C.; Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.W.; Clark, R.N.; Combe, J.-P.; Head, J.W.; Isaacson, P.J.; McCord, T.B.; Moriarty, D.; Nettles, J.W.; Petro, N.E.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Soils within the impact crater Goldschmidt have been identified as spectrally distinct from the local highland material. High spatial and spectral resolution data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter are used to examine the character of Goldschmidt crater in detail. Spectral parameters applied to a north polar mosaic of M3 data are used to discern large-scale compositional trends at the northern high latitudes, and spectra from three widely separated regions are compared to spectra from Goldschmidt. The results highlight the compositional diversity of the lunar nearside, in particular, where feldspathic soils with a low-Ca pyroxene component are pervasive, but exclusively feldspathic regions and small areas of basaltic composition are also observed. Additionally, we find that the relative strengths of the diagnostic OH/H2O absorption feature near 3000 nm are correlated with the mineralogy of the host material. On both global and local scales, the strongest hydrous absorptions occur on the more feldspathic surfaces. Thus, M3 data suggest that while the feldspathic soils within Goldschmidt crater are enhanced in OH/H2O compared to the relatively mafic nearside polar highlands, their hydration signatures are similar to those observed in the feldspathic highlands on the farside. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Regional significance of an early Holocene moraine in Enchantment Lakes basin, North Cascade Range, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waitt, R.B., Jr.; Yount, J.C.; Davis, P.T.

    1982-01-01

    The upper Enchantment Lakes basin in the North Cascade Range of Washington displays two moraine belts, each recording an episode of glacier advance after the end of the last glaciation. The inner belt, the Brynhild, 0.1 to 0.5 km beyond existing glaciers, postdates Mount St. Helens Wn tephra (???450 yr old), which lies only beyond the moraines. The morainal surface is only slightly weathered, is almost barren of lichens, and is devoid of soil, evidence suggesting that the Brynhild moraines are no more than a century old. The outer moraine, the Brisingamen, 0.3 to 0.7 km beyond existing glaciers, is weathered and is covered with large lichens. On and behind the Brisingamen moraine the Mazama ash (6900 yr old) is present beneath the Mount St. Helens Yn and Wn tephras. Despite more than 7 millennia of weathering, the rock surface behind the Brisingamen moraine is measurably less weathered than the surface beyond, which was last glaciated during the Rat Creek advance about 13,000 yr ago. The age of the Brisingamen moraine therefore is probably early Holocene. The Brisingamen moraine evidently correlates with moraines near Glacier Peak, near Mount Rainier, in northeastern and central Oregon, in the southern Canadian Rockies, and in the northern U.S. Rocky Mountains. These regional effects suggest that a climatic episode of cooling or increased snowfall affected the entire region some time during the early Holocene. ?? 1982.

  3. Surficial Geologic Map of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park Region, Tennessee and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, Scott; Schultz, Art; Denenny, Danielle; Triplett, James

    2004-01-01

    The Surficial Geology of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park Region, Tennessee and North Carolina was mapped from 1993 to 2003 under a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS). This 1:100,000-scale digital geologic map was compiled from 2002 to 2003 from unpublished field investigations maps at 1:24,000-scale. The preliminary surficial geologic data and map support cooperative investigations with NPS, the U.S. Natural Resource Conservation Service, and the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (http://www.dlia.org/) (Southworth, 2001). Although the focus of our work was within the Park, the geology of the surrounding area is provided for regional context. Surficial deposits document the most recent part of the geologic history of this part of the western Blue Ridge and eastern Tennessee Valley of the Valley and Ridge of the Southern Appalachians. Additionally, there is great variety of surficial materials, which directly affect the different types of soil and associated flora and fauna. The surficial deposits accumulated over tens of millions of years under varied climatic conditions during the Cenozoic era and resulted from a composite of geologic processes.

  4. Neogene-Eopleistocene shelly limestones in the North Caucasus and Ciscaucasia regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beluzhenko, E. V.

    2014-07-01

    In the North Caucasus and Ciscaucasia, seven distribution zones of Middle-Upper Miocene, Pliocene, and Eopleistocene shell-detrital limestones are defined: Lower Don, Tsimlyansk-Manych, Western Ciscaucasia, Western Caucasus, Central Ciscaucasia, Kabarda-Chechen, and Eastern Dagestan. The shell-detrital limestones are present among sandy-clayey sediments in the form of intercalations of variable thickness traceable over different distances (up to a few kilometers). The maximum thicknesses of such limestones are characteristic of the Neogene sections in the northwestern pericline of the Greater Caucasus: Taman-Adagum area, where their distribution comprises the stratigraphic interval from the Chokrakian to early Cimmerian regional stages (approximately 10 m.y. long). Their most spacious distribution area is confined to the Central Ciscaucasia zone. The shell-detrital limestones in the Neogene sections mark shallowwater shelf areas (ancient coastal bars, banks, and shoals) with intermittently forming environments favorable for accumulation of significant volumes of shelly detritus. In such paleogeographic settings, the sediments were subjected to repeated erosion with subsequent formation of limestones. Now, they represent building material widely used in the region for different purposes.

  5. Preliminary result of P-wave speed tomography beneath North Sumatera region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatnika, Jajat; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Wandono

    2015-04-01

    The structure of P-wave speed beneath the North Sumatra region was determined using P-wave arrival times compiled by MCGA from time periods of January 2009 to December 2012 combining with PASSCAL data for February to May 1995. In total, there are 2,246 local earthquake events with 10,666 P-wave phases from 63 stations seismic around the study area. Ray tracing to estimate travel time from source to receiver in this study by applying pseudo-bending method while the damped LSQR method was used for the tomographic inversion. Based on assessment of ray coverage, earthquakes and stations distribution, horizontal grid nodes was set up of 30×30 km2 for inside the study area and 80×80 km2 for outside the study area. The tomographic inversion results show low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex region and around the Sumatra Fault Zones (SFZ). These features are consistent with previous study. The low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex are observed around Mt. Pusuk Bukit at depths of 5 km down to 100 km. The interpretation is these anomalies may be associated with ascending hot materials from subduction processes at depths of 80 km down to 100 km. The obtained Vp structure from local tomography will give valuable information to enhance understanding of tectonic and volcanic in this study area.

  6. Oesophageal cancer treatment in North East Thames region, 1981: medical audit using Hospital Activity Analysis data.

    PubMed Central

    Earlam, R

    1984-01-01

    Figures from the Hospital Activity Analysis in the North East Thames region in 1981 were used to perform a medical audit on oesophageal cancer treatment. Four hundred and forty four patients were admitted with this diagnosis; 80 had been intubated without a thoracotomy or laparotomy, and 73 had had surgery (two thirds radical and one third palliative) with an overall operative mortality of 33%. Fifty five patients had had radiotherapy and 179 patients had no recorded operation or investigation. One hundred and seventy seven different consultants had looked after all these inpatients, most being general surgeons. Only five consultants had looked after 10 or more patients each year. From a calculated estimate of a total 286 patients in the region, 28% had palliative intubation and 25% had surgery; 20% of all the patients had radiotherapy either as a radical or palliative treatment, the remainder having no recorded therapeutic procedure. One hundred and eighty seven patients (66% of the calculated total) died in hospital. Investigation and treatment do not seem to be limited by lack of money, but money is being wasted by admitting patients for terminal care into acute hospital beds. It would be more humane for these patients to die at home or in a hospice if they wished. PMID:6203599

  7. Preliminary result of P-wave speed tomography beneath North Sumatera region

    SciTech Connect

    Jatnika, Jajat; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Wandono

    2015-04-24

    The structure of P-wave speed beneath the North Sumatra region was determined using P-wave arrival times compiled by MCGA from time periods of January 2009 to December 2012 combining with PASSCAL data for February to May 1995. In total, there are 2,246 local earthquake events with 10,666 P-wave phases from 63 stations seismic around the study area. Ray tracing to estimate travel time from source to receiver in this study by applying pseudo-bending method while the damped LSQR method was used for the tomographic inversion. Based on assessment of ray coverage, earthquakes and stations distribution, horizontal grid nodes was set up of 30×30 km2 for inside the study area and 80×80 km2 for outside the study area. The tomographic inversion results show low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex region and around the Sumatra Fault Zones (SFZ). These features are consistent with previous study. The low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex are observed around Mt. Pusuk Bukit at depths of 5 km down to 100 km. The interpretation is these anomalies may be associated with ascending hot materials from subduction processes at depths of 80 km down to 100 km. The obtained Vp structure from local tomography will give valuable information to enhance understanding of tectonic and volcanic in this study area.

  8. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the greater North Sea region - Part 2: Scenarios for 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthias, V.; Aulinger, A.; Backes, A.; Bieser, J.; Geyer, B.; Quante, M.; Zeretzke, M.

    2016-01-01

    Scenarios for future shipping emissions in the North Sea have been developed in the framework of the Clean North Sea Shipping project. The effects of changing NOx and SO2 emissions were investigated with the CMAQ chemistry transport model for the year 2030 in the North Sea area. It has been found that, compared to today, the contribution of shipping to the NO2 and O3 concentrations will increase due to the expected enhanced traffic by more than 20 and 5 %, respectively, by 2030 if no regulation for further emission reductions is implemented in the North Sea area. PM2.5 will decrease slightly because the sulfur contents in ship fuels will be reduced as international regulations foresee. The effects differ largely between regions, seasons and date of the implementation of stricter regulations for NOx emissions from newly built ships.

  9. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the Greater North Sea region - Part 2: Scenarios for 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthias, V.; Aulinger, A.; Backes, A.; Bieser, J.; Geyer, B.; Quante, M.; Zeretzke, M.

    2015-04-01

    Scenarios for future shipping emissions in the North Sea have been developed in the framework of the Clean North Sea Shipping project. The effects of changing NOx and SO2 emissions were invesigated with the chemistry transport model CMAQ for the year 2030 in the North Sea area. It has been found that, compared to today, the contribution of shipping to the NO2 and O3 concentrations will increase due to the expected enhanced traffic by more than 20 and 5%, respectively, by 2030 if no regulation for further emission reductions will be implemented in the North Sea area. PM2.5 will decrease slightly because the sulphur contents in ship fuels will be reduced as international regulations foresee. The effects differ largely between regions, seasons and date of the implementation of stricter regulations for NOx emissions from new built ships.

  10. Geochemical and isotopic characterization of mantle xenoliths from the back arc region of north Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundl, Andrea; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Lukás, Ackerman; Bizimis, Michael; Bjerg, Ernesto; Hauzenberger, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Mantle xenoliths brought to the surface by alkali basalts in north Patagonia, Argentina, were studied for their geochemical and isotopic compositions. Samples were collected at four different outcrops within the North Patagonian Massif in Rio Negro Province. The studied sample suite from Comallo (COM), Puesto Diaz (PD), Cerro Chenque (CH) and Prahuaniyeu (PRA) comprises anhydrous spinel-harzburgites, spinel-dunites, as well as one PRA spinel-garnet-lherzolite. Bulk rock Al2O3 and CaO compositions of the studied samples lie within a narrow range of 0.68 to 1.31 wt. % and 0.36 to 1.25 wt. %, respectively. Al2O3 and CaO decrease with increasing MgO ranging from 44.7 to 48.0 wt. %. The single spinel-garnet lherzolite has a more fertile composition with CaO, Al2O3 and MgO of 2.78 wt. %, 2.35 wt. % and 42.2 wt. %, respectively. With the exception of the PRA region, the studied mantle xenoliths represent an overall highly depleted lithospheric mantle underneath northern Patagonia (up to 25% melt extraction). The rock forming minerals show concentrations typical for depleted peridotites with mg# that range from 0.91 to 0.92 for olivine and orthopyroxene and mg# from 0.91 to 0.95 for clinopyroxene. Variably elevated clinopyroxene trace element compositions in all studied north Patagonian mantle samples indicate reactions with a chromatographically fractionated melt after the initial melt depletion event. A percolating melt reacts with a strongly depleted mantle peridotite as it propagates through the wall rock and subsequently changes its composition. These melt-rock reactions lead to a compositionally evolving melt and variably altered mantle sections, which is strongly reflected in primitive mantle normalized clinopyroxene trace element patterns. Bulk rock and mineral compositions, on the other hand, suggest that this melt percolation event has not significantly affected major element systematics. Contrary, isotope and HSE systematics also indicate melt-rock reactions. In

  11. Characterization of the Morphometry of Impact Craters Hosting Polar Deposits in Mercury's North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talpe, Matthieu, J.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Solomon, Sean C.; Vilas, Faith

    2012-01-01

    Earth-based radar images dating back two decades show that the floors of some polar craters on Mercury host radar-bright deposits that have been proposed to consist of frozen volatiles. Several hypotheses have been put forth to explain their source, including volcanic outgassing, chemical sputtering, and deposition of exogenous water ice. Calculations show that volatiles are thermally stable in permanently shadowed areas. An earlier study of the depths of north polar craters determined with photoclinometric techniques applied to Mariner 10 images yielded the conclusion that the mean ratio of crater depth d to rim-crest diameter D for craters hosting polar deposits is two-thirds that of the mean ratio for a comparable population of neighboring craters lacking such deposits. This result could be explained by (though doesn't require) the presence of a thick layer of volatiles within the polar deposit-hosting craters. Here we use altimetric profiles and topographic maps obtained by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) to revisit this analysis. MLA is an instrument on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, which has been orbiting Mercury since March 2011. MLA transmits a 1064-nm laser pulse at 8 Hz during MESSENGER's trajectory over Mercury s surface. The MLA illuminates surface areas averaging between 15 m and 100 m in diameter, spaced approx 400 m apart along the spacecraft ground track. The radial precision of individual measurements is <1 m, and the current accuracy with respect to Mercury s center of mass is better than 20 m. As of mid-December 2011, MLA coverage had reached to 15 S and has yielded a comprehensive map of the topography of Mercury s northern hemisphere. The MLA data are used here to quantify the shapes of craters in the north polar region and to avoid the shadowing bias of photoclinometric techniques.

  12. Future water availability in North African dams simulated by high-resolution regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramblay, Yves; Jarlan, Lionel; Hanich, Lahoucine; Somot, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    In North Africa, the countries of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia are already experiencing water scarcity and a strong interannual variability of precipitation. To better manage their existing water resources, several dams and reservoirs have been built on most large river catchments. The objective of this study is to provide quantitative scenarios of future changes in water availability for the 47 major dams and reservoirs catchments located in North Africa. An ensemble of regional climate models (RCM) with a spatial resolution of 12km, driven by different general circulation models (GCM), from the EuroCORDEX experiment have been considered to analyze the projected changes on temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) for two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and two time horizons (2040-2065 and 2065-2090). PET is estimated from RCM outputs either with the FAO-Penman-Monteith (PM) equation, requiring air temperature, relative humidity, net radiation and wind, or with the Hargreave Samani (HS) equation, requiring only air temperature. The water balance is analyzed by comparing the climatic demand and supply of water, considering that for most of these catchments groundwater storage is negligible over long time periods. Results indicated a future temperature increase for all catchments between +1.8° and +4.2°, depending on the emission scenario and the time period considered. Precipitation is projected to decrease between -14% to -27%, mainly in winter and spring, with a strong East to West gradient. PET computed from PM or HS formulas provided very similar estimates and projections, ranging between +7% to +18%. Changes in PET are mostly driven by rising temperatures and are greatest during dry summer months than for the wet winter season. Therefore the increased PET has a lower impact than declining precipitation on future water availability, which is expected to decrease by -19% to -33% on average.

  13. Structural pattern in the Precambrian rocks of Sonua-Lotapahar region, North Singhbhum, eastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Dhruba; Bhattacharya, Tapas; Chakraborty, Tapan; Dey, Arun Kanti

    1990-06-01

    In the western part of the North Singhbhum fold belt near Lotapahar and Sonua the remobilized basement block of Chakradharpur Gneiss is overlain by a metasedimentary assemblage consisting of quartz arenite, conglomerate, slate-phyllite, greywacke with volcanogenic material, volcaniclastic rocks and chert. The rock assemblage suggests an association of volcanism, turbidite deposition and debris flow in the basin. The grade of metamorphism is very low, the common metamorphic minerals being muscovite, chlorite, biotite and stilpnomelane. Three phases of deformation have affected the rocks. The principal D1 structure is a penetrative planar fabric, parallel to or at low angle to bedding. No D1 major fold is observed and the regional importance of this deformation is uncertain. The D2 deformation has given rise to a number of northerly plunging major folds on E-W axial planes. These have nearly reclined geometry and the L 2lineation is mostly downdip on the S 2surface, though some variation in pitch is observed. The morphology of D2 planar fabric varies from slaty cleavage/schistosity to crenulation cleavage and solution cleavage. D3 deformation is weak and has given rise to puckers and broad warps on schistosity and bedding. The D2 major folds south of Lotapahar are second order folds in the core of the Ongarbira syncline whose easterly closure is exposed east of the mapped area. Photogeological study suggests that the easterly and westerly closing folds together form a large synclinal sheath fold. There is a continuity of structures from north to south and no mylonite belt is present, though there is attenuation and disruption along the fold limbs. Therefore, the Singhbhum shear zone cannot be extended westwards in the present area. There is no evidence that in this area a discontinuity surface separates two orogenic belts of Archaean and Proterozoic age.

  14. Climate trends of the North American prairie pothole region 1906-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millett, B.; Johnson, W.C.; Guntenspergen, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is unique to North America. Its millions of wetlands and abundant ecosystem goods and services are highly sensitive to wide variations of temperature and precipitation in time and space characteristic of a strongly continental climate. Precipitation and temperature gradients across the PPR are orthogonal to each other. Precipitation nearly triples from west to east from approximately 300 mm/year to 900 mm/year, while mean annual temperature ranges from approximately 1°C in the north to nearly 10°C in the south. Twentieth-century weather records for 18 PPR weather stations representing 6 ecoregions revealed several trends. The climate generally has been getting warmer and wetter and the diurnal temperature range has decreased. Minimum daily temperatures warmed by 1.0°C, while maximum daily temperatures cooled by 0.15°C. Minimum temperature warmed more in winter than in summer, while maximum temperature cooled in summer and warmed in winter. Average annual precipitation increased by 49 mm or 9%. Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) trends reflected increasing moisture availability for most weather stations; however, several stations in the western Canadian Prairies recorded effectively drier conditions. The east-west moisture gradient steepened during the twentieth century with stations in the west becoming drier and stations in the east becoming wetter. If the moisture gradient continues to steepen, the area of productive wetland ecosystems will shrink. Consequences for wetlands would be especially severe if the future climate does not provide supplemental moisture to offset higher evaporative demand.

  15. Regional Climate and Streamflow Projections in North America Under IPCC CMIP5 Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H. I.; Castro, C. L.; Troch, P. A. A.; Mukherjee, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Colorado River system is the predominant source of water supply for the Southwest U.S. and is already fully allocated, making the region's environmental and economic health particularly sensitive to annual and multi-year streamflow variability. Observed streamflow declines in the Colorado Basin in recent years are likely due to synergistic combination of anthropogenic global warming and natural climate variability, which are creating an overall warmer and more extreme climate. IPCC assessment reports have projected warmer and drier conditions in arid to semi-arid regions (e.g. Solomon et al. 2007). The NAM-related precipitation contributes to substantial Colorado streamflows. Recent climate change studies for the Southwest U.S. region project a dire future, with chronic drought, and substantially reduced Colorado River flows. These regional effects reflect the general observation that climate is being more extreme globally, with areas climatologically favored to be wet getting wetter and areas favored to be dry getting drier (Wang et al. 2012). Multi-scale downscaling modeling experiments are designed using recent IPCC AR5 global climate projections, which incorporate regional climate and hydrologic modeling components. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) has been selected as the main regional modeling tool; the Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC) will be used to generate streamflow projections for the Colorado River Basin. The WRF domain is set up to follow the CORDEX-North America guideline with 25km grid spacing, and VIC model is individually calibrated for upper and lower Colorado River basins in 1/8° resolution. The multi-scale climate and hydrology study aims to characterize how the combination of climate change and natural climate variability is changing cool and warm season precipitation. Further, to preserve the downscaled RCM sensitivity and maintain a reasonable climatology mean based on observed record, a new bias correction

  16. Tropical cyclone-related socio-economic losses in the western North Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, C.; Faust, E.

    2013-01-01

    The western North Pacific (WNP) is the area of the world most frequently affected by tropical cyclones (TCs). However, little is known about the socio-economic impacts of TCs in this region, probably because of the limited relevant loss data. Here, loss data from Munich RE's NatCatSERVICE database is used, a high-quality and widely consulted database of natural disasters. In the country-level loss normalisation technique we apply, the original loss data are normalised to present-day exposure levels by using the respective country's nominal gross domestic product at purchasing power parity as a proxy for wealth. The main focus of our study is on the question of whether the decadal-scale TC variability observed in the Northwest Pacific region in recent decades can be shown to manifest itself economically in an associated variability in losses. It is shown that since 1980 the frequency of TC-related loss events in the WNP exhibited, apart from seasonal and interannual variations, interdecadal variability with a period of about 22 yr - driven primarily by corresponding variations of Northwest Pacific TCs. Compared to the long-term mean, the number of loss events was found to be higher (lower) by 14% (9%) in the positive (negative) phase of the decadal-scale WNP TC frequency variability. This was identified for the period 1980-2008 by applying a wavelet analysis technique. It was also possible to demonstrate the same low-frequency variability in normalised direct economic losses from TCs in the WNP region. The identification of possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed decadal-scale Northwest Pacific TC variability will be the subject of future research, even if suggestions have already been made in earlier studies.

  17. Monitoring and Modeling Water and Energy Fluxes in North China Plain: From Field to Regional Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.

    2012-12-01

    North China Plain is one of the mostly water deficit region in the world. Even though the total water withdrawal from surface and groundwater exceeded its renewable ability for long years, due to its importance to balance the food budget in China, large amount of groundwater is still extracted every year for intensive irrigation. With winter wheat and summer maize double-cropping system, the grain yield of NCP can reach a very high level of around 15 t/ha annually, which is largely depended on timely irrigation. As a result, the ceaseless over exploitation of groundwater caused serious environmental and ecological problems, e.g. nearly all the rivers run drying-up at plain areas, groundwater declined, land subsidence, and wetland shrank. The decrease in precipitation over past half century reinforced the water shortage in NCP. The sustainability of both the water resources and agriculture became the most important issue in this region. A key issue to the sustainable use of water resources is to improve the water use efficiency and reduce agricultural water consumptions. This study will introduce the efforts we put to clarify the water and heat balances in irrigated agricultural lands and its implications to crop yield, hydrology, and water resources evolution in NCP. We established a multi-scale observation system in NCP to study the surface water and heat processes and agricultural aspect of hydrological cycle in past years. Multi-disciplinary methods are adopted into this research such as micro-meteorologic, isotopic, soil hydrologic methods at the field scale, and remote sensing and modeling for study the water fluxes over regional scale. Detailed research activities and interesting as well as some initial results will be introduced at the workshop.

  18. North-south asymmetry of eolian features in Martian polar regions - Analysis based on crater-related wind markers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.

    1981-01-01

    Crater-related wind markers in the north and south polar regions of Mars are analyzed in a study of possible north-south asymmetries in wind activity. Features including crater splotches and associated streaks, and depositional, erosional, frost and frost-sediment streaks were identified and analyzed as wind direction indicators on Viking Orbiter and Mariner 9 images of areas poleward of + or - 40 deg latitude. The wind streaks reveal eolian activity at present to be strongest in the north in winter and in the south in spring, due to the hemispherical asymmetry in climate. The alignment of the more massive intercrater dune fields with the presently strongest wind may reflect a longer-term asymmetry in spring flows, as the reorientation times of the dunes exceeded the period of climate asymmetry cycles. Finally, a wider distribution of dune latitudes in the southern polar region is noted to be suggestive of the greater effectiveness of windflow from the south pole.

  19. Cost analysis of ground-water supplies in the North Atlantic region, 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrom, Dagfin John

    1973-01-01

    The cost of municipal and industrial ground water (or, more specifically, large supplies of ground water) at the wellhead in the North Atlantic Region in 1970 generally ranged from 1.5 to 5 cents per thousand gallons. Water from crystalline rocks and shale is relatively expensive. Water from sandstone is less so. Costs of water from sands and gravels in glaciated areas and from Coastal Plain sediments range from moderate to very low. In carbonate rocks costs range from low to fairly high. The cost of ground water at the wellhead is low in areas of productive aquifers, but owing to the cost of connecting pipe, costs increase significantly in multiple-well fields. In the North Atlantic Region, development of small to moderate supplies of ground water may offer favorable cost alternatives to planners, but large supplies of ground water for delivery to one point cannot generally be developed inexpensively. Well fields in the less productive aquifers may be limited by costs to 1 or 2 million gallons a day, but in the more favorable aquifers development of several tens of millions of gallons a day may be practicable and inexpensive. Cost evaluations presented cannot be applied to any one specific well or specific site because yields of wells in any one place will depend on the local geologic and hydrologic conditions; however, with such cost adjustments as may be necessary, the methodology presented should have wide applicability. Data given show the cost of water at the wellhead based on the average yield of several wells. The cost of water delivered by a well field includes costs of connecting pipe and of wells that have the yields and spacings specified. Cost of transport of water from the well field to point of consumption and possible cost of treatment are not evaluated. In the methodology employed, costs of drilling and testing, pumping equipment, engineering for the well field, amortization at 5% percent interest, maintenance, and cost of power are considered. The

  20. Electrical conductivity of mantle in the North Central region of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obiora, Daniel N.; Okeke, Francisca N.; Yumoto, K.

    2015-01-01

    The mantle electrical conductivity profile of the North Central region of Nigeria was determined using the quiet day ionospheric current variations (Sq). The employed magnetic averaged hourly data were obtained from Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) ground based observatories at two Nigerian stations located at Ilorin (8°30‧N, 4°33‧E) and Abuja (8°59‧N, 7°23‧E) for the year 2009 and 2010. The magnetometer data from Pankshin (9°20‧N, 9°27‧E) and Katsina-Ala (7°10‧N, 9°17‧E) for the same years were equally employed. The separation of both the internal and external field contributions to the Sq variations was successfully carried out employing spherical harmonic analysis (SHA). Transfer function was performed in computing the conductivity-depth profile for North Central region of Nigeria from the paired external and internal coefficients of the SHA. The conductivity value of approximately 0.039 S/m was estimated at a depth of 100 km which rose gradually to 0.087 S/m at 207 km depth and 0.142 S/m at 367 km (close to the base of upper mantle). Subsequently, the conductivity profile continued rising to a value of 0.144 S/m at 442 km, 0.164 S/m at 653 km and 0.174 S/m at 710 km. Finally, value of approximately 0.195 S/m at a depth of 881 km and 0.240 S/m at 1100 km depth were recorded at the lower mantle with no indication of leveling off. Some evidence of discontinuities near 100-214 km, 214-420 km, 420-640 km, 640-900 km and 900-1100 km were clearly obvious. The sharp increase in conductivity from about 100 km depth to 230 km was interpreted to correspond to the global seismic low velocity zone - the asthenosphere.

  1. Fellow travellers: a concordance of colonization patterns between mice and men in the North Atlantic region

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background House mice (Mus musculus) are commensals of humans and therefore their phylogeography can reflect human colonization and settlement patterns. Previous studies have linked the distribution of house mouse mitochondrial (mt) DNA clades to areas formerly occupied by the Norwegian Vikings in Norway and the British Isles. Norwegian Viking activity also extended further westwards in the North Atlantic with the settlement of Iceland, short-lived colonies in Greenland and a fleeting colony in Newfoundland in 1000 AD. Here we investigate whether house mouse mtDNA sequences reflect human history in these other regions as well. Results House mice samples from Iceland, whether from archaeological Viking Age material or from modern-day specimens, had an identical mtDNA haplotype to the clade previously linked with Norwegian Vikings. From mtDNA and microsatellite data, the modern-day Icelandic mice also share the low genetic diversity shown by their human hosts on Iceland. Viking Age mice from Greenland had an mtDNA haplotype deriving from the Icelandic haplotype, but the modern-day Greenlandic mice belong to an entirely different mtDNA clade. We found no genetic association between modern Newfoundland mice and the Icelandic/ancient Greenlandic mice (no ancient Newfoundland mice were available). The modern day Icelandic and Newfoundland mice belong to the subspecies M. m. domesticus, the Greenlandic mice to M. m. musculus. Conclusions In the North Atlantic region, human settlement history over a thousand years is reflected remarkably by the mtDNA phylogeny of house mice. In Iceland, the mtDNA data show the arrival and continuity of the house mouse population to the present day, while in Greenland the data suggest the arrival, subsequent extinction and recolonization of house mice - in both places mirroring the history of the European human host populations. If house mice arrived in Newfoundland with the Viking settlers at all, then, like the humans, their presence was

  2. Evidence of Short Timescale Flux Density Variations of UC HII Regions in Sgr B2 Main and North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pree, C. G.; Peters, T.; Mac Low, M. M.; Wilner, D. J.; Goss, W. M.; Galván-Madrid, R.; Keto, E. R.; Klessen, R. S.; Monsrud, A.

    2015-12-01

    We have recently published observations of significant flux density variations at 1.3 cm in H ii regions in the star-forming regions Sgr B2 Main and North. To further study these variations, we have made new 7 mm continuum and recombination line observations of Sgr B2 at the highest possible angular resolution of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We have observed Sgr B2 Main and North at 42.9 GHz and at 45.4 GHz in the BnA configuration (Main) and the A configuration (North). We compare these new data to archival VLA 7 mm continuum data of Sgr B2 Main observed in 2003 and Sgr B2 North observed in 2001. We find that 1 of the 41 known ultracompact and hypercompact H ii regions in Sgr B2 (K2-North) has decreased ∼27% in flux density from 142 ± 14 to 103 ± 10 mJy (2.3σ) between 2001 and 2012. A second source, F3c-Main, has increased ∼30% in flux density from 82 ± 8 to 107 ± 11 mJy (1.8σ) between 2003 and 2012. F3c-Main was previously observed to increase in flux density at 1.3 cm over a longer time period between 1989 and 2012. An observation of decreasing flux density, such as that observed in K2-North, is particularly significant since such a change is not predicted by the classical hypothesis of steady expansion of H ii regions during massive star accretion. Our new observations at 7 mm, along with others in the literature, suggest that the formation of massive stars occurs through time-variable and violent accretion.

  3. Review of the physical oceanography of the Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Region. Volume 1. Literature synthesis. Appendix A. Annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.E.; Berger, T.J.; Boicourt, W.C.; Churchill, J.H.; Earle, M.D.

    1993-10-01

    The report, second in a three set series, is an annotated bibliography of the pertinent literature, primarily from 1970 to the present. The literature discusses the physical oceanography of the complex region offshore of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina as it relates to the ocean circulation and fate of any discharges resulting from offshore oil and gas activity.

  4. Characterization of the partial RNA1 and RNA2 3' untranslated region of tomato ringspot virus isolates from North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 3' non-translated regions (NTRs) of RNA1 and RNA2 of Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) are long and virtually identical. In this study, sequences containing most of the 3’ NTRs (1168-1265 bp) were determined from 18 ToRSV isolates collected from fruit trees, small fruits, and grapevines in North Am...

  5. Active Mass Wasting of Ices in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. S.; Byrne, S.; Pathare, A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    The HiRISE camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has discovered two forms of mass-wasting in the north-polar region. One is the scarpward retreat of bright layers of the north polar basal unit (BU, immediately underlying the north polar layered deposits, NPLD) and the overlying NPLD by fracture-controlled and undercutting-assisted piecewise failure of layer edges, resulting in rockfalls and rockslides, called blockfalls here. This is important as it suggests an alternative, significant mode of erosion in addition to sublimation which is traditionally held account-able for erosion of polar surfaces. The other form, caught in-action during imaging, comprises falls and avalanches of frost and dust over a few steep NPLD scarps during early spring. Here we report the latest findings in both of these dramatic and currently active processes and assess their role in the evolution and history of polar deposits. NPLD and BU mass wasting: Typical evidence of recent blockfall activity is in the form of blocks, flows, and debris on BU slopes. In a few cases, the appearance of new blocks in subsequent images proves this process is ongo-ing. In general, [likely] active outcrops have a higher overall MOLA-derived slope than [likely] quiescent outcrops (those with a lack of debris and abundance of sand on the BU). Furthermore, none of the NPLD peripheral scarps without BU exposure have slopes above 40°. This suggests BU exposure and this type of mass wasting play a role in maintaining and possibly creating over-steepened NPLD scarps (often 45°-65°, with sections approaching vertical). The lower-sloped NPLD scarps with no BU present also do not display the severe fracturing that characterizes steep NPLD cliffs directly above BU exposures. This may be due to fracture propagation from undercutting by the BU, thermal stresses induced by rapid and intense heating on steepened slopes with high solar incidence angles, or rapid uncovering of ice that was under compressive stresses

  6. Evidence of added value in North American regional climate model hindcast simulations using ever-increasing horizontal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas-Picher, Philippe; Laprise, René; Winger, Katja

    2016-07-01

    The study of regional rainfall trends over South Asia is critically important for food security and economy, as both these factors largely depend on the availability of water. In this study, South Asian summer monsoon rainfall trends on seasonal and monthly (June-September) time scales have been investigated using three observational data sets. Our analysis identify a dipole-type structure in rainfall trends over the region north of the Indo-Pak subcontinent, with significant increasing trends over the core monsoon region of Pakistan and significant decreasing trends over the central-north India and adjacent areas. The dipole is also evident in monthly rainfall trend analyses, which is more prominent in July and August. We show, in particular, that the strengthening of northward moisture transport over the Arabian Sea is a likely reason for the significant positive trend of rainfall in the core monsoon region of Pakistan. In contrast, over the central-north India region, the rainfall trends are significantly decreasing due to the weakening of northward moisture transport over the Bay of Bengal. The leading empirical orthogonal functions clearly show the strengthening (weakening) patterns of vertically integrated moisture transport over the Arabian Sea (Bay of Bengal) in seasonal and monthly interannual time scales. The regression analysis between the principal components and rainfall confirm the dipole pattern over the region. Our results also suggest that the extra-tropical phenomena could influence the mean monsoon rainfall trends over Pakistan by enhancing the cross-equatorial flow of moisture into the Arabian Sea.

  7. Evidence of added value in North American regional climate model hindcast simulations using ever-increasing horizontal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas-Picher, Philippe; Laprise, René; Winger, Katja

    2016-06-01

    The study of regional rainfall trends over South Asia is critically important for food security and economy, as both these factors largely depend on the availability of water. In this study, South Asian summer monsoon rainfall trends on seasonal and monthly (June-September) time scales have been investigated using three observational data sets. Our analysis identify a dipole-type structure in rainfall trends over the region north of the Indo-Pak subcontinent, with significant increasing trends over the core monsoon region of Pakistan and significant decreasing trends over the central-north India and adjacent areas. The dipole is also evident in monthly rainfall trend analyses, which is more prominent in July and August. We show, in particular, that the strengthening of northward moisture transport over the Arabian Sea is a likely reason for the significant positive trend of rainfall in the core monsoon region of Pakistan. In contrast, over the central-north India region, the rainfall trends are significantly decreasing due to the weakening of northward moisture transport over the Bay of Bengal. The leading empirical orthogonal functions clearly show the strengthening (weakening) patterns of vertically integrated moisture transport over the Arabian Sea (Bay of Bengal) in seasonal and monthly interannual time scales. The regression analysis between the principal components and rainfall confirm the dipole pattern over the region. Our results also suggest that the extra-tropical phenomena could influence the mean monsoon rainfall trends over Pakistan by enhancing the cross-equatorial flow of moisture into the Arabian Sea.

  8. Revised correlation of Silurian Provincial Series of North America with global and regional chronostratigraphic units and δ13Ccarb chemostratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, Bradley D.; Brett, Carlton E.; Melchin, Michael J.; Mannik, Peep; Kleffner, Mark A.; McLaughlin, Patrick I.; Loydell, David K.; Munnecke, Axel; Jeppsson, Lennart; Corradini, Carlo; Brunton, Frank R.; Saltzman, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent revisions to the biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic assignment of strata from the type area of the Niagaran Provincial Series (a regional chronostratigraphic unit) have demonstrated the need to revise the chronostratigraphic correlation of the Silurian System of North America. Recently, the working group to restudy the base of the Wenlock Series has developed an extremely high-resolution global chronostratigraphy for the Telychian and Sheinwoodian stages by integrating graptolite and conodont biostratigraphy with carbonate carbon isotope (??13Ccarb) chemostratigraphy. This improved global chronostratigraphy has required such significant chronostratigraphic revisions to the North American succession that much of the Silurian System in North America is currently in a state of flux and needs further refinement. This report serves as an update of the progress on recalibrating the global chronostratigraphic correlation of North American Provincial Series and Stage boundaries in their type area. The revised North American classification is correlated with global series and stages as well as regional classifications used in the United Kingdom, the East Baltic, Australia, China, the Barrandian, and Altaj. Twenty-four potential stage slices, based primarily on graptolite and conodont zones and correlated to the global series and stages, are illustrated alongside a new composite ??13Ccarb curve for the Silurian. Conodont, graptolite, isotope, New York, Ontario, series, Silurian, stage. ?? 2010 The Authors, Journal compilation ?? 2010 The Lethaia Foundation.

  9. Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howarth, R.W.; Billen, G.; Swaney, D.; Townsend, A.; Jaworski, N.; Lajtha, K.; Downing, J.A.; Elmgren, Ragnar; Caraco, N.; Jordan, T.; Berendse, F.; Freney, J.; Kudeyarov, V.; Murdoch, P.; Zhu, Z.-L.

    1996-01-01

    We present estimates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus fluxes in rivers to the North Atlantic Ocean from 14 regions in North America, South America, Europe, and Africa which collectively comprise the drainage basins to the North Atlantic. The Amazon basin dominates the overall phosphorus flux and has the highest phosphorus flux per area. The total nitrogen flux from the Amazon is also large, contributing 3.3 Tg yr-1 out of a total for the entire North Atlantic region of 13.1 Tg yr-1. On a per area basis, however, the largest nitrogen fluxes are found in the highly disturbed watersheds around the North Sea, in northwestern Europe, and in the northeastern U.S., all of which have riverine nitrogen fluxes greater than 1,000 kg N km-2 yr-1. Non-point sources of nitrogen dominate riverine fluxes to the coast in all regions. River fluxes of total nitrogen from the temperate regions of the North Atlantic basin are correlated with population density, as has been observed previously for fluxes of nitrate in the world's major rivers. However, more striking is a strong linear correlation between river fluxes of total nitrogen and the sum of anthropogenically-derived nitrogen inputs to the temperate regions (fertilizer application, human-induced increases in atmospheric deposition of oxidized forms of nitrogen, fixation by leguminous crops, and the import/export of nitrogen in agricultural products). On average, regional nitrogen fluxes in rivers are only 25% of these anthropogenically derived nitrogen inputs. Denitrification in wetlands and aquatic ecosystems is probably the dominant sink, with storage in forests perhaps also of importance. Storage of nitrogen in groundwater, although of importance in some localities, is a very small sink for nitrogen inputs in all regions. Agricultural sources of nitrogen dominate inputs in many regions, particularly the Mississippi basin and the North Sea drainages. Deposition of oxidized nitrogen, primarily of industrial origin, is the

  10. Evaluation of anti-malarial drugs’ use in Fitche Hospital, North Shoa, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Getachew, Rosa; Amelo, Wote; Bobasa, Eshetu Mulisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Retrospective evaluation of anti-malarial drugs’ use in Fitche Hospital, North Shoa, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study design was conducted using selected patients cards of 1-year (January 2012–January 2013 G.C) with anti-malarial agents from January 18 to 30, 2013. The sample size was calculated by using Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Health care Organization criteria and sampling was done by using a systematic random sampling technique. Results: One hundred and twenty-five patient cards with anti-malarial drugs were reviewed of which 32.8%, 21.6%, 15.2% belongs to age range of 20–29, 10–19, and 30–39, respectively. Chloroquine prescription accounts for 50.4% from total anti-malarial drugs. 71.2% and 78.4% of patients received antibiotics and analgesics, respectively, with anti-malarial drugs. 77.6% of drugs were prescribed by generic name while the brand name was 22.39%. Conclusions: The study done in Fitche Hospital revealed that the use of anti-malarial agent was not in complete agreement with the current guideline of Ethiopia despite good practice. PMID:26957867

  11. Pollen Analysis of Natural Honeys from the Central Region of Shanxi, North China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010–2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000–100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000–500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

  12. Chlorantraniliprole susceptibility in Leptinotarsa decemlineata in the north Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Hua; Lu, Wei-Ping; Guo, Wen-Chao; Xia, Zhen-Han; Fu, Wen-Jun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2012-04-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) in the north Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region has evolved resistance to various types of insecticides. Chlorantraniliprole is a novel anthranilic diamide insecticide that binds and activates ryanodine receptors. It exhibited excellent efficacy against L. decemlineata in several field trails in Europe. In the present paper, the susceptibility of L. decemlineata fourth-instar larvae derived from six field populations and L. decemlineata adults derived from three field populations to chlorantraniliprole was determined by a topical application. The fourth-instar larvae were substantially more susceptible to chlorantraniliprole than adults, although the range of susceptibility was far greater among the fourth-instar larvae. Regarding stomach toxicities, adult beetles were less susceptible to chlorantraniliprole than larvae. Chlorantraniliprole was most toxic to second-instar larvae, followed by third- and fourth-instar larvae. These data suggested that the appropriate timing for chlorantraniliprole spraying is the early larval stage. Moreover, the synergistic activities of chlorantraniliprole in combination with triphenyl phosphate, diethyl maleate, or piperonyl butoxide against fourth-instar larvae from two field populations and adults from one field population were tested. Piperonyl butoxide had synergistic effects with chlorantraniliprole against fourth-instar larvae but not against adult beetles. Conversely, triphenyl phosphate and diethyl maleate exerted little synergistic effects. It appears that there is a potential risk of resistance against chlorantraniliprole resulting from cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. PMID:22606826

  13. Site insolation and wind power characteristics: technical report western region (north section)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    This phase of the Site Insolation and Wind Power Characteristics Study was performed to provide statistical information on the expected future availability of solar and wind power at various sites in the Western Region (North Section) of the US Historic data (SOLMET), at 21 National Weather Service stations with hourly solar insolation and collateral meteorological information, were interrogated to provide an estimate of future trends. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Selected insolation and wind power conditions were investigated for their occurrence and persistence, for defined periods of time, on a monthly basis. Global horizontal insolation is related to inclined surfaces at each site. Ratios are provided, monthly, for multiplying global insolation to obtain insolation estimates on south-facing surfaces inclined at different angles with respect to the horizontal. Also, joint probability distribution tables are constructed showing the number of occurrences, out of a finite sample size, of daily average solar and wind power within selected intervals, by month. Information of this nature is intended as an aid to preliminary planning activities for the design and operation of solar and wind energy utilization and conversion systems.

  14. Regional patterns of mercury content in snowpack, sphagnum, and fish in northeastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, T.; Mower, B.; Perry, R.

    1995-12-31

    High levels of mercury have been found in fish from lakes throughout the northeastern US and eastern Canada, in waters with no known local mercury source. If this mercury originates from anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere, deposition should be higher near population centers or other point sources. The authors surveyed the mercury content of late-season snowpack, sphagnum moss, and fish at locations from southwestern Connecticut to northern Newfoundland to determine if such a pattern existed. Mercury in snow ranged 1.5 to 20 ng/L, and in sphagnum < 24 to 289 ng/g dry wt. Concentrations were generally highest at southwestern sites and lowest at northeastern sites with some exceptions. The highest concentrations in both media were at locations in Rhode Island and New Hampshire, and may reflect local source emissions. Excluding these sites, the range in concentration from south to north is only a factor of two or three. These values are similar to those reported in other areas and reflect the long atmospheric residence time of gaseous elemental mercury. Mercury concentration in fish ranged 0.1 to 1.0 ug/g wet wt. and showed no regional pattern. Rather, fish mercury concentration was affected by fish species and size, being highest in large predatory species such as smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and lowest in small nonpredatory species such as yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).

  15. The evolution of dust deposits in the Martian north polar region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, S. W.

    1979-01-01

    The origin and evolution of two major eolian deposits of the Martian north polar region, the layered deposits and the debris mantle, are examined. Both apparently result from deposition of dust along with the seasonal CO2 frost cap. Dust deposited onto the perennial ice is incorporated into the layered deposits, while dust deposited directly onto the surface becomes part of the debris mantle. Climatically induced fluctuation of the perennial ice margin has influenced the evolution of both units. Periodic exposure to the atmosphere has allowed erosion of curvilinear troughs in the surface of the layered deposits. Intervening periods of deposition may have resulted in gradual poleward migration of the trough forms, leaving behind sets of low-amplitude surface undulations in former trough locations. Advance and retreat of the perennial ice margin has also probably resulted in a fine interfingering of the layered deposits-debris mantle contract. Limited post-depositional stripping of the debris mantle has been accomplished by intense winds blowing outward from the pole.

  16. [Species diversity and colony characteristics of bumblebees in the Hebei region of North China].

    PubMed

    An, Jian-Dong; Huang, Jia-Xing; Williams, Paul H; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Bing-Feng

    2010-06-01

    Based on the 1893 specimens collected from Hebei Province, Beijing City, and Tianjin City in 2005-2009, and the specimens deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, this paper analyzed the species diversity and colony characteristics of bumblebees in the Hebei region of North China. A total of 32 species belonging to 8 subgenera of Bombus were recorded, with 32 species in Hebei Province, 18 species in Beijing, and 5 species in Tianjin. The bumblebee in Taihang Mountains, Yanshan Mountains, and Bashang Plateau had the highest richness and abundance, and its food-plant included 80 species of 21 families, among which, Compositae, Leguminosae, and Labiatae were most important. Five bumblebee species, i. e., Bombus hypocrita, B. ignitus, B. patagiatus, B. pyrosoma, and B. picipes, had the largest colony, with more than 110 workers, 160 drones, and 30 young queens produced per colony. The success in rearing colonies of each of the 5 species by queens was > 50%, demonstrating that these 5 species had the potential to be mass-reared, with important applied value for crop pollination. PMID:20873633

  17. Observations of the north polar region of Mars from the Mars orbiter laser altimeter.

    PubMed

    Zuber, M T; Smith, D E; Solomon, S C; Abshire, J B; Afzal, R S; Aharonson, O; Fishbaugh, K; Ford, P G; Frey, H V; Garvin, J B; Head, J W; Ivanov, A B; Johnson, C L; Muhleman, D O; Neumann, G A; Pettengill, G H; Phillips, R J; Sun, X; Zwally, H J; Banerdt, W B; Duxbury, T C

    1998-12-11

    Elevations from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) have been used to construct a precise topographic map of the martian north polar region. The northern ice cap has a maximum elevation of 3 kilometers above its surroundings but lies within a 5-kilometer-deep hemispheric depression that is contiguous with the area into which most outflow channels emptied. Polar cap topography displays evidence of modification by ablation, flow, and wind and is consistent with a primarily H2O composition. Correlation of topography with images suggests that the cap was more spatially extensive in the past. The cap volume of 1.2 x 10(6) to 1.7 x 10(6) cubic kilometers is about half that of the Greenland ice cap. Clouds observed over the polar cap are likely composed of CO2 that condensed out of the atmosphere during northern hemisphere winter. Many clouds exhibit dynamical structure likely caused by the interaction of propagating wave fronts with surface topography. PMID:9851922

  18. Observations of the north polar region of Mars from the Mars orbiter laser altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Solomon, S. C.; Abshire, J. B.; Afzal, R. S.; Aharonson, O.; Fishbaugh, K.; Ford, P. G.; Frey, H. V.; Garvin, J. B.; Head, J. W.; Ivanov, A. B.; Johnson, C. L.; Muhleman, D. O.; Neumann, G. A.; Pettengill, G. H.; Phillips, R. J.; Sun, X.; Zwally, H. J.; Banerdt, W. B.; Duxbury, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    Elevations from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) have been used to construct a precise topographic map of the martian north polar region. The northern ice cap has a maximum elevation of 3 kilometers above its surroundings but lies within a 5-kilometer-deep hemispheric depression that is contiguous with the area into which most outflow channels emptied. Polar cap topography displays evidence of modification by ablation, flow, and wind and is consistent with a primarily H2O composition. Correlation of topography with images suggests that the cap was more spatially extensive in the past. The cap volume of 1.2 x 10(6) to 1.7 x 10(6) cubic kilometers is about half that of the Greenland ice cap. Clouds observed over the polar cap are likely composed of CO2 that condensed out of the atmosphere during northern hemisphere winter. Many clouds exhibit dynamical structure likely caused by the interaction of propagating wave fronts with surface topography.

  19. Nitrogen fixation and the diazotroph community in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, T.; Nagata, T.; Ijichi, M.; Furuya, K.

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen fixation in temperate oceans is a potentially important, but poorly understood process that may influence the marine nitrogen budget. This study determined seasonal variations in nitrogen fixation and the diazotroph community within the euphotic zone in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific. Nitrogen fixation as high as 13.6 nmol N L-1 d-1 was measured from early summer to fall when the surface temperature exceeded 14.2 °C (but was lower than 24.3 °C) and the surface nitrate concentration was low (≤ 0.30 μM), although we also detected nitrogen fixation in subsurface layers (42-62 m) where nitrate concentrations were high (> 1 μM). Clone library analysis results indicated that nifH gene sequences were omnipresent throughout the investigation period. During the period when nitrogen fixation was detected (early summer to fall), the genes affiliated with UCYN-A, Trichodesmium, and γ-proteobacterial phylotype γ-24774A11 were frequently recovered. In contrast, when nitrogen fixation was undetectable (winter to spring), many sequences affiliated with Cluster III diazotrophs (putative anaerobic bacteria) were recovered. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that UCYN-A was relatively abundant from early to late summer compared with Trichodesmium and γ-24774A11, whereas Trichodesmium abundance was the highest among the three groups during fall.

  20. Differential shear wave attenuation and its lateral variation in the North Atlantic region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehan, Anne F.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1992-01-01

    A digital data base of over 150 seismograms and a spectral radio technique are used to measure SS-S differential attenuation in the North Atlantic region. Differential attenuation is positively correlated with SS-S travel time residual, and both differential attentuation and travel time residual decrease with increasing seafloor age. Models are developed for seismic Q in which lateral variations include contributions from the asthenospheric low-Q zone as well as from lithospheric cooling. The Q models obtained under this assumption are in good agreement with those obtained from surface wave studies and are therefore preferred over those models with lateral variations confined to the upper 125 km. Systematic long-wavelength (1000-7000 km) variations in differential attenuation, corrected for seafloor age, are evident along the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These variations can be qualitatively correlated with long-wavelength variations in SS-S differential travel time residuals and are attributed to along-axis differences in upper mantle temperature.

  1. Active tectonics of North Haji Abad (Hormozgan region) in south of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    shafiei bafti, amir

    2014-05-01

    Zagros Active Fold -thrust Belt is situated in the northern margin of the Arabian Plat and formed due to shortening, thickening and uplift of tethys sedimentary basin between Arabian and Iranian plates. In this study, the rate of uplift in the northern margin of the Zagros Mountains in southern Iran are examined. The Zagros fault zone in this region is composed of a set faults, including Deragah, Haji Abad, Tezerj and several other faults and also we call these branches from F1 to F8. These segments puts from northwest to the East- Southeast. Based on field surveys and Geological maps, we prepared a structural map from major faults of Zagros fault system for identify faults pattern and estimating of uplift rate movements in Zagros fault. Three methods used to calculation of uplift rate: A: Asymmetry index Accordance with the procedure, in studied area, northeast drainage are longer than of southwest drainage and east minor drainages also longer than the west side drainages, Uplifting in this region is characterized by mentioned asymmetry factor. The amount of this index is AF=71.81. B. Interaction between the faults movements and erosion process We comparison contrast between uplifting movement rates and erosion rates in different parts of studied region by Smf and other indexes. Average amount of Smf=1.1. C. Evaluation of Uplift rate of alluvial terraces was performed by sediment ages and terraces height. We surveyed Quaternary facieses which have ages between 17,000 and 30,000 years old. the rate of uplifting for each fault is follows : Deragah fault and F8 fault between 1.0 to 1.85mm per year and F7, F6, F5, and F4 faults, have a rate Uplifting between 0.6 to 1.0 mm per year and the rate of Uplift for other faults is between 0.04 to 0.06 mm per year. According to our studies, uplift rates in north -east and south-west more than other regions The minimum rate at different stations are about 0.5mm/y to 0.93mm/y and its maximum is 0.88 mm/y to 1.47mm/y.

  2. Groundwater Recharge and Flow Processes in Taihang Mountains, a Semi-humid Region, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, Koichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Jie

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater flow/recharge variations in time and space are crucial for effective water management especially in semi-arid and semi-humid regions. In order to reveal comprehensive groundwater flow/recharge processes in a catchment with a large topographical relief and seasonal hydrological variations, intensive field surveys were undertaken at 4 times in different seasons (June 2011, August 2012, November 2012, February 2014) in the Wangkuai watershed, Taihang mountains, which is a main groundwater recharge area of the North China Plain. The groundwater, spring, stream water and reservoir water were taken, and inorganic solute constituents and stable isotopes of oxygen-18 and deuterium were determined on all water samples. Also, the stream flow rate and the depth of groundwater table were observed. The stable isotopic compositions and inorganic solute constituents in the groundwater are depleted and shown similar values as those of the surface water at the mountain-plain transitional area. Additionally, the groundwater in the vicinity of the Wangkuai Reservoir presents clearly higher stable isotopic compositions and lower d-excess than those of the stream water, indicating the groundwater around the reservoir is affected by evaporation same as the Wangkuai Reservoir itself. Hence, the surface water in the mountain-plain transitional area and Wangkuai Reservoir are principal groundwater recharge sources. An inversion analysis and simple mixing model were applied in the Wangkuai watershed using stable isotopes of oxygen-18 and deuterium to construct a groundwater flow model. The model shows that multi-originated groundwater flows from upstream to downstream along topography with certain mixing. In addition, the groundwater recharge occurs dominantly at the altitude from 421 m to 953 m, and the groundwater recharge rate by the Wangkuai Reservoir is estimated to be 2.4 % of the total groundwater recharge in the Wangkuai watershed. Therefore, the stream water and

  3. Dissolved Organic Matter in Headwater Streams: Compositional Variability across Climatic Regions of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffé, R.; Yamashita, Y.; Maie, N.; Cooper, W. T.; Dittmar, T.; Dodds, W. K.; Jones, J. B.; Myoshi, T.; Ortiz-Zayas, J. R.; Podgorski, D. C.; Watanabe, A.

    2012-10-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) represents the largest organic matter pool in freshwater systems, but much of it remains molecularly uncharacterized. Although freshwater systems cover only a small area of the earth's surface, inland waters are an important component of the global carbon cycle. The traditional idea that rivers are simply conduits for refractory carbon delivery to coastal areas is inconsistent with carbon flux estimates, and streams have been shown to serve as reactors for DOM cycling. The overall quality of DOM, and its associated reactivity, can be related to its chemical composition and molecular structure. However, the variability of DOM composition in freshwater ecosystems, particularly in headwater streams, is poorly characterized. Detailed molecular studies of DOM from small streams across climatic regions, which could provide critical information regarding carbon dynamics on a more global scale, have not been performed. To address these issues, this study applies a multi-method analytical approach in an attempt to assess molecular characteristics of DOM and ultrafiltered DOM (UDOM) in headwater streams from different climatic regions in North America. In general terms the chemical and molecular characteristics of UDOM from six different biomes were determined in unsurpassed detail to feature some clear general similarities but also specific differences. While the degree of similarity is remarkable, and suggests similar source strengths, such as soil-derived organic matter and/or similar diagenetic degradation processes for DOM from vastly different environments, each sample was clearly unique in its overall composition, featuring some distinct molecular patterns for at least one or more of the analytical determinations. Molecular and compositional differences of DOM from headwater streams should result from variations in DOM sources and localized environmental conditions, and consequently feature different photo- and bio-reactivity and

  4. Regional anomalies of sediment thickness, basement depth and isostatic crustal thickness in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louden, Keith E.; Tucholke, Brian E.; Oakey, Gordon N.

    2004-07-01

    We calculate the anomalous basement topography for the North Atlantic Ocean from 30° to 70°N latitude and from 0° to 70°W longitude at a resolution of roughly 6×6 km, using grids of total sediment thickness and observed and predicted sea-floor bathymetry to correct for the effects of isostatic sediment loading and lithospheric age. Plotting this residual topography for various plate reconstructions during opening of the North Atlantic, we delineate consistent patterns of basement highs related to variations in hotspot-related volcanism. In addition to Iceland and the Azores, we recognize three centers of excess volcanism at the mid-Atlantic ridge: the Milne Seamounts and Azores-Biscay Rise (˜75-40 Ma), the Southeast Newfoundland Ridge and Madeira-Tore Rise (˜130-110 Ma), and the East and West Thulean Rises (˜60-50 Ma). The duration of volcanic activity ranges from 8 to 10 m.y. (Thulean Rises) to 60 m.y. (Iceland) and thus it appears that both long- and short-lived hotspots coexist, even in relatively close proximity. In contrast, during the period 110-60 Ma we observe little excess volcanism during either continental breakup or seafloor spreading. We estimate isostatic crustal thickness from the anomalous basement depths, after first removing dynamic effects created by mantle flow. Maximum thicknesses of volcanic features, from 30 km beneath the Greenland-Iceland-Faeroe ridge to ˜15 km beneath the Azores-Biscay Rise, are broadly consistent with seismic data and predictions of decompression melting. Widths of volcanic features indicate that thickening primarily occurs within 100-200 km of hotspots except along continental margins that rifted at the time of the hotspot activity (i.e. East Greenland and the Hatton-Rockall Bank). We observe conjugate structures south of Greenland and Edoras Bank, where excess volcanism appears to have extended beyond the margin proper and into oceanic crust. Similar conjugate features appear in the Labrador Sea south of Davis

  5. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: North Dakota. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, Brenda L.; And Others

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summaries data collected from 273 North Dakota farm operators (a 39% response) and 232 spouses (a 33% response) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The…

  6. Decadal oscillation of lakes and aquifers in the upper Great Lakes region of North America: Hydroclimatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watras, C. J.; Read, J. S.; Holman, K. D.; Liu, Z.; Song, Y.-Y.; Watras, A. J.; Morgan, S.; Stanley, E. H.

    2014-01-01

    We report a unique hydrologic time series which indicates that water levels in lakes and aquifers across the upper Great Lakes region of North America have been dominated by a climatically driven, near-decadal oscillation for at least 70 years. The historical oscillation (~13 years) is remarkably consistent among small seepage lakes, groundwater tables, and the two largest Laurentian Great Lakes despite substantial differences in hydrology. Hydrologic analyses indicate that the oscillation has been governed primarily by changes in the net atmospheric flux of water (P - E) and stage-dependent outflow. The oscillation is hypothetically connected to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns originating in the midlatitude North Pacific that support the flux of moisture into the region from the Gulf of Mexico. Recent data indicate an apparent change in the historical oscillation characterized by an ~12 years downward trend beginning in 1998. Record low water levels region wide may mark the onset of a new hydroclimatic regime.

  7. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M; Hassan, Loutfy M; Galal, Tarek M; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-04-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2-5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of

  8. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M.; Hassan, Loutfy M.; Galal, Tarek M.; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2–5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion

  9. Impact of Aircraft Emissions on Reactive Nitrogen over the North Atlantic Flight Corridor Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B. E.; Sachse, G. W.; Blake, D.; Liu, S. C.; Singh, H. B.; Thompson, A.

    1999-01-01

    The impact of aircraft emissions on reactive nitrogen in the upper troposphere (UT) and lowermost stratosphere (LS) was estimated using the NO(y)-O3 correlation obtained during the SASS Ozone and NO(x) Experiment (SONEX) carried out over the US continent and North Atlantic Flight Corridor (NAFC) region in October and November 1997. To evaluate the large scale impact, we made a reference NO(y)-O3 relationship in air masses, upon which aircraft emissions were considered to have little impact. For this purpose, the integrated input of NO(x) from aircraft into an air mass along a 10-d back trajectory (DELTA-NO(y)) was calculated based on the ANCAT/EC2 emission inventory. The excess NO(y) (dNO(y)) was calculated from the observed NO(y) and the reference NO(y)-O3 relationship. As a result, a weak positive correlation was found between the dNO(y) and DELTA-NO(y), and dNO(y) and NO(x)/NO(y) values, while no positive correlation between the dNO(y) and CO values was found, suggesting that dNO(y) values can be used as a measure of the NO(x) input from aircraft emissions. The excess NO(y) values calculated from another NO(y)-O3 reference relationship made using in-situ CN data also agreed with these dNO(y) values, within the uncertainties. At the NAFC region (45 N - 60 N), the median value of dNO(y) in the troposphere increased with altitude above 9 km and reached 70 pptv (20% of NO(y)) at 11 km. The excess NO(x) was estimated to be about half of the dNO(y) values, corresponding to 30% of the observed NO(x) level. Higher dNO(y) values were generally found in air masses where O3 = 75 - 125 ppbv, suggesting a more pronounced effect around the tropopause. The median value of dNO(y) in the stratosphere at the NAFC region at 8.5 - 11.5 km was about 120 pptv. The higher dNO(y) values in the LS were probably due to the accumulated effect of aircraft emissions, given the long residence time of affected air in the LS. Similar dNO(y) values were also obtained in air masses sampled over

  10. Phase Variability of the Recent Climate in the North Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serykh, Ilya; Anisimov, Mikhail; Byshev, Vladimir; Neiman, Victor; Romanov, Juri; Sidorova, Alexandra

    2014-05-01

    2000-2012. The results shown that during the 1980-2000 period the heat content in the region (50º-60ºN; 60º-30ºW) was lower than in the 1955-1970, but higher in (30º-40ºN; 60º-30ºW) region. The data on sea water temperature, obtained as a result of numerical calculations based on the Ocean General Circulation Model (INM RAS), were used for estimate of ocean specific heat. The model is based on a complete system of nonlinear (primitive) equations describing ocean hydro- and thermodynamics in the Boussinesq approximation and written in a spherical σ-coordinate system. Numerical calculations were carried out with horizontal resolution (0.25ºx0.25º) and time step 1 hour. Boundary conditions on surface were taken from data array of CORE. Anomalies of specific heat relative to the mean annual variation in the layer from ocean surface up to 700m depth in North Atlantic region, calculated on model data and averaged for each period of (1959-1974), (1975-1999), (2000-2006), are in very close accordance with the results based on the accepted Levitus' data.

  11. Effects of tropical cyclone characteristics on the surface wave fields in the Australian North West region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drost, Edwin; Lowe, Ryan; Péquignet, Christine; Ivey, Greg; Jones, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    The northwestern Australian coastline is subject to frequent extreme wave forcing resulting from tropical cyclones (TCs) during the summer months on Australia's North West Shelf (NWS). Compared to the northern hemisphere, knowledge about the wave climate, and TC generated waves in particular on the NWS is limited. TCs on the NWS show considerable variability in paths: some move predominantly parallel to the coastline, while others propagate in a coast-normal direction. It has been suggested that surface wave fields generated by coast-parallel moving TCs are different compared to TCs moving in a coast-normal direction across the shelf. In particular, wave heights generated by coast-parallel storms may be limited in size due to both refraction and bottom friction effects. First, this study evaluates the performance of a numerical wave model (SWAN) to hindcast the surface wave fields under different TC conditions forced by a parametric TC wind model of the region. Hindcast simulations were run for 4 case studies: the coast-parallel TCs Nicholas (2008) and Bianca (2011), and the coast-normal TCs Lua (2012) and Christine (2013). Model output was compared both temporally and spatially by in situ wave buoy data and satellite altimeter data and generally showed a good agreement for throughout the history of these TCs. However, for the more intense and larger system TC Lua, the model was found to overestimate the significant wave heights, especially in the left front quadrant of the storm. A modified SWAN model using adjusted wave energy dissipation terms was found to improve model output under these conditions. Second, output from the numerical simulations is used to analyse the mechanisms behind the generation and dissipation of the wave field and to relate them to tropical cyclone characteristics including the radius of maximum winds and the storm translation speed and direction.

  12. Rainfall mechanism over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narkhedkar, S. G.; Morwal, S. B.; Padmakumari, B.; Deshpande, C. G.; Kothawale, D. R.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    Rainfall mechanism over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India during the summer monsoon season has been investigated using dynamic, thermodynamic, cloud microphysics and cloud dynamic (CMCD) forcings. Daily rainfall data has been used to understand rainfall variability. Daily ECMWF wind data for the period 2009-2011 have been used to study the wind divergence, shear and vertical velocity profiles. Daily thermodynamic parameters from upper air soundings of Hyderabad (17.448°N, 78.381°E), have been examined. Aircraft data have been used to study CMCD parameters. The divergence is found between surfaces to 850 hPa level whereas the convergence is at 850 hPa, which comes down to surface level during presence of low pressure systems. The divergence is observed at low (700 hPa), mid (600-300 hPa) and upper (250-150 hPa) tropospheric levels. In consequence of these divergence structures, three types of cloud systems viz. shallow, congestus and deep are developed with bases just above 850 hPa and tops at corresponding three divergent levels. The vertical profiles of relative humidity observed by radiosonde data have been analyzed to get the frequency distribution of shallow, congestus and deep clouds. The highest frequency observed is that of congestus clouds. The thermodynamic structure shows dry surface level and warm and moist middle troposphere with tongues of dry air and multilevel inversions which have been attributed to advection of aerosol-rich dry air. The aircraft observations showed high aerosol concentrations from surface to 5 km, polluted clouds with cloud droplet effective radius smaller than that required for collision-coalescence process. The factors which are responsible for causing low rainfall over the rain-shadow area have been identified.

  13. Environmental changes in the North Atlantic Region: SCANNET as a collaborative approach for documenting, understanding and predicting changes.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Terry V; Johansson, M; Heal, O W; Saelthun, N R; Barkved, L J; Bayfield, N; Brandt, O; Brooker, R; Christiansen, H H; Forchhammer, M; Høye, T T; Humlum, O; Järvinen, A; Jonasson, C; Kohler, J; Magnusson, B; Meltofte, H; Mortensen, L; Neuvonen, S; Pearce, I; Rasch, M; Turner, L; Hasholt, B; Huhta, E; Leskinen, E; Nielsen, N; Siikamäki, P

    2004-11-01

    The lands surrounding the North Atlantic Region (the SCANNET Region) cover a wide range of climate regimes, physical environments and availability of natural resources. Except in the extreme North, they have supported human populations and various cultures since at least the end of the last ice age. However, the region is also important at a wider geographical scale in that it influences the global climate and supports animals that migrate between the Arctic and all the other continents of the world. Climate, environment and land use in the region are changing rapidly and projections suggest that global warming will be amplified there while increasing land use might dramatically reduce the remaining wilderness areas. Because much of the region is sparsely populated--if populated at all--observational records of past environmental changes and their impacts are both few and of short duration. However, it is becoming very important to record the changes that are now in progress, to understand the drivers of these changes, and to predict future consequences of the changes. To facilitate research into understanding impacts of global change on the lands of the North Atlantic Regions, and also to monitor changes in real time, an EU-funded network of research sites and infrastructures was formed in 2000: this was called SCANNET--SCANdinavian/North European NETwork of Terrestrial Field Bases. SCANNET currently consists of 9 core sites and 5 sites within local networks that together cover the broad range of current climate and predicted change in the region. Climate observations are well replicated across the network, whereas each site has tended to select particular environmental and ecological subjects for intensive observation. This provides diversity of both subject coverage and expertise. In this paper, we summarize the findings of SCANNET to-date and outline its information bases in order to increase awareness of data on environmental change in the North Atlantic

  14. Cryosphere-hydrosphere interactions: numerical modeling using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) at different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamasco, A.; Budgell, W. P.; Carniel, S.; Sclavo, M.

    2005-03-01

    Conveyor belt circulation controls global climate through heat and water fluxes with atmosphere and from tropical to polar regions and vice versa. This circulation, commonly referred to as thermohaline circulation (THC), seems to have millennium time scale and nowadays--a non-glacial period--appears to be as rather stable. However, concern is raised by the buildup of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (IPCC, Third assessment report: Climate Change 2001. A contribution of working group I, II and III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge Univ. Press, UK) 2001, http://www.ipcc.ch) as these may affect the THC conveyor paths. Since it is widely recognized that dense-water formation sites act as primary sources in strengthening quasi-stable THC paths (Stommel H., Tellus131961224), in order to simulate properly the consequences of such scenarios a better understanding of these oceanic processes is needed. To successfully model these processes, air-sea-ice-integrated modelling approaches are often required. Here we focus on two polar regions using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). In the first region investigated, the North Atlantic-Arctic, where open-ocean deep convection and open-sea ice formation and dispersion under the intense air-sea interactions are the major engines, we use a new version of the coupled hydrodynamic-ice ROMS model. The second area belongs to the Antarctica region inside the Southern Ocean, where brine rejections during ice formation inside shelf seas origin dense water that, flowing along the continental slope, overflow becoming eventually abyssal waters. Results show how nowadays integrated-modelling tasks have become more and more feasible and effective; numerical simulations dealing with large computational domains or challenging different climate scenarios can be run on multi-processors platforms and on systems like LINUX clusters, made of the same hardware as PCs, and

  15. The impact of ENSO and the NAO on extreme winter precipitation in North America in observations and regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whan, Kirien; Zwiers, Francis

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between winter precipitation in North America and indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is evaluated using non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions with the indices as covariates. Both covariates have a statistically significant influence on precipitation that is well simulated by two regional climate models (RCMs), CanRCM4 and CRCM5. The observed influence of the NAO on extreme precipitation is largest in eastern North America, with the likelihood of a negative phase extreme rainfall event decreased in the north and increased in the south under the positive phase of the NAO. This pattern is generally well simulated by the RCMs although there are some differences in the extent of influence, particularly south of the Great Lakes. A La Niña-magnitude extreme event is more likely to occur under El Niño conditions in California and the southern United States, and less likely in most of Canada and a region south of the Great Lakes. This broad pattern is also simulated well by the RCMs but they do not capture the increased likelihood in California. In some places the extreme precipitation response in the RCMs to external forcing from a covariate is of the opposite sign, despite use of the same lateral boundary conditions and dynamical core. This demonstrates the importance of model physics for teleconnections to extreme precipitation.

  16. Estimation of regional evapotranspiration for clear sky days over the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Y.; Stisen, S.; Sandholt, I.; Jensen, K. H.

    2009-04-01

    The triangle method combined with thermal inertia for estimation of regional evapotranspiration based on Feng Yun-2C(FY-2C) satellite data and MODIS products over the North China Plain is presented. FY-2C, China's first operational geostationary meteorological satellite which features 5 spectral bands (1 VIS and 4 IR), can acquire one full disc image of China (60° N - 60° S ,45° E - 165° E) per hour every day. Two thermal red channels (IR1: 10.3-11.3 μm) and (IR2:11.5-12.5 μm) were used for surface temperature estimation using a split window algorithm originally proposed for the MSG-SEVIRI sensor assuming the channel response function range of the two split-window channels for MSG SEVIRI and FY-2C are similar and that the center of channels are the same. For application of the improved triangle method taking thermal inertia into account, the surface-air temperature gradient in the Ts-NDVI space, was replaced by the surface temperature temporal change estimated from the Land Surface Temperature at hours 8:00 and 12:00 in local time (ΔTs). Combined with the 16 days composite MODIS Vegetation Indices product (MOD 13) at spatial resolution of 5 km, evaporative fraction was estimated by interpolation in the ΔTs-NDVI triangular-shaped parameter space. Subsequently, regional actual evapotranspiration was estimated based on the derived evaporative fraction and available energy estimated from satellite data. In the piedmont plain with high NDVI and low ΔTs, evapotranspiration rate is high because of irrigation of winter wheat. In the coastal plain NDVI is low and also ΔTs is low as high evapotranspiration rates are sustained water supply from shallow water table. Ground-based measurements of evapotranspiration were retrieved from a lysimeter at the Luancheng eco-agricultural station of China Academy of Sciences. These data are representative for evapotranspiration in the piedmont plain and were used for validation of the actual evapotranspiration retrievals from

  17. Diversity and use of ethno-medicinal plants in the region of Swat, North Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to its diverse geographical and habitat conditions, northern Pakistan harbors a wealth of medicinal plants. The plants and their traditional use are part of the natural and cultural heritage of the region. This study was carried out to document which medicinal plant species and which plant parts are used in the region of Swat, which syndrome categories are particularly concerned, and which habitat spectrum is frequented by collectors. Finally, we assessed to which extent medicinal plants are vulnerable due to collection and habitat destruction. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken in the Miandam area of Swat, North Pakistan. Data were collected through field assessment as well as from traditional healers and locals by means of personal interviews and semi-structured questionnaires. Results A total of 106 ethno-medicinal plant species belonging to 54 plant families were recorded. The most common growth forms were perennial (43%) and short-lived herbs (23%), shrubs (16%), and trees (15%). Most frequently used plant parts were leaves (24%), fruits (18%) and subterranean parts (15%). A considerable proportion of the ethno-medicinal plant species and remedies concerns gastro-intestinal disorders. The remedies were mostly prepared in the form of decoction or powder and were mainly taken orally. Eighty out of 106 ethno-medicinal plants were indigenous. Almost 50% of the plants occurred in synanthropic vegetation while slightly more than 50% were found in semi-natural, though extensively grazed, woodland and grassland vegetation. Three species (Aconitum violaceum, Colchicum luteum, Jasminum humile) must be considered vulnerable due to excessive collection. Woodlands are the main source for non-synanthropic indigenous medicinal plants. The latter include many range-restricted taxa and plants of which rhizomes and other subterranean parts are dug out for further processing as medicine. Conclusion Medicinal plants are still widely used for treatment

  18. A 5200-year record of freshwater availability for regions in western North America fed by high-elevation runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Brent B.; Edwards, Thomas W. D.; Hall, Roland I.; Johnston, John W.

    2011-06-01

    Shrinking glaciers and snowpacks are reducing discharge in rivers that drain the central Rocky Mountain region - water that supports downstream societies and ecosystems of western North America. However, a new 5200-year record of Lake Athabasca water-level variations, which serves as a sensitive gauge of past changes in alpine-sourced river discharge, reveals that western Canadian society has developed during a rare period of unusually abundant water ‘subsidized’ by prior glacier expansion. As the ‘alpine water tap’ closes, much drier times are ahead. Future water availability is likely to become similar to the mid-Holocene when Lake Athabasca dropped 2-4 m below the twentieth-century mean. Regions dependent on high-elevation runoff (i.e., western North America) must prepare to cope with impending water scarcity of magnitude not yet experienced since European settlement.

  19. Bibliography of hydrologic and water-quality investigations conducted in or near the Albermarle-Pamlico Sounds Region, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, Jerad D.; Nelson, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    A bibliography containing 1,100 citations is presented. The cited works are primarily reports of investigations of the effects of land use and land-use change on water quality, artificial drainage, hydrology and hydrodynamics, and water quality in the Albemarle-Pamlico Sounds region, North Carolina. The bibliography is indexed according to research topic and geographic location of the investigation. the bibliography is also computerized and has been transferred to the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine Study data-management system.

  20. Simulated impact of vegetation on climate across the North American monsoon region in CCSM3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, Michael; Gutzler, David

    2012-02-01

    The influence of prescribed changes in vegetation on the climate of the North American monsoon region is examined using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model Version 3.5 (NCAR CCSM3.5). Initial value ensemble experiments are performed in which the vegetation cover fraction over the North American monsoon region is reduced by 0.2 and the intra-annual climatic response is assessed probabilistically in each one-year ensemble experiment. Changes in the surface radiation budget include decreases in sensible and latent heat fluxes and increases in upward longwave and downward shortwave radiation fluxes, with small net changes in surface albedo. The climatic responses to reduced vegetation cover fraction include year-round increases in ground and surface air temperature, a dampened hydrologic cycle with decreased springtime evaporation, springtime and autumnal precipitation, and autumnal cloud cover, and enhanced atmospheric subsidence in late autumn. Decreased vegetation shifts the monsoon season over the Southwest United States earlier in the year. Within the North American monsoon region, the most robust vegetation feedbacks to climate are found over woody landscapes.

  1. An evaluation of a coupled atmosphere-ocean modelling system for regional climate studies: extreme events in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, Priscilla A.; Mulligan, Frank J.

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the ability of a coupled regional atmosphere-ocean modelling system to simulate two extreme events in the North Atlantic. In this study we use the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST; Warner et al.) modelling system with only the atmosphere and ocean models activated. COAWST couples the atmosphere model (Weather Research and Forecasting model; WRF) to the ocean model (Regional Ocean Modelling System; ROMS) with the Model Coupling Toolkit. Results from the coupled system are compared with atmosphere only simulations of North Atlantic storms to evaluate the performance of the coupled modelling system. Two extreme events (Hurricane Katia and Hurricane Irene) were chosen to assess the level of improvement (or otherwise) arising from coupling WRF with ROMS. These two hurricanes involve different dynamics and present different challenges to the modeling system. This provides a robust assessment of the advantages or disadvantages of coupling WRF with ROMS for regional climate modelling studies of extreme events in the North Atlantic. We examine the ability of the coupled modelling system to simulate these two extreme events by comparing modelled storm tracks, storm intensities, wind speeds and sea surface temperatures with observations in all cases. The effect of domain size, and two different planetary boundary layers used in WRF are also reported.

  2. Past and ongoing changes in the North Sea and its interface regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huthnance, John M.; Weisse, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    This study is part of the North Sea Climate Change Assessment to be published in 2015. The presentation concerns the North Sea itself, for: temperature, salinity and stratification; currents and circulation; mean sea level, extreme sea levels (contributions from wind generated waves and storm surges); CO2, pH, nutrients and oxygen; suspended matter and turbidity; sedimentation, morphology and coastal erosion; sea ice; the Wadden Sea. "Past and ongoing" in principle covers a period of 200 years up to the present. For each variable, as appropriate, there will be an outline history, an assessment of evidence and a description of state and trends. Some conclusions are: - strong evidence of warming, especially since the 1980s, despite temperature variability on all time-scales; the largest rises have been in the south-east - shorter-term variations in salinity exceed any climate-related changes - northern inflow to the North Sea correlates with the North Atlantic Oscillation; otherwise currents are very variable on various timescales of forcing (by tides, winds, seasonal density) - mean sea level in the North Sea rose by about 1.6 mm/year over the past 100-120 years - extreme sea levels rose primarily as a result of the rise in mean sea level - there is net CO2 uptake from atmosphere - the North Sea is a net nitrogen sink for the Atlantic - suspended matter and turbidity are very variable, influenced by river inputs, seasons, tidal resuspension and advection (spring-neap modulation), waves and stratification - coastal erosion is extensive but irregular; however, some sectors accrete. Studies attempting to attribute changes to, for example, anthropogenic forcing, are still needed for the North Sea, to assess consistency between observed changes and our expectations and so to inform our level of confidence in projections of expected future.

  3. Characterization of Features Associated with Volatile Removal in the Martian North Circumpolar Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishbaugh, K. E.; Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.

    2001-05-01

    Building upon previous studies of the north polar region of Mars [e.g., 1, 2, 3, and 4], we [5] outlined evidence for retreat of the polar cap from the 180° W direction, including the presence of polar material remnants and kettle-like features in an arc of irregular, low-lying topography (the Olympia Depression) south of and concentric to Olympia Planitia [5]. In this study, we further characterize and categorize features in this region using Viking and MOC images and high-resolution MOLA data. Within the Olympia Depression are large, deep depressions interpreted to be kettle-like features [5] higher-standing topography surrounding these depressions (some of which is interpreted to be polar material remnants [5]). Together, these constitute the rough terrain. The irregular shape and rough, high-standing floor of the rough terrain is not consistent with these being degraded impact craters. These features appear to have undergone significant removal of volatiles and subsequent collapse to form depressions. Evidence of ridges which may be moraines, sedimentation at the margins and drainage channels has also been found. Dome-like features lie just to the south of the rough terrain. The morphology and dimensions are dissimilar from Martian south polar region and terrestrial volcanic domes [13] in that the width to height ratio is much larger and they are highly degraded. If these domes represent central peak structures, any evidence of rims is gone. Alternatively, these domes could be volatile-rich, representing early stages of what will become the rough terrain. We interpret the individual features of the Olympia Depression to represent kame and kettle topography, resulting from the ablation (melting and sublimation) and retreat of the polar cap. On Mars, the high concentration of polar deposit inter-layered debris (about 40%) will favor the development of kames as ablation occurs and sediment remains. The morphologic features within the Olympia Depression are

  4. Mapping cropland GPP in the north temperate region with space measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guanter, L.; Zhang, Y.; Jung, M.; Joiner, J.; Voigt, M.; Huete, A. R.; Zarco-Tejada, P.; Frankenberg, C.; Lee, J.; Berry, J. A.; Moran, S. M.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Beer, C.; Camps-Valls, G.; Buchmann, N. C.; Gianelle, D.; Klumpp, K.; Cescatti, A.; Baker, J. M.; Griffis, T.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring agricultural productivity is important for optimizing management practices in a world under a continuous increase of food and biofuel demand. We used new space measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), a vegetation parameter intrinsically linked to photosynthesis, to capture photosynthetic uptake of the crop belts in the north temperate region. The following data streams and procedures have been used in this analysis: (1) SIF retrievals have been derived from measurements of the MetOp-A / GOME-2 instrument in the 2007-2011 time period; (2) ensembles of process-based and data-driven biogeochemistry models have been analyzed in order to assess the capability of global models to represent crop gross primary production (GPP); (3) flux tower-based GPP estimates covering the 2007-2011 time period have been extracted over 18 cropland and grassland sites in the Midwest US and Western Europe from the Ameriflux and the European Fluxes Database networks; (4) large-scale NPP estimates have been derived by the agricultural inventory data sets developed by USDA-NASS and Monfreda et al. The strong linear correlation between the SIF space retrievals and the flux tower-based GPP, found to be significantly higher than that between reflectance-based vegetation indices (EVI, NDVI and MTCI) and GPP, has enabled the direct upscaling of SIF to cropland GPP maps at the synoptic scale. The new crop GPP estimates we derive from the scaling of SIF space retrievals are consistent with both flux tower GPP estimates and agricultural inventory data. These new GPP estimates show that crop productivity in the US Western Corn Belt, and most likely also in the rice production areas in the Indo-Gangetic plain and China, is up to 50-75% higher than estimates by state-of-the-art data-driven and process-oriented biogeochemistry models. From our analysis we conclude that current carbon models have difficulties in reproducing the special conditions of those highly productive

  5. Biofuel production and climate mitigation potential from marginal lands in US North Central region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, I.; Sahajpal, R.; Zhang, X.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Robertson, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    An ever-increasing demand for liquid fuels, amidst concerns of anthropogenic impacts on the environment and fossil fuels availability, has spurred a strong interest in the development of agriculturally-based renewable energy sources. However, increasing demand for food as well as direct and indirect effects on land use, have raised concerns about reliance on grain-based ethanol and shifted research towards the direction of cellulosic feedstocks. In order to understand the future possibility for using agricultural systems for bio-fuel production, we present here a full greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of six potential sources of cellulosic feedstocks production. From 1991 to 2008, we measured GHGs sinks and sources in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems in SW Michigan. The measurements included soil fluxes of GHGs (N2O and CH4), soil organic carbon concentration change, agronomic practices data, and biomass yields. We analyzed two types of intensively managed annual cropping systems under corn-soybean-wheat rotation (conventional tillage and no till), two perennial systems (alfalfa and poplar plantation), and one successional system. The use of agricultural residues for biofuel feedstock from conventionally-tilled crops had the lowest climate stabilization potential (-9 ±13 gCO2e m-2 y-1). In contrast, biomass collected from a successional system fertilized with N at123 kg ha-1y-1 showed the highest climate stabilization potential (-749 ±30 gCO2e m-2 y-1). We used our results to parameterize the EPIC model, which, together with GIS analysis was used to scale up the biomass productivity of the best environmentally performing systems to the marginal lands of the 10-state U.S. North Central region. Assuming 80 km as the maximum distance for road haulage to the biorefinery from the field, we identified 32 potential biorefinery placements each capable of supplying sufficient feedstock to produce at least 133 × 106 L y-1. In total, ethanol production from marginal

  6. Strength Properties and Organic Carbon of Soils in the North Apalachian Region

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, H; Lal, Rattan; Owen, L B.; Post, W M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.

    2005-04-01

    Soil strength influenced by management and soil properties controls plant growth, root development, and soil-moisture relations. The impact of textural and structural parameters on soil strength is moderated by soil organic C (SOC) concentration. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to assess differences in soil strength and SOC concentration in watersheds under long-term (>15 yr) management practices in the North Appalachian region on a predominantly Typic Hapludults on undulating slopes (>6% slope). Seven watersheds without field replication under moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow, disk with beef cattle manure (DiskM), no-till with beef cattle manure (NTm), no-till with no beef cattle manure (NTnm), pasture, and forest were studied. Cone index (CI), shear strength, bulk density (b), volumetric moisture content (v), and SOC concentration were determined at the summit, backslope, and footslope landscape positions at the 0- to 10-, 10- to 20-, and 20- to 30-cm depths. The SOC concentration was slightly higher at the footslope than at the summit position in the cultivated watersheds. The b was lower at the footslope than at the summit in NTm (1.22 vs. 1.42 Mg m{sup -3}) and chisel (1.34 vs. 1.47 Mg m{sup -3}) treatments. Forest had the lowest CI (0.19 MPa), shear strength (6.11 kPa), and b (0.93 Mg m{sup -3}) and the highest SOC concentration (62.7 g kg{sup -1}), whereas MP had the highest CI (0.67 MPa), shear strength (25.5 kPa), b (1.44 Mg m{sup -3}), and the lowest SOC concentration (13.6 g kg{sup -1}) in the 0- to 10-cm depth (P < 0.01). The SOC concentration in NTm was 1.7 times higher than that in NTnm, and both no-till treatments had lower b (<1.21 Mg m{sup -3}) than MP (1.44 Mg m{sup -3}) at 0- to 10-cm depth (P < 0.01). Manuring decreased both CI and shear strength, but increased SOC concentration. The b, v, and SOC concentration were potential predictors of CI; whereas b and SOC concentration were of shear strength (r2 > 0.42; P < 0.01). Results show

  7. Climatic changes in hydrological and biological characteristics of the North-Western Black Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalyshyna, S.; Ivanov, S.; Matygin, A.

    2009-04-01

    The last decades have shown considerable climatic changes in all components of the Earth System. In particular, a hydrological regime of river runoffs in the North-Western Black Sea (NWBS) shows changes on seasonal and interannual scales. A general reduction in annual runoff occurs, while winter flow increases and spring flow decreases. This can be explained by the fact that the snow cover becomes less important with regional warming. Changes in the hydrological regime affect the vertical thermohaline structure and circulation in the NWBS. Observations in coastal waters show that both the temperature and salinity changed remarkably for the winter, while there are no significant variations for the summer season. Moreover, for the winter season, temperature has increased by about 2C within the upper layer of 0-10 m and more than 3C in the benthonic layer. Changes of salinity in the upper and benthonic layers are of opposite signs leading to weakening of the vertical water exchange between two layers. The changes in hydrological environment lead to consequent changes of diversity and population of hydrobiota. Biological components are less sensitive to the interannual changes and work like a natural filter smoothing this temporal scale and emphasizing longer fluctuations. Due to the warming, the spring peak of phytoplankton has moved from May to late March - early April and its population during the last decade considerably increased. The major contribution of this growth is associated with the green and blue-green seaweed microalgae, coming into the NWBS with river runoff. The increasing amount of microalgae while decreasing the biomass means the degradation of macrocells species of microalgae. The peaks of population and biomass of zooplankton follow in 2-4 weeks after microalgae, which is the forage reserve. Diversity and amount of zooplankton have been degradated in the past decades. The spring peak associated with the zooplankton has especially decreased

  8. X-Ray Properties of Lyman Break Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field North Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nandra, K.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Arnaud, K.; Steidel, C. C.; Adelberger, K. L.; Gardner, J. P.; Teplitz, H. I.; Windhorst, R. A.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe the X-ray properties of a large sample of z approximately 3 Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) in the region of the Hubble Deep Field North, derived from the 1 Ms public Chandra observation. Of our sample of 148 LBGs, four are detected individually. This immediately gives a measure of the bright AGN (active galactic nuclei) fraction in these galaxies of approximately 3 per cent, which is in agreement with that derived from the UV (ultraviolet) spectra. The X-ray color of the detected sources indicates that they are probably moderately obscured. Stacking of the remainder shows a significant detection (6 sigma) with an average luminosity of 3.5 x 10(exp 41) erg/s per galaxy in the rest frame 2-10 keV band. We have also studied a comparison sample of 95 z approximately 1 "Balmer Break" galaxies. Eight of these are detected directly, with at least two clear AGN based on their high X-ray luminosity and very hard X-ray spectra respectively. The remainder are of relatively low luminosity (< 10(exp 42) erg/s, and the X-rays could arise from either AGN or rapid star-formation. The X-ray colors and evidence from other wavebands favor the latter interpretation. Excluding the clear AGN, we deduce a mean X-ray luminosity of 6.6 x 10(exp 40) erg/s, a factor approximately 5 lower than the LBGs. The average ratio of the UV and X-ray luminosities of these star forming galaxies L(sub UV)/L (sub X), however, is approximately the same at z = 1 as it is at z = 3. This scaling implies that the X-ray emission follows the current star formation rate, as measured by the UV luminosity. We use our results to constrain the star formation rate at z approximately 3 from an X-ray perspective. Assuming the locally established correlation between X-ray and far-IR (infrared) luminosity, the average inferred star formation rate in each Lyman break galaxy is found to be approximately 60 solar mass/yr, in excellent agreement with the extinction-corrected UV estimates. This provides an external

  9. Value addition of wild apricot fruits grown in North-West Himalayan regions-a review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh; Gupta, Anil; Abrol, G S; Joshi, V K

    2014-11-01

    Wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) commonly known as chulli is a potential fruit widely distributed in North-West Himalayan regions of the world. The fruits are good source of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals besides having attractive colour and typical flavour. Unlike table purpose varieties of apricots like New Castle, the fruits of wild apricot are unsuitable for fresh consumption because of its high acid and low sugar content. However, the fruits are traditionally utilized for open sun drying, pulping to prepare different products such as jams, chutney and naturally fermented and distilled liquor. But, scientific literature on processing and value addition of wild apricot is scanty. Preparation of jam with 25 % wild apricot +75 % apple showed maximum score for organoleptic characteristics due to better taste and colour. Osmotic dehydration has been found as a suitable method for drying of wild type acidic apricots. A good quality sauce using wild apricot pulp and tomato pulp in the ratio of 1:1 has been prepared, while chutney of good acceptability prepared from wild apricot pulp (100 %) has also been documented. Preparation of apricot-soy protein enriched products like apricot-soya leather, toffee and fruit bars has been reported, which are reported to meet the protein requirements of adult and children as per the recommendations of ICMR. Besides these processed products, preparation of alcoholic beverages like wine, vermouth and brandy from wild apricot fruits has also been reported by various researchers. Further, after utilization of pulp for preparation of value added products, the stones left over have been successfully utilized for oil extraction which has medicinal and cosmetic value. The traditional method of oil extraction has been reported to be unhygienic and result in low oil yield with poor quality, whereas improved mechanical method of oil extraction has been found to produce good quality oil. The apricot kernel oil and press cake have

  10. Local and Regional Impacts of Pollution on Coral Reefs along the Thousand Islands North of the Megacity Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Baum, Gunilla; Januar, Hedi I; Ferse, Sebastian C A; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, coral reefs are challenged by multiple stressors due to growing urbanization, industrialization and coastal development. Coral reefs along the Thousand Islands off Jakarta, one of the largest megacities worldwide, have degraded dramatically over recent decades. The shift and decline in coral cover and composition has been extensively studied with a focus on large-scale gradients (i.e. regional drivers), however special focus on local drivers in shaping spatial community composition is still lacking. Here, the spatial impact of anthropogenic stressors on local and regional scales on coral reefs north of Jakarta was investigated. Results indicate that the direct impact of Jakarta is mainly restricted to inshore reefs, separating reefs in Jakarta Bay from reefs along the Thousand Islands further north. A spatial patchwork of differentially degraded reefs is present along the islands as a result of localized anthropogenic effects rather than regional gradients. Pollution is the main anthropogenic stressor, with over 80% of variation in benthic community composition driven by sedimentation rate, NO2, PO4 and Chlorophyll a. Thus, the spatial structure of reefs is directly related to intense anthropogenic pressure from local as well as regional sources. Therefore, improved spatial management that accounts for both local and regional stressors is needed for effective marine conservation. PMID:26378910

  11. Local and Regional Impacts of Pollution on Coral Reefs along the Thousand Islands North of the Megacity Jakarta, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Gunilla; Januar, Hedi I.; Ferse, Sebastian C. A.; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, coral reefs are challenged by multiple stressors due to growing urbanization, industrialization and coastal development. Coral reefs along the Thousand Islands off Jakarta, one of the largest megacities worldwide, have degraded dramatically over recent decades. The shift and decline in coral cover and composition has been extensively studied with a focus on large-scale gradients (i.e. regional drivers), however special focus on local drivers in shaping spatial community composition is still lacking. Here, the spatial impact of anthropogenic stressors on local and regional scales on coral reefs north of Jakarta was investigated. Results indicate that the direct impact of Jakarta is mainly restricted to inshore reefs, separating reefs in Jakarta Bay from reefs along the Thousand Islands further north. A spatial patchwork of differentially degraded reefs is present along the islands as a result of localized anthropogenic effects rather than regional gradients. Pollution is the main anthropogenic stressor, with over 80% of variation in benthic community composition driven by sedimentation rate, NO2, PO4 and Chlorophyll a. Thus, the spatial structure of reefs is directly related to intense anthropogenic pressure from local as well as regional sources. Therefore, improved spatial management that accounts for both local and regional stressors is needed for effective marine conservation. PMID:26378910

  12. Scale-dependent regional climate predictability over North America inferred from CMIP3 and CMIP5 ensemble simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fuqing; Li, Wei; Mann, Michael E.

    2016-08-01

    Through the analysis of ensembles of coupled model simulations and projections collected from CMIP3 and CMIP5, we demonstrate that a fundamental spatial scale limit might exist below which useful additional refinement of climate model predictions and projections may not be possible. That limit varies among climate variables and from region to region. We show that the uncertainty (noise) in surface temperature predictions (represented by the spread among an ensemble of global climate model simulations) generally exceeds the ensemble mean (signal) at horizontal scales below 1000 km throughout North America, implying poor predictability at those scales. More limited skill is shown for the predictability of regional precipitation. The ensemble spread in this case tends to exceed or equal the ensemble mean for scales below 2000 km. These findings highlight the challenges in predicting regionally specific future climate anomalies, especially for hydroclimatic impacts such as drought and wetness.

  13. Seismic hazard assessment for oil-and-gas-bearing shelf zones: A case study of the North Caspian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, A. A.; Ivashchenko, A. I.; Kovachev, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Seismic hazard assessment is done for oil field areas in the North Caspian region by a method earlier successfully applied to other areas. The method involves general seismic zoning data, available regional databases on recurrence of seismic shaking, known models of ground motion attenuation in seismoactive regions, and data on geological and geophysical surveys in the studied area. The assigned level of seismic hazard of the region is refined using probabilistic analysis; additionally, disaggregation is made and accelerograms are synthesized (the latter are necessary for seismic microzoning of particular sites using the numerical nonlinear analysis of ground seismic response). The amplitude and spectral characteristics of ground motions are obtained which are necessary for seismic resistance design and construction of petroleum industry objects.

  14. Geology of the North Polar Region of Venus: Snegurochka Planitia (V-1) Quadrangle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, D. M.; Head, J. W.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction Geologic mapping of Snegurochka Planitia (V-1) reveals a complex stratigraphy of tectonic and volcanic features that can provide insight into the geologic history of Venus and Archean Earth [1,2] including 1) crustal thickening environments and processes, 2) the nature of diapirism, 3) the nature and origin of deformation belts, and 4) the origin and context of regional plains-forming volcanism. We present our progress in mapping the spatial and stratigraphic relationships of these features in the region surrounding the north pole of Venus. Mapping Results We have used full-resolution (75 m/pixel) images to produce a detailed map and stratigraphic column (Figures 1-3) in conjunction with the USGS mapping effort [3]. Eleven material units and two structural units have been identified and mapped similar to those identified in previous studies [e.g., 4- 5]. The material units include (from older to younger) tessera material (t), densely lineated plains material (pld), deformed and ridged plains material, both radar dark and radar bright (pdd, pbd), shield plains material (ps), plains material with dense concentrations of wrinkle ridges (rp), smooth radar dark plains material (pds), smooth radar bright plains material (pbs), lobate plains material (lop), edifice features (ed), and craters material (c). The structural features identified are wrinkle ridges (wr) and extensional lineaments (ext) that deform the mapped units. Material and Structural Units The tessera terrain is consistently the oldest material in the region and is characterized by high elevation, extensively deformed radar bright material that is embayed by younger plains units. The fractures that define this unit are generally hard to trace in detail, as many different fracture orientations are evident. In contrast, densely lineated plains material, while also generally characterized by high elevation and a rough surface texture, have a single primary orientation of fractures. These deformed

  15. The Emergence of Trans-Regional Educational Exchange Schemes (TREES) in Europe, North America, and the Asia-Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Brian D.

    2001-01-01

    Explores how salient aspects of globalization, such as free trade zones, have led to emergence of trans-regional educational exchange schemes (TREES) in higher education. Discusses how these schemes are set apart from others by the proliferation of international university organizations that go beyond region and infiltrate other parts of the globe…

  16. The impact of changing ocean eddies pathways on regional sea surface height extremes in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunnabend, Sandra-Esther; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Kliphuis, Michael A.; van Werkhoven, Ben; Bal, Henri E.; Seinstra, Frank; Maassen, Jason; van Meersbergen, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    Ocean eddies strongly influences short-term variations in sea surface height (SSH). Changing ocean circulation can lead to shifting eddy pathways, which may cause an additional contribution to sea level extremes in different regions. Therefore, dynamic sea surface height (SSH) changes that occur in the North Atlantic due to an abrupt weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) are simulated using the Parallel Ocean Program (POP). The weakening of the AMOC is introduced by applying strong freshwater perturbations around Greenland. To study the effect of ocean model resolution, simulations are performed using a high-resolution (HR) strongly eddying model version and a low-resolution model (LR) version in which the effect of eddies is parameterized. Results show that a rapid decrease of the AMOC in the HR version leads to a change in the main eddy pathways in the North Atlantic associated with a change in the separation latitude of the Gulf Stream. This induces shorter return times of different regional and coastal extremes in North Atlantic SSH than in the LR version. This effect causes an additional short-term SSH change of several centimeters, which may occur during an already high background sea level.

  17. Overview of the 1988 GCE/CASE/WATOX Studies of biogeochemical cycles in the North Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pszenny, Alexander A. P.; Galloway, James N.; Artz, Richard S.; Boatman, Joseph F.

    1990-06-01

    The 1988 Global Change Expedition/Coordinated Air-Sea Experiment/Western Atlantic Ocean Experiment (GCE/CASE/WATOX) was a multifaceted research program designed to study atmospheric and oceanic processes affecting the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and trace metals in the North Atlantic Ocean region. Field work included (1) a 49-day research cruise aboard NOAA ship Mt. Mitchell (Global Change Expedition) from Norfolk, Virginia, to Bermuda, Iceland, the Azores, and Barbados, (2) eight flights of the NOAA King Air research aircraft, four off the Virginia Capes and four near Bermuda (CASE/WATOX), and (3) a research cruise aboard the yacht Fleurtie near Bermuda (WATOX). Objectives of GCE/CASE/WATOX were (1) to examine processes controlling the mesoscale distributions of productivity, chlorophyll, and phytoplankton growth rates in Atlantic surface waters, (2) to identify factors controlling the distribution of ozone in the North Atlantic marine boundary layer, and (3) to estimate the contributions of sources on surrounding continents to the biogeochemical cycles of sulfur, nitrogen, and trace metals over the North Atlantic region during the boreal summer season. The individual papers in this and the next two issues of Global Biogeochemical Cycles provide details on the results and analyses of the individual measurement efforts. This paper provides a brief overview of GCE/CASE/WATOX.

  18. Passive margin uplift around the North Atlantic region and its role in Northern Hemisphere late Cenozoic glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyles, Nicholas

    1996-02-01

    Tectonic-climatic models of late Cenozoic global cooling emphasize the importance of middle latitude uplifts (e.g., Tibetan Plateau and the American west) but ignore widespread tectonic events on the margins of the North Atlantic Ocean. Pleistocene glaciations, after 2.5 Ma, are characterized by circum North Atlantic continental ice sheets that formed by the coalescence of perennial snow fields on extensive plateau surfaces in eastern Canada, northwest Britain, and Scandinavia. Plateaus record Cenozoic uplift of peneplains in response to semisynchronous magmatic underplating and thermal buoyancy of rifted continental margins. High-standing plateaus are very sensitive to small reductions in summer temperature. As late Cenozoic climate cooling proceeded, driven by uplift in regions external to the North Atlantic region, elevated plateaus became sites for extensive snow fields and ultimately ice sheets. Circum-Atlantic uplift took place in the key latitudinal belt that is most sensitive to orbitally forced changes in solar irradiation; this, together with albedo effects from large snow fields, could have amplified the relatively weak Milankovitch signal.

  19. Development Priorities in the West River Region, North Dakota: A Social Attitude and Communication Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, John E.; Stamm, Keith R.

    Presenting a descriptive and prescriptive analysis of the social variables important to planning and informed public participation in the development of the West River Diversion Project in North Dakota (WRDP), this report is organized via the following sections: (1) Knowledge and Evaluation of the Project (How aware are people of the WRDP and its…

  20. 78 FR 24700 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... 78 FR 16452, is extended. Comments must be received on or before June 17, 2013. The public hearings... plants in North Dakota. See 78 FR 16452. Public hearings will be held on Wednesday, May 15, 2013, from 3..., Particulate matter, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Volatile organic compounds. Dated: April...

  1. 76 FR 66057 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Order Approving Regional Reliability Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ...'' for loss of bulk electric system transmission elements. ``Current Zero Time'' is a new defined term... Reliability Standard PRC-002-NPCC-01. 17. Notice of NERC's filing was published in the Federal Register, 76 FR... Energy Regulatory Commission 61,043] North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Order...

  2. Observed relation between evapotranspiration and soil moisture in the North American monsoon region 1985

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture control on evapotranspiration is poorly understood in ecosystems experiencing seasonal greening. In this study, we utilize a set of multi-year observations at four eddy covariance sites along a latitudinal gradient in vegetation greening to infer the ET-' relation during the North Ame...

  3. [Adaptation-compensatory response in adolescents, indigenous people North of Irkutsk region].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, L I; Darenskaia, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Osipova, E V; Dolgikh, M I; Semenova, N V

    2014-01-01

    A study of pro- and antioxidant status in healthy boys and girls adolescents' representatives Tofalars and Evenks compared to Caucasians newcomers. Revealed activation of the adaptive-compensatory processes in the body young men and women, indigenous peoples of the North as compared to Caucasians alien population, which was reflected statistically significant increase in non-enzymatic components of antioxidant defense system. PMID:25272710

  4. Underrepresentation of Women in the Academic Profession: A Comparative Analysis of the North American Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott; Gonzalez, Laura Padilla

    2013-01-01

    The present study addresses women's underrepresentation in the academic profession, as well as the need for policies and practices aimed at this issue. It compares underrepresentation of academic women in North American countries, and explores, throughout a bivariate analysis, personal, professional, as well as institutional variables related to…

  5. North Country Successes: Case Studies of Successful Entrepreneurs in the ANCA Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chugh, Ram L.; Gandhi, Prem P.

    This study identifies the characteristics of both successful small businesses and their entrepreneurial owners in a 14-county area of the Adirondack North Country Association (ANCA). Of the 100 survey respondents representing successful small businesses, 50% had been in business for less than 14 years; 38% were in manufacturing; 48% employed more…

  6. Managing Regional Collaboration in Higher Education: The Case of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespo, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    Describes accomplishments in increasing collaboration in higher education within the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Analyzes procedures for determining equivalencies of courses and degrees and for improving transnational mobility of students and professors. Also discusses the role of the private sector in research, education and…

  7. Evaluating the performance of CMIP3 and CMIP5 global climate models over the north-east Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Jorge; Menendez, Melisa; Mendez, Fernando J.; Losada, Inigo J.

    2014-11-01

    One of the main sources of uncertainty in estimating climate projections affected by global warming is the choice of the global climate model (GCM). The aim of this study is to evaluate the skill of GCMs from CMIP3 and CMIP5 databases in the north-east Atlantic Ocean region. It is well known that the seasonal and interannual variability of surface inland variables (e.g. precipitation and snow) and ocean variables (e.g. wave height and storm surge) are linked to the atmospheric circulation patterns. Thus, an automatic synoptic classification, based on weather types, has been used to assess whether GCMs are able to reproduce spatial patterns and climate variability. Three important factors have been analyzed: the skill of GCMs to reproduce the synoptic situations, the skill of GCMs to reproduce the historical inter-annual variability and the consistency of GCMs experiments during twenty-first century projections. The results of this analysis indicate that the most skilled GCMs in the study region are UKMO-HadGEM2, ECHAM5/MPI-OM and MIROC3.2(hires) for CMIP3 scenarios and ACCESS1.0, EC-EARTH, HadGEM2-CC, HadGEM2-ES and CMCC-CM for CMIP5 scenarios. These models are therefore recommended for the estimation of future regional multi-model projections of surface variables driven by the atmospheric circulation in the north-east Atlantic Ocean region.

  8. Modeling radiative transfer in molecular clouds. 1: HCO(+) in the star-forming region W49A North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickel, Helene R.; Auer, Lawrence H.

    1994-01-01

    A new general multilevel, non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) radiative transfer code, valid for any velocity field, is applied to HCO(+) observations of W49A North. Three classes of collapse models are considered: free-fall collapse (v proportional to 1/sq. root of r), rho proportional to r(exp -3/2) throughout the molecular cloud, successfully reproduces the features of the observations and gives the best fit to the J = 1-0 and J = 3-2 profiles both toward the prominent H II component G of W49A North and off the center. In addition to a slow radial fall-off of density, the theoretical modeling implies the following for the molecular cloud: the large line widths result from motions occurring within the inner 1 pc, and there are probably one or more fragments with peculiar velocities within this same region.

  9. A new climatic classification of afforestation in Three-North regions of China with multi-source remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiao; Zhu, Jiaojun

    2015-10-01

    Afforestation and reforestation activities achieve high attention at the policy agenda as measures for carbon sequestration in order to mitigate climate change. The Three-North Shelter Forest Program, the largest ecological afforestation program worldwide, was launched in 1978 and will last until 2050 in the Three-North regions (accounting for 42.4 % of China's territory). Shelter forests of the Three-North Shelter Forest Program have exhibited severe decline after planting in 1978 due to lack of detailed climatic classification. Besides, a comprehensive assessment of climate adaptation for the current shelter forests was lacking. In this study, the aridity index determined by precipitation and reference evapotranspiration was employed to classify climatic zones for the afforestation program. The precipitation and reference evapotranspiration with 1-km resolution were estimated based on data from the tropical rainfall measuring mission and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer, respectively. Then, the detailed climatic classification for the afforestation program was obtained based on the relationship between the different vegetation types and the aridity index. The shelter forests in 2008 were derived from Landsat TM in the Three-North regions. In addition, climatic zones and shelter forests were corrected by comparing with natural vegetation map and field surveys. By overlaying the shelter forests on the climatic zones, we found that 16.30 % coniferous forests, 8.21 % broadleaved forests, 2.03 % mixed conifer-broadleaved forests, and 10.86 % shrubs were not in strict accordance with the climate conditions. These results open new perspectives for potential use of remote sensing techniques for afforestation management.

  10. Mineralogy and geochemistry of laterites developed on chlorite schists in Tchollire region, North Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banakeng, L. A.; Zame, P. Zo'o.; Tchameni, R.; Mamdem, L.; Bitom, D.

    2016-07-01

    Laterites developed from the weathering of chlorite schists have been studied in Tchollire region, North Cameroon. They include two profiles: a 5.5 m depth profile in Doudja site and a 12.3 m profile in Fimbe site. The chlorite schists have a lepidoblastic to lepidogranoblastic texture and are mainly composed of chlorite, muscovite, biotite, feldspars and quartz but that of Fimbe is marked by the presence of amphibole. It is felsic with a high SiO2 content (67%) and low Fe2O3 (5.8%) and MgO (2.4%) contents in Doudja site but has a lower content of SiO2 (46%) in the Fimbe site where it is mafic with higher contents in Fe2O3 (12.4%) and MgO (6.3%). The chlorite schists of Doudja show high contents in Zr, Sr, Ta, with moderate contents in Cr, V, U and Zn. That of Fimbe is particularly rich in Cr, V, Ni, Sr and Zn with a moderate Zr content. All chlorite schists have high barium contents (270-393 ppm) with LREE-enrichment. The soils are yellowish and, from bottom to top, are composed of a coarse saprolite, fine saprolite, loose clayey horizon and an organo mineral horizon. The main minerals are chlorite, muscovite, biotite, feldspars, quartz, smectites, vermiculite, kaolinite, hematite and goethite. In Doudja, SiO2 mainly decreases from the bottom to the top of the profile while, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 generally increase; in Fimbe, SiO2 and Al2O3 increase up the profile but Fe2O3 decreases; the general high Fe and corresponding decrease in Mg contents in the soils show that the smectite formed is nontronite. Chromium, V, Cu, Ba and Sr show high contents in the two studied profiles but Zr, U and Ta is higher in Doudja than in Fimbe. Copper generally has high contents in the loose clayey and organo mineral horizons. Nickel is higher in the Fimbe profile and probably issued from the Ni-rich mafic protolith. SiO2 has positive correlations with K2O, Zr, Li and Rb. Correlations of SiO2 with CaO, TiO2 and Cr are negative. Al2O3 and Fe2O3 have a positive correlation with Pb. Doudja

  11. Exploring the origin of ice-filled craters in the north polar region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovius, Niels; Conway, Susan; Barnie, T.; Besserer, J.; Lemouelic, S.; Read, N.

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the origins of enigmatic ice-filled craters in the north polar region of Mars. We test several explanations for their origin, namely: (1) as polar cap remnants [1] (2) accumulation independently of the polar cap, and (3) upwelling of subsurface water, analogous to either aufice or pingo formation on Earth. Each of these hypotheses has a significant impact on our understanding of Mars' recent geological and climatic history and the behaviour of water and water ice at high latitudes. We used several lines of evidence to assess the most likely formation mechanism. We first performed a crater survey based on THEMIS visual data and MOLA elevation data to identify any craters that had domal central lumps which were different from normal central peaks. From this survey we identified 17 craters for further study. These include Louth, Korolev, Dokka and other unnamed craters. Using data from orbiting spectrometers; OMEGA on ESA's Mars Express and CRISM on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter; we verified that the composition of the exposed central domes was predominantly water ice. We found the domes fell into three groups: (1) those completely covered by dunes, (2) those partially covered by dunes and (3) those with no dunes. We investigated the morphology and the relative position of the domes using MOLA elevation data. We found that the domes are always asymmetrically placed within the craters. However, this asymmetry could not easily be linked to wind directions as revealed by dune slip-faces [2]. The domes often have a moat-like structure and in some cases do not cover the entire crater floor, e.g. Louth Crater. From image data, we identified six craters which possessed internal stratigraphy, in the form of regularly spaced layers, and of these we have inspected three in detail. We found that the layers possess both strong sinuosity and high angle unconformities. We interpret the internal stratigraphy as representing a sequence of regular cyclic

  12. A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will

  13. Paleomagnetic evidence for counterclockwise block rotation in the north Nevada rift region

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yianping; Nur, A. ); Geissman, J.W.; Huang, Qing ); Ron, H. )

    1990-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from mid-Miocene dikes and flows at three localities within the north Nevada rift indicate that some crustal blocks have rotated approximately 19{degree} ({plus minus}7{degree}) counterclockwise relative to stable North America. As one possible consequence, a revised mid-Miocene extension direction for the area is about N89{degree}E-S89{degree}W, indicating an approximately 25{degree} difference between mid-Miocene and modern least principal stress directions. The rotation may be accommodated by a right-lateral component of slip on northwest-trending oblique slip faults. These, as well as data from other parts of the Basin and Range province, indicate that strike-slip faulting and associated block rotation contributed to Cenozoic extension.

  14. THE ANALYSIS OF MAJOR RISK FACTORS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AMONG INHABITANTS OF THE NORTH REGION.

    PubMed

    Borisova, N V; Markova, S V; Antipina, U D; Sivtseva, T P; Savvina, I L

    2015-01-01

    Last years the problem of organism's adaptation to severe climate-environmental conditions of the Far North has been intensively developed. The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is the most northern republic of the Russian Federation. People have created a unique way of life, language, original culture on this cold part of the earth and have carried centuries later. This unique experience has been saved up throughout many centuries and generated in natural environment of habitation and passed from generation to generation. Last years the changes of living conditions of indigenous population, urbanization and globalisation, deterioration of ecological conditions exhausted reserve possibilities of organism. Among the indigenous population health change has menacing character, especially among the children's population. The analysis of major risk factors of the development of cardiovascular diseases among the indigenous population of the north has been carried out in this research. PMID:26887120

  15. A regional technology transfer program. [North Carolina Industrial Applications Center for the Southeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The proliferation of online searching capabilities among its industrial clients, changes in marketing staff and direction, use of Dun and Bradstreet marketing service files, growth of the Annual Service Package program, and services delivered to clients at the NASA funded North Carolina Science and Technology Research Center are described. The library search service was reactivated and enlarged, and a survey was conducted on the NC/STRC Technical Bulletin's effectiveness. Several quotations from clients assess the overall value of the Center's services.

  16. Spatial Distributed Seismicity Model of Seismic Hazard Mapping in the North-China Region: A Comparison with the GSHAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Q.; Shi, B.; Meng, L.

    2010-12-01

    The North China is one of the most seismically active regions in the mainland China. The moderate to large earthquakes have occurred here throughout history, resulting in huge losses of human life and properties. With the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) approach, we investigate the influence of different seismic environments, incorporating both near surface soil properties and distributed historical and modern seismicity. A simplified seismic source model, derived with the consideration of regional active fault distributions, is presented for the North China region. The spatial distributed seismicity model of PSHA is used to calculate the level of ground motion likely to be exceeded in a given time period. Following Frankel (1995) approach of circular Gaussian smoothing procedure, in the PSHA’s calculation, we proposed the fault-rupture-oriented elliptical Gaussian smoothing with the assumptions that earthquakes occur on faults or fault zones of past earthquakes to delineate the potential seismic zones (Lapajine et al., 2003). This is combined with regional active fault strike directions and the seismicity distribution patterns. Next Generation Attenuation model ((NGA), Boore et al., 2007) is used in generating hazard map for PGA with 2%, 5%, and 10 % probability of being exceeded in 50 years, and the resultant hazard map is compared with the result given by Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Project (GSHAP). There is general agreement for PGA distribution patterns between the results of this study and the GSHAP map that used the same seismic source zones. However, peak ground accelerations predicted in this study are typically 10-20% less than those of the GSHAP, and the seismic source models, such as fault distributions and regional seismicity used in the GSHAP seem to be oversimplified. We believe this study represents an improvement on prior seismic hazard evaluations for the region. In addition to the updated input data, we believe that, by

  17. Application of global dynamic vegetation model estimation of aridity changes in drought prone region of North-Eastern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokina, Vera; Venevskiy, Sergey; Berdnikov, Sergey; Kulygin, Valerii

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are specifically designed for an assessment of integrative continental scale soil and vegetation carbon and water pools and fluxes between these pools and the atmosphere. However, recent DGVMs still remain mainly tools for global studies, which explain limitations of these models in view of regional applications. In this study we investigate possibility of application of state-of-the art SEVER-DGVM for description of contemporary water dynamics in semi-arid regions of North Eastern Eurasia. We suggest simple modifications of input climate and soil data and moving to irregular vector representation of basic spatial units, instead of regular grid cells, aiming increase in accuracy of simulation of water pools and fluxes. The study area is Rostov oblast' with small parts from Stavropol krai and Kalmykia Republic (oblast' and krai are administrative units in Russia), associated with the southern part of River Don watershed. The region is rather big (approximately 800 km in direction North - South and approximately 400 km in direction East - West. SEVER-DGVM, a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) was applied as a modelling tool of the study. The model was never before applied specifically for regions of Southern Russia and thus required evaluation and afterwards modification for accuracy of representation of water fluxes and pools. For regionalization of climate data we compared time series for temperature and precipitation from the NCEP climate dataset and from the regional meteorological data. We found that temperature time series from the global dataset are close to the observed, but the NCEP dataset has tendency to underestimate precipitation in Rostov region at daily time step, while providing correct pattern of annual and monthly dynamics. This was corrected using long term daily anomalies of observed daily temperature and precipitation in the region. For regional application of the global vegetation model we defined

  18. The variability of biomass burning and its influence on regional aerosol properties during the wheat harvest season in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lili; Xin, Jinyuan; Li, Xingru; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-04-01

    The spatial-temporal variation of biomass burning in June during the wheat harvest season in the North China (32-41°N, 111-120°E) and its influence on the regional aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the chemical compositions of size-segregated aerosols in the urban environment were investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of the burn ban policy and the influence on regional pollution. Fire events that occurred in early and middle June accounted for approximately 89% of the events during the month, and fire points located in mid-eastern China (32.5-35.5°N, 114-120°E) comprised 71%. The occurrences exhibit oscillatory changes with a minimum in 2008 (during the Beijing Olympics) and a peak and explosive growth in 2012. Under high relative humidity and south winds, fire emissions from straw burning combined with high urban/industrial emissions to produce intensive regional haze pollution in the North Plain. The formation of secondary inorganic particles was intensified due to the interactions of smoke plumes and urban/industrial pollutants in an urban environment. Higher concentrations and percentages (79%) of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and organic carbon in the fine particles under high relative humidity conditions contributed to a deteriorated urban visibility. Therefore, stronger management and a comprehensive ban on wheat straw burning in June are urgently needed, especially during years when the south wind is dominant.

  19. A link between North Atlantic cooling and dry events in the core SW monsoon region in Lonar Lake, central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Philip; Gaye, Birgit; Prasad, Sushma; Plessen, Birgit; Stebich, Martina; Anoop, Ambili; Riedel, Nils; Basavaiah, Nathani

    2014-05-01

    A sediment core from Lonar Lake in central India covers the complete Holocene and was used to reconstruct the monsoon history of the core SW-monsoon region. We compare C/N ratios, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, grain size, as well as amino acid derived degradation proxies with climatically sensitive proxies of other records from South Asia and the North Atlantic region. The comparison reveals some more or less contemporaneous climate shifts. At Lonar Lake, a general long term climate transition from wet conditions during the early Holocene to drier conditions during the late Holocene, delineating the insolation curve, can be reconstructed. Several phases of shorter term climate alteration that superimpose the general climate trend correlate with cold phases in the North Atlantic region. The most pronounced climate deteriorations indicated by our data occurred between 6.2 - 5.2, 4.65 - 3.9, and 2.05 - 0.55 cal ka BP. The strong dry phase between 4.65 - 3.9 cal ka BP at Lonar Lake corroborates the hypothesis that severe climate deterioration contributed to the decline of the Indus Civilisation about 3.9 ka BP.

  20. Decadal oscillation of lakes and aquifers in the upper Great Lakes region of North America: hydroclimatic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watras, C.J.; Read, J.S.; Holman, K.D.; Liu, Z.; Song, Y.-Y.; Watras, A.J.; Morgan, S.; Stanley, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    We report a unique hydrologic time-series which indicates that water levels in lakes and aquifers across the upper Great Lakes region of North America have been dominated by a climatically-driven, near-decadal oscillation for at least 70 years. The historical oscillation (~13y) is remarkably consistent among small seepage lakes, groundwater tables and the two largest Laurentian Great Lakes despite substantial differences in hydrology. Hydrologic analyses indicate that the oscillation has been governed primarily by changes in the net atmospheric flux of water (P-E) and stage-dependent outflow. The oscillation is hypothetically connected to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns originating in the mid-latitude North Pacific that support the flux of moisture into the region from the Gulf of Mexico. Recent data indicate an apparent change in the historical oscillation characterized by a ~12y downward trend beginning in 1998. Record low water levels region-wide may mark the onset of a new hydroclimatic regime.

  1. Wood resources and utilization patterns in the North Central Region and energy needs for the manufacture of wood products

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, S.A.

    1981-03-01

    The timber resources of the North Central Region are discussed on a state-by-state basis. The discussion of standing timber growth and removal is in terms of commercial growing stock; however, the total forest biomass may be estimated by simply adding the potential logging residue to the growing stock figure. The energy needs of various wood and paper products plants, Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Codes 24 and 26, are highlighted. In addition, the ability of various wood manufacturing facilities to generate their energy needs from wood residues and by-products is explored.

  2. A 408 MHz all-sky continuum survey. I - Observations at southern declinations and for the North Polar region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslam, C. G. T.; Klein, U.; Salter, C. J.; Stoffel, H.; Wilson, W. E.; Cleary, M. N.; Cooke, D. J.; Thomasson, P.

    1981-07-01

    The observation, data reduction and calibration of two large area radio continuum surveys at 408 MHz are described in detail. The resolution of both is close to 0.85 deg. One covers the complete southern sky, the other the north polar regions and, together with existing observations, they form the data-base for the first all-sky continuum survey of better than one degree resolution. Sample maps of astronomical interest are presented and possible uses of the 408 MHz survey are discussed. The full set of maps will appear in a companion all-sky atlas.

  3. Regional Atmospheric Circulation Change in the North Pacific During the Holocene Inferred from Lacustrine Carbonate Oxygen Isotopes, Yukon Territory, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L.; Abbott, M. B.; Finney, B. P.; Burns, S. J.

    2004-12-01

    Analyses of sediment cores from Jellybean Lake, a small, hydrologically-open groundwater-fed lake, provide a record of changes in North Pacific atmospheric circulation for the last 7500 years at twenty to thirty-year resolution. A regional isotope hydrology study in the southern Yukon indicates that the oxygen isotope composition of water from Jellybean Lake reflects the oxygen isotope composition of mean annual precipitation. Thus, the oxygen isotope history of Jellybean Lake inferred from sedimentary carbonate oxygen isotope ratios suggests multi-decadal shifts in the oxygen isotope composition of mean annual precipitation superimposed on century and millennial trends. Recent fluctuations of Jellybean oxygen isotopes correlate well with changes in the North Pacific Index, a measure of the intensity and position of the Aleutian Low. We propose that oxygen isotope variability of precipitation in the interior of the Yukon is related to the degree of fractionation during moisture transport from the Gulf of Alaska across the St Elias Mountains that is ultimately controlled by the position and strength of the Aleutian Low. Following this model, Aleutian Low intensity during the early to middle Holocene was relatively reduced and increasing intensity coincided with the initial onset of Neoglacial advances. Rapid shifts during the last two millennia corresponds with glacial activity, changes in North Pacific salmon abundance, and shifts in atmospheric circulation over the Beaufort Sea.

  4. Analysis of North Atlantic Aircraft Data on Oxygenated Intermediate Species Using an Adapted Regional Chemistry-Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert; Mathur, Rohit; Alapaty, Kiran; Hanna, Adel; Binkowski, Frank; Guan, Hong; Esswein, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Our study is on the interaction of nitrogen oxides with organics as they are exported from their complex sources in Eastern North America. Both urban and specific industrial emissions contribute the nitrogen of the C-H-O-N compounds that affect the global atmosphere, helping determine both ozone and the self-cleaning radical chemistry of the troposphere mediated by the OH radical. Different industrial sources, urban, and natural emissions contribute the organic C. Peroxyacetyl nitrate, CH3C(double bonds O)OONO2 is the most interesting compound for which we can measure the outflow to the full depth of the Atlantic troposphere. As we adapt the 3-d chemical model to describe outflow for specific periods with sufficient accuracy, we are analyzing some valuable information in the NARE-97 complete airborne dataset. (NARE: North Atlantic Regional Experiment). Ames researchers find that there are substantial puzzles in the ratios of PAN/NO2. Peroxy acetyl nitrate provides one of the major long-distance export pathways for active nitrogen from Eastern North America. It should be closely linked with NO, (defined as the sum NO + NO2) by simple thermal association and decomposition reactions, at least when the ambient temperature is substantially above 5 C.

  5. A STATISTICAL STUDY OF CORONAL ACTIVE EVENTS IN THE NORTH POLAR REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Sako, Nobuharu; Shimojo, Masumi; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Sekii, Takashi

    2013-09-20

    In order to study the relationship between characteristics of polar coronal active events and the magnetic environment in which such events take place, we analyze 526 X-ray jets and 1256 transient brightenings in the polar regions and in regions around the equatorial limbs. We calculate the occurrence rates of these polar coronal active events as a function of distance from the boundary of coronal holes, and find that most events in the polar quiet regions occur adjacent to and equatorward of the coronal hole boundaries, while events in the polar coronal holes occur uniformly within them. Based primarily on the background intensity, we define three categories of regions that produce activity: polar coronal holes, coronal hole boundary regions, and polar quiet regions. We then investigate the properties of the events produced in these regions. We find no significant differences in their characteristics, for example, length and lifetime, but there are differences in the occurrence rates. The mean occurrence rate of X-ray jets around the boundaries of coronal holes is higher than that in the polar quiet regions, equatorial quiet regions, and polar coronal holes. Furthermore, the mean occurrence rate of transient brightenings is also higher in these regions. We make comparison with the occurrence rates of emerging and canceling magnetic fields in the photosphere reported in previous studies, and find that they do not agree with the occurrence rates of transient brightenings found in this study.

  6. Genetic diversity within ITS-1 region of Eimeria species infecting chickens of north India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saroj; Garg, Rajat; Banerjee, P S; Ram, Hira; Kundu, K; Kumar, Sunil; Mandal, M

    2015-12-01

    Coccidiosis, caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Eimeria, inflicts severe economic losses to the poultry industry around the globe. In the present study, ITS-1 based species specific nested PCR revealed prevalence of E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. praecox, E. necatrix and E. tenella in 79.2%, 12.5%, 64.6%, 89.6%, 60.4%, 64.6% and 97.9% poultry farms of north India, respectively. The ITS-1 sequences of different Eimeria spp. from north India were generated and analyzed to establish their phylogenetic relationship. The sequence identity with available sequences ranged from 80 to 100% in E. tenella, 95 to 100% in E. acervulina, 64 to 97% in E. necatrix, 96 to 99% in E. brunetti and 97 to 98% in E. mitis. Only long ITS-1 sequences of E. maxima could be generated in the present study and it had 80-100% identity with published sequences. Two out of the four ITS-1 sequences of E. maxima had mismatches in the published nested primer sequences from Australia, while one sequence of E. necatrix had a mismatch near 3' end of both forward and reverse published nested primer sequences, warranting for the need of designing new set of degenerate primers for these two species of Eimeria. In the phylogenetic tree, all isolates of E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. mitis, E. tenella and E. necatrix clustered in separate clades with high bootstrap value. E. maxima sequences of north Indian isolates grouped in a long form of E. maxima clade. Complete ITS-1 sequences of E. necatrix and E. mitis are reported for the first time from India. Further studies are required with more number of isolates to verify whether these differences are unique to geographical locations. PMID:26423669

  7. Post-Clovis survival of American Mastodon in the southern Great Lakes Region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodman, Neal; Beavan Athfield, Nancy

    2009-11-01

    The end of the Pleistocene in North America was marked by a wave of extinctions of large mammals, with the last known appearances of many species falling between ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr BP. Temporally, this period overlaps with the Clovis Paleoindian cultural complex (11,190-10,530 14C yr BP) and with sudden climatic changes that define the beginning of the Younger Dryas chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr BP), both of which have been considered as potential proximal causes of this extinction event. Radiocarbon dating of enamel and filtered bone collagen from an extinct American Mastodon ( Mammut americanum) from northern Indiana, USA, by accelerator mass spectrometer yielded direct dates of 10,055 ± 40 14C yr BP and 10,032 ± 40 14C yr BP, indicating that the animal survived beyond the Clovis time period and into the late Younger Dryas. Although the late survival of this species in mid-continental North America does not remove either humans or climatic change as contributing causes for the late Pleistocene extinctions, neither Clovis hunters nor the climatic perturbations initiating the Younger Dryas chronozone were immediately responsible for driving mastodons to extinction.

  8. Climatic Trends in the Triassic to Early Jurassic Lacustrine Succession of East Greenland: Implications for Correlation in the North Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Steven

    2013-04-01

    The Triassic continental successions of the North Atlantic region are poorly age constrained and therefore regional correlation is problematic. Climatic trends offer potential as the basis of regional correlation. The Triassic of East Greenland lies in the northern continuation of the northern North Sea Rift and, following reconstruction, aligns with the Viking Graben. This position, between the northern North Sea, Norwegian Sea and the Barents Shelf successions, means it is key in constructing regional correlations and understanding both tectonic and climatic evolution throughout the Triassic of the North Atlantic region. Detailed sedimentological study of exceptional exposures through the largely lacustrine Mid-Late Triassic succession of East Greenland has provided the basis for a palaeoclimatic reconstruction. This has highlighted the occurrence of significant periods of increased aridity during the Late Ladinian and the Late Carnian which bracket the more humid conditions of the Early Carnian (the 'Carnian Pluvial Event'). Following the Late Carnian arid phase a gradual cooling through the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic is recorded. Comparisons and correlations are made with Triassic successions throughout the North Atlantic. Understanding climatic trends and the response of sedimentary systems to these has important implications for the construction of facies models and therefore the prediction of both reservoir and seal distribution in the prospective North Atlantic petroleum provinces.

  9. Pb, Hf, Nd, and Sr Isotopic Variations of Hualalai Shield Stage Tholeiites from the Submarine North Kona Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, S.; Kani, T.; Hanan, B. B.; Tagami, T.

    2007-12-01

    We present the isotope and trace element compositions of tholeiitic lavas collected from deep submarine portions of North Kona region, the west flank of Hualalai volcano. The samples were collected from the lower section of the North Kona bench (dives K218 and K219), a submarine section at Hualalai volcano's northwest rift zone (dive S690), and an elongate ridge below the central section of the bench (dive S692) during 2001 and 2002 JAMSTEC Hawaii cruises. Hualalai volcano is presently in the post-shield alkalic stage and most of its subaerial surface is covered by alkalic basalt. All analyzed samples of the pillow lavas are tholeiites that erupted during Hualalai shield stage. It is important to identify source materials involved in the volumetrically dominant stage of Hualalai volcano in order to provide constraints for the size and distribution of compositional heterogeneities of Hawaiian plume. The isotopic compositions of the submarine North Kona tholeiites are similar to the data previously reported for Mauna Loa tholeiites. The data trends define clear mixing relationships that require at least three mantle source components. The mixing is dominated by a Koolau-like enriched component and a Kea-like depleted component. The K219 data trend toward higher epsilon Hf and 87Sr/86Sr relative to the K218, S690, and S692 arrays, requiring another component similar to that observed in post-shield lavas of Hualalai volcano. Pb isotopic compositions for samples from dive K218 and K219 form distinct non-overlapping Pb-Pb arrays suggesting further source heterogeneity. Samples from dive S690 and S692 plot on both of these trends. These findings suggest small-scale compositional heterogeneity in the source regions that can be attributed to anomalous irregular 'blobs' involved in late shield stage magmatism of Mauna Loa reported in previous works.

  10. Craters hosting radar-bright deposits in Mercury's north polar region: Areas of persistent shadow determined from MESSENGER images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabot, Nancy L.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Harmon, John K.; Murchie, Scott L.; Solomon, Sean C.; Blewett, David T.; Denevi, Brett W.

    2013-01-01

    Radar-bright features near Mercury's poles were discovered in Earth-based radar images and proposed to be water ice present in permanently shadowed areas. Images from MESSENGER's one-year primary orbital mission provide the first nearly complete view of Mercury's north polar region, as well as multiple images of the surface under a range of illumination conditions. We find that radar-bright features near Mercury's north pole are associated with locations persistently shadowed in MESSENGER images. Within 10° of the pole, almost all craters larger than 10 km in diameter host radar-bright deposits. There are several craters located near Mercury's north pole with sufficiently large diameters to enable long-lived water ice to be thermally stable at the surface within regions of permanent shadow. Craters located farther south also host radar-bright deposits and show a preference for cold-pole longitudes; thermal models suggest that a thin insulating layer is required to cover these deposits if the radar-bright material consists predominantly of long-lived water ice. Many small (<10 km diameter) and low-latitude (extending southward to 66°N) craters host radar-bright material, and water ice may not be thermally stable in these craters for ~1 Gy, even beneath an insulating layer. The correlation of radar-bright features with persistently shadowed areas is consistent with the deposits being composed of water ice, and future thermal modeling of small and low-latitude craters has the potential to further constrain the nature, source, and timing of emplacement of the radar-bright material.

  11. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region.

    PubMed

    Werner, Brett A; Johnson, W Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

    2013-09-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946-1975; 1976-2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species. PMID:24223283

  12. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, B.A.; Johnson, W. Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2013-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946–1975; 1976–2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species.

  13. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Brett A; Johnson, W Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

    2013-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946–1975; 1976–2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species. PMID:24223283

  14. 77 FR 20893 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... regional haze issues, and we promulgated regulations addressing regional haze in 1999. 64 FR 35714 (July 1... requirements. 74 FR 2392. Once EPA has found that a state has failed to make a required submission, EPA is.... 62 FR 38652. Section 110(a)(2) of the CAA lists the elements that such new SIPs must address,...

  15. 77 FR 38185 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of North Carolina; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Carolina). See 76 FR 82219. Based on this proposed finding, EPA also proposed to revise the RHR to allow...., ``reasonably attributable visibility impairment.'' See 45 FR 80084. These regulations represented the first... regional haze issues. EPA promulgated a rule to address regional haze on July 1, 1999 (64 FR 35713),...

  16. Structural development of the central Kyrenia Range (north Cyprus) in its regional setting in the eastern Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. H. F.; Kinnaird, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed structural analysis of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic geological development of the central segment of the Kyrenia Range in its regional tectonic context is given here. The structural evidence comes from five structural traverses, outcrop observations, small-scale structures and related regional evidence. The majority of the structures are fault planes, of which a subordinate number exhibit slickenlines (fault plane data, n = 2688; with kinematics, n = 537). Additional kinematic data were obtained from C-S fabrics and folds. Small-scale structures in each stratigraphic unit were `backstripped' to reveal relative chronology. Synthesis of the structural information indicates three phases of convergence-related deformation: (1) Late Cretaceous, associated with greenschist facies metamorphism, followed by exhumation that was probably associated with WNW-ESE to ENE-WSW-trending high-angle faulting; (2) Mid-Eocene, associated with southward thrusting, coupled with ~N-S strike-slip (transfer faulting) and oblique faulting in an overall sinistral transpressive stress regime; (3) Late Miocene-earliest Pliocene, involving southward thrusting and folding, localised back-thrusting, extensive fault reactivation and large-scale segmentation of the range. Intense uplift of the Kyrenia Range took place during the Plio-Pleistocene, possibly related to the collision of the Eratosthenes Seamount with the Cyprus trench to the south of the island. The three main convergent phases relate to stages of northward subduction and diachronous continental collision affecting the northerly, active continental margin of the Southern Neotethys.

  17. Charge structure of a summer thunderstorm in North China: Simulation using a Regional Atmospheric Model System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongxia; Qie, Xiushu; Peng, Liang; Li, Wanli

    2014-09-01

    Electrification and simple discharge schemes are coupled into a 3D Regional Atmospheric Model System (RAMS) as microphysical parameterizations, in accordance with electrical experiment results. The dynamics, microphysics, and electrification components are fully integrated into the RAMS model, and the inductive and non-inductive electrification mechanisms are considered in the charging process. The results indicate that the thunderstorm mainly had a normal tripole charge structure. The simulated charge structure and lightning frequency are basically consistent with observations of the lightning radiation source distribution. The non-inductive charging mechanism contributed to the electrification during the whole lifetime of the thunderstorm, while the inductive electrification mechanism played a significant role in the development period and the mature stage when the electric field reached a large value. The charge structure in the convective region and the rearward region are analyzed, showing that the charge density in the convective region was double that in the rearward region.

  18. Variability of Forest Change Rates within and among US Geographic Regions as Observed in the North American Forest Dynamics Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleeweis, K.; Goward, S. N.; Huang, C.; Thomas, N.

    2009-12-01

    Forest landscape dynamics are a combination of pattern and process, both varying in space and time to produce a complex mosaic, at any time step, of forest stands in various succession phases. The patterns are formed by discrete events that leave fine scale patches overlapping in space or time. The processes that drive discrete events have differing spatio-temporal manifestations which may or may not persist over larger regions and through longer time intervals than the patterns they create. The cumulative outcome of this complex intersection of pattern and process at the landscape scale impacts higher levels of biological organization and ecosystem function. The North American Forest Dynamics Project (NAFD), a core project of the North American Carbon Program, was designed to capture forest dynamics at the spatio-temporal scale at which they occur by combining USFS FIA field measurements and biennial Landsat observations. This work explores NAFD observations within and among geographic regions and across time. This study also places these observations into the context of the patterns of processes that constrain and determine observed forest change. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Regional regression equations to estimate peak-flow frequency at sites in North Dakota using data through 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2015-01-01

    Annual peak-flow frequency data from 231 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in North Dakota and parts of Montana, South Dakota, and Minnesota, with 10 or more years of unregulated peak-flow record, were used to develop regional regression equations for exceedance probabilities of 0.5, 0.20, 0.10, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, and 0.002 using generalized least-squares techniques. Updated peak-flow frequency estimates for 262 streamflow-gaging stations were developed using data through 2009 and log-Pearson Type III procedures outlined by the Hydrology Subcommittee of the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data. An average generalized skew coefficient was determined for three hydrologic zones in North Dakota. A StreamStats web application was developed to estimate basin characteristics for the regional regression equation analysis. Methods for estimating a weighted peak-flow frequency for gaged sites and ungaged sites are presented.

  20. Episodic nature of earthquake activity in stable continental regions revealed by palaeoseismicity studies of Australian and North American Quaternary faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crone, A.J.; Machette, M.N.; Bowman, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Palaeoseismic investigations of recent faulting in stable continental regions of Australia, North America and India show that these faults typically have a long-term behaviour characterised by episodes of activity separated by quiescent intervals of at least 10 000 and commonly 100 000 years or more. Long recurrence intervals such as these are well documented by detailed studies of the faults that ruptured during the 1986 Marryat Creek, South Australia and 1988 Tennant Creek, Northern Territory earthquakes. Thus, neotectonic features associated with stable continental region faults such as scarps and grabens commonly have subtle geomorphic expression and may be poorly preserved. Many potentially hazardous faults in stable continental regions are aseismic, which is one reason why the inventory of these faults is incomplete. Although they may be currently aseismic, faults in stable continental regions that are favourably oriented for movement in the current stress field could produce damaging earthquakes, often in unexpected places. Comprehensive palaeoseismic investigations of modern and prehistoric faulting events in stable continental regions are needed to understand the long-term behaviour of these faults, and thereby, improve seismic-hazard assessments.

  1. Regional seismic observations of the 9 October 2006 underground nuclear explosion in North Korea and the influence of crustal structure on regional phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Tae-Kyung; Baag, Chang-Eob; Choi, Hoseon; Sheen, Dong-Hoon

    2008-03-01

    The crustally guided shear wave, Lg, is typically the most prominent phase of a nuclear explosion at regional distance. This Lg phase is analyzed often to discriminate a nuclear explosion from a natural earthquake. In addition, the Lg phase allows us to determine the size of the detonation. A nuclear explosion test in North Korea was conducted on 9 October 2006. The epicenter was located close to the eastern shore of the Korean Peninsula, resulting in raypaths that vary significantly according to the azimuths. In particular, rays radiated in the southern direction experience lateral variation of crustal structures at the continental margin. We examine the influence of raypaths on regional seismic phases by comparing the spectra and waveforms from different raypaths. Three natural earthquakes in North Korea are also examined to determine the raypath effect. We find that the Lg from the nuclear explosion dissipated significantly as result of energy leakage into the mantle resulting from variations in crustal thickness along the portion of the raypath traversing the western tip of the Sea of Japan (East Sea). Some of the leaked energy develops into mantle lid waves (Sn), causing a large energy increase to Sn. A similar feature is observed in the records of natural earthquakes. This feature is confirmed by seismic waveform modeling. The raypath effect also causes underestimation of magnitude. The Lg body wave magnitude, mb(Lg), is estimated to be 3.8-4.2 for records from pure continental paths and 2.6-3.4 for records from paths crossing continental margins. This result illustrates the need to consider raypath effects for the correct estimation of magnitudes of regional events, including a nuclear explosion.

  2. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the Greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2015-04-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within the Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS) a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a data base containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 in high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea, which was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25% in summer and 15% in winter. Some hundred kilometers away from the sea the contribution was about 6% in summer and 4% in

  3. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2016-01-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone, this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS), a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load-dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a database containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 at high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and those of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea - including the adjacent western part of the Baltic Sea until 5° W. This was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25 % in summer and 15 % in winter. Some hundred kilometers

  4. Campanian to Maastrichtian pollen biostratigraphy and floral turnover rates, Colville River region, north slope of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Frederiksen, N.O.; Schindler, K.S.

    1987-05-01

    This study is based on occurrence data for 104 angiosperm pollen taxa from 83 pollen-bearing outcrop and core samples taken along the Colville River and stratigraphically distributed from the base of the Sentinel Hill Member of the Schrader Bluff Formation to the top of the Cretaceous section. Many of the pollen taxa are highly useful for intraregional correlations because they have remarkably short stratigraphic ranges and are consistently present within these ranges. Important similarities are present between North Slope pollen assemblages and those of western Canada, Siberia, and China. The Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary is approximately marked by the range bases of Wodehouseia edmontonicola and Senipites drummhellerensis and is nearly as far south (downsection) as Sentinel Hill core test 1. Based on pollen correlations with Alberta, the marine beds at Ocean Point are probably within the middle part of the Maastrichtian, and strata north of Ocean Point that contain Aquilapollenites conatus are uppermost Maastrichtian. Thus, if the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the study area is represented by an unconformity as their data suggest, the lowermost Paleocene is missing, not the uppermost Cretaceous. Maximum diversities of species of the stratigraphically significant Triprojectacites and Expressipollis groups are in the upper Campanian. Major turnovers of angiosperm taxa occurred late in the Campanian and in the Maastrichtian, but high rates of first appearances coincided with high rates of last appearances. Thus, once a fairly high overall angiosperm diversity was established in the middle(.) Campanian, the diversity remained relatively constant until at or near the end of the Maastrichtian.

  5. Seasonal And Regional Differentiation Of Bio-Optical Properties Within The North Polar Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stramska, Malgorzata; Stramski, Dariusz; Kaczmarek, Slawomir; Allison, David B.; Schwarz, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Using data collected during spring and summer seasons in the north polar Atlantic we examined the variability of the spectral absorption, a(lambda), and backscattering, b(sub b)(lambda), coefficients of surface waters and its relation to phytoplankton pigment concentration and composition. For a given chlorophyll a concentration (TChla), the concentrations of photosynthetic carotenoids (PSC), photoprotective carotenoids (PPC), and total accessory pigments (AP) were consistently lower in spring than in summer. The chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and total particulate matter were also lower in spring, which can be partly attributed to lower proportions of PPC, PSC, and AP in spring. The spring values of the green-to-blue band ratio of the absorption coefficient were higher than the summer ratios. The blue-to-green ratios of backscattering coefficient were also higher in spring. The higher b(sub b) values and lower blue-to-green b(sub b) ratios in summer were likely associated with higher concentrations of detrital particles in summer compared to spring. Because the product of the green-to-blue absorption ratio and the blue-to-green backscattering ratio is a proxy for the blue-to-green ratio of remote-sensing reflectance, we conclude that the performance of ocean color band-ratio algorithms for estimating pigments in the north polar Atlantic is significantly affected by seasonal shifts in the relationships between absorption and TChla as well as between backscattering and TChla. Intriguingly, however, fairly good estimate of the particulate beam attenuation coefficient at 660 nm (potential measure of total particulate matter or particulate organic carbon concentration) can be obtained by applying a single blue-to-green band-ratio algorithm for both spring and summer seasons.

  6. Seasonal and regional differentiation of bio-optical properties within the north polar Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramska, Malgorzata; Stramski, Dariusz; Kaczmarek, SłAwomir; Allison, David B.; Schwarz, Jill

    2006-08-01

    Using field data from the north polar Atlantic, we examined seasonal variability of the spectral absorption, a(λ), and backscattering, bb(λ), coefficients of surface waters in relation to phytoplankton pigments. For a given chlorophyll a concentration, the concentrations of accessory pigments were lower in spring than in summer. This effect contributed to lower chlorophyll-specific absorption of phytoplankton and total particulate matter in spring. The spring values of the green-to-blue band ratio of a(λ) were higher than the summer ratios. The blue-to-green ratios of bb(λ) were also higher in spring. The higher bb values and lower blue-to-green bb ratios in summer were likely associated with higher concentrations of detrital particles in summer compared to spring. Because the product of these band ratios of a and bb is a proxy for the blue-to-green ratio of remote-sensing reflectance, the performance of ocean color band-ratio algorithms for estimating pigments is significantly affected by seasonal shifts in the relationships between absorption, backscattering, and chlorophyll a. Our results suggest that the algorithm for the spring season would predict chlorophyll a that is higher by as much as a factor of 4-6 compared to that predicted from the summer algorithm. This indicates a need for a seasonal approach in the north polar Atlantic. However, we also found that a fairly good estimate of the particulate beam attenuation coefficient at 660 nm (a proxy for total particulate matter or particulate organic carbon concentration) can be obtained by applying a single blue-to-green band-ratio algorithm regardless of the season.

  7. Regional cooperation in energy efficiency standard-setting and labeling in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Wiel, Stephen; Van Wie McGrory, Laura

    2003-08-04

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) was established in 2001 by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The goals of NAEWG are to foster communication and cooperation on energy-related matters of common interest, and to enhance North American energy trade and interconnections consistent with the goal of sustainable development, for the benefit of all three countries. At its outset, NAEWG established teams to address different aspects of the energy sector. One, the Energy Efficiency Expert Group, undertook activity in three areas: (1) analyzing commonalities and differences in the test procedures of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, and identifying specific products for which the three countries might consider harmonization; (2) exploring possibilities for increased mutual recognition of laboratory test results; and (3) looking at possibilities for enhanced cooperation in the Energy Star voluntary endorsement labeling program. To support NAEWG's Expert Group on Energy Efficiency (NAEWG-EE), USDOE commissioned Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, representing the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), to prepare a resource document comparing current standards, labels, and test procedure regulations in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The resulting document identified 46 energy-using products for which at least one of the three countries has energy efficiency regulations. Three products--refrigerators/freezers, room air conditioners, and integral horsepower three-phase electric motors--have identical minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and test procedures in the three countries. Ten other products have different MEPS and test procedures, but have the near-term potential for harmonization. NAEWG-EE is currently working to identify mechanisms for mutual recognition of test results. With consultative support from the United States and Canada through NAEWG-EE, Mexico is exploring possibilities for

  8. Regional Geograhpic Network Partnerships Supporting Sustainable Landscapes - An Example: The North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural resource management agencies, conservation organizations and other stakeholders are facing increasingly complex environmental challenges that require coordinated management actions at regional and landscape levels. To address these challenges, integrated multi-disciplina...

  9. Environmental Indicators for the Coastal Region of North American Great Lakes: Introduction and Prospectus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental indicators are benchmarks for the current conditions of the Great Lakes coastal region and provide measurable endpoints to assess the success of future management, conservation, protection, and restoration of this important resource.

  10. Overview of surface ozone variability in East Asia-North Pacific region during IGAC/APARE (1994--1996).

    PubMed

    Lam, K S; Wang, T J; Wang, T; Tang, J; Kajii, Y; Liu, C M; Shim, S G

    2004-01-01

    Surface ozone (O3) was measured at Oki Island (Japan), Cheju Island (South Korea), Lanyu Island (Taiwan Province, China), Cape D'Aguilar (Hong Kong SAR) and Lin'an, Longfenshan, Waliguan (China mainland) during January 1994--December 1996 as a component of IGAC/APARE (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry/East Asia-North Pacific Regional Experiment). This paper gave a joint discussion on the observational results at these stations over the study region. Investigations showed that the average of surface O3 mixing ratios at the seven sites are 47.9+/-15.8, 48.1+/-17.9, 30.2+/-16.4, 31.6+/-17.5, 36.3+/-17.5, 34.8+/-11.5 and 48.2+/-9.5 ppbv, respectively. Significant diurnal variations of surface O3 have been observed at Oki, Cheju, D'Aguilar, Lin'an and Longfenshan. Their annual averaged diurnal differences range from 8 to 23 ppbv and differ in each season. Surface O3 at Lanyu and Waliguan do not show strong diurnal variability. Seasonal cycles of surface O3 showed difference at the temperate and the subtropical remote sites. Oki has a summer minimum-spring maximum, while Lanyu has a summer minimum-autumn maximum. The suburban sites at D'Aguilar and Lin'an report high-level O3 in autumn and low level O3 in summer. Surface O3 remains-high in autumn and low in winter at the rural site Longfenshan. For the global background station Waliguan, surface O3 exhibits a broad spring-summer maximum and autumn-winter minimum. The backward air trajectories to these sites have shown different pathways of long-range transport of air pollution from East Asia Continent to North Pacific Ocean. Surface O3 was found to be strongly and positively correlated with CO at Oki and Lanyu, especially in spring and autumn, reflecting the substantial photochemical buildup of O3 on a regional scale. It is believed that the regional sources of pollution in East Asia have enhanced the average surface O3 concentrations in the background atmosphere of North Pacific. PMID:15495964

  11. Impact of Soil Moisture Conditions on Interannual Variability of the Water Balance over the North American Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Small, E.; Lakshmi, V.

    2001-12-01

    In this study, the effects of soil moisture conditions on interannual variability of the water balance over the North American monsoon (NAM) region was investigated using NCAR's MM5/OSU model. Observations and modeling studies suggest that a positive soil moisture-rainfall feedback may be important in magnifying and prolonging hydroclimatic anomalies in a variety of regions. Our preliminary modeling experiments show that the soil moisture-rainfall feedback is strong in the North American Monsoon System (NAMS) region and may contribute to variability of summertime precipitation in this area. However, this result is based on sensitivity experiments using extreme forcing - soil moisture was held at field capacity or wilting point throughout season long simulations. Here we use the MM5 model linked to the OSU land surface scheme to assess the strength of soil moisture-rainfall feedbacks in the NAMS region that result from realistic soil moisture forcing. Simulations are driven by NCEP reanalysis. The horizontal resolution of the finest grid is 30 km. Three member ensemble experiments begin on June 1 and end on October 1. First, we use the coupled MM5/OSU model to simulate NAMS climate and soil moisture in wet (1999) and dry (2000) monsoon seasons. Second, we repeat these two experiments but constrain the precipitation rate in July over the entire NAM region so that it approximates the mean state. This is accomplished by scaling the simulated precipitation at each point so that it is equal to mean observed precipitation at that location. Third, we repeat the 1999 and 2000 experiments but constrain the soil moisture field in July to the climatological mean value from the NCEP reanalysis. Both types of sensitivity experiments preserve the temporal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) in the surrounding oceans. We compare the atmosphere and land surface state in the control and sensitivity experiments. This isolates the effects of soil moisture anomalies on the

  12. Regional temporal persistence of dried soil layer along south-north transect of the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Ming'an; Zhang, Chencheng; Zhao, Chunlei

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of dried soil layer (DSL) threatens the sustainable development of restored ecosystems in the Loess Plateau of China. Knowledge of the regional spatiotemporal characteristics of DSL in water-deficient regions is critical for optimal water management and vegetation restoration. This study assessed regional temporal persistence of DSL using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs) and relative difference (RD) analyses and determined the dominant driving factors. Two DSL evaluation indices [DSL thickness (DSLT) and DSL soil water content (DSL-SWC)] were calculated by measuring volumetric SWC of the 0-500 cm soil layer at 86 locations along a south-north regional transect of the Loess Plateau in 2013-2014. Based on the study, there was DSL formation at most of the sites (61 out of 86 sites) along the transect. The level of DSL was severe, with mean DSLT of 273 cm and mean DSL-SWC of only 10.8% (v/v) [field capacity (FC) = 22.5% (v/v)]. Mean DSL-SWC generally decreased from south to north, while no obvious trend was noted in DSLT along the transect. Derived rs values indicated a good temporal persistence of spatial patterns of DSL. Also RD analysis showed that DSL with thicker DSLT and/or lower DSL-SWC had much stronger temporal persistence, implying higher possibility for the formation of permanent DSL. The representative locations of each DSL index well represented the regional means of DSLT and DSL-SWC. This suggested that there was the feasibility of directly estimating regional patterns of DSL from theoretical temporal stability. The temporal persistence of DSL patterns was mainly controlled by soil texture, soil organic carbon, field capacity, mean annual precipitation, precipitation seasonal distribution (PSD) and mean annual temperature. We concluded that soil- and climate-related factors dominated regional temporal persistence of DSL. Lower soil water holding capacity, fewer rainfall and more concentrated PSD could intensify the formation and

  13. A Report to the U.S. Department of Education on Educational Challenges and Technical Assistance Needs for the North Central Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CNA Corporation, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The North Central Regional Advisory Committee (NC RAC) final report provides our assessment of the technical assistance needs of educators in our region. The technical assistance is to be provided by comprehensive centers and directed toward implementing the programs of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and achieving its goals through the use of…

  14. UNESCO-UNEVOC Regional Forum Europe, CIS and North America: Advancing TVET for Youth Employability and Sustainable Development (Moscow, Russian Federation, October 28-30, 2013). Meeting Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The UNESCO-UNEVOC Regional Forum for Europe and North America was co-hosted by Moscow-based CVETS National Observatory on Vocational Education/Centre for VET Studies, with the support of the Moscow Institute for the Development of Education. It was the fourth of five regional follow-ups to the Shanghai Consensus on developing and sharing policy…

  15. A Descriptive and Economic Analysis of Agricultural Teacher Education Programs in Land-Grant Universities of the North-Central Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Larry D.; Crawford, Harold R.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a study which assessed the inputs and outputs of the agricultural programs of land-grant universities in the North-Central region. It was found that programs in this region are fairly homogeneous, particularly at the undergraduate level. (CT)

  16. Sulfates in the North Polar Region of Mars Detected by OMEGA/Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Yves; Poulet, François; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Gondet, Brigitte

    2005-03-01

    The Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) imaging spectrometer observed the northern circumpolar regions of Mars at a resolution of a few kilometers. An extended region at 240°E, 85°N, with an area of 60 kilometers by 200 kilometers, exhibits absorptions at wavelengths of 1.45, 1.75, 1.94, 2.22, 2.26, and 2.48 micrometers. These signatures can be unambiguously attributed to calcium-rich sulfates, most likely gypsum. This region corresponds to the dark longitudinal dunes of Olympia Planitia. These observations reveal that water alteration played a major role in the formation of the constituting minerals of northern circumpolar terrains.

  17. Similarities and dissimilarities between the last two deglaciations and interglaciations in the North Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martrat, Belen; Jimenez-Amat, Patricia; Zahn, Rainer; Grimalt, Joan O.

    2014-09-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) recorded by alkenones and oxygen isotopes in the Alboran basin are used here to describe, at an unprecedented fine temporal resolution, the present interglaciation (PIG, initiated at 11.7 ka BP), the last interglaciation (LIG, onset approximately at 129 ka) and respective deglaciations. Similarities and dissimilarities in the progression of these periods are reviewed in comparison with ice cores and stalagmites. Cold spells coeval with the Heinrich events (H) described in the North Atlantic include multi-decadal scale oscillations not previously obvious (up to 4 °C in less than eight centuries within the stadials associated with H1 and H11, ca 133 ka and 17 ka respectively). These abrupt oscillations precede the accumulation of organic rich layers deposited when perihelion moves from alignment with NH spring equinox to the summer solstice, a reference for deglaciations. Events observed during the last deglaciation at 17 ka, 14.8 ka and 11.7 ka are reminiscent of events occurred during the penultimate deglaciation at ca 136 ka, 132 ka and 129 ka, respectively. The SST trend during the PIG is no more than 2 °C (from 20 °C to 18 °C; up to -0.2 °C/ka). The trend is steeper during the LIG, i.e. up to a 5 °C change from the early interglaciation to immediately before the glacial inception (from 23 °C to 18 °C; up to -0.4 °C/ka). Events are superimposed upon a long term trend towards colder SSTs, beginning with SST maxima followed by temperate periods until perihelion aligned with the NH autumn equinox (before ca 5.3 ka for the PIG and 121 ka for the LIG). A cold spell of around eight centuries at 2.8 ka during the PIG was possibly mimicked during the LIG at ca 118 ka by a SST fall of around 1 °C in a millennium. These events led interglacial SST to stabilise at around 18 °C. The glacial inception, barely evident at the beginning ca 115 ka (North Atlantic event C25, after perihelion passage in the NH winter solstice), culminated

  18. Regional Observations of North Korea Explosions: 1st and 2nd Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Heon Cheol; Shin, Jin Soo; Lee, Hee-Il; Park, Jung Ho; Sheen, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Geunyoung; Kim, Tea Sung; Che, Il-Young; Lim, In-Seub

    2010-05-01

    Through data exchanging with China, Russia and Japan, KIGAM could monitor North Korea explosion tests in near real time with azimuthally full coverage from the test site. Except for the East Sea (Japan Sea) side, the seismic stations are distributed uniformly along the boundaries of North Korea and adjacent countries. The error ellipses of epicentral determination of test site for 1st and 2nd tests showed almost identical pattern if they were separately calculated with the same configuration of stations. But the combined use of the 1st and the 2nd test data showed that the 2nd test site was moved approximately 2 Km westward from 1st site. The Pn/Lg spectral ratio clearly discriminate these events from two nearby natural earthquakes above 4 Hz. Full moment tensor inversion also indicate the 2nd test had a very large isotropic component. But mb-Ms discrimination, which has been considered one of the most reliable discriminants for separating explosions and earthquakes, did not show apparently the known pattern of explosion for both tests. Body wave magnitude, mb(Pn) of the 2nd test, which was evaluated as 4.5 by KIGAM, varies with directional location of stations widely from 4.1 to 5.2. The magnitude obtained from Lg, mb(Lg), showed narrow variation between 4.3 to 4.7 with the average of 4.5. In the case of both 1st and 2nd tests, both mb(Pn) and mb(Lg) showed equivalently large variation with directional station location. These variations are mainly due to lateral variation of crustal structures surrounding the test site. Remarkably mb(Lg) showed very linear relationship with mb(Pn). By considering attenuation characteristics according to the propagation path, the variations could be effectively reduced. The cut-off frequencies of P wave of both tests showed no or negligible difference even though the estimated yield of the 2nd test were much larger than that of the 1st one. The ratio of P-wave amplitudes of two tests showed from 2 to 3.1 times. Correspondingly the

  19. Soil organic carbon beneath croplands and re-established grasslands in the North Dakota Prairie Pothole Region.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Rebecca L; Eken, Mikki R; West, Mark S

    2015-05-01

    Grassland ecosystems established under the conservation reserve program (CRP) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) currently provide soil conservation and wildlife habitat services. We aimed to determine if these lands also sequester soil organic carbon (SOC), as compared with neighboring croplands across multiple farms in the North Dakota PPR. We sampled soil from small plots at 17 private farms in the central North Dakota PPR, where long-term (≥15 years) grasslands managed under the CRP were paired with neighboring annual croplands. Cores were collected to 100 cm and split into 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-70, and 70-100 cm soil depth layers. We hypothesized the effect of land use on soil organic carbon (SOC), root carbon (C), and bulk density would be greatest near the surface. For 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers, grasslands managed under the CRP were lower in bulk density and higher in SOC. From 0 to 70 cm, grasslands managed under the CRP were higher in root C. Average (±standard error) SOC for re-established grasslands and croplands was 25.39 (0.91) and 21.90 (1.02), respectively, for the 0-10 cm soil layer and 19.88 (0.86) and 18.31 (0.82), respectively, for the 10-20 soil layer. Compared to croplands, re-established grasslands sampled in the North Dakota PPR were 3-13 % lower in bulk density and 9-16 % higher in SOC from 0 to 20 cm, while root C was 2-6 times greater from 0 to 70 cm. PMID:25813629

  20. Soil Organic Carbon Beneath Croplands and Re-established Grasslands in the North Dakota Prairie Pothole Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Rebecca L.; Eken, Mikki R.; West, Mark S.

    2015-05-01

    Grassland ecosystems established under the conservation reserve program (CRP) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) currently provide soil conservation and wildlife habitat services. We aimed to determine if these lands also sequester soil organic carbon (SOC), as compared with neighboring croplands across multiple farms in the North Dakota PPR. We sampled soil from small plots at 17 private farms in the central North Dakota PPR, where long-term (≥15 years) grasslands managed under the CRP were paired with neighboring annual croplands. Cores were collected to 100 cm and split into 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-70, and 70-100 cm soil depth layers. We hypothesized the effect of land use on soil organic carbon (SOC), root carbon (C), and bulk density would be greatest near the surface. For 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers, grasslands managed under the CRP were lower in bulk density and higher in SOC. From 0 to 70 cm, grasslands managed under the CRP were higher in root C. Average (±standard error) SOC for re-established grasslands and croplands was 25.39 (0.91) and 21.90 (1.02), respectively, for the 0-10 cm soil layer and 19.88 (0.86) and 18.31 (0.82), respectively, for the 10-20 soil layer. Compared to croplands, re-established grasslands sampled in the North Dakota PPR were 3-13 % lower in bulk density and 9-16 % higher in SOC from 0 to 20 cm, while root C was 2-6 times greater from 0 to 70 cm.

  1. Isotopic features of Emilia-Romagna region (North Italy) groundwaters: Environmental and climatological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, G.; Chahoud, A.; Dadomo, A.; Fava, A.

    2014-11-01

    18O/16O, D/H, tritium and carbon isotopes were analysed together with the main geochemical parameters of selected wells of groundwaters in the Emilia-Romagna region. The isotope data collected in a three-year monitoring program of surface waters allowed a subdivision of the studied region within the main feeding areas of the Po and Apennine Rivers. The isotopic investigation demonstrated the existence of palaeowaters hosted in deep aquifers in the plains and their overexploitation, which induced land subsidence phenomena. Groundwater stable isotopes have been utilized as a proxy for temperature and have shown significant atmospheric temperature variations over the past 30,000 years.

  2. MARCI and MOC observations of the atmosphere and surface cap in the north polar region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantor, Bruce A.; James, Philip B.; Calvin, Wendy M.

    2010-07-01

    We used MGS-MOC and MRO-MARCI daily mapping images of the North Polar Region of Mars from 16 August 2005 ( Ls = 270°) to 21 May 2009 ( Ls = 270°), covering portions of three consecutive martian years (MY 27-MY 29), to observe the seasonal behavior of the polar ice cap and atmospheric phenomena. The rate of cap regression was similar in MY 28 and MY 29, but was advanced by 3.5° of Ls (˜7-8 sols) in MY 29. The spatial and temporal behaviors of dust and condensate clouds were similar in the two years and generally in accord with prior years. Dust storms (>100 km 2) were observed in all seasons, with peak activity occurring at Ls = 10-20° from 50°N to 70°N and at Ls = 135-140° from 70°N to 90°N. The most active quadrant was 0-90°W in MY 28, shifting to 180-270°W in MY 29. The majority of regional storms in both years developed in longitudes from 10°W to 60°W. During late summer the larger storms obscure the North Polar Region in a cloud of dust that transitions to north polar hood condensate clouds around autumnal equinox. Changes in the distribution of perennial ice deposits, especially in Olympia Planum, were observed between the 2 years, with the MY 29 ice distribution being the most extensive observed to date. Modeling suggests that the small, bright ice patches on the residual cap are not the result of slope or elevation effects. Rather we suggest that they are the result of local meteorological effects on ice deposition. The annual darkening and brightening of peripheral areas of the residual cap around summer solstice can be explained by the sublimation of a brighter frost layer revealing an underlying darker, ice rich layer that itself either sublimes to reveal brighter material below or acts as a cold trap, attracting condensation of water vapor that brightens the surface. An alternative explanation invokes transport and deposition of dust on the surface from the cap interior, and later removal of that dust. The decrease in cap albedo and

  3. DUST CONTINUUM AND POLARIZATION FROM ENVELOPE TO CORES IN STAR FORMATION: A CASE STUDY IN THE W51 NORTH REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Ya-Wen; Guilloteau, Stephane; Dutrey, Anne; Ho, Paul T. P.; Koch, Patrick M.

    2013-02-15

    We present the first high-angular resolution (up to 0.''7, {approx}5000 AU) polarization and thermal dust continuum images toward the massive star-forming region W51 North. The observations were carried out with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in both the subcompact (SMA-SubC) and extended (SMA-Ext) configurations at a wavelength of 870 {mu}m. W51 North is resolved into four cores (SMA1 to SMA4) in the 870 {mu}m continuum image. The associated dust polarization exhibits more complex structures than seen at lower angular resolution. We analyze the inferred morphologies of the plane-of-sky magnetic field (B ) in the SMA1 to SMA4 cores and in the envelope using the SMA-Ext and SMA-SubC data. These results are compared with the B archive images obtained from the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) and James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). The polarization percentage is about 1% to 4%, and it is found to decrease with higher intensity in our SMA images, which is a similar trend to that previously reported in the CSO and JCMT data. A correlation between dust intensity gradient position angles ({phi}{sub {nabla}I}) and magnetic field position angles ({phi}{sub B}) is found in the CSO, JCMT, and both SMA data sets. This correlation is further analyzed quantitatively. A systematically tighter correlation between {phi}{sub {nabla}I} and {phi}{sub B} is found in the cores, whereas the correlation decreases in outside-core regions. Magnetic field-to-gravity force ratio ({Sigma}{sub B}) maps are derived using the newly developed polarization-intensity gradient method by Koch et al. We find that the force ratios tend to be small ({Sigma}{sub B} {approx}< 0.5) in the cores in all four data sets. In regions outside of the cores, the ratios increase or the field is even dominating gravity ({Sigma}{sub B} > 1). This possibly provides a physical explanation of the tightening correlation between {phi}{sub {nabla}I} and {phi}{sub B} in the cores: The more the B field lines are

  4. Weather Regimes and cyclonic activity in the North Atlantic European region: present and future climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Tiago; Rocha, Alfredo; Melo-Gonçalves, Paulo; Santos, João A.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2014-05-01

    Damages associated with extratropical storms are amongst the most important natural hazards on Western Europe. Thus, in this work we analyse: (i) the relationships between several cyclone characteristics: intensity, depth, radius, cyclogenesis, cyclolysis, and total number of cyclones (identified by applying the Murray and Simmonds method to 6-hourly 850 hPa geopotential height); (ii) their links to four large-scale weather regimes (WRs) over a North Atlantic-European sector (NAE, 90W-30E, 20N-80N); and (iii) the projected changes for future climates under emission scenarios. Four WRs are identified by a 4-means clustering of the daily 500 hPa geopotential height fields (Blocking, Zonal or NAO+, Atlantic Ridge, and Greenland Anticyclonic). Furthermore, daily 500 hPa geopotential height from four CMIP3 simulations are clustered using the ERA centroids, for both the recent-past climate (1961-1990) and two future climates: 2021-2050 and 2069-2098. The impact of anthropogenic forcing on the cyclonic activity over the NAE sector is thereby quantified for each of the four weather regimes. Acknowledgments: this work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project CLIPE (PTDC/AAC-CLI/111733/2009).

  5. Characterization of the Morphometry of Impact Craters Hosting Polar Deposits in Mercury's North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talpe Matthieu; Zuber, Maria T.; Yang, Di; Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Mazarico, Erwan; Vilas, Faith

    2012-01-01

    Earth-based radar images of Mercury show radar-bright material inside impact craters near the planet s poles. A previous study indicated that the polar-deposit-hosting craters (PDCs) at Mercury s north pole are shallower than craters that lack such deposits. We use data acquired by the Mercury Laser Altimeter on the MESSENGER spacecraft during 11 months of orbital observations to revisit the depths of craters at high northern latitudes on Mercury. We measured the depth and diameter of 537 craters located poleward of 45 N, evaluated the slopes of the northern and southern walls of 30 PDCs, and assessed the floor roughness of 94 craters, including nine PDCs. We find that the PDCs appear to have a fresher crater morphology than the non-PDCs and that the radar-bright material has no detectable influence on crater depths, wall slopes, or floor roughness. The statistical similarity of crater depth-diameter relations for the PDC and non-PDC populations places an upper limit on the thickness of the radar-bright material (< 170 m for a crater 11 km in diameter) that can be refined by future detailed analysis. Results of the current study are consistent with the view that the radar-bright material constitutes a relatively thin layer emplaced preferentially in comparatively young craters.

  6. The infantile visceral leishmaniasis: could it attack Egyptian north coastal region again?

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Ahmed, Gabr M Sayed; Gaber, Wafaa Aly I; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is caused by three species of the L. donovani complex: L. donovani, L. infantum, and L. chagasi. Infections with these organisms are often asymptomatic or very mild, but in a minority of individuals there is progression to severe symptomatic disease. This is associated with spread of the infection throughout the reticuloendothelial system. L. infantum typically affect children below the age of 5 years. However, IVL can also occur in immunosuppressed adults, such as transplant recipients and patients receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapy or patients suffering from chronic intestinal schistosomiasis. IVL was encountered in Al-Agamy, Alexandria on 1983 with Phlebotomus langeroni. This vector is still abundant with low density away from Al-Agamy. Urbanization of the north coastal area in the vicinity of Alexandria changes the ecological status but how does it affect the behavior of sandflies; mainly the IVL vector Phlebotomus langeroni? Many employees and their families return home from Libya with fever with or without other accompanying symptoms. Fever can be a manifestation of a minor, self-limited process or can herald a progressive, life-threatening illness. The detection of Phlebotomus langeroni in El-Hamam City, Sedi Barany City, and Matrooh City and the abundance P. papatasii in these three cities in addition to Al Agamy must be taken into consideration of the Public Health Authority. PMID:24640860

  7. Modeling study of the 2010 regional haze event in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Wang, Y.; Saide, P. E.; Yu, M.; Xin, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The online coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was applied to simulate a haze event that happened in January 2010 in the North China Plain (NCP), and was validated against various types of measurements. The evaluations indicate that WRF-Chem provides reliable simulations for the 2010 haze event in the NCP. This haze event was mainly caused by high emissions of air pollutants in the NCP and stable weather conditions in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosols also played an important role and cloud chemistry had important contributions. Air pollutants outside Beijing contributed about 64.5 % to the PM2.5 levels in Beijing during this haze event, and most of them are from south Hebei, Tianjin city, Shandong and Henan provinces. In addition, aerosol feedback has important impacts on surface temperature, relative humidity (RH) and wind speeds, and these meteorological variables affect aerosol distribution and formation in turn. In Shijiazhuang, Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) decreased about 278.2 m and PM2.5 increased more than 20 µg m-3 due to aerosol feedback. It was also shown that black carbon (BC) absorption has significant impacts on meteorology and air quality changes, indicating more attention should be paid to BC from both air pollution control and climate change perspectives.

  8. Yield ratio estimates using regional Pn and Pg from North Korea's underground nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Sung; Kang, Ik-Bum; Kim, Geun-Young

    2009-11-01

    On May 25, 2009 North Korea executed a second nuclear test in the vicinity of P'unggyeri where the first nuclear test was performed on October 9, 2006. Seismic signals from the two underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are recorded at broadband stations in South Korea and China. Seismic signals from fourteen broadband stations operated by the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), three broadband stations of Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) in South Korea and the Mudanjiang station (MDJ) of GSN in China are used for this study. Clear Pn, Pg, and Lg phases propagated over 800 km. The nearly co-located two UNEs and seismic recordings at the same stations enable us to estimate the ratio of the Pn and Pg displacement amplitude spectra between two events by eliminating the path effect. The 95% confidence interval of the mean yield ratio is constrained as a function of the depth ratio and all the estimates of Pn and Pg spectral ratios. The mean yield ratio ranges from 3.45 to 6.36 in the 95% confidence interval based on the depth range estimates by Bennett (2008, 2009).

  9. Spatial correlation structure of monthly rainfall at a mesoscale region of north-eastern Bohemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, Vojtěch; Máca, Petr; Hanel, Martin; Pech, Pavel

    2015-07-01

    The spatial correlation structure of monthly rainfall was analysed using data from 38 rain gauges located in north-eastern Bohemia. Three different inter-station correlation measures—Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient and Kendall's tau rank correlation coefficient—were estimated using monthly rainfall records from a recent 31-year period. Six different theoretical parametric correlation models were identified using the nonlinear least squares method. The spatial correlation structure was described using the fitted parameters. Comparison of estimated correlation models showed that, as measured by standard error, the best fitted was a two-parameter exponential model. The relationships between parameters of the exponential two-parameter model were further explored and described. The temporal variability of correlation showed trends in the fitted parameters over the studied period. On a seasonal basis, the correlation between the stations was stronger in autumn and winter than in spring and summer. The spatial variability of estimated parameters revealed that parameters of Matérn and two-parameter exponential models were dependent on altitude.

  10. Modeling study of the 2010 regional haze event in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Wang, Y.; Saide, P. E.; Yu, M.; Xin, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, Z.

    2015-08-01

    The online coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was applied to simulate a haze event that happened in January 2010 in the North China Plain (NCP), and was validated against various types of measurements. The evaluations indicate that WRF-Chem provides reliable simulations for the 2010 haze event in the NCP. This haze event is mainly caused by high emissions of air pollutants in the NCP and stable weather conditions in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosols also played an important role and cloud chemistry had important contributions. Air pollutants outside Beijing contributed about 47.8 % to the PM2.5 levels in Beijing during this haze event, and most of them are from south Hebei, Shandong and Henan provinces. In addition, aerosol feedback has important impacts on surface temperature, Relative Humidity (RH) and wind speeds, and these meteorological variables affect aerosol distribution and formation in turn. In Shijiazhuang, Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) decreased about 300 m and PM2.5 increased more than 20 μg m-3 due to aerosol feedback. Feedbacks associated to Black Carbon (BC) account for about 50 % of the PM2.5 increases and 50 % of the PBL decreases in Shijiazhuang, indicating more attention should be paid to BC from both air pollution control and climate change perspectives.

  11. Toward a Sustainable Society in the Mena (Middle East and North Africa) Region: Roadmap and Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Bassiouny, Noha

    2012-01-01

    The Business and Society Research Cluster (BSRC) at the German University in Cairo, the El-Khazindar Business Research and Case Center at the American University in Cairo and Misr El-Kheir (MEK) Foundation, Egypt, hosted the region's first sustainability and corporate social responsibility (CSR) case studies conference, entitled "Toward a…

  12. How Do Professional Mutual Recognition Agreements Affect Higher Education? Examining Regional Policy in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa, Creso; Gaviria, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Professional mutual recognition agreements (MRAs) are one of the policy instruments employed in global and regional trade agreements to facilitate the mobility of skilled labour. While such agreements have been noted in the literature examining cross-border academic mobility, little is known about how they impact higher education. This paper…

  13. 77 FR 11858 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of North Carolina; Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... arising from the State's reliance on CAIR to meet certain regional haze requirements. See 76 FR 82219... conditions. See 64 FR 35715 (July 1, 1999). \\3\\ Visual range is the greatest distance, in kilometers or miles..., promulgated a list of 156 areas where visibility is identified as an important value. See 44 FR...

  14. 78 FR 16452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... discussion of regional haze requirements, please see our proposal at 76 FR 58574, 58576. In our proposed action, we proposed to disapprove the State's NO X BART determinations for these units. See 76 FR 58570... BART determinations for these units. 77 FR 20894, 20897 (April 6, 2012). We based our change on...

  15. Sensitivity of optimized high-resolution North American CH4 emissions to regional CH4 boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanevich, Ilya; Strong, Kimberly; Jones, Dylan; Lin, John; Wecht, Kevin; Andrews, Arlyn; Worthy, Doug; Wennberg, Paul; Wunch, Debra; Roehl, Coleen

    2016-04-01

    Constraining CH4 emissions at subcontinental scales is of great value, especially for quantifying local anthropogenic emissions. However, high-resolution emission estimates are more uncertain, particularly due to their relatively weak signature in the atmosphere and the uncertainty of the CH4 measurements used to infer the emissions. In this work, we investigate the robustness of high-resolution North American emission estimates. We perform regional inversion analyses over North America using the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model, with initial and boundary conditions imposed from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model, constrained by NOAA and Environment Canada CH4 flask measurements and CH4 columns measured using Fourier transform spectrometers at the University of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory and at the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) Lamont station. We also perform STILT and GEOS-Chem inversions with pseudo in situ- and satellite-like measurements, respectively, to assess the seasonal sensitivity of optimized emissions to uncorrected biases in CH4 boundary conditions. We show that, depending on the season, the sensitivity of the emissions to the biases varies by up to 40%.

  16. Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3): North polar region (MC-1) distribution, applications, and volume estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayward, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) now extends from 90??N to 65??S. The recently released north polar portion (MC-1) of MGD3 adds ~844 000km2 of moderate- to large-size dark dunes to the previously released equatorial portion (MC-2 to MC-29) of the database. The database, available in GIS- and tabular-format in USGS Open-File Reports, makes it possible to examine global dune distribution patterns and to compare dunes with other global data sets (e.g. atmospheric models). MGD3 can also be used by researchers to identify areas suitable for more focused studies. The utility of MGD3 is demonstrated through three example applications. First, the uneven geographic distribution of the dunes is discussed and described. Second, dune-derived wind direction and its role as ground truth for atmospheric models is reviewed. Comparisons between dune-derived winds and global and mesoscale atmospheric models suggest that local topography may have an important influence on dune-forming winds. Third, the methods used here to estimate north polar dune volume are presented and these methods and estimates (1130km3 to 3250km3) are compared with those of previous researchers (1158km3 to 15 000km3). In the near future, MGD3 will be extended to include the south polar region. ?? 2011 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  17. Mesozoic rift magmatism in the North Sea region: 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of Scanian basalts and geochemical constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergelin, Ingemar; Obst, Karsten; Söderlund, Ulf; Larsson, Kent; Johansson, Leif

    2011-06-01

    More than 100 volcanic necks composed of basanites and melanephelinites occur in Scania, southern Sweden, at the junction of two major tectonic lineaments, the Phanerozoic Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone (STZ) and the Proterozoic Protogine Zone. New 40Ar/39Ar isotope analyses of whole rock fragments of nine selected basalt necks suggest that the Mesozoic alkaline volcanism in the Scanian province commenced earlier than previously reported and comprised three separate volcanic episodes that span a total period of ca. 80 Myr: a first Jurassic (191-178 Ma), a second at the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary (ca. 145 Ma), and a final middle Cretaceous episode (ca. 110 Ma). The new results allow for precise time correlations between eruption events in the Scanian and those in the North Sea volcanic provinces. The older, early Jurassic event in Scania is largely synchronous with that in the Egersund Basin and the Forties field whereas the event at ca. 145 Ma is correlated with activity in the Central Graben. These volcanic episodes also correlate in age with Kimmerian tectonic activity. Volcanic activity in the middle Cretaceous period has also been dated in the triple junction in the North Sea and offshore in the Netherland Sector. The correlation of basalt volcanism in Scania with the Egersund nephelinites strongly suggest that volcanism was triggered by repeated tectonic activity along the STZ. Geochemical data of alkaline mafic rocks in the Scanian and the North Sea volcanic provinces imply that different provinces have largely unique geochemical signatures in favour of a heterogeneous mantle in the North Sea volcanic region. However, basalts of different generations in one and the same province cannot be readily separated on the basis of geochemistry, suggesting that the same lithospheric mantle was the source of repeated volcanism over time in each province. The data suggest a low degree of melting of a volatile-bearing mantle lherzolite enriched in incompatible elements with

  18. Identification of new cytotypes of Valeriana jatamansi Jones, 1970 (Valerianaceae) from North-Western Himalayan region of India.

    PubMed

    Rani, Savita; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Kapila, Rakesh; Chahota, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Valeriana jatamansi, a medicinally important species of the family Valerianaceae, has been cytologically studied in different geographical areas of North-Western Himalayan region of India. The tetraploid cytotype with chromosome numbers 2n=32 is in conformity with the earlier reports of the species from different parts of the world. An octoploid cytotype (2n=64) makes a new addition for the species on a worldwide basis, whereas the diploid cytotype (2n=16) is new to India have been reported for the first time in India. These cytotypes (2n=16, 32, 64) show significant variations with respect to morphology as well as geographical distribution in the Western Indian Himalayas. Further, anomalous populations have been marked with meiotic abnormalities in the form of cytomixis, chromosomal stickiness, unoriented bivalents, formation of laggards and bridges resulting in abnormal microsporogenesis, and production of heterogeneous-sized fertile pollen grains along with reduced pollen fertility. PMID:26753070

  19. Identification of new cytotypes of Valeriana jatamansi Jones, 1970 (Valerianaceae) from North-Western Himalayan region of India

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Savita; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Kapila, Rakesh; Chahota, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Valeriana jatamansi, a medicinally important species of the family Valerianaceae, has been cytologically studied in different geographical areas of North-Western Himalayan region of India. The tetraploid cytotype with chromosome numbers 2n=32 is in conformity with the earlier reports of the species from different parts of the world. An octoploid cytotype (2n=64) makes a new addition for the species on a worldwide basis, whereas the diploid cytotype (2n=16) is new to India have been reported for the first time in India. These cytotypes (2n=16, 32, 64) show significant variations with respect to morphology as well as geographical distribution in the Western Indian Himalayas. Further, anomalous populations have been marked with meiotic abnormalities in the form of cytomixis, chromosomal stickiness, unoriented bivalents, formation of laggards and bridges resulting in abnormal microsporogenesis, and production of heterogeneous-sized fertile pollen grains along with reduced pollen fertility. PMID:26753070

  20. [Biological properties of the isolate of Trichinella spp. from a jackal in the North-Caucasian Region].

    PubMed

    Odoevskaia, I M; Kurnosova, O P; Klinkov, A V; Bocharova, M M

    2009-01-01

    The biological properties of the isolate from Trichinella from ajackal in the North-Caucasian Region of the Russian Federation were studied. The jackal's muscle tissue showed two Trichinella species preserving their genetic isolation during 5 passages on mice. Oval capsules containing live larvae (on day 90 after infection) in the rat muscles corresponds to the conventional description of the species Trichinella spiralis in their morphometric and biological properties. The morphological data, biological properties, and poor adaptation of round capsule-enclosed parasites to rats indirectly show their affiliation to the other Trichinella species--T. native or T. britovi. There was a negative test for outbred albino rat muscle Trichinella resistance to freezing, which, might be associated with the poor adaptation of this Trichinella isolate to this species of rodents. PMID:19830913

  1. Bias correction of the CCSM4 for improved regional climate modeling of the North American monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jonathan D. D.; Jin, Jiming

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates how a form of bias correction using linear regression improves the limitations of the community climate system model (CCSM) version 4 when it is dynamically downscaled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for the North American monsoon (NAM). Long-term biases in the CCSM dataset were removed using the climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) dataset as a baseline, from which a physically consistent set of bias-corrected variables were created. To quantitatively identify the effects of CCSM data on the NAM simulations, three 32-year climatologies were generated with WRF driven by (1) CFSR, (2) original CCSM, and (3) bias-corrected CCSM data. The WRF-CFSR simulations serve as a baseline for comparison. With the bias correction, onset dates simulated by WRF bias-corrected CCSM data were generally within a week of the WRF-CFSR climatology, while WRF using the original CCSM data occur up to 3-4 weeks too early over the core of the NAM. Additionally, bias-correction led to improvements in the mature phase of the NAM, reducing August root-mean-square-error values by 26 % over the core of the NAM and 36 % over the northern periphery. Comparison of the CFSR and the bias-corrected CCSM climatologies showed marked consistency in the general evolution of the NAM system. Dry biases in the NAM precipitation existed in each climatology with the original CCSM performing the poorest when compared to observations. The poor performance of the original CCSM simulations stem from biases in the thermodynamic profile supplied to the model through lateral boundary conditions. Bias-correction improved the excessive capping inversions, and mid-level mixing ratio dry biases (2-3 g kg-1) present in the CCSM simulations. Improvements in the bias-corrected CCSM data resulted in greater convective activity and a more representative seasonal distribution of precipitation.

  2. Geopotential Stress: A global approach with focus on the North-Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, Christian; Bom Nielsen, Søren

    2013-04-01

    Density heterogeneity in the Earth's lithosphere causes lateral pressure variations. Horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated lithostatic pressure, the Geopotential Energy (GPE), are a source of stresses (Geopotential Stress) that contribute to the Earth's Stress Field. In theory the GPE is linearly related to the lithospheric part of the Geoid. The Geopotential Stress can be calculated if either the density structure and as a consequence the GPE or the lithospheric contribution to the Geoid is known. The lithospheric Geoid is usually obtained by short pass filtering of satellite Geoid measurements. However, this approach depresses signals from long-wavelength lateral density variations within the lithosphere (e.g. the oceanic lithosphere and large scale geological provinces) while deeper situated wavelength contributions might still be included. Existing global density models are not entirely suitable for the stress calculations but can be compiled and adjusted. We present an approach in which a global lithospheric density model based on CRUST2.0 is obtained by simultaneously fitting topography and surface heat flow in the presence of isostatic compensation and long-wavelength lateral pressure variations at the base of the lithosphere. From this density model we calculate global Geopotential Stresses by solving the equations of stress equilibrium using a finite element code with triangular thick shell elements with 15 degrees of freedom each. We present global results and focus more detailed on the North Atlantic state of stress and its significance for the unique geodynamical setting including a spreading system, the Icelandic magmatic anomaly and surrounding passive margins. The results show excellent agreement with the present observed stress directions.

  3. North-South differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Stronen, Astrid V; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Pilot, Małgorzata; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Dykyy, Ihor; Kusak, Josip; Tsingarska, Elena; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A; Ornicans, Aivars; Lobkov, Vladimir A; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D

    2013-01-01

    European wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan) differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan) in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part. PMID:24146871

  4. Virtual industrial water usage and wastewater generation in the Middle East/North African region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhel, S. R.; Geissen, S.-U.; Vogelpohl, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the quantification of volumes of water usage, wastewater generation, virtual water export, and wastewater generation from export for eight export relevant industries present in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA). It shows that about 3400 million m3 of water is used per annum while around 793 million m3 of wastewater is generated from products that are meant for domestic consumption and export. The difference between volumes of water usage and wastewater generation is due to water evaporation or injecting underground (oil wells pressure maintenance). The wastewater volume generated from production represents a population equivalent of 15.5 million in terms of wastewater quantity and 30.4 million in terms of BOD. About 409 million m3 of virtual water flows from MENA to EU27 (resulting from export of eight commodities) which is equivalent to 12.1% of the water usage of those industries and Libya is the largest virtual water exporter (about 87 million m3). Crude oil and refined petroleum products represent about 89% of the total virtual water flow, fertilizers represent around 10% and 1% remaining industries. EU27 poses the greatest indirect pressure on the Kuwaiti hydrological system where the virtual water export represents about 96% of the actual renewable water resources in this country. The Kuwaiti crude oil water use in relation to domestic water withdrawal is about 89% which is highest among MENA countries. Pollution of water bodies, in terms of BOD, due to production is very relevant for crude oil, slaughterhouses, refineries, olive oil, and tanneries while pollution due to export to EU27 is most relevant for crude oil industry and olive oil mills.

  5. The North Anatolian Fault in the Region of Iznik (Turkey) : Geomorphological Evolution and Archeoseismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjelloun, Y. N.; de Sigoyer, J.; Sahin, M.; Garambois, S.; Dessales, H.

    2015-12-01

    This work based on a pluridisciplinary approach coupling earth sciences and archaeology aims to study the recent tectonics along Iznik Lake, which follows the North Anatolian fault middle strand (NAFMS), south of the Marmara Sea in Turkey. Today this strand records a low seismicity and presents a lower slip rate (<5 mm/yr) than the northern strand . However, historical texts suggest a significant earthquake hazard over the last two millennia in this area. Data are needed to attest for the tectonic origin of the lake and the precise location of the faults. Long-term slip rates and stress accumulation on these faults zone are also unknown, which makes it difficult to estimate seismic hazard. The main goal of this work is to collect new data on the past activity of the NAFMS and to estimate slip rates at different time scales. For this, we observe geomorphic and archeological markers of past deformation. The main fault zones were identified using a high resolution DEM (<2m) derived from Pleiades images, and confirmed on the field. These faults intersect and deform geomorphic features, such as terraces, paleoshorelines, alluvial fans.... Terraces deposited by Iznik Lake during high stands, which were tilted and crossed by several faults, were sampled for dating in order to constrain the normal and strike-slip Quaternary slip rate of the faults and their influence on the lake formation. The valley of Kirandere river east of Iznik presents many deflected and offset rivers and ridges, that will be used to constrain a Holocene strike-slip rate. To document the historical activity of the NAFMS around Iznik, we have identified ancient buildings that underwent successive damages and repairs and characterized them through an archeoseismological approach. We particularly studied the roman aqueduct of Iznik which is cut and deformed by a small fault.

  6. North-South Differentiation and a Region of High Diversity in European Wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Stronen, Astrid V.; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Pilot, Małgorzata; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Dykyy, Ihor; Kusak, Josip; Tsingarska, Elena; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A.; Ornicans, Aivars; Lobkov, Vladimir A.; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D.

    2013-01-01

    European wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan) differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan) in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part. PMID:24146871

  7. Bias correction of the CCSM4 for improved regional climate modeling of the North American monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jonathan D. D.; Jin, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates how a form of bias correction using linear regression improves the limitations of the community climate system model (CCSM) version 4 when it is dynamically downscaled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for the North American monsoon (NAM). Long-term biases in the CCSM dataset were removed using the climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) dataset as a baseline, from which a physically consistent set of bias-corrected variables were created. To quantitatively identify the effects of CCSM data on the NAM simulations, three 32-year climatologies were generated with WRF driven by (1) CFSR, (2) original CCSM, and (3) bias-corrected CCSM data. The WRF-CFSR simulations serve as a baseline for comparison. With the bias correction, onset dates simulated by WRF bias-corrected CCSM data were generally within a week of the WRF-CFSR climatology, while WRF using the original CCSM data occur up to 3-4 weeks too early over the core of the NAM. Additionally, bias-correction led to improvements in the mature phase of the NAM, reducing August root-mean-square-error values by 26 % over the core of the NAM and 36 % over the northern periphery. Comparison of the CFSR and the bias-corrected CCSM climatologies showed marked consistency in the general evolution of the NAM system. Dry biases in the NAM precipitation existed in each climatology with the original CCSM performing the poorest when compared to observations. The poor performance of the original CCSM simulations stem from biases in the thermodynamic profile supplied to the model through lateral boundary conditions. Bias-correction improved the excessive capping inversions, and mid-level mixing ratio dry biases (2-3 g kg-1) present in the CCSM simulations. Improvements in the bias-corrected CCSM data resulted in greater convective activity and a more representative seasonal distribution of precipitation.

  8. Monochlorobenzene marine risk assessment with special reference to the OSPARCOM region: North Sea.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Dolf; Thompson, Roy S; De Rooij, Christ; Garny, Veronique; Lecloux, André; Kanne, Reinhard

    2004-10-01

    This risk assessment on monochlorobenzene was carried out for the marine environment, following methodology given in the EU risk assessment Regulation (1488/94) and Guidance Document of the EU New and Existing Substances Regulation (TGD, 1996). Data from analytical monitoring programmes in large rivers and estuaries in the North Sea area were collected and evaluated for effects and environmental concentrations. Risk is indicated by the ratio of predicted environmental concentration (PEC) to predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for the marine aquatic environment. In total, 27 data for fish, 24 data for invertebrates and 13 data for algae were evaluated. Acute and chronic toxicity studies were taken into account and appropriate assessment factors used to define a final PNEC value of 32 micro/l. Recent monitoring data indicate that monochlorobenzene levels in surface waters are below determination limits of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 microg/l used in monitoring programs. Assuming that half of the lowest determination (0.1 microg/l) is typical, a PEC of 0.05 microg/l was derived. A worst case of 0.5 microg/l is assumed. PEC/PNEC ratios give safety factors of 60 to over 500, taking no account of dilution in the sea. Monochlorobenzene is not a 'toxic, persistent and liable to bioaccumulate' substance sensu the Oslo and Paris Conventions for the Prevention of Marine Pollution (OSPAR-DYNAMEC) criteria. Environmental fate and effects data indicate that current use of monochlorobenzene poses no unacceptable risk to the aquatic environment. PMID:15376380

  9. Climatic variability, fire, and vegetation modeling in the North American Central Grassland Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. )

    1994-06-01

    In developing an equilibrium vegetation model for assessing the sensitivity of natural vegetation to climatic change in the Central Grasslands, we encountered difficulties in establishing solely climatic determinants for grasslands. Under the normal climate, woody plant dominance was predicted for much of the region supporting open grassland at the time of European settlement. Climatic data for historic periods and a fire model were used to test whether grass dominance was promoted by (1) climatic periods distinct from the normal period, (2) by fire, or (3) by the interactive effect of both. Grass/woody ratios in test simulations exhibited spatio-temporal variation produced by complex interactions among PET, precipitation seasonality, competition for soil moisture, and fuel characteristics determining fire intensity. Results support concepts of plant community thresholds and multiple steady states in the Central Grassland region.

  10. Projecting the vegetation response to climatic change in the North American Central Grasslands Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. )

    1993-06-01

    An interdisciplinary modeling effort is underway in which high-resolution climate change projections will drive the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System (MAPSS) to simulate vegetation change in the Central Grasslands Region. MAPSS calculates a complete site water balance and solves for the leaf area (LAI) of both woody and grass lifeforms in full competition for both light and water. Fire is a necessary constraint on simulated shrub LAI throughout much of the grasslands region, and incorporation of weather variability is critical for obtaining accurate tree/grass LAI ratios in the Prairie Peninsula. Initial estimates of the potential impact of climatic change include significant changes in both lifeform LAI and the distribution of subformation vegetation types, but the magnitude and even the direction of change varies with the climate scenario and with assumptions concerning wind speed and plant water-use efficiency.

  11. Intraspecific phylogeography of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in the central Rocky Mountain region of North America.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gregory M; Den Bussche, Ronald A; McBee, Karen; Johnson, Lacrecia A; Jones, Cheri A

    2005-11-01

    We used variation in a portion of the mitochondrial DNA control region to examine phylogeography of Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, a boreal-adapted small mammal in the central Rocky Mountain region. AMOVA revealed that 65.66% of genetic diversity was attributable to variation within populations, 16.93% to variation among populations on different mountain ranges, and 17.41% to variation among populations within mountain ranges. Nested clade analysis revealed two major clades that likely diverged in allopatry during the Pleistocene: a southern clade from southern Colorado and a northern clade comprising northern Colorado, Wyoming, eastern Utah, and eastern Idaho. Historically restricted gene flow as a result of geographic barriers was indicated between populations on opposite sides of the Green River and Wyoming Basin and among populations in eastern Wyoming. In some instances genetic structure indicated isolation by distance. PMID:16247688

  12. Deep-Water Benthic Foraminifers from the Paleocene and Eocene of the North Pacific Region: Paleontology, Biostratigraphy, and Paleoceanological Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olshanetskiy, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    A zonal scheme for the Lower Paleogene of the northern Pacific Ocean is proposed on the basis of the stratigraphic distribution of benthic foraminifers in the lower bathyal-abyssal beds studied in boreholes in the North and South Pacific regions. This scheme includes eight subdivisions (six zones and two subzones). The boundaries of the benthic zonal subdivisions are defined by bioevents (appearance or disappearance of stratigraphically important taxa) and are linked to the zonal scales based on planktonic foraminifers and calcareous nannoplankton. It is established that most of these bioevents are recognized subglobally. Apart from the evolutionary events, changes in the deep-water benthic foraminiferal assemblages were caused by changes in the paleooceanological environment. This allowed detailed characterization of a global mass extinction of assemblages of deep-water benthic foraminifers in the region studied. It is also established that changes in the assemblages of deep-water benthic foraminifers, observed in either change in their taxonomic composition or changes in abundance and diversity, resulted from the presence of different deep-water masses in the region.

  13. Regional modeling of wind erosion in the North West and South West of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirmousavi, S. H.

    2016-08-01

    About two-thirds of the Iran's area is located in the arid and semiarid region. Lack of soil moisture and vegetation is poor in most areas can lead to soil erosion caused by wind. So that the annual suffered severe damage to large areas of rich soils. Modeling studies of wind erosion in Iran is very low and incomplete. Therefore, this study aimed to wind erosion modeling, taking into three factors: wind speed, vegetation and soil types have been done. Wind erosion sensitivity was modeled using the key factors of soil sensitivity, vegetation cover and wind erodibility as proxies. These factors were first estimated separately by factor sensitivity maps and later combined by fuzzy logic into a regional-scale wind erosion sensitivity map. Large areas were evaluated by using publicly available datasets of remotely sensed vegetation information, soil maps and meteorological data on wind speed. The resulting estimates were verified by field studies and examining the economic losses from wind erosion as compensated by the state insurance company. The spatial resolution of the resulting sensitivity map is suitable for regional applications, as identifying sensitive areas is the foundation for diverse land development control measures and implementing management activities.

  14. Edematogenic and myotoxic activities of the Duvernoy's gland secretion of Philodryas olfersii from the north-east region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Acosta de Pérez, Ofelia; Leiva de Vila, Laura; Peichoto, María Elisa; Maruñak, Silvana; Ruíz, Raquel; Teibler, Pamela; Gay, Carolina; Rey, Laura

    2003-12-01

    Philodryas olfersii is found in South America, from Amazonas to Patagonia. It is important to characterize the venom of P. olfersii, who inhabits the North-East region of Argentina, since snake venoms are known to exhibit considerable variability in composition and biological activities. In this work, mice weighing 18-20 g (n = 4 for each experimental group) were used. For the edematogenic activity mice were injected s.c. in the right foot pad with 50 microl of solutions containing different amounts of venom, whereas the left foot pad was injected with 50 microl of PBS. Two hours after injection mice were killed by cervical dislocation and both feet were cut off and weighed individually. For the myotoxic activity mice were injected i.m. with 100 microl of solutions containing 40 microg of venom. Blood samples were extracted after 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 24 h of venom injection to determinate serum CPK activity and mice were sacrificed at the same time intervals to obtain the inoculated gastrocnemius muscle. They were fixed with Bouin solution and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. Results showed that P. olfersii venom exhibits a high edematogenic activity (MED = 0.31 microg) and a moderate myotoxic activity. Myonecrosis reached its highest level after 12 h of venom injection as shown by plasmatic CPK levels (5,401 +/- 330 IU/l) and microscopic assay. It demonstrates the potential toxicity of the venom of P. olfersii, who inhabits the North-East region of Argentina. It also reinforces the original warning concerning the potential danger of bites by colubrids. PMID:15002753

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: G5 and Later Stars in a North Galactic Pole Region (Upgren 1962)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upgren, A. R., Jr.

    1995-06-01

    The catalog is an objective-prism survey of late-type stars in a region of 396 square degrees surrounding the north galactic pole. The objective-prism spectra employed have a dispersion of 580 A/mm at H-gamma and extend into the ultraviolet region. The catalog contains the magnitudes and spectral classes of 4027 stars of class G5 and later, complete to a limiting photographic magnitude of 13.0. The spectral classification of the stars is based on the Yerkes system. The catalog includes the serial numbers of the stars corresponding to the numbers on the identification charts in Upgren (1984), BD and HD numbers, B magnitudes, spectral classes, and letters designating the subregion and identification chart on which each star is located. This survey was undertaken to determine the space densities at varying distances from the galactic plane. Accurate separation of the surveyed stars of G5 and later into giants and dwarfs was achieved through the use of the UV region as well as conventional methods of classification. The resulting catalog of 4027 stars is probably complete over the region to a limiting photographic magnitude of 13.0. The region covered by the survey is the same as that discussed by Slettebak and Stock (1959) and is in the approximate range RA 11 30 to 13, Declination +25 to +50 (B1950.0). The catalog includes all M and Carbon stars previously published by Upgren (1960). For a discussion of the classification criteria, the combining of multiple classifications (each spectral image was classified twice), the determination of magnitudes, and additional details about the catalog, the source reference should be consulted. (2 data files).

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: G5 and later stars in a North Galactic Pole region (Upgren 1962)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upgren, A. R., Jr.

    2015-11-01

    The catalog is an objective-prism survey of late-type stars in a region of 396 square degrees surrounding the north galactic pole. The objective-prism spectra employed have a dispersion of 58 nm/mm at H-γ and extend into the ultraviolet region. The catalog contains the magnitudes and spectral classes of 4027 stars of class G5 and later, complete to a limiting photographic magnitude of 13.0. The spectral classification of the stars is based on the Yerkes system. The catalog includes the serial numbers of the stars corresponding to the numbers on the identification charts in Upgren (1984), BD and HD numbers, B magnitudes, spectral classes, and letters designating the subregion and identification chart on which each star is located. This survey was undertaken to determine the space densities at varying distances from the galactic plane. Accurate separation of the surveyed stars of G5 and later into giants and dwarfs was achieved through the use of the UV region as well as conventional methods of classification. The resulting catalog of 4027 stars is probably complete over the region to a limiting photographic magnitude of 13.0. The region covered by the survey is the same as that discussed by Slettebak and Stock (1959) and is in the approximate range RA 11:30 to 13:00, Declination +25 to +50 (B1950.0). The catalog includes all M and Carbon stars previously published by Upgren (1960). For a discussion of the classification criteria, the combining of multiple classifications (each spectral image was classified twice), the determination of magnitudes, and additional details about the catalog, the source reference should be consulted. Corrections, accurate positions, more identifications, and remarks have been added in Nov. 2015 by B. Skiff in the file "positions.dat"; see the "History" section below for details. (3 data files).

  17. Simulating Extreme Summer Precipitation Patterns in the North American Monsoon Region using the CCM3/HRBATS Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahmann, A. N.

    2001-12-01

    Current climate integrations with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM3) show a very pronounced dry bias in summer precipitation over the North American Monsoon System (NAMS) region. Additionally, summer precipitation totals in this region show a smaller than observed interannual variability and a weak response to changes in SSTs. To understand the reasons behind the CCM3 misrepresentation of monsoonal processes in the NAMS region, we have chosen to examine model simulation during two extreme years: 1984 (wet) and 1993 (dry). These two years were selected according to observed precipitation totals in the northernmost portion, i.e. Arizona and New Mexico, of the NAMS region. Ensemble AMIP-type simulations with CCM3 in its standard configuration (i.e., at T42 resolution and coupled to its standard land surface model; LSM) show only small differences in precipitation over the NAMS region between the two chosen extreme years. When CCM3 is coupled to BATS and integrated over several years with SSTs for the two contrasting years, the differences in summer precipitation remain much smaller than the observed differences. In a final experiment, CCM3 is coupled to the fine-mesh version of BATS (named HRBATS), which is described in Hahmann and Dickinson (2001). This model allows for explicit representation of sub-grid variations in vegetation and soils and the inclusion of fractional ocean areas. In these simulations, a very pronounced difference in precipitation, comparable to the observed precipitation differences, is seen between the two contrasting years. The possible physical mechanisms that might explain these differences are explored in this talk. Possible reasons include the presence of the waters of the Gulf of California, which might provide a moisture source, and the better representation of snow cover over the prior winter and spring seasons.

  18. Emergence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in the North American Great Lakes region is associated with low viral genetic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, T.M.; Batts, W.N.; Faisal, M.; Bowser, P.; Casey, J.W.; Phillips, K.; Garver, K.A.; Winton, J.; Kurath, G.

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a fish rhabdovirus that causes disease in a broad range of marine and freshwater hosts. The known geographic range includes the Northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and recently it has invaded the Great Lakes region of North Ame­rica. The goal of this work was to characterize genetic diversity of Great Lakes VHSV isolates at the early stage of this viral emergence by comparing a partial glycoprotein (G) gene sequence (669 nt) of 108 isolates collected from 2003 to 2009 from 31 species and at 37 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolates fell into sub-lineage IVb within the major VHSV genetic group IV. Among these 108 isolates, genetic diversity was low, with a maximum of 1.05% within the 669 nt region. There were 11 unique sequences, designated vcG001 to vcG011. Two dominant sequence types, vcG001 and vcG002, accounted for 90% (97 of 108) of the isolates. The vcG001 isolates were most widespread. We saw no apparent association of sequence type with host or year of isolation, but we did note a spatial pattern, in which vcG002 isolates were more prevalent in the easternmost sub-regions, including inland New York state and the St. Lawrence Seaway. Different sequence types were found among isolates from single disease outbreaks, and mixtures of types were evident within 2 isolates from ­individual fish. Overall, the genetic diversity of VHSV in the Great Lakes region was found to be extremely low, consistent with an introduction of a new virus into a geographic region with ­previously naïve host populations.

  19. Regional Tectonic Framework and Human Activities on the North Central Part of The Mexican Volcanic Belt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Obregon, J.

    2001-12-01

    Faults and fractures northeasterly oriented dipping NW and SE, with slips mainly normal with a slight left lateral component, affect a suite of rocks of Mesozoic to Pleistocene age, in the area of El Bajio, in the states of Queretaro, Guanajuato, Michoacan, and Aguascalientes. The faults and fractures have affected the infrastructure of the cities and surroundings of Queretaro, Celaya, Salamanca, Irapuato, Silao, Leon and Aguascalientes. In the city of Queretaro, the Tlacote-Balvanera active fault has developed a scarp and its motion may potentially affect life lines of great importance. In Celaya City a N-S trending fault traverses the city and has produced a step wise scarp more than 1.80 m high, damaging houses, streets and life lines. In Salamanca, a fault trending N 60oE, dipping to the SE extends from Cerro Gordo to the SW traversing the city and affecting with a varying degree its infrastructure. Displacements observed within the urban area reach as much as 50 cm. Close to Irapuato City, in a quarry near La Valencianita village, a N 45oE trending fault dipping to the NW affects a lacustrine sequence bearing calcareous horizons. The fault exhibits a throw of 10 m and passes north of the urban area. A similarly oriented fault traverses the city of Irapuato, and near the Traffic Circle of Puente de Guadalupe, changes its strike to the SE and continues to the city limits. In the city of Silao, a fault oriented N 60oE, traverses the city and continues to the SW up to the localities of Venta de Ramales and La Aldea. Important displacements in urban and rural areas reach more than 60 cm. Outside the city of Leon in the junction of the highways to Aguascalientes and Guadalajara a normal fault plane NE oriented and dipping SE shows striations compatible with a normal left lateral motion. Faulting is associated with old buried scarps controlled by pre existing faults, and over exploited aquifers. Some of these faults however are considered potentially active based on

  20. Similarities and dissimilarities between the last two deglaciations and interglaciations in the North Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimalt, Joan O.; Martrat, Belen; Jimenez-Amat, Patricia; Zahn, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) recorded by alkenones and oxygen isotopes in the Alboran basin (cores ODP976, ODP977 and MD95-2043) are used here to describe the present interglaciation (PIG, initiated at 11.7 ka BP), the last interglaciation (LIG, onset approximately at 129 ka) and respective deglaciations at an unprecedented fine time resolution. Similarities and dissimilarities of the recorded climate progression are reviewed in comparison with ice cores and stalagmites. During deglaciations (perihelion aligned with NH summer solstice) organic rich layers were deposited, which are useful as reference. The SST trend during the PIG involved changes of about 2ºC (from 20ºC to 18ºC) but the trend was steeper than during the LIG which involved up to 5ºC change from the early interglaciation (23ºC) to immediately before the glacial inception (18ºC). Cooling events were observed during the last deglaciation at 17 ka, 14.8 ka and 11.7 ka. They were reminiscent of cooling events during the penultimate deglaciation at 136 ka, 132 ka and 129 ka, respectively. The cold spells which coeval with the Heinrich events described in the North Atlantic were observed. They included strong multi-decadal scale oscillations that were not observed in previous studies at lower resolution. The interglacial conditions showed a long term trend towards colder SSTs that was interrupted by warm periods (ca. from 8.2 ka to 5.3 ka for the PIG and 125 ka to 121 ka for the LIG). These warm periods were exceptional, interglacial cooling is the rule. A cold spell at about 2.8 ka during the PIG, possibly mimicked during the LIG by a cold event at 118 ka that lasted and terminated the cooling trend and stabilised interglacial SST at around 18ºC. The inception within the LIG, barely evident at the beginning ca. 115 ka (perihelion aligned with NH winter solstice), culminated at 111 ka.

  1. The transatlantic dust transport from North Africa to the Americas—Its characteristics and source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gläser, Gregor; Wernli, Heini; Kerkweg, Astrid; Teubler, Franziska

    2015-11-01

    Transport of Saharan dust over the Atlantic to the Americas is a relevant process since dust is a nutrient for marine and terrestrial ecosystems. It is therefore important to better quantify the frequency and amount of transatlantic dust transport, its preferred altitude and duration, and the regions of dust origin. This study uses a novel combination of Eulerian and Lagrangian diagnostics, applied to a previously validated 5 year simulation of the fifth generation European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast-Hamburg-model (ECHAM5)/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry model, to quantify these dust transport characteristics and their seasonal variations. Results confirm the previously found preferred transatlantic dust pathways: in boreal winter and spring, African dust is mainly transported below 800 hPa toward South America, whereas in summer and autumn the preferred pathway is to the Caribbean and occurs in a layer up to 500 hPa. The averaged transport duration from dust emission to deposition is 10 days in winter for deposition in the Amazon region and almost 12 days in summer for deposition in the Caribbean. These estimates were obtained by combining correlation analyses of Eulerian dust fluxes and trajectory calculations. The latter were also essential to identify the main source regions of transatlantic dust transport, which were found in all seasons in northwestern Africa (Algeria, Mali, and Mauritania) but not farther east, e.g., in the Bodélé Depression. A specific Lagrangian analysis for this dust emission hot spot suggests that wet deposition associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone in winter and the African monsoon in summer inhibits Bodélé dust to leave the African continent.

  2. The forest resources of the ECE region - Europe, The USSR, North America

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Prepared under the auspices of the joint FAO/ECE Working Party on Forest Economics and Statistics, this latest assessment of the forest resources in the ECE region is arranged in three sections. Part One contains general forest inventory data, while Part Two presents data on the volume and mass of tree and other woody biomass. Part Three explores the role of forests in supplying environmental and other non-wood goods and services. The appendixes include a handy listing of terms and definitions, long with sample questionnaires of each of the three parts.

  3. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP): Status and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutowski, W. J.

    2009-12-01

    NARCCAP is a multi-institutional program that is investigating systematically the uncertainties in regional scale simulations of contemporary climate and projections of future climate. NARCCAP is supported by multiple federal agencies. NARCCAP is producing an ensemble of high-resolution climate-change scenarios by nesting multiple RCMs in reanalyses and multiple atmosphere-ocean GCM simulations of contemporary and future-scenario climates. The RCM domains cover the contiguous U.S., northern Mexico, and most of Canada. The simulation suite also includes time-slice, high resolution GCMs that use sea-surface temperatures from parent atmosphere-ocean GCMs. The baseline resolution of the RCMs and time-slice GCMs is 50 km. Simulations use three sources of boundary conditions: National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Department of Energy (DOE) AMIP-II Reanalysis, GCMs simulating contemporary climate and GCMs using the A2 SRES emission scenario for the twenty-first century. Simulations cover 1979-2004 and 2038-2060, with the first 3 years discarded for spin-up. The resulting RCM and time-slice simulations offer opportunity for extensive analysis of RCM simulations as well as a basis for multiple high-resolution climate scenarios for climate change impacts assessments. Geophysical statisticians are developing measures of uncertainty from the ensemble. To enable very high-resolution simulations of specific regions, both RCM and high-resolution time-slice simulations are saving output needed for further downscaling. All output is publically available to the climate analysis and the climate impacts assessment community, through an archiving and data-distribution plan. Some initial results show that the models closely reproduce ENSO-related precipitation variations in coastal California, where the correlation between the simulated and observed monthly time series exceeds 0.94 for all models. The strong El Nino events of 1982-83 and 1997-98 are well reproduced for

  4. Regional organisation of neonatal intensive care in the North-west.

    PubMed

    Chiswick, M L; Davies, P; Bate, R; Dryburgh, E; Gordon-Nesbitt, D

    1979-07-28

    From January 1976 to July 1978, 234 ill neonates were transported to the regional neonatal intensive care unit (ICU) of St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, from 26 maternity hospitals three to 120 miles (4.8-193.1 km) away. Ninety per cent were transferred from 15 hospitals within a 30-mile (48.3 km) radius of the ICU. Most referring hospitals had more than 2000 births a year and offered good nursing supervision of high-risk neonates in conventional special care baby units (SCBUs). In 200 of the 234 babies respiratory symptoms precipitated referral, hyaline membrane disease being the most common final diagnosis. Altogether 143 babies received definitive mechanical ventilation, and most of them were ventilated in the ambulance en route to the ICU. The neonatal survival rates for all babies and for those who received mechanical ventilation were 61% and 45% respectively. Lethal inoperable malformations and tentorial tears accounted for 23 of the 92 deaths.A crisis-orientated referral service directed towards the treatment of babies with impending or actual respiratory failure needs close collaboration between the regional ICU and referring SCBUs, with parallel development of their facilities and skills. A complementary but distinct pattern of referral is necessary to cater for those high-risk but not critically ill babies who are born in hospitals that lack staff and facilities to provide the vigilant and anticipatory care that is so necessary. PMID:476405

  5. GPS Measurements for Detecting Aseismic Creeping in the Ismetpasa Region of North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozener, H.; Dogru, A.; Turgut, B.; Yilmaz, O.; Halicioglu, K.; Sabuncu, A.

    2010-12-01

    In 1972, a six point-network was established by General Directorate of Mapping in Gerede-Ismetpasa. This region is relatively quiet segment of western NAF which is creeping along steadily. This network was surveyed by terrestrial techniques in 1972 and 1973. The Ismetpasa Network was re-measured in 1982 and in 1992 by the Geodesy Working Group of Istanbul Technical University. Although the same network (with five points) was observed in 2002 and 2007 by Zonguldak Karaelmas University applying GPS technique, with 1-hour site occupation, the characteristics of movement has not been detected implicitly. This type of movement still raises a question about the accumulation of tectonic movements in the region. Geodesy Department of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) of Bogazici University has been re-surveyed the network by campaign-based static GPS surveying (10-hour site occupation) since 2005. The GPS velocities data coming from geodynamic GPS networks of the crustal deformation studies and the analysis of repeated geodetic observations give us significant information about the elastic deformation. Therefore, data gathered in this study is processed using GAMIT/GLOBK software and analyzed together with previously collected data to obtain velocity field and strain accumulation in the study area.

  6. Characterization of Groundwater Quality Based on Regional Geologic Setting in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Harned, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    A compilation of groundwater-quality data collected as part of two U.S. Geological Survey studies provides a basis for understanding the ambient geochemistry related to geologic setting in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces (hereafter referred to as Piedmont and Mountains Provinces) of North Carolina. Although the geology is complex, a grouping of the sampled wells into assemblages of geologic units described as 'geozones' provides a basis for comparison across the region. Analyses of these two data sets provide a description of water-quality conditions in bedrock aquifers of the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces of North Carolina. Analyzed data were collected between 1997 and 2008 from a network of 79 wells representing 8 regional geozones distributed throughout the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces. This area has experienced high rates of population growth and an increased demand for water resources. Groundwater was used by about 34 percent of the population in the 65 counties of this region in 2005. An improved understanding of the quality and quantity of available groundwater resources is needed to plan effectively for future growth and development. The use of regional geologic setting to characterize groundwater-quality conditions in the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces is the focus of this investigation. Data evaluation included an examination of selected properties and the ionic composition of groundwater in the geozones. No major differences in overall ionic chemistry of groundwater among the geozones were evident with the data examined. Variability in the cationic and anionic composition of groundwater within a particular geozone appeared to reflect local differences in lithologic setting, hydrologic and geochemical conditions, and(or) land-use effects. The most common exceedances of the drinking-water criteria (in accordance with Federal and State water-quality standards) occurred for radon, pH, manganese, iron, and zinc. Radon had the most

  7. Interannual increase of regional haze-fog in North China Plain in summer by intensified easterly winds and orographic forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ziqi; Sheng, Lifang; Liu, Qian; Yao, Xiaohong; Wang, Wencai

    2015-12-01

    Regional haze-fog events over the North China Plain (NCP) have attracted much attention in recent years. Their increase has been attributed to anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants and synoptic weather conditions. We investigated the influence of local meteorological conditions and large-scale circulation on the haze-fog events over the NCP during 2001-2012, and found a significant interannual increase in the number of summer regional haze-fog days. Analysis indicated that local meteorological conditions could partly explain the increase but failed to explain the spatial variation; meanwhile, regional circulation change induced by large-scale circulation and orographic forcing unveiled a possible spatiotemporal variation mechanism. In summer, the prevalent southerly winds over the NCP were obstructed by the Taihang and Yanshan mountains, steadying the outflow direction to the southeast, while different inflow direction controlled by large-scale circulation had different effects on regional circulation. In weak (strong) East Asian summer monsoon years, an intensified eastward (westward) zonal inflow wind component reinforced (weakened) the negative vorticity and formed an anomalous anticyclone (cyclone), which strengthened (weakened) the downward motion, so the dissipation capability was weakened (strengthened) and the wind speed decreased (increased), ultimately resulting in the increased (decreased) occurrence of haze-fog. We also found that the circulation anomaly had a good relationship with strong El Niño and La Niña events. There was more haze-fog over the NCP in the summers that followed a La Niña event, and less in summers that followed an El Niño event. This suggested the possibility that summer haze-fog phenomena could be predicted based on the phase of ENSO.

  8. Intra-seasonal and Inter-annual variability of Bowen Ratio over rain-shadow region of North peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morwal, S. B.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Padmakumari, B.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Deshpande, C. G.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    Intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability of Bowen Ratio (BR) have been studied over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India during summer monsoon season. Daily grid point data of latent heat flux (LHF), sensible heat flux (SHF) from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis for the period 1970-2014 have been used to compute daily area-mean BR. Daily grid point rainfall data at a resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° from APHRODITE's Water Resources for the available period 1970-2007 have been used to study the association between rainfall and BR. The study revealed that BR rapidly decreases from 4.1 to 0.29 in the month of June and then remains nearly constant at the same value (≤0.1) in the rest of the season. High values of BR in the first half of June are indicative of intense thermals and convective clouds with higher bases. Low values of BR from July to September period are indicative of weak thermals and convective clouds with lower bases. Intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability of BR is found to be inversely related to precipitation over the region. BR analysis indicates that the land surface characteristics of the study region during July-September are similar to that over oceanic regions as far as intensity of thermals and associated cloud microphysical properties are concerned. Similar variation of BR is found in El Nino and La Nina years. During June, an increasing trend is observed in SHF and BR and decreasing trend in LHF from 1976 to 2014. Increasing trend in the SHF is statistically significant.

  9. A Geophysical Overview of the Structure and Evolution of the Crust of the Mid-Continent Region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G. R., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    A variety of geophysical data, including newly released 3-D seismic reflection data, show us that the crustal structure of the Mid-Continent region of North America is very complex. The dimensions of many of the crustal structures is very large by global standards, and thus, they are a tectonic puzzle because of their size, structural complexity, and distance from active plate margins that usually create the driving mechanisms for intraplate deformation evident. The crust of the Mid-Continent region formed during a period of continental growth that extended from about 1.8 to 0.9 Ga. The impressive Mid-Continent rift system (MCRS) tried to interrupt this period of continental growth at about 1.1 Ga but it its western arm failed even though it modified the crust massively. However, the supercontinent resulting from this growth did not survive long and began to break up by ~700 Ma. This period of rifting established the structural framework of the southern Mid-Continent region, subsequent Early Paleozoic basin development, and at least partly, the formation of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains in the late Paleozoic. The Southern Oklahoma aulacogen (SOA) is an impressive example of this rifting event. The deformation that formed the Ancestral Rocky Mountains resulted in massive inversion of SOA rift structures and is due to a plate collision in the late Paleozoic whose origin is under debate. There has been increased emphasis on the use of gravity, magnetic, seismic, drilling, and remote sensing data in studies of the Mid-Continent region. For example, the MCRS is traditionally viewed as ending in central Kansas and the SOA can be interpreted as ending in the Texas panhandle. However, we used enhancement of gravity and magnetic data, seismic data, geologic mapping, and deep-drilling data to study its southern extent, and it appears that the MCRS could extend further southward beneath the much younger Anadarko basin of Oklahoma to abut the SOA.

  10. Public health considerations for mass gatherings in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.

    PubMed

    AlNsour, M; Fleischauer, A

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major mass gatherings in the MENA region and the public health implications of these events, and provides recommendations for public health officials of the host country. Through our search of the literature for peer-reviewed publications, we identified relevant 77 papers; all were related to the annual Hajj. Using the information obtained from the literature review, the Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network (EMPHNET) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed and conducted 2 workshops on Public Health Surveillance during Mass Gatherings for field epidemiology training programmes and ministry of health focal points from 10 countries. The main potential public health concerns associated with mass gatherings include: infectious diseases (e.g. respiratory disease, gastro-intestinal tract disease, foodborne disease), injuries, traffic accidents, heat-related illnesses, insect stings, non-communicable diseases and terrorism. PMID:24673098

  11. Modeled aerosol nitrate formation pathways during wintertime in the Great Lakes region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoo Jung; Spak, Scott N.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Riemer, Nicole; Stanier, Charles O.

    2014-11-01

    Episodic wintertime particle pollution by ammonium nitrate is an important air quality concern across the Midwest U.S. Understanding and accurately forecasting PM2.5 episodes are complicated by multiple pathways for aerosol nitrate formation, each with uncertain rate parameters. Here, the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) simulated regional atmospheric nitrate budgets during the 2009 LADCO Winter Nitrate Study, using integrated process rate (IPR) and integrated reaction rate (IRR) tools to quantify relevant processes. Total nitrate production contributing to PM2.5 episodes is a regional phenomenon, with peak production over the Ohio River Valley and southern Great Lakes. Total nitrate production in the lower troposphere is attributed to three pathways, with 57% from heterogeneous conversion of N2O5, 28% from the reaction of OH and NO2, and 15% from homogeneous conversion of N2O5. TNO3 formation rates varied day-to-day and on synoptic timescales. Rate-limited production does not follow urban-rural gradients and NOx emissions due, to counterbalancing of urban enhancement in daytime HNO3 production with nocturnal reductions. Concentrations of HNO3 and N2O5 and nighttime TNO3 formation rates have maxima aloft (100-500 m), leading to net total nitrate vertical flux during episodes, with substantial vertical gradients in nitrate partitioning. Uncertainties in all three pathways are relevant to wintertime aerosol modeling and highlight the importance of interacting transport and chemistry processes during ammonium nitrate episodes, as well as the need for additional constraint on the system through field and laboratory experiments.

  12. Cumulative drought and land-use impacts on perennial vegetation across a North American dryland region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munson, Seth M.; Long, A. Lexine; Wallace, Cynthia; Webb, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Question The decline and loss of perennial vegetation in dryland ecosystems due to global change pressures can alter ecosystem properties and initiate land degradation processes. We tracked changes of perennial vegetation using remote sensing to address the question of how prolonged drought and land-use intensification have affected perennial vegetation cover across a desert region in the early 21st century? Location Mojave Desert, southeastern California, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah and northwestern Arizona, USA. Methods We coupled the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Enhanced Vegetation Index (MODIS-EVI) with ground-based measurements of perennial vegetation cover taken in about 2000 and about 2010. Using the difference between these years, we determined perennial vegetation changes in the early 21st century and related these shifts to climate, soil and landscape properties, and patterns of land use. Results We found a good fit between MODIS-EVI and perennial vegetation cover (2000: R2 = 0.83 and 2010: R2 = 0.74). The southwestern, far southeastern and central Mojave Desert had large declines in perennial vegetation cover in the early 21st century, while the northeastern and southeastern portions of the desert had increases. These changes were explained by 10-yr precipitation anomalies, particularly in the cool season and during extreme dry or wet years. Areas heavily impacted by visitor use or wildfire lost perennial vegetation cover, and vegetation in protected areas increased to a greater degree than in unprotected areas. Conclusions We find that we can extrapolate previously documented declines of perennial plant cover to an entire desert, and demonstrate that prolonged water shortages coupled with land-use intensification create identifiable patterns of vegetation change in dryland regions.

  13. NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration: EM302 Multibeam Survey of the Sangihe-Talaud Region, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobecker, M.; Malik, M.; Johnson, J. E.; Boettcher, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    The NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer has just completed a successful 2010 field season, including its first partnership-building mission to Indonesia, INDEX-SATAL 2010 (Indonesia Exploration Sangihe-Talaud region). The mission was part of President Obama’s initiative to build science and technology partnerships with Muslim nations. The Okeanos Explorer is equipped with progressive technology, including a Kongsberg EM302 (30 kHz) multibeam system with bottom backscatter and water column backscatter data collection capabilities. The mapping in the Sangihe-Talaud region of the Celebes Sea produced over 31,000 square kilometers of high resolution data, ranging in depth from 244 meters to more than 7000 meters. The mapped regions include the majority of the western side of the central Sangihe volcanic arc and a narrow transect across the arc in the south. A ~350 km long transect across the northern end of the central Sangihe arc was also mapped, north of the Talaud Islands, and extends eastward across the Sangihe Basin and Molucca Trench to the Philippine Trench. A recent synthesis of deep marine data by Pubellier et al. (2005)1 documents numerous active and inactive subduction zones of opposite polarity in this narrow region. The high resolution bathymetry reveals new details of the seafloor morphology in this complex tectonic regime. At least five seamounts were mapped, including an unknown 1500 meter high seamount and the volcano Kawio Barat, which rises approximately 3500 meters from the seafloor and is the site of white smokers and surprisingly dense and diverse deepwater biological communities. Several additional features were observed, including submarine channels, fans, debris aprons with blocks up to 800 meters in diameter, accretionary ridges and basins, trenches, and some flat topped seamounts. These well-defined features are consistent with the complex interactions between arc development, mass wasting, and subduction. These data provide new opportunities for

  14. Contribution of the North Atlantic subtropical high to regional climate model (RCM) skill in simulating southeastern United States summer precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Laifang; Li, Wenhong; Jin, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    This study assesses the skill of advanced regional climate models (RCMs) in simulating southeastern United States (SE US) summer precipitation and explores the physical mechanisms responsible for the simulation skill at a process level. Analysis of the RCM output for the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program indicates that the RCM simulations of summer precipitation show the largest biases and a remarkable spread over the SE US compared to other regions in the contiguous US. The causes of such a spread are investigated by performing simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a next-generation RCM developed by the US National Center for Atmospheric Research. The results show that the simulated biases in SE US summer precipitation are due mainly to the misrepresentation of the modeled North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH) western ridge. In the WRF simulations, the NASH western ridge shifts 7° northwestward when compared to that in the reanalysis ensemble, leading to a dry bias in the simulated summer precipitation according to the relationship between the NASH western ridge and summer precipitation over the southeast. Experiments utilizing the four dimensional data assimilation technique further suggest that the improved representation of the circulation patterns (i.e., wind fields) associated with the NASH western ridge substantially reduces the bias in the simulated SE US summer precipitation. Our analysis of circulation dynamics indicates that the NASH western ridge in the WRF simulations is significantly influenced by the simulated planetary boundary layer (PBL) processes over the Gulf of Mexico. Specifically, a decrease (increase) in the simulated PBL height tends to stabilize (destabilize) the lower troposphere over the Gulf of Mexico, and thus inhibits (favors) the onset and/or development of convection. Such changes in tropical convection induce a tropical-extratropical teleconnection pattern, which modulates the

  15. Increased wetness confounds Landsat-derived NDVI trends in the central Alaska North Slope region, 1985–2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynolds, Martha K.; Walker, Donald A.

    2016-08-01

    Satellite data from the circumpolar Arctic have shown increases in vegetation indices correlated to warming air temperatures (e.g. Bhatt et al 2013 Remote Sensing 5 4229–54). However, more information is needed at finer scales to relate the satellite trends to vegetation changes on the ground. We examined changes using Landsat TM and ETM+ data between 1985 and 2011 in the central Alaska North Slope region, where the vegetation and landscapes are relatively well-known and mapped. We calculated trends in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and tasseled-cap transformation indices, and related them to high-resolution aerial photographs, ground studies, and vegetation maps. Significant, mostly negative, changes in NDVI occurred in 7.3% of the area, with greater change in aquatic and barren types. Large reflectance changes due to erosion, deposition and lake drainage were evident. Oil industry-related changes such as construction of artificial islands, roads, and gravel pads were also easily identified. Regional trends showed decreases in NDVI for most vegetation types, but increases in tasseled-cap greenness (56% of study area, greatest for vegetation types with high shrub cover) and tasseled-cap wetness (11% of area), consistent with documented degradation of polygon ice wedges, indicating that increasing cover of water may be masking increases in vegetation when summarized using the water-sensitive NDVI.

  16. Nutrition leadership training in North-East Asia: an IUNS initiative in conjunction with nutrition societies in the region.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Li, Duo; Sun, Jiang-Qin; Ge, Keyou; Paik, Hee-Young; Cho, Sung Hee; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Huang, Ching-Jang; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2008-01-01

    Food for humans is one of the most important of all global issues. It is a critical determinant of planetary and individual health, of economic development, of how sustainable energy and water supplies are, and its security a powerful determinant of peace or conflict. Those who assume leadership for the integrity of food and health systems have great responsibility. The IUNS (International Union of Nutritional Sciences), regional and national nutrition science and food technology organizations have concern about the leadership capacity available and required in what are rapidly changing and increasingly demanding circumstances. These include persistent poverty and hunger, climate change which threatens the sustainability of food production and fragile financial systems which are making food less affordable for many. North East Asia (NEA) is a major region for its population size, its economic wealth and disparities, its food production, its life expectancies among the best and its global reach. In 2008, for those of Chinese ancestry and of wider Asian origin, Nutrition Leadership training has been conducted in Hangzhou, Shanghai, Seoul and Taiwan (Hsinchu and Zhunan). Ninety prospective young leaders participated in all. Several successful early career Asian nutrition scientists and professionals served as role models. Senior colleagues acted as mentors for groups of 2 or 3. With mentors, the concept of leadership has been examined, careers and roles explored, knowledge and skills honed for a different future, and plans made to network in mutual support. Early feedback indicates that new opportunities have been created and seized. PMID:19114408

  17. Snow-atmosphere coupling and extremes over North America in the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diro, G. T.; Sushama, L.; Huziy, O.

    2015-12-01

    Given the importance of land in the climate system, we investigate the influence of land surface, in particular the variation in snow characteristics, on climate variability and extremes over North America using the fifth generation of Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). To this end, we carried out two CRCM5 simulations driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis, where snow is either prescribed (uncoupled) or evolves interactively (coupled) during the model integration. Results indicate a systematic influence of snow on the inter-annual variability of air and surface temperature throughout the winter and spring seasons. In the coupled simulations, where the snow depth and snow cover were allowed to evolve freely, the inter-annual variability of surface and near surface air temperatures were found to be larger. Comparison with the uncoupled simulation suggests that snow depth/cover variability accounts for about 70% of the total surface temperature variability over the northern Great Plains and Canadian Prairies for the winter and spring seasons. The snow-atmosphere coupling is stronger in spring than in winter, since in spring season both the albedo and the latent heat flux contribute to the variability in temperature. Snow is also found to modulate extreme temperature events such as the number of cold days over Prairies during weak La-Nina episodes. These results suggest that initializing forecast models with realistic snow condition could potentially help to improve seasonal/sub-seasonal prediction skill over these snow-atmosphere coupling hotspot regions.

  18. Experience of use of digital gravimagnetic data for specification of a geological structure of the North Ural region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinova, Tamara; Erinchek, Yury; Krasinsky, Egor; Kudryavtsev, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Study of magnetic heterogeneities of the lithosphere is very important for the prediction of minerals. Results of developing a geophysical basis for specifying the geological map in sheet Q-42 (Polar Urals) are considered. Geophysical basis is a set of digital geophysical data prepared at the stage that preceded compilation of the geological map. The main geophysical materials in the set are magnetic anomalies map, gravimetric, and radiometric maps at 1:1 000 000 scale. Geophysical maps are compiled based on medium and large-scale field measurements and structured in the database in three information levels. Final digital materials are represented in the database by 500x500m grids. Investigations of digital cartographic materials result in a scheme of integrated interpretation of geophysical data and geological-geophysical section. The following conclusions were obtained for the study region using digital gravimetric data: - anomalous areas corresponding to large synclinoria or anticlinoria of the Ural fold system were revealed within the North Urals region overlapped by platform cover; - significant peculiarity of material complexes of the Kharbey Anticlinorium characterized by intense positive anomaly of the gravity field is shown; - the presence of bodies of mafic composition within the overlapped by platform cover Gortsky, Yarsalinsky synclinoria and Uvat-Khanty-Mansiysk median massif is confirmed and new development areas of intrusive rocks of mafic composition are revealed; - assumed Triassic rift structures filled with volcanic formations of mafic composition and intruded by small gabbroid bodies, usually prospective for hydrocarbons, are revealed.

  19. Regional variation in radiation dose to caribou in the Canadian north: 1992--94

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, C.R.; Ewing, L.L.; Wiewel, T.M.

    1995-12-31

    Research to support Canada`s concept of the disposal of nuclear fuel waste has shown that caribou are chronically exposed to high radiation doses from natural {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po accumulation. Initial results showed that weighted absorbed dose to caribou could reach 500 mGy{center_dot}a{sup {minus}} in some animals. The research continued in 1993/94 to determine the regional variability of these nuclides and to compare observed doses in caribou with criteria recommended to protect the environment. Muscle, liver, kidney and bone from several herds were analyzed for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po. The results confirmed the high levels of naturally-occurring nuclides in some herds, while non-detectable levels were observed in other herds. Maximum muscle {sup 137}Cs activity (238 Bq/kg) was observed in the central Canadian Arctic. In all herds, {sup 137}Cs activity was lower than in 1988 and substantially lower than comparable tissues in reindeer from northern Europe. Mean bone {sup 210}Pb activity ranged from non-detectable to 1,285 Bq/kg in a herd from the northeastern Canadian Arctic, including a maximum of 3,600 Bq/kg. Both {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po activities in eastern Canadian herds were higher than in European and Russian herds reported in the literature. Regional differences in bone {sup 210}Pb activity correspond with natural {sup 210}Pb deposition and lichen community composition. It is not known if the long-range transport of {sup 210}Pb derived from fossil fuel and gasoline combustion adds significantly to the Canadian Arctic relative to natural sources. Mean weighted absorbed doses to the caribou ranged from < 1 mGy{center_dot}a{sup {minus}1} in herds in the western Arctic to 300 mGy{center_dot}a{sup {minus}1} in the east. Studies on {sup 210}Po distribution show that doses to specific tissues may be substantially higher than these estimates, which assume uniform distribution in tissues.

  20. Analysis of Regional Deformations In Asia and North America Using Vlbi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Ma, C.; Luk, P. H.; Shum, C. K.

    Based on the NASA VLBI global solutions glb1123 (Ma, 1999) and glb2001(Ma, 2001), the vertical deformation rates (VDR) of the Kashima and Kashima34 VLBI stations in Japan were re-analysed using the rates of baseline length change from Kashima to 27 global VLBI stations, and from Kashima34 to 12 stations. The velocity vectors of the global VLBI stations were referenced to different ITRFs, i.e., ITRF96, ITRF97 and ITRF2000 for solution sensitivity studies. Using the Eulerian vectors (Sil- laed et al., 1998, Zhang et al., 1999) and based on NNR-NUVEL-1A, the correspond- ing horizontal deformation rates (HDR) of these two stations were also computed and analyzed. The VDR of Kashima34 relative to Kashima is estimated to be -4.2 +/- 0.7 mm/year, and the corresponding HDR of these two stations is 0.9 +/- 0.7 mm/year with AZ at 351.9 +/- 34.2 degrees. To validate the estimated relative deformation rates obtained above, baseline rates of the Kashima and Kashima34 stations relative to 9 common global VLBI stations, and baseline rates relative to 10 stations (9 stations plus Mojave12) have been determined to show that the similar conclusions have been reached. The 9 stations are DSS45 (Tidbinbilla, Australia), Hobert26 (Tasmania, Aus- tralia), Fairbanks (Gilmore Creek, Alaska, USA), Westford (USA), Hartebeesthoek (South Africa), Kauai (Hawaii, USA), Matera (Italy), Seshan25 (Shanghai, China), and Wettzell (Germany); and the additional station used is Mojave12 (USA). We have obtained the averaged relative VDR and HDR between the two stations separated by 300 m as -3.8 +/- 0.8 mm/year, 1.4 +/- 0.8 mm/year with AZ at 336.2 +/- 28.6 de- grees. In addition, the deformation rate of Shanghai, San Francisco, Yuma, Mojave12 and SC-VLBA station regional baselines are analyzed using a similar method and re- sults discussed. In conclusion, the rates of VLBI baseline lengths can be used to accu- rately determine the regional to fine-scale baseline deformations using existing VLBI

  1. Seroepidemiological Survey of Chikungunya in and Around the Regions of Bijapur (Vijayapura - North Karnataka)

    PubMed Central

    Peerapur, Basavaraj V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chikungunya is a debilitating, non-fatal, mosquito borne viral fever caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIVA). The disease is transmitted to humans by the bite of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Severe outbreaks of Chikungunya have been reported in several countries of Africa and Asia. Chikungunya fever is characterized by fever with sudden onset, arthralgia, rash, headache and myalgia. However, arthralgia is painful and long-lasting, affecting primarily the peripheral joints. Objectives To find out the prevalence of Chikungunya fever in and around the regions of Bijapur district. Materials and Methods The study was conducted from April 2011 to December 2014. Five hundred serum samples were collected from cases with pyrexia and arthralgia. Serum samples were tested for Chikungunya antibodies by Chikungunya IgM ELISA. Results and Conclusion Out of 500 samples 33 samples were confirmed positive for Chikungunya IgM antibodies. The prevalence rate of Chikungunya was 6.6% with maximum number of cases in the year 2013 (8.5%) and age group 15 to 40 (8.3%). Females (6.9%) were more affected than males. Thus, continuous sero-epidomological surveillance is needed for the control of Chikungunya fever. PMID:26155474

  2. A systematic regional trend in helium isotopes across the northernbasin and range province, Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2006-05-01

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g., Coso, Long Valley,Steamboat, and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east,the ratios decline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. Theregional trend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentratedalong the western margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increasein the magnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strainenhances crustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow ratesthat preserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposedon the regional trend are "helium spikes," local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  3. Peopling of the North Circumpolar Region – Insights from Y Chromosome STR and SNP Typing of Greenlanders

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Jill Katharina; Pereira, Vania; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The human population in Greenland is characterized by migration events of Paleo- and Neo-Eskimos, as well as admixture with Europeans. In this study, the Y-chromosomal variation in male Greenlanders was investigated in detail by typing 73 Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) and 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs). Approximately 40% of the analyzed Greenlandic Y chromosomes were of European origin (I-M170, R1a-M513 and R1b-M343). Y chromosomes of European origin were mainly found in individuals from the west and south coasts of Greenland, which is in agreement with the historic records of the geographic placements of European settlements in Greenland. Two Inuit Y-chromosomal lineages, Q-M3 (xM19, M194, L663, SA01 and L766) and Q-NWT01 (xM265) were found in 23% and 31% of the male Greenlanders, respectively. The time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of the Q-M3 lineage of the Greenlanders was estimated to be between 4,400 and 10,900 years ago (y. a.) using two different methods. This is in agreement with the theory that the North Circumpolar Region was populated via a second expansion of humans in the North American continent. The TMRCA of the Q-NWT01 (xM265) lineage in Greenland was estimated to be between 7,000 and 14,300 y. a. using two different methods, which is older than the previously reported TMRCA of this lineage in other Inuit populations. Our results indicate that Inuit individuals carrying the Q-NWT01 (xM265) lineage may have their origin in the northeastern parts of North America and could be descendants of the Dorset culture. This in turn points to the possibility that the current Inuit population in Greenland is comprised of individuals of both Thule and Dorset descent. PMID:25635810

  4. The Application of DNA Barcodes for the Identification of Marine Crustaceans from the North Sea and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Michael J.; Barco, Andrea; Steinke, Dirk; Beermann, Jan; Laakmann, Silke; Mohrbeck, Inga; Neumann, Hermann; Kihara, Terue C.; Pointner, Karin; Radulovici, Adriana; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Wesse, Christina; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    During the last years DNA barcoding has become a popular method of choice for molecular specimen identification. Here we present a comprehensive DNA barcode library of various crustacean taxa found in the North Sea, one of the most extensively studied marine regions of the world. Our data set includes 1,332 barcodes covering 205 species, including taxa of the Amphipoda, Copepoda, Decapoda, Isopoda, Thecostraca, and others. This dataset represents the most extensive DNA barcode library of the Crustacea in terms of species number to date. By using the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), unique BINs were identified for 198 (96.6%) of the analyzed species. Six species were characterized by two BINs (2.9%), and three BINs were found for the amphipod species Gammarus salinus Spooner, 1947 (0.4%). Intraspecific distances with values higher than 2.2% were revealed for 13 species (6.3%). Exceptionally high distances of up to 14.87% between two distinct but monophyletic clusters were found for the parasitic copepod Caligus elongatus Nordmann, 1832, supporting the results of previous studies that indicated the existence of an overlooked sea louse species. In contrast to these high distances, haplotype-sharing was observed for two decapod spider crab species, Macropodia parva Van Noort & Adema, 1985 and Macropodia rostrata (Linnaeus, 1761), underlining the need for a taxonomic revision of both species. Summarizing the results, our study confirms the application of DNA barcodes as highly effective identification system for the analyzed marine crustaceans of the North Sea and represents an important milestone for modern biodiversity assessment studies using barcode sequences. PMID:26417993

  5. Domestic water uses: characterization of daily cycles in the north region of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Matos, Cristina; Teixeira, Carlos A; Duarte, A A L S; Bentes, I

    2013-08-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing discussion among specialists about water use efficiency and the best measures to improve it. In Portugal, there have been a few attempts to expand the implementation of in situ water reuse projects. However, there is a lack of information about indoor water uses and how they are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. There are several studies that investigate per capita global water usage, but the partitioning of this volume per domestic device and daily cycles is yet unknown. Identified as one of the key questions in sustainable building design, the water end-use is of primary importance to the design of hydraulic networks in buildings. In order to overcome this lack, a quantitative characterization of daily water uses for each domestic device was performed, based on a weekly monitoring program in fifty-two different dwellings in the northern region of Portugal (Vila Real, Valpaços and Oporto). For forty of them, each water usage of different domestic devices of each dwelling was recorded. At the same time, the remaining twelve dwellings were also monitored in order to register the volume of water consumed in each utilization of each domestic device. This paper presents the results of this complete monitoring program, using collected data to establish indoor water use patterns for each domestic device, aiming to support a more realistic approach to residential water use. The daily cycles in the different cities, where the monitoring program was performed, are also presented, in order to evaluate possible influences of sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:23685370

  6. Pattern of sexually transmitted infections in a Muslim majority region of North India

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Iffat; Anwar, Parvaiz; Rather, Shagufta; Sameem, Farah; Majid, Imran; Jabeen, Yasmeen; Mubashir, Syed; Nisa, Nuzhatun; Masood, Qazi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changing trends of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV/AIDS has been noted in the literature over years, depending to some extent on the geographical and cultural factors of the region. In Kashmir Valley also, the pattern of STI may be different from the rest of the country. Aims of the Study: The aim was to present the experience with patterns of STI in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: Retrospective hospital-based study carried out by detailed analysis of case records of 5-year period. Results: A total of 184 patients, 100 males and 84 females, had specific STI. Genital ulcer disease was the presentation in 54 patients (29.35%), out of which herpes genitalis was found in 27 patients (50%), followed by chancroid in 13 (24.07%) and syphilis in 10 (18.52%) patients. 42 female patients (22.83%) presented with vaginal discharge, out of which, 24 (57.14%) had vaginal candidiasis. 24 males (13.04%) presented with urethral discharge, out of which, 15 (62.5%) had nongonococcal and 9 (37.5%) gonococcal urethritis. Genital molluscum contagiosum (MC) was found in 19 patients (10.33%), and warts in 15 (8.15%). HIV positive serology was detected in 3 patients (1.63%). Conclusion: The most common STI encountered in our study was genital ulcer, followed by vaginal discharge, urethritis, genital MC, and genital warts. Herpes genitalis was the commonest genital ulcer; candidiasis was the most common cause of vaginal discharge and nongonococcal urethritis the most common cause of urethritis. These findings are by and large similar to those noted in other parts of our country. PMID:26392651

  7. Can mima-like mounds be Vertisol relics (Far North Region of Cameroon, Chad Basin)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Nathalie; Dietrich, Fabienne; Cailleau, Guillaume; Sebag, David; Ngounou Ngatcha, Benjamin; Verrecchia, Eric P.

    2016-05-01

    Non-anthropogenic earth mounds, defined as mima-like mounds in this study, have recently been observed in non-carbonate watersheds along the Sudano-Sahelian belt in the Chad Basin. In the Diamare piedmont (northern Cameroon) they are particularly well developed within stream networks. In less eroded areas, they occur as whaleback, flattened morphologies, or even as buried features. All these shapes are composed of clay-rich sediment associated with high proportions of secondary carbonate nodules and Fesbnd Mn micro-nodules. Their soil structure is prismatic to massive and vertical cracks are observed locally. Grain-size distributions emphasize the clay-rich nature of the sediment, with average clay contents of 32% ± 12.8% (n = 186), which is significantly higher than the clay content in the adjacent sediments in the landscape (mean = 10% ± 4%, n = 21). Moreover, high proportions of smectite characterize the soil, with average contents of 34 ± 7% (n = 25). At the micro-scale, the groundmass has a cross-striated b-fabric, with embedded smooth subangular quartz and feldspar grains of the silt-size fraction. All the characteristics point to altered vertic properties in the clay-rich sediment composing the mima-like mounds. Mima-like mounds are thus interpreted as degraded Vertisols. Compared to present-day Vertisols occurring in the piedmont, mima-like mounds are located upstream. It is thus proposed that the Vertisol areas were more extensive during a former and wetter period than the present-day. Subsequent changing climatic conditions increased erosion, revealing the gilgai micro-relief by preferential erosion in micro-lows rather than in micro-highs. Mima-like mounds of the Chad Basin might thus result from pedogenesis combined with later erosion. These local processes can be inherited from regional climatic variations during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene and likely be related to the African Humid Period.

  8. Titan's North Polar Region: Lake Distribution, Statistics, and Implied Methane Hydrology from Cassini SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Alexander; Aharonson, O.; Lewis, K.; Mitchell, K.; Lunine, J.; Lorenz, R. D.; Wall, S.; Mitri, G.; Elachi, C.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2007-10-01

    Recent observations of Titan's Surface from Cassini's Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) have revealed quasi-circular to complex features which are interpreted as liquid hydrocarbon lakes (Stofan et al., 2007). We use the global distribution of lake features to investigate methane transport in Titan's hydrologic cycle, which includes atmospheric, surface, and sub-surface interaction. Specifically, the latitudinal and longitudinal division of hydrocarbon lakes combined with derived topographic information is used to model subsurface transport and place limitations on the properties of an isotropic porous regolith. Our analysis of the dataset, which covers 22% of the surface, has led to the identification of multiple lake morphologies which are correlated across the polar region. Radar dark lake features are limited to latitudes above 65°N and vary in size from the limits of observation (a few km2) to more than 100,000 km2. Granular and sub-granular lake features, which are distinguished by increased radar backscatter relative to their surroundings as compared to dark lakes, can be found as low as 55°N. Sub-granular lake features are inferred to be empty basins while granular lake features are interpreted as transitional between dark and sub-granular. The orientation, size, and statistical correlations between dark, granular, and sub-granular lake features provide constraints on precipitation conditions and the importance of subsurface transport. Using preliminary porous media properties inferred from Huygens probe results at 10°S, timescales for flow between observed dark and empty lakes are calculated by solving the groundwater flow equation. Derived lake equilibration timescales are compared to the time between collocated SAR observations in order to place limitations on the permeability of an isotropic porous regolith. For permeabilities of 10-5cm2, equilibrium timescales are found to be in the 10's of years and are similar to Titan's seasonal cycles and lake

  9. Investigations of groundwater system and simulation of regional groundwater flow for North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the vicinity of several industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and vicinity, Montgomery County, in southeast Pennsylvania has been shown to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the most common of which is the solvent trichloroethylene (TCE). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, and water-level monitoring, and measured streamflows in and near North Penn Area 7 from fall 2000 through fall 2006 in a technical assistance study for the USEPA to develop an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. In addition, the USGS developed a groundwater-flow computer model based on the hydrogeologic framework to simulate regional groundwater flow and to estimate directions of groundwater flow and pathways of groundwater contaminants. The study area is underlain by Triassic- and Jurassic-age sandstones and shales of the Lockatong Formation and Brunswick Group in the Mesozoic Newark Basin. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form a fractured-sedimentary-rock aquifer that acts as a set of confined to partially confined layers of differing permeabilities. Depth to competent bedrock typically is less than 20 ft below land surface. The aquifer layers are recharged locally by precipitation and discharge locally to streams. The general configuration of the potentiometric surface in the aquifer is similar to topography, except in areas affected by pumping. The headwaters of Wissahickon Creek are nearby, and the stream flows southwest, parallel to strike, to bisect North Penn Area 7. Groundwater is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use, public supply, and residential supply. Results of field investigations

  10. Integrated evaluation of aerosols during haze-fog episodes at one regional background site in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Qi; Li, Weijun; Zhou, Shengzhen; Yang, Lingxiao; Chi, Jianwei; Sui, Xiao; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-04-01

    To investigate haze-fog (HF) formation mechanisms and transport, trace gases and aerosols in the aged air masses during regional haze episodes were measured at a regional background site in the North China Plain during 4-19 July, 2011. Mixing state of individual particles, soluble ions of PM2.5, and particle number concentrations were studied using transmission electron microscope, ambient ion monitoring, and wide-range particle spectrometer, respectively. Average mass concentration of PM2.5 was 3 times higher on HF days (70 μg/m3) than on clear days (22 μg/m3). The major soluble ionic components (SO42 -, NO3-, and NH4+) in PM2.5 were over 4 times higher on HF days (40.6 μg/m3) than on clear days (9.1 μg/m3). The high sulfur oxidation ratios (SOR) and nitrogen oxidation ratios (NOR) values during HF days suggest that polluted weather favored transformation of SO2 and NOx into sulfates and nitrates compared to clear days. Particle number fraction of the accumulation mode increases from 11% on clear days up to 26% on HF days. Individual particle analysis shows that secondary inorganic particles (e.g., sulfate and nitrate) as the most abundant species likely determine internal mixing of individual particles and almost half of them mixed refractory particles (e.g., metal, fly ash, soot, and mineral) on HF days. These fine refractory particles were likely emitted from coal fired power plants, heavy industries, and urban city in Shandong and Hebei provinces. Our results suggest that aged air masses mostly contain aged particles of long-range transport and some from new particle formation and growth in the regional background atmosphere.

  11. A novel technique for studying F-region ionization patches with the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar - North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, G. W.; Hosokawa, K.; St-Maurice, J.; Shiokawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    The northward facing Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar - North (RISR-N) and the soon to be operational southward facing RISR-Canada (RISR-C) systems are both exceptional platforms for investigating F-region ionization patches and the polar ionosphere. To advance patch research using these systems, an algorithm has been developed for detecting F-region ionization patches with the RISR-N system. The algorithm is based on the definition of a patch put forward by Crowley [1996]: a volume of F-region plasma with a density that is twice that of the background ionosphere. In this work, the algorithm is applied to the sizeable RISR-N dataset, providing valuable insight into the prevalence of patches over Resolute Bay over a time frame of several years. Additional questions concerning patches are also addressed using the algorithm, including: when compared to each other, do the occurrence rates of patches identified by the Optical Mesosphere and Thermosphere Imagers (OMTI), Polar Dual Auroral Radar Network (PolarDARN) and RISR-N instruments (whose fields-of-view overlap over Resolute Bay) agree? Namely, for every patch that is detected with RISR-N and/or PolarDARN, is there a corresponding patch seen optically? Lastly, using the algorithm, is it possible to advance our ability to distinguish patches from other coherent backscatter echoes detected by PolarDARN? Crowley, G. (1996), Critical review of ionospheric patches and blobs, in Review of Radio Science: 1993-1996, edited by W. R. Stone, pp. 619 648, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, U. K.

  12. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  13. Heat flux and topography constraints on thermochemical structure below North China Craton regions and implications for evolution of cratonic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongming; Huang, Jinshui; Zhong, Shijie; Chen, Jiaming

    2016-04-01

    The eastern North China Craton (NCC) has undergone extensive reactivation during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, while the western NCC has remained stable throughout its geological history. Geophysical and geochemical observations, including heat flux, surface topography, crustal and lithospheric thicknesses, and volcanism, show significant contrast between the eastern and western NCC. These observations provide constraints on thermochemical structure and reactivation process of the eastern NCC, thus helping understand the dynamic evolution of cratonic lithosphere. In this study, we determined the residual topography for the NCC region by removing crustal contribution to the topography. We found that the residual topography of the eastern NCC region is generally 0.3-0.9 km higher than the western NCC. We computed a large number of two-dimension thermochemical convection models for gravitational instability of cratonic lithosphere and quantified surface heat flux and topography contrasts between stable and destabilized parts of cratonic lithosphere. These models consider different chemical buoyancy (i.e., buoyancy number B) and viscosity for the cratonic lithosphere. Our models suggest that to explain the difference in heat flux (25-30 mW/m2) and residual topography (0.3-0.9 km) between the eastern and western NCC regions, the buoyancy number B is required to be ~0.3-0.4. This range of B implies that as much as 50% of the original cratonic lithospheric material remains in the present-day eastern NCC lithosphere and its underlying shallow mantle and that the new lithosphere in the eastern NCC may be a mixture of the relics of old craton materials and the normal mantle.

  14. Snow-atmosphere coupling in current and future climates over North America in the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tefera Diro, Gulilat; Sushama, Laxmi

    2016-04-01

    The influence of snow variation on climate variability over North America is assessed using the fifth generation of Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). For this, we first carried out a suite of CRCM5 simulations driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis, whereby the snow was either prescribed (uncoupled) or allowed to evolve interactively (coupled) during the model integration. Results indicate a systematic influence of snow on the inter-annual variability of air and surface temperature throughout winter and spring seasons. In the coupled simulations, where the snow depth and snow cover were allowed to evolve freely, the inter-annual variability of surface and near surface air temperatures were found to be larger and explains up to 70% of the surface temperature variation over northern Great Plains and Canadian Prairies. The impact of snow is found to be stronger in spring than in winter, since in spring season both albedo and hydrological effects contribute to the variability in temperature. To study projected changes to snow-atmosphere coupling in future climate, coupled and uncoupled CRCM5 simulations, driven by coupled GCMs, were performed, for current (1981-2010) and future (2071-2100) climates. Coupling regions in the GCM-driven current climate simulations are similar to those obtained with ERA-Interim driven CRCM5 simulations discussed above. In future climate, snow-temperature coupling shows some change in spatial structures and in magnitudes. These results suggest that accurate initialization of snow condition could potentially be helpful to improve seasonal prediction skill over these snow-atmosphere coupling hotspot regions.

  15. North Dakota Kids Count! Fact Book, 1999-2000: State, Regional and County Profiles of Child Well-Being in North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks. North Dakota Kids Count.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of North Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in seven areas: (1) population; (2) family composition; (3) economic condition; (4) child care; (5) child health; (6) education; and (7) children at risk. The report begins with an…

  16. Assessment of aerosol radiative forcing in the North-Eastern region of India using radiative transfer model and regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Binita; Bhuyan, Pradip

    Regional characterization of atmospheric aerosols is essential from the viewpoint of reducing the current uncertainties in the understanding of their climate implications at regional and global scale. The north-eastern part of India owing to its unique topography and geography located at sub Himalayan range and the middle of Indian Subcontinent and South-East Asian region as well as with scattered local hilly regions persevere complex aerosol environment. Collocated measurements of parameters corresponding to aerosol optical and physical properties i.e., spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) by a 10 channel Multi-Wavelength solar Radiometer (MWR), near surface aerosol mass concentration of composite aerosols by a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Impactor (QCM) and Black Carbon (BC) mass concentration by an Aethalometer have been used in the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) model to estimate the optical properties of composite aerosols over Dibrugarh (27.3ºN, 94.6ºE, 111 m amsl) for the short wavelength range. The OPAC outputs are then used as inputs to the Rdiative Transfer model ‘Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART)’, developed by the University of California, Santa Barbara, to derive the shortwave aerosol radiative properties. The aerosol optical depth shows maximum value in pre-monsoon season and minimum in post-monsoon season. Columnar aerosols are bimodal in nature with dominant contribution from fine mode aerosols. Unlike columnar aerosols surface aerosol concentration including black carbon shows maximum value in winter and minimum in monsoon season. The aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) estimated for the period pre-monsoon 2008-winter 2013 shows maximum value in the pre-monsoon season at the surface as well as in the atmosphere corresponding to highest columnar aerosol loading. The surface forcing varies between -37 Wm-2 in Pre-monsoon 2009 and 2011 to -13 Wm-2 in Post-monsoon 2008 while forcing in the Atmosphere

  17. Digital Elevations and Extents of Regional Hydrogeologic Units in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Aquifer System From Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Jason P.; David C. Andreasen; Mcfarland, E. Randolph; Watt, Martha K.

    2016-01-01

    Digital geospatial datasets of the extents and top elevations of the regional hydrogeologic units of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina were developed to provide an updated hydrogeologic framework to support analysis of groundwater resources. The 19 regional hydrogeologic units were delineated by elevation grids and extent polygons for 20 layers: the land and bathymetric surface at the top of the unconfined surficial aquifer, the upper surfaces of 9 confined aquifers and 9 confining units, and the bedrock surface that defines the base of all Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments. The delineation of the regional hydrogeologic units relied on the interpretive work from source reports for New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina rather than from re-analysis of fundamental hydrogeologic data. This model of regional hydrogeologic unit geometries represents interpolation, extrapolation, and generalization of the earlier interpretive work. Regional units were constructed from available digital data layers from the source studies in order to extend units consistently across political boundaries and approximate units in offshore areas.Though many of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain hydrogeologic units may extend eastward as far as the edge of the Atlantic Continental Shelf, the modeled boundaries of all regional hydrogeologic units in this study were clipped to an area approximately defined by the furthest offshore extent of fresh to brackish water in any part of the aquifer system, as indicated by chloride concentrations of 10,000 milligrams per liter. Elevations and extents of units that do not exist onshore in Long Island, New York, were not included north of New Jersey. Hydrogeologic units in North Carolina were included primarily to provide continuity across the Virginia-North Carolina State boundary, which was important for defining the southern edge of

  18. Contribution of the North Atlantic Subtropical High to Regional Climate Model (RCM) Skill in Simulating Southeastern United States Summer Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Li, W.; Jin, J.

    2014-12-01

    This study assesses the skill of advanced regional climate models (RCMs) in simulating Southeastern United States (SE US) summer precipitation and explores the mechanisms responsible for the simulation skill at a process level. Analysis of the RCM output for the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) indicates that the RCM simulations of summer precipitation show large biases and a remarkable spread over the SE US. The causes of such a spread are investigated by performing simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a next-generation RCM developed by the US National Center for Atmospheric Research. The results show that the simulated biases in SE US summer precipitation are due mainly to the misrepresentation of the modeled North Atlantic Subtropical High (NASH) western ridge. In WRF simulations, the NASH western ridge shifts 7-deg northwestward compared to that in the reanalysis ensemble, leading to a dry bias in the simulated precipitation according to the "NASH western ridge - Southeast summer precipitation" relationship. Experiments utilizing the Four Dimensional Data Assimilation technique further suggest that the improved representation of the circulation patterns associated with the NASH western ridge substantially reduces the bias in simulating SE US summer precipitation. Our analysis of circulation dynamics indicates that the NASH western ridge in the WRF simulations is significantly influenced by planetary boundary layer (PBL) processes over the Gulf of Mexico. Specifically, a decrease (increase) in the simulated PBL height tends to stabilize (destabilize) the lower troposphere over the Gulf of Mexico, and thus inhibits (favors) the onset and/or development of convection. The changes in tropical convecton induce a tropical-extratropical teleconnection pattern, which modulates the circulation along the NASH western ridge in the WRF simulations and contributes to the precipitation biases over the SE US

  19. Holocene sea surface temperatures in the East African Coastal Current region and their relationship with North Atlantic climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhnert, Henning; Kuhlmann, Holger; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Pätzold, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    The East African Coastal Current (EACC) is one of the western boundary currents of the Indian Ocean and represents the only pathway for southern water masses to enter the Arabian Sea. Today, sea surface temperatures (SST) in the western boundary currents region covary with those in large parts of the central tropical Indian Ocean. The latter play an important role in global climate by influencing the mean state of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and associated Atlantic SST anomalies (Hoerling et al., 2001). In the EACC region paleoclimate data are sparse and its Holocene temperature history is unexplored. We present data from a 5 m long sediment core retrieved off northern Tanzania where the EACC flows northward year-round. Proximity to the Pangani River mouth provides a steady sediment supply. We have reconstructed SST from Mg/Ca and stable oxygen isotope ratios (^18O) of the surface-dwelling planktonic foraminifera species Globigerinoides ruber (sensu stricto). Our record spans the time period from 9700 to 1400 years BP at an average temporal resolution of 40 years. The Holocene is characterized by a sequence of intervals representing cool, warm, cool, and intermediate SST, with boundaries at 7.8, 5.6, and 4.4 ka BP. SST anomalies relative to the series mean range from -0.6 to +0.75 ° C. This pattern strikingly resembles a Northwest Atlantic foraminiferal ^18O record (Cléroux et al., 2012), with warm Indian SST corresponding to low Atlantic foraminiferal ^18O (indicating low sea surface density). This matches the modern situation on the interdecadal time-scale, where a warm Indian Ocean leads to a shift of the NAO towards a positive mean state, which is accompanied by SST warming over much of the low- and mid-latitude western Atlantic and a displacement of the Gulf Stream path. We hypothesize that this mechanism also operates on millennial time-scales to explain the obvious similarities in the SST patterns observed in the Northwest Atlantic and western

  20. Tropospheric mid-latitude geopotential wave characteristics associated with strong wind events in the North Atlantic/European region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Simon; Simmonds, Ian; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2015-04-01

    The variability of strong synoptic scale wind events in the mid-latitudes have long been linked to baroclinic wave activity in the mid troposphere. Previous studies have also shown that greater amplitudes of planetary waves in the mid troposphere are likely to increase the occurrence of regional extremes in temperature and precipitation. In this study we examine whether characteristics of planetary and synoptic mid-latitude waves show systematic anomalies in the North Atlantic/ European region which can be related to the occurrence of a strong surface wind event. We will mainly focus on two questions: 1) Do amplitudes for waves with different wave lengths show a systematic anomaly when a strong wind event occurs? 2) Can phases of the individual wave components be detected that favour strong wind events? In order to decompose the mid-tropospheric flow into longitudinal waves we employ the fast Fourier transform to the meridional mean of the geopotential height in 500hPa between 35° and 60°N for i) the entire latitude belt and ii) for a North Atlantic/European sector (36°W to 36°E). Our definition of strong wind events is based on the Storm Severity Index (SSI) alongside a wind tracking algorithm identifying areas of exceedances of the local 98th percentile of the 10m wind speed. First results using ERA-Interim Reanalysis from 1979 - 2014 for the extended winter season (ONDJFM) for the 50 most intense strong wind systems with respect to the SSI reveal a greater amplitude for all investigated wave numbers. Especially waves with wave lengths below 2000km show an increase of about 25% of the daily standard deviation on average. The distribution of wave phases for the different wave numbers with respect to the location of a strong wind event shows a less homogenous picture. There is however a high proportion of events that can be associated with phases around 3π/4 and 5π/4 of waves with lengths of around 6000km, equivalent to wave number 5 on a planetary scale

  1. P wave velocity of the uppermost mantle of the Rio Grande rift region of North Central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Murdock, J.N.; Jaksha, L.H.

    1981-08-10

    A network of seismograph stations has operated in north-central New Mexico since 1975. The network is approximtely 200 by 300 km in size and encompasses the Rio Grande rift there. Several seismic refraction experiments have been reported in the literature for the region of the network and adjacent areas. Because all of the seismic refraction lines are unreversed, P/sub n/ velocities reported were mainly of the inverse travel time slope for the direction of the corresponding line. The values of the inverse slope for those studies range from 7.6 to 8.2 km/s. The purpose of our study is to estimate the P wave velocity of the uppermost mantle by using the time term method. First, we timed the P/sub n/ waves of strong signals from five explosions and eight shallow earthquakes recorded by the network. The main data set, which contains 87 time-distance pairs, was processed by using the time term method. The P/sub n/ velocity estimated by this method is 8.0 +- 0.1 km/s. To corroborate this estimate, we then processed 10 subsets of the main data set in the same way. Almost allof the solutions show velocities 7.9--8.1 km/s, in agreement with the velocity determined for the main data set. The station time terms of the main data set also are substantied, and they suggest that the base of the crust dips northward by a few degrees in the region of the survey. The smallest value reported by other investigators for the inverse slope (7.6 km/s) appears to be related to the dip. The normal P wave velocity of the uppermost mantle of north-central New Mexico places restrictions on thermal models of the rift. For instance, the results exlude the likelihood of a wide zone of asthenosphere at the base of the crust beneath the rift, but they do not exclude a narrow such zone.

  2. Regional metamorphism in the Condrey Mountain Quadrangle, north-central Klamath Mountains, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotz, Preston Enslow

    1979-01-01

    Fork in this region is composed of siliceous phyllite and phyllitic quartzite and is believed to be the metamorphosed equivalent of rocks over which it is thrust. In the Yreka-Fort Jones area, potassium-argon determinations on mica from the blueschist facies in the Stuart Fork gave ages of approximately 220 m.y. (Late Triassic) for the age of metamorphism. Rocks of the amphibolite facies structurally overlie the Condrey Mountain Schist along a moderate to steeply dipping thrust fault. The amphibolite terrane is composed of amphibolite and metasedimentary rocks in approximately equal amounts accompanied by many bodies of serpentinite and a number of gabbro and dioritic plutons. Most of the amphibolite is foliated, but some is nonfoliated; the nonfoliated amphibolite has an amphibolite mineralogy and commonly a relict volcanic rock texture. The nonfoliated amphibolite occurs on the southern and eastern borders of the amphibolite terrane between the areas offoliated amphibolite and the overly ing metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Hornblende and plagioclase (An30-35) are the characteristic minerals, indicating that the rocks are of the almandine-amphibolite metamorphic facies. The metasedimentary rocks interbedded with the amphibolites include siliceous schist and phyllite, minor quartzite, and subordinate amounts of marble. Potassium-argon age dates obtained on hornblende from foliated amphibolite yield ages of 146?4 and 148? 4 m.y., suggesting a Late Jurassic metamorphic episode. Mafic and ultramafic rocks are widespread in the amphibolite terrane but are almost entirely absent from the area of greenschist facies metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. The ultramafic rocks, predominantly serpentinite, occur as a few large bodies and many small tabular concordant bodies interleaved with the foliated rocks. The ultramafic rocks include harzburgite and d1lIlite and their serpentinized equivalents. In the Condrey Mountain quadrangle, probably more t

  3. The Regional Marine Science Project of the Carteret County, North Carolina, Public Schools. Experiments in the Use of Field Ecology as an Approach to Understanding Coastal Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hon, Will

    The development of the Regional Marine Science Project in Carteret County, North Carolina, is portrayed in this booklet. Established with Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title III funds in 1966, the project has evolved from one high school course in marine ecology to numerous courses and activities at all levels, primary through…

  4. Increasing the Supply of Quality, Accessible, Affordable Child Care: An Economic Development Strategy for the North Central Region. NCRCRD Policy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traill, Saskia; Brown, Brentt

    2005-01-01

    The child care industry has not been fully integrated into economic development activities despite its growing importance in the economy. This is, in large part, because child care is not usually thought of as an element of economic development. As a result, states in the North Central region are not maximizing the economic benefits from quality,…

  5. Climatic trends in the North Atlantic region during the last 2,000 years in an orbitally forced AOGCM simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, S.; Zorita, E.

    2013-12-01

    The global coverage of temporal highly resolved proxy-based climate reconstructions is extending to cover the last 2,000 years. It is thus important to fully understand the effect of the orbital forcing at these time scales, as the imprint of the orbital forcing becomes clearer when analyzing climate on time scales longer than the last 1,000 years. The slow-varying orbital parameters affect the seasonal distribution of the incoming solar radiation. Although changes are not as pronounced compared to the mid-Holocene, still distinct differences exist, with lower insolation between February and May and higher insolation between July and October over the mid- and high northern latitudes 2,000 years ago compared to present. Here, we analyze a simulation with the coupled climate model ECHO-G forced only with changes in orbital variations for the last 2,000 years. Other factors such as solar activity and greenhouse gas changes are set to constant pre-industrial values. The modeled near-surface temperature trends reflect the expected orbitally induced insolation trends over the northern hemispheric continents and the Arctic, with increased temperatures during May and reduced temperatures during October. Over the North Atlantic Ocean, however SST trends are not directly consistent to changes in orbital forcing throughout the year, mostly showing little or slight uniform cooling trends. The strength of the maximum overturning circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean also shows no clear-cut trends that can be linked to changes in external forcings. Other variables related to oceanic convection and surface heat fluxes indicate, however, spatially heterogeneous trend patterns. For example, regions south of Greenland and off Labrador show increases in convection that compensate the decreases over the Labrador and the Norwegian Sea. This pattern varies in intensity and spatial extent between the different winter half year months. Changes in oceanic convection and surface heat

  6. A multi-year study of lower tropospheric aerosol variability and systematic relationships from four North American regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, J. P.; Sheridan, P. J.; Ogren, J. A.; Andrews, E.; Hageman, D.; Schmeisser, L.; Jefferson, A.; Sharma, S.

    2015-11-01

    Hourly averaged aerosol optical properties (AOPs) measured over the years 2010-2013 at four continental North American NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) cooperative aerosol network sites - Southern Great Plains near Lamont, OK (SGP), Bondville, IL (BND), Appalachian State University in Boone, NC (APP), and Egbert, Ontario, Canada (EGB) are analyzed. Aerosol optical properties measured over 1996-2009 at BND and 1997-2009 at SGP are also presented. The aerosol sources and types in the four regions differ enough so as to collectively represent rural, anthropogenically perturbed air conditions over much of eastern continental North America. Temporal AOP variability on monthly, weekly, and diurnal timescales is presented for each site. Differences in annually averaged AOPs and those for individual months at the four sites are used to examine regional AOP variability. Temporal and regional variability are placed in the context of reported aerosol chemistry at the sites, meteorological measurements (wind direction, temperature), and reported regional mixing layer heights. Basic trend analysis is conducted for selected AOPs at the long-term sites (BND and SGP). Systematic relationships among AOPs are also presented. Seasonal variability in PM1 (sub-1 μm particulate matter) scattering and absorption coefficients at 550 nm (σsp and σap, respectively) and most of the other PM1 AOPs is much larger than day of week and diurnal variability at all sites. All sites demonstrate summer σsp and σap peaks. Scattering coefficient decreases by a factor of 2-4 in September-October and coincides with minimum single-scattering albedo (ω0) and maximum hemispheric backscatter fraction (b). The co-variation of ω0 and b lead to insignificant annual cycles in top-of-atmosphere direct radiative forcing efficiency (DRFE) at APP and SGP. Much larger annual DRFE cycle amplitudes are observed at EGB (~ 40 %) and BND (~ 25 %), with least negative DRFE in September-October at

  7. Use of chemical tracers in assessing the diet and foraging regions of eastern North Pacific killer whales.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Margaret M; Herman, David P; Matkin, Craig O; Durban, John W; Barrett-Lennard, Lance; Burrows, Douglas G; Dahlheim, Marilyn E; Black, Nancy; LeDuc, Richard G; Wade, Paul R

    2007-03-01

    Top predators in the marine environment integrate chemical signals acquired from their prey that reflect both the species consumed and the regions from which the prey were taken. These chemical tracers-stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen; persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, patterns and ratios; and fatty acid profiles-were measured in blubber biopsy samples from North Pacific killer whales (Orcinus orca) (n=84) and were used to provide further insight into their diet, particularly for the offshore group, about which little dietary information is available. The offshore killer whales were shown to consume prey species that were distinctly different from those of sympatric resident and transient killer whales. In addition, it was confirmed that the offshores forage as far south as California. Thus, these results provide evidence that the offshores belong to a third killer whale ecotype. Resident killer whale populations showed a gradient in stable isotope profiles from west (central Aleutians) to east (Gulf of Alaska) that, in part, can be attributed to a shift from off-shelf to continental shelf-based prey. Finally, stable isotope ratio results, supported by field observations, showed that the diet in spring and summer of eastern Aleutian Island transient killer whales is apparently not composed exclusively of Steller sea lions. PMID:16934324

  8. A trajectory-based classification of ERA-Interim ice clouds in the region of the North Atlantic storm track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernli, Heini; Boettcher, Maxi; Joos, Hanna; Miltenberger, Annette K.; Spichtinger, Peter

    2016-06-01

    A two-type classification of ice clouds (cirrus) is introduced, based on the liquid and ice water content, LWC and IWC, along air parcel backward trajectories from the clouds. In situ cirrus has no LWC along the trajectory segment containing IWC; it forms via nucleation from the gas phase. In contrast, liquid-origin cirrus has both LWC and IWC along their backward trajectories; it forms via lifting from the lower troposphere and freezing of mixed-phase clouds. This classification is applied to 12 years of ERA-Interim ice clouds in the North Atlantic region. Between 400 and 500 hPa more than 50% are liquid-origin cirrus, whereas this frequency decreases strongly with altitude (<10% at 200 hPa). The relative frequencies of the two categories vary only weakly with season. More than 50% of in situ cirrus occur on top of liquid-origin cirrus, indicating that they often form in response to the strong lifting accompanying the formation of liquid-origin cirrus.

  9. Dune field pattern formation and recent transporting winds in the Olympia Undae Dune Field, north polar region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, Ryan C.; Peyret, Aymeric-Pierre B.; Kocurek, Gary; Bourke, Mary

    2010-08-01

    High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery of the central Olympia Undae Dune Field in the north polar region of Mars shows a reticulate dune pattern consisting of two sets of nearly orthogonal dune crestlines, with apparent slipfaces on the primary crests, ubiquitous wind ripples, areas of coarse-grained wind ripples, and deflated interdune areas. Geomorphic evidence and dune field pattern analysis of dune crest length, spacing, defect density, and orientation indicates that the pattern is complex, representing two constructional generations of dunes. The oldest and best-organized generation forms the primary crestlines and is transverse to circumpolar easterly winds. Gross bed form-normal analysis of the younger pattern of crestlines indicates that it emerged with both circumpolar easterly winds and NE winds and is reworking the older pattern. Mapping of secondary flow fields over the dunes indicates that the most recent transporting winds were from the NE. The younger pattern appears to represent an influx of sediment to the dune field associated with the development of the Olympia Cavi reentrant, with NE katabatic winds channeling through the reentrant. A model of the pattern reformation based upon the reconstructed primary winds and resulting secondary flow fields shows that the development of the secondary pattern is controlled by the boundary condition of the older dune topography.

  10. A Regional Climate Mode Discovered in the North Atlantic: Dakar Niño/Niña

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oettli, Pascal; Morioka, Yushi; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    The interrannual variability of coastal sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies confined off Senegal is explored from a new viewpoint of the ocean-land-atmosphere interaction. The phenomenon may be classified into “coastal Niño/Niña” in the North Atlantic as discussed recently in the Northeastern Pacific and Southeastern Indian Oceans. The interannual variability of the regional mixed-layer temperature anomaly that evolves in boreal late fall and peaks in spring is associated with the alongshore wind anomaly, mixed-layer depth anomaly and cross-shore atmospheric pressure gradient anomaly, suggesting the existence of ocean-land-atmosphere coupled processes. The coupled warm (cold) event is named Dakar Niño (Niña). The oceanic aspect of the Dakar Niño (Niña) may be basically explained by anomalous warming (cooling) of the anomalously thin (thick) mixed-layer, which absorbs shortwave surface heat flux. In the case of Dakar Niña, however, enhancement of the entrainment at the bottom of the mixed-layer is not negligible.

  11. What to do with chronically sick animals? Pastoralists’ management strategies in the far north region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Profitós, Jessica M Healy; Moritz, Mark; Garabed, Rebecca B

    2014-01-01

    While the goal of African pastoralists is health and longevity of herd and household, some of their management strategies appear to counter this long-term goal. Pastoralists in the far north region of Cameroon, for example, do not always remove chronically sick animals from their herds, even though chronic diseases, such as brucellosis, are contagious and have the potential to cause fertility problems in the herd. We used ethnographic and epidemiologic methods to understand why pastoralists do not remove chronically sick animals and whether their management strategies have an impact on herd fertility. We used semi-structured interviews to collect data on pastoralists’ understandings of disease and its impacts on fertility as well as data on herd management. We compared these data with disease prevalence and herd fertility data to measure the effect of management strategies on herd fertility. We found that the percentage of chronically sick animals in a herd negatively correlated with herd fertility, but this was not true for the prevalence of brucellosis. Thus, preliminary examination of disease costs and benefits suggests that herders’ decisions to keep sick animals in their herds may lower herd fertility, but this is not due to brucellosis alone. The results of this study underline the complexity of infectious disease ecology in pastoral systems and the need for holistic and comprehensive studies of the ecology of infectious diseases in pastoral systems. PMID:25309717

  12. Statistical and Scaling Properties of Remotely-Sensed Soil Moisture in Two Contrasting Domains in the North American Monsoon Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

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